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Sample records for daily dyeing method

  1. Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

    2011-11-01

    Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ΔE (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample. PMID:21550289

  2. Eco-Friendly Dyeing of Cotton with Indigo Dye By Electrochemical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabu, H. Gurumallesh; Sarala, K.; Babu, S. Ananda; Savitha, K. U.

    2011-07-01

    Eco-friendly dyeing of cotton was performed in two step process; (i) enzymatic pre-treatment of grey cotton fabric and (ii) Electrochemical dyeing of the pre-treated cotton fabric with indigo. The enzymatic pre-treatment was done in three methods; (i) amylase treatment only, (ii) amylase and hydrogen peroxide treatment and (iii) single bath method. The dyeing was carried out with the pre-treated cotton fabric. The reduction of indigo dye by electrochemical method was initiated by applying potential. Then the dyeing was carried out different concentrations of dye, glucose and NaOH. Conventional method of dyeing was also carried out and compared with the electrochemical method. Dyeability was measured by computer colour matching (CCM) GretagMacbeth colour eye 2180UV instrument.

  3. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention comprises using an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  4. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.L.

    2000-07-25

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention uses an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  5. Rapid double-dye-layer coating for dye-sensitized solar cells using a new method.

    PubMed

    Jung, Cho-long; Han, Chi-Hwan; Moon, Doo Kyung; Jun, Yongseok

    2014-10-01

    Intensive research with the specific aim of developing inexpensive renewable energy sources is currently being undertaken. In dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) production, the most time-consuming process is coating the dye on working electrodes: absorption of ruthenium-based dyes [e.g., N719=bis(trtrabutylammonium)-cis-di(thiocyanato)-N,N'-bis(4-carboxylato-4'-carboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium(II)] on a photoanode takes a long time. We report a simple dye-coating method using a mixed solvent of ethylene glycol (EG) and glycerol (Gly). According to our experiments, dye-coating time can be reduced to 5 min from several hours. Maximum performance was obtained with an EG/Gly ratio of 1:1. This mixture of solvents gave a performance of 9.1%. Furthermore, the viscous solvent system could control coating depth; positioning dye coatings to a specific depth was rapid and facile. A cell containing two different dyes (N719+black dye) had an efficiency of 9.4%. PMID:25154611

  6. Pre dye treated titanium dioxide nanoparticles synthesized by modified sol-gel method for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-06-01

    Pure and pre dye treated titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel and modified sol-gel methods, respectively. The pre dye treatment has improved the properties of TiO2, such as uniform dye adsorption, reduced agglomeration, improved morphology and less dye aggregation. The brazilein pigment-rich Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract was used as natural dye sensitizer for pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles. Low cost and environment friendly dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye showed solar light to electron conversion efficiencies of 1.09 and 1.65 %, respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2-based DSSC showed 51 % improvement in efficiency when compared to that of conventionally prepared DSSC.

  7. Bioconjugation Methods for Coupling Targeting Ligands with Fluorescent Dyes.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xiaoxi

    2016-01-01

    Targeted molecular imaging probes are essential tools for visualization of specific molecular processes in cells and living systems. Among these, targeted fluorescent probes are widely used due to the high sensitivity and resolution of fluorescence imaging. The conventional strategy for developing targeted fluorescent probes is to couple targeting ligands with fluorescent dyes by covalent bond via bioconjugation. Here, we describe several commonly used bioconjugation methods, from traditional amide and thiol coupling, to metal-catalyzed coupling reaction and catalyst free cycloaddition. PMID:27283413

  8. Fiber optics interface for a dye laser oscillator and method

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, S.A.; Seppala, L.G.

    1984-06-13

    A dye laser oscillator in which one light beam is used to pump a continuous stream of dye within a cooperating dye chamber for producing a second, different beam is generally disclosed herein along with a specific arrangement including an optical fiber and a fiber optics interface for directing the pumping beam into the dye chamber. The specific fiber optics interface illustrated includes three cooperating lenses which together image one particular dimension of the pumping beam into the dye chamber from the output end of the optical fiber in order to insure that the dye chamber is properly illuminated by the pumping beam.

  9. Fiber optics interface for a dye laser oscillator and method

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Steve A.; Seppala, Lynn G.

    1986-01-01

    A dye laser oscillator in which one light beam is used to pump a continuous tream of dye within a cooperating dye chamber for producing a second, different beam is generally disclosed herein along with a specific arrangement including an optical fiber and a fiber optics interface for directing the pumping beam into the dye chamber. The specific fiber optics interface illustrated includes three cooperating lenses which together image one particular dimension of the pumping beam into the dye chamber from the output end of the optical fiber in order to insure that the dye chamber is properly illuminated by the pumping beam.

  10. Continuous-wave organic dye lasers and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, Ofer; Chua, Song-Liang; Zhen, Bo; Lee, Jeongwon; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-16

    An organic dye laser produces a continuous-wave (cw) output without any moving parts (e.g., without using flowing dye streams or spinning discs of solid-state dye media to prevent photobleaching) and with a pump beam that is stationary with respect to the organic dye medium. The laser's resonant cavity, organic dye medium, and pump beam are configured to excite a lasing transition over a time scale longer than the associated decay lifetimes in the organic dye medium without photobleaching the organic dye medium. Because the organic dye medium does not photobleach when operating in this manner, it may be pumped continuously so as to emit a cw output beam. In some examples, operation in this manner lowers the lasing threshold (e.g., to only a few Watts per square centimeter), thereby facilitating electrical pumping for cw operation.

  11. Development and Validation of a Triple Quad LC/MS Method for Fiber Dye Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly-Ingram, Ceirin M.

    This study aims to determine whether the analysis of dyed fiber through liquid chromatography (HPLC) with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS) can be used as a reliable alternative to the current chemical techniques used to differentiate dyes. Other methods of analysis involving HPLC and MS have proven to be capable of distinguishing chemically different dyes within a few dye classifications, but none have proven capable of providing a complete alternative to the current accepted technique of thin layer chromatography (TLC). In theory, HPLC-triple quad MS is capable of providing more reproducible and reliable data than the conventional TLC methods with a much greater depth of measurable information with which to characterize dye components. In this study, dyes will be extracted from various types of fibers, including commonly worn types like cotton, polyester, nylon, and wool, and examine dyes from most of the eight different dye classes.

  12. Novel method for evaluation of natural dyes in DSSC

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshmi, M.; Kavitha, S.; Paul, Mercyleena

    2014-10-15

    Dye sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is presently centered on Ruthenium based dyes. Recent research is diverted to explore the potential of natural dyes in replacing the conventional dyes. In this work we have chosen few natural dyes, which when coated on TiO{sub 2} leads to increase in absorption capacity of TiO{sub 2}. Co-relation of absorption and electrochemical properties of natural dyes gives a scientific insight of the probable performance of a dye, even without fabricating a cell. We have tried to compare this predictions based on HOMO-LUMO energy levels with the real cell performance. Measurements of cell parameters suggest that there is scope for further research in this area.

  13. Homogenization of daily temperature series: methods and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toreti, Andrea; Kuglitsch, Franz G.; Xoplaki, Elena; Luterbacher, Juerg

    2010-05-01

    Data quality control and homogenization are essential tasks to be performed before any climate change analysis. They help identifying and removing (or reducing) the effects of non-climatic factors, as station relocation or instrumentation changes. Regarding the break point detection, a new procedure based on a Genetic Algorithm and Hidden Markov Models (GAHMM) is developed for changes in the mean and variance. Simulations confirm that GAHMM performs well in the identification of multiple shifts; moreover, it can be easily adapted to different initial assumptions on series and variables under investigation. As for the correction of inhomogeneities, an improved method, named Higher Order Moments for Autocorrelated Data (HOMAD), based on the well-known HOM method (Della-Marta and Wanner, 2006) has been implemented. It takes into account data autocorrelation both in the estimation of the regression function and cumulative distributions. GAHMM is applied together with the method of Caussinus and Mestre (2004) and RH-test (Wang et al., 2007) to a set of 246 daily series of maximum and minimum temperature recorded in the eastern Mediterranean from 1960 to 2006. The detected inhomogeneities are corrected with HOMAD.

  14. New method for quantification of dye sorption using SBA mesoporous silica as a target sorbent.

    PubMed

    Nesic, Aleksandra R; Kokunesoski, Maja J; Volkov-Husovic, Tatjana D; Velickovic, Sava J

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a new method for the quantification of methyl violet cationic dye sorption onto SBA-15 mesoporous silica was developed. This method related the intensity of coloration of SBA-15 samples (after reached equilibrium sorption) within dye concentration in aqueous solution using Image-Pro Plus software. The sorption process of methyl violet dye onto SBA-15 was analyzed varying different initial parameters (dye concentration, mass of sorbent, pH of dye solution, and contact sorption time). SBA-15 proved as efficient sorbent for removal of methyl violet dye in contact time of 5 min, with maximum percentage of dye removal 99% at pH 8. The results obtained from Image-Pro Plus showed to be in good agreement with the sorption parameters obtained by UV/Vis spectroscopy, which has been the most commonly used instrument for quantification of dye sorption. The image analysis method proved well prediction of dye concentrations with maximum relative error of 1.83%. The advantages of this method are low cost and reliable quantitative evaluation with minimum of time. PMID:26875074

  15. Extracting natural dyes from wool--an evaluation of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Manhita, Ana; Ferreira, Teresa; Candeias, António; Dias, Cristina Barrocas

    2011-05-01

    The efficiency of eight different procedures used for the extraction of natural dyes was evaluated using contemporary wool samples dyed with cochineal, madder, woad, weld, brazilwood and logwood. Comparison was made based on the LC-DAD peak areas of the natural dye's main components which had been extracted from the wool samples. Among the tested methods, an extraction procedure with Na(2)EDTA in water/DMF (1:1, v/v) proved to be the most suitable for the extraction of the studied dyes, which presented a wide range of chemical structures. The identification of the natural dyes used in the making of an eighteenth century Arraiolos carpet was possible using the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction of the wool embroidery samples and an LC-DAD-MS methodology. The effectiveness of the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction method was particularly observed in the extraction of weld dye components. Nine flavone derivatives previously identified in weld extracts could be identified in a single historical sample, confirming the use of this natural dye in the making of Arraiolos carpets. Indigo and brazilwood were also identified in the samples, and despite the fact that these natural dyes were referred in the historical recipes of Arraiolos dyeing, it is the first time that the use of brazilwood is confirmed. Mordant analysis by ICP-MS identified the widespread use of alum in the dyeing process, but in some samples with darker hues, high amounts of iron were found instead. PMID:21416400

  16. [Comparison of spatial interpolation methods for daily meteorological elements].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-Jian; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Huang, Fen; Jiang, Hai-Yan; Cao, Wei-Xing; Zhu, Yan

    2010-03-01

    A comparative study was made to evaluate the methods of inverse distance weighting (IDW), co-kriging (CK), and thin plate spline (TPS) in interpolating the average meteorological elements (including maximum air temperature, minimum air temperature, sunshine hours, and precipitation) of the 15th day per month from the 1951-2005 comprehensive observation data of 559 meteorological stations in China. The results showed that the RMSEs for the maximum and minimum air temperature in a year interpolated by TPS were the smallest (1.02 degrees C and 1.12 degrees C, respectively), and the R2 between the observed and predicted values were the highest (0.9916 and 0.9913, respectively), compared with those interpolated by IDW and CK. In four seasons, the smallest RMSEs for the maximum and minimum air temperature interpolated by TPS were observed in autumn (0.83 degrees C) and summer (0.86 degrees C), respectively, and the R2 between the observed and predicted values interpolated by TPS were higher in autumn than in other seasons. The RMSEs for the sunshine hours and precipitation in a year interpolated by TPS were the smallest (0.59 h and 1.01 mm, respectively), and the R2 between the observed and predicted values were the highest (0.9118 and 0.8135, respectively), compared with those interpolated by IDW and CK. In four seasons, the RMSE for the sunshine hours in winter interpolated by TPS was the smallest (0.49 h), and the R2 between the observed and predicted sunshine hours was the smallest (0.9293). The RMSE for the precipitation in winter interpolated by TPS was the smallest (0.33 mm), while the RMSE for the precipitation in summer interpolated by IDW was the smallest (2.01 mm). The R2 between the observed and predicted precipitation in winter interpolated by CK was the highest (0.8781). It was suggested that TPS could be the optimal spatial interpolation method in interpolating and rasterizing the daily meteorological elements in China. PMID:20560317

  17. A method of determining spectral dye densities in color films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friederichs, G. A.; Scarpace, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical analysis technique called characteristic vector analysis, reported by Simonds (1963), is used to determine spectral dye densities in multiemulsion film such as color or color-IR imagery. The technique involves examining a number of sets of multivariate data and determining linear transformations of these data to a smaller number of parameters which contain essentially all of the information contained in the original set of data. The steps involved in the actual procedure are outlined. It is shown that integral spectral density measurements of a large number of different color samples can be accurately reconstructed from the calculated spectral dye densities.

  18. Data on single-step purification method for dye-labeled DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Fujikura, Kohei

    2016-06-01

    Dye-labelled DNA sequencing is one of the most common and robust technique required for molecular biology since 1977 (Sanger, 1977) [1]. I have recently provided the single-step purification method for dye-labeled sequencing products, which is based on the removal of the washing step in EDTA/ethanol precipitation (Fujikura, 2015) [2]. Here I assess and report the accumulated data of the modified method on the larger scale in practice. PMID:27077088

  19. Composition and method of preparation of solid state dye laser rods

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention includes solid polymeric-host laser rods prepared using bulk polymerization of acrylic acid ester comonomers which, when admixed with dye(s) capable of supporting laser oscillation and polymerized with a free radical initiator under mild thermal conditions, produce a solid product having the preferred properties for efficient lasing. Unsaturated polymerizable laser dyes can also be employed as one of the comonomers. Additionally, a method is disclosed which alleviates induced optical stress without having to anneal the polymers at elevated temperatures (>85.degree. C.).

  20. Methods to improve neural network performance in daily flows prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. L.; Chau, K. W.; Li, Y. S.

    2009-06-01

    SummaryIn this paper, three data-preprocessing techniques, moving average (MA), singular spectrum analysis (SSA), and wavelet multi-resolution analysis (WMRA), were coupled with artificial neural network (ANN) to improve the estimate of daily flows. Six models, including the original ANN model without data preprocessing, were set up and evaluated. Five new models were ANN-MA, ANN-SSA1, ANN-SSA2, ANN-WMRA1, and ANN-WMRA2. The ANN-MA was derived from the raw ANN model combined with the MA. The ANN-SSA1, ANN-SSA2, ANN-WMRA1 and ANN-WMRA2 were generated by using the original ANN model coupled with SSA and WMRA in terms of two different means. Two daily flow series from different watersheds in China (Lushui and Daning) were used in six models for three prediction horizons (i.e., 1-, 2-, and 3-day-ahead forecast). The poor performance on ANN forecast models was mainly due to the existence of the lagged prediction. The ANN-MA, among six models, performed best and eradicated the lag effect. The performances from the ANN-SSA1 and ANN-SSA2 were similar, and the performances from the ANN-WMRA1 and ANN-WMRA2 were also similar. However, the models based on the SSA presented better performance than the models based on the WMRA at all forecast horizons, which meant that the SSA is more effective than the WMRA in improving the ANN performance in the current study. Based on an overall consideration including the model performance and the complexity of modeling, the ANN-MA model was optimal, then the ANN model coupled with SSA, and finally the ANN model coupled with WMRA.

  1. Measurement of liquid sheet using laser tagging method by photochromic dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Nurrina Binti; Amagai, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Liquid atomization system has been extensively applied as the most significant process in many industrial fields. In the internal combustion engine, the combustion phenomenon is strongly influenced by the spray characteristics of the fuel given by the atomization process. In order to completely understand the whole atomization process, a detail investigation of relations between the liquid jet characteristics and the breakup phenomenon is required. In this study, a non-intrusive method called as laser tagging method by photochromic dye has been developed with aim to study the breakup process of liquid sheet in detail, covering from the behavior in film until disintegrated into ligament and droplets. The laser tagging method by photochromic dye is based on a shift in the absorption spectrum of photochromic dye molecules tagged by ultraviolet laser. The shift results a color change at the tagged region of liquid containing the dye. In this study, the motions of the dye traces were analyzed as the liquid surface velocity. As a result, liquid sheet was found to keep its velocity constantly in film before suddenly increase around broken point. However, it then decreased after broken into droplets. By forming a set of four points of dye traces on the liquid sheet, the change of relative position of the set enabled the measurement of deformation and rotational motion of the liquid sheet. As a result, the normal strain of the liquid sheet parallel to the flow direction depended on the flow behavior of ligament formation.

  2. A method for concentrating organic dyes: colorimetric measurements of nitric oxides and sialic acids.

    PubMed

    Lalezari, Parviz; Lekhraj, Rukmani; Casper, Diana

    2011-09-01

    A new method for extraction and concentration of organic dyes that uses a reagent composed of a nonionic detergent mixed with an alcohol is described. We have observed that water-soluble organic dyes are also soluble in nonionic detergents and can be extracted by adding salt, which separates the dye-detergent component from the aqueous phase. We have also found that mixing nonionic detergents with alcohols markedly reduces their viscosity and produces stable, free-flowing, and effective reagents for color extraction. On the basis of these observations, we used a mixture of Triton X-100 and 1-butanol and observed that water-soluble natural and synthetic chromophores, as well as dyes generated in biochemical reactions, can be extracted, concentrated, and analyzed spectrophotometrically. Trypan blue and phenol red are used as examples of synthetic dyes, and red wine is used as an example of phenolic plant pigments. Applications for quantification of nitric oxides and sialic acids are described in more detail and show that as little as 0.15 nmol of nitric oxide and 0.20 nmol of sialic acid can be detected. A major advantage of this method is its ability to concentrate chromophores from dye-containing solutions that otherwise cannot be measured because of their low concentrations. PMID:21605540

  3. Towards low temperature sintering methods for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, Sukanya

    Access to economically viable renewable energy sources is essential for the development of a globally sustainable society. Solar energy has a large potential to satisfy the future need for renewable energy sources. Dye sensitized solar cells are a third generation of photovoltaic technologies with the potential for low cost environmentally safe energy production. Commercialization of this technology requires that dye sensitized solar cells with higher efficiencies can be fabricated on flexible substrates. The commonly used material for the anode in a Dye Sensitized Solar Cell consists of titanium dioxide nanoparticles covered with a layer of light sensitizing dye. For efficient electron transport throughout the nanoparticle network, good particle interconnections are necessary. For low temperature processing these interconnections can be achieved through a hydrothermal process. The focus of this research is to understand at a fundamental level this reaction-based sintering process. A titanium alkoxide precursor was mixed with commercial titania nanoparticles and coated on a transparent conductive oxide substrate. The product of the hydrolysis and condensation of the alkoxide served to connect the nanoparticles thus improving the electrical conduction of the titania electrode; this was confirmed by solar cell testing and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. To further understand the formation of interconnections during reactive sintering, a model system based on inert silica particles was investigated. Titanium alkoxide precursor was mixed with commercial silica particles and reacted. Three different types of silica particles were used: each with a different morphology. The silica-titania multilayers/powders were characterized using SEM, XRD and BET. The efficiency of DSSCs is higher when larger non-porous silica particles are used and thin nanocrystalline titania is coated on this superstructure. This gave insight into the locations where the reactive liquid

  4. Map correlation method: Selection of a reference streamgage to estimate daily streamflow at ungaged catchments.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archfield, Stacey A.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Daily streamflow time series are critical to a very broad range of hydrologic problems. Whereas daily streamflow time series are readily obtained from gaged catchments, streamflow information is commonly needed at catchments for which no measured streamflow information exists. At ungaged catchments, methods to estimate daily streamflow time series typically require the use of a reference streamgage, which transfers properties of the streamflow time series at a reference streamgage to the ungaged catchment. Therefore, the selection of a reference streamgage is one of the central challenges associated with estimation of daily streamflow at ungaged basins. The reference streamgage is typically selected by choosing the nearest streamgage; however, this paper shows that selection of the nearest streamgage does not provide a consistent selection criterion. We introduce a new method, termed the map-correlation method, which selects the reference streamgage whose daily streamflows are most correlated with an ungaged catchment. When applied to the estimation of daily streamflow at 28 streamgages across southern New England, daily streamflows estimated by a reference streamgage selected using the map-correlation method generally provides improved estimates of daily streamflow time series over streamflows estimated by the selection and use of the nearest streamgage. The map correlation method could have potential for many other applications including identifying redundancy and uniqueness in a streamgage network, calibration of rainfall runoff models at ungaged sites, as well as for use in catchment classification.

  5. Environmental SEM and dye penetration observation on resin-tooth interface using different light curing method.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Takako; Morigami, Makoto; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was the effects of different light curing methods on marginal sealing and resin composite adaptation to the cavity wall using the dye penetration test and environmental scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. Cylindrical cavities were prepared on cervical regions. The teeth were restored with Clearfil Liner Bond 2 V adhesive and filled with Clearfil Photo Bright or Palfique Estelite resin composites. These resins were cured with a conventional light-curing method or a slow-start curing method. After thermal cycling, the specimens were subjected to the dye penetration test to evaluate marginal sealing and adaptation of the resin composites to the cavity walls. These resin-tooth interfaces were then observed using environmental SEM. The light-cured resin composite, which exhibited increased contrast ratios during polymerization, suggests high compensation for polymerization stress using the slow-start curing method. There was a high correlation between dye penetration test and environmental SEM observation. PMID:26830828

  6. [A dye densitometry analysis method for noninvasive measurement of cardiac output based on NIRS].

    PubMed

    Lu, Meng-Meng; Wang, Hong-Xuan; Liu, Guang-Da; Xin, Gui-Jie; Yu, Yong; Zha, Yu-Tong

    2013-12-01

    Currently, there exist technology problems in cardiac output (CO) parameter detection clinically, such as invasive and complex operation, as well as possibility of infection and death for patients. In order to solve these problems, a noninvasive and continuous method based on NIRS for CO detection was presented. In this way, the concentration changing of indocyanine green (ICG) dye in the patient's arterial blood was dynamically measured and analyzed, so that the CO could be noninvasively and continuously measured according to the characteristic parameters of dye densitometry curve. While the ICG dye was injected into the patient's body by the median cubital vein, block of photoelectric pulse dye densitometry measurement system as the lower machine acquired pulse wave data and uploaded the data to upper computer. In the scheme, two specialized light sources of LED at 940 and 805 nm were used to capture the signals of sufferer's fingertip pulse wave synchronously and successively. The CO value could then be successfully calculated through drawing complete ICG concentration variation of dye dilution and excretion process and computing mean transmission time (MTT) by upper computer. Compared with the "gold standard" method of thermodilution, the maximum relative error of this method was below 9. 76%, and the mean relative error was below 4. 39%. The result indicates that the method can be used as a kind of convenient operation, noninvasive and continuous solution for clinical CO measurement. PMID:24611365

  7. Novel selective dyeing method for chrysotile asbestos detection in concrete materials.

    PubMed

    Oke, Yoshihiko; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Amamoto, Go Y; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Maeta, Naomi; Fujimaki, Hirokazu; Hashida, Toshiyuki

    2008-03-01

    There are a tremendous number of asbestos-containing buildings without any surveys on the presence of asbestos because of the difficulty to detect asbestos in building materials simply and quickly, although a great deal of worldwide effort was put into removing asbestos of which inhalation causes serious diseases. In this study, we newly developed a simple dyeing method to detect chrysotile asbestos, the most commonly used type of asbestos, in asbestos-cement composite materials using magnesium-chelating organic dyes. As an essential process for selective dyeing of chrysotile asbestos, special pretreatment with a calcium-chelating agent was developed to prevent the dyes from reacting with calcium, which is the major component of concrete materials. Our developed selective dyeing method was shown to possess sufficient sensitivity for detecting chrysotile asbestos in an amount greater than 0.1 mass% in concrete specimens, and there was an approximately linear relationship between the area fraction of dyed spots and the mass fraction of chrysotile asbestos. Our results may provide a basis for further development of a simple on-site detection method for chrysotile asbestos in building materials and may facilitate the progress of control and removal of asbestos in the environment. PMID:18441814

  8. Dye lasing arrangement including an optical assembly for altering the cross-section of its pumping beam and method

    DOEpatents

    O'Neil, Richard W.; Sweatt, William C.

    1992-01-01

    An optical assembly is disclosed herein along with a method of operation for use in a dye lasing arrangement, for example a dye laser oscillator or a dye amplifier, in which a continuous stream of dye is caused to flow through a given zone in a cooperating dye chamber while the zone is being illuminated by light from a pumping beam which is directed into the given zone. This in turn causes the dye therein to lase and thereby produce a new dye beam in the case of a dye laser oscillator or amplify a dye beam in the case of a dye amplifier. The optical assembly so disclosed is designed to alter the pump beam such that the beam enters the dye chamber with a different cross-sectional configuration, preferably one having a more uniform intensity profile, than its initially produced cross-sectional configuration. To this end, the assembly includes a network of optical components which first act on the beam while the latter retains its initially produced cross-sectional configuration for separating it into a plurality of predetermined segments and then recombines the separated components in a predetermined way which causes the recombined beam to have the different cross-sectional configuration.

  9. Methods for the analysis of azo dyes employed in food industry--A review.

    PubMed

    Yamjala, Karthik; Nainar, Meyyanathan Subramania; Ramisetti, Nageswara Rao

    2016-02-01

    A wide variety of azo dyes are generally added for coloring food products not only to make them visually aesthetic but also to reinstate the original appearance lost during the production process. However, many countries in the world have banned the use of most of the azo dyes in food and their usage is highly regulated by domestic and export food supplies. The regulatory authorities and food analysts adopt highly sensitive and selective analytical methods for monitoring as well as assuring the quality and safety of food products. The present manuscript presents a comprehensive review of various analytical techniques used in the analysis of azo dyes employed in food industries of different parts of the world. A brief description on the use of different extraction methods such as liquid-liquid, solid phase and membrane extraction has also been presented. PMID:26304415

  10. Comparison of impedance cardiography and dye dilution method for measuring cardiac output

    PubMed Central

    Spiering, W; van Es, P N; de Leeuw, P W

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To assess the degree of agreement between impedance cardiography, using the NCCOM3-R7 device, and the gold standard—the dye dilution method—both under basal conditions and after stimulation of cardiac output.
Patients—35 paired measurements in five healthy male volunteers.
Interventions—To obtain higher levels of cardiac output, cardiac performance was stimulated with a dopamine infusion.
Results—In 35 paired measurements, the mean of all the impedance values was higher than that of the dye dilution values, at 10.2 v 7.4 l/min (p < 0.0001). The mean discrepancy between the two methods was 3.3 l/min, and the mean bias −2.9 l/min, with limits of agreement of −9.0 and 3.2 l/min. A change in cardiac output could not adequately be predicted by the NCCOM3-R7. In 20 of 25 measurements obtained during continuous intravenous dopamine infusions there was a rise in dye dilution cardiac output (range 0.2 to 5.9 l/min). Neither the magnitude nor the direction of the change in dye dilution values corresponded with the change measured by impedance cardiography. The mean discrepancy here between the two methods was 1.8 l/min, and the mean bias −0.8 l/min, with limits of agreement of −4.9 and 3.3 l/min.
Conclusions—In healthy volunteers, impedance cardiography with NCCOM3-R7 is inadequate for assessing cardiac output when compared with the dye dilution method.

 Keywords: cardiac output;  impedance cardiography;  dye dilution PMID:9659188

  11. Molecular-orbital coefficients for dinuclear polymethyne dyes in the effective additive parameter method

    SciTech Connect

    Dyadyusha, G.G.; Ushomirskii, M.M.

    1986-09-01

    A method previously proposed for determining the energy structure of a polymethyne dye with any terminal groups is used in considering formulas for the molecularorbital coefficients and the differences in the distribution on the atoms in the polymethyne chain for localized and delocalized energy levels, as well as the accuracy in calculating the molecular-orbital coefficients by means of a finite number of effective additive parameters. It is found that the localized states are important to the electron-density distribution on the chain atoms characteristic of the polymethyne dyes.

  12. Determination of torasemide by fluorescence quenching method with some dihalogenated fluorescein dyes as probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhiping; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Li, Yuanfang; Hu, Xiaoli; Tian, Jing

    2013-10-01

    A novel fluorescence quenching method for the determination of torasemide (TOR) with some dihalogenated fluorescein dyes as fluorescence probes was developed. In acidulous medium, TOR could interact with some dihalogenated fluorescein dyes such as dichlorofluorescein (DCF), dibromofluorescein (DBF) and diiodofluorescein (DIF) to form binary complexes, which could lead to fluorescence quenching of above dihalogenated fluorescein dyes. The maximum fluorescence emission wavelengths were located at 532 nm (TOR-DCF), 535 nm (TOR-DBF) and 554 nm (TOR-DIF). The relative fluorescence intensities (ΔF = F0 - F) were proportional to the concentration of TOR in certain ranges. The detection limits were 4.8 ng mL-1 for TOR-DCF system, 9.8 ng mL-1 for TOR-DBF system and 35.1 ng mL-1 for TOR-DIF system. The optimum reaction conditions, influencing factors were studied; and the effect of coexisting substances was investigated owing to the highest sensitivity of TOR-DCF system. In addition, the reaction mechanism, composition and structure of the complex were discussed by quantum chemical calculation and Job's method. The fluorescence quenching of dihalogenated fluorescein dyes by TOR was a static quenching process judging from the effect of temperature and the Stern-Volmer plots. The method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of TOR in tablets and human urine samples.

  13. A simple method to prepare magnetic modified beer yeast and its application for cationic dye adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun-Xia; Wang, Li-Yan; Chi, Ru-An; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Xu, Zhi-Gao; Guo, Jia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to use a simple method to prepare magnetic modified biomass with good adsorption performances for cationic ions. The magnetic modified biomass was prepared by two steps: (1) preparation of pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) modified biomass in N, N-dimethylacetamide solution and (2) preparation of magnetic PMDA modified biomass by a situ co-precipitation method under the assistance of ultrasound irradiation in ammonia water. The adsorption potential of the as-prepared magnetic modified biomass was analyzed by using cationic dyes: methylene blue and basic magenta as model dyes. Optical micrograph and x-ray diffraction analyses showed that Fe(3)O(4) particles were precipitated on the modified biomass surface. The as-prepared biosorbent could be recycled easily by using an applied magnetic field. Titration analysis showed that the total concentration of the functional groups on the magnetic PMDA modified biomass was calculated to be 0.75 mmol g(-1) by using the first derivative method. The adsorption capacities (q(m)) of the magnetic PMDA modified biomass for methylene blue and basic magenta were 609.0 and 520.9 mg g(-1), respectively, according to the Langmuir equation. Kinetics experiment showed that adsorption could be completed within 150 min for both dyes. The desorption experiment showed that the magnetic sorbent could be used repeatedly after regeneration. The as-prepared magnetic modified sorbent had a potential in the dyeing industry wastewater treatment. PMID:22529003

  14. Comparison of correction methods for inhomogeneities in daily time series on example of Central European datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.,

    2010-09-01

    Prior any data analysis, data quality control and homogenization have to be undertaken to get rid of erroneous values in time series. In this work we focused especially on comparison of methods for daily data inhomogeneities correction. Two basic approaches for inhomogeneity adjustments were adopted and compared: (i) "delta" method - adjustment of monthly series and projection of estimated smoothed monthly adjustments into annual variation of daily adjustments and (ii) "variable" correction of daily values according to the corresponding percentiles. "Variable" correction methods emerged only in recent years. Their results were investigated in this work more deeply and they were mutually compared. Among the analyzed methods belong HOM of Paul Della-Marta, SPLIDHOM method of Olivier Mestre and own methods (DAP). We applied multi-element approach (using e.g. weather types) as well and investigated if it can improve the models. Comparison of the available correction methods is also current task of the ongoing COST action ESO601 (www. homogenisation.org). Performance of the available correction methods (on daily scale) is shown on example of Central European series of various meteorological elements (air temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, sunshine duration). Comparisons among the methods as well as its various modifications (parameters settings) were investigated. For the task, ProClimDB software has been used (read more at www.climahom.eu).

  15. Correcting inhomogeneities in daily time series - comparison of methods for various meteorological elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.; Farda, A.

    2012-04-01

    The homogenization of climate data is of major importance because non-climatic factors make data unrepresentative of the actual climate variation and the conclusions of climatic studies are potentially biased. Instrumental series of various meteorological elements are often affected by inhomogeneities. Several methods are available for their correction, either on monthly or, in the last decade, also on daily data. In this work we focused especially on comparison of methods for daily data inhomogeneities correction. Two basic approaches for the adjustment of inhomogeneity were adopted and compared: (i) the "delta" method - the adjustment of monthly series and projection of estimated smoothed monthly adjustments into an annual variation of daily adjustments (e.g. Vincent et al. 2002) and (ii) the "variable" correction of daily values according to the corresponding percentiles, e.g. HOM (Della-Marta and Wanner, 2006), SPLIDHOM (Mestre et al., 2011), DAP (Stepanek 2009) and Quantile Matching (Wang 2009 and 2010). The "variable" correction methods have only emerged in the recent years. They were applied in this work to the COST ESO601 daily validation dataset (air temperature) and also to the various meteorological elements based on the data from the Czech Republic. Their results were mutually compared and investigated. The results were processed via the software ProClimDB (Štěpánek, 2010, www.climahom.eu) and R (www.r-project.org).

  16. COD and color removal of reactive orange 16 dye solution by electrochemical oxidation and adsorption method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Zuhailie; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Yusop, Muhammad Rahimi; Othman, Mohamed Rozali

    2015-09-01

    Degradation of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) dye was investigated using electrochemical oxidation and adsorption (batch method) using mixture of coconut trunk charcoal-graphite-tin-polyvinyl chloride(PVC). In batch studies for adsorbents pellet and powder form of the charcoal mixture were used. RO16 was chosen as the model dye because of its high resistance towards conventional treatment methods. NaCl and RO16 concentration, treatment duration, weight of electrode and adsorbent and volume of solution were kept constant for both methods. The effectiveness of the treatments were compared and evaluated by percentage of RO16 decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and results indicated that electrochemical oxidation method ables to decolorized RO16 dye up to 98.5% after 20 minutes electrolysis time while pellet and powder in batch method only removed 17.1 and 33.6% of RO16 color respectively. However, only 45.6% of COD can be removed using electrochemical oxidation method while pellet and powder in batch method removed 47.8 and 49.6% of COD respectively. The decolorization and COD removal of RO16 was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometer (by the changes of absorption spectrum intensity of azo chromophore (-N=N-) at λ=388 and 492.50 nm and Hach spectrophotometer respectively. FTIR was used to determine functional groups present in the coconut trunk charcoal.

  17. Estimating daily net radiation in the FAO Penman-Monteith method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Facundo; Rivas, Raúl; Kruse, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we evaluate the procedures of the Manual No. 56 of the FAO (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization) for predicting daily net radiation using measures collected in Tandil (Argentina) between March 2007 and June 2010. In addition, a new methodology is proposed for estimating daily net radiation over the reference crop considered in the FAO Penman-Monteith method. The calculated and observed values of daily net radiation are compared. Estimation errors are reduced from ±22 to ±12 W m-2 considering the new model. From spring-summer data, estimation errors of less than ±10 % were observed for the new physical model, which represents an error of just ±0.4 mm d-1 for computing reference evapotranspiration. The new model presented here is not restricted to a climate regime and is mainly appropriate for application in the FAO Penman-Monteith method to determine the reference crop evapotranspiration.

  18. [Modified histological methods using a nuclear dye gallocyanine].

    PubMed

    Zadorozhnyĭ, V V

    1982-01-01

    It is suggested that a nuclear stain; gallocyanine, be used simultaneously with the three main histological staining methods: hematoxylin-eosin, Van-Gieson's, and Nissl' stainings. This modification is technically simple, gives preparations of a high quality, and is time- and labour-saving. PMID:6186229

  19. Evaluation of different methods to estimate daily reference evapotranspiration in ungauged basins in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Tassi, Rutineia

    2016-04-01

    Evapotranspiration is a key process of hydrological cycle and a sole term that links land surface water balance and land surface energy balance. Due to the higher information requirements of the Penman-Monteith method and the existing data uncertainty, simplified empirical methods for calculating potential and actual evapotranspiration are widely used in hydrological models. This is especially important in Brazil, where the monitoring of meteorological data is precarious. In this study were compared different methods for estimating evapotranspiration for Rio Grande do Sul, the Southernmost State of Brazil, aiming to suggest alternatives to the recommended method (Penman-Monteith-FAO 56) for estimate daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo) when meteorological data is missing or not available. The input dataset included daily and hourly-observed data from conventional and automatic weather stations respectively maintained by the National Weather Institute of Brazil (INMET) from the period of 1 January 2007 to 31 January 2010. Dataset included maximum temperature (Tmax, °C), minimum temperature (Tmin, °C), mean relative humidity (%), wind speed at 2 m height (u2, m s‑1), daily solar radiation (Rs, MJ m‑ 2) and atmospheric pressure (kPa) that were grouped at daily time-step. Was tested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Penman-Monteith method (PM) at its full form, against PM assuming missing several variables not normally available in Brazil in order to calculate daily reference ETo. Missing variables were estimated as suggested in FAO56 publication or from climatological means. Furthermore, PM was also compared against the following simplified empirical methods: Hargreaves-Samani, Priestley-Taylor, Mccloud, McGuiness-Bordne, Romanenko, Radiation-Temperature, Tanner-Pelton. The statistical analysis indicates that even if just Tmin and Tmax are available, it is better to use PM estimating missing variables from syntetic data than

  20. A nonparametric stochastic method for generating daily climate-adjusted streamflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagge, J. H.; Moglen, G. E.

    2013-10-01

    A daily stochastic streamflow generation model is presented, which successfully replicates statistics of the historical streamflow record and can produce climate-adjusted daily time series. A monthly climate model relates general circulation model (GCM)-scale climate indicators to discrete climate-streamflow states, which in turn control parameters in a daily streamflow generation model. Daily flow is generated by a two-state (increasing/decreasing) Markov chain, with rising limb increments randomly sampled from a Weibull distribution and the falling limb modeled as exponential recession. When applied to the Potomac River, a 38,000 km2 basin in the Mid-Atlantic United States, the model reproduces the daily, monthly, and annual distribution and dynamics of the historical streamflow record, including extreme low flows. This method can be used as part of water resources planning, vulnerability, and adaptation studies and offers the advantage of a parsimonious model, requiring only a sufficiently long historical streamflow record and large-scale climate data. Simulation of Potomac streamflows subject to the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1b, A2, and B1 emission scenarios predict a slight increase in mean annual flows over the next century, with the majority of this increase occurring during the winter and early spring. Conversely, mean summer flows are projected to decrease due to climate change, caused by a shift to shorter, more sporadic rain events. Date of the minimum annual flow is projected to shift 2-5 days earlier by the 2070-2099 period.

  1. Light amplification and lasing from dyes doped in DNA-complex thin films prepared by soaking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Yutaka; Suzuki, Takemasa; Iisaka, You

    2014-08-01

    An alternative fabrication method for dye-doped DNA-surfactant complex films was developed and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and lasing under low energy optical pumping were demonstrated. In this new preparation technique, thin DNA-cethyltrimethylammonium (CTMA) complex films made by a spin coating method were stained with a hemicyanine dye by soaking them in acetone solution of the dye for one day. Molar ratio of the dye to DNA base pair for the final products was estimated to be 0.2, the value was much higher than those achieved via usual mixing method. ASE threshold value under pumping of a pulsed frequency-doubled YAG laser was about 0.3 mJ/cm2. Laser emission was also attained under the excitation with two interfering beams forming a dynamic grating of gain coefficient. Durability test indicated that 70% of their initial performance was maintained after 1 hour of continuous pumping. The technique was applied to water soluble dyes because the DNA complex was insoluble to water as well as acetone. We employed anionic Eosin Y dye, succeeding in sample formation and ASE emission. Different types of surfactants were also complexed with DNA, showing variation of emission peak wavelength. These results give a clue about the structure of the complex or interaction modes between DNA and surfactants, strongly suggesting that dye molecules are not intercalated into nor bound to DNA double strand directly, but are incorporated in the complex system via ion-exchange process or aggregating with cationic surfactants.

  2. A Quantitative Comparison of Prediction Methods for Daily Streamflow Time Series at Ungaged Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiang, Julie; Farmer, William; Archfield, Stacey; Over, Thomas; Vogel, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The existence of reliable, continuous daily records of natural streamflow enhances our ability to manage our water resources. In many regions, due to a lack of adequate gaging resources, it is necessary to create representative records where none exist. Research on prediction in ungaged basins (PUB) has been very active over the past decade. We report the findings of an ongoing national study by the U.S. Geological Survey, which seeks to provide spatially and temporally continuous 30-year records of historical daily records of natural streamflow (1980-2010) at the watershed scale (HUC-12). Employing data from 182 nearly pristine basins in the Southeast United States, a three-fold validation procedure was used to simulate the ungaged case for each basin. Ungaged flows were estimated using transfer-based methods: standardizing by drainage area, mean flows, means and standard deviations, and using an interpolation of flow duration curves (QPPQ). The effect of index-gage selection was also considered: using the nearest-neighboring gage or the gage with the greatest correlation. These methods were compared with a daily version of the Analysis of Flows in Networks of Channels (AFINCH) model and the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a deterministic model. We developed a multi-objective, comparative assessment of PUB methods. The selection of an optimal PUB method is shown to depend on the intended application of the estimated flow record. We identify the PUB methods that perform best across the 32 goodness-of-fit metrics considered.

  3. Which Homework Method Renders Better Test Results: Daily Review Quizzes or Homework Quantity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, Lionel D.

    2006-10-01

    Regular homework assignments are an essential component of any calculus-based physic course. But the traditional ``assign and grade'' technique is extremely labor intensive when it comes to grading the homework. Therefore, several alternative homework methods have been implemented in an effort to reduce the work load on the professor. One such method, Daily Review Quizzes, encourages students to come to class prepared. A second method, Homework Quantity, encourages students to work a large number of problems. This presentation describes these two methods and how each appears to impact student grades on the first test of the semester. Requests: Overhead Projector and PowerPoint Capabilities

  4. A novel method for photodegradation of high-chroma dye wastewater via electrochemical pre-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kunjiao; Zhao, Guohua; Li, Peiqiang; Gao, Junxia; Lv, Baoying; Li, Dongming

    2010-06-01

    A new two-step process involving the electrocatalytic (EC) pre-oxidation and the following photoelectrocatalytic synergistic (PEC) oxidation is proposed to treat the high concentration and high-chroma methyl orange dye wastewater, which cannot be degraded by photocatalytic oxidation (PC) directly. The SnO(2)/TiO(2)-NTs/Ti electrode simultaneously possessing the outstanding PC oxidation properties of TiO(2)-NTs and the excellent EC oxidation abilities of the Sb doped SnO(2) was synthesized by impregnating Sb doped SnO(2) nanoparticles into TiO(2)-NTs. In the pre-oxidation process as the first stage, the high-color dye wastewater is decolorized with electrochemical method to some extent. Then, the wastewater becomes a light transmission system. It provides a suitable condition for PC oxidation reaction in the second stage. The synergistic effects of PC and EC oxidation led to the high PEC efficiency and the complete mineralization of dye wastewater is achieved. This two-step process is fast and efficient, which is worthy to study and explore in the practical environmental treatment. PMID:20434754

  5. Assessment of identity during adolescence using daily diary methods: Measurement invariance across time and sex.

    PubMed

    Becht, Andrik I; Branje, Susan J T; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Maciejewski, Dominique F; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Denissen, Jaap J A; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess measurement invariance of adolescents' daily reports on identity across time and sex. Adolescents (N = 497; mean age = 13.32 years at Time 1, 56.7% boys) from the general population reported on their identity commitments, exploration in depth and reconsideration on a daily basis for 3 weeks within 1 year across 5 years. We used the single-item version of the Utrecht Management of Identity Commitments Scale (UMICS; Klimstra et al., 2010), a broad measure of identity-formation processes covering both interpersonal and educational identity domains. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and strict measurement invariance across days within weeks, across sex, across weeks within years, and across years. Results indicated that daily diary reports show strict measurement invariance across days, across weeks within years, across years, and across boys and girls. These results support the use of daily diary methods to assess identity at various time intervals ranging from days to years and across sex. Results are discussed with regard to future implications to study identity processes, both on smaller and larger time intervals. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26375428

  6. Treatment of Basic Red 29 dye solution using iron-aluminum electrode pairs by electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton methods.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Yusuf; Shahbazi, Reza; Koparal, A Savaş; Öğütveren, Ulker Bakır

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the treatment of Basic Red 29 (BR29) dye solution using hybrid iron-aluminum electrodes by electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton methods. The effect of current density, initial pH, supporting electrolyte, H₂O₂, and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency was investigated, and the best experimental conditions were obtained. Time-coarse variation of UV-Vis spectra and toxicity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were also examined at the best experimental conditions. Both systems were found very successful for the removal of BR29 dye. The removal efficiency of >95% for BR29 dye solution was reached easily in a short time. At the best experimental conditions, for the initial BR29 concentration of 100 mg/L, >95% BR29 dye and 71.43% COD removal were obtained after 20 and 40 min of electrolysis, respectively. Additionally, toxicity results for electro-Fenton treatment of 100 mg/L BR29 were also very promising. According to the results obtained, although electro-Fenton is more effective, both systems can be used successfully to treat textile wastewater including dyes. PMID:24687790

  7. Copula-based method for multisite monthly and daily streamflow simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lu; Singh, Vijay P.; Guo, Shenglian; Zhou, Jianzhong; Zhang, Junhong

    2015-09-01

    Multisite stochastic simulation of streamflow sequences is needed for water resources planning and management. In this study, a new copula-based method is proposed for generating long-term multisite monthly and daily streamflow data. A multivariate copula, which is established based on bivariate copulas and conditional probability distributions, is employed to describe temporal dependences (single site) and spatial dependences (between sites). Monthly or daily streamflows at multiple sites are then generated by sampling from the conditional copula. Three tributaries of Colorado River and the upper Yangtze River are selected to evaluate the proposed methodology. Results show that the generated data at both higher and lower time scales can capture the distribution properties of the single site and preserve the spatial correlation of streamflows at different locations. The main advantage of the method is that the trivairate copula can be established using three bivariate copulas and the model parameters can be easily estimated using the Kendall tau rank correlation coefficient, which makes it possible to generate daily streamflow data. The method provides a new tool for multisite stochastic simulation.

  8. Copula-based method for Multisite Monthly and Daily Streamflow Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Dai, M.; Singh, V. P.; Guo, S.

    2014-12-01

    Multisite stochastic simulation of streamflow sequences is needed for water resources planning and management. In this study, a new copula-based method is proposed for generating long-term multisite monthly and daily streamflow data. A multivariate copula, which is established based on bivariate copulas and conditional probability distributions, is employed to describe temporal dependences (single site) and spatial dependences (between sites). Monthly or daily streamflows at multiple sites are then generated by sampling from the conditional copula. Three tributaries of Colorado River and the upper Yangtze River are selected to evaluate the proposed methodology. Results show that the generated data at both higher and lower time scales can capture the distribution properties of the single site and preserve the spatial correlation of streamflows at different locations. The main advantage of the method is that the model parameters can be easily estimated using Kendall tau rank correlation coefficient, which makes it possible to generate daily streamflow data. The method provides a new tool for multisite stochastic simulation.

  9. Quantification methods for human and large animal leukocytes using DNA dyes by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Ina Laura; Radley, Gemma; Chan, Chris H H; Friedmann, Yasmin; Foster, Graham; Thornton, Catherine A

    2016-06-01

    Ovine and bovine blood is used heavily within the development of blood-handling medical devices, such as heart pumps (left ventricular assist devices, LVADs), for which blood cell damage needs to be monitored during in vitro testing. Hematology analyzers provide cell counts but no information about cell viability. The anthraquinone DNA dyes CyTRAK Orange™ and DRAQ7™ have practical and spectral properties rendering them suitable for multicolor assays. Compared to other DNA dyes such as Vybrant Dyecycle, CyTRAK Orange enables a faster staining protocol and does not require incubation at +37°C. Compared to traditional viability dyes such as propidium iodide and 7AAD, DRAQ7's unique spectral profile of excitation in both blue and red lasers and far-red emission enables identification of dual positive dead cell events and frees up detectors for use with other reagents. CyTRAK Orange and DRAQ7 could be used in combination with absolute counting bead standards to provide cell counts and viability but the combination of these dyes has previously only been used for microscopy on rodent cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of these dyes in combination in large animal blood samples for flow cytometry. A viability and cell counting protocol for bovine, ovine, and human leukocytes using CyTRAK Orange and DRAQ7 was prepared. Four different counting bead standards were evaluated using the Navios and FACSAria cytometers and compared to counts obtained from hematology analyzers. CyTRAK Orange successfully detected CD45(+) leukocytes in all species. The DRAQ7 single-stained dead cell counts correlated well with the CyTRAK Orange/DRAQ7 double-stained dead cell counts in human and bovine blood, but not in ovine blood, which could be related to the blood source. In conclusion, for human and bovine blood, this method works well for viability counts using different flow cytometers and bead standards. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry

  10. Missing-Data Estimation for Daily Rainfall in Everglades Florida Using Machine Learning Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, C.; Lall, U.; Landot, T.; Pathak, C.

    2008-05-01

    In the present study we derive a novel model to fill in gaps of daily rainfall data from 43 rainfall stations of South Florida. The filling-in process consists of two stages: prediction of rainfall occurrence and prediction of rainfall amounts. In the first step we identify the stations with available daily rainfall data and assign 1 for wet states and - 1 for dry states. Support Vector Machines (SVM) is then applied to derive an optimal spatial boundary in order to define the spatial pattern of wet and dry states. The missing-data station is classified, based on its spatial location, into the wet or dry class. In the second stage we use historical data of available stations as predictors for the rainfall amounts of the missing data gauge. We evaluate three different models to predict rainfall amounts: linear, local regression (locfit) and Support Vector Machines. We compare these models with common methods used in the literature, namely ordinary Kriging and nearest neighbor methods. The results show that the methodology proposed here yields accurate estimates of daily rainfall.

  11. A Predictive Model of Daily Seismic Activity Induced by Mining, Developed with Data Mining Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowski, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the development and evaluation of a predictive classification model of daily seismic energy emissions induced by longwall mining in sector XVI of the Piast coal mine in Poland. The model uses data on tremor energy, basic characteristics of the longwall face and mined output in this sector over the period from July 1987 to March 2011. The predicted binary variable is the occurrence of a daily sum of tremor seismic energies in a longwall that is greater than or equal to the threshold value of 105 J. Three data mining analytical methods were applied: logistic regression,neural networks, and stochastic gradient boosted trees. The boosted trees model was chosen as the best for the purposes of the prediction. The validation sample results showed its good predictive capability, taking the complex nature of the phenomenon into account. This may indicate the applied model's suitability for a sequential, short-term prediction of mining induced seismic activity.

  12. A square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric method for determination of fast green dye.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, Ali F

    2009-01-01

    Square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric (SW-AdSV) determinations of trace concentrations of the coloring agent fast green were described. The analytical methodology used was based on the adsorptive preconcentration of the dye on the hanging mercury drop electrode, and then a negative sweep was initiated. In pH 10 carbonate supporting electrolyte, fast green gave a well-defined and sensitive SW-AdSV peak at -1220 mV. The electroanalytical determination of this dye was found to be optimized in carbonate buffer (pH 10) with the following experimental conditions: accumulation time (120 s); accumulation potential (-0.8 V); scan rate (800 mV/s); pulse amplitude (90 mV); frequency (90 Hz); surface area of the working electrode (0.6 mm2); and the convection rate (2000 rpm). Under these optimized conditions, the AdSV peak current was proportional over the concentration range 2 x 10(-8) -6 x 10(-7) M (r = 0.999), with an LOD of 1.63 x 10(-10) M (0.132 ppb). This analytical approach possessed more enhanced sensitivity than conventional chromatography or spectrophotometry, and was simple and quick. The precision of the method in terms of RSD was 0.17%, whereas the accuracy was evaluated via the mean recovery of 99.6%. Possible interferences by several substances usually present as food additive azo dyes (E110, E102, E123, and E129), natural and artificial sweeteners, and antioxidants were also investigated. Applicability of the developed electroanalysis method was illustrated via the determination of fast green in ice cream and soft drink samples. PMID:20166589

  13. A New Method to estimate Daily Tropical Cyclone Precipitation from the GHCND Rain Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Quiring, S. M.; Guikema, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical Cyclone Precipitation (TCP) contributes a large portion of very extreme hydrological events. An accurate estimation of a long term TCP climatology is an essential to understand how it varies in the past and will change in the future. The Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCND) provides a global coverage of territorial surface daily weather observations with a reasonable spatial density. In this study, we will develop a new method to estimate the TCP from the GHCND daily rain observations and other TC Track information. We will focus on all historical storms impacted the North America Continent (from both the Atlantic and the Pacific Sides) in this study. The new method will consider major factors that influence the estimation accuracy, including the variations in spatial density of rain gauges, sizes and the forward speed of storms, and high wind speeds causing the underestimate of precipitation by the rain bucket. We will provide both the point estimation at the rain gauge and gridded product at 0.25 degree. The gridded product will be finally validated by the precipitation estimation from TRMM. We will make tests and tune this method to optimally fit the available historical observations, so it can be applied for other regions in the world in the future. Key Words: Tropical Cyclone, Precipitation, New Estimation Method

  14. Methods to estimate historical daily streamflow for ungaged stream locations in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, David L.; Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Effective and responsible management of water resources relies on a thorough understanding of the quantity and quality of available water; however, streamgages cannot be installed at every location where streamflow information is needed. Therefore, methods for estimating streamflow at ungaged stream locations need to be developed. This report presents a statewide study to develop methods to estimate the structure of historical daily streamflow at ungaged stream locations in Minnesota. Historical daily mean streamflow at ungaged locations in Minnesota can be estimated by transferring streamflow data at streamgages to the ungaged location using the QPPQ method. The QPPQ method uses flow-duration curves at an index streamgage, relying on the assumption that exceedance probabilities are equivalent between the index streamgage and the ungaged location, and estimates the flow at the ungaged location using the estimated flow-duration curve. Flow-duration curves at ungaged locations can be estimated using recently developed regression equations that have been incorporated into StreamStats (http://streamstats.usgs.gov/), which is a U.S. Geological Survey Web-based interactive mapping tool that can be used to obtain streamflow statistics, drainage-basin characteristics, and other information for user-selected locations on streams.

  15. A method to estimate the effect of deformable image registration uncertainties on daily dose mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Martin J.; Salguero, Francisco J.; Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Staub, David; Vaman, Constantin

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: To develop a statistical sampling procedure for spatially-correlated uncertainties in deformable image registration and then use it to demonstrate their effect on daily dose mapping. Methods: Sequential daily CT studies are acquired to map anatomical variations prior to fractionated external beam radiotherapy. The CTs are deformably registered to the planning CT to obtain displacement vector fields (DVFs). The DVFs are used to accumulate the dose delivered each day onto the planning CT. Each DVF has spatially-correlated uncertainties associated with it. Principal components analysis (PCA) is applied to measured DVF error maps to produce decorrelated principal component modes of the errors. The modes are sampled independently and reconstructed to produce synthetic registration error maps. The synthetic error maps are convolved with dose mapped via deformable registration to model the resulting uncertainty in the dose mapping. The results are compared to the dose mapping uncertainty that would result from uncorrelated DVF errors that vary randomly from voxel to voxel. Results: The error sampling method is shown to produce synthetic DVF error maps that are statistically indistinguishable from the observed error maps. Spatially-correlated DVF uncertainties modeled by our procedure produce patterns of dose mapping error that are different from that due to randomly distributed uncertainties. Conclusions: Deformable image registration uncertainties have complex spatial distributions. The authors have developed and tested a method to decorrelate the spatial uncertainties and make statistical samples of highly correlated error maps. The sample error maps can be used to investigate the effect of DVF uncertainties on daily dose mapping via deformable image registration. An initial demonstration of this methodology shows that dose mapping uncertainties can be sensitive to spatial patterns in the DVF uncertainties.

  16. Rapid and Inexpensive Method of Loading Fluorescent Dye into Pollen Tubes and Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Haiyong; Xing, Wenxi; Wu, Fenfen; Wang, Yongzhang

    2016-01-01

    The most direct technique for studying calcium, which is an essential element for pollen tube growth, is Ca2+ imaging. Because membranes are relatively impermeable, the loading of fluorescent Ca2+ probes into plant cells is a challenging task. Thus, we have developed a new method of loading fluo-4 acetoxymethyl ester into cells that uses a cell lysis solution to improve the introduction of this fluorescent dye into pollen tubes. Using this method, the loading times were reduced to 15 min. Furthermore, loading did not have to be performed at low (4°C) temperatures and was successful at room temperature, and pluronic F-127 was not required, which would theoretically allow for the loading of an unlimited number of cells. Moreover, the method can also be used to fluorescently stain root hairs. PMID:27055240

  17. Rapid and Inexpensive Method of Loading Fluorescent Dye into Pollen Tubes and Root Hairs.

    PubMed

    Qu, Haiyong; Xing, Wenxi; Wu, Fenfen; Wang, Yongzhang

    2016-01-01

    The most direct technique for studying calcium, which is an essential element for pollen tube growth, is Ca2+ imaging. Because membranes are relatively impermeable, the loading of fluorescent Ca2+ probes into plant cells is a challenging task. Thus, we have developed a new method of loading fluo-4 acetoxymethyl ester into cells that uses a cell lysis solution to improve the introduction of this fluorescent dye into pollen tubes. Using this method, the loading times were reduced to 15 min. Furthermore, loading did not have to be performed at low (4°C) temperatures and was successful at room temperature, and pluronic F-127 was not required, which would theoretically allow for the loading of an unlimited number of cells. Moreover, the method can also be used to fluorescently stain root hairs. PMID:27055240

  18. Color measurement of methylene blue dye/clay mixtures and its application using economical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosevic, Maja; Kaludjerovic, Lazar; Logar, Mihovil

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the clay mineral components of clay materials by staining tests is rapid and simple, but their applicability is restricted because of the mutual interference of the common components of clay materials and difficulties in color determination. The change of color with concentration of the dye is related to the use of colorants as a field test for identifying clay minerals and has been improved over the years to assure the accuracy of the tests (Faust G. T., 1940). The problem of measurement and standardization of color may be solved by combination of colors observed in staining tests with prepared charts of color chips available in the Munsell Book of Color, published by Munsell Color Co. Under a particular set of illumination conditions, a human eye can achieve an approximate match between the color of the dyed clay sample and that of a standard color chip, even though they do have different spectral reflectance characteristics. Experiments were carried out with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy on selected clay samples (three montmorillonite, three kaolinite and one mix-layer clay samples) saturated with different concentration of methylene blue dye solution. Dominant wavelength and purity of the color was obtained on oriented dry samples and calculated by use of the I. C. I. (x, y) - diagram in the region of 400-700 nm (reflectance spectra) without MB and after saturation with different concentrations of MB solutions. Samples were carefully photographed in the natural light environment and processed with user friendly and easily accessible applications (Adobe color CC and ColorHexa encyclopedia) available for android phones or tablets. Obtained colors were compared with Munsell standard color chips, RGB and Hexa color standards. Changes in the color of clay samples in their interaction with different concentration of the applied dye together with application of economical methods can still be used as a rapid fieldwork test. Different types of clay

  19. Pulsed microwave heating method for preparation of dye-sensitized solar cells for greener, faster, cheaper production of photovoltaic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Clifford B.; Cotta, Robert; Blais, Timothy; Hall, Charles B.

    2015-05-01

    Microwave heating methods are very popular for developing chemical syntheses that are achieved much more rapidly or with less solvent than via conventional heating methods. Their application to solar cell development has been primarily in developing improvements in the synthesis of dyes and curing of polymer substrates, but not in assisting the photoanode construction of dye-sensitized solar cells. Microwave heating of conducting substrates can lead to arcing of electricity in the reactor, which in turn, can lead to extensive degradation or complete destruction of the photoanode. Here we present our work in applying a pulsed microwave heating method that affords quicker dye deposition times in comparison to conventional heating (μw 40 min, conventional 60 min) with similar dye concentrations as characterized by UV-Vis absorbance, contact angle measurements, and cyclic voltammetry. Our photoanodes are constructed with anatase TiO2 cured onto FTO glass, and deposition of the N719 ruthenium dye either directly to the TiO2 layer or through amide bond formation to a silane layer that has been deposited on the TiO2 layer. Modest improvements in the solar energy conversion efficiency are shown through the microwave method in comparison to conventional heating (μw 0.78% vs. conventional 0.25% reported by K. Szpakolski, et. Al. Polyhedron, 2013, 52, 719-732.)

  20. Disaggregation of Daily Rainfall using Modified K-Nearest Neighbors Resampling Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, G.; Park, H.

    2015-12-01

    As the city is developed, the protection of the city from the severe flood becomes important due to the possible massive economic damage and fatality. In a mega city, such as Seoul, the travel time in an urban area is less than 2 hours, which causes the difficulty in the estimation of runoff and requires a set of short time step rainfall data. Therefore, in this study, the daily rainfall is stochastically disaggregated into hourly data using Modified K-Nearest Neighbor (MKNN) resampling method. When MKNN resampling method is applied, 7 rainfall patterns are developed using historical hourly data and utilized these patterns to reproduce the similar hourly patterns of the disaggregated data. The proposed method is applied in the 54 years of Seoul precipitation data.

  1. A screening method of oil-soluble synthetic dyes in chilli products based on multi-wavelength chromatographic fingerprints comparison.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yonghong; Wu, Yanlei; Zhou, Chunjie; Zhao, Bo; Yun, Wen; Huang, Siyu; Tao, Peng; Tu, Dawei; Chen, Shiqi

    2016-02-01

    A multi-wavelength HPLC fingerprint comparison method was proposed for the screening of oil-soluble synthetic dyes in chilli products. The screening was based on the fingerprint differences of normal unadulterated chilli sample with tested chilli samples. The samples were extracted with acetone and fingerprinted by HPLC under four visible light wavelengths (450 nm, 490 nm, 520 nm, and 620 nm). It was found that the fingerprints of different chilli product samples had a relatively fixed number of peaks and stable retention time. When 16 kinds of known synthetic dyes were used as model analytes to assess the screening efficiency, 14 of them could be screened using fingerprint comparison method, with LOD of 0.40-2.41 mg/kg. The new screening method was simple and had the possibility of finding existence of the adulterated dyes which could not be identified using known standard analytes as control. PMID:26304371

  2. Characterizing the marker-dye correction for Gafchromic EBT2 film: A comparison of three analysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    McCaw, Travis J.; Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Gafchromic EBT2 film has a yellow marker dye incorporated into the active layer of the film that can be used to correct the film response for small variations in thickness. This work characterizes the effect of the marker-dye correction on the uniformity and uncertainty of dose measurements with EBT2 film. The effect of variations in time postexposure on the uniformity of EBT2 is also investigated. Methods: EBT2 films were used to measure the flatness of a {sup 60}Co field to provide a high-spatial resolution evaluation of the film uniformity. As a reference, the flatness of the {sup 60}Co field was also measured with Kodak EDR2 films. The EBT2 films were digitized with a flatbed document scanner 24, 48, and 72 h postexposure, and the images were analyzed using three methods: (1) the manufacturer-recommended marker-dye correction, (2) an in-house marker-dye correction, and (3) a net optical density (OD) measurement in the red color channel. The field flatness was calculated from orthogonal profiles through the center of the field using each analysis method, and the results were compared with the EDR2 measurements. Uncertainty was propagated through a dose calculation for each analysis method. The change in the measured field flatness for increasing times postexposure was also determined. Results: Both marker-dye correction methods improved the field flatness measured with EBT2 film relative to the net OD method, with a maximum improvement of 1% using the manufacturer-recommended correction. However, the manufacturer-recommended correction also resulted in a dose uncertainty an order of magnitude greater than the other two methods. The in-house marker-dye correction lowered the dose uncertainty relative to the net OD method. The measured field flatness did not exhibit any unidirectional change with increasing time postexposure and showed a maximum change of 0.3%. Conclusions: The marker dye in EBT2 can be used to improve the response uniformity of the film

  3. Spectroscopic studies of biologically active coumarin laser dye: Evaluation of dipole moments by solvatochromic shift method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppal, V. V.; Muddapur, G. V.; Patil, N. R.; Melavanki, R. M.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we attempted to record absorption and emission spectra of 2-acetyl-3H-benzo[f]chromen-3-one [2AHBC] laser dye in different solvents of varying polarities to investigate its solvatochromic behavior. The two electronic states dipole moments of 2AHBC are calculated using solvatochromic spectral shifts which are correlated with dielectric constant (ɛ) refractive index (n) of various solvents. A systematic approach is made to estimate ground and excited state dipole moments on the basis of different solvent correlation methods like Bilot-Kawski equations, Lippert-Mataga, Bakhsheiv, Kawaski-Chamma-Viallet and Reichardt methods. Dipole moments in the excited state was found to be higher than the ground state by confirming π→π* transition.

  4. In vitro analysis of the penetration of methylene blue dye in human radicular dentin using different methods of impregnation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ronise; Bombana, Antonio C; Sayeg, Isaac J

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to verity whether different conditions of contact with a dye solution would result in different levels of the impregnation by the marker agent in human radicular dentin. The root canals of 60 upper human canines were immersed in methylene blue dye (0.5%, pH 7.0) for 24 h under six different conditions: passive immersion; pre-agitation for 10 min using an endodontic ultrasound; pre-agitation for 10 min using a cleaning ultrasound; 25-mmHg vacuum for 10 min followed by passive immersion; 30-mmHg and 650-mmHg vacuum for 24 h. The roots were longitudinally sectioned and dye impregnation was assessed by a trained and calibrated examiner, using the Q 550 IW image analyser (Leica Qwin, Cambridge, England). The measurements were analysed with anova and Tukey test. The results revealed no significant difference among the different methods for dye impregnation. In the cervical third, impregnation with 30 mmHg was significantly more effective than with endodontic ultrasound or 25 mmHg. At the apical third, no differences were observed between any of the dye impregnation methods. The comparison of different thirds revealed a statistically significant difference between the cervical and apical and the middle and apical thirds, but not between the cervical and middle thirds. PMID:19032645

  5. Competitive removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous solution by MIL-68(Al): Derivative spectrophotometric method and response surface methodology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tehrani, Mahnaz Saghanejhad; Zare-Dorabei, Rouholah

    2016-05-01

    MIL-68(Al) as a metal-organic framework (MOF) was synthesized and characterized by different techniques such as SEM, BET, FTIR, and XRD analysis. This material was then applied for simulations removal of malachite green (MG) and methylene blue (MB) dyes from aqueous solutions using second order derivative spectrophotometric method (SODS) which was applied to resolve the overlap between the spectra of these dyes. The dependency of dyes removal efficiency in binary solutions was examined and optimized toward various parameters including initial dye concentration, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and ultrasonic contact time using central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM) approach. The optimized experimental conditions were set as pH 7.78, contact time 5 min, initial MB concentration 22 mg L- 1, initial MG concentration 12 mg L- 1 and adsorbent dosage 0.0055 g. The equilibrium data was fitted to isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin and the results revealed the suitability of the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity of 666.67 and 153.85 mg g- 1 was obtained for MB and MG removal respectively. Kinetics data fitting to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Elovich models confirmed the applicability of pseudo-second order kinetic model for description of the mechanism and adsorption rate. Dye-loaded MIL-68(Al) can be easily regenerated using methanol and applied for three frequent sorption/desorption cycles with high performance. The impact of ionic strength on removal percentage of both dyes in binary mixture was studied by using NaCl and KCl soluble salts at different concentrations. According to our findings, only small dosage of the proposed MOF is considerably capable to remove large amounts of dyes at room temperature and in very short time that is a big advantage of MIL-68(Al) as a promising adsorbent for adsorptive removal processes.

  6. Competitive removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous solution by MIL-68(Al): Derivative spectrophotometric method and response surface methodology approach.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Mahnaz Saghanejhad; Zare-Dorabei, Rouholah

    2016-05-01

    MIL-68(Al) as a metal-organic framework (MOF) was synthesized and characterized by different techniques such as SEM, BET, FTIR, and XRD analysis. This material was then applied for simulations removal of malachite green (MG) and methylene blue (MB) dyes from aqueous solutions using second order derivative spectrophotometric method (SODS) which was applied to resolve the overlap between the spectra of these dyes. The dependency of dyes removal efficiency in binary solutions was examined and optimized toward various parameters including initial dye concentration, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and ultrasonic contact time using central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM) approach. The optimized experimental conditions were set as pH7.78, contact time 5min, initial MB concentration 22mgL(-1), initial MG concentration 12mgL(-1) and adsorbent dosage 0.0055g. The equilibrium data was fitted to isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin and the results revealed the suitability of the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity of 666.67 and 153.85mgg(-1) was obtained for MB and MG removal respectively. Kinetics data fitting to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Elovich models confirmed the applicability of pseudo-second order kinetic model for description of the mechanism and adsorption rate. Dye-loaded MIL-68(Al) can be easily regenerated using methanol and applied for three frequent sorption/desorption cycles with high performance. The impact of ionic strength on removal percentage of both dyes in binary mixture was studied by using NaCl and KCl soluble salts at different concentrations. According to our findings, only small dosage of the proposed MOF is considerably capable to remove large amounts of dyes at room temperature and in very short time that is a big advantage of MIL-68(Al) as a promising adsorbent for adsorptive removal processes. PMID:26890205

  7. Daily streamflow forecasting by machine learning methods with weather and climate inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, Kabir; Hsieh, William W.; Cannon, Alex J.

    2012-01-01

    SummaryWeather forecast data generated by the NOAA Global Forecasting System (GFS) model, climate indices, and local meteo-hydrologic observations were used to forecast daily streamflows for a small watershed in British Columbia, Canada, at lead times of 1-7 days. Three machine learning methods - Bayesian neural network (BNN), support vector regression (SVR) and Gaussian process (GP) - were used and compared with multiple linear regression (MLR). The nonlinear models generally outperformed MLR, and BNN tended to slightly outperform the other nonlinear models. Among various combinations of predictors, local observations plus the GFS output were generally best at shorter lead times, while local observations plus climate indices were best at longer lead times. The climate indices selected include the sea surface temperature in the Niño 3.4 region, the Pacific-North American teleconnection (PNA), the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). In the binary forecasts for extreme (high) streamflow events, the best predictors to use were the local observations plus GFS output. Interestingly, climate indices contribute to daily streamflow forecast scores during longer lead times of 5-7 days, but not to forecast scores for extreme streamflow events for all lead times studied (1-7 days).

  8. Which homogenisation method is appropriate for daily time series of relative humidity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimani, Barbara; Nemec, Johanna; Auer, Ingeborg; Venema, Victor

    2014-05-01

    Data homogenisation is an essential part of reliable climate data analyses. Different tools for detecting and adjusting breaks in daily extreme temperatures (Tmin, Tmax) and daily precipitation sums were developed in the last years. Due to its influence on health, plants and construction relative humidity is another parameter of great importance. On the basis of 6 networks of measured (and homogenized with respect to the monthly means) relative humidity data, which cover different climatic areas in Austria, a synthetic data set for testing and validating homogenisation methods was built. Each network consists of 4 to 6 station time series with a minimum length of 5 years. The so-called surrogate networks resemble the statistical properties (e.g. distribution of parameter, auto- and cross correlation within the network) of the measured time series, but are extended to 100 year long time series, which are in a first step assumed to be homogeneous. For creating the best possible surrogate dataset of relative humidity detailed statistical information on potential inhomogeneities is decisive. Information on the potential breaks was taken from parallel measurements available for some Austrian locations, mostly representing changes in instrumentation and/or station relocation. Beside changes in the distribution of the parameter the analyses includes an estimation of changes in the number of missing data, global and local biases, both on a seasonal and annual basis. An additional break is to be expected in the Austrian time series due to a change in observation time in 1970/1971. Since this change occurred simultaneously at all Austrian climate stations, standard homogenisation methods, which rely on a comparison with reference stations, are not able to detect or correct this shift. Therefore an independent correction method for this type of break, to be applied before homogenisation was developed. This type of change point was not included in the surrogate network

  9. Encoding and simulation of daily rainfall records via adaptations of the fractal multifractal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskey, M.; Puente, C. E.; Sivakumar, B.; Cortis, A.

    2015-12-01

    A deterministic geometric approach, the fractal-multifractal (FM) method, is adapted to encode and simulate daily rainfall records exhibiting noticeable intermittency. Using data sets gathered at Laikakota in Bolivia and Tinkham in Washington State, USA, it is demonstrated that the adapted FM approach can, within the limits of accuracy of measured sets and using only a few geometric parameters, encode and simulate the erratic rainfall records reasonably well. The FM procedure does not only preserve the statistical attributes of the records such as histogram, entropy function and distribution of zeroes, but also captures the overall texture inherent in the rather complex intermittent sets. As such, the FM deterministic representations may be used to supplement stochastic frameworks for data coding and simulation.

  10. Method and apparatus for passive optical dosimeter comprising caged dye molecules

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, David R.

    2001-07-03

    A new class of ultraviolet dosimeters is made possible by exposing caged dye molecules, which generate a dye molecule on exposure to ultraviolet radiation, to an exterior environment. Applications include sunburn monitors, characterizing the UV exposure history of UV-sensitive materials, especially including structural plastics, and use in disposable `one-use` optical equipment, especially medical devices.

  11. Estimation of instantaneous peak flow from maximum daily flow-a comparison of methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jie; Haberlandt, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    Estimation of flood frequency based on instantaneous peak flow (IPF) is important for the design of hydraulic structures. However, observed flow data with high temporal resolution are scarce, especially regarding the limited length of the available flow time series. Here, three different methods are developed and compared to estimate the IPF based on maximum daily flow (MDF), which is available usually at more gauges and for longer time periods. In the first approach, simple linear regressions with non-intercept of probability weighted moments (PWM) or quantile values between IPF and MDF data are employed. Secondly, stepwise multiple linear regressions is used to generate regression equations describing the relationship between easily obtained catchment attributes and MDF predictors and the IPF as target variable. With the third method, the temporal scaling properties of IPF series based on the hypothesis of piece wise simple scaling are investigated for 3 different flow gauges with 15 min data and then utilized to estimate the IPF for all gauges in the area. The study region is the Aller-Leine river basin in northern Germany with 45 stream flow gauges. Cross validation results from the three presented models show good performance in reproducing the peak flow and the potential to be used in other catchment. The simple regressions are the easiest to apply given enough peak flow data, the scaling method is the most efficient one among these three models but stepwise multiple linear regressions gives the best results compared with the other two methods.

  12. A New Method To Evaluate Excited States Lifetimes Based on Green's Function: Application to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Sulzer, David; Iuchi, Satoru; Yasuda, Koji

    2016-07-12

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) are the promising device for electricity generation. However, the initial stage in which an electron is injected from a dye to the semiconductor has not been precisely understood. Standard quantum chemistry methods cannot handle infinite number of orbitals coming from the band structure of the semiconductor, whereas solid state calculations cannot handle many excited states at a reasonable computational cost. In this regard, we propose a new method to evaluate lifetimes of many excited states of a molecule on a semi-infinite surface. On the basis of the theory of resonance state, the effect of the semi-infinite semiconductor is encoded into the complex self-energy from surface Green's function. The lifetimes of excited states are evaluated through the imaginary part of the self-energy, and the self-energy correction is included into excitation energies obtained from time-dependent density functional theory calculations. This new method is applied to a DSSC system composed of black dye attached to the TiO2 semiconductor, and the computed lifetimes are linked to the natures of excited states and to the surface properties. The present method provides the firm ground for analysis of interplay between many excited states of the dye and band structure of the semiconductor. PMID:27310524

  13. [Forgetting hormonal contraceptive methods: expert opinion about their daily management in clinical routine practice].

    PubMed

    Jamin, C; André, G; Audebert, A; Christin-Maître, S; Elia, D; Harvey, T; Letombe, B; Lopes, P; Moreau, C; Nisand, I; Pélissier, C

    2011-11-01

    Many guidelines regarding the daily management of regular oral hormonal contraceptive methods have been proposed worldwide. Some of them may even appear to be conflicting. The search for the maximal contraceptive protection leads to a low acceptance of these guidelines, probably because of their complexity and their apparent discrepancy. We are deeply convinced that simplicity and pragmatism of guidelines should pave the way to both their better acceptance and compliance and, consequently, to their improved real-life effectiveness. We have considered physiology and pharmacodynamics before proposing the following rules for an effective management of hormonal contraceptive failures. We conclude that the risk of unwanted pregnancy is higher in case of a unique contraception misuse/a delayed start during the first week of the contraceptive cycle (or in case of multiple days of contraceptive misuses during the following weeks) for a combined contraception or at every cycle day for a non anti-ovulatory progestin only contraception. In such risky situations, we firmly recommend the restart of the regular contraceptive method and the use of condoms for the following 72 hours, provided no sexual intercourse has occurred during the past 5 days before the contraceptive failure. If sexual intercourse has occurred during the past 5 days before the contraceptive failure, we firmly recommend the intake of an emergency contraception, ulipristal acetate, the restart the regular contraceptive method and in this case, the use of condoms for, at least, the following 7 days. PMID:22000833

  14. Comparison of artificial intelligence methods and empirical equations to estimate daily solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Saeid; Behmanesh, Javad; Khalili, Keivan

    2016-08-01

    In the present research, three artificial intelligence methods including Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) as well as, 48 empirical equations (10, 12 and 26 equations were temperature-based, sunshine-based and meteorological parameters-based, respectively) were used to estimate daily solar radiation in Kerman, Iran in the period of 1992-2009. To develop the GEP, ANN and ANFIS models, depending on the used empirical equations, various combinations of minimum air temperature, maximum air temperature, mean air temperature, extraterrestrial radiation, actual sunshine duration, maximum possible sunshine duration, sunshine duration ratio, relative humidity and precipitation were considered as inputs in the mentioned intelligent methods. To compare the accuracy of empirical equations and intelligent models, root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute relative error (MARE) and determination coefficient (R2) indices were used. The results showed that in general, sunshine-based and meteorological parameters-based scenarios in ANN and ANFIS models presented high accuracy than mentioned empirical equations. Moreover, the most accurate method in the studied region was ANN11 scenario with five inputs. The values of RMSE, MAE, MARE and R2 indices for the mentioned model were 1.850 MJ m-2 day-1, 1.184 MJ m-2 day-1, 9.58% and 0.935, respectively.

  15. Daily Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know Online Tools Enhancing Daily Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing ... Tweet Email | Print Create a Daily Routine Daily Plan Activities Communication Food/Eating Get Tips on Personal Care Bathing ...

  16. Titania-based molecularly imprinted polymer for sulfonic acid dyes prepared by sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Li, Rong; Tan, Jin; Jiang, Zi-Tao

    2013-03-30

    A novel titania-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized through sol-gel process with sunset yellow (Sun) as template, without use of functional monomer. MIP was used as a solid-phase extraction material for the isolation and enrichment of sulfonic acid dyes in beverages. The results showed that MIP exhibited better selectivity, higher recovery and adsorption capacity for the sulfonic acid dyes compared to the non-imprinted polymer (NIP). MIP presented highest extraction selectivity to Sun when pH less than or equal to 3. The adsorption capacity was 485.9 mg g(-1), which was larger than that of NIP (384.7 mg g(-1)). The better clean-up ability demonstrated the capability of MIP for the isolation and enrichment of sulfonic acid dyes in complicated food samples. The mean recoveries for the sulfonic acid dyes on MIP were from 81.9% to 97.2% in spiked soft drink. PMID:23598213

  17. Comparing bias correction methods for high-resolution COSMO-CLM daily precipitation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutjahr, O.; Heinemann, G.

    2012-04-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) are approaching to the 1km scale. This is necessary, since impact models, like hydrological or species distribution models, forced with the output of RCMs need input data on this high resolution in order to capture adequately the behaviour of the system on small scales and the extreme statistics. However, RCMs are still subject to systematic biases when compared to observations. Especially precipitation is often affected with large and non-linear bias. Since extreme values are critical to any impact model, a special care must be established for the tails of the distributions. Within the "Global-Change"-project of the Research Initiative Rhineland-Palatinate (http://www.uni-trier.de/index.php?id=40193&L=2), a new parametric bias correction method has been developed, which includes an extension for extreme values. Daily precipitation fields from COSMO-CLM (version 4.8.11) model output for the time period 1991-2000 and 2091-2100 were then bias corrected. This new method is compared to existing parametric and non-parametric methods in order to answer the question whether an extension with an extreme value distribution for the tail is necessary. Additionally, the effect of the bias correction on the climate signal is investigated, which should be the same after the corrections. As observations, 128 precipitation stations (DWD/LUWG) were used. Both parametric bias correction methods are able to correct the precipitation fields and are thus valid replacements for the empirical method but the extension with an extreme value distribution is an improvement, especially concerning estimated return values, which were underestimated in the uncorrected model and did not show any similarity to observations. Without an extension for extreme values, the pattern of the climate change signal deviates largely from the original and reveals another source of uncertainty. The comparison of the methods demonstrates the importance of special treatment of the

  18. Methods of sequencing and detection using energy transfer labels with cyanine dyes as donor chromophores

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Mathies, Richard A.; Hung, Su-Chun; Ju, Jingyue

    2000-01-01

    Cyanine dyes are used as the donor fluorophore in energy transfer labels in which light energy is absorbed by a donor fluorophore and transferred to an acceptor fluorophore which responds to the transfer by emitting fluorescent light for detection. The cyanine dyes impart an unusually high sensitivity to the labels thereby improving their usefulness in a wide variety of biochemical procedures, particularly nucleic acid sequencing, nucleic acid fragment sizing, and related procedures.

  19. Assessing Daily Physical Activity in Older Adults: Unraveling the Complexity of Monitors, Measures, and Methods.

    PubMed

    Schrack, Jennifer A; Cooper, Rachel; Koster, Annemarie; Shiroma, Eric J; Murabito, Joanne M; Rejeski, W Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harris, Tamara B

    2016-08-01

    At the 67th Gerontological Society of America Annual Meeting, a preconference workshop was convened to discuss the challenges of accurately assessing physical activity in older populations. The advent of wearable technology (eg, accelerometers) to monitor physical activity has created unprecedented opportunities to observe, quantify, and define physical activity in the real-world setting. These devices enable researchers to better understand the associations of physical activity with aging, and subsequent health outcomes. However, a consensus on proper methodological use of these devices in older populations has not been established. To date, much of the validation research regarding device type, placement, and data interpretation has been performed in younger, healthier populations, and translation of these methods to older populations remains problematic. A better understanding of these devices, their measurement properties, and the data generated is imperative to furthering our understanding of daily physical activity, its effects on the aging process, and vice versa. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the highlights of the preconference workshop, including properties of the different types of accelerometers, the methodological challenges of employing accelerometers in older study populations, a brief summary of ongoing aging-related research projects that utilize different types of accelerometers, and recommendations for future research directions. PMID:26957472

  20. Merging daily sea surface temperature data from multiple satellites using a Bayesian maximum entropy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shaolei; Yang, Xiaofeng; Dong, Di; Li, Ziwei

    2015-12-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important variable for understanding interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. SST fusion is crucial for acquiring SST products of high spatial resolution and coverage. This study introduces a Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method for blending daily SSTs from multiple satellite sensors. A new spatiotemporal covariance model of an SST field is built to integrate not only single-day SSTs but also time-adjacent SSTs. In addition, AVHRR 30-year SST climatology data are introduced as soft data at the estimation points to improve the accuracy of blended results within the BME framework. The merged SSTs, with a spatial resolution of 4 km and a temporal resolution of 24 hours, are produced in the Western Pacific Ocean region to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed methodology. Comparisons with in situ drifting buoy observations show that the merged SSTs are accurate and the bias and root-mean-square errors for the comparison are 0.15°C and 0.72°C, respectively.

  1. A sensitive fluorescence method for detection of E. Coli using rhodamine 6G dyeing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaohui; Jiang, Caina; Wen, Guiqing; Zhang, Xinghui; Luo, Yanghe; Qin, Aimiao; Liang, Aihui; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2016-06-01

    Negatively charged bacteria combined with positively charged alkaline dye rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) in NaH2 PO4 -Na2 HPO4 buffer solution pH 7.4, by electrostatic interaction. The dyed bacteria exhibited a strong fluorescence peak at 552 nm and fluorescence intensity was directly linear to Escherichia coli (E. coli), Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) concentrations in the range of 7.06 × 10(4) to 3.53 × 10(7) , 4.95 × 10(5) to 2.475 × 10(8) and 32.5 to 16250 colony forming unit/mL (cfu/mL) respectively, with detection limits of 3.2 × 10(4) cfu/mL E. coli, 2.3 × 10(5) cfu/mL B. subtilis and 16 cfu/mL S. aureus, respectively. Samples were cultured for 12 h, after which the linear detection range for E. coli was 2 to 88 cfu/mL. This simple, rapid and sensitive method was used for the analysis of water and drinking samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26573961

  2. Forecasting daily pollen concentrations using data-driven modeling methods in Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voukantsis, Dimitris; Niska, Harri; Karatzas, Kostas; Riga, Marina; Damialis, Athanasios; Vokou, Despoina

    2010-12-01

    Airborne pollen have been associated with allergic symptoms in sensitized individuals, having a direct impact on the overall quality of life of a considerable fraction of the population. Therefore, forecasting elevated airborne pollen concentrations and communicating this piece of information to the public are key issues in prophylaxis and safeguarding the quality of life of the overall population. In this study, we adopt a data-oriented approach in order to develop operational forecasting models (1-7 days ahead) of daily average airborne pollen concentrations of the highly allergenic taxa: Poaceae, Oleaceae and Urticaceae. The models are developed using a representative dataset consisting of pollen and meteorological time-series recorded during the years 1987-2002, in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. The input variables (features) of the models have been optimized by making use of genetic algorithms, whereas we evaluate the performance of three algorithms: i) multi-Layer Perceptron, ii) support vector regression and iii) regression trees originating from distinct domains of Computational Intelligence (CI), and compare the resulting models with traditional multiple linear regression models. Results show the superiority of CI methods, especially when forecasting several days ahead, compared to traditional multiple linear regression models. Furthermore, the CI models complement each other, resulting to a combined model that performs better than each one separately. The overall performance ranges, in terms of the index of agreement, from 0.85 to 0.93 clearly suggesting the potential operational use of the models. The latter ones can be utilized in provision of personalized and on-time information services, which can improve quality of life of sensitized citizens.

  3. Accuracy evaluation of ClimGen weather generator and daily to hourly disaggregation methods in tropical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safeeq, Mohammad; Fares, Ali

    2011-12-01

    Daily and sub-daily weather data are often required for hydrological and environmental modeling. Various weather generator programs have been used to generate synthetic climate data where observed climate data are limited. In this study, a weather data generator, ClimGen, was evaluated for generating information on daily precipitation, temperature, and wind speed at four tropical watersheds located in Hawai`i, USA. We also evaluated different daily to sub-daily weather data disaggregation methods for precipitation, air temperature, dew point temperature, and wind speed at Mākaha watershed. The hydrologic significance values of the different disaggregation methods were evaluated using Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model. MuDRain and diurnal method performed well over uniform distribution in disaggregating daily precipitation. However, the diurnal method is more consistent if accurate estimates of hourly precipitation intensities are desired. All of the air temperature disaggregation methods performed reasonably well, but goodness-of-fit statistics were slightly better for sine curve model with 2 h lag. Cosine model performed better than random model in disaggregating daily wind speed. The largest differences in annual water balance were related to wind speed followed by precipitation and dew point temperature. Simulated hourly streamflow, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge were less sensitive to the method of disaggregating daily air temperature. ClimGen performed well in generating the minimum and maximum temperature and wind speed. However, for precipitation, it clearly underestimated the number of extreme rainfall events with an intensity of >100 mm/day in all four locations. ClimGen was unable to replicate the distribution of observed precipitation at three locations (Honolulu, Kahului, and Hilo). ClimGen was able to reproduce the distributions of observed minimum temperature at Kahului and wind speed at Kahului and Hilo. Although the weather

  4. Comparison of correction methods of inhomogeneities in daily data on example of Central European temperature and precipitation series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, P.; Gruber, Ch.; Zahradnicek, P.

    2009-04-01

    Prior any data analysis, data quality control and homogenization have to be undertaken to get rid of erroneous values in time series. In this work we focused especially on comparison of methods for daily data inhomogeneities correction. Two basic approaches for inhomogeneity adjustments were adopted and compared: (i) "delta" method - adjustment of monthly series and projection of estimated smoothed monthly adjustments into annual variation of daily adjustments and (ii) "variable" correction of daily values according to the corresponding percentiles. "Variable" correction methods were investigated more deeply and their results were mutually compared. The methods used were HOM of Paul Della-Marta, SPLIDHOM of Olivier Mestre and a new method of Petr Stepanek. For the calculation, the software ProClimDB has been combined with R software scripts containing HOM and SPLIDHOM and the different methodological approaches were applied to daily data of various meteorological elements measured in the area of the Czech Republic. The tool is open and freely available. Series were processed by means of the developed ProClimDB and AnClim software (www.climahom.eu).

  5. Characteristics of inhomogeneities in temperature data derived from an application of daily homogenization methods to Austrian time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, C.; Auer, I.

    2009-09-01

    The demand for climate extreme studies is getting more and more important. As a consequence reliable data of (at least) daily resolution are required. The examination of the data according to inhomogeneities is indispensable for these questions. The main objective of the "homogenization of daily data” is to remove inhomogeneities not only in mean (e.g. temperature) data, but to account for inhomogeneities in higher order moments as well, thus that inhomogeneities that affect climate extremes are removed. Within the last years several methods for the homogenization of daily (temperature) time series have been developed (e.g. Della-Marta and Wanner, 2006; Mestre et al., submitted; Vincent et al., 2002; Trewin and Trevitt, 1996). However, a general comparison of their advantages and disadvantages has not been performed yet. Based on the experience of the homogenization of Austrian daily temperature data, the benefit of such methods is discussed. The method used for the homogenization of the Austrian data is a combination of the methods Mestre et al. (submitted) and Vincent et al. (2002). The results show that temperature dependent adjustments are beneficial for a minor fraction of inhomogeneities only: Either inhomogeneities affect just the temperature mean or the data availability it too sparse for adjusting higher order moments. However, these methods can be valuable in specific cases and they are even more helpful for the assessment of the time series reliability with respect to climate extremes.

  6. A feasible method for growing fungal pellets in a column reactor inoculated with mycelium fragments and their application for dye bioaccumulation from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Xin, Baoping; Xia, Yunting; Zhang, Yang; Aslam, Hina; Liu, Changhao; Chen, Shi

    2012-02-01

    In the present paper, a feasible method was developed to grow fungal pellets in an air lift column reactor inoculated with mycelium fragments for improving separation effect of biomass from solution and reducing clogging effect of biomass; bioaccumulation of dye by the growing fungal pellets in the case of mycelium fragments inoculation was investigated. The results showed that inoculation with the mycelium fragments without any pre-treatment did not witness the formation of pellets; only pre-treated fragments using maize as both nucleus and carbon source for 72 h incubation guaranteed the formation of pellets in the air lift column reactor. Nearly 100% of dye removal was obtained by bioaccumulation of the growing pellets in successive three batches of dye wastewater treatment. The formation of pellets not only resulted in low clogging effect to promote mass transfer and dye bioaccumulation but also caused quick separation of dye-loaded biomass from treated wastewater. PMID:22196072

  7. Statistical downscaling of daily precipitation over Llobregat river basin in Catalonia (Spain) using three downscaling methods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballinas, R.; Versini, P.-A.; Sempere, D.; Escaler, I.

    2009-09-01

    environmental impact studies. Downscaling methods to assess the effect of large-scale circulations on local parameters have. Statistical downscaling methods are based on the view that regional climate can be conditioned by two factors: large-scale climatic state and regional/local features. Local climate information is derived by first developing a statistical model which relates large-scale variables or "predictors" for which GCMs are trustable to regional or local surface "predictands" for which models are less skilful. The main advantage of these methods is that they are computationally inexpensive, and can be applied to outputs from different GCM experiments. Three statistical downscaling methods are applied: Analogue method, Delta Change and Direct Forcing. These methods have been used to determine daily precipitation projections at rain gauge location to study the intensity, frequency and variability of storms in a context of climate change in the Llobregat River Basin in Catalonia, Spain. This work is part of the European project "Water Change" (included in the LIFE + Environment Policy and Governance program). It deals with Medium and long term water resources modelling as a tool for planning and global change adaptation. Two stakeholders involved in the project provided the historical time series: Catalan Water Agency (ACA) and the State Meteorological Agency (AEMET).

  8. Method and Apparatus for Monitoring of Daily Activity in Terms of Ground Reaction Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert T. (Inventor); Breit, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A device to record and analyze habitual daily activity in terms of the history of gait-related musculoskeletal loading is disclosed. The device consists of a pressure-sensing insole placed into the shoe or embedded in a shoe sole, which detects contact of the foot with the ground. The sensor is coupled to a portable battery-powered digital data logger clipped to the shoe or worn around the ankle or waist. During the course of normal daily activity, the system maintains a record of time-of-occurrence of all non-spurious foot-down and lift-off events. Off line, these data are filtered and converted to a history of foot-ground contact times, from which measures of cumulative musculoskeletal loading, average walking- and running-specific gait speed, total time spent walking and running, total number of walking steps and running steps, and total gait-related energy expenditure are estimated from empirical regressions of various gait parameters to the contact time reciprocal. Data are available as cumulative values or as daily averages by menu selection. The data provided by this device are useful for assessment of musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health and risk factors associated with habitual patterns of daily activity.

  9. Comparison of two temperature differencing methods to estimate daily evapotranspiration over a Mediterranean vineyard watershed from ASTER data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daily evapo-transpiration (ET) was mapped at the regional extent over a Mediterranean vineyard watershed, by using ASTER imagery along with two temperature differencing methods: the Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index (S-SEBI) and the Water Deficit Index (WDI). Validation of remotely sensed esti...

  10. New Analytical Method for the Determination of Detergent Concentration in Water by Fabric Dyeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Set; Kita, Masakazu; Sugihara, Reiko

    2007-01-01

    The use of harmful organic solvents in classrooms has become a critical issue of concern in the field of chemistry education. This article describes a classroom activity at a high school in which an acrylic fabric was used as the extraction medium in the analysis of the detergent concentration in water instead of organic solvents. Dyes were used…

  11. Simple method for the analysis of food dyes on reversed-phase thin-layer plates.

    PubMed

    Oka, H; Ikai, Y; Kawamura, N; Yamada, M; Inoue, H; Ohno, T; Inagaki, K; Kuno, A; Yamamoto, N

    1987-12-18

    A technique for the determination of food dyes using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography on octadecyl-modified silica is described. A solvent system containing 5.0% aqueous sodium sulphate solution enables good separation of the food dyes. Their separation is dependent on the pH of the solvent system, good separation among all dyes being obtained between pH 6.0 and 7.0. The determination of thirteen dyes can be achieved by a combination of methanol-acetonitrile-5.0% aqueous sodium sulphate solution (3:3:10) (solvent system A) and methanol-methyl ethyl ketone-5.0% aqueous sodium sulphate solution (1:1:1) (solvent system B). Solvent system A was used for the determination of Tartrazine, Amaranth, Indigo Carmine, New Coccine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Allura Red AC, Fast Green FCF and Brilliant Blue FCF and for the screening of Acid Red (R-106), Eosin (R-103), Erythrosin (R-3), Rose Bengale (R-105) and Phloxine (R-104). When the spots of R-3, R-103, R-104, R-105 and R-106 appear on the plate, their determination can be achieved by using solvent system B. Each calibration graph was linear between 0.2 and 1.0 micrograms. PMID:3443633

  12. Modeling daily discharge responses of a large karstic aquifer using soft computing methods: Artificial neural network and neuro-fuzzy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtulus, Bedri; Razack, Moumtaz

    2010-02-01

    SummaryThis paper compares two methods for modeling karst aquifers, which are heterogeneous, highly non-linear, and hierarchical systems. There is a clear need to model these systems given the crucial role they play in water supply in many countries. In recent years, the main components of soft computing (fuzzy logic (FL), and Artificial Neural Networks, (ANNs)) have come to prevail in the modeling of complex non-linear systems in different scientific and technologic disciplines. In this study, Artificial Neural Networks and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Interface System (ANFIS) methods were used for the prediction of daily discharge of karstic aquifers and their capability was compared. The approach was applied to 7 years of daily data of La Rochefoucauld karst system in south-western France. In order to predict the karst daily discharges, single-input (rainfall, piezometric level) vs. multiple-input (rainfall and piezometric level) series were used. In addition to these inputs, all models used measured or simulated discharges from the previous days with a specified delay. The models were designed in a Matlab™ environment. An automatic procedure was used to select the best calibrated models. Daily discharge predictions were then performed using the calibrated models. Comparing predicted and observed hydrographs indicates that both models (ANN and ANFIS) provide close predictions of the karst daily discharges. The summary statistics of both series (observed and predicted daily discharges) are comparable. The performance of both models is improved when the number of inputs is increased from one to two. The root mean square error between the observed and predicted series reaches a minimum for two-input models. However, the ANFIS model demonstrates a better performance than the ANN model to predict peak flow. The ANFIS approach demonstrates a better generalization capability and slightly higher performance than the ANN, especially for peak discharges.

  13. A useful method for measuring daily physical activity by a three-direction monitor.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, A; Hara, Y; Findley, T W; Yoncmoto, K

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a three-direction accelerometer is useful for measuring daily physical activity. Physical activity, being an important part of human behavior, may be related to various aspects of health and disease. In this study, the relationship between the intensity of each action and the three-direction accelerometer (Actigraph) output was compared in 10 healthy subjects under free-living conditions. Subjects wore the Actigraph on their non-dominant wrist and filled out a physical activity check list (self-report) throughout the daytime. Daily physical activities were classified into six categories according to different intensities. The differences of the Actigraph output among each of the six categories were significant by the Kruskal-Wallis analysis (p = 0.001). The Actigraph output appeared to correlate highly with the intensity of actions by the Spearman Rank test (r = 0.95, p < 0.05). The Actigraph output was over-estimated while the subjects were typing, driving and being a passenger in a motor vehicle. The Actigraph was shown to be a useful and convenient device for measuring daily physical activity. PMID:9084104

  14. Stimulated resonance Raman scattering from organic dyes in a multiple-scattering medium as a potential method for determining their vibrational spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, V P; Tikhonov, E A; Bukatar', A O; Prigodiuk, O A; Smalyuk, A P

    2011-10-31

    A method is described for deriving Raman spectra of organic dyes from their random lasing spectra. The method was tested using Rhodamine 6G. The Raman spectrum obtained for this dye agrees well with the spectra measured by standard techniques but is more structured, which allows unresolved features to be detected. The spectrum provides more detailed information owing to the interference between the Raman scattered light and amplified spontaneous emission of the dye molecules within a photon mean free path. One advantage of the method is that the luminescence of the dye helps to observe Raman lines, which allows one to work in the Stokes region and facilitates the measurement procedure. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  15. Spectroscopic investigations on the photodegradation of toluidine blue dye using cadmium sulphide nanoparticles prepared by a novel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelakandeswari, N.; Sangami, G.; Dharmaraj, N.; Taek, Nam Ki; Kim, Hak Yong

    2011-05-01

    A novel method to prepare cadmium sulphide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) possessing nearly uniform size was adopted using eggshell membrane (ESM), under different pH conditions. Significant yield of CdS NPs with smallest possible size was obtained by increasing the pH of the reaction medium from acidic to alkaline. The above prepared CdS NPs have been characterized by UV-vis absorption as well as emission spectra, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The efficiency of the above prepared CdS NPs as a catalyst for the photodegradation of toluidine blue (TB) dye, as a function of pH as well as the ratio between the catalyst and the substrate was studied after irradiation with UV light. The results showed that an efficient interaction took place between the catalyst and the substrate to cause degradation of the selected dye. A maximum degradation of toluidine blue dye (90%) was observed at pH 8 which is higher than that of the efficiencies at pH 4 and pH 6.

  16. Using Microcontact Printing as a Novel Method for Patterned Dyeing of Surface-adsorbed DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Emily; Budassi, Julia; Zhu, Ke; Sokolov, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    We use microcontact printing (MCP)^1 to stain individual DNA molecules adsorbed and combed onto a polymer-coated silicon surface. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps with micron-sized features have been used to selectively stain lambda DNA molecules with SyBr Gold dye. DNA was deposited out of dilute solution onto polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) layers, 70nm thick, spun-coated on Si wafers, producing linearly stretched and aligned molecules. The stamps were soaked in dye solutions for one minute, followed by wiping of excess solution with a swap. The stamp was pressed onto the surface, varying the pressure and time of application (typically 5-10 minutes) to control the staining. The DNA molecules were imaged with a fluorescence microscope equipped with a cooled CCD camera. Single molecules of DNA were successfully dyed and imaged with stamps having a grating pattern either parallel to or perpendicular to the DNA orientation. Supported by NSF-DMR MRSEC program.

  17. Dye Painting!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  18. A comparative study of non-covalent encapsulation methods for organic dyes into silica nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Numerous luminophores may be encapsulated into silica nanoparticles (< 100 nm) using the reverse microemulsion process. Nevertheless, the behaviour and effect of such luminescent molecules appear to have been much less studied and may possibly prevent the encapsulation process from occurring. Such nanospheres represent attractive nanoplatforms for the development of biotargeted biocompatible luminescent tracers. Physical and chemical properties of the encapsulated molecules may be affected by the nanomatrix. This study examines the synthesis of different types of dispersed silica nanoparticles, the ability of the selected luminophores towards incorporation into the silica matrix of those nanoobjects as well as the photophysical properties of the produced dye-doped silica nanoparticles. The nanoparticles present mean diameters between 40 and 60 nm as shown by TEM analysis. Mainly, the photophysical characteristics of the dyes are retained upon their encapsulation into the silica matrix, leading to fluorescent silica nanoparticles. This feature article surveys recent research progress on the fabrication strategies of these dye-doped silica nanoparticles. PMID:21711855

  19. A square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric method for the determination of Amaranth, a food additive dye.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Ahmad H

    2005-01-01

    Square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric (AdSV) determinations of trace concentrations of the azo coloring agent Amaranth are described. The analytical methodology used was based on the adsorptive preconcentration of the dye on the hanging mercury drop electrode, followed by initiation of a negative sweep. In a pH 10 carbonate supporting electrolyte, Amaranth gave a well-defined and sensitive AdSV peak at -518 mV. The electroanalytical determination of this azo dye was found to be optimal in carbonate buffer (pH 10) under the following experimental conditions: accumulation time, 120 s; accumulation potential, 0.0 V; scan rate, 600 mV/s; pulse amplitude, 90 mV; and frequency, 50 Hz. Under these optimized conditions the AdSV peak current was proportional over the concentration range 1 x 10(-8)-1.1 x 10(-7) mol/L (r = 0.999) with a detection limit of 1.7 x 10(-9) mol/L (1.03 ppb). This analytical approach possessed enhanced sensitivity, compared with conventional liquid chromatography or spectrophotometry and it was simple and fast. The precision of the method, expressed as the relative standard deviation, was 0.23%, whereas the accuracy, expressed as the mean recovery, was 104%. Possible interferences by several substances usually present as food additive azo dyes (E110, E102), gelatin, natural and artificial sweeteners, preservatives, and antioxidants were also investigated. The developed electroanalyticals method was applied to the determination of Amaranth in soft drink samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by a reference spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis (paired t-test) of these data showed that the results of the 2 methods compared favorably. PMID:16001853

  20. A data centred method to estimate and map changes in the full distribution of daily surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Sandra; Stainforth, David; Watkins, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing how our climate is changing includes local information which can inform adaptation planning decisions. This requires quantifying the geographical patterns in changes at specific quantiles or thresholds in distributions of variables such as daily surface temperature. Here we focus on these local changes and on a model independent method to transform daily observations into patterns of local climate change. Our method [1] is a simple mathematical deconstruction of how the difference between two observations from two different time periods can be assigned to the combination of natural statistical variability and/or the consequences of secular climate change. This deconstruction facilitates an assessment of how fast different quantiles of the distributions are changing. This involves both determining which quantiles and geographical locations show the greatest change but also, those at which any change is highly uncertain. For temperature, changes in the distribution itself can yield robust results [2]. We demonstrate how the fundamental timescales of anthropogenic climate change limit the identification of societally relevant aspects of changes. We show that it is nevertheless possible to extract, solely from observations, some confident quantified assessments of change at certain thresholds and locations [3]. We demonstrate this approach using E-OBS gridded data [4] timeseries of local daily surface temperature from specific locations across Europe over the last 60 years. [1] Chapman, S. C., D. A. Stainforth, N. W. Watkins, On estimating long term local climate trends, Phil. Trans. Royal Soc., A,371 20120287 (2013) [2] Stainforth, D. A. S. C. Chapman, N. W. Watkins, Mapping climate change in European temperature distributions, ERL 8, 034031 (2013) [3] Chapman, S. C., Stainforth, D. A., Watkins, N. W. Limits to the quantification of local climate change, ERL 10, 094018 (2015) [4] Haylock M. R. et al ., A European daily high-resolution gridded dataset of

  1. A rapid screening method using DNA binding dyes to determine whether hair follicles have sufficient DNA for successful profiling.

    PubMed

    Haines, Alicia M; Linacre, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    We report a simple screening method to assess the viability of successful DNA profiling from single hair follicles. A total of 48 hair samples (shed and plucked) were collected from male and female donors and the root tips (0.5cm) were stained using one of three DNA binding dyes (EvaGreen™, Diamond™ Nucleic Acid Dye and RedSafe™) at 20× concentration. The hairs were subsequently viewed under a Nikon Optiphot fluorescent microscope to count the approximate number of nuclei in one plane of view. The hairs were then processed using either (1) a DNA extraction kit (QIAmp(®) Mini Kit) and then amplified using the AmpFLSTR(®) NGM™ kit, which amplifies 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci plus the gender marker amelogenin, or (2) by direct PCR amplification using the same DNA profiling kit. Diamond™ dye had the lowest background signal and plucked hairs treated with this dye produced full DNA profiles when amplified directly and was chosen to screen a further 150 mixed hair samples. These hairs were separated into one of five categories (1, >100 nuclei; 1.5, 50-99 nuclei; 2, 1-49 nuclei; 2.5, no nuclei but high fluorescent signal; 3, no nuclei and very low fluorescent signal) from which 60 of the hairs were chosen to undergo direct amplification using the NGM™ kit. It was found that there was a direct correlation to the category designation and the ability to obtain a DNA profile up-loadable to the Australian DNA Database. Approximately 91% of category 1 hairs resulted in either a full or high partial (12-29 alleles) profile by direct PCR whereas about 78% of category 3 hairs exhibited no amplification. The results show that this method can be used to predict successful STR amplification from single hair follicles. It is a rapid, sensitive, cheap, non-destructive and easy to perform methodology applicable for screening multiple hairs in order to aid forensic investigators in predicting hairs that will yield DNA results. PMID:27038658

  2. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Effect of air flow and effect of fabric dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    One sample each of commercial polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams were evaluated using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method. Air flow rates of 0, 0.16, 16, and 48 ml/sec were used to determine the effect of air flow on relative toxicity. Time to first sign of incapacitation and time to death were substantially reduced with both polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams by the introduction of 16 to 48 ml/sec air flow. The relative toxicity rankings of these materials were not altered by changes in air flow. Under these test conditions, the polyurethane foam consistently appeared more toxic than the polychloroprene foam. Samples of six different colors from the same fabric were evaluated separately, using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method, to determine the effect of fabric dye, if any. The material was an upholstery fabric, consisting of 46 percent cotton, 33 percent wool, and 21 percent nylon. There appeared to be no significant effect of fabric dye on relative toxicity, for this material under these test conditions.

  3. Methods for voltage-sensitive dye imaging of rat cortical activity with high signal-to-noise ratio

    PubMed Central

    Lippert, Michael; Takagaki, Kentaroh; Xu, Weifeng; Huang, Xiaoying; Wu, Jian-Young

    2010-01-01

    We describe methods to achieve high sensitivity in voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging from rat barrel and visual cortices in vivo with the use of a blue dye RH1691 and a high dynamic range imaging device (photodiode array). With an improved staining protocol and an off-line procedure to remove pulsation artifact, the sensitivity of VSD recording is comparable to that of local field potential recording from the same location. With this sensitivity, one can record from ~500 individual detectors, each covering an area of cortical tissue 160 μm in diameter (total imaging field ~4 mm in diameter) and a temporal resolution of 1,600 frames/s, without multiple-trial averaging. We can record 80 to 100 trials of intermittent 10 s trials from each imaging field before the VSD signal reduces to one half of its initial amplitude due to bleaching and wash-out. Taken together, the methods described in this report provide a useful tool for visualizing evoked and spontaneous waves from rodent cortex. PMID:17493915

  4. A Method for Gait Analysis in a Daily Living Environment by Body-Mounted Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtaki, Yasuaki; Sagawa, Koichi; Inooka, Hikaru

    A new method is proposed to investigate kinematics and dynamics of locomotion without any limitation of laboratorial conditions. This method enables simple measurements and numerical kinematical calculations with small body-mounted instruments utilizing accelerometers and gyroscopes. Temporal parameters of gait are determined by classification of accelerations and angular velocities. Joint angles, joint moments, and energy consumptions as mechanical works are estimated assuming rigid-body dynamics in sagittal plane. The method is verified by comparing the results of video-based motion capture system and force plates as conventional standards, evaluating accuracy for normal level walking at four cadences. No significant differences are observed between the results of the proposed method and those from the conventional method. It confirms the validity of the proposed method for healthy subjects and the method can provides free mobility in the investigation of locomotive dynamics beyond the gait laboratory.

  5. A Simple and Effective Daily Pain Management Method for Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Painful Bone Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Andrade, Regiane S.; Proctor, Julian W.; Slack, Robert; Marlowe, Ursula; Ashby, Karlotta R.; Schenken, Larry L.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: The incidence of painful bone metastases increases with longer survival times. Although external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is an effective palliative treatment, it often requires several days from the start of treatment to produce a measurable reduction in pain scores and a qualitative amelioration of patient pain levels. Meanwhile, the use of analgesics remains the best approach early on in the treatment course. We investigated the role of radiation therapists as key personnel for collecting daily pain scores to supplement assessments by physician and oncology nursing staff and manage pain more effectively during radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Daily pain scores were obtained by the radiation therapists for 89 patients undertaking a total of 124 courses of EBRT for bone metastases and compared with pretreatment pain scores. The majority of patients (71%) were treated to 30 Gy (range, 20-37.5) in 10 fractions (range, 8-15 fractions). Results: One hundred nineteen treatment courses (96%) were completed. Pain scores declined rapidly to 37.5%, 50%, and 75% of the pretreatment levels by Days 2, 4, and 10, respectively. Pain was improved in 91% of patients with only 4% of worse pain at the end of treatment. Improved pain scores were maintained in 83% of patients at 1-month follow-up, but in 35% of them, the pain was worse than at the end of treatment. Conclusions: Collection of daily pain scores by radiation therapists was associated with an effective reduction in pain scores early on during EBRT of painful osseous metastases.

  6. Development and validation of ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography method for determination of illegal dyes and comparison to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Khalikova, Maria A; Šatínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr; Nováková, Lucie

    2015-05-18

    A novel simple, fast and efficient ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) method was developed and validated for the separation and quantitative determination of eleven illegal dyes in chili-containing spices. The method involved a simple ultrasound-assisted liquid extraction of illegal compounds with tetrahydrofuran. The separation was performed using a supercritical fluid chromatography system and CSH Fluoro-Phenyl stationary phase at 70°C. The mobile phase was carbon dioxide and the mixture of methanol:acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) with 2.5% formic acid as an additive at the flow rate 2.0 mL min(-1). The UV-vis detection was accomplished at 500 nm for seven compounds and at 420 nm for Sudan Orange G, Butter Yellow, Fast Garnet GBC and Methyl Red due to their maximum of absorbance. All eleven compounds were separated in less than 5 min. The method was successfully validated and applied using three commercial samples of chili-containing spices - Chili sauce (Indonesia), Feferony sauce (Slovakia) and Mojo sauce (Spain). The linearity range of proposed method was 0.50-9.09 mg kg(-1) (r ≥ 0.995). The detection limits were determined as signal to noise ratio of 3 and were ranged from 0.15 mg kg(-1) to 0.60 mg kg(-1) (1.80 mg kg(-1) for Fast Garnet) for standard solution and from 0.25 mg kg(-1) to 1.00 mg kg(-1) (2.50 mg kg(-1) for Fast Garnet, 1.50 mg kg(-1) for Sudan Red 7B) for chili-containing samples. The recovery values were in the range of 73.5-107.2% and relative standard deviation ranging from 0.1% to 8.2% for within-day precision and from 0.5% to 8.8% for between-day precision. The method showed potential for being used to monitor forbidden dyes in food constituents. The developed UHPSFC method was compared to the UHPLC-UV method. The orthogonality of Sudan dyes separation by these two methods was demonstrated. Benefits and drawbacks were discussed showing the reliability of both methods for monitoring of studied illegal dyes in real

  7. A comparison of methods to predict historical daily streamflow time series in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farmer, William H.; Archfield, Stacey A.; Over, Thomas M.; Hay, Lauren E.; LaFontaine, Jacob H.; Kiang, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    Effective and responsible management of water resources relies on a thorough understanding of the quantity and quality of available water. Streamgages cannot be installed at every location where streamflow information is needed. As part of its National Water Census, the U.S. Geological Survey is planning to provide streamflow predictions for ungaged locations. In order to predict streamflow at a useful spatial and temporal resolution throughout the Nation, efficient methods need to be selected. This report examines several methods used for streamflow prediction in ungaged basins to determine the best methods for regional and national implementation. A pilot area in the southeastern United States was selected to apply 19 different streamflow prediction methods and evaluate each method by a wide set of performance metrics. Through these comparisons, two methods emerged as the most generally accurate streamflow prediction methods: the nearest-neighbor implementations of nonlinear spatial interpolation using flow duration curves (NN-QPPQ) and standardizing logarithms of streamflow by monthly means and standard deviations (NN-SMS12L). It was nearly impossible to distinguish between these two methods in terms of performance. Furthermore, neither of these methods requires significantly more parameterization in order to be applied: NN-SMS12L requires 24 regional regressions—12 for monthly means and 12 for monthly standard deviations. NN-QPPQ, in the application described in this study, required 27 regressions of particular quantiles along the flow duration curve. Despite this finding, the results suggest that an optimal streamflow prediction method depends on the intended application. Some methods are stronger overall, while some methods may be better at predicting particular statistics. The methods of analysis presented here reflect a possible framework for continued analysis and comprehensive multiple comparisons of methods of prediction in ungaged basins (PUB

  8. Method for retarding dye fading during archival storage of developed color photographic film. [inert atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B.; Rhodes, C. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Dye fading during archival storage of developed color photographic film is retarded by placing the film in a sealed, opaque vault, introducing a dry, pressurized inert gas into the vault while the latter is vented, and sealing the vault after the air within the vault has been purged and replaced by the inert gas. Preferably, the gas is nitrogen; and the vault is stored at a temperature below room temperature to preserve the color photographic emulsions on the film contained within the vault. For short-term storage, sodium thiocyanate pads charged with water are placed within the vault. For long term storage, the interior of the vault is kept at a low relative humidity.

  9. Methods of Measuring Energy Conversion Efficiency in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Naoki; Chiba, Yasuo; Han, Liyuan

    2005-06-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) were measured and compared with those of crystalline silicon solar cells. It was found that the energy conversion efficiency of DSCs is dependent on voltage sweep direction and sampling delay time (Td). Measurement of the transient photocurrent revealed that this dependence is due to the longer time constant of DSCs. This dependence was also confirmed in a simulation of current-voltage curves based on an equivalent circuit model of DSCs. Analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of polymer-based bulk heterojunction solar cells (BHSCs) and simulated measurements showed that the longer time constant is due to slow movement of ions in the electrolyte. To improve accuracy, the I-V measurement should be carried out from short circuit to open circuit with Td of 100 ms or longer.

  10. Preparation of cube micrometer potassium niobate (KNbO3) by hydrothermal method and sonocatalytic degradation of organic dye.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongbo; Wei, Chunsheng; Huang, Yingying; Wang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Cube micrometer potassium niobate (KNbO3) powder, as a high effective sonocatalyst, was prepared using hydrothermal method, and then, was characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). In order to evaluate the sonocatalytic activity of prepared KNbO3 powder, the sonocatalytic degradation of some organic dyes was studied. In addition, some influencing factors such as heat-treatment temperature and heat-treatment time on the sonocatalytic activity of prepared KNbO3 powder and catalyst added amount and ultrasonic irradiation time on the sonocatalytic degradation efficiency were examined by using UV-visible spectrophotometer and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) determination. The experimental results showed that the best sonocatalytic degradation ratio (69.23%) of organic dyes could be obtained when the conditions of 5.00 mg/L initial concentration, 1.00 g/L prepared KNbO3 powder (heat-treated at 400 °C for 60 min) added amount, 5.00 h ultrasonic irradiation (40 kHz frequency and 300 W output power), 100mL total volume and 25-28 °C temperature were adopted. Therefore, the micrometer KNbO3 powder could be considered as an effective sonocatalyst for treating non- or low-transparent organic wastewaters. PMID:26597541

  11. Simple method for manufacturing Pt counter electrodes on conductive plastic substrates for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yun; Li, Chunhui; Huang, Xiaoming; Luo, Yanhong; Li, Dongmei; Meng, Qingbo; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    2013-02-01

    A novel, facile, and low-cost method was developed for manufacturing Pt counter electrodes (CEs) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) on the indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate (ITO-PET). This press-transferring method reconciled the temperature conflict between the sintering process of thermal decomposition of H(2)PtCl(6) and plastic substrates. Cyclic voltammograms, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, transmittance spectra and photovoltaic performance were characterized to investigate the transferred Pt CEs. It was found that the transferred Pt CEs on ITO-PET exhibited an excellent catalytic activity comparable with traditional electrodes on FTO glasses. On the front-side, an illuminated conversion efficiency of 7.21% was reached with more than 94% efficiency of conventional thermally deposited Pt CEs on FTO glasses, and on the back-side, the illuminated conversion efficiency was 4.86%, which was higher than that for conventional electrodes. PMID:23298312

  12. Ecological Momentary Assessment: A Research Method for Studying the Daily Lives of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Russell L.; Weiss, Howard M.; Templin, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce ecological momentary assessment (EMA) as an effective approach for capturing teachers' emotional states and behaviours over time. Although the implementation of EMA has a rich and successful history among social science researchers in general, traditional retrospective, self-report methods for collecting…

  13. Threshold detection for the generalized Pareto distribution: Review of representative methods and application to the NOAA NCDC daily rainfall database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langousis, Andreas; Mamalakis, Antonios; Puliga, Michelangelo; Deidda, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    In extreme excess modeling, one fits a generalized Pareto (GP) distribution to rainfall excesses above a properly selected threshold u. The latter is generally determined using various approaches, such as nonparametric methods that are intended to locate the changing point between extreme and nonextreme regions of the data, graphical methods where one studies the dependence of GP-related metrics on the threshold level u, and Goodness-of-Fit (GoF) metrics that, for a certain level of significance, locate the lowest threshold u that a GP distribution model is applicable. Here we review representative methods for GP threshold detection, discuss fundamental differences in their theoretical bases, and apply them to 1714 overcentennial daily rainfall records from the NOAA-NCDC database. We find that nonparametric methods are generally not reliable, while methods that are based on GP asymptotic properties lead to unrealistically high threshold and shape parameter estimates. The latter is justified by theoretical arguments, and it is especially the case in rainfall applications, where the shape parameter of the GP distribution is low; i.e., on the order of 0.1-0.2. Better performance is demonstrated by graphical methods and GoF metrics that rely on preasymptotic properties of the GP distribution. For daily rainfall, we find that GP threshold estimates range between 2 and 12 mm/d with a mean value of 6.5 mm/d, while the existence of quantization in the empirical records, as well as variations in their size, constitute the two most important factors that may significantly affect the accuracy of the obtained results.

  14. On a possible method for daily adjustment of severe storm radar criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brylev, G. B.; Salman, Y. M.

    1975-01-01

    A method is proposed of adjusting the radar criteria for severe storms, taking into account the height of the minus 22 C isotherm, the minimum value of the maximum magnitude of the radar reflectivity in thunderstorms at the same level for a specific region, and the various types of homogeneous air masses in the air. Formulas for the criteria are presented which take into account specified errors of discrimination.

  15. A facile one-pot solvothermal method to produce superparamagnetic graphene-Fe3O4 nanocomposite and its application in the removal of dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiuhua; Feng, Cheng; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    A superparamagnetic graphene-Fe(3)O(4) nanocomposite (G/Fe(3)O(4)) was synthesized by a facile one-pot solvothermal method. The nanocomposite G/Fe(3)O(4) prepared by the new method was firstly used as an adsorbent to remove dye for water pollution remediation. In comparison with G/Fe(3)O(4) prepared by the in situ chemical coprecipitation, the newly prepared G/Fe(3)O(4) had a higher adsorption efficiency for the dye. The adsorption characteristics of the nanocomposite adsorbent were examined using the organic dye pararosaniline as the adsorbate. The adsorption kinetics, adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, and the effect of the adsorbent dosage and solution pH on the removal efficiency of pararosaniline were investigated. The adsorption capacity of G/Fe(3)O(4) for pararosaniline was evaluated using the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. The G/Fe(3)O(4) hybrid composite can be easily manipulated in magnetic field for desired separation, leading to an easy removal of the dye from polluted water. The G/Fe(3)O(4) hybrid composite would have a great potential in removing organic dyes from polluted water. PMID:23010021

  16. A Data Centred Method to Estimate and Map Changes in the Full Distribution of Daily Precipitation and Its Exceedances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, S. C.; Stainforth, D. A.; Watkins, N. W.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of how our climate is changing are needed locally in order to inform adaptation planning decisions. This requires quantifying the geographical patterns in changes at specific quantiles or thresholds in distributions of variables such as daily temperature or precipitation. We develop a method[1] for analysing local climatic timeseries to assess which quantiles of the local climatic distribution show the greatest and most robust changes, to specifically address the challenges presented by 'heavy tailed' distributed variables such as daily precipitation. We extract from the data quantities that characterize the changes in time of the likelihood of daily precipitation above a threshold and of the relative amount of precipitation in those extreme precipitation days. Our method is a simple mathematical deconstruction of how the difference between two observations from two different time periods can be assigned to the combination of natural statistical variability and/or the consequences of secular climate change. This deconstruction facilitates an assessment of how fast different quantiles of precipitation distributions are changing. This involves both determining which quantiles and geographical locations show the greatest change but also, those at which any change is highly uncertain. We demonstrate this approach using E-OBS gridded data[2] timeseries of local daily precipitation from specific locations across Europe over the last 60 years. We treat geographical location and precipitation as independent variables and thus obtain as outputs the pattern of change at a given threshold of precipitation and with geographical location. This is model- independent, thus providing data of direct value in model calibration and assessment. Our results identify regionally consistent patterns which, dependent on location, show systematic increase in precipitation on the wettest days, shifts in precipitation patterns to less moderate days and more heavy days, and drying

  17. A Dye-Tracer Technique for Experimentally Obtaining Impingement Characteristics of Arbitrary Bodies and a Method for Determining Droplet Size Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VonGlahn, Uwe H.; Gelder, Thomas F.; Smyers, William H., Jr.

    1955-01-01

    A dye-tracer technique has been developed whereby the quantity of dyed water collected on a blotter-wrapped body exposed to an air stream containing a dyed-water spray cloud can be colorimetrically determined in order to obtain local collection efficiencies, total collection efficiency, and rearward extent of impingement on the body. In addition, a method has been developed whereby the impingement characteristics obtained experimentally for a body can be related to theoretical impingement data for the same body in order to determine the droplet size distribution of the impinging cloud. Several cylinders, a ribbon, and an aspirating device to measure cloud liquid-water content were used in the studies presented herein for the purpose of evaluating the dye-tracer technique. Although the experimental techniques used in the dye-tracer technique require careful control, the methods presented herein should be applicable for any wind tunnel provided the humidity of the air stream can be maintained near saturation.

  18. Highly transparent carbon counter electrode prepared via an in situ carbonization method for bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Bu, Chenghao; Liu, Yumin; Yu, Zhenhua; You, Sujian; Huang, Niu; Liang, Liangliang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2013-08-14

    A facile in situ carbonization method was demonstrated to prepare the highly transparent carbon counter electrode (CE) with good mechanical stability for bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The optical and electrochemical properties of carbon CEs were dramatically affected by the composition and concentration of the precursor. The well-optimized carbon CE exhibited high transparency and sufficient catalytic activity for I3(-) reduction. The bifacial DSC with obtained carbon CE achieved a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.04% under rear-side illumination, which approaches 85% that of front-side illumination (6.07%). Moreover, the device shows excellent stability as confirmed by the aging test. These promising results reveal the enormous potential of this transparent carbon CE in scaling up and commercialization of low cost and effective bifacial DSCs. PMID:23806279

  19. [Detection of the communication site by dye injection method at the surgery for pleuroperitoneal communication].

    PubMed

    Sato, Seijiro; Koike, Terumoto; Hashimoto, Takehisa; Tsuchida, Masanori

    2014-10-01

    A 65-year-old male with end stage renal failure due to IgA nephritis commenced continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Three weeks after initiation of CAPD, right hydrothorax developed. Then, we strongly assumed pleuroperitoneal communication( PPC) although the pleural effusion did not show high concentration of glucose. He underwent thoracoscopic surgery for PPC. On the inner, central tendons part of the diaphragm, there were a few blebs. One hour after 3 l of peritoneal dialysis solution containing 15 ml indigocarmine was instilled into the abdomen through a CAPD catheter, the blebs were tense and colored blue by the dye solution. The blebs were directly sutured and diaphragm was covered by polyglycolic acid sheet and fibrin glue all over. Since then, he resumed CAPD, without recurrence of hydrothorax. Then we investigated the treatment outcome of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) for PPC in Japan. The outcome was poorer in cases in which communication was not detected intraoperatively. These patients should be given sufficient consideration for surgical procedure. PMID:25292372

  20. Investigation of optoelectronic properties of N3 dye-sensitized TiO2 nano-crystals by hybrid methods: ONIOM (QM/MM) calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oftadeh, Mohsen; Tavakolizadeh, Leila

    2013-04-01

    In this article, Ru(4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine)2(NCS)2 dye (N3) and some derivatives were investigated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations in solution to elucidate the influence of the environment and substituted groups on electronic properties. Full geometry optimization and investigation of electronic properties of N3 dye and some derivatives were performed using DFT and HF calculations. The singlet ground state geometries were fully optimized at the B3LYP/3-21G** level of theory through the Gaussian 98 program. Based on the computed results, the optoelectronic properties are sensitive to chemical solvent environments. Moreover, the properties of anatase cluster (TiO2) models have been investigated, and N3 dyes have been adsorbed on TiO2 nano-particle with diprotonated states. The modified N3 dyes highly affected the electronic structure. This leads to significant changes in the adsorption spectra as compared to the N3 dyes. Through hybrid methods, the properties of interfacial electronic coupling of the combined system were estimated. The results of some combined systems showed that the electronic coupling, lowest lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, and the TiO2 conduction band resided in the visible region.

  1. Photocatalytic removal of hazardous Ponceau S dye using Nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 thin film prepared by chemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marathe, Sunil D.; Shrivastava, Vinod S.

    2015-02-01

    Many attempts have been made by researchers for the removal of various dyes using nano structured Ni-doped TiO2; however, removal of `hazardous Ponceau S dye' using nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 has been not studied yet. In the present work, environmental application of Nano structured Ni doped TiO2 has been studied. Nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 thin films were deposited by the chemical method on a glass substrate. The prepared thin film was characterized by XRD, SEM, and EDX. The crystal size calculated from XRD is about 26.2 nm. The SEM analysis reveals nano spherical morphology of average particle size about 92 nm. The optical analysis was carried by using UV-visible spectroscopy. The band gap estimated from absorbance spectra for thin film was around 3.5 eV, making suitable Ni-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic removal of hazardous Ponceau S dye. In photocatalytic application different parameters like dye concentration, contact time, pH, UV light and sunlight were optimized for the removal of Ponceau S dye, respectively. The change in chemical oxygen demand after photo catalytic treatment was also studied.

  2. [Development of an aptamer/fluorescence dye PicoGreen-based method for detection of fumonisin B1].

    PubMed

    Gui, Hailuan; Jin, Qingri; Zhang, Yajun; Wang, Xiaodu; Yang, Yongchun; Shao, Chunyan; Cheng, Changyong; Wei, Fangfang; Yang, Yang; Yang, Menghua; Song, Houhui

    2015-09-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a carcinogenic mycotoxin found in commodities such as corn and corn-originated products. An aptamer-based method for detection of FB1 was developed using the fluorescent dye PicoGreen, which can recognize and bind double-stranded DNA. A peak fluorescence of PicoGreen was obtained in 15 min in the presence of FB1 aptamer, which formed a double-stranded hybridizer DNA with its complementary strand. The excitation and emission wavelengths for PicoGreen detection were 480 nm and 520 nm, respectively. The sensitivity of this aptamer/PicoGreen-based method was 0.1 μg/L. This method showed a good linearity for FB1 concentration ranging from 0.1 to 1 μg/L. The entire detection procedure for FB1 could be completed within 40 min. No cross reactions were observed with any other mycotoxins against aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, citrinin and zearalenone, demonstrating high specificity towards FB1 aptamer. Agreement between commercial, antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and aptamer method was excellent with a kappa value of 0.857. Taken together, this aptamer/PicoGreen-based method is more cost-effective, time-saving and useful than ELISA for detection of FB1. PMID:26955717

  3. Application of a dye-binding method for the determination of available lysine in skim milk powders.

    PubMed

    Aalaei, Kataneh; Rayner, Marilyn; Tareke, Eden; Sjöholm, Ingegerd

    2016-04-01

    A dye-binding method using Acid Orange 12 was investigated regarding its suitability for the quantification of available lysine, as a means of monitoring the Maillard reaction in skim milk powders. The method was evaluated by analyzing a wide range of milk powders produced by three different drying methods and stored under various conditions. A pilot-scale freeze-dryer, spray-dryer and drum-dryer were used to produce skim milk powders and the samples were stored at two temperatures (20 °C and 30 °C) and two relative humidities (33% and 52%) under strictly controlled conditions. Moreover to validate the method, two protein isolates; bovine serum albumin and casein were investigated for their available lysine content. The results demonstrate the suitability of this method for measuring the available lysine in skim milk powders with good precision and high reproducibility. The relative standard deviations obtained from the 125 freeze-dried powders were 1.8%, and those from the 100 drum-dried samples were all 1.9%. The highest variation was found for the spray-dried powders, which showed relative standard deviations between 0.9% and 6.7%. PMID:26593559

  4. Comparison of Threshold Detection Methods for the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD): Application to the NOAA-NCDC Daily Rainfall Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidda, Roberto; Mamalakis, Antonis; Langousis, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    One of the most crucial issues in statistical hydrology is the estimation of extreme rainfall from data. To that extent, based on asymptotic arguments from Extreme Excess (EE) theory, several studies have focused on developing new, or improving existing methods to fit a Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) model to rainfall excesses above a properly selected threshold u. The latter is generally determined using various approaches that can be grouped into three basic classes: a) non-parametric methods that locate the changing point between extreme and non-extreme regions of the data, b) graphical methods where one studies the dependence of the GPD parameters (or related metrics) to the threshold level u, and c) Goodness of Fit (GoF) metrics that, for a certain level of significance, locate the lowest threshold u that a GPD model is applicable. In this work, we review representative methods for GPD threshold detection, discuss fundamental differences in their theoretical bases, and apply them to daily rainfall records from the NOAA-NCDC open-access database (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/ghcn-daily/). We find that non-parametric methods that locate the changing point between extreme and non-extreme regions of the data are generally not reliable, while graphical methods and GoF metrics that rely on limiting arguments for the upper distribution tail lead to unrealistically high thresholds u. The latter is expected, since one checks the validity of the limiting arguments rather than the applicability of a GPD distribution model. Better performance is demonstrated by graphical methods and GoF metrics that rely on GPD properties. Finally, we discuss the effects of data quantization (common in hydrologic applications) on the estimated thresholds. Acknowledgments: The research project is implemented within the framework of the Action «Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers» of the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" (Action's Beneficiary: General

  5. Preferred delivery method and acceptability of Wheat-Soy Blend (WSB++) as a daily complementary food supplement in northwest Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Hanif, Abu A M; Merrill, Rebecca D; Campbell, Rebecca K; Kumkum, Mehnaz Alam; Shaikh, Saijuddin; de Pee, Saskia; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Parveen, Monira; Mehra, Sucheta; Klemm, Rolf D W; Labrique, Alain B; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Fortified blended foods (FBFs) are widely used to prevent undernutrition in early childhood in food-insecure settings. We field tested enhanced Wheat Soy Blend (WSB++)-a FBF fortified with micronutrients, milk powder, sugar, and oil-in preparation for a complementary food supplement (CFS) trial in rural northwestern Bangladesh. Formative work was conducted to determine the optimal delivery method (cooked vs. not) for this CFS, to examine mothers' child feeding practices with and acceptance of the WSB++, and to identify potential barriers to adherence. Our results suggest WSB++ is an acceptable CFS in rural Bangladesh and the requirement for mothers to cook WSB++ at home is unlikely to be a barrier to its daily use as a CFS in this population. PMID:25427283

  6. An improved method for removal of azo dye orange II from textile effluent using albumin as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Tadashi; Jara, Alícia M T; Batista, Anabelle C L; Franco, Luciana O; Barbosa Lima, Marcos A; Benachour, Mohand; Alves da Silva, Carlos A; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2012-01-01

    Azo dyes are generally resistant to biodegradation due to their complex structures. Acid orange II is one of the most widely used dyes in the textile industry. The influence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in different concentrations, pH, and time of contact on Orange II was investigated using kinetics and adsorption-isotherm experiments. The results showed that the maximum colour removed from dye/albumin was 99.50% and that a stable dye-protein complex had been formed at pH 3.5 and in a proportion of 1:3 (v/v), respectively. The synthetic effluent did not show toxicity to the microcrustacean Artemia salina, and showed a CL₅₀ equal to 97 µg/mL to azo dye orange II. Additionally, the methodology was effective in removing the maximum of orange II using BSA by adsorption at pH 3.5 which mainly attracted ions to the azo dye during the adsorption process. This suggests that this form of treatment is economical and easy to use which potentially could lead to bovine serum albumin being used as a sorbent for azo dyes. PMID:23201641

  7. Improving the degree-day method for sub-daily melt simulations with physically-based diurnal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Cara; Schaefli, Bettina; Nicótina, Ludovico; Simoni, Silvia; Barrenetxea, Guillermo; Smith, Russell; Parlange, Marc; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    This paper proposes a new extension of the classical degree-day snowmelt model applicable to hourly simulations for regions with limited data and adaptable to a broad range of spatially-explicit hydrological models. The snowmelt schemes have been tested with a point measurement dataset at the Cotton Creek Experimental Watershed (CCEW) in British Columbia, Canada and with a detailed dataset available from the Dranse de Ferret catchment, an extensively monitored catchment in the Swiss Alps. The snowmelt model performance is quantified with the use of a spatially-explicit model of the hydrologic response. Comparative analyses are presented with the widely-known, grid-based method proposed by Hock which combines a local, temperature-index approach with potential radiation. The results suggest that a simple diurnal cycle of the degree-day melt parameter based on minimum and maximum temperatures is competitive with the Hock approach for sub-daily melt simulations. Advantages of the new extension of the classical degree-day method over other temperature-index methods include its use of physically-based, diurnal variations and its ability to be adapted to data-constrained hydrological models which are lumped in some nature.

  8. Response surface methodology (RSM) modeling of microwave-assisted extraction of natural dye from Swietenia mahagony: A comparation between Box-Behnken and central composite design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuma, Heri Septya; Sudrajat, Robby Ginanjar Margo; Susanto, David Febrilliant; Gala, Selfina; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2015-12-01

    The increasing demand of non-toxic and environmentally friendly dyes, colorants that come from natural source have risen as an alternative of sintetic poisonous dyes. In this research natural dye from S. mahagony was extracted using microwave-assisted extraction method under different operating condition such as extraction time (10-30min), plant material to solvent ratio (0.03-0.05g/mL) and microwave power level (100-380 watt). Box-Behnken method and central composite design (CCD) method is widely used for modeling response surface methodology (RSM), both methods show good prediction performance. In this study response surface methodology was performed to optimize the process, both methods were performed by the help Statgraphics Centurion 16 to evaluate the effects of different operating parameters. Finally, both methods were statistically compared by root mean square error (RMSE) and absolute average deviation (AAD) based on validation data set. Further, result suggests that CCD has better performance as compared to Box-Behnken method. The maximum yield obtained for Box-Behnken is 3.7647% (380 watt, 0.0339g/mL, 28.8899min) and 3.7506% (379.986 watt, 0.0378g/mL, 30min) for central composite design method.

  9. Digitise This! A Quick and Easy Remote Sensing Method to Monitor the Daily Extent of Dredge Plumes

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Richard D.; Murray, Kathy L.; Field, Stuart N.; Moore, James A. Y.; Shedrawi, George; Huntley, Barton G.; Fearns, Peter; Broomhall, Mark; McKinna, Lachlan I. W.; Marrable, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Technological advancements in remote sensing and GIS have improved natural resource managers’ abilities to monitor large-scale disturbances. In a time where many processes are heading towards automation, this study has regressed to simple techniques to bridge a gap found in the advancement of technology. The near-daily monitoring of dredge plume extent is common practice using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery and associated algorithms to predict the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in the surface waters originating from floods and dredge plumes. Unfortunately, these methods cannot determine the difference between dredge plume and benthic features in shallow, clear water. This case study at Barrow Island, Western Australia, uses hand digitising to demonstrate the ability of human interpretation to determine this difference with a level of confidence and compares the method to contemporary TSS methods. Hand digitising was quick, cheap and required very little training of staff to complete. Results of ANOSIM R statistics show remote sensing derived TSS provided similar spatial results if they were thresholded to at least 3 mg L−1. However, remote sensing derived TSS consistently provided false-positive readings of shallow benthic features as Plume with a threshold up to TSS of 6 mg L−1, and began providing false-negatives (excluding actual plume) at a threshold as low as 4 mg L−1. Semi-automated processes that estimate plume concentration and distinguish between plumes and shallow benthic features without the arbitrary nature of human interpretation would be preferred as a plume monitoring method. However, at this stage, the hand digitising method is very useful and is more accurate at determining plume boundaries over shallow benthic features and is accessible to all levels of management with basic training. PMID:23240055

  10. UV-Vis microspectrophotometry as a method of differentiation between cotton fibre evidence coloured with reactive dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta; Starczak, Roza

    2015-05-01

    The main purposes of this study was to assess the usefulness of microspectrophotometry (MSP), both in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) range for discriminating single cotton fibres dyed with reactive dyes coming from the same manufacturer, as well as the possibility of evaluation of the concentration of dye in an examine fibre. This study utilised woven cotton fabrics dyed with different concentrations of one-compound reactive dyes with the commercial name Cibacron® (at present Novacron®) as the focus of the MSP analysis. The spectra were recorded in the UV-Vis range between 200 and 800 nm, in transmission mode. The results from this study illustrated that all of the analysed cotton samples dyed with reactive dyes were distinguishable between each other with the use of MSP, mostly in the visible, and also in ultraviolet range. The limit for applied MSP techniques was 0.18% of the concentration of a dye in the textile sample. The results indicate that based on the absorbance measurements for fibres constituting e.g. forensic traces it was not possible to estimate the concentration of the dye in the fibre because Beer's law did not obey. The intra-sample, and inter- sample variation, as well as dichroism effect in a case of a cotton fibres dyed with reactive dye were observed. On the basis of the results obtained for each analysed cotton sample, it was concluded that there was no correlation between colour uniformity in cotton fabric (changes in lightness, red/green and yellow/blue colour) and concentration of the reactive dye.

  11. UV-Vis microspectrophotometry as a method of differentiation between cotton fibre evidence coloured with reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta; Starczak, Roza

    2015-05-01

    The main purposes of this study was to assess the usefulness of microspectrophotometry (MSP), both in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) range for discriminating single cotton fibres dyed with reactive dyes coming from the same manufacturer, as well as the possibility of evaluation of the concentration of dye in an examine fibre. This study utilised woven cotton fabrics dyed with different concentrations of one-compound reactive dyes with the commercial name Cibacron® (at present Novacron®) as the focus of the MSP analysis. The spectra were recorded in the UV-Vis range between 200 and 800nm, in transmission mode. The results from this study illustrated that all of the analysed cotton samples dyed with reactive dyes were distinguishable between each other with the use of MSP, mostly in the visible, and also in ultraviolet range. The limit for applied MSP techniques was 0.18% of the concentration of a dye in the textile sample. The results indicate that based on the absorbance measurements for fibres constituting e.g. forensic traces it was not possible to estimate the concentration of the dye in the fibre because Beer's law did not obey. The intra-sample, and inter- sample variation, as well as dichroism effect in a case of a cotton fibres dyed with reactive dye were observed. On the basis of the results obtained for each analysed cotton sample, it was concluded that there was no correlation between colour uniformity in cotton fabric (changes in lightness, red/green and yellow/blue colour) and concentration of the reactive dye. PMID:25699701

  12. Flotation of Mineral and Dyes: A Laboratory Experiment for Separation Method Molecular Hitchhikers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappon, Tim; Sylvestre, Jarrett A.; Rappon, Manit

    2016-01-01

    Flotation as a method of separation is widely researched and is applied in many industries. It has been used to address a wide range of environmental issues including treatment of wastewater, recovery of heavy metals for recycling, extraction of minerals in mining, and so forth. This laboratory attempts to show how such a simple method can be used…

  13. A diagnostic study on folium and orchil dyes with non-invasive and micro-destructive methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Arrais, Aldo; Marsano, Francesco; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Idone, Ambra; Gulmini, Monica

    2015-05-01

    Folium and orchil are dyes of vegetal origin. Folium is obtained from Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A. Juss., whereas orchil is obtained from Roccella and other genera of lichens. These dyes were used in the past to impart purple hue to paintings and textiles as substitutes for the more prised Tyrian purple dye, obtained from shellfish. Despite several citations in ancient technical treatises dating back at least to the Greek-Roman age, the identification of these dyes in artworks is rare. In the case of folium, an additional drawback is that its composition is presently unknown. In this work different non-invasive (FT-IR, FT-Raman, fibre optic reflectance spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and micro-invasive (surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) techniques were used in order to increase the diagnostic information available on these dyes. Measurements were carried out on the dyes extracted from raw materials and on painted or dyed parchments. The possibility to distinguish between folium and orchil by chemical analysis is discussed.

  14. A diagnostic study on folium and orchil dyes with non-invasive and micro-destructive methods.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Maurizio; Arrais, Aldo; Marsano, Francesco; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Idone, Ambra; Gulmini, Monica

    2015-05-01

    Folium and orchil are dyes of vegetal origin. Folium is obtained from Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A. Juss., whereas orchil is obtained from Roccella and other genera of lichens. These dyes were used in the past to impart purple hue to paintings and textiles as substitutes for the more prised Tyrian purple dye, obtained from shellfish. Despite several citations in ancient technical treatises dating back at least to the Greek-Roman age, the identification of these dyes in artworks is rare. In the case of folium, an additional drawback is that its composition is presently unknown. In this work different non-invasive (FT-IR, FT-Raman, fibre optic reflectance spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and micro-invasive (surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) techniques were used in order to increase the diagnostic information available on these dyes. Measurements were carried out on the dyes extracted from raw materials and on painted or dyed parchments. The possibility to distinguish between folium and orchil by chemical analysis is discussed. PMID:25703360

  15. Bi-functional ion exchangers for enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, Eui-Hyun; Chang, Yong-June; Lim, Jongchul; Kim, Back-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Kwon, Do-Kyun; Park, Taiho; Jang, Hyun Myung

    2013-07-28

    Ion exchange using aerosol OT (AOT) offers dye adsorption twice as fast as known methods. Moreover, it suppresses the dye-agglomeration that may cause insufficient dye-coverage on the photoelectrode surface. Consequently, its dual function of fast dye-loading and higher dye-coverage significantly improves the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:23775416

  16. Batchwise dyeing of bamboo cellulose fabric with reactive dye using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Larik, Safdar Ali; Khatri, Awais; Ali, Shamshad; Kim, Seong Hun

    2015-05-01

    Bamboo is a regenerated cellulose fiber usually dyed with reactive dyes. This paper presents results of the batchwise dyeing of bamboo fabric with reactive dyes by ultrasonic (US) and conventional (CN) dyeing methods. The study was focused at comparing the two methods for dyeing results, chemicals, temperature and time, and effluent quality. Two widely used dyes, CI Reactive Black 5 (bis-sulphatoethylsulphone) and CI Reactive Red 147 (difluorochloropyrimidine) were used in the study. The US dyeing method produced around 5-6% higher color yield (K/S) in comparison to the CN dyeing method. A significant savings in terms of fixation temperature (10°C) and time (15 min), and amounts of salt (10 g/L) and alkali (0.5-1% on mass of fiber) was realized. Moreover, the dyeing effluent showed considerable reductions in the total dissolved solids content (minimum around 29%) and in the chemical oxygen demand (minimum around 13%) for the US dyebath in comparison to the CN dyebath. The analysis of colorfastness tests demonstrated similar results by US and CN dyeing methods. A microscopic examination on the field emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the US energy did not alter the surface morphology of the bamboo fibers. It was concluded that the US dyeing of bamboo fabric produces better dyeing results and is a more economical and environmentally sustainable method as compared to CN dyeing method. PMID:25575805

  17. A simple method for in vivo labelling of infiltrating leukocytes in the mouse retina using indocyanine green dye

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Dawn A.; Chu, Colin J.; Selvam, Senthil; Powner, Michael B.; Liyanage, Sidath; Copland, David A.; Keane, Pearse A.; Tufail, Adnan; Egan, Catherine A.; Bainbridge, James W. B.; Lee, Richard W.; Dick, Andrew D.; Fruttiger, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have developed a method to label and image myeloid cells infiltrating the mouse retina and choroid in vivo, using a single depot injection of indocyanine green dye (ICG). This was demonstrated using the following ocular models of inflammation and angiogenesis: endotoxin-induced uveitis, experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization model. A near-infrared scanning ophthalmoscope was used for in vivo imaging of the eye, and flow cytometry was used on blood and spleen to assess the number and phenotype of labelled cells. ICG was administered 72 h before the induction of inflammation to ensure clearance from the systemic circulation. We found that in vivo intravenous administration failed to label any leukocytes, whereas depot injection, either intraperitoneal or subcutaneous, was successful in labelling leukocytes infiltrating into the retina. Progression of inflammation in the retina could be traced over a period of 14 days following a single depot injection of ICG. Additionally, bright-field microscopy, spectrophotometry and flow cytometric analysis suggest that the predominant population of cells stained by ICG are circulating myeloid cells. The translation of this approach into clinical practice would enable visualization of immune cells in situ. This will not only provide a greater understanding of pathogenesis, monitoring and assessment of therapy in many human ocular diseases but might also open the ability to image immunity live for neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disease and systemic immune-mediated disorders. PMID:26398933

  18. New and improved methods for measuring lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo using CFSE-like fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Quah, Benjamin J C; Parish, Christopher R

    2012-05-31

    The use of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) to measure lymphocyte proliferation by flow cytometry has become one of the most widely utilised assays for assessing lymphocyte responses. The properties of CFSE make it ideal for such a task, covalently labelling cells with a long-lived fluorescence of high intensity and low variance with minimal cell toxicity. No dye in the last 20 years has been capable of replicating CFSE in these respects. However, currently CFSE is limited to following a maximum of 7 cell divisions and is not compatible for use with ubiquitously available fluorescein conjugates or other fluorescent molecules with spectral properties similar to fluorescein, such as EGFP. Here we characterise two new fluorescent dyes for measuring lymphocyte proliferation, Cell Trace Violet (CTV) and Cell Proliferation Dye eFluor 670 (CPD), which have different excitation and emission spectra to CFSE and, consequently, are compatible with fluorescein conjugates. We found that while both CTV and CPD can label cells to a high fluorescence intensity, which is long-lived and has low variability and low toxicity and makes them ideal for long-term tracking of non-dividing lymphocytes in vivo, CTV offers possibly the best available alternative to CFSE in the analysis of cell divisions. We also describe how intercellular dye transfer and cell autofluorescence can affect division resolution with the three different dyes and describe labelling conditions for the three dyes that produce ultra-bright lymphocytes for in vivo tracking studies and allow up to 11 cell divisions to be detected when using CFSE and CTV as the fluorescent dyes. PMID:22370428

  19. Development of a Cost-Effective Method for Capripoxvirus Genotyping Using Snapback Primer and dsDNA Intercalating Dye

    PubMed Central

    Gelaye, Esayas; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Silber, Roland; Tuppurainen, Eeva S. M.; Grabherr, Reingard; Diallo, Adama

    2013-01-01

    Sheep pox virus (SPPV), goat pox virus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) are very closely related viruses of the Capripoxvirus (CaPV) genus of the Poxviridae family. They are responsible for sheep pox, goat pox and lumpy skin disease which affect sheep, goat and cattle, respectively. The epidemiology of capripox diseases is complex, as some CaPVs are not strictly host-specific. Additionally, the three forms of the disease co-exist in many sub-Saharan countries which complicates the identification of the virus responsible for an outbreak. Genotyping of CaPVs using a low-cost, rapid, highly specific, and easy to perform method allows a swift and accurate identification of the causative agent and significantly assists in selecting appropriate control and eradication measures, such as the most suitable vaccine against the virus during the outbreaks. The objective of this paper is to describe the design and analytical performances of a new molecular assay for CaPV genotyping using unlabelled snapback primers in the presence of dsDNA intercalating EvaGreen dye. This assay was able to simultaneously detect and genotype CaPVs in 63 samples with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The genotyping was achieved by observing the melting temperature of snapback stems of the hairpins and those of the full-length amplicons, respectively. Fourteen CaPVs were genotyped as SPPVs, 25 as GTPVs and 24 as LSDVs. The method is highly pathogen specific and cross platform compatible. It is also cost effective as it does not use fluorescently labelled probes, nor require high-resolution melting curve analysis software. Thus it can be easily performed in diagnostic and research laboratories with limited resources. This genotyping method will contribute significantly to the early detection and genotyping of CaPV infection and to epidemiological studies. PMID:24116084

  20. Development of a cost-effective method for capripoxvirus genotyping using snapback primer and dsDNA intercalating dye.

    PubMed

    Gelaye, Esayas; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Silber, Roland; Tuppurainen, Eeva S M; Grabherr, Reingard; Diallo, Adama

    2013-01-01

    Sheep pox virus (SPPV), goat pox virus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) are very closely related viruses of the Capripoxvirus (CaPV) genus of the Poxviridae family. They are responsible for sheep pox, goat pox and lumpy skin disease which affect sheep, goat and cattle, respectively. The epidemiology of capripox diseases is complex, as some CaPVs are not strictly host-specific. Additionally, the three forms of the disease co-exist in many sub-Saharan countries which complicates the identification of the virus responsible for an outbreak. Genotyping of CaPVs using a low-cost, rapid, highly specific, and easy to perform method allows a swift and accurate identification of the causative agent and significantly assists in selecting appropriate control and eradication measures, such as the most suitable vaccine against the virus during the outbreaks. The objective of this paper is to describe the design and analytical performances of a new molecular assay for CaPV genotyping using unlabelled snapback primers in the presence of dsDNA intercalating EvaGreen dye. This assay was able to simultaneously detect and genotype CaPVs in 63 samples with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The genotyping was achieved by observing the melting temperature of snapback stems of the hairpins and those of the full-length amplicons, respectively. Fourteen CaPVs were genotyped as SPPVs, 25 as GTPVs and 24 as LSDVs. The method is highly pathogen specific and cross platform compatible. It is also cost effective as it does not use fluorescently labelled probes, nor require high-resolution melting curve analysis software. Thus it can be easily performed in diagnostic and research laboratories with limited resources. This genotyping method will contribute significantly to the early detection and genotyping of CaPV infection and to epidemiological studies. PMID:24116084

  1. A Quantitative Method for Comparing the Brightness of Antibody-dye Reagents and Estimating Antibodies Bound per Cell.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Aaron B; Moore, Wayne A; Meehan, Stephen; Parks, David R

    2016-01-01

    We present a quantitative method for comparing the brightness of antibody-dye reagents and estimating antibodies bound per cell. The method is based on complementary binding of test and fill reagents to antibody capture microspheres. Several aliquots of antibody capture beads are stained with varying amounts of the test conjugate. The remaining binding sites on the beads are then filled with a second conjugate containing a different fluorophore. Finally, the fluorescence of the test conjugate compared to the fill conjugate is used to measure the relative brightness of the test conjugate. The fundamental assumption of the test-fill method is that if it takes X molecules of one test antibody to lower the fill signal by Y units, it will take the same X molecules of any other test antibody to give the same effect. We apply a quadratic fit to evaluate the test-fill signal relationship across different amounts of test reagent. If the fit is close to linear, we consider the test reagent to be suitable for quantitative evaluation of antibody binding. To calibrate the antibodies bound per bead, a PE conjugate with 1 PE molecule per antibody is used as a test reagent and the fluorescence scale is calibrated with Quantibrite PE beads. When the fluorescence per antibody molecule has been determined for a particular conjugate, that conjugate can be used for measurement of antibodies bound per cell. This provides comparisons of the brightness of different conjugates when conducted on an instrument whose statistical photoelectron (Spe) scales are known. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27367287

  2. Daily stress magnifies the association between cognitive decline and everyday memory problems: an integration of longitudinal and diary methods.

    PubMed

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth Hahn; Almeida, David M; Seeman, Teresa E; Lachman, Margie E

    2014-12-01

    We examined whether long-term fluid cognitive decline was associated with memory problems in everyday life, and whether stress plays a moderating role. We expected that the association between cognitive decline and everyday memory problems would be magnified in the context of self-reported and physiological stress. Data are from the Boston Longitudinal Study, a subsample of the Midlife in the United States study. Participants in the current study (n = 112) completed a battery of tests measuring fluid cognitive functioning at Time 1 (T1) and 2 (T2) over 10 years. At T2, participants completed weekly diaries of self-reported daily stressors and everyday memory problems for 12 consecutive weeks. Also at T2, participants provided 4 saliva samples over the course of 1 day to assess physiological stress using diurnal cortisol profiles [cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS)]. Self-reported daily stressors and a less healthy DCS were associated with more everyday memory problems, and participants with greater cognitive decline reported more memory problems compared to those with less or no decline. Self-reported daily stressors and CAR moderated the relationship of cognitive decline and memory problems. As expected, more cognitive decline was associated with greater increases in memory problems on weeks when individuals reported more daily stressors and for individuals with a less healthy CAR. The current findings can inform interventions aimed to identify factors, such as daily stress, that contribute to daily functioning in the context of cognitive decline. PMID:25365691

  3. Lipidomics for clinical diagnosis: Dye-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (DALDI) method for lipids detection in MALDI mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Arafah, Karim; Longuespée, Rémi; Desmons, Annie; Kerdraon, Olivier; Fournier, Isabelle; Salzet, Michel

    2014-08-01

    Lipid-based biomarkers for research and diagnosis are rapidly emerging to unpack the basis of person-to-person and population variations in disease susceptibility, drug and nutritional responses, to name but a few. Hence, with the advent of MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging, lipids have begun to be investigated intensively. However, lipids are highly mobile during tissue preparation, and are soluble in the solvent used for matrix preparation or in the fixing fluid such as formalin, resulting in substantial delocalization. In the present article, we investigated as another alternative, the possibility of using specific dyes that can absorb UV wavelengths, in order to desorb the lipids specifically from tissue sections, and are known to immobilize them in tissues. Indeed, after lipid insolubilization with chromate solution or chemical fixation with osmium tetroxide, heterocyclic-based dyes can be directly used without matrix. Taking into account the fact that some dyes have this matrix-free capability, we identified particular dyes dedicated to histological staining of lipids that could be used with MALDI mass spectrometry imaging. We stained tissue sections with either Sudan Black B, Nile Blue A, or Oil Red O. An important advantage of this assay relies on its compatibility with usual practices of histopathological investigation of lipids. As a new method, DALDI stands for Dye-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization and allows for future clinical and histopathological applications using routine histological protocols. Additionally, this novel methodology was validated in human ovarian cancer biopsies to demonstrate its use as a suitable procedure, for histological diagnosis in lipidomics field. PMID:24905741

  4. A simple colorimetric method to screen drug cytotoxicity against Leishmania using the dye Alamar Blue.

    PubMed

    Mikus, J; Steverding, D

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative colorimetric assay using the oxidation-reduction indicator Alamar Blue was developed to measure cytotoxicity of compounds against the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Absorbance increased linearly with the plating density of promastigotes of L. major MRHO/IR/76 vaccine strain up to at least 2.5 x 10(6) cells/ml when parasites were incubated for 72 h in the presence of 10% Alamar Blue. The 50% effective dose values of common drugs (amphotericin B, pentostam and paromomycin) obtained by this assay were in the same range as previously determined by other methods. The Alamar Blue assay permits a simple, reproducible and reliable method for screening antileishmanial drugs. PMID:11227767

  5. A novel method of synthesis of small band gap SnS nanorods and its efficient photocatalytic dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Das, Dipika; Dutta, Raj Kumar

    2015-11-01

    A facile one pot method has been developed for synthesis of stable (ξ=-37.5 mV), orthorhombic structured SnS nanorods capped with mercaptoacetic acid by precipitation method. The SnS nanorods were measured to be about 45 nm long with a diameter of 20 nm, as studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The band gap of the MAA capped SnS nanorods was 1.81 eV, measured by diffused reflectance spectroscopy and was larger than the bulk SnS. The relative positions of highest valence band and lowest conduction band were determined from theoretical band structure calculation as 1.58 eV and -0.23 eV, respectively. The UV-Visible-NIR fluorescence emission spectrum of the SnS nanorods revealed intense emission peak at 1000 nm (1.239 eV) and weaker peaks at 935 nm, 1080 nm, 1160 nm which is likely to be due to Sn(2+) vacancies. The as-synthesized SnS nanorods exhibited more than 95% sunlight induced photocatalytic degradation of trypan blue in 4 h, following first order kinetics with high rate of degradation (k) (0.0124 min(-1)). The observed dye degradation is attributable to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), confirmed from terephthalic acid assay. The ROS generation has been explained on the basis of interaction between photoexcited electrons from conduction band with molecular oxygen adhered to the surface of nanorods owing to favourable redox potentials of O2/O2(-) (-0.20 eV) in normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) scale. PMID:26196717

  6. A comparison of patient adherence and preference of packaging method for oral anticancer agents using conventional pill bottles versus daily pill boxes.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, P W; Pond, G R; Pond, B J; Leung, V; Siu, L L

    2007-07-01

    Adherence to medications is an important issue in oncology due to the increasing number of anticancer agents, such as targeted therapies, formulated for oral dosing. A prospective, crossover design was utilized in which patients on capecitabine were randomly assigned to one of two packaging methods for one cycle, and then switched over to the alternate packaging method in the subsequent cycle. Twenty-five patients were accrued to this study. Adherence rates were similar when using the daily pill boxes (17/21 = 81%) and when using the conventional pill bottles (18/21 = 86%). However, more patients were satisfied with the daily pill boxes (61% versus 11%, P = 0.027), preferred the daily pill boxes (61% versus 17%, P = 0.061), and thought the daily pill boxes were more helpful in reminding them to take their medications (50% versus 11%, P = 0.070). In conclusion, this small pilot study did not demonstrate that the use of daily pill boxes improved patient adherence with capecitabine, but patient satisfaction and preference for this packaging method were greater than for the conventional pill bottles. Further exploration of this intervention in a larger study is warranted. PMID:17587364

  7. Clean and time-effective synthesis of anatase TiO2 nanocrystalline by microwave-assisted solvothermal method for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Po-Shen; Tai, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Peter; Wu, Yu-Chun

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we report a clean and time-effective solvothermal synthesis route using microwave-assisted heating method to prepare nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 with its application for dye-sensitized solar cells. With this proposed method, pure anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with size about 20 nm are successfully obtained at 220 °C for 30 min. Our method of microwave-assisted organic solvothermal route significantly reduces the elaborating process of washing and solvent exchange for the subsequent paste formation. The as-synthesized TiO2 colloidal solution is ready for particle dispersion that markedly simplified the preparation procedures. Material characterizations of the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles are performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The photovoltaic performances of the dye-sensitized solar cells assembled with the as-synthesized TiO2 nanocrystallines as photoanodes in various film thicknesses are examined. An excellent energy conversion efficiency of 7.8% is achieved which is comparable to the previously reported dye-sensitized solar cells made of hydrothermal microwave-synthesized TiO2.

  8. Rationale and methods of the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Daily Practice (EURIKA)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The EURIKA study aims to assess the status of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) across Europe. Specifically, it will determine the degree of control of cardiovascular risk factors in current clinical practice in relation to the European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention. It will also assess physicians' knowledge and attitudes about CVD prevention as well as the barriers impeding effective risk factor management in clinical practice. Methods/Design Cross-sectional study conducted simultaneously in 12 countries across Europe. The study has two components: firstly at the physician level, assessing eight hundred and nine primary care and specialist physicians with a daily practice in CVD prevention. A physician specific questionnaire captures information regarding physician demographics, practice settings, cardiovascular prevention beliefs and management. Secondly at the patient level, including 7641 patients aged 50 years or older, free of clinical CVD and with at least one classical risk factor, enrolled by the participating physicians. A patient-specific questionnaire captures information from clinical records and patient interview regarding sociodemographic data, CVD risk factors, and current medications. Finally, each patient provides a fasting blood sample, which is sent to a central laboratory for measuring serum lipids, apolipoproteins, hemoglobin-A1c, and inflammatory biomarkers. Discussion Primary prevention of CVD is an extremely important clinical issue, with preventable circulatory diseases remaining the leading cause of major disease burden. The EURIKA study will provide key information to assess effectiveness of and attitudes toward primary prevention of CVD in Europe. A transnational study creates opportunities for benchmarking good clinical practice across countries and improving outcomes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00882336.) PMID:20591142

  9. Extraction-Free Ion-Pair Methods for the Assay of Trifluoperazine Dihydrochloride in Bulk Drug, Tablets, and Spiked Human Urine Using Three Sulfonphthalein Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prashanth, K. N.; Swamy, N.; Basavaiah, K.

    2014-11-01

    Three simple and sensitive extraction-free spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TFH). The methods are based on ion pair complex formation between the nitrogenous compound trifluoperazine (TFP) converted from trifluoperazine dihydrochloride and sulfonphthalein dyes, namely, bromocresol green (BCG), bromothymol blue (BTB), and bromophenol blue (BPB) in dichloromethane medium in which all the above experimental variables were circumvented. The colored products are measured at 425 nm in the BCG method, 415 nm in the BTB method, and 420 nm in the BPB method. The stoichiometry of the ion-pair complexes formed between the drug and dye (1:1) was determined by Job's continuous variations method, and the stability constants of the complexes were also calculated. These methods quantify TFP over the concentration ranges of 1.25-20.0 μg/ml in the BCG method, 1.5-21.0 μg/ml in the BTB method, and 1.5-18.0 μg/ml in the BPB method. The molar absorptivity (l·mol-1·cm-1) and Sandell sensitivity (ng/cm2) were calculated to be 2.06·104 and 0.0197; 1.82·104 and 0.0224; and 2.22·104 and 0.0183 for the BCG, BTB, and BPB methods, respectively. The methods were successfully applied to the determination of TFP in pure drug, pharmaceuticals, and in spiked human urine with good accuracy and precision.

  10. Polar Glass Structure for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics Prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett Method Using Amorphous Polymers with an Azo-Dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shuji; Matsuda, Hiro; Masaki, Atsushi; Nakanishi, Hachiro; Abe, Takashi; Ito, Hiroshi

    1992-02-01

    In order to obtain Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films for second-order nonlinear optics, LB films of the amorphous copolymers synthesized from methyl methacrylate and 2-(N-ethyl-N-(4-(4-nitrophenyl)azo)phenyl)aminoethyl acrylate were investigated. From the measurement of F-A isotherms and UV and visible spectra of the Langmuir (L) film, it was estimated that the azo-dye moiety was squeezed out from the air-water interface into the subphase, and the dipoles of azo-dye align uniaxially in the direction perpendicular to the interface. The L film could be deposited into X-type multilayers by the horizontal lifting method, resulting in the formation of “polar glass.”

  11. Sonochemical method for synthesizing Co3O4/graphene nanocomposites for use as counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamar, E. M.; Reda, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    Co3O4/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized via sonochemical method, and its application as a counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was demonstrated. The prepared Co3O4/graphene nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The results of SEM showed that Co3O4 nanoparticles deposited on the graphene sheets as spacers to keep the neighboring sheets separated. The Co3O4 have diameters ranging from 16 to 43 nm. The influence of the Co3O4 content on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cell was investigated. It was found that the performances of Co3O4/graphene composites are better than that of graphene-based DSSCs. The Co3O4/graphene composite CE with 80 % Co3O4 content exhibits the best conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.1 %.

  12. Flower-shaped ZnO nanocrystallite aggregates synthesized through a template-free aqueous solution method for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Wei-Chen; Chen, Hung-Shuo; Yu, Wan-Chin

    2015-01-05

    Hierarchically structured flower-shaped aggregates composed of ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized through a template-free aqueous solution method. The synthesized nanocrystallite aggregates were demonstrated to be promising photoanode materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Compared with commercially available ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs), the flower-like aggregates (ZnONFs), each having an overall dimension of 400–600 nm, exhibited similar dye loading but higher light-scattering ability, which led to a substantial increase in the light-harvesting efficiency of resulting cells. The unique morphology of ZnONFs also boosted the absorbed photon-to-electric current generation efficiency. Consequently, DSSCs constructed from ZnONFs showed significantly improved photocurrent and achieved an overall conversion efficiency of 4.42%, which was 47% higher than that attained by ZnONP-based cells.

  13. On-line SPE-UHPLC method using fused core columns for extraction and separation of nine illegal dyes in chilli-containing spices.

    PubMed

    Khalikova, Maria A; Satínský, Dalibor; Smidrkalová, Tereza; Solich, Petr

    2014-12-01

    The presented work describes the development of a simple, fast and effective on-line SPE-UHPLC-UV/vis method using fused core particle columns for extraction, separation and quantitative analysis of the nine illegal dyes, most frequently found in chilli-containing spices. The red dyes Sudan I-IV, Sudan Red 7B, Sudan Red G, Sudan Orange G, Para Red, and Methyl Red were separated and analyzed in less than 9 min without labor-consuming pretreatment procedure. The chromatographic separation was performed on Ascentis Express RP-Amide column with gradient elution using mixture of acetonitrile and water, as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and 55°C of temperature. As SPE sorbent for cleanup and pre-concentration of illegal dyes short guard fused core column Ascentis Express F5 was used. The applicability of proposed method was proven for three different chilli-containing commercial samples. Recoveries for all compounds were between 90% and 108% and relative standard deviation ranged from 1% to 4% for within- and from 2% to 6% for between-day. Limits of detection showed lower values than required by European Union regulations and were in the range of 3.3-10.3 µg L(-1) for standard solutions, 5.6-235.6 µg kg(-1) for chilli-containing spices. PMID:25159432

  14. Comparison of State Methods for Collecting, Aggregating, and Reporting State Average Daily Attendance (ADA) Totals to the National Center for Education Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert L.

    As part of the redesign of the Common Core of Data of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), and in response to the growing concern about the comparability of average daily attendance (ADA) in a national database, the NCES initiated a study in 1987 to describe the methods used by the states to collect, aggregate, and report state…

  15. Parameterizations of daily temperature standard deviation for modeling ice sheet mass balances using a temperature-index method under paleoclimate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erokhina, Olga; Rogozhina, Irina

    2016-04-01

    A number of recent studies have suggested time-dependent parameterizations of daily temperature standard deviation for modelling surface mass balances of ice sheets and glaciers using a temperature-index method. These have been inferred from in-situ measurements and climate reanalysis data, which are only available on yearly to decadal time scales. To date, the existing literature has not explored their applicability to climate conditions that are different from those of today. This study presents an ensemble of simulations of the Greenland Ice Sheet's history since the Last Glacial Maximum to assess the performance of existing parameterizations of daily temperature standard deviation on millennial time scales. To limit the influence of the uncertainties arising from poorly constrained external and internal factors we adopt climate strategies of different complexities and a sensitivity analysis of ice sheet model parameters. Our study reveals that previously proposed parameterizations of daily temperature standard deviation have a limited performance during the deglaciation stage, failing to simulate the retreat of ice masses as suggested by geological reconstructions. In contrast multiple studies that use constant values of daily temperature standard deviation within the range of 4 to 5°C receive support from our analysis, implying that either the ice sheet model used is missing the fundamental physics necessary to capture complex processes associated with rapid deglaciation or the values of daily temperature standard deviation suggested by parameterizations based on present-day observations are too low to ensure the consistent Wisconsin-to-Holocene ice sheet retreat.

  16. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye lr amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant.

  17. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

  18. Photooxidation of different organic dyes (RB, MO, TB, and BG) using Fe(III)-doped TiO 2 nanophotocatalyst prepared by novel chemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorai, Tanmay K.; Biswas, Soumya K.; Pramanik, Panchanan

    2008-09-01

    The nano-structured Fe(III)-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts with anatase phase have been developed for the oxidation of non-biodegradable different organic dyes like methyl orange (MO), rhodamine B (RB), thymol blue (TB) and bromocresol green (BG) using UV-Hg-lamp. The different compositions of Fe xTi 1- xO 2 ( x = 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1) nanocatalysts synthesized by chemical method (CM), have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, specific surface area (BET), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) analysis, XPS, ESR and zeta potential. From XRD analysis, the results indicate that all the compositions of Fe(III) doped in TiO 2 catalysts gives only anatase phase not rutile phase. For complete degradation of all the solutions of the dyes (MO, RB, TB, and BG), the composition with x = 0.005 is more photoactive compared all other compositions of Fe xTi 1- xO 2, and degussa P25. The decolorization rate of different dyes decreases as Fe(III) concentration in TiO 2 increases. The energy band gap of Fe(III)-doped TiO 2 is found to be 2.38 eV. The oxidation state of iron has been found to be 3+ from XPS and ESR show that Fe 3+ is in low spin state.

  19. Removal of dyes from water using chitosan hydrogel/SiO2 and chitin hydrogel/SiO2 hybrid materials obtained by the sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Copello, Guillermo J; Mebert, Andrea M; Raineri, M; Pesenti, Mariela P; Diaz, Luis E

    2011-02-15

    This work describes the synthesis of chitosan hydrogel/SiO(2) and chitin hydrogel/SiO(2) hybrid mesoporous materials obtained by the sol-gel method for their use as biosorbents. Their adsorption capabilities against four dyes (Remazol Black B, Erythrosine B, Neutral Red and Gentian Violet) were compared in order to evaluate chitin as a plausible replacement for chitosan considering its efficiency and lower cost. Both chitin and chitosan were used in the form of hydrogels. This allowed full compatibility with the ethanol release from tetraethoxysilane. The hybrid materials were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Nitrogen Adsorption Isotherms and (13)C solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Adsorption experimental data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models along with the evaluation of adsorption energy and standard free energy (ΔG(0)). The adsorption was observed to be pH dependent. The main mechanism of dye adsorption was found to be a spontaneous charge associated interaction, except for EB adsorption on chitin/SiO(2) matrix, which showed to involve a lower energy physical adsorption interaction. Aside from highly charged dyes the chitin containing matrix has similar or higher adsorption capacity than the chitosan one. PMID:21163576

  20. Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of anionic dyes on Chitosan/PVA/Na-Titanate/TiO2 composites synthesized by solution casting method.

    PubMed

    Habiba, Umma; Islam, Md Shariful; Siddique, Tawsif A; Afifi, Amalina M; Ang, Bee Chin

    2016-09-20

    Chitosan/PVA/Na-titanate/TiO2 composite was synthesized by solution casting method. The composite was analyzed via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Thermal gravimetric analysis and water stability test. Incorporation of Na-titanate shown decrease of crystallinity for chitosan but increase water stability. However, the composite structure was deteriorated with considerable weight loss in acidic medium. Two anionic dyes, methyl orange and congo red were used for the adsorption test. The adsorption behavior of the composites were described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Lagergren-first-order model for methyl orange and congo red, respectively. For methyl orange, adsorption was started with a promising decolorization rate. 99.9% of methyl orange dye was removed by the composite having higher weightage of chitosan and crystalline TiO2 phase. On the other hand, for the congo red the composite having higher chitosan and Na-titanate showed an efficient removal capacity of 95.76%. UV-vis results showed that the molecular backbone of methyl orange and congo red was almost destroyed when equilibrium was obtained, and the decolorization rate was reaching 100%. Kinetic study results showed that the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange and congo red could be explained by Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Thus, chitosan/PVA/Na-titanate/TiO2 possesses efficient adsorptivity and photocatalytic property for dye degradation. PMID:27261756

  1. Ultrasound energy to accelerate dye uptake and dye-fiber interaction of reactive dye on knitted cotton fabric at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tissera, Nadeeka D; Wijesena, Ruchira N; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic cavitation formed due to propagation of ultrasound wave inside a dye bath was successfully used to dye cotton fabric with a reactive dye at lower temperatures. The energy input to the system during sonication was 0.7 W/cm(2). This was within the energy range that contributes towards forming cavitation during ultra-sonication. The influence of ultrasound treatment on dye particle size and fiber morphology is discussed. Particle size analysis of the dye bath revealed ultra-sonication energy was capable of de-agglomeration of hydrolyzed dye molecules during dyeing. SEM micrograph and AFM topographical image of the fiber surface revealed fiber morphology remains unchanged after the sonication. The study was extended in understanding the contribution of ultrasound method of dyeing towards achieving good color strength on the fabric, compared to the normal heating method of dyeing. Study showed color strength obtained using ultra sound method of dyeing is higher compared to normal heating dyeing. Ultrasound energy was able to achieve the good color strength on cotton fabric at very low temperature such as 30 °C, which was approximately 230% more than the color strength achieved in normal heating method of dyeing. This indicates that energy input to the system using ultrasound was capable of acting as an effective alternative method of dyeing knitted cotton fabrics with reactive dye. PMID:26585007

  2. pH-Insensitive FRET voltage dyes.

    PubMed

    Maher, Michael P; Wu, Nyan-Tsz; Ao, Hong

    2007-08-01

    Many high-throughput ion channel assays require the use of voltage-sensitive dyes to detect channel activity in the presence of test compounds. Dye systems employing Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between 2 membrane-bound dyes are advantageous in combining high sensitivity, relatively fast response, and ratiometric output. The most widely used FRET voltage dye system employs a coumarin fluorescence donor whose excitation spectrum is pH dependent. The authors have validated a new class of voltage-sensitive FRET donors based on a pyrene moiety. These dyes are significantly brighter than CC2-DMPE and are not pH sensitive in the physiological range. With the new dye system, the authors demonstrate a new high-throughput assay for the acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) family. They also introduce a novel method for absolute calibration of voltage-sensitive dyes, simultaneously determining the resting membrane potential of a cell. PMID:17517905

  3. Aqueous two-phase systems: an efficient, environmentally safe and economically viable method for purification of natural dye carmine.

    PubMed

    Mageste, Aparecida Barbosa; de Lemos, Leandro Rodrigues; Ferreira, Guilherme Max Dias; da Silva, Maria do Carmo Hespanhol; da Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes; Bonomo, Renata Cristina Ferreira; Minim, Luis Antonio

    2009-11-01

    Partition of the natural dye carmine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of polymer or copolymer with aqueous salt solutions (Na(2)SO(4) and Li(2)SO(4)). The carmine dye partition coefficient was investigated as a function of system pH, polymer molar mass, hydrophobicity, system tie-line length and nature of the electrolyte. It has been observed that the carmine partition coefficient is highly dependent on the electrolyte nature and pH of the system, reaching values as high as 300, indicating the high potential of the two-phase extraction with ATPS in the purification of carmine dye. The partition relative order was Li(2)SO(4)"Na(2)SO(4). Carmine molecules were concentrated in the polymer-rich phase, indicating an enthalpic specific interaction between carmine and the pseudopolycation, which is formed by cation adsorption along the macromolecule chain. When the enthalpic carmine-pseudopolycation interaction decreases, entropic forces dominate the natural dye-transfer process, and the carmine partitioning coefficient decreases. The optimization of the extraction process was obtained by a central composite face-centered (CCF) design. The CCF design was used to evaluate the influence of Li(2)SO(4) and PEO 1500 concentration and of the pH on the partition coefficient of carmine. The conditions that maximize the partition of carmine into the top phase were determined to be high concentrations of PEO and Li(2)SO(4) and low pH values within the ranges studied. PMID:19800067

  4. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  5. Metal oxide-encapsulated dye-sensitized photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Hupp, Joseph T.; Son, Ho-Jin

    2016-01-12

    Dye-sensitized semiconducting metal oxide films for photoanodes, photoanodes incorporating the films and DSCs incorporating the photoanodes are provided. Also provided are methods for making the dye sensitized semiconducting metal oxide films. The methods of making the films are based on the deposition of an encapsulating layer of a semiconducting metal oxide around the molecular anchoring groups of photosensitizing dye molecules adsorbed to a porous film of the semiconducting metal oxide. The encapsulating layer of semiconducting metal oxide is formed in such a way that it is not coated over the chromophores of the adsorbed dye molecules and, therefore, allows the dye molecules to remain electrochemically addressable.

  6. Just Dyeing to Find Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monhardt, Becky Meyer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

  7. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  8. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye.

    PubMed

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it. PMID:25875031

  9. Wearable pendant device monitoring using new wavelet-based methods shows daily life and laboratory gaits are different.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Matthew A D; Coppens, Milou J M; Lord, Stephen R; Lovell, Nigel H; Gschwind, Yves J; Redmond, Stephen J; Del Rosario, Michael Benjamin; Wang, Kejia; Sturnieks, Daina L; Persiani, Michela; Delbaere, Kim

    2016-04-01

    Morbidity and falls are problematic for older people. Wearable devices are increasingly used to monitor daily activities. However, sensors often require rigid attachment to specific locations and shuffling or quiet standing may be confused with walking. Furthermore, it is unclear whether clinical gait assessments are correlated with how older people usually walk during daily life. Wavelet transformations of accelerometer and barometer data from a pendant device worn inside or outside clothing were used to identify walking (excluding shuffling or standing) by 51 older people (83 ± 4 years) during 25 min of 'free-living' activities. Accuracy was validated against annotated video. Training and testing were separated. Activities were only loosely structured including noisy data preceding pendant wearing. An electronic walkway was used for laboratory comparisons. Walking was classified (accuracy ≥97 %) with low false-positive errors (≤1.9%, κ ≥ 0.90). Median free-living cadence was lower than laboratory-assessed cadence (101 vs. 110 steps/min, p < 0.001) but correlated (r = 0.69). Free-living step time variability was significantly higher and uncorrelated with laboratory-assessed variability unless detrended. Remote gait impairment monitoring using wearable devices is feasible providing new ways to investigate morbidity and falls risk. Laboratory-assessed gait performances are correlated with free-living walks, but likely reflect the individual's 'best' performance. PMID:26245255

  10. Preparation of 6-hydroxyindolines and their use for preparation of novel laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Field, George F.; Hammond, Peter R.

    1993-01-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of 6-hydroxyindolines and new fluorescent dyes produced therefrom, which dyes are ring-constrained indoline-based rhodamine class dyes. These dyes have absorption and emission spectra which make them particularly useful in certain dye laser applications.

  11. Preparation of 6-hydroxyindolines and their use for preparation of novel laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.F.; Hammond, P.R.

    1993-10-26

    A novel method is described for the synthesis of 6-hydroxyindolines and new fluorescent dyes produced therefrom, which dyes are ring-constrained indoline-based rhodamine class dyes. These dyes have absorption and emission spectra which make them particularly useful in certain dye laser applications.

  12. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

  13. Photodynamic Inactivation of Acinetobacter baumannii Using Phenothiazinium Dyes: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ragàs, Xavier; Dai, Tianhong; Tegos, George P.; Agut, Montserrat; Nonell, Santi; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective Phenothiazinium dyes have been reported to be effective photosensitizers inactivating a wide range of microorganisms in vitro after illumination with red light. However, their application in vivo has not extensively been explored. This study evaluates the bactericidal activity of phenothiazinium dyes against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii both in vitro and in vivo. Study Design/Materials and Methods We report the investigation of toluidine blue O, methylene blue, 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue, and new methylene blue for photodynamic inactivation of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii in vitro. The most effective dye was selected to carry out in vivo studies using third-degree mouse burns infected with a bioluminescent A. baumannii strain, upon irradiation with a 652 nm noncoherent light source. The mice were imaged daily for 2 weeks to observe differences in the bioluminescence–time curve between the photodynamic therapy (PDT)-treated mice in comparison with untreated burns. Results All the dyes were effective in vitro against A. baumannii after 30 J/cm2 irradiation of 635 or 652 nm red light had been delivered, with more effective killing when the dye remained in solution. New methylene blue was the most effective of the four dyes, achieving a 3.2-log reduction of the bacterial luminescence during PDT in vivo after 360 J/cm2 and an 800 μM dye dose. Moreover, a statistically significant reduction of the area under the bioluminescence–time curve of PDT-treated mice was observed showing that the infection did not recur after PDT. Conclusions Phenothiazinium dyes, and especially new methylene blue, are potential photosensitizers for PDT to treat burns infected with multidrug-resistant A. baumannii in vivo. PMID:20583252

  14. Theoretical evidence of multiple dye regeneration mechanisms in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Troisi, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    The multiple regeneration mechanisms in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), with N3 (Ru(dcbpy)2(NCS)2) as dye and I-/I3- as redox shuttle, have been studied by DFT methods. Our results show that different reaction pathways are possible within the same dye and the actual mechanism is controlled by the initial geometry of the dyeI complex. By considering the rapid interconversion between different N3I geometries, the reaction mechanism where N3I dissociates into neutral dye and Irad radical is preferred to the mechanism where N3I reacts with a second iodide.

  15. Estimating spatial distribution of daily snow depth with kriging methods: combination of MODIS snow cover area data and ground-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. L.; Wang, H. W.; Hou, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Accurately measuring the spatial distribution of the snow depth is difficult because stations are sparse, particularly in western China. In this study, we develop a novel scheme that produces a reasonable spatial distribution of the daily snow depth using kriging interpolation methods. These methods combine the effects of elevation with information from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover area (SCA) products. The scheme uses snow-free pixels in MODIS SCA images with clouds removed to identify virtual stations, or areas with zero snow depth, to compensate for the scarcity and uneven distribution of stations. Four types of kriging methods are tested: ordinary kriging (OK), universal kriging (UK), ordinary co-kriging (OCK), and universal co-kriging (UCK). These methods are applied to daily snow depth observations at 50 meteorological stations in northern Xinjiang Province, China. The results show that the spatial distribution of snow depth can be accurately reconstructed using these kriging methods. The added virtual stations improve the distribution of the snow depth and reduce the smoothing effects of the kriging process. The best performance is achieved by the OK method in cases with shallow snow cover and by the UCK method when snow cover is widespread.

  16. Comparison between two statistically based methods, and two physically based models developed to compute daily mean streamflow at ungaged locations in the Cedar River Basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linhart, S. Mike; Nania, Jon F.; Christiansen, Daniel E.; Hutchinson, Kasey J.; Sanders, Curtis L., Jr.; Archfield, Stacey A.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of individuals from water resource managers to recreational users need streamflow information for planning and decisionmaking at locations where there are no streamgages. To address this problem, two statistically based methods, the Flow Duration Curve Transfer method and the Flow Anywhere method, were developed for statewide application and the two physically based models, the Precipitation Runoff Modeling-System and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, were only developed for application for the Cedar River Basin. Observed and estimated streamflows for the two methods and models were compared for goodness of fit at 13 streamgages modeled in the Cedar River Basin by using the Nash-Sutcliffe and the percent-bias efficiency values. Based on median and mean Nash-Sutcliffe values for the 13 streamgages the Precipitation Runoff Modeling-System and Soil and Water Assessment Tool models appear to have performed similarly and better than Flow Duration Curve Transfer and Flow Anywhere methods. Based on median and mean percent bias values, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model appears to have generally overestimated daily mean streamflows, whereas the Precipitation Runoff Modeling-System model and statistical methods appear to have underestimated daily mean streamflows. The Flow Duration Curve Transfer method produced the lowest median and mean percent bias values and appears to perform better than the other models.

  17. Energy expenditures in four men estimated by D/sub 2/ /sup 18/O method at two times. II. From once daily samples of urine or breath

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, C.W.; Seale, J.L.; Collins, J.S.; Barnes, R.; Canary, J.J.; Bodwell, C.E.

    1986-03-01

    To make the doubly labelled water method for determining energy expenditure more applicable in a free-living population, collection of a single daily urine or breath sample would have advantages compared to a 24-hr urine collection. Coward et al. reported the use of a single daily urine sample. In the previously described study, a single urine collection and a fasting morning breath sample were collected from four men during two 21-day periods (fall, F, spring, S) while maintaining their body wts. on controlled diets (20% calories from protein, 40% from fat, 60% from CHO (F); 20% protein, 20% fat, 60% CHO (S)). Urine and breath samples were analyzed to determine disappearance rates of D and /sup 18/O for up to 21 days. Values were compared with metabolizable energy intake levels (EI), with or without corrections for estimated changes in body composition assessed by several methods. Preliminary evaluations suggest that the single daily urine sample values may overestimate and values from the fasting breath samples may underestimate energy expenditure compared to EI.

  18. Comparison of various advanced oxidation processes and chemical treatment methods for COD and color removal from a polyester and acetate fiber dyeing effluent.

    PubMed

    Azbar, N; Yonar, T; Kestioglu, K

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, a comparison of various advanced oxidation processes (O3, O3/UV, H2O2/UV, O3/H2O2/UV, Fe2+/H2O2) and chemical treatment methods using Al2(SO4)3.18H2O, FeCl3 and FeSO4 for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from a polyester and acetate fiber dyeing effluent is undertaken. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) showed a superior performance compared to conventional chemical treatment, which maximum achievable color and COD removal for the textile effluent used in this study was 50% and 60%, respectively. Although O3/H2O2/UV combination among other AOPs methods studied in this paper was found to give the best result (99% removal for COD and 96% removal for color), use of Fe2+/H2O2 seems to show a satisfactory COD and color removal performance and to be economically more viable choice for the acetate and polyester fiber dyeing effluent on the basis of 90% removal. PMID:14720544

  19. Quantum dots-based double imaging combined with organic dye imaging to establish an automatic computerized method for cancer Ki67 measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Wei; Qu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Wen-Lou; Chen, Jia-Mei; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Wu, Han; Li, Yan; Liu, Juan

    2016-02-01

    As a widely used proliferative marker, Ki67 has important impacts on cancer prognosis, especially for breast cancer (BC). However, variations in analytical practice make it difficult for pathologists to manually measure Ki67 index. This study is to establish quantum dots (QDs)-based double imaging of nuclear Ki67 as red signal by QDs-655, cytoplasmic cytokeratin (CK) as yellow signal by QDs-585, and organic dye imaging of cell nucleus as blue signal by 4‧,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and to develop a computer-aided automatic method for Ki67 index measurement. The newly developed automatic computerized Ki67 measurement could efficiently recognize and count Ki67-positive cancer cell nuclei with red signals and cancer cell nuclei with blue signals within cancer cell cytoplasmic with yellow signals. Comparisons of computerized Ki67 index, visual Ki67 index, and marked Ki67 index for 30 patients of 90 images with Ki67 ≤ 10% (low grade), 10% < Ki67 < 50% (moderate grade), and Ki67 ≥ 50% (high grade) showed computerized Ki67 counting is better than visual Ki67 counting, especially for Ki67 low and moderate grades. Based on QDs-based double imaging and organic dye imaging on BC tissues, this study successfully developed an automatic computerized Ki67 counting method to measure Ki67 index.

  20. Quantum dots-based double imaging combined with organic dye imaging to establish an automatic computerized method for cancer Ki67 measurement

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin-Wei; Qu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Wen-Lou; Chen, Jia-Mei; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Wu, Han; Li, Yan; Liu, Juan

    2016-01-01

    As a widely used proliferative marker, Ki67 has important impacts on cancer prognosis, especially for breast cancer (BC). However, variations in analytical practice make it difficult for pathologists to manually measure Ki67 index. This study is to establish quantum dots (QDs)-based double imaging of nuclear Ki67 as red signal by QDs-655, cytoplasmic cytokeratin (CK) as yellow signal by QDs-585, and organic dye imaging of cell nucleus as blue signal by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and to develop a computer-aided automatic method for Ki67 index measurement. The newly developed automatic computerized Ki67 measurement could efficiently recognize and count Ki67-positive cancer cell nuclei with red signals and cancer cell nuclei with blue signals within cancer cell cytoplasmic with yellow signals. Comparisons of computerized Ki67 index, visual Ki67 index, and marked Ki67 index for 30 patients of 90 images with Ki67 ≤ 10% (low grade), 10% < Ki67 < 50% (moderate grade), and Ki67 ≥ 50% (high grade) showed computerized Ki67 counting is better than visual Ki67 counting, especially for Ki67 low and moderate grades. Based on QDs-based double imaging and organic dye imaging on BC tissues, this study successfully developed an automatic computerized Ki67 counting method to measure Ki67 index. PMID:26839163

  1. Assessment of the daily areal reduction factor of precipitations with distributed rainfall data: a means of improvement of a prediction method of extremes events in France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, A.; Fouchier, C.; Arnaud, P.; Aubert, Y.

    2012-04-01

    We have addressed the statistical variability of precipitations at different spatial scales in France via the study of the areal reduction factors (ARF) of daily rainfalls. The aim of this study is to develop a methodology to estimate the quantiles of catchment rainfall using maps of rainfall quantiles provided at the spatial resolution of 1 km2 over France by the SHYREG method which implements a regionalized stochastic hourly rainfall generation model (Arnaud, et al., 2008). Two kinds of distributed rainfall data, provided by Météo-France, the French National Weather Service, are used in this study. The first kind consists of maps of daily rainfall available throughout southern France from 1994 to 2009. These maps derive from the spatial interpolation, at the spatial resolution of 1 km2, of daily raingauge data. The second kind of data consists of maps of daily rainfall at the spatial resolution of 64 km2, resulting from the SAFRAN methodology and available throughout mainland France from 1970 to 2008. These data enable us to compute point rainfall quantiles and areal rainfall quantiles and eventually the statistical ARF of daily rainfall for spatial scales ranging from 25 to 11000 km2. The seasonal variability of our statistical ARF seems in agreement with the typology of rainfall events occurring in mainland France: convective events in late summer and autumn and more frontal events in winter and spring. The regional validity of our statistical ARF has been assessed in the Cevennes area, in southern France, where it shows close similarities with the statistical daily ARF computed by Neppel et al. (2003) with a different methodology. The statistical daily ARF assessed in this study enables us to estimate the quantiles of daily rainfall for any catchment in mainland France using the maps of rainfall quantiles of the SHYREG method. Our next objective will be to assess, thank to the methodology developed here and to hourly rainfall radar data available shortly for

  2. Vanadium oxides (V2O5) prepared with different methods for application as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kezhong; Sun, Xiaolong; Duan, Chongyuan; Gao, Jing; Wu, Mingxing

    2016-09-01

    V2O5 was synthesized by four different procedures employing thermal decomposition, sol-gel, and hydrothermal methods which were subsequently introduced into dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as counter electrode (CE) catalysts for the regeneration of traditional iodide/triiodide (I-/I3 -) redox couple. The catalytic activities of as-prepared V2O5 were significantly affected by the synthetic routes as evidenced by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Tafel polarization curve. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSCs employing V2O5 CE, fabricated by thermal decomposition method, was observed to be 3.80 % by using citric acid as an additive, while the PCE of the DSCs using V2O5 CE prepared by hydrothermal and thermal decomposition methods without additive, as well as by a sol-gel procedure, was determined to be 2.13, 2.08, and 2.04 %, respectively.

  3. RESEARCH PAPER: Forecast daily indices of solar activity, F10.7, using support vector regression method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cong; Liu, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jing-Song

    2009-06-01

    The 10.7 cm solar radio flux (F10.7), the value of the solar radio emission flux density at a wavelength of 10.7 cm, is a useful index of solar activity as a proxy for solar extreme ultraviolet radiation. It is meaningful and important to predict F10.7 values accurately for both long-term (months-years) and short-term (days) forecasting, which are often used as inputs in space weather models. This study applies a novel neural network technique, support vector regression (SVR), to forecasting daily values of F10.7. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of SVR in short-term F10.7 forecasting. The approach, based on SVR, reduces the dimension of feature space in the training process by using a kernel-based learning algorithm. Thus, the complexity of the calculation becomes lower and a small amount of training data will be sufficient. The time series of F10.7 from 2002 to 2006 are employed as the data sets. The performance of the approach is estimated by calculating the norm mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. It is shown that our approach can perform well by using fewer training data points than the traditional neural network.

  4. Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data for application in a hydrological model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperna Weiland, F. C.; Tisseuil, C.; Dürr, H. H.; Vrac, M.; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2012-03-01

    Potential evaporation (PET) is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET daily time series from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and re-calibrated versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1) evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2) tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles. A major finding is that for part of the investigated basins the selection of a PET method may have only a minor influence on the resulting river flow. Within the hydrological model used in this study the bias related to the PET method tends to decrease while going from PET, AET and runoff to discharge calculations. However, the performance of individual PET methods appears to be spatially variable, which stresses the necessity to select the most accurate and spatially stable PET method. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95% significance level) between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for a cell-specific re-calibrated Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this re-calibrated form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation applied to the CFSR data did not outperform the other methods in a evaluation against PET derived with the Penman-Monteith equation from CRU data. In arid regions (e.g. Sahara, central Australia, US deserts), the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g. Orange, Murray and

  5. "Assessment of identity during adolescence using daily diary methods: Measurement invariance across time and sex": Correction to Becht et al. (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Reports an error in "Assessment of Identity During Adolescence Using Daily Diary Methods: Measurement Invariance Across Time and Sex" by Andrik I. Becht, Susan J. T. Branje, Wilma A. M. Vollebergh, Dominique F. Maciejewski, Pol A. C. van Lier, Hans M. Koot, Jaap J. A. Denissen and Wim H. J. Meeus (Psychological Assessment, Advanced Online Publication, Aug 10, 2015, np). In the article the participants should have been reported as N = 494. No differences were found in the results upon reanalyzing the data with the correct number of participants. Additionally, the last sentence of the first full paragraph in the Invariance Across Boys and Girls subsection of the Method section should read "In the fourth model, strict invariance was examined, in which the residual variances were constrained to be equal for boys and girls." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-36246-001.) The aim of this study was to assess measurement invariance of adolescents' daily reports on identity across time and sex. Adolescents (N = 497; mean age = 13.32 years at Time 1, 56.7% boys) from the general population reported on their identity commitments, exploration in depth and reconsideration on a daily basis for 3 weeks within 1 year across 5 years. We used the single-item version of the Utrecht Management of Identity Commitments Scale (UMICS; Klimstra et al., 2010), a broad measure of identity-formation processes covering both interpersonal and educational identity domains. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and strict measurement invariance across days within weeks, across sex, across weeks within years, and across years. Results indicated that daily diary reports show strict measurement invariance across days, across weeks within years, across years, and across boys and girls. These results support the use of daily diary methods to assess identity at various time intervals ranging from days to years and across sex. Results are discussed with

  6. Dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves (Lawsonia inermis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Qaiser, Summia; Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Shahid, Muhammad; Zuber, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    Dyeing behavior of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves has been investigated. Cotton and dye powder are irradiated to different absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. The dyeing parameters such as dyeing time, electrolyte (salt) concentration and mordant concentrations using copper and iron as mordants are optimized. Dyeing is performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with dye solutions and their color strength values are evaluated in CIE Lab system using Spectraflash -SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) have been employed to investigate the colourfastness properties such as colourfastness to light, washing and rubbing of irradiated dyed fabric. It is found that gamma ray treatment of cotton dyed with extracts of henna leaves has significantly improved the color strength as well as enhanced the rating of fastness properties.

  7. Computing daily mean streamflow at ungaged locations in Iowa by using the Flow Anywhere and Flow Duration Curve Transfer statistical methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linhart, S. Mike; Nania, Jon F.; Sanders, Curtis L., Jr.; Archfield, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains approximately 148 real-time streamgages in Iowa for which daily mean streamflow information is available, but daily mean streamflow data commonly are needed at locations where no streamgages are present. Therefore, the USGS conducted a study as part of a larger project in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources to develop methods to estimate daily mean streamflow at locations in ungaged watersheds in Iowa by using two regression-based statistical methods. The regression equations for the statistical methods were developed from historical daily mean streamflow and basin characteristics from streamgages within the study area, which includes the entire State of Iowa and adjacent areas within a 50-mile buffer of Iowa in neighboring states. Results of this study can be used with other techniques to determine the best method for application in Iowa and can be used to produce a Web-based geographic information system tool to compute streamflow estimates automatically. The Flow Anywhere statistical method is a variation of the drainage-area-ratio method, which transfers same-day streamflow information from a reference streamgage to another location by using the daily mean streamflow at the reference streamgage and the drainage-area ratio of the two locations. The Flow Anywhere method modifies the drainage-area-ratio method in order to regionalize the equations for Iowa and determine the best reference streamgage from which to transfer same-day streamflow information to an ungaged location. Data used for the Flow Anywhere method were retrieved for 123 continuous-record streamgages located in Iowa and within a 50-mile buffer of Iowa. The final regression equations were computed by using either left-censored regression techniques with a low limit threshold set at 0.1 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) and the daily mean streamflow for the 15th day of every other month, or by using an ordinary-least-squares multiple

  8. Building hazard maps of extreme daily rainy events from PDF ensemble, via REA method, on Senegal River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo Osorio, J. D.; García Galiano, S. G.

    2011-11-01

    The Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa, one of the poorest of the Earth, is characterized by high rainfall variability and rapid population growth. In this region, heavy storm events frequently cause extensive damage. Nonetheless, the projections for change in extreme rainfall values have shown a great divergence between Regional Climate Models (RCM), increasing the forecast uncertainty. Novel methodologies should be applied, taking into account both the variability provided by different RCMs, as well as the non-stationary nature of time series for the building of hazard maps of extreme rainfall events. The present work focuses on the probability density functions (PDFs)-based evaluation and a simple quantitative measure of how well each RCM considered can capture the observed annual maximum daily rainfall (AMDR) series on the Senegal River basin. Since meaningful trends have been detected in historical rainfall time series for the region, non-stationary probabilistic models were used to fit the PDF parameters to the AMDR time series. In the development of PDF ensemble by bootstrapping techniques, Reliability Ensemble Averaging (REA) maps were applied to score the RCMs. The REA factors were computed using a metric to evaluate the agreement between observed -or best estimated- PDFs, and that simulated with each RCM. The assessment of plausible regional trends associated to the return period, from the hazard maps of AMDR, showed a general rise, owing to an increase in the mean and the variability of extreme precipitation. These spatial-temporal distributions could be considered by Organization for the Development of the Senegal River (Organisation pour la mise en valeur du fleuve Sénégal, OMVS), in such a way as to reach a better balance between mitigation and adaptation.

  9. Method for the stabilization and immobilization of enzymatic extracts and its application to the decolorization of textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Carlos; Anderson, David; Oyarzún, Muriel; Carvajal, Andrea; Palma, Carolyn

    2014-10-01

    Peroxidases from Pleurotus eryngii have been investigated for their ability to degrade recalcitrant, phenolic pollutants. The use of crude enzymatic extracts can reduce the high costs associated with enzyme purification, and enzyme immobilization can enhance enzyme stability and recovery. The present study tests the effectiveness of various conditions for crude enzyme stabilization in polyethylene glycol and glycine solutions, and immobilization on monofunctional and heterofunctional agarose solid supports. Glycine at 0.5 M at 4 °C and pH 4 was most effective stabilization agent for the crude enzymatic extracts, and enzyme immobilization efficiency was greatest for heterofunctional supports. MANA-glyoxyl heterofunctional supports were demonstrated to have the greatest enhancement of decolorization (1.3-fold) and velocity of substrate consumption (fivefold). Therefore, the application of crude enzymatic extracts to industrial processes, such as dye decolorization, represents a cost-effective alternative to purified enzymes. PMID:24930109

  10. Facile method for synthesis of TiO{sub 2} film and its application in high efficiency dye sensitized-solar cell (DSSC)

    SciTech Connect

    Widiyandari, Hendri Gunawan, S. K.V.; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro; Purwanto, Agus; Diharjo, Kuncoro

    2014-02-24

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is a device which converts a solar energy to electrical energy. Different with semiconductor thin film based solar cell, DSSC utilize the sensitized-dye to absorb the photon and semiconductor such as titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and zinc oxide (ZnO) as a working electrode photoanode. In this report, the preparation of TiO{sub 2} film using a facile method of spray deposition and its application in DSSC have been presented. TiO{sub 2} photoanode was synthesized by growing the droplet of titanium tetraisopropoxide diluted in acid solution on the substrate of conductive glass flourine-doped tin oxide (FTO) with variation of precursor volume. DSSC was assemblied by sandwiching both of photoanode electrode and platinum counter electrode subsequently filling the area between these electrodes with triodine/iodine electrolite solution as redox pairs. The characterization of the as prepared DSSC using solar simulator (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}) and I-V source meter Keithley 2400 showed that the performance of DSSC was affected by the precursor volume.. The overall conversion efficiency of DSSC using the optimum TiO{sub 2} film was about 1.97% with the open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.73 V, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 4.61 mA and fill factor (FF) of 0.58.

  11. Fabrication of nanospinel ZnCr2O4 using sol-gel method and its application on removal of azo dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Yazdanbakhsh, Mohammad; Khosravi, Iman; Goharshadi, Elaheh K; Youssefi, Abbas

    2010-12-15

    For the first time, nanoparticles of zinc chromite, spinel ZnCr(2)O(4) have been fabricated by the thermal decomposition of Zn-Cr gel prepared by sol-gel method in the presence of oxalic acid as a chelating agent. It was shown that the well-crystallized spinel structure is formed after calcination at 450°C. The nanospinel has been characterized by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The average particle size is approximately 13 nm according to the TEM image. The nanoparticles of zinc chromites showed excellent adsorption properties towards reactive dye, reactive blue 5 (RB5). The adsorption studies have been carried out for contact time, different pH values, different temperatures, and adsorbent doses. The investigation of removal kinetics of RB5 indicates that the removal process obeys the rate of second-order kinetic equation. The results indicate that the Langmuir adsorption isotherm fitted the data better than the Freundlich. Also, the photocatalytic degradation of RB5 using spinel ZnCr(2)O(4) under UV irradiation at pH=1 has been also examined. The results showed that the degradation of RB5 dye follows merely an adsorption process. PMID:20863619

  12. Low-Temperature Fabrication of TiO2 Necking Electrode by Sol-Gel Method and its Application to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Masaki; Yamazaki, Eiji; Nishikawa, Naomi; Hashimoto, Noritsugu; Mori, Tatsuo

    2006-10-01

    The low-temperature fabrication of TiO2 electrodes for use in a dye-sensitized solar cell was studied. The use of the sol-gel necking method with a Ti-precursor solution added to a paste including TiO2 nano particles resulted in a high-performance TiO2 electrode. A solar cell using the electrode showed a high efficiency of almost 2%, even when sintered at 200 °C. The improvement in the efficiency was due to the increase in photocurrent of the cell. Increasing the specific surface area of the TiO2 electrode sintered at around 200 °C was corresponded to an increase in the number of micropores. However, it did not contribute to the increase in the amount of adsorbed dye nor did it improve photocurrent. Rather, the crystallization of the added Ti-precursor solution and subsequent increase in conductivity of the TiO2 electrode improved photocurrent. The phase transition temperature of the Ti-precursor solution from amorphous to anatase was detected at 331 °C by differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurement. To fabricate the TiO2 electrode for use in a high-performance solar cell at lower temperatures, the control of crystallization is required.

  13. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  14. Accurate simulation of optical properties in dyes.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Denis; Perpète, Eric A; Ciofini, Ilaria; Adamo, Carlo

    2009-02-17

    Since Antiquity, humans have produced and commercialized dyes. To this day, extraction of natural dyes often requires lengthy and costly procedures. In the 19th century, global markets and new industrial products drove a significant effort to synthesize artificial dyes, characterized by low production costs, huge quantities, and new optical properties (colors). Dyes that encompass classes of molecules absorbing in the UV-visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum now have a wider range of applications, including coloring (textiles, food, paintings), energy production (photovoltaic cells, OLEDs), or pharmaceuticals (diagnostics, drugs). Parallel to the growth in dye applications, researchers have increased their efforts to design and synthesize new dyes to customize absorption and emission properties. In particular, dyes containing one or more metallic centers allow for the construction of fairly sophisticated systems capable of selectively reacting to light of a given wavelength and behaving as molecular devices (photochemical molecular devices, PMDs).Theoretical tools able to predict and interpret the excited-state properties of organic and inorganic dyes allow for an efficient screening of photochemical centers. In this Account, we report recent developments defining a quantitative ab initio protocol (based on time-dependent density functional theory) for modeling dye spectral properties. In particular, we discuss the importance of several parameters, such as the methods used for electronic structure calculations, solvent effects, and statistical treatments. In addition, we illustrate the performance of such simulation tools through case studies. We also comment on current weak points of these methods and ways to improve them. PMID:19113946

  15. Comparison of the ISU, NCI, MSM, and SPADE Methods for Estimating Usual Intake: A Simulation Study of Nutrients Consumed Daily

    PubMed Central

    Laureano, Greice H. C.; Torman, Vanessa B. L.; Crispim, Sandra P.; Dekkers, Arnold L. M.; Camey, Suzi A.

    2016-01-01

    Various methods are available for estimating usual dietary intake distributions. Hence, there is a need for simulation studies to compare them. The methods Iowa State University (ISU), National Cancer Institute (NCI), Multiple Source Method (MSM) and Statistical Program to Assess Dietary Exposure (SPADE) were previously compared in another study, but some results were inconclusive due to the small number of replications used in the simulation. Seeking to overcome this limitation, the present study used 1000 simulated samples for 12 different scenarios to compare the accuracy of estimates yielded by the aforementioned methods. The focus is on scenarios that exhibited the most uncertainty in the conclusions of the mentioned study above, i.e., scenarios with small sample sizes, skewed intake distributions, and large ratios of the between- and within-person variances. Bias was used as a measure of accuracy. For scenarios with small sample sizes (n=150), the ISU, MSM and SPADE methods generally achieved more accurate estimates than the NCI method, particularly for the 10th and 90th percentiles. The differences between methods became smaller with larger sample sizes (n = 300 and n = 500). With few exceptions, the methods were found to perform similarly. PMID:26999193

  16. Estimation of daily global solar radiation in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area: A combinational application of statistical downscaling method and Bayesian inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizumi, T.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.; Kotera, A.; Khang, N. D.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term daily global solar radiation (GSR) data of the same quality in the 20th century has been needed as a baseline to assess the climate change impact on paddy rice production in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area (MKD: 104.5-107.5oE/8.2-11.2oN). However, though sunshine duration data is available, the accessibility of GSR data is quite poor in MKD. This study estimated the daily GSR in MKD for 30-yr (1978- 2007) by applying the statistical downscaling method (SDM). The estimates of GSR was obtained from four different sources: (1) the combined equations with the corrected reanalysis data of daily maximum/minimum temperatures, relative humidity, sea level pressure, and precipitable water; (2) the correction equation with the reanalysis data of downward shortwave radiation; (3) the empirical equation with the observed sunshine duration; and (4) the observation at one site for short term. Three reanalysis data, i.e., NCEP-R1, ERA-40, and JRA-25, were used. Also the observed meteorological data, which includes many missing data, were obtained from 11 stations of the Vietnamese Meteorological Agency for 28-yr and five stations of the Global Summary of the Day for 30-yr. The observed GSR data for 1-yr was obtained from our station. Considering the use of data with many missing data for analysis, the Bayesian inference was used for this study, which has the powerful capability to optimize multiple parameters in a non-linear and hierarchical model. The Bayesian inference provided the posterior distributions of 306 parameter values relating to the combined equations, the empirical equation, and the correction equation. The preliminary result shows that the amplitude of daily fluctuation of modeled GSR was underestimated by the empirical equation and the correction equation. The combination of SDM and Bayesian inference has a potential to estimate the long- term daily GSR of the same quality even though in the area where the observed data is quite limited.

  17. Green chemistry methods in sulfur dyeing: application of various reducing D-sugars and analysis of the importance of optimum redox potential.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Richard S; Harvey, Anna

    2004-07-15

    The importance of sulfur dyeing of cellulosic fibers, particularly cotton, is realized economically throughout the dyeing industry. At the present time, dyeing with sulfur dyes requires the use of various auxiliaries, many of which have adverse effects on the environment. The most damaging of these is the reducing agent sodium sulfide, required to reduce the dye molecules to a water-soluble leuco form to enable adsorption and diffusion into the fiber. In this study, attempts have been made to replace the sodium sulfide used within the sulfur dyeing process with a variety of environmentally friendly reducing sugars. The redox potential of various hexose and pentose monosaccharides and reducing disaccharides was recorded and compared. Subsequently, cotton was dyed with the world's most important sulfur dye, C. I. Sulfur Black 1, using the reducing sugars under alkaline conditions, and compared to dyeings secured by employing commercial sulfide reducing agents. It was observed that reducing sugars gave comparable, and in many cases superior, color strength and wash fastness results, with respect to the commercial sulfide-based reducing agents, which still account for the vast majority of sulfur dyeing processes and that pose significant environmental concern. Employment of reducing sugars in sulfur dyeing could provide a sustainable, nontoxic, biodegradable, cost-effective alternative to sodium polysulfide and sodium hydrogen sulfide. Comparison of the redox potential of reducing sugars against the color strength of the dyeings secured demonstrated that there was an optimum redox potential of around -650 mV for maximum color strength achieved. The same redox potential also conferred the lowest color loss upon washing. These observations were attributed to reduction of the polymeric dye molecules to an optimum size for fiber affinity and diffusion into the fiber, but which would also confer maximum wash fastness upon oxidation. PMID:15298216

  18. Determination of energy expenditure during heavy exercise, normal daily activity, and sleep using the doubly-labelled-water (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ 18O) method

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, T.P.; Hoyt, R.W.; Settle, R.G.; O'Toole, M.; Hiller, W.D.

    1987-03-01

    Energy expenditure of four subjects was measured by the doubly-labelled-water (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ 18O) method to determine if energy expenditure could be determined over short periods. Three subjects were studied while they performed 8 h of heavy exercise in a laboratory environment. Urine and blood samples were taken before and after exercise. Estimated energy expended during 8 h of high-intensity exercise for three subjects was 757 +/- 118 kcal/h by the doubly-labelled-water method using urine and a two-point calculation, which compared favorably with 735 +/- 82 kcal/h obtained by respiratory gas exchange. For the fourth subject, daytime, nighttime, and daily energy expenditure was calculated by both the two-pair method and decay-curve analysis of urine and saliva samples collected in the morning and at night. Daytime and nighttime energy expenditures differed significantly (p less than 0.05).

  19. Treatment Integrity Assessment of a Daily Report Card Intervention: A Preliminary Evaluation of Two Methods and Frequencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Kilgus, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Although intuitively appealing, teacher self-report of treatment integrity is not currently recommended as a method for collecting treatment integrity data. Education researchers have not, however, evaluated features of a treatment integrity self-reporting system that may facilitate accurate self-report. In this preliminary investigation, four…

  20. Five Methods of Assessing School-Level Daily Use of Cigarettes and Alcohol by Adolescents at Continuation High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Stacy, Alan W.

    1994-01-01

    The following methods of estimating school-level experimentation with drugs by adolescents at 20 California continuation high schools are compared: (1) self-reports; (2) prevalence estimates from students; (3) prevalence estimates from school staff; (4) naturalistic observation; and (5) refuse (garbage) analysis. Advantages of refuse analysis are…

  1. Structure and dye-sensitized solar cell application of TiO2 nanotube arrays fabricated by the anodic oxidation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ok, Seon-Yeong; Cho, Kwon-Koo; Kim, Ki-Won; Ryu, Kwang-Sun

    2010-05-01

    Well-ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated by the potentiostatic anodic oxidation method using pure Ti foil as a working electrode and ethylene glycol solution as an electrolyte with the small addition of NH4F and H2O. The influence of anodization temperature and time on the morphology and formation of TiO2 nanotube arrays was examined. The TiO2 nanotube arrays were applied as a photoelectrode to dye-sensitized solar cells. Regardless of anodizing temperature and time, the average diameter and wall thickness of TiO2 nanotube arrays show a similar value, whereas the length increases with decreasing reaction temperature. The conversion efficiency is very low, which is due to a morphology breaking of the TiO2 nanotube arrays in the manufacturing process of a photoelectrode.

  2. Integrating Research on Global Climate Change and Human Use of the Oceans: a Geospatial Method for Daily Monitoring of Sea Ice and Ship Traffic in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eucker, W.; McGillivary, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    One apparent consequence of global climate change has been a decrease in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice more rapidly than models have predicted, while Arctic ship traffic has likewise increased beyond economic predictions. To ensure representative observations of changing climate conditions and human use of the Arctic Ocean, we concluded a method of tracking daily changes in both sea ice and shipping in the Arctic Ocean was needed. Such a process improves the availability of sea ice data for navigational safety and allows future developments to be monitored for understanding of ice and shipping in relation to policy decisions appropriate to optimize sustainable use of a changing Arctic Ocean. The impetus for this work was the 2009 Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment (AMSA) which provided baseline data on Arctic ship traffic. AMSA was based on responses from circumpolar countries, was manpower intensive, and took years to compile. A more timely method of monitoring human use of the Arctic Ocean was needed. To address this, a method of monitoring sea ice on a scale relevant to ship-navigation (<10km) was developed and implemented in conjunction with arctic ship tracking using S-AIS (Satellite Automatic Identification Systems). S-AIS is internationally required on ships over a certain size, which includes most commercial vessels in the Arctic Ocean. Daily AIS and sea ice observations were chosen for this study. Results of this method of geospatial analysis of the entire arctic are presented for a year long period from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011. This confirmed the dominance of European Arctic ship traffic. Arctic shipping is maximal during August and diminishes in September with a minimum in winter, although some shipping continues year-round in perennially ice-free areas. Data are analyzed for the four principal arctic quadrants around the North Pole by season for number and nationality of vessels. The goal of this study was not merely to monitor ship

  3. Nanostructured TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells prepared by the sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Jin, Young Sam; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Park, Sang Joon; Yoon, Hyon Hee; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2011-12-01

    TiO2 films were prepared on glass substrates using the sol-gel process for a dye-sensitized solar cell application. The TiO2 sol was prepared using hydrolysis/polycondensation. Titanium (IV) Tetra Isopropoxide (TTIP) was used as precursor and Nitric acid (HNO3) was used as a catalyst for the peptization. The crystal structure and morphology of the prepared materials were characterized by XRD, and an SEM. The observations confirmed the nanocrystalline nature of the TiO2. The reaction parameters, such as the catalyst concentrations, the calcination time, and the calcination temperature were varied during the synthesis in order to achieve nanosize TiO2 particles. The prepared TiO2 particles were coated onto FTO glass using a screen printing technique. The prepared TiO2 films were characterized by UV-vis. The TiO2 particles calcinated at low temperatures showed an anatase phase they grew into a rutile phase when the calcination temperature increased. The size and structure of the TiO2 particles were adjusted to specific surface areas. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the DSSC was highly affected by the properties of the TiO2 particles. PMID:22409037

  4. Daily quantitative precipitation forecasts based on the analogue method: Improvements and application to a French large river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Daoud, Aurélien; Sauquet, Eric; Bontron, Guillaume; Obled, Charles; Lang, Michel

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents some improvements of a probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasting method based on analogues, formerly developed on small basins located in South-Eastern France. The scope is extended to large scale basins mainly influenced by frontal systems, considering a case study area related to the Saône river, a large basin in eastern France. For a given target situation, this method consists in searching for the most similar situations observed in a historical meteorological archive. Precipitation amounts observed during analogous situations are then collected to derive an empirical predictive distribution function, i.e. the probabilistic estimation of the precipitation amount expected for the target day. The former version of this forecasting method (Bontron, 2004) has been improved by introducing two innovative variables: temperature, that allows taking seasonal effects into account and vertical velocity, which enables a better characterization of the vertical atmospheric motion. The new algorithm is first applied in a perfect prognosis context (target situations come from a meteorological reanalysis) and then in an operational forecasting context (target situations come from weather forecasts) for a three years period. Results show that this approach yields useful forecasts, with a lower false alarm rate and improved performances from the present day D to day D + 2.

  5. Application of ZnO nanorods loaded on activated carbon for ultrasonic assisted dyes removal: Experimental design and derivative spectrophotometry method.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Fatemeh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Taghdiri, Mehdi; Asfaram, Arash

    2016-11-01

    A method based on application of ZnO nanorods loaded on activated carbon (ZnO-NRs-AC) for adsorption of Bromocresol Green (BCG) and Eosin Y (EY) accelerated by ultrasound was described. The present material was synthesized under ultrasound assisted wet-chemical method and subsequently was characterized by FE-SEM, TEM, BET and XRD analysis. The extent of contribution of conventional variables like pH (2.0-10.0), BCG concentration (4-20mgL(-1)), EY concentration (3-23mgL(-1)), adsorbent dosage (0.01-0.03g), sonication time (1-5min) and centrifuge time (2-6min) as main and interaction part were investigated by central composite design under response surface methodology. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was adapted to experimental data and guide the best operational conditions mass by set at 6.0, 9mgL(-1), 10mgL(-1), 0.02g, 4 and 4min for pH, BCG concentration, EY concentration, adsorbent dosage, sonication and centrifuge time, respectively. At these specified conditions dye adsorption efficiency was higher than 99.5%. The suitability and well prediction of optimum point was tested by conducting five experiments and respective results revel that RSD% was lower than 3% and high quality of fitting was confirmed by t-test. The experimental data were best fitted in Langmuir isotherm equation and the removal followed pseudo second order kinetics. The experimentally obtained maximum adsorption capacities were estimated as 57.80 and 61.73mgg(-1) of ZnO-NRs-AC for BCG and EY respectively from binary dye solutions. The mechanism of removal was explained by boundary layer diffusion via intraparticle diffusion. PMID:27245971

  6. Fast chromatographic method for the determination of dyes in beverages by using high performance liquid chromatography--diode array detection data and second order algorithms.

    PubMed

    Culzoni, María J; Schenone, Agustina V; Llamas, Natalia E; Garrido, Mariano; Di Nezio, Maria S; Band, Beatriz S Fernández; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2009-10-16

    A fast chromatographic methodology is presented for the analysis of three synthetic dyes in non-alcoholic beverages: amaranth (E123), sunset yellow FCF (E110) and tartrazine (E102). Seven soft drinks (purchased from a local supermarket) were homogenized, filtered and injected into the chromatographic system. Second order data were obtained by a rapid LC separation and DAD detection. A comparative study of the performance of two second order algorithms (MCR-ALS and U-PLS/RBL) applied to model the data, is presented. Interestingly, the data present time shift between different chromatograms and cannot be conveniently corrected to determine the above-mentioned dyes in beverage samples. This fact originates the lack of trilinearity that cannot be conveniently pre-processed and can hardly be modelled by using U-PLS/RBL algorithm. On the contrary, MCR-ALS has shown to be an excellent tool for modelling this kind of data allowing to reach acceptable figures of merit. Recovery values ranged between 97% and 105% when analyzing artificial and real samples were indicative of the good performance of the method. In contrast with the complete separation, which consumes 10 mL of methanol and 3 mL of 0.08 mol L(-1) ammonium acetate, the proposed fast chromatography method requires only 0.46 mL of methanol and 1.54 mL of 0.08 mol L(-1) ammonium acetate. Consequently, analysis time could be reduced up to 14.2% of the necessary time to perform the complete separation allowing saving both solvents and time, which are related to a reduction of both the costs per analysis and environmental impact. PMID:19748097

  7. Comparison of bias correction methods for the RegCM4-ICTP daily precipitation simulation over the Great Alpine Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, Marco; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are tools of primary importance to obtain future climate projections under different anthropogenic forcing scenarios. However, the GCM coarse resolution (generally few hundred kilometres) it is not suitable to analyse the projections at regional scale (generally few tens kilometres). Usually the gap between the coarse resolution GCMs and the appropriate scale for regional climate studies is bridged by means of dynamical and/or statistical downscaling techniques. The dynamical downscaling approach is based on high-resolution Regional Climate Models (RCM) -- with typical resolutions of tens of kilometres -- driven by GCMs within a limited domain. The RCMs explicitly solve mesoscale atmospheric processes and provide spatially coherent and, to a certain degree, physically consistent output. However, they have in general considerable biases and therefore often cannot directly be used as input for impact models but they must be corrected/calibrated. In this work, of preliminary nature, we focus on precipitation, a key variable for many impact sectors (agriculture, hydrology, etc.) which has a large uncertainty in RCMs and we describe a simple strategy to develop high-resolution precipitation projections over the Great Alpine Region (GAR) combining dynamical downscaling and statistical methods. Specifically, we compare three different bias correction methods to refine the precipitation simulated by the RegCM4 model and we assess the strengths and limitations of this approach in terms of its robust applicability for climate change studies.

  8. Researching children's individual empathic abilities in the context of their daily lives: the importance of mixed methods

    PubMed Central

    Roerig, Simone; van Wesel, Floryt; Evers, Sandra J. T. M.; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    In social neuroscience, empathy is often approached as an individual ability, whereas researchers in anthropology focus on empathy as a dialectic process between agents. In this perspective paper, we argue that to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of empathy, social neuroscience research should draw on insights and methods from anthropology. First, we discuss neuropsychological studies that investigate empathy in inter-relational contexts. Second, we highlight differences between the social neuroscience and anthropological conceptualizations of empathy. Third, we introduce a new study design based on a mixed method approach, and present initial results from one classroom that was part of a larger study and included 28 children (m = 13, f = 15). Participants (aged 9–11) were administered behavioral tasks and a social network questionnaire; in addition an observational study was also conducted over a period of 3 months. Initial results showed how children's expressions of their empathic abilities were influenced by situational cues in classroom processes. This effect was further explained by children's positions within classroom networks. Our results emphasize the value of interdisciplinary research in the study of empathy. PMID:26283901

  9. Improved performance of Ag-doped TiO2 synthesized by modified sol-gel method as photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Arun Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj; Bahadur, Lal

    2016-08-01

    Ag-doped TiO2 with Ag content ranging from 1 to 7 mol% was synthesized by a modified sol-gel route, and its performance as the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was compared with undoped TiO2 photoanode. Titanium(IV)isopropoxide was used as precursor and hexamethylenetetramine as the capping agent. XRD results show the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 5 nm (1 % Ag-doped TiO2) and 9 nm (undoped TiO2), respectively. The TiO2 nanopowder was used to prepare its thin film photoelectrode using doctor's blade method. Significant improvement in light-to-energy conversion efficiency was achieved when thin films of 1 % Ag-doped TiO2 were applied as photoanode in DSSC taking N719 as the sensitizer dye. As evidenced by EIS measurements, the electron lifetime of DSSC with Ag-doped TiO2 increased from 1.33 (for undoped TiO2) to 2.05 ms. The short-circuit current density ( J sc), open-circuit voltage ( V oc), fill factor (FF) and the overall energy conversion efficiency ( η) were 1.07 mA cm-2, 0.72 V, 0.73 and 0.40 %, respectively, with the use of 1 % Ag-doped TiO2 photoanode, whereas with undoped TiO2 under similar conditions, J sc = 0.63 mA cm-2, V oc = 0.70 V, fill factor 0.45 and conversion efficiency 0.14 % could be obtained. Therefore, compared with the reference DSSC containing an undoped TiO2 photoanode, the power conversion efficiency of the cell based on Ag-doped TiO2 has been remarkably enhanced by ~70 %. The substantial improvement in the device performance is attributed to the reduced band-gap energy, retarded charge recombination and greater surface coverage of the sensitizing dye over Ag-doped TiO2, which ultimately resulted in improved IPCE, J SC and η values.

  10. Triple dye plus rubbing alcohol versus triple dye alone for umbilical cord care.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Alawia K; Watts, Heidi; Beiler, Jessica; King, Tonya S; Khan, Sana; Carnuccio, Marybeth; Paul, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    Current practices for umbilical cord care vary across centers, but the evidence regarding these practices and their impact on cord separation, complications, and health care use are limited. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of triple dye alone (brilliant green, crystal violet, and proflavine hemisulfate) versus triple dye plus rubbing alcohol (isopropyl alcohol) twice daily on time to umbilical cord separation, complications, and health care use. For the 90 newborns who completed the study, there were no significant differences between treatment groups for time to cord separation, cord-related morbidities, or cord-related urgent care. Based on these study results, there does not appear to be significant benefit to the addition of twice daily applications of rubbing alcohol to neonatal umbilical cords following triple dye treatment after birth. PMID:20034947

  11. Dye Sensitized Tandem Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Greg D.

    2009-12-21

    This work provided a new way to look at photoelectrochemical cells and their performance. Although thought of as low efficiency, a the internal efficiency of a 9% global efficiency dye sensitized solar cell is approximately equal to an 18% efficient silicon cell when each is compared to their useful spectral range. Other work undertaken with this contract also reported the first growth oriented titania and perovskite columns on a transparent conducting oxide. Other work has shown than significant performance enhancement in the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can be obtained through the use of coupling inverse opal photonic crystals to the nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell. Lastly, a quick efficient method was developed to bond titanium foils to transparent conducting oxide substrates for anodization.

  12. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination. PMID:25477943

  13. Expansion of the scope of AOAC first action method 2012.25 - single-laboratory validation of triphenylmethane dye and leuco metabolite analysis in shrimp, tilapia, catfish, and salmon by LC-MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to conducting a collaborative study of AOAC First Action 2012.25 LC-MS/MS analytical method for the determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes (malachite green, crystal violet, and brilliant green) and their metabolites (leucomalachite green and leucocrystal violet) in seafood, a...

  14. Laser dye stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, N.

    1980-06-01

    Lasing characteristics and bleaching of four Eastman Kodak ir dyes have been examined in dimethyl sulfoxide. These ir dyes are shown to improve in performance in the absence of oxygen. Their photochemical stability was found to be comparable to the quinolone laser dyes when exposed to flashlamp excitation. Photodecomposition of the ir dyes under lasing conditions was found to vary between 1.6 and 6×10-10 moles of dye for each joule (electrical) of input energy; in comparison, the photodecomposition values for the better coumarin dyes was 0.2 to 1.0×10-10 moles/J at a concentration of 1.0×10-4 M in ethanol. It was also found that increasing the concentration of these tricarbocyanine dyes gives a marked improvement in the useful lifetime of these solutions as lasing media in the absence of oxygen.

  15. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing. PMID:26964959

  16. Effect of the method of preparation for consumption on calcium retention, calcium:phosphorus ratio, nutrient density and recommended daily allowance in fourteen vegetables.

    PubMed

    Słupski, Jacek; Gębczyński, Piotr; Korus, Anna; Lisiewska, Zofia

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate calcium retention in 14 species of vegetable (from four usable groups). The material investigated consisted of raw and boiled fresh vegetables and two types of frozen product prepared for consumption after 12-month storage: one traditionally produced; the other obtained using the modified method (convenience food). The highest calcium content was found in leafy vegetables, followed (in descending order) by leguminous, root and brassica vegetables. The proportion by weight of Ca to P was highest in leafy vegetables and decreased with calcium retention despite the fact that levels of phosphorus were highest in leguminous and lowest in leafy vegetables. The nutrient density (ND%) of calcium for adults exceeded 100 for each individual vegetable species. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) percentage value varied between 23.04 (kale) and 1.46 (white cauliflower). Of the three types of product, ND and RDA values were generally greater in the frozen convenience products. PMID:24467467

  17. Multiresidue method for the simultaneous determination of veterinary medicinal products, feed additives and illegal dyes in eggs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Piatkowska, Marta; Jedziniak, Piotr; Zmudzki, Jan

    2016-04-15

    A multiclass method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 120 analytes in fresh eggs. The method covers the analytes from the groups of tetracyclines (6), fluoroquinolones (11), sulphonamides (17), nitroimidazoles (9), amphenicols (2), cephalosporins (7), penicillins (8), macrolides (8), benzimidazoles (20), coccidiostats (14), insecticides (3), dyes (12) and others (3). Samples were extracted using 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile:water (8:2) with the addition of EDTA and cleaned using solid phase extraction with Hybrid SPE cartridges. The chromatographic separation was achieved on C8 column using mobile phase consisting of (A) methanol:acetonitrile (8:2) - (B) 0.1% formic acid in a gradient mode. Validation results according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC are as follows: linearity (r⩾0.99), recovery (75-108%), repeatability (CV 1.60-15.9%), reproducibility (CV 2.60-15%), decision limit (CCα 2.25-1156 μg/kg) and detection capability (CCβ 2.04-1316 μg/kg). The presented method was used for analysis of 150 real eggs samples taken from monitoring control program. PMID:26616990

  18. Determination of Triphenylmethane Dyes and Their Metabolites in Salmon, Catfish, and Shrimp by LC-MS/MS Using AOAC First Action Method 2012.25: Collaborative Study.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marilyn J; Andersen, Wendy C

    2015-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the AOAC First Action 2012.25 LC-MS/MS analytical method for the determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes (malachite green, crystal violet, and brilliant green) and their metabolites (leucomalachite green and leucocrystal violet) in seafood. Fourteen laboratories from the United States, Canada, and the European Union member states participated in the study including national and state regulatory laboratories, university and national research laboratories, and private analytical testing laboratories. A variety of LC-MS/MS instruments were used for the analysis. Each participating laboratory received blinded test samples in duplicate of salmon, catfish, and shrimp consisting of negative control matrix; matrix fortified with residues at 0.42, 0.90, and 1.75 μg/kg; and samples of incurred matrix. The analytical results from each participating laboratory were evaluated for both quantitative residue determination and qualitative identification of targeted analytes. Results from statistical analysis showed that this method provided excellent trueness (generally ≥90% recovery) and precision (RSDr generally ≤10%, HorRat<1). The Study Directors recommend Method 2012.25 for Final Action status. PMID:26025133

  19. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, color removal by ozonization and by treatment with manganese solid waste, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Study on the chemical stability of catalyst counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells using a simple X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy-based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jungmin; Chung, Jongwon; Park, SungHoon; Baek, WoonJoong; Kim, Yongsu; Kim, Seongheon; Kwon, Young-Nam; Chung, JaeGwan; Kyoung, Yongkoo; Kim, Ki-Hong; Heo, Sung

    2014-12-01

    Since the chemical/electrical stability and catalytic activity are essential conditions for catalyst counter electrodes (CCEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a simple dipping method is employed for evaluating the chemical stability of CCE candidates in an iodine-based liquid electrolyte (I-electrolyte). The chemical stabilities and transition mechanisms of the CCEs are successfully analyzed by studying the chemical transitions in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core levels after dipping in the I-electrolyte. All films including the Pt film undergo degradation depending on the type of material. While dipping in the I-electrolyte, Cu and Au films scarcely dissolves as their respective metal sulfides, and the Al film gradually loss its metallic properties owing to Al2O3 growth. On the other hand, a previously unknown transition mechanism of organic conducting CCEs is determined based on the proposed method. Compared to the other metal films, the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and multi wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/PEDOT:PSS films undergo an entirely unique transition mechanism, which results from the chemical adsorption of organic molecules onto PEDOT:PSS molecules in the I-electrolyte. Consequently, these chemical structure transitions correspond well to the degrees of alternation in the electrical properties of DSSCs with all the investigated CCEs.

  3. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  4. Dye-sensitized solar cells using polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoro propylene) nanofibers by electrospinning method.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Hae; Kim, Ji-Un; Lee, Seong-Yeop; Lee, Won-Ki; Lee, Jin-Kook; Kim, Mi-Ra

    2008-09-01

    The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) devices using polymer electrolytes based on electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoro propylene) (PVDF-HFP) nanofibers were fabricated and investigated the photovoltaic performances. The electrospun PVDF-HFP nanofibers were prepared by various parameters such as; polymer concentrations, applied voltages, and tip to collector distances (TCD) by the electrospinning method. The open circuit voltage (V(OC)), short circuit current (J(SC)), fill factor (FF), and overall power conversion efficiency (eta) of DSSC devices using electro-spun PVDF-HFP nanofibers were 0.7180-0.7420 V, 9.7200-10.8837 mA/cm2, 0.5610-0.6250, and 4.1700-5.0186%, respectively. When 15 wt% of polymer concentration, 14 kV of applied voltage, and 14 cm of TCD is applied to fabricate the PVDF-HFP nanofiber, the electrospun PVDF-HFP nanofiber should be the regular diameter of a nanofiber, the power conversion efficiency of the DSSC device reached 5.0186% as the best result. PMID:19049132

  5. Effect of different solvents on the performance of organic light-emitting device based on red-fluorescent ACY dye by spin coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuangjiang; Yu, Junsheng; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Yadong

    2010-10-01

    A small-molecular red-fluorescent dye of [7-diethylamino-3-(2-thienyl)chronmen-2-ylidene]-2,2-dicyanoviny-lamine (ACY) has been blended into blue-emitting poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) by using different solvents of chloroform and 1,2-dichloroethane. Photoluminescence characteristic of solvent effects were investigated mainly from the aspect of solvent polarity. To demonstrate the solvent effects in organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), devices with a structure of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/PVK: ACY (x wt %)/tris(8-quinolinolato) aluminum (Alq3)/Mg: Ag were fabricated, in which the weight doping ratios are x = 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7. Using spin coating method, a blending system of PVK: ACY is dissolved in both chloroform and 1,2-dichloroethane with various doping concentrations. As a result, by choosing chloroform as solvent, a high electroluminescent (EL) performance device with a maximum luminance of 7698 cd/m2 at a driving voltage of 15.5 V was obtained, with a concentration proportion of PVK: ACY at 1000: 7. In the EL spectra of the OLEDs, red and green fluorescence of ACY and Alq3 were detected. It was found that by using 1,2-dichloroethane as a solvent, fluorescent quenching emerged with the enhancement of doping concentration. Energy transfer and Alq3 cations quencher theories were used to discuss different solvent effects on OLEDs.

  6. A General Method for Preparing Anatase TiO2 Treelike-Nanoarrays on Various Metal Wires for Fiber Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Liang; Li, Luying; Su, Jun; Tu, Fanfan; Liu, Nishuang; Gao, Yihua

    2014-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays were prepared on various metal wires (Ti, W, Ni, etc.) through one-step facile hydrothermal reaction. The anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays consist of long TiO2 nanowire trunks with direct charge transport channels, and a large number of short TiO2 nanorod branches with large surface areas. Fiber dye-sensitized solar cells (FDSSCs) based on the anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays deposited on Ti wires can achieve outstanding power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.32%, while FDSSCs on W wires have lower PCE of 3.24% due to the formation of WO3 layer, which might enhance recombination of charges. When the substrate is changed to a Nicole oxide wire, a novel p-n heterojunction can be obtained. This universal method is simple, facile, and low cost for preparing anatase TiO2 treelike-nanoarrays on various metal wires, which may find potential applications in fabrication of optoelectronic devices. PMID:24646952

  7. Prevalence of Mobile Phones and Factors Influencing Usage by Caregivers of Young Children in Daily Life and for Health Care in Rural China: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Yanfeng; Rudan, Igor; Car, Josip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To capitalise on mHealth, we need to understand the use of mobile phones both in daily life and for health care. Objective To assess the prevalence and factors that influence usage of mobile phones by caregivers of young children. Materials and Methods A mixed methods approach was used, whereby a survey (N=1854) and semi-structured interviews (N=17) were conducted concurrently. The quantitative and qualitative data obtained were compared and integrated. Participants were caregivers of young children in Zhao County, Hebei Province, China. Results Four main themes were found: (i) trends in mobile phone ownership; (ii) usage of mobile phone functions; (iii) factors influencing replying to text messages; and (iv) uses of mobile phones for health care. The majority of 1,854 survey participants (1,620; 87.4%) used mobile phones, but usage was much higher among mothers (1,433; 92.6%) and fathers (41; 100.0%) compared to grandparents (142; 54.6%). Parents were able to send text messages, grandparents often not. Factors influencing the decision to reply to text messages in daily life were checking the mobile phone, trusting the sender, emotion or feeling when receiving a text message, the importance of replying and ease of use of text messages. Of 1,620 survey participants who used a mobile phone, about one in four (432; 26.7%) had used it for health care in the past three months and most (1,110; 93.5%) of 1,187 who had not wished to use their phone to receive health information. Conclusion We found that usage of mobile phones is high, several factors influencing usage and an interest of caregivers to use phones for health care in Zhao County, rural China, which can be used to inform studies in settings with similar characteristics. Future work needs to assess factors influencing mobile phone usage in-depth to optimize experiences of users for specific mHealth-based interventions. PMID:25789477

  8. Development and pilot testing of daily Interactive Voice Response (IVR) calls to support antiretroviral adherence in India: A mixed-methods pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Swendeman, Dallas; Jana, Smarajit; Ray, Protim; Mindry, Deborah; Das, Madhushree; Bhakta, Bhumi

    2015-01-01

    This two-phase pilot study aimed to design, pilot, and refine an automated Interactive Voice Response (IVR) intervention to support antiretroviral adherence for people living with HIV (PLH), in Kolkata, India. Mixed-methods formative research included a community advisory board (CAB) for IVR message development, one-month pre-post pilot, post-pilot focus groups, and further message development. Two IVR calls are made daily, timed to patients’ dosing schedules, with brief messages (<1-minute) on strategies for self-management of three domains: medical (adherence, symptoms, co-infections), mental health (social support, stress, positive cognitions), and nutrition and hygiene (per PLH preferences). Three ART appointment reminders are also sent each month. One-month pilot results (n=46, 80% women, 60% sex workers) found significant increases in self-reported ART adherence, both within past three days (p=0.05) and time since missed last dose (p=0.015). Depression was common. Messaging content and assessment domains were expanded for testing in a randomized trial is currently underway. PMID:25638037

  9. Effect of mercerization and gamma irradiation on the dyeing behaviour of cotton using stilbene based direct dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Adeel, Shahid; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Irshad, Misbah; Abbas, Muhammad

    2012-07-01

    The dyeing behaviour of mercerized and gamma irradiated cotton fabric using stilbene based direct dye has been investigated. The fabric was treated with different concentrations of alkali to optimize the mercerization. The optimum mercerized cotton fabric was irradiated to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Dyeing was performed using irradiated and un-irradiated cotton with dye solutions. The dyeing parameters such as temperature, time of dyeing, pH of dyeing solutions and salt concentration were optimized. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton in CIE Lab system using Spectra flash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) were employed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the colourfastness properties of dyed fabric. It was found that mercerized and irradiated cotton have not only improved the colour strength but enhanced the rating of fastness properties also.

  10. Uniform silica nanoparticles encapsulating two-photon absorbing fluorescent dye

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Weibing; Liu Chang; Wang Mingliang; Huang Wei; Zhou Shengrui; Jiang Wei; Sun Yueming; Cui Yiping; Xu Chunxinag

    2009-04-15

    We have prepared uniform silica nanoparticles (NPs) doped with a two-photon absorbing zwitterionic hemicyanine dye by reverse microemulsion method. Obvious solvatochromism on the absorption spectra of dye-doped NPs indicates that solvents can partly penetrate into the silica matrix and then affect the ground and excited state of dye molecules. For dye-doped NP suspensions, both one-photon and two-photon excited fluorescence are much stronger and recorded at shorter wavelength compared to those of free dye solutions with comparative overall dye concentration. This behavior is possibly attributed to the restricted twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT), which reduces fluorescence quenching when dye molecules are trapped in the silica matrix. Images from two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy demonstrate that the dye-doped silica NPs can be actively uptaken by Hela cells with low cytotoxicity. - Graphical abstract: Water-soluble silica NPs doped with a two-photon absorbing zwitterionic hemicyanine dye were prepared. They were found of enhanced one-photon and two-photon excited fluorescence compared to free dye solutions. Images from two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy demonstrate that the dye-doped silica NPs can be actively uptaken by Hela cells.

  11. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... temporary dyes are: Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead ( lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Hair dyes may contain other ... infection. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system damage. Alternative ... References Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  12. Oxazine laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Field, George F.

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  13. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  14. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  15. Evaluation of seasonal and daily changes of plasma thyroxine and cortisol levels in wild masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou, sampled by a Japanese fishing method.

    PubMed

    Munakata, A; Miura, G; Matsuda, H

    2014-10-01

    A new fish sampling method was developed using a Japanese bait fishing rod (8-9 m carbon rod and a nylon line with a small fine wire single hook), which is considered to catch wild salmonid juveniles with low sampling stress. Using this method, seasonal and daily changes of plasma thyroxine (T4 ) and cortisol levels were examined in wild parr, pre-smolts and smolts of masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou in contiguous locations in a coastal river (Kesen River; 44 km) in northern Honshu Island, Japan, overlapping the period of smoltification and seaward migration from August to March. Plasma T4 and cortisol were low in 0+ and 1+ year parr caught in August and September. In March, some yearling (1+ year) fish, which were judged as pre-smolts, and smolts appeared mainly in mid and lower reaches, while parr (0+ and 1+ year parr) continued to appear in the upper and mid reaches. In March, 1+ year pre-smolts and smolts showed high plasma T4 levels while the levels of 1+ year parr were low. During March 2008-2010, plasma T4 levels of 1+ year pre-smolts and smolts had high levels from early to mid-March, whereas plasma cortisol levels of 1+ year smolts were low in early March and increased towards mid-March. Based on these data, plasma cortisol increases probably occur following the increases of plasma T4 levels to lead the 1+ year O. masou to the completion of smoltification and initiation of seaward migration. PMID:25263191

  16. A comparative examination of the adsorption mechanism of an anionic textile dye (RBY 3GL) onto the powdered activated carbon (PAC) using various the isotherm models and kinetics equations with linear and non-linear methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Açıkyıldız, Metin; Gürses, Ahmet; Güneş, Kübra; Yalvaç, Duygu

    2015-11-01

    The present study was designed to compare the linear and non-linear methods used to check the compliance of the experimental data corresponding to the isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson) and kinetics equations (pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order). In this context, adsorption experiments were carried out to remove an anionic dye, Remazol Brillant Yellow 3GL (RBY), from its aqueous solutions using a commercial activated carbon as a sorbent. The effects of contact time, initial RBY concentration, and temperature onto adsorbed amount were investigated. The amount of dye adsorbed increased with increased adsorption time and the adsorption equilibrium was attained after 240 min. The amount of dye adsorbed enhanced with increased temperature, suggesting that the adsorption process is endothermic. The experimental data was analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson isotherm equations in order to predict adsorption isotherm. It was determined that the isotherm data were fitted to the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The adsorption process was also found to follow a pseudo second-order kinetic model. According to the kinetic and isotherm data, it was found that the determination coefficients obtained from linear method were higher than those obtained from non-linear method.

  17. TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

  18. Impact of the S.W.E.A.T.™ Water-Exercise Method on Activities of Daily Living for Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Mary E.; Takeshima, Nobuo; Rogers, Michael E.; Colado, Juan C.; Borreani, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    Older women may have chronic or age-related conditions that increase the risk of falls or that limit their ability to remain active. It is unclear if a water-based exercise program provides a safe and effective alternative to land-based exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a water-based exercise program method on land-based functional activities of daily living (ADL) for women 60 years and older. This study used a quasi- experimental, nonequivalent control group design. Sixty-six women (60-89 yr of age) self- selected to a water exercise (WEX) group (n = 48) or control (C) group (n = 18). The training consisted of a 16-week (45 min·day-1, 3 d·wk-1) supervised WEX program that included 10 min of warm-up and warm down/stretching and 35 min training using the S.W.E.A.T.™ method in shallow water 1.0-1.2 m, with water temperature approximately 28-29°C. Participants were required to attendat least 94% of the sessions. Assessments for participants included ADL functional field tests. In comparison to the C group, WEX participantsimproved (p < 0.05) flexibility (8%), sit- to-stand (31%), walking speed (16%) and stride length (10%), agility (20%), stair climb (22%), arm curl (39%), and static (42-48%) balance, but not dynamic balance. Results indicate that the S.W.E.A.T.™ method applied to this water exercise program provides a well-rounded, safe, and effective exercise program where older women can improve functional ADL and static balance. Key Points Older women with a variety of health conditions participated in 16 weeks of exercise (92% adherence) with no injuries. The S.W.E.A.T.™ method applied to this water-based program was found to significantly improve several aspects of physical function, including postural balance. This shallow water program provided a well-rounded, safe and effective activity for women to improve functional ADL on land. PMID:24421730

  19. Improved Charge-Transfer Fluorescent Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Improved charge-transfer fluorescent dyes have been developed for use as molecular probes. These dyes are based on benzofuran nuclei with attached phenyl groups substituted with, variously, electron donors, electron acceptors, or combinations of donors and acceptors. Optionally, these dyes could be incorporated as parts of polymer backbones or as pendant groups or attached to certain surfaces via self-assembly-based methods. These dyes exhibit high fluorescence quantum yields -- ranging from 0.2 to 0.98, depending upon solvents and chemical structures. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes of the fluorescence emitted by these dyes vary with (and, hence, can be used as indicators of) the polarities of solvents in which they are dissolved: In solvents of increasing polarity, fluorescence spectra shift to longer wavelengths, fluorescence quantum yields decrease, and fluorescence lifetimes increase. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes are also expected to be sensitive to viscosities and/or glass-transition temperatures. Some chemical species -- especially amines, amino acids, and metal ions -- quench the fluorescence of these dyes, with consequent reductions in intensities, quantum yields, and lifetimes. As a result, the dyes can be used to detect these species. Another useful characteristic of these dyes is a capability for both two-photon and one-photon absorption. Typically, these dyes absorb single photons in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum (wavelengths < 400 nm) and emit photons in the long-wavelength ultraviolet, visible, and, when dissolved in some solvents, near-infrared regions. In addition, these dyes can be excited by two-photon absorption at near-infrared wavelengths (600 to 800 nm) to produce fluorescence spectra identical to those obtained in response to excitation by single photons at half the corresponding wavelengths (300 to 400 nm). While many prior fluorescent dyes exhibit high quantum yields

  20. Dye system for dye laser applications

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

  1. Managing Daily Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... To Cure MD PPMD Merchandise Host an Event Create a Personal Page My Donor Portfolio™ Sponsor Programs Other Ways to Help About Us Mission Financials History Staff & Board Media Awards Partners Contact Us Home / Care for Duchenne / Managing Daily Life Print Email Managing Daily Life Environmental ...

  2. Measurement of time of travel in streams by dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilpatrick, F.A.; Wilson, James F.

    1989-01-01

    The use of fluorescent dyes and tracing techniques provides a means for measuring the time-of-travel and dispersion characteristics of steady and gradually varied flow in streams. Measurements of the dispersion and concentration of dyes give insight into the behavior of soluble contaminants that may be introduced into a stream. This manual describes methods of measuring time of travel of water and waterborne solutes by dye tracing. The fluorescent dyes, measuring equipment used, and the field and laboratory procedures are also described. Methods of analysis and presentation to illustrate time-oftravel and dispersion characteristics of streams are provided.

  3. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics.

    PubMed

    Al-Etaibi, Alya M; Alnassar, Huda S; El-Apasery, Morsy Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated. PMID:27367659

  4. Chronic daily headaches

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Fayyaz; Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Khalil, Modar

    2012-01-01

    Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches. PMID:23024563

  5. Fabrication of Microcapsules for Dye-Doped Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal-Based Smart Windows.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mingyun; Park, Kyun Joo; Seok, Seunghwan; Ok, Jong Min; Jung, Hee-Tae; Choe, Jaehoon; Kim, Do Hyun

    2015-08-19

    A dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) is an attractive material for application in smart windows. Smart windows using a PDLC can be operated simply and have a high contrast ratio compared to those of other devices that employed photochromic or thermochromic material. However, in conventional dye-doped PDLC methods, dye contamination can cause problems and has a limited degree of commercialization of electric smart windows. Here, we report on an approach to resolve dye-related problems by encapsulating the dye in monodispersed capsules. By encapsulation, a fabricated dye-doped PDLC had a contrast ratio of >120 at 600 nm. This fabrication method of encapsulating the dye in a core-shell structured microcapsule in a dye-doped PDLC device provides a practical platform for dye-doped PDLC-based smart windows. PMID:26192469

  6. Cokriging estimation of daily suspended sediment loads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.-K.; Schilling, K.; Skopec, M.

    2006-01-01

    Daily suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with daily river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated daily loads were compared with the daily measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated daily sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured daily values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating daily sediment loads with CK when daily discharge data is available. The estimated daily loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the daily S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical stabilization of laser dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Tad H.

    1987-05-01

    Coumarin laser dyes upon excitation degrade to produce products which absorb at the lasing wavelength. This results in attenuation of dye laser output through interference of stimulated emission. The roles of singlet oxygen and excitation intensity on dye degradation were explored. Singlet oxygen is formed but its reactions with the dye do not appear to be a major cause of dye laser output deterioration. High light intensity results in dye sensitized, solvent oligomerization to yield materials which interfere with dye stimulated emission. 1, 4-Diazabicyclo2,2,2octane (DABCO)inhibits this oligomerization.

  8. Artificial evolution of coumarin dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Abburu, Sailesh; Alsberg, Bjørn Kåre

    2015-11-01

    The design and discovery of novel molecular structures with optimal properties has been an ongoing effort for materials scientists. This field has in general been dominated by experiment driven trial-and-error approaches that are often expensive and time-consuming. Here, we investigate if a de novo computational design methodology can be applied to the design of coumarin-based dye sensitizers with improved properties for use in Grätzel solar cells. To address the issue of synthetic accessibility of the designed compounds, a fragment-based assembly is employed, wherein the combination of chemical motifs (derived from the existing databases of structures) is carried out with respect to user-adaptable set of rules. Rather than using computationally intensive density functional theory (DFT)/ab initio methods to screen candidate dyes, we employ quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (calibrated from empirical data) for rapid estimation of the property of interest, which in this case is the product of short circuit current (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc). Since QSPR models have limited validity, pre-determined applicability domain criteria are used to prevent unacceptable extrapolation. DFT analysis of the top-ranked structures provides supporting evidence of their potential for dye sensitized solar cell applications. PMID:26428071

  9. Dye-promoted precipitation of serum proteins. Mechanism and application.

    PubMed

    Birkenmeier, G; Kopperschläger, G

    1991-11-01

    Immobilized dyes have been used primarily for purification of nucleotide dependent enzymes and proteins from plasma and other sources. Due to their low costs, high protein binding capacity and resistance to degradation dyes bear the potential as ligand for affinity separation of proteins on a large scale. In this paper dyes have been used for precipitation of proteins. Using albumin, prealbumin, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and immunoglobulin G as model proteins we could demonstrate that dye-promoted precipitation depends on several factors which include the structure of the dye, the pH of the solution, the dye/protein molar ratio and the intrinsic properties of the proteins. It revealed that most of the dyes tested were endowed with the precipitating potential. The efficacy of precipitation was found to increase with the complexity of the dye structure. However, the amount of a dye required for total precipitation was found to be different for a given protein. Electrostatic as well as hydrophobic forces are involved in the mechanism of precipitation. It was demonstrated that by optimizing the conditions, mixtures of proteins can be resolved by dye-promoted precipitation. The high sensitivity of the reaction offers the possibility of using this method for rapid concentration of very diluted protein solutions. PMID:1367693

  10. Daily growth increments in otoliths of juvenile black rockfish, Sebastes melanops: an evaluation of autoradiography as a new method of validation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This study evaluates the commonly used oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC) and an alternate chemical, the radioisotope calcium-45, in terms of their success as time-markers to validate daily growth increment formation in the otoliths of juvenile black rockfish, Sebastes melanops.