Sample records for daily intake tdi

  1. Estimated daily intake of phthalates in occupationally exposed groups.

    PubMed

    Hines, Cynthia J; Hopf, Nancy B N; Deddens, James A; Silva, Manori J; Calafat, Antonia M

    2011-01-01

    Improved analytical methods for measuring urinary phthalate metabolites have resulted in biomarker-based estimates of phthalate daily intake for the general population, but not for occupationally exposed groups. In 2003-2005, we recruited 156 workers from eight industries where materials containing diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and/or di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were used as part of the worker's regular job duties. Phthalate metabolite concentrations measured in the workers' end-shift urine samples were used in a simple pharmacokinetic model to estimate phthalate daily intake. DEHP intake estimates based on three DEHP metabolites combined were 0.6-850??g/kg/day, with the two highest geometric mean (GM) intakes in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film manufacturing (17??g/kg/day) and PVC compounding (12??g/kg/day). All industries, except phthalate manufacturing, had some workers whose DEHP exposure exceeded the U.S. reference dose (RfD) of 20??g/kg/day. A few workers also exceeded the DEHP European tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 50??g/kg/day. DEP intake estimates were 0.5-170??g/kg/day, with the highest GM in phthalate manufacturing (27??g/kg/day). DBP intake estimates were 0.1-76??g/kg/day, with the highest GMs in rubber gasket and in phthalate manufacturing (17??g/kg/day, each). No DEP or DBP intake estimates exceeded their respective RfDs. The DBP TDI (10??g/kg/day) was exceeded in three rubber industries and in phthalate manufacturing. These intake estimates are subject to several uncertainties; however, an occupational contribution to phthalate daily intake is clearly indicated in some industries. PMID:20010977

  2. Heavy metals in common foodstuff: Daily intake

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoumbaris, P.; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H. (Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

    1994-07-01

    Lately, toxic effects of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) as well as desirable ones of some others (Ni, Mn, Zn) have been a field of thorough investigation. The main way of human body fortification in metals is through foodchain depending on the kind and quantity of the consumed food, according to dietary habits. The purpose of this study is the calculation of metals daily intake through common foodstuff of Greek inhabitants. The calculation is based on results from quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn in common foodstuff from the market of the city of Thessaloniki. The daily food consumption data is derived from three sources: (a) answers to a questionnaire distributed to families of the city of Thessaloniki, (b) nutrition data provided by the Agricultural Bank of Greece and (c) nutrition data according to international bibliography.

  3. Estimation of daily intake of food preservatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Massey

    1997-01-01

    The techniques that are available for estimating the intake of food preservatives are reviewed. These include per-capita, duplicate diet, diary records, food frequency, Total Diet and biomarker-based methods. Each approach has its merits and disadvantages and selection will depend upon a number of factors such as the reasons why the intake information is required, resource availability and the nature and

  4. Establishment of the Korean Tolerable Daily Intake of Bisphenol A Based on Risk Assessments by an Expert Committee

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chan-Woong; Jeong, Ji-Yoon; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Jung, Ki-Kyung; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Recently, reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of bisphenol A (BPA) have been documented, and thus a review was requested for BPA management direction by the government. Therefore, this study was performed to establish a Korean tolerable daily intake (TDI) for BPA. An expert committee, consisting of specialists in fields such as toxicology, medicine, pharmacology, and statistics, was asked to evaluate BPA health based guidance values (HbGVs) . Although many toxicological studies were reviewed to select a point of departure (POD) for TDI, rat and mouse reproductive studies by Tyl et al. (2002, 2006) , which were performed according to GLP standards and OECD guidelines, were selected. This POD was the lowest value determined from the most sensitive toxicological test. The POD, a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/day, was selected based on its systemic toxicity as critical effects. An uncertainty factor of 100 including interspecies and intraspecies differences was applied to calculate the TDI. According to the evaluation results, a TDI of BPA for Korean was suggested at 0.05 mg/kg bw/day. In addition, the BPA exposure level based on food consumption by the Korean population was estimated as 1.509 ?g/kg bw/day, and the HI was evaluated at 0.03 when the TDI of 0.05 mg/kg bw/day was applied. This HI value of 0.03 indicated that hazardous effects would not be expected from BPA oral exposures. Although highly uncertain, further studies on low dose neurobehavioral effects of BPA should be performed. In addition, it is recommended that the ‘as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) principle be applied for BPA exposure from food packaging materials in newborn infants and children. PMID:24278536

  5. Ubiquinone contents in Korean fermented foods and average daily intakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Hee Pyo; Hyun-Ju Oh

    Coenzyme Q (CoQs, ubiquinones) in food may have antioxidative and other beneficial effects on human health. Data on the ubiquinones (CoQ10 and CoQ9) content of Korean fermented foods were determined, then the Korean daily intake of ubiquinones from those foods was estimated. The analytical method employed saponification before solvent extraction and quantification HPLC\\/MS equipped with diode array detection. Contents of

  6. Daily mercury intake in fish-eating populations in the Brazilian Amazon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos José Sousa Passos; Delaine Sampaio Da Silva; Mélanie Lemire; Myriam Fillion; Jean Rémy Davée Guimarăes; Marc Lucotte; Donna Mergler

    2008-01-01

    Although high levels of fish consumption and bioindicators of mercury exposure have been reported for traditional populations in the Amazon, little is known about their actual daily intake of Hg. Using an ecosystem approach, calculate daily mercury intake in adult fish-eaters, examine the relations between mercury intake and bioindicators of exposure and the factors that influence these relations. A cross-sectional

  7. Copper content in foods of Java Island and estimation of daily copper intake

    SciTech Connect

    Rivai, I.F.; Suzuki, S.; Koyama, H.; Hyodo, K.; Djuangsih, N.; Soemarwoto, O.

    1988-07-01

    The purpose of this study was first to determine copper content in soil, foodstuff and feces of villagers, and estimate the daily copper intake of the villagers and a guest. The data obtained may help clarify the relationships of copper content in the soil-plant (food)-daily intake-feces in Indonesia. Secondly, the percentage of copper contribution of food groups was calculated to determine the influence of the food patterns of villagers and a guest on daily copper intake. Finally, evaluation was made of daily copper intake of villagers in terms of estimated daily copper requirement by WHO.

  8. Daily nutrient intake represents a modifiable determinant of nutritional status in chronic haemodialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincenzo Bellizzi; Biagio R. Di Iorio; Vincenzo Terracciano; Roberto Minutolo; Carmela Iodice; Luca De Nicola; Giuseppe Conte

    2003-01-01

    Background. In maintenance haemodialysis patients, daily food intake is changeable; however, its relation- ship with nutritional status is unexplored. This study aimed to evaluate the isolated, long-term effect of daily nutrient intake on nutritional status in haemodialysis patients. Methods. We performed a prospective 1-year con- trolled study in 27 chronic haemodialysis patients, without recognized risk factors for malnutrition. Each day

  9. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO)

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Poortvliet, Eric; Strömberg, Roger; Yngve, Agneta

    2011-01-01

    Background Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO]) list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP) including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results The adolescents' mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe. PMID:21249160

  10. Risk assessment of coumarin using the bench mark dose (BMD) approach: children in Norway which regularly eat oatmeal porridge with cinnamon may exceed the TDI for coumarin with several folds.

    PubMed

    Fotland, T Ř; Paulsen, J E; Sanner, T; Alexander, J; Husřy, T

    2012-03-01

    Coumarin is a naturally occurring flavouring substance in cinnamon and many other plants. It is known that coumarin can cause liver toxicity in several species, and it is considered a non-genotoxic carcinogen in rodents. By using the bench mark dose approach we re-assessed coumarin toxicity and established a new TDI for coumarin of 0.07 mg/kg bw/day. Oral intake of coumarin is related to consumption of cinnamon-containing foods and food supplements. Cinnamon is a widely used spice in Norway, and can be used as topping on oatmeal porridge. Based on analyses of coumarin in Norwegian foods, intake calculations for children and adults were conducted, and a risk assessment of coumarin in the Norwegian population was performed. Intake estimates of coumarin show that small children eating oatmeal porridge several times a week sprinkled with cinnamon could have a coumarin intake of 1.63 mg/kg bw/day and may exceeding the TDI with several folds. Adults drinking cinnamon-based tea and consuming cinnamon supplements also can exceed TDI. The coumarin intake could exceed the TDI by 7- to 20-fold in some intake scenarios. Such large daily exceedances of TDI, even for a limited time period of 1-2 weeks, cause concern of adverse health effects. PMID:22178604

  11. Daily omega-3 fatty acid intake and depression in Japanese patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Suzuki; T Akechi; M Kobayashi; K Taniguchi; K Goto; S Sasaki; S Tsugane; Y Nishiwaki; H Miyaoka; Y Uchitomi

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between daily omega-3 fatty acid intake and depression in Japanese cancer patients. Omega-3 fatty acid intake in 771 patients with newly diagnosed primary lung cancer was evaluated using a food-frequency questionnaire, and the prevalence of depression was examined using the cutoff values for the depression subscale included in the

  12. Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

  13. Estimation of Daily Salt Intake through a 24-Hour Urine Collection in Pohang, Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is an established relationship between a high salt diet and public health problems, especially hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We estimated daily salt intake in a group of adults and assessed its association with related variables in Pohang, Korea. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2013 with 242 adults. Urine was collected for 24 hr to estimate daily salt intake, and questionnaires about salt preference were administered. The mean daily salt intake was 9.9±4.6 g. There was no difference in salt intake between high systolic blood pressure (SBP) participants and normal SBP participants (10.5±4.7 g/d vs. 9.6±4.3 g/d, P=0.339), but high diastolic blood pressure (DBP) participants reported more salt intake than normal DBP participants (10.4±4.9 g/d vs. 9.7±4.1 g/d, P=0.049). Salt intake and body mass index demonstrated a positive correlation (P=0.001). A preference for Korean soup or stew was associated with high salt intake (P=0.038). Dietary salt intake in Korean adults is still higher than the recommendation from the World Health Organization. More efforts should be made to reduce the salt consumption of Korean adults. PMID:25317022

  14. Comparison of three methods to reduce energy density: effects on daily energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rachel A.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Reductions in food energy density can decrease energy intake, but it is not known if the effects depend on the way that energy density is reduced. We investigated whether three methods of reducing energy density (decreasing fat, increasing fruit and vegetables, and adding water) differed in their effects on energy intake across the day. In a crossover design, 59 adults ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for four weeks. Across conditions, the entrées were either standard in energy density or were reduced in energy density by 20% using one of the three methods. Each meal included a manipulated entrée along with unmanipulated side dishes, and all foods were consumed ad libitum. Reducing the energy density of entrées significantly decreased daily energy intake compared to standard entrées (mean intake 2667±77 kcal/day; 11,166±322 kJ/day). The mean decrease was 396±44 kcal/day (1658±184 kJ/day) when fat was reduced, 308±41 kcal/day (1290±172 kJ/day) when fruit and vegetables were increased, and 230±35 kcal/day (963±147 kJ/day) when water was added. Daily energy intake was lower when fat was decreased compared to the other methods. These findings indicate that a variety of diet compositions can be recommended to reduce overall dietary energy density in order to moderate energy intake. PMID:23523752

  15. Assessment of daily intake of organochlorine pesticides from milk in different regions of Poland.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Mituniewicz-Ma?ek, Anna; Dmytrów, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    The common occurrence of organochlorine compounds in the environment, food and human tissues may constitute a serious threat to human health. The method of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was used to determine the content of pesticides in 15 samples of raw cow's milk from different regions of Poland. The results revealed high levels of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, heptachlor and aldrin. The studied milk contained lindane in average concentrations within the maximum limits. Although in 20% of all samples tested, the concentration of lindane exceeded permissible limits, while in 15% of samples the content of ? DDT was too high. But the average daily consumption of milk containing organochlorine pesticides poses no direct threat to human health, because daily intake (DI) for all compounds were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Attention should be paid to the exposure of consumers to pesticide residues from other dairy foods. PMID:23305275

  16. Estimated Daily Intake and Seasonal Food Sources of Quercetin in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishimuro, Haruno; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Sato, Midori; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Matsunaga, Izumi; Naito, Shigehiro; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Oike, Hideaki; Nagata, Tadahiro; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Kobori, Masuko

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin is a promising food component, which can prevent lifestyle related diseases. To understand the dietary intake of quercetin in the subjects of a population-based cohort study and in the Japanese population, we first determined the quercetin content in foods available in the market during June and July in or near a town in Hokkaido, Japan. Red leaf lettuce, asparagus, and onions contained high amounts of quercetin derivatives. We then estimated the daily quercetin intake by 570 residents aged 20–92 years old in the town using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The average and median quercetin intakes were 16.2 and 15.5 mg day?1, respectively. The quercetin intakes by men were lower than those by women; the quercetin intakes showed a low correlation with age in both men and women. The estimated quercetin intake was similar during summer and winter. Quercetin was mainly ingested from onions and green tea, both in summer and in winter. Vegetables, such as asparagus, green pepper, tomatoes, and red leaf lettuce, were good sources of quercetin in summer. Our results will help to elucidate the association between quercetin intake and risks of lifestyle-related diseases by further prospective cohort study and establish healthy dietary requirements with the consumption of more physiologically useful components from foods. PMID:25849945

  17. An Assessment of Daily Food Intake in Participants with Anorexia Nervosa in the Natural Environment

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Carlye; Mitchell, James E.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Lystad, Chad; Le Grange, Daniel; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the caloric intake in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and how it varies by day as a function of the presence or absence of binge eating and/or purging behaviors. Method Female participants with AN (n = 84, mean age = 24.4, range 18–51) were recruited from three different sites. Data on food intake were obtained through the use of 24-h dietary recall using the Nutritional Data Systems for Research, and data on binge eating and purging behaviors were collected on palmtop computers using an ecological momentary assessment paradigm. Daily macronutrient intake was compared on days during which binge eating and/or purging behaviors did or did not occur. Results On days during which binge eating and purging behaviors both occurred, participants reported significantly greater kilocalorie intake when compared with days when neither behavior occurred, or when only binge eating or purging occurred. Binge eating episodes were only modest in size on days when purging did not occur. Energy intake overall was higher than expected. Discussion Intake on days where binge eating occurred varied dramatically based on whether or not purging occurred. Whether markedly increased binge eating intake was causally related to purging is unclear. Nonetheless eating episodes were at times quite large and equivalent to those reported by participants with bulimia nervosa in other research. PMID:19040266

  18. Estimated daily intake and seasonal food sources of quercetin in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishimuro, Haruno; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Sato, Midori; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Matsunaga, Izumi; Naito, Shigehiro; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Oike, Hideaki; Nagata, Tadahiro; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Kobori, Masuko

    2015-04-01

    Quercetin is a promising food component, which can prevent lifestyle related diseases. To understand the dietary intake of quercetin in the subjects of a population-based cohort study and in the Japanese population, we first determined the quercetin content in foods available in the market during June and July in or near a town in Hokkaido, Japan. Red leaf lettuce, asparagus, and onions contained high amounts of quercetin derivatives. We then estimated the daily quercetin intake by 570 residents aged 20-92 years old in the town using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The average and median quercetin intakes were 16.2 and 15.5 mg day(-1), respectively. The quercetin intakes by men were lower than those by women; the quercetin intakes showed a low correlation with age in both men and women. The estimated quercetin intake was similar during summer and winter. Quercetin was mainly ingested from onions and green tea, both in summer and in winter. Vegetables, such as asparagus, green pepper, tomatoes, and red leaf lettuce, were good sources of quercetin in summer. Our results will help to elucidate the association between quercetin intake and risks of lifestyle-related diseases by further prospective cohort study and establish healthy dietary requirements with the consumption of more physiologically useful components from foods. PMID:25849945

  19. Comparisons of urinary phthalate metabolites and daily phthalate intakes among Japanese families.

    PubMed

    Ait Bamai, Yu; Araki, Atsuko; Kawai, Toshio; Tsuboi, Tazuru; Yoshioka, Eiji; Kanazawa, Ayako; Cong, Shi; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-07-01

    We measured urinary phthalate metabolites, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-isobutyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), from 178 school-aged children and their 284 family members using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and we calculated daily phthalate intakes. The highest median levels of phthalate metabolites were for mono-isobutyl phthalate in all participants except schoolchildren, where the highest levels were for mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Comparing the schoolchildren with their parents, the schoolchildren had significantly higher urinary metabolites for MEOHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate, and ?DEHP. Regarding daily intakes, the schoolchildren had significantly higher daily intakes of DnBP, BBzP, and ?DEHP. All phthalate metabolite and sums of metabolite levels in the schoolchildren were positively correlated with their mothers' levels, except for MEHP, whereas fathers were less correlated with their children. The DEHP intake in this study was higher than that of most other studies. Moreover, 10% of the children and 3% of the adults exceeded the Reference Dose (RfD) value (20?g/kg/day) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, which indicates that it is important to focus on children's DEHP exposure because the children exceeded the RfD more than adults among the same families who shared similar exposure sources. Our results will contribute to considerations of the regulations for some phthalates and the actual phthalate exposure levels in the Japanese population. PMID:25888094

  20. Assessment of fluoride concentration and daily intake by human from tea and herbal infusions.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, E; Inkielewicz, I; Czarnowski, W; Szefer, P

    2008-03-01

    The fluoride content in infusions of commercially available black, green, oolong, pu-erh and white teas was determined by ion-selective electrode. Herbal infusions as well as instant tea and ready-to-drink tea beverages were also examined. It is found that brewing time (5, 10 and 30 min) does increase the fluoride content, which in infusions of black tea (5 min brewing) was higher than that in the other types of tea, with contents ranging between 0.32 and 4.54 mg/l for black tea to 0.37-0.54 mg/l for white tea and with even lower values for herbal tea infusions of 0.02-0.09 mg/l. On the basis of the results obtained, the daily intake of fluoride provided from tea and herbal beverages was estimated for an adult person and for children in comparison with the Polish SAI (Safe and Adequate Daily Intake) of fluoride which is strictly attributable to ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake). The fluoride intake resulted from the regular consumption of black tea infusions was raised as compared to the other types of teas as well as herbal teas. For adult and children tea drinkers consuming five cups of black tea per day the intake of fluoride will be in the range of 8.0-303% and 12-303% of the SAI, respectively. People are often exposed to multiple sources of fluoride, such as in food, water, air and excessive use of toothpaste. The control of tea quality is important to protect human against too high uptake of this element from black tea, which is the most popular beverage. Excessive intake of fluoride with black tea, especially in the regions with its high level in the drinking water, increases the risk of dental fluorosis in children during the years of tooth development. The long-term exposure to large amounts of fluoride can lead to potentially skeletal fluorosis (WHO, 1984). PMID:18078704

  1. Daily Intake of High Dietary Fiber Slows Accelerated Colonic Transit Induced by Restrain Stress in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toku Takahashi; Yukiomi Nakade; Hiroyuki Fukuda; Kiyoshi Tsukamoto; Christopher Mantyh; Theodore. N. Pappas

    2008-01-01

    Background Stress and central corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) are contributing factors to the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome\\u000a (IBS). It has been shown that restraint stress and central CRF stimulate colonic motility in rats. Short-chain fatty acids\\u000a (SCFAs) are produced by bacterial fermentation from dietary fibers. It is controversial whether daily intake of dietary fiber\\u000a is beneficial for patients with

  2. Breakfast consumption with and without vitamin-mineral supplement use favorably impacts daily nutrient intake of ninth-grade students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theresa A Nicklas; Christina Reger; Leann Myers; Carol O’Neil

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the contribution of breakfast consumption (with and without dietary supplement intake) on total daily nutrient intake of ninth-grade students.Methods: Twenty-four-hour recall of dietary intake was collected from a random sample of 711 ninth-grade students attending 12 Archdiocesan high schools in New Orleans, Louisiana. Analysis of variance techniques, Pearson’s Chi-square statistic, and Breznahn–Shapiro method with Scheffé probabilities were

  3. Estimation of the Usual Daily Intake Distributions of Ratios of Dietary Components. Dietary Assessment Research Series Report 5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia L. Carriquiry; Wayne A. Fuller; J. J. Goyeneche

    1995-01-01

    Rations of usual intakes of dietary components, such as the percent of calories from fat, are important indicators of dietary adequacy. The authors of this paper discuss the problem of estimating the intake distribution of ratios of dietary components by using an extension of the method developed by Beale (1962). They first estimate the daily ratio of dietary components for

  4. Characterising the individual health risk in infants exposed to organochlorine pesticides via breast milk by applying appropriate margins of safety derived from estimated daily intakes.

    PubMed

    Hernik, A; Góralczyk, K; Struci?ski, P; Czaja, K; Korcz, W; Minorczyk, M; Lyczewska, M; Ludwicki, J K

    2014-01-01

    Milk secretion being an important way of elimination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) poses a concern due to potential risk for breastfed infants. This study aims to provide a tool for assessing such risks to infants exposed to OCPs (through accumulation in the mother's body), using calculated individual margins of safety (MoS). Selected OCPs included; p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, ?-HCH, ?-HCH and HCB which were analysed in 28 samples of maternal milk. The highest intakes were recorded for p,p'-DDE (at 2.90 ?g kg(-1)bw d(-1)) whilst the lowest was for ?-HCH, (at 0.019 ?g kg(-1)bwd(-1)). For the risk characterisation purposes MoSs were calculated for the compounds for which toxicological reference values (e.g. ADI, TDI) were adopted. The MoS for average ?DDT concentrations was found to be relatively low (2.82) somewhat similar to that for HCB at 7.08, and for ?-HCH, the MoS was substantially higher at 263.1. This, however does not take into account the extremely high individual concentrations. Thus, it was decided to calculate estimated daily intake (EDI) values based on OCP levels in individual milk samples. MoS levels of <1 (meaning unacceptable risk) were noted both for HCB in one sample as well as for ?DDT in 3 samples indicating likely threats to infant's health. The lowest MoS noted for ?-HCH equalled to 60.6, indicating that this compound was not a threat to the health of any of the breastfed infants from the study group. PMID:24161583

  5. Daily menus can result in suboptimal nutrient intakes, especially calcium, of adolescents living in dormitories.

    PubMed

    Kresi?, Greta; Simundi?, Borislav; Mandi?, Milena L; Kendel, Gordana; Zezelj, Sandra Pavici?

    2008-03-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate daily menus in Croatian dormitories and to assess the overall intake of dairy products among resident adolescents. For this purpose, 168 daily menus were chosen for nutritional evaluation by random sampling. In addition, 227 adolescents (133 girls and 94 boys) participated in a questionnaire focused on food intake in addition to the meals supplied in dormitories with the aim to assess the amount and the type of dairy products consumed. The results showed that only 35% of the daily menus were nutritionally balanced. Most of the menus provided an excess of energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated fat, phosphorus, riboflavin, and vitamin A. The levels of calcium and magnesium in the menus were suboptimal. The menus offered to adolescents provided approximately 2 servings of dairy products per day. Milk was the most often supplied dairy product (1.1 servings per day), whereas yogurt had the lowest frequency of serving (0.2 servings per day). The most preferred dairy-based snack for both sexes was milk. Dairy-based snacks provided about 1 serving per day for both sexes and contributed to about 30% of the recommended dietary allowances for calcium. Adolescents who regularly consumed dairy-based snacks meet the recommendations (3.2 servings of dairy products per day and about 98% recommended dietary allowances for calcium). We conclude that the institutional menu planning should be improved because the intake of dairy snacks will continue to be a problem for achieving a healthy diet in adolescences. PMID:19083403

  6. Effects of daily protein intake levels on the oral stereotypic behaviours in energy restricted lambs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Y. Yurtman; T. Savas; F. Karaagac; L. Coskuntuna

    2002-01-01

    Effects of daily protein intake levels on oral stereotypic behaviours (OSB) in energy restricted lambs were investigated. Thirty-eight male lambs were randomly allotted to three treatments. Lambs in the first group (AL) received their ration (12.1MJME\\/kgDM; 148.6gCP\\/kgDM) at ad libitum level, whereas the second group (RP1) (12.1MJME\\/kgDM; 177.4gCP\\/kg DM) and the third group (RP2) (12.1MJME\\/kgDM; 214.9gCP\\/kg DM) received their rations

  7. A simple individual model for simulating weight gain dynamics in response to intake rate and daily behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Verónica Simoy

    2011-01-01

    It is often necessary to estimate the weight that an individual may be capable of gaining depending on its degree of activity. A simple individual-based model was developed for studying the dynamics of weight in terms of daily behavior and ingestion rate. It was based on the balance between the individual's energy intake and the cost of its daily activities.

  8. Daily Rice Intake Strongly Influences the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Japanese Men Aged 40–59 Years

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yoko; Saito, Isao; Asada, Yasuhiko; Kishida, Taro; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Yamaizumi, Masamitsu; Kato, Tadahiro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The first objective of this study was to classify men aged 40–74 yrs with metabolic syndrome (MetS) according to daily rice intake, and the second was to investigate physical measurements, physiological examinations, blood biochemical assays, intake of food other than rice and lifestyle and environmental factors in the study group. Methods: We analyzed data from 6095 men aged 40–74 yrs who had undergone full medical examinations. The men were classified into 3 age groups: (1) 40–49 yrs, (2) 50–59 yrs, and (3) 60–74 yrs. The men were classified further into 3 groups according to daily rice intake: group 1 (?300 g), group 2 (300–450 g), and group 3 (?450 g). The relationship between daily rice intake and the following factors was analyzed in the three age brackets: (1) physical measurements including waist circumference, (2) physiological measurements, (3) serum biochemical indices, (4) whether or not the person was taking medication for hypertension, diabetes mellitus or serum lipid abnormalities, (5) lifestyle, and (6) consumption of foods other than rice. Results: Daily rice intake was related strongly to the occurrence of MetS in all three age brackets. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed (1) a significant increase in the odds ratio for MetS (1.461 times) for group 3 compared with group 1 in men aged 40–49 yrs and (2) a significant increase in the odds ratio for MetS (1.501 times) for group 3 compared with group 1 in men aged 50–59 yrs. However, there was no significant difference in the odds ratio for MetS among rice intake groups in the 60–74 age bracket. Conclusion: In men aged 40–59 yrs, daily rice intake strongly influenced the incidence of MetS, whereas in men aged 60–74 yrs, there was no relationship between daily rice intake and MetS. PMID:25649461

  9. Effects of learned flavor cues on single meal and daily food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, S E; Tepper, B J

    1994-06-01

    This study examined the effects of learned flavor cues on lunch-meal and daily food intake in 39, normal-weight, free-living adults. Subjects were fed distinctly flavored high-calorie (HC) and low-calorie (LC) milkshake preloads. Following the repeated flavor-calorie pairings, the flavors of the milkshakes were covertly switched. Twenty-three percent of the participants were classified as sensory responders. That is, their lunch intake reflected the anticipated caloric content of the preloads based on the sensory properties rather than the true energy value. Short-term sensory learning did not reliably alter 24-h energy intake in these subjects. The remaining subjects (i.e., sensory nonresponders) ignored the flavor cues and consumed the same size lunches across all phases of the study. Compensation for the preloads was examined during the training period (i.e., before the flavors were switched). Sensory responders accurately adjusted lunch intakes on the first day of exposure to both preloads, demonstrating unlearned compensation for energy density. Compensation continued to be accurate across training days for the HC (85%) but not the LC preload (65%). Sensory nonresponders did not compensate accurately for either of the preloads. Thus, sensory responders were initially more responsive to the caloric density of the preloads and continued to make accurate adjustments when the flavor cue matched the caloric load (i.e., during training) but were misled by the flavor cue when it did not match the caloric consequence (i.e., when the flavors were switched). Sensory nonresponders ignored the sensory cues and ate the same size lunches regardless of the caloric value of the preload.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8047588

  10. Evaluation of estimated daily intake (EDI) of cadmium and lead for rice (Oryza sativa L.) in calcareous soils

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The excessive amounts of cadmium and lead in food chain can cause health problems for humans and ecosystem. Rice is an important food in human diet. Therefore this study was conducted in order to investigate cadmium and Lead concentrations in seed rice (Oryza saliva) of paddy fields in southwest of Iran. A total of 70 rice seed samples were collected from paddy fields in five regions of Khuzestan province, Southwest Iran, during harvesting time. In the samples cadmium and Lead concentrations were measured. To assess the daily intake of Cadmium and Lead by rice, daily consumption of rice was calculated. The results showed that average concentrations of Cadmium and Lead in rice seeds were 273.6 and 121.8??g/kg, respectively. Less than 72% of rice seed samples had Cadmium concentrations above 200??g/kg (i.e. Guide value for cadmium); and less than 3% had Lead concentrations above 150??g/kg (i.e. Guide value for Lead). The estimated daily intakes of cadmium by the local population was calculated to 0.59??g/day?kg bw, which corresponds to 59% of the tolerable daily intakes (i.e. 1??g/day?kg bw). Eleven out of 70 samples (15.71%) exceed the tolerable daily intakes. The dietary intakes for Lead in the local population ranged from 0.22 to 0.47??g/day?kg bw. Tolerable daily intakes for Lead is 3.6??g/day?kg bw. As a whole, long term consumption of the local rice may bear high risk of heavy metal exposure to the consumer in the study region. PMID:23566692

  11. Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. P.; Kennedy, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate ingested may be an important risk factor in the development of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Reliable food tables listing the oxalate content of foods are currently not available. The aim of this research was to develop an accurate and reliable method to measure the food content of oxalate. METHODS: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) were compared as direct techniques for the estimation of the oxalate content of foods. Foods were thoroughly homogenized in acid, heat extracted, and clarified by centrifugation and filtration before dilution in water for analysis. Five individuals consuming self-selected diets maintained food records for three days to determine their mean daily oxalate intakes. RESULTS: Both techniques were capable of adequately measuring the oxalate in foods with a significant oxalate content. With foods of very low oxalate content (<1.8 mg/100 g), IC was more reliable than CE. The mean daily intake of oxalate by the five individuals tested was 152 +/- 83 mg, ranging from 44 to 352 mg/day. CONCLUSIONS: CE appears to be the method of choice over IC for estimating the oxalate content of foods with a medium (>10 mg/100 g) to high oxalate content due to a faster analysis time and lower running costs, whereas IC may be better suited for the analysis of foods with a low oxalate content. Accurate estimates of the oxalate content of foods should permit the role of dietary oxalate in urinary oxalate excretion and stone formation to be clarified. Other factors, apart from the amount of oxalate ingested, appear to exert a major influence over the amount of oxalate excreted in the urine.

  12. Energy supplementation and herbage allowance effects on daily intake in lactating mares.

    PubMed

    Collas, C; Dumont, B; Delagarde, R; Martin-Rosset, W; Fleurance, G

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about how to manage grazing horses, including the thresholds under which energy supplementation is required. Here we investigated the effects of daily herbage allowance (DHA) and energy supplementation (ES) on daily herbage intake in lactating mares of light breeds grazing high-quality regrowth during summer. Three contrasting DHA, low (LOW), medium (MED), and high (HIGH), that is, 35.0, 52.5, and 70.0 g DM?kg BW?d, respectively, were obtained by adjusting pasture strip width. Eighteen Anglo-Arab and French Saddle lactating mares were either supplemented with 2.6 kg DM barley/d (SUP group; = 9) or left nonsupplemented (NSUP group; = 9) throughout the experiment. For 3 successive 2-wk periods, 3 groups of SUP mares ( = 3) and 3 groups of NSUP mares ( = 3) grazed each DHA according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Pregrazing sward surface height (SSH) was similar between treatments (26.6 cm), but postgrazing SSH differed significantly between each DHA (2.9, 4.4, and 5.7 cm for LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively; < 0.001). Herbage DMI (HDMI) increased linearly from 18.5 to 23.4 g DM?kg BW?d with increasing DHA (i.e., 0.13 kg DM eaten/kg DM of herbage offered; < 0.001) independently of ES and with no significant ES × DHA interaction. This increase in HDMI resulted from an increase in grazing time between LOW (961 min/d) and MED and HIGH (1,021 min/d; < 0.01) and from an increase in intake rate between LOW and MED (11.8 g DM/min) and HIGH (13.6 g DM/min; < 0.01). Total digestible DMI (TDDMI) and NE intake (NEI) increased linearly from 12.3 to 15.2 g DM?kg BW?d and from 136.6 to 165.8 kJ?kg BW?d with increasing DHA ( < 0.001), respectively. Total digestible DMI and NEI were significantly lower for NSUP than for SUP mares: 12.5 vs. 14.9 g DM?kg BW?d ( < 0.01) and 134.6 vs. 166.5 kJ?kg BW?d ( < 0.001), respectively. Whereas SUP mares always met their energy requirements, NSUP mares no longer met theirs when DHA fell below 66 g DM?kg BW?d (i.e., 39 kg DM?mare?d). PMID:26020347

  13. Bisphenol A (BPA) daily intakes in the United States: Estimates from the 2003–2004 NHANES urinary BPA data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judy S Lakind; Daniel Q Naiman; Judy S

    2008-01-01

    Investigations into human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) have, for the most part, assessed intake based on food consumption estimates combined with measurements or estimates of BPA in foods. In this study, nationally representative data on urinary levels of BPA in the United States (US) from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to estimate daily

  14. Assessment of daily intake of trace elements due to consumption of foodstuffs by adult inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro city.

    PubMed

    Santos, E E; Lauria, D C; Porto da Silveira, C L

    2004-07-01

    Concentrations of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, U and Zn were determined in vegetables (leafy vegetables, fruit, root, grain and cereal), derived products (sugar, coffee, manioc flour, wheat flour, corn flour, and pasta) and animal products (meat, fish, milk) most frequently consumed by adult inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro city. A total of 90 samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) as the principal method following sample dissolution by dry and wet ashing. Generally, highest contributions for the intake of micronutrients (Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) arise from bean, rice and wheat flour consumption. Meat, cow milk and the flours, wheat and manioc, are major sources of Al, Cd, Pb and U intake. The daily intake of nine elements via foodstuffs was estimated as: 3.4x10(-4) mg of U, 1.8x10(-3) mg of Cd, 2.8x10(-2) mg of Pb, 2.3x10(-2) mg of Cr, 8.9x10(-2) mg of Ni, 1.12 mg of Cu, 2.5 mg of Mn, 3.5 mg of Al and 4.8 mg of Zn. The intake of toxic elements ranged between 2.7% (Cd) and 30% (U) of the provisional tolerable daily intake and reference dose values indicating that food consumption is, at present, no critical factor for the uptake of these toxic metals, in the population studied here. Concerning micronutrients, the recommended values of daily intake of Cu and Mn are conveniently supplied by the diet; however, for Cr and Zn they are lower than the recommend daily allowance. Due to high metal concentrations and consumption rates, black bean is the foodstuff that provided the highest ingestion rates of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn (36-60% of the reference dose), being therefore a very important source of micronutrient supply. PMID:15172572

  15. Application of TLC method with video scanning in estimation of daily dietary intake of specific flavonoids--preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Koch, Wojciech; Kuku?a-Koch, Wirginia; Marzec, Zbigniew; Mar?, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids, substances present in foods of plant origin, play an important role in many metabolic processes. Numerous properties of these substances were described, including their anti-allergic, antitumor and antioxidant properties. Therefore, an increased intake of these nutrients may play a beneficial role in human health. The aim of the presented study was to estimate the daily intake of specific flavonoid compounds using thin layer chromatography (TLC) combined with densitometric qualitative and quantitative analysis. Performed investigations revealed the presence of two flavonoids in the extracts from daily food rations--naringenin and hesperidin. Naringenin content in the daily food ration of women was calculated to be 179-537 mg, whereas in the group of men it ranged around 181-550 mg, depending on the conducted method of extraction and solvent system used. Daily dietary intake of hesperidin was calculated to be 193-534 mg in the group of women and 194-562 mg in the group of men. The highest degree of extraction of these flavonoids was obtained for the mixture of acetone and water (7 : 3, v/v) by means of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). PMID:23923385

  16. Daily polyphenol intake from fresh fruits in Portugal: contribution from berry fruits.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Paula; Cardoso, Susana; Pimpăo, Rui Carlos; Tavares, Lucélia; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Santos, Cláudia Nunes

    2013-12-01

    Fresh fruits, particularly berries, are rich in polyphenols. These bioactive compounds are important in the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to assess polyphenol intake from fresh fruit in Portugal and the relative contribution of berries to overall intake, using an online semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of processed berry products was also studied. Mean fresh fruit consumption was 365.6?±?8.2?g/day. Berries accounted for 9% of total fresh fruit intake, from which 80% were due to strawberries. Total polyphenol intake from fresh fruits was 783.9?±?31.7?mg of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) per day, from which 14% were from berries. Within berries, strawberries accounted for 11% of total polyphenol intake, with the other consumed berries accounting for 3% of the total polyphenol intake per day. Main reasons reported for relative low consumption of berries were market availability and price. The most consumed processed berry product was yogurt. PMID:23862729

  17. Breakfast skipping and breakfast type are associated with daily nutrient intakes and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Seokhwa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Emerging evidence shows that eating breakfast and breakfast types may be associated with health outcomes and dietary intakes in various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between breakfast types in Korean adults with their daily nutrient intakes and health outcomes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 11,801 20- to 64-year-old adults (age 42.9 ± 11.8 yrs [mean ± standard error of the mean]; male 41.1%, female 58.9%) in 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data were divided into 5 groups based on breakfast types in a 24-hr dietary recall: rice with 3 or more side dishes (Rice3+, 35.3%), rice with 0-2 side dishes (Rice0-2, 34.73%), noodles (1.56%), bread and cereal (6.56%), and breakfast skipping (21.63%). Daily nutrient intakes and the risk of metabolic syndrome were compared among five groups. RESULTS Compared with Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake levels, the breakfast-skipping group showed the lowest intake level in most nutrients, whereas the Rice3+ group showed the highest. Fat intake was higher in the bread and noodle groups than in the other groups. When compared with the Rice3+ group, the odds ratios for the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome were increased in the breakfast skipping, Rice0-2, and noodle groups after controlling for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS The rice-based breakfast group showed better nutritional status and health outcomes when eating with 3 or more side dishes. Nutrition education is needed to emphasize both the potential advantage of the rice-based, traditional Korean diet in terms of nutritional content and the importance of food diversity. PMID:26060541

  18. Consuming More of Daily Caloric Intake at Dinner Predisposes to Obesity. A 6-Year Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Simona; Musso, Giovanni; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Fadda, Maurizio; Fedele, Debora; Gambino, Roberto; Gentile, Luigi; Durazzo, Marilena; Ghigo, Ezio; Cassader, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives It has been hypothesized that assuming most of the caloric intake later in the day leads to metabolic disadvantages, but few studies are available on this topic. Aim of our study was to prospectively examine whether eating more of the daily caloric intake at dinner leads to an increased risk of obesity, hyperglycemia, metabolic syndrome, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Subjects/Methods 1245 non-obese, non-diabetic middle-aged adults from a population-based cohort underwent a 3-day food record questionnaire at enrollment. Anthropometric values, blood pressure, blood metabolic variables, and estimated liver fat were measured at baseline and at 6-year follow-up. Design Prospective cohort study. Results Subjects were divided according to tertiles of percent daily caloric intake at dinner. A significant increase in the incidence rate of obesity (from 4.7 to 11.4%), metabolic syndrome (from 11.1 to 16.1%), and estimated NAFLD (from 16.5 to 23.8%) was observed from the lower to higher tertile. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for multiple covariates, subjects in the highest tertile showed an increased risk of developing obesity (OR?=?2.33; 95% CI 1.17–4.65; p?=?0.02), metabolic syndrome (OR?=?1.52; 95% CI 1.01–2.30; p?=?0.04), and NAFLD (OR?=?1.56; 95% CI 1.10–2.22; p?=?0.01). Conclusions Consuming more of the daily energy intake at dinner is associated with an increased risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD. PMID:25250617

  19. Betel quid chewing as a source of manganese exposure: total daily intake of manganese in a Bangladeshi population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Methods Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Results Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 ?g L-1) compared to non-chewers (0.62 ?g L-1). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg-1 (range 26 -518 mg kg-1). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg-1 (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. Conclusion We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity. PMID:21299859

  20. Investigation of the amount of dissolved iron in food cooked in Chinese iron pots and estimation of daily iron intake.

    PubMed

    Liu, D Y; Chen, Z G; Lei, H Q; Lu, M Q; Li, R; Li, L X

    1990-09-01

    The amount of dissolved iron in food cooked in Chinese iron pots and that in food cooked in aluminum, stainless steel, and clay pots were determined. It was found that the amount of dissolved iron in food cooked in Chinese iron pots was two to five times higher than that in food cooked in the other types of pots. According to the test results, the estimated increase in daily iron intake was about 14.5 mg for adults and 7.4 mg for children when Chinese iron pots were used. PMID:2252546

  1. Coenzyme Q 10 and Q 9 contents in 6 commercial vegetable oils and their average daily intakes in Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Hee Pyo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the concentration of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and Q9 (CoQ9) in 6 commercial vegetable oils commonly consumed in Korea and estimated the average daily intake of CoQ9 and CoQ10 from oils selected. The analytical method employed saponification before solvent extraction and quantification using high\\u000a performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a mass spectrometer (LC-MS). Contents of CoQ9 and CoQ10

  2. Daily intake of heavy metals by infants through milk and milk products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M Tripathi; R Raghunath; V. N Sastry; T. M Krishnamoorthy

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of the essential elements Zn and Cu and potentially toxic elements Pb and Cd in different milk samples and baby food materials were measured, primarily to assess whether the intakes comply with recommended desired levels for essential and permissible levels for toxic elements. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in different types of milk were

  3. Daily intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers via dust and diet from an e-waste recycling area in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Lin, Zhenkun; Wu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xiangping; Hu, Yabing; Li, Yanyan; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2014-07-15

    This study was designed to estimate the human risk to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure via two main exposure routes (dust and diet) in an e-waste recycling area in southern China. A total of 134 dust samples and 129 food samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The mean concentration of ?PBDE in in-house dust (38,685ng/g dw) was higher than that in out-house dust (24,595ng/g). For food samples, the highest concentration of ?PBDE was found in fish and shellfish (2755ng/kg ww), followed in descending order by eggs (2423ng/kg), cereals (2239ng/kg) and meat (1799ng/kg). The estimated total daily dietary intake of PBDEs was 1671ng/day for adults and 952ng/day for children. The present study indicated that dust intake was the dominant PBDE exposure route for children, and the dietary intake was the dominant PBDE exposure route for adults. Our findings revealed high PBDE concentrations in dust and food samples collected at the center of e-waste recycling area, raising significant health concerns for residents in this particular region, especially for children. PMID:24858050

  4. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I–VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496

  5. Prediction of daily food intake as a function of measurement modality and restriction status

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Nicole R.; Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci; Berkman, Elliot T.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Eating research relies on several kinds of indices (e.g., stable, momentary, neural) to accurately reflect food-related reactivity (e.g., disinhibition) and regulation (e.g., restraint) outside the laboratory. However, the degree to which the most commonly used indices predict real-world food consumption, and whether they do so differentially, is largely unknown. Additionally, the predictive validity of these indices might vary depending on whether or not an individual is actively restricting intake. METHODS We assessed food reactivity and food craving regulation in 46 healthy participants (30 female, age 18–30) using standard measurements in three modalities: (1) self-reported (stable) traits using surveys that are popular in the eating literature, and (2) momentary craving ratings and (3) neural activation using aggregated fMRI data gathered during a food reactivity-and-regulation task. We then used these data to predict variance in real-world consumption of craved energy-dense “target” foods across two weeks among normal-weight participants randomly assigned to restrict or monitor their target food intake. RESULTS The predictive validity of 4 of the 6 indices varied significantly by restriction status. When participants were not restricting intake, momentary (B = 0.21, SE = 0.05) and neural (B = 0.08, SE = 0.04) reactivity positively predicted consumption, and stable (B = ?0.22, SE = 0.05) and momentary (B = ?0.24, SE = 0.05) regulation negatively predicted consumption. When restricting, stable (B = 0.36, SE = 0.12) and neural (B = 0.51, SE = 0.12) regulation positively predicted consumption. CONCLUSIONS Commonly used indices of regulation and reactivity differentially relate to an ecologically-valid eating measurement depending on the presence of restriction goals, and thus have strong implications for predicting real-world behaviors. PMID:25984820

  6. Mineral Composition of Organically Grown Wheat Genotypes: Contribution to Daily Minerals Intake

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved. PMID:20948934

  7. Occurrence and daily intake of ochratoxin A of organic and non-organic rice and rice products.

    PubMed

    González, L; Juan, C; Soriano, J M; Moltó, J C; Mańes, J

    2006-03-15

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) was extracted from 84 rice samples and rice products by using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and analysed with liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. Samples were collected from rice cultivars, local markets and supermarkets; 64 were of non-organic and 20 of organic production. 7.8% of non-organic samples had OTA levels from 4.3 to 27.3 microg/kg and in 30% of organic samples was detected the presence of this mycotoxin varying from 1.0 to 7.1 microg/kg. OTA presence was confirmed by methyl-ester derivatization. Rice and rice products labelled with denomination of origin (DO) were not detected OTA due to the fact that its production has implemented food safety measures such as good agricultural practices (GAPs), good manufacturing practices (GMPs), and the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system. Estimated daily intake of OTA was 0.17 ng/kg b.w./day. This value reflects that the analysed samples have a minimal contribution to toxicological risk. PMID:16316704

  8. Arsenic levels in rice grain and assessment of daily dietary intake of arsenic from rice in arsenic-contaminated regions of Bangladesh--implications to groundwater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Owens, Gary; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-04-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) causes significant human health effects, including various cancers and skin disorders. Naturally elevated concentrations of As have been detected in the groundwater of Bangladesh. Dietary intake and drinking water are the major routes of As exposure for humans. The objectives of this study were to measure As concentrations in rice grain collected from households in As-affected villages of Bangladesh where groundwater is used for agricultural irrigation and to estimate the daily intake of As consumed by the villagers from rice. The median and mean total As contents in 214 rice grain samples were 131 and 143 microg/kg, respectively, with a range of 2-557 microg/kg (dry weight, dw). Arsenic concentrations in control rice samples imported from Pakistan and India and on sale in Australian supermarkets were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than in rice from contaminated areas. Daily dietary intake of As from rice was 56.4 microg for adults (males and females) while the total daily intake of As from rice and from drinking water was 888.4 and 706.4 microg for adult males and adult females, respectively. From our study, it appears that the villagers are consuming a significant amount of As from rice and drinking water. The results suggest that the communities in the villages studied are potentially at risk of suffering from arsenic-related diseases. PMID:19142738

  9. Estimated daily intake of plasticizers in 1-week duplicate diet samples following regulation of DEHP-containing PVC gloves in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Tsumura; S. Ishimitsu; I. Saito; H. Sakai; Y. Tsuchida; Y. Tonogai

    2003-01-01

    Duplicate hospital diet samples obtained over 1 week in 2001 were analysed to estimate the daily intake of plasticizers and the results were compared with those obtained in 1999. The plasticizers quantified in this study were: dibutyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), diisononyl adipate (DINA) and O-acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC). Dipropyl, dipentyl,

  10. Daily intake of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) by German children – A comparison of two estimation models based on urinary DEHP metabolite levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Wittassek; Wolfgang Heger; Holger M. Koch; Kerstin Becker; Jürgen Angerer; Marike Kolossa-Gehring

    2007-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a general-purpose plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and has become a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. It is suspected to be an endocrine disrupting\\/modulating substance in humans. Children are of special concern due to their developmental state. In our study we estimated the daily DEHP intake of 239 children aged 2–14 years by extrapolating from their urinary levels of

  11. Cancer risk assessment using blood dioxin levels and daily dietary TEQ intake in general populations of industrial and non-industrial countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold Schecter; James R. Olson

    1997-01-01

    We previously measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in U.S. foods and estimated the daily dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ) intake to be from 0.3 to 3.0 pg I-TEQ\\/kg body weight for adults. These values are similar to values reported in Canada, Germany, England, and the Netherlands. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Dioxin Reassessment Draft Documents currently propose

  12. Estimation of human maximum tolerable intake for methylmercury based on two recent studies in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Ryoji; Shima, Masayuki

    2009-12-01

    Results of long-term toxicity studies of methylmercury (MeHg) in monkeys have been reported. The aim of this study was to estimate the threshold body burden, blood level and threshold daily intake (TDI) of MeHg for monkey and human. The concepts of this study stood on that body burden of MeHg would follow the accumulation theory, and that the more intake of MeHg, the earlier the neurotoxicity appeared, vice versa. The threshold blood level (TBL) of monkey was estimated to be 0.71 as Hg mg/L and the body burden was estimated to be 4.83 as Hg mg/kg. The TDI was estimated to be 0.025 as Hg mg/kg day. In human, the TBL was estimated with compensation by elimination constants of human and monkey. The blood threshold limit and TDI of human were estimated to be 0.33 as Hg mg/L and 0.0046 as Hg mg/kg day, respectively. The estimated body burden was 0.46 as Hg mg/kg. PMID:19582434

  13. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n?=?17), 69% of acute (n?=?40), 50% of short-term (n?=?10), 92% of non-randomized (n?=?12) and 75% of randomized trials (n?=?24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure, or employed adequate assessment methods for energy and macronutrient intake. Conclusions We found no consistent evidence that increased physical activity or exercise effects energy or macronutrient intake. PMID:24454704

  14. Daily consumption of a synbiotic yogurt decreases energy intake but does not improve gastrointestinal transit time: a double-blind, randomized, crossover study in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Probiotic and synbiotic products are widely marketed to healthy individuals, although potential benefits for these individuals are rarely studied. This study investigated the effect of daily consumption of a synbiotic yogurt on gastrointestinal (GI) function in a sample of healthy adults. Subjects/Methods In a randomized crossover double-blind study, 65 healthy adults consumed 200 g/day of yogurt with (synbiotic) or without (control) added probiotics (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12, Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Lactobacillus casei CRL431) and 4 g inulin for two 15-day treatment periods, each preceded by a 6-week washout period. GI transit time (GTT), duration of colour (DOC), GI symptoms and dietary intake were assessed and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA, including PRE-treatment GTT as a covariate. Participants were grouped as short GTT (STT, n?=?50, ?32.7 h) or long GTT (LTT, n?=?15, >32.7 h) based on their PRE-treatment GTT assessment. Results POST-treatment GTT and DOC were not different between synbiotic and control, and did not change from PRE-treatment, within the STT or LTT groups. There were no changes in GI symptom ratings, indicating that both yogurts were well tolerated. In STT, energy, fat and protein intakes were decreased from baseline with synbiotic (p?=?0.055, p?=?0.059 and p?=?0.005, respectively) and dietary fibre intake was higher POST-treatment with synbiotic versus control (p?=?0.0002). In LTT, decreases in energy and fat intakes with synbiotic were not significant (p?=?0.14 and p?=?0.18, respectively) and there were no differences in dietary fibre intake. Conclusion Consuming 200 g/day of synbiotic yogurt did not significantly alter GTT in healthy adults, but was well tolerated and helped to reduce overall energy intake. PMID:23787118

  15. Daily Manganese Intake Status and Its Relationship with Oxidative Stress Biomarkers under Different Body Mass Index Categories in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bu, So-Young

    2012-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for human and plays an important role as a cofactor for several enzymes involving fatty acid synthesis, hepatic gluconeogenesis, and oxidative stresses. Also, Mn intake status has been reported to have beneficial effects in reversing metabolic dysfunction including obesity and nonalcoholic steatosis which is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses, however, information on dietary Mn intake in Koreans are limited. Hence we investigated the relationship between dietary Mn intake and antioxidant defense factors in healthy and obese subjects. Total of 333 healthy subjects were recruited in the study and were assigned to one of three study groups: a normal group (18.5-22.9), a overweight group (23-24.9), and a obesity group (>25) according to their body mass index (BMI). We assessed Mn intakes (24-hr recall method) and several indicators for antioxidative defenses such as glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and urinary malonaldehyde (MDA). Results showed that body weight and blood pressure of study subjects were increased in dependent of their BMI (p < 0.01). However dietary Mn intakes and oxidative stress biomarkers (GSH, GPx, and MDA) were not significantly different by groups defined by BMI. In correlation analysis adjusting for age, sex and energy intake, dietary Mn intake of the subjects in different BMI categories were not significantly correlated with GSH, GPx, MDA and showed a weak or no association with these oxidative stress markers. In conclusion dietary Mn intake at least in this study has a little or no influence on markers of oxidative status in both healthy and obese subjects. PMID:23431039

  16. Software for simulation of image conversion in IR TDI systems and optimizing TDI focal plane arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey Orlov; Yury Vinetsky

    2000-01-01

    A program model and relative software tool has been developed allowing to simulate transformations of different physical nature the initial image undergo while passing through electro-optical path of IR TDI system. The program consists of appropriate successively processed units, considering influence of atmosphere, optics, scanning, photodetector (PD) and multiplexer, on initial thermal image. The developed software is intended to be

  17. Essential and toxic metals in taros (Colocasia esculenta) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain): evaluation of content and estimate of daily intake.

    PubMed

    Luis-González, Gara; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Ángel; González-Weller, Dailos; Revert, Consuelo; Hardisson, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Taros are a staple in the diet of many people around the world, and they are an excellent source of minerals. Monitoring the levels of metals in food provides basic information that is useful from the perspectives of safety, regulation, and nutrition. Forty-two samples of taros were randomly obtained from supermarkets, vegetable markets, and farmer's plots on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determine the contents of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The levels of Cr, Ni, Cd, and Pb were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Mean concentrations (mg/kg) were 565.6 Na, 2947 K, 231.4 Ca, 364.5 Mg, 1.224 Cu, 3.818 Fe, 1.408 Mn, 2.242 Zn, 0.044 Cr, 0.021 Ni, 0.003 Cd, and 0.006 Pb. The mean concentrations of Cd and Pb were well below the accepted European Commission limits (0.1 mg/kg weight for both metals, respectively). Daily consumption of taro (10.41 g taro/person/day) contributes to the dietary intake of essential metals and trace elements, mainly Mg (1.265% in adult women and 1.084% in adult men) and Cu (1.182% for adult men and women). The average daily intakes of Cd (0.031 ?g/day) and Pb (0.062 ?g/day) from taro were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes (TWIs). Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat based on their metal concentrations and legislated allowable intakes. PMID:25412891

  18. Relationships of feeding behaviors with average daily gain, dry matter intake, and residual feed intake in Red Angus-sired cattle.

    PubMed

    McGee, M; Welch, C M; Ramirez, J A; Carstens, G E; Price, W J; Hall, J B; Hill, R A

    2014-11-01

    Feeding behavior has the potential to enhance prediction of feed intake and to improve understanding of the relationships between behavior, DMI, ADG, and residual feed intake (RFI) in beef cattle. Two cohorts, born in 2009 and 2010, the progeny of Red Angus bulls (n = 58 heifers and n = 53 steers), were evaluated during the growing phase, and the latter group of steers was also evaluated during the finishing phase. All behavior analyses were based on 7 feeding behavior traits (bunk visit frequency, bunk visit duration [BVDUR], feed bout frequency, feed bout duration, meal frequency, meal duration, and average meal intake) and their relationships with ADG, DMI, and RFI. During the growing phase, feeding duration traits were most indicative of DMI with positive correlations between BVDUR and DMI for cohort 1 steers, growing phase (n = 28, r = 0.52, P = 0.00); cohort 2 steers, growing phase (n = 25, r = 0.44, P = 0.01); and cohort 2 heifers, growing phase (n = 29, r = 0.28 P = 0.05). There were similar trends toward correlation of BVDUR and RFI for both steer groups and cohort 1 heifers, growing phase (C1HG; n = 29; r = 0.27, P = 0.06; r = 0.30, P = 0.07; and r = 0.26, P = 0.08, respectively). Feed bout frequency was correlated with ADG in C1HG and in cohort 2 steers, finishing phase (r = -0.31, P = 0.04, and r = 0.43, P = 0.01, respectively). Feed bout duration was correlated with ADG in heifer groups (r = 0.29 and r = 0.28, P = 0.05 for both groups) and DMI for all growing phase animals (r = 0.29 to 0.55, P ? 0.05 for all groups). Evaluation of growing vs. finishing phase steer groups suggests that all behaviors, RFI, and DMI, but not ADG, are correlated through the growing and finishing phases (P ? 0.01 for all variables excluding ADG), implying that feeding behaviors determined during the growing phase are strong predictors of DMI in either life stage. Sire maintenance energy EPD effects (measured as high or low groups) on progeny feeding behaviors revealed a difference in meal duration with a tendency to differ in average meal intake (P = 0.01 and P = 0.07, respectively). Feeding behavior duration traits may be useful predictors of DMI in Red Angus cattle. PMID:25349363

  19. Health risk assessment of Chinese consumers to nickel via dietary intake of foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Zhang, Zhiheng; Yang, Guiling; Wang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment was carried out to characterise the health risk from nickel (Ni) via dietary exposure for Chinese consumers. Ni contamination in foods was investigated by conducting a survey and a literature review. The daily diet of the public was categorised into nine food groups and the consumption data for each group were obtained from a nationwide survey. Deterministic and probabilistic methods were applied to calculate the target hazard quotients (THQs) by comparing the estimated dietary Ni intake with respect to the tolerable daily intake (TDI). The average estimated daily Ni intake (?g kg(-1) bw day(-1)) for men, women, 2-3-year-old children and 4-17-year-old children were 7.2, 7.3, 17.1 and 10.0, respectively. The consumption of cereals, beans, vegetables and marine products contributed significantly to the total daily intake of Ni. The mean THQ values (95% confidence interval) and the probability of dietary Ni exposure higher than the TDI were 0.60 (0.58-0.62) and 8.2% for men, 0.61 (0.59-0.63) and 8.4% for women, 1.35 (1.32-1.39) and 72.0% for 2-3-year-old children, and 0.87 (0.82-0.91) and 28.5% for 4-17-year-old children, respectively. This study showed a potential health risk from Ni via dietary exposure for Chinese consumers, especially among children. PMID:25215469

  20. Genetic variance and covariance components for feed intake, average daily gain, and postweaning gain in growing beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed is the single most expensive cost related to a beef cattle production enterprise. Data collection to determine feed efficient animals is also costly. Currently a 70 d performance test is recommended for accurate calculation of efficiency. Previous research has suggested intake tests can be l...

  1. ESTIMATES OF GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR DAILY GAIN, FEED INTAKE, AND BEHAVIOR TRAITS IN RAM LAMBS OF A COMPOSITE POPULATION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data were recorded from 11 to 17 wk of age on 1,241 ram lambs of a terminal sire composite population. Individual feeding events (length and intake) of each lamb were recorded in a group situation. Estimates of (co)variance components were obtained using MTDFREML. Heritabilities were estimated fo...

  2. Characterization studies of lower and non-TDI polyurethane encapsulants

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.H.

    1993-09-01

    Polyurethane prepolymers containing toluene diisocyanate (TDI) are used within the Nuclear Weapons complex for many adhesive and encapsulation applications. As part of a program for minimizing hazards to workers and the environment, TDI will be eliminated. This report presents evaluation of alternative encapsulants.

  3. Morphological and Metabolic Changes Associated with Large Differences in Daily Food Intake in Crossed-Intestines Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry S Koopmans; Thomas J McDonald; Mario Digirolamo

    1997-01-01

    Koopmans, H. S., T. J. McDonald and M. DiGirolamo. Morphological and metabolic changes associated with large changes in food intake in crossed-intestines rats. Physiol Behav 62(1) 129–136, 1997.—Twenty-two inbred male Lewis rats were made into parabiotic pairs and 7 pairs had a further operation in which the small intestines of the 2 rats were connected so that one rat continually

  4. The assessment of daily dietary intake reveals the existence of a different pattern of bioaccumulation of chlorinated pollutants between domestic dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Rial, Cristian; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; González, Maira Almeida; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-10-15

    Pet dogs and cats have been proposed as sentinel species to assess environmental contamination and human exposure to a variety of pollutants, including POPs. However, some authors have reported that dogs but not cats exhibit intriguingly low levels of some of the most commonly detected POPs, such as DDT and its metabolites. This research was designed to explore these differences between dogs and cats. Thus, we first determined the concentrations of 53 persistent and semi-persistent pollutants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in samples of the most consumed brands of commercial feed for dogs and cats, and we calculated the daily dietary intake of these pollutants in both species. Higher levels of pollutants were found in dog food and our results showed that the median values of intake were about twice higher in dogs than in cats for all the three groups of pollutants (?PAHs: 274.8 vs. 141.8; ?OCPs: 233.1 vs. 83; ?PCBs: 101.8 vs. 43.8 (ng/kgbw/day); respectively). Additionally, we determined the plasma levels of the same pollutants in 42 and 35 pet dogs and cats, respectively. All these animals lived indoors and were fed on the commercial brands of feed analyzed. As expected (considering the intake), the plasma levels of PAHs were higher in dogs than in cats. However, for organochlorines (OCPs and PCBs) the plasma levels were much higher in cats than in dogs (as much as 23 times higher for DDTs), in spite of the higher intake in dogs. This reveals a lower capacity of bioaccumulation of some pollutants in dogs, which is probably related with higher metabolizing capabilities in this species. PMID:26026408

  5. Assessment of daily intake of toxic elements due to consumption of vegetables, fruits, meat, and seafood by inhabitants of Xiamen, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Qian, Yongzhong; Chen, Qiong; Li, Chuanyong

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to estimate the dietary intake of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) (total and methyl), and arsenic (As) by inhabitants of Xiamen, China. The concentrations of these toxic elements (TEs) were determined in vegetables, fruits, meat, and seafood samples randomly acquired in 5 districts of Xiamen between 2005 and 2009. Health risks were evaluated for inhabitants of Xiamen due to dietary consumption. The target hazard quotient (THQ) values for individual elements were far below 1, indicating minimal noncarcinogenic risks from TEs for inhabitants of Xiamen under the current food consumption rate. However, consumption of the entire foodstuffs could lead to potential health risks since the 95th percentile HI was higher than 1. The relative contributions of Cd, Pb, Hg T, and As to the HI were 16.0%, 15.9%, 5.9%, and 62.2% for the mean exposure level, and 13.3%, 13.4%, 5.6%, and 67.9% for the 95th percentile estimate. The THQ value of methyl mercury through consumption of cephalopod was less than 1. Tomato, cephalopod, eggplant, cabbage, orange, and pork were the main sources of total dietary intakes of TEs. The estimation of carcinogenic risk shows that the carcinogenic rate of arsenic exceeded the accepted risk level of 10(-4) . Therefore, the carcinogenic risk of arsenic for inhabitants of Xiamen is of concern. Practical Application:? Tomato, cephalopod, eggplant, cabbage, orange, and pork were the main sources of dietary intakes of TEs in Xiamen, China. The carcinogenic risk of arsenic for inhabitants in this area who consume large amounts of fruits and vegetables daily may be of concern. Consumers are encouraged to eat fruits and vegetables with different origins and eat less cephalopod to reduce the possibilities of continuously eating commodities from the contaminated areas. PMID:21913923

  6. The acute effects of daily nicotine intake on heart rate--a toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic modelling study.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, M; Worth, A; Urani, C; Briesen, H; Schramm, K-W

    2014-10-01

    Joint physiologically-based toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic (PBTK/TD) modelling was applied to simulate concentration-time profiles of nicotine, a well-known stimulant, in the human body following single and repeated dosing. Both kinetic and dynamic models were first calibrated by using in vivo literature data for the Caucasian population. The models were then used to estimate the blood and liver concentrations of nicotine in terms of the Area Under Curve (AUC) and the peak concentration (Cmax) for selected exposure scenarios based on inhalation (cigarette smoking), oral intake (nicotine lozenges) and dermal absorption (nicotine patches). The model simulations indicated that whereas frequent cigarette smoking gives rise to high AUC and Cmax in blood, the use of nicotine-rich dermal patches leads to high AUC and Cmax in the liver. Venous blood concentrations were used to estimate one of the most common acute effects, mean heart rate, both at rest and during exercise. These estimations showed that cigarette smoking causes a high peak heart rate, whereas dermal absorption causes a high mean heart rate over 48h. This study illustrates the potential of using PBTK/TD modelling in the safety assessment of nicotine-containing products. PMID:25066669

  7. Feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and real-time ultrasound traits in Duroc pigs: II. Genomewide association.

    PubMed

    Jiao, S; Maltecca, C; Gray, K A; Cassady, J P

    2014-07-01

    Efficient use of feed resources has become a clear challenge for the U.S. pork industry as feed costs continue to be the largest variable expense. The availability of the Illumina Porcine60K BeadChip has greatly facilitated whole-genome association studies to identify chromosomal regions harboring genes influencing those traits. The current study aimed at identifying genomic regions associated with variation in feed efficiency and several production traits in a Duroc terminal sire population, including ADFI, ADG, feed conversion ratio, residual feed intake (RFI), real-time ultrasound back fat thickness (BF), ultrasound muscle depth, intramuscular fat content (IMF), birth weight (BW at birth), and weaning weight (BW at weaning). Single trait association analyses were performed using Bayes B models with 35,140 SNP on 18 autosomes after quality control. Significance of nonoverlapping 1-Mb length windows (n = 2,380) were tested across 3 QTL inference methods: posterior distribution of windows variances from Monte Carlo Markov Chain, naive Bayes factor, and nonparametric bootstrapping. Genes within the informative QTL regions for the traits were annotated. A region ranging from166 to 140 Mb (4-Mb length) on SSC 1, approximately 8 Mb upstream of the MC4R gene, was significantly associated with ADFI, ADG, and BF, where SOCS6 and DOK6 are proposed as the most likely candidate genes. Another region affecting BW at weaning was identified on SSC 4 (84-85 Mb), harboring genes previously found to influence both human and cattle height: PLAG1, CHCHD7, RDHE2 (or SDR16C5), MOS, RPS20, LYN, and PENK. No QTL were identified for RFI, IMF, and BW at birth. In conclusion, we have identified several genomic regions associated with traits affecting nutrient utilization that could be considered for future genomic prediction to improve feed utilization. PMID:24962532

  8. Daily intake of Jeju groundwater improves the skin condition of the model mouse for human atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akane; Jung, Kyungsook; Matsuda, Akira; Jang, Hyosun; Kajiwara, Naoki; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Ahn, Ginnae; Ohmori, Keitaro; Kang, Kyung-goo; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Drinking water is an important nutrient for human health. The mineral ingredients included in drinking water may affect the physical condition of people. Various kinds of natural water are in circulation as bottled water in developed countries; however, its influence on clinical conditions of patients with certain diseases has not been fully evaluated. In this study, effects of the natural groundwater from Jeju Island on clinical symptoms and skin barrier function in atopic dermatitis (AD) were evaluated. NC/Tnd mice, a model for human AD, with moderate to severe dermatitis were used. Mice were given different natural groundwater or tap water for 8 weeks from 4 weeks of age. Clinical skin severity scores were recorded every week. Scratching analysis and measurement of transepidermal water loss were performed every other week. The pathological condition of the dorsal skin was evaluated histologically. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed for cytokine expression in the affected skin. The epidermal hyperplasia and allergic inflammation were reduced in atopic mice supplied with Jeju groundwater when compared to those supplied with tap water or other kinds of natural groundwater. The increase in scratching behavior with the aggravation of clinical severity of dermatitis was favorably controlled. Moreover, transepidermal water loss that reflects skin barrier function was recovered. The early inflammation and hypersensitivity in the atopic skin was alleviated in mice supplied with Jeju groundwater, suggesting its profitable potential on the daily care of patients with skin troubles including AD. PMID:23294459

  9. Cancer risk assessment using blood dioxin levels and daily dietary TEQ intake in general populations of industrial and non-industrial countries.

    PubMed

    Schecter, A; Olson, J R

    1997-01-01

    We previously measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in U.S. foods and estimated the daily dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ) intake to be from 0.3 to 3.0 pg 1-TEQ/kg body weight for adults. These values are similar to values reported in Canada, Germany, England, and the Netherlands. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Dioxin Reassessment Draft Documents currently propose a cancer risk-specific dose estimate of 0.01 pg TEQ/kg body weight/day (U.S. EPA, 1994). This risk-specific dose estimate represents a lifetime (70 years) dose which results in a plausible upper bound cancer risk of 1 x 10(-6) (the probability of one additional cancer per one million exposed population over a lifetime). The proximate source of almost all dioxin intake in the general population is from food. Using our data for daily dietary dioxin exposure and the EPA's proposed risk specific dose, we estimate that over a lifetime a maximum of 30 to 300 excess cancers per million could result from the ingestion of dioxin containing food products. In the U.S. population of 260 million, a maximum range of 7,800 to 78,000 excess cancers over a lifetime (70 years) or 111 to 1,114 cases/year might be directly linked to dioxin exposure from food. Because these calculations are based on conservative approaches to setting an upper bound, "true" risk is not likely to exceed this value. At present, one-third of all Americans will develop cancer over a lifetime and one in four Americans are likely to die from cancer. For 1995, it was estimated that there would be 1,252,000 new cancer cases in the U.S. From this, we calculate that a maximum between 0.009% and 0.09% (111-1,114 cases/year) of all cancer cases in the U.S. might be directly linked to dioxin intake in food, assuming intakes have remained constant over a lifetime. Previous studies have suggested that as much as 70% of the total cancer risk in humans may be attributable to diet, primarily as a function of caloric and synthetic chemicals in the diet. (NAS, 1996) These figures do not take into account the ingestion of more contaminated food products, other sources of exposure, possible interactions of PCDDs and PCDFs with other chemicals, or increased incidence of cancer from the cancer promoting actions of dioxins. In addition, we reviewed average U.S. general population blood TEQ (ppt, lipid) levels, which reflect body burden, with levels of persons living in less industrialized countries. These data were used to compare the cancer risk of individuals living in the U.S., an industrial country, to those living in selected less industrialized countries. With the assumption that similar populations were being compared, it is estimated that in the non-industrial region of north Vietnam there is one-third the risk of dioxin-related cancer compared with the United States, while Cambodians have a dioxin-related cancer risk that is 14 fold less than the U.S. at this time. PMID:9134688

  10. Determination of total vanadium and vanadium(V) in groundwater from Mt. Etna and estimate of daily intake of vanadium(V) through drinking water.

    PubMed

    Arena, Giovanni; Copat, Chiara; Dimartino, Angela; Grasso, Alfina; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-06-01

    Vanadium(V) can be found in natural waters in the form of V(IV) and V(V) species, which have different biological properties and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of total V and V(V) in groundwater from the area of Mt. Etna and to assess the estimated daily intake (EDI) of V(V) of adults and children through drinking water. Water was sampled monthly at 21 sites in 2011. Total vanadium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and speciation by ion chromatography-ICP-MS (IC-ICP-MS). The concentration of V(V) species ranged from 62.8 to 98.9% of total V, with significantly higher concentrations in samples from the S/SW slope of Mt. Etna. The annual mean concentrations of total V exceeded the Italian legal limit of 140 ?g/L at four sites on the S/SW slope. In the absence of thresholds for V(V) intake, only the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has calculated a reference dose. Children's EDI of V(V) at the sites with the higher V concentrations exceeded EPA thresholds (9 ?g/kg/day). In particular, we found in Camporotondo, Mascalucia, Ragalna and San Pietro Clarenza sites children's EDIs of 11, 9.3, 11 and 9.9, respectively. The EDI of V(V) was significantly higher than the literature range (0.09-0.34 ?g/kg/day). PMID:26042983

  11. Anion Coordination Interactions in Solvates with the Lithium Salts LiDCTA and LiTDI

    SciTech Connect

    McOwen, Dennis W.; Delp, Samuel A.; Paillard, Elie; Herriot, Cristelle; Han, Sang D.; Boyle, Paul D.; Sommer, Roger D.; Henderson, Wesley A.

    2014-04-17

    Lithium 4,5-dicyano-1,2,3-triazolate (LiDCTA) and lithium 2-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazole (LiTDI) are two salts proposed for lithium battery electrolyte applications, but little is known about the manner in which the DCTA- and TDI- anions coordinate Li+ cations. To explore this in-depth, crystal structures are reported here for two solvates with LiDCTA: (G2)1:LiDCTA and (G1)1:LiDCTA with diglyme and monoglyme, respectively, and seven solvates with LiTDI: (G1)2:LiTDI, (G2)2:LiTDI, (G3)1:LiTDI, (THF)1:LiTDI, (EC)1:LiTDI, (PC)1:LiTDI and (DMC)1/2:LiTDI with monoglyme, diglyme, triglyme, tetrahydrofuran, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate, respectively. These latter solvate structures are compared with the previously reported acetonitrile (AN)2:LiTDI structure. The solvates indicate that the LiTDI salt is much less associated than the LiDCTA salt and that the ions in LiTDI, when aggregated in solvates, have a very similar TDI-...Li+ cation mode of coordination through both the anion ring and cyano nitrogen atoms. Such coordination facilitates the formation of polymeric ion aggregates, instead of dimers. Insight into such ion speciation is instrumental for understanding the electrolyte properties of aprotic solvent mixtures with these salts.

  12. The daily fluorine and arsenic intake for residents with different dietaries and fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area, Yunnan, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Luo, Kun-Li; Tang, Yue-Gang; Liu, Yong-Lin

    2015-02-01

    The daily fluorine (F)/arsenic (As) intake (DFI/DAsI) for residents at different ages with different dietaries and dietary changes was investigated to analyze the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area in Yunnan, Southwest China. The DFI for residents with a dietary of roasted corn and roasted chili was 5.06, 9.60, and 14.38 mg for age groups 3-7, 8-15, and over 15 years, respectively. Over 90 % of DFI was from roasted foodstuffs. The DFI for residents of the same age group living on rice and roasted chili was 1.94, 3.50, and 4.95 mg, respectively, which were less than that for the former dietary type, and 65 % of DFI was from roasted chili. The main sources for their DFI are roasted foodstuffs. Both were higher than the dietaries with non-roasted foodstuffs and the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for USA and China at different levels. The DAsI for all residents ranged from 25 to 135 ?g, and at this level of DAsI, it would not influence human health. However, As pollution of roasted foodstuffs might have an important influence for the fluorosis. Residents are changing their staple food from roasted corn to rice, and especially, younger people are more focused on quality life. However, even if residents change their staple food, the habit of eating chili will not change, which also may cause them getting fluorosis. Developing economy, changing dietary types, and changing the habit of drying and keeping chili will help to reduce the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area of Southwest China. PMID:25167821

  13. Effects of daily intake of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components on chronic stress responses: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Nora; Korpela, Riitta; Poussa, Tuija; Turpeinen, Anu; Mustonen, Sari; Merilahti, Juho; Peuhkuri, Katri

    2014-06-01

    Chronic stress has a negative influence on health. The aim was to determine stress reducing effects of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components as compared to normal yoghurt. High-trait anxiety individuals (n?=?67) aged 18-63 years participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention with parallel groups. They received either yoghurt enriched with alpha-lactalbumin, casein tripeptides and B vitamins (active) or isoenergetic standard yoghurt (control). To detect changes in psychological and physiological stress, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, salivary cortisol, inflammatory markers, blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV) and actigraphy were monitored. We observed higher ratings of vigor (p?=?0.047) and reduced feeling of inefficiency (p?=?0.048) in the active group. HRV (baseline adjusted mean 49.1?±?2.3?ms) and recovery index (106.6?±?33.4) were higher in the active group than in controls (42.5?±?2.2?ms and 80.0?±?29.3) (p?=?0.046 and p?=?0.02, respectively). In conclusion, daily intake of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components may aid in stress coping. PMID:24490888

  14. Associations of Youth and Parent Weight Status with Reported versus Predicted Daily Energy Intake and Hemoglobin A1c in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Amanda L. P.; Higgins, Laurie A.; Mehta, Sanjeev N.; Nansel, Tonja R.; Lipsky, Leah M.; Laffel, Lori M. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The epidemic of overweight/obesity affects youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and their families. In youth with T1DM and their parents, we examined weight status with reported and expected energy intake and with youth hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Methods In 243 youth (48% female, 13 ± 3 years) and their parents (84% female, 45 ± 6 years), we assessed body mass index (BMI), prevalence of overweight/obesity, reported energy intake (REI), and youth glycemic control (HbA1c). The REI was compared with predicted daily energy requirements (DER; based on age, weight, sex, and physical activity). Results Youth had diabetes duration of 6.3 ± 3.4 years and HbA1c of 8.5% ± 1.3%; 69% used insulin pump therapy. Overweight and obesity affected 23% and 11% of youth and 30% and 24% of parents, respectively. Youth and parent BMI (r = 0.38; p < .001) and weight status (overweight/obese; p < .001) were significantly associated. The ratio of REI:DER was significantly lower in overweight/obese compared with underweight/normal weight parents (1.0 ± 0.4 versus 1.2 ± 0.5; p = .001) but did not differ among youth by weight status. Both youth and parent BMI were positively correlated with youth HbA1c (r = 0.14, p = .02; r = 0.16, p = .01, respectively). Hemoglobin A1c tended to be higher in obese than in overweight and normal weight youth (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 8.4 ± 1.4, 8.4 ± 1.3, and 8.8 ± 1.0, respectively; p = .06) and was significantly higher in youth whose parents were obese versus overweight or underweight/normal weight (mean ± SD 8.2 ± 1.2, 8.5 ± 1.4, and 8.9 ± 1.5, respectively; p < .001). Conclusions Similar to the general population, overweight and obesity are prevalent among families of youth with T1DM. Weight status appears to influence self-REI in parents and glycemic control in youth with T1DM, suggesting the need for family-based dietary interventions. PMID:23439184

  15. Effect of daily feed intake in laying period on laying performance, egg quality and egg composition of genetically fat and lean lines of chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Li; L. M. Xu; A. S. Shan; J. W. Hu; Y. Y. Zhang; Y. H. Li

    2011-01-01

    1. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feed intake on laying performance, egg quality and egg composition in a Fat line and a Lean line during the laying period (34 to 54 weeks of age).2. The experiment was a 2?×?2 factorial design with two dietary intake levels (nutrition recommendation and 75% of recommendation) and two

  16. Feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and real-time ultrasound traits in Duroc pigs: I. Genetic parameter estimation and accuracy of genomic prediction.

    PubMed

    Jiao, S; Maltecca, C; Gray, K A; Cassady, J P

    2014-06-01

    The efficiency of producing salable products in the pork industry is largely determined by costs associated with feed and by the amount and quality of lean meat produced. The objectives of this paper were 1) to explore heritability and genetic correlations for growth, feed efficiency, and real-time ultrasound traits using both pedigree and marker information and 2) to assess accuracy of genomic prediction for those traits using Bayes A prediction models in a Duroc terminal sire population. Body weight at birth (BW at birth) and weaning (BW at weaning) and real-time ultrasound traits, including back fat thickness (BF), muscle depth (MD), and intramuscular fat content (IMF), were collected on the basis of farm protocol. Individual feed intake and serial BW records of 1,563 boars obtained from feed intake recording equipment (FIRE; Osborne Industries Inc., Osborne, KS) were edited to obtain growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency traits, including ADG, ADFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI). Correspondingly, 1,047 boars were genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. The remaining 516 boars, as an independent sample, were genotyped with a low-density GGP-Porcine BeadChip and imputed to 60K. Magnitudes of heritability from pedigree analysis were moderate for growth, feed intake, and ultrasound traits (ranging from 0.44 ± 0.11 for ADG to 0.58 ± 0.09 for BF); heritability estimates were 0.32 ± 0.09 for FCR but only 0.10 ± 0.05 for RFI. Comparatively, heritability estimates using marker information by Bayes A models were about half of those from pedigree analysis, suggesting "missing heritability." Moderate positive genetic correlations between growth and feed intake (0.32 ± 0.05) and back fat (0.22 ± 0.04), as well as negative genetic correlations between growth and feed efficiency traits (-0.21 ± 0.08, -0.05 ± 0.07), indicate selection solely on growth traits may lead to an undesirable increase in feed intake, back fat, and reduced feed efficiency. Genetic correlations among growth, feed intake, and FCR assessed by a multiple-trait Bayes A model resulted in increased genetic correlation between ADG and ADFI, a negative correlation between ADFI and FCR, and a positive correlation between ADG and FCR. Accuracies of genomic prediction for the traits investigated, ranging from 9.4% for RFI to 36.5% for BF, were reported that might provide new insight into pig breeding and future selection programs using genomic information. PMID:24671579

  17. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  18. Validity and Reproducibility of a Self-Administered Semi-Quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Usual Daily Fat, Fibre, Alcohol, Caffeine and Theobromine Intakes among Belgian Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bolca, Selin; Huybrechts, Inge; Verschraegen, Mia; De Henauw, Stefaan; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2009-01-01

    A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d) estimated diet records (EDR, n 64) and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79). Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47–0.94; weighted ? 0.25–0.66) and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71–0.87) with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted ? 0.33–0.80). In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population. PMID:19440274

  19. Monitoring programme on nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain: levels and estimated daily intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Pardo-Marín; V. Yusŕ-Pelechŕ; P. Villalba-Martín; J. A. Perez-Dasí

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the current levels of nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods (a total of 1150 samples) marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain, over the period 2000–2008, and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. Average (median) levels of nitrate in lettuce, iceberg-type lettuce and spinach (1156, 798 and 1410 mg

  20. Individually timing high-protein preloads has no effect on daily energy intake, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S M Willbond; É Doucet

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Objectives:Gut hormones have been shown to influence energy intake (EI). To our knowledge, no study has investigated the effects of dietary patterns aimed at optimizing fullness on EI, appetite and gut hormones.Subject\\/Methods:To determine whether individually timing high-protein preloads would impact EI, appetite, and peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. Ten men (body mass index=25.5±2.6 kg\\/m2) participated in a randomized

  1. Design of ROIC based on switched capacitor TDI for MCT LWIR focal plane arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huseyin Kayahan; Melik Yazici; Omer Ceylan; Muhammet B. Baran; Yasar Gurbuz

    2011-01-01

    Design and measurement of a silicon readout integrated circuit (ROIC) based on switched capacitor time delay integration (TDI) technique for LWIR HgCdTe Focal Plane is presented. ROIC incorporates time delay integration (TDI) functionality for scanning type of detector by using switched capacitor technique with a supersampling rate of three, increasing SNR and the spatial resolution. ROIC, in terms of functionality,

  2. INPE-12145-TDI/969 ANLISE DE EPISDIOS DE TORNADO EM SANTA CATARINA

    E-print Network

    INPE-12145-TDI/969 ANÁLISE DE EPISÓDIOS DE TORNADO EM SANTA CATARINA: CARACTERIZAÇĂO SINÓTICA E. Análise de episódios de tornados em Santa Catarina: caracterizaçăo sinótica e mineraçăo de dados / I. P. O. Marcelino. ­ Săo José dos Campos: INPE, 2003. 223p. ­ (INPE-12145-TDI/969). 1.Tornados. 2.Tempestades

  3. Estimation of safe dietary intake levels of acrylamide for humans.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, Robert G; Gargas, Michael L; Kirman, Christopher R; Carson, M Leigh; Sweeney, Lisa M

    2010-02-01

    Acrylamide (AA), a human neurotoxicant and rat tumorigen, is produced in starchy foods when cooked. AA is also an industrial chemical used in polyacrylamide production. A safety evaluation of ingested AA by humans was conducted using a newly developed, state-of-the-art physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBPK or PBTK) model to compare internal doses of AA and its metabolite glycidamide (GA) in humans and rats. Based on modes of action (MoA), a nonlinear dose-response approach was applied for neurotoxicity (non-genotoxicity) and carcinogenicity (mixed: genotoxicity and epigenetic MoA). Tolerable daily intake (TDI) for neurotoxicity from AA was estimated to be 40 microg/kg-day; TDIs for cancer were estimated to be 2.6 and 16 microg/kg-day based on AA or GA, respectively. Margins of exposure (MoE) were calculated for average AA consumers to be 300 and 500 based on AA and GA, respectively; for cancer, the MoE for average AA consumers was estimated to be 200 and 1200 based on AA and GA, respectively. For high consumers of AA, MoEs were somewhat less. PMID:19948203

  4. Persistent asthma due to isocyanates. A follow-up study of subjects with occupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate (TDI)

    SciTech Connect

    Mapp, C.E.; Corona, P.C.; De Marzo, N.; Fabbri, L.

    1988-06-01

    Thirty-five subjects with occupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposure were examined. All the subjects were studied with inhalation challenges with TDI and with methacholine. TDI asthma was documented by a positive inhalation challenge to low levels of TDI. Airway responsiveness to methacholine was in the range of asthmatic patients at the time of diagnosis. After an average follow-up interval of 10 months, all the subjects were re-examined. Of the 35 subjects examined, 30 subjects (85.7%) left the workplace, and 5 remained in the same job. Twenty-seven subjects (77.1%) continued to have asthmatic attacks requiring medication for relief of symptoms. At follow-up examination, TDI asthma was documented by a positive inhalation challenge to TDI in 27 subjects. Of these 27 TDI reactors, 22 subjects were removed from occupational exposure to TDI. The TDI reactors had persistent respiratory symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. At follow-up visit, 8 subjects (22.9%) lost sensitization to TDI; 5 subjects (62.5%) in this group had also normal airway responsiveness to methacholine after removal from exposure. Only 1 subject among the TDI nonreactors complained of mild respiratory symptoms. At diagnosis, there were no significant differences between subjects who recovered and those who did not with regard to age, smoking habits, atopy, duration of exposure to isocyanates, duration of symptoms, baseline FEV1 (% pred), and baseline airway responsiveness to methacholine.

  5. Dietary intake of pesticide residues: Cadmium, mercury, and lead

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1991-01-01

    Information on the dietary intake of chemical contaminants has been obtained from institutions participating in GEMS\\/Food. Contaminants studied include certain organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides, PCBs, cadmium, mercury, and lead. The intakes are compared with toxicologically acceptable intake levels established by international expert groups.In most cases, dietary intakes of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides are well below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI)

  6. Daily intake of bisphenol A and triclosan and their association with anthropometric data, thyroid hormones and weight loss in overweight and obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Geens, Tinne; Dirtu, Alin C; Dirinck, Eveline; Malarvannan, Govindan; Van Gaal, Luc; Jorens, Philippe G; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) were determined in urine of Belgian overweight and obese (n=151) and lean (n=43) individuals. After the first urine collection (0M), obese patients started a diet program or have undergone bariatric surgery. Hereafter, three additional urine samples from obese patients were collected after 3 (3M), 6 (6M) and 12 (12M) months. Both compounds were detected in >99% of the samples. BPA had median concentrations of 1.7 and 1.2ng/mL in obese and lean groups, respectively, while TCS had median concentrations of 1.5 and 0.9ng/mL in the obese and lean groups, respectively. The obese group had higher urinary concentrations (ng/mL) of BPA (p<0.5), while no significant differences were found for TCS between the obese and lean groups. No time trends between the different collection moments were observed. The BPA concentrations in the obese group were negatively associated with age, while no gender difference or relationship with body mass index was observed. For TCS, no relationships with gender, BMI, or age were found. The temporal variability of BPA and TCS was assessed with calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient, Spearman rank correlation coefficients, and surrogate category analysis. We observed evidence that single spot urine samples might be predictive of exposure over a longer period of time. Dietary intakes of BPA and TCS did not differ significantly among the time points considered after obese individuals started losing weight (6 and 12months). Multiple linear regression analyses after adjusting for age and weight loss revealed negative associations between urinary TCS and serum FT4 in the 0M and 3M female obese individuals and positive associations between urinary BPA and serum TSH in the lean group. PMID:25575039

  7. Feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and real-time ultrasound traits in Duroc pigs: II. Genome-wide association.

    PubMed

    Jiao, S; Maltecca, C; Gray, K A; Cassady, J P

    2014-04-28

    Efficient use of feed resources has become a clear challenge for the US pork industry as feed costs continue to be the largest variable expense. The availability of the Illumina Porcine60K BeadChip has greatly facilitated whole-genome association studies to identify chromosomal regions harboring genes influencing those traits. The current study aimed at identifying genomic regions associated with variation in feed efficiency and several production traits in a Duroc terminal sire population, including ADFI, ADG, feed conversion ratio (FCR), residual feed intake (RFI), real-time ultrasound back fat thickness (BF), muscle depth (MD), intramuscular fat content (IMF), birth weight (BW at birth) and weaning weight (BW at weaning). Single trait association analyses were performed using Bayes-B models with 35,140 SNP on 18 autosomes after quality control. Significance of non-overlapping 1-Mb length windows (n = 2,380) were tested across 3 QTL inference methods: posterior distribution of windows variances from Monte Carlo Markov Chain, naive Bayes Factor and non-parametric bootstrapping. Genes within the informative QTL regions for the traits were annotated. A region ranging from166-140 Mb (4-Mb length) on SSC 1, approximately 8 Mb upstream MC4R gene, was significantly associated with ADFI, ADG and BF, where SOCS6 and DOK6 are proposed as the most likely candidate genes. Another region affecting BW at weaning was identified on SSC 4 (84-85 Mb), harboring genes previously found to influence both human and cattle height: PLAG1, CHCHD7, RDHE2 (or SDR16C5), MOS, RPS20, LYN and PENK. No QTL were identified for RFI, IMF and BW at birth. In conclusion, we have identified several genomic regions associated with traits affecting nutrient utilization that could be considered for future genomic prediction to improve feed utilization. PMID:24778334

  8. 76 FR 46216 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ...Docket No. 2011-0002; Sequence 5] Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting; Correction...general public in an effort to streamline travel policies, incorporated travel...

  9. Focal plane resolution and overlapped array TDI imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grycewicz, Thomas J.; Cota, Stephen A.; Lomheim, Terrence S.; Kalman, Linda S.

    2008-08-01

    In this paper we model sub-pixel image registration for a generic earth-observing satellite system with a focal plane using two offset Time Delay and Integrate (TDI) arrays in the focal plane to improve the achievable ground resolution over the resolution achievable with a single array. The modeling process starts with a high-resolution image as ground truth. The Parameterized Image Chain Analysis & Simulation SOftware (PICASSO) modeling tool is used to degrade the images to match the optical transfer function, sampling, and noise characteristics of the target system. The model outputs a pair of images with a separation close to the nominal half-pixel separation between the overlapped arrays. A registration estimation algorithm is used to measure the offset for image reconstruction. The two images are aligned and summed on a grid with twice the capture resolution. We compare the resolution in images between the inputs before overlap, the reconstructed image, and a simulation for the image which would have been captured on a focal plane with twice the resolution. We find the performance to always be better than the lower resolution baseline, and to approach the performance of the high-resolution array in the ideal case. We show that the overlapped array imager significantly outperforms both the conventional high- and low-resolution imagers in conditions with high image smear.

  10. DAILY NITRATES AND NITRITES INTAKE BY INHABITANTS IN BENI-MELLAL REGION (MOROCCO) INGESTA DIARIA DE NITRATOS Y NITRITOS POR LOS HABITANTES DE LA REGIÓN DE BENI-MELLAL (MARRUECOS) INXESTA DIARIA DE NITRATOS E NITRITOS POLOS HABITANTES DA REXIÓN DE BENI-MELLAL (MARRUECOS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Himmi; A. Zaki; A. Hasib; H. Elgharras; R. Bachirat; A. Aďt Chaoui

    2004-01-01

    The excessive use of fertilizers leads to the ground water and agricultural product pollution by nitrates, which can affect seriously health. the objective of this work is to assess daily intake of nitrates and nitrites among inhabitants from Beni-Mellal region and to compare it with international standards. This study is carried out in three rural areas: Fkih Ben Salah (FBS),

  11. The generation of low concentrations of 2,4-toluenediisocyanate (TDI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM R. BURG; SHAU-NONG CHANG

    1981-01-01

    A convenient and accurate method for generating low concentrations of 2,4-Toluenediisocyanate (TDI) was developed using tetrafluoroethylene Teflon (TFE) permeation tubes. The permeation tubes were prepared by sealing approximately 1.5 grams of practical grade TDI in clean spaghetti tubing with solid TFE rod held in place with crimped aluminum Swagelok ferrules. Tubes of 4.762?mm ID and 0.762?mm wall thickness and 6.477?mm

  12. Daily Pomegranate Intake Has No Impact on PSA Levels in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer - Results of a Phase IIb Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stenner-Liewen, Frank; Liewen, Heike; Cathomas, Richard; Renner, Christoph; Petrausch, Ulf; Sulser, Tullio; Spanaus, Katharina; Seifert, Hans Helge; Strebel, Räto Thomas; Knuth, Alexander; Samaras, Panagiotis; Müntener, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate has been shown to prolong PSA doubling time in early prostate cancer, but no data from a placebo controlled trial has been published yet. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the impact of pomegranate juice in patients with prostate cancer. We conducted a phase IIb, double blinded, randomized placebo controlled trial in patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer. Only patients with a PSA value ? 5ng/ml were included. The subjects consumed 500 ml of pomegranate juice or 500 ml of placebo beverage every day for a 4 week period. Thereafter, all patients received 250 ml of the pomegranate juice daily for another 4 weeks. PSA values were taken at baseline, day 14, 28 and on day 56. The primary endpoint was the detection of a significant difference in PSA serum levels between the groups after one month of treatment. Pain scores and adherence to intervention were recorded using patient diaries. 102 patients were enrolled. The majority of patients had castration resistant prostate cancer (68%). 98 received either pomegranate juice or placebo between October 2008 and May 2011. Adherence to protocol was good, with 94 patients (96%) completing the first period and 87 patients (89%) completing both periods. No grade 3 or higher toxicities occurred within the study. No differences were detected between the two groups with regard to PSA kinetics and pain scores. Consumption of pomegranate juice as an adjunct intervention in men with advanced prostate cancer does not result in significant PSA declines compared to placebo. PMID:24069070

  13. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  14. 76 FR 43236 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...pertain to Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances that include special...open to the public based upon space availability. Attendees and...oral presentations based upon space and on a first-come, first-serve...Dobbs, Director, Office of Travel, Transportation & Asset...

  15. Influence of the TDI CCD camera takes pictures when high resolution satellite lateral swaying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiubin Yang; Xing Zhong; Guang Jin; Liu Zhang; Zhiyuan Sun

    2009-01-01

    When the satellite was swinging and taking lateral imaging, the TDI CCD pixel photovoltaic charge purses transferred velocity not matched with the image motion velocity. According to the requirement of high-resolution satellite which was taking lateral imaging at a low orbit, the factors that bring about the unmatched phenomenon were analysed, inclusive of the Earth's rotation, the Earth curvature, satellite

  16. A configurable distributed high-performance computing framework for satellite's TDI-CCD imaging simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Bo; Mao, Bingjing; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang

    2010-11-01

    This paper renders a configurable distributed high performance computing(HPC) framework for TDI-CCD imaging simulation. It uses strategy pattern to adapt multi-algorithms. Thus, this framework help to decrease the simulation time with low expense. Imaging simulation for TDI-CCD mounted on satellite contains four processes: 1) atmosphere leads degradation, 2) optical system leads degradation, 3) electronic system of TDI-CCD leads degradation and re-sampling process, 4) data integration. Process 1) to 3) utilize diversity data-intensity algorithms such as FFT, convolution and LaGrange Interpol etc., which requires powerful CPU. Even uses Intel Xeon X5550 processor, regular series process method takes more than 30 hours for a simulation whose result image size is 1500 * 1462. With literature study, there isn't any mature distributing HPC framework in this field. Here we developed a distribute computing framework for TDI-CCD imaging simulation, which is based on WCF[1], uses Client/Server (C/S) layer and invokes the free CPU resources in LAN. The server pushes the process 1) to 3) tasks to those free computing capacity. Ultimately we rendered the HPC in low cost. In the computing experiment with 4 symmetric nodes and 1 server , this framework reduced about 74% simulation time. Adding more asymmetric nodes to the computing network, the time decreased namely. In conclusion, this framework could provide unlimited computation capacity in condition that the network and task management server are affordable. And this is the brand new HPC solution for TDI-CCD imaging simulation and similar applications.

  17. Review and evaluation of TDI diesel generator owner's group program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This report documents a review, performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), of the Transamerica Delaval, Inc. (TDI) Diesel Generator Owner's Group Program Plan. This report was prepared as part of the technical support PNL is providing to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Division of Licensing, on matters pertaining to the reliability of TDI diesel generators as emergency power sources for safety-related nuclear systems. The report presents the comments and conclusions reached by PNL, with the advice and counsel of five diesel engine consultants, on the principal elements of the Owners' Group Plan: Generic Problem Resolution, Design Review/Quality Revalidation, and Engine Testing and Inspection. Also included are PNL's comments on the related issues of Surveillance and Maintenance, and Administrative Controls. The conclusions drawn from PNL's evaluation of these issues form the basis for two additional topics addressed in the report: Critical Elements Required to Establish Diesel Engine Operability and Reliability, and Considerations for Interim Licensing.

  18. Elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts demonstrate energy and dietary intake deficiencies during periods of intense training.

    PubMed

    Michopoulou, Eleni; Avloniti, Alexandra; Kambas, Antonios; Leontsini, Diamanda; Michalopoulou, Maria; Tournis, Symeon; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2011-11-01

    This study determined dietary intake and energy balance of elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts during their preseason training. Forty rhythmic gymnasts and 40 sedentary age-matched females (10-12 yrs) participated in the study. Anthropometric profile and skeletal ages were determined. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed to estimate daily energy intake, daily energy expenditure, and resting metabolic rate. Groups demonstrated comparable height, bone age, pubertal development, resting metabolic rate. Gymnasts had lower body mass, BMI, body fat than age-matched controls. Although groups demonstrated comparable daily energy intake, gymnasts exhibited a higher daily energy expenditure resulting in a daily energy deficit. Gymnasts also had higher carbohydrate intake but lower fat and calcium intake. Both groups were below the recommended dietary allowances for fiber, water, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin intake. Gymnasts may need to raise their daily energy intake to avoid the energy deficit during periods of intense training. PMID:22109784

  19. Large time-delay-and-integration /TDI/ arrays and focal plane structures with intrinsic silicon response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyck, R. H.; Sadowski, H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and capabilities of two large time delay and integration (TDI) image sensor arrays based on buried-channel, silicon gate CCD technology are discussed. The first focal plane, designed for the LOREORS (Long-Range Electro-Optical Reconnaissance System) aerial camera consists of six 1024 x 64 element TDI image sensor chips mounted on a beam-sharing prism. The second focal plane, designed for the LOPATCH (Low Light Level Panoramic TDI Charge-Coupled Image Sensor) camera consists of a single 1024 x 128 element image sensor chip with performance capabilities extending down to starlight scene illumination levels. Both sensors have the same unit cell design, a 20-micron square stage of a four-phase CCD register which provides a saturation charge level of 10 to the 6th electrons/pixel, leading to a shot-noise-limited SNR approaching 60 dB. The silicon gate sensing area is designed for maximum transmittance over the spectral band 500 to 900 nm, where an average quantum efficiency of 50% has been obtained.

  20. Nicotine intake by snuff users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M A Russell; M J Jarvis; G Devitt; C Feyerabend

    1981-01-01

    Blood nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured in 27 volunteers before and after taking snuff. Within 10 minutes after snuffing blood nicotine concentrations were comparable to those obtained after the 10 minutes or so that it takes to smoke a cigarette. Nicotine intake from snuffing was related to the experience of the snuffer. In daily and occasional snuffers increases in

  1. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarja Nurmi; Jaakko Mursu; José L. Peńalvo; Henrik E. Poulsen; Sari Voutilainen

    2010-01-01

    Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100 Finnish men consuming their habitual omnivorous diet, and measured the 24 h urinary excretion of plant

  2. Learn More about Usual Dietary Intake | Dietary Assessment Primer

    Cancer.gov

    Usual dietary intake refers to the long-run average or habitual daily intake of a nutrient or food. This concept is relevant to many nutrition studies because dietary recommendations are intended to be met over time, diet-health hypotheses are based on dietary intakes over the long term, and interventions are intended to affect habitual diet.

  3. Grazing Behavior of Ruminants and Daily Performance from Warm-Season Grasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Burns; L. E. Sollenberger

    2002-01-01

    The various ingestive behavioral measurements have seldom been used to estimate long-term DM intake or to An estimate of the animal-production potential of pastures can be explain differences in intake on daily animal responses assessed by knowing the daily dry matter (DM) intake of the grazing animal and the digestibility of the DM consumed. The objective of among grazing management

  4. Contamination of food samples from Malaysia with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and estimation of human intake.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Chiang, Pui-Nyuk; Jaafar, Hajjaj Juharullah; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-04-01

    A total of 126 food samples, categorised into three groups (seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products) from Malaysia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The concentration of PCDD/Fs that ranged from 0.16 to 0.25 pg WHO05-TEQ g(-1) fw was found in these samples. According to the food consumption data from the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the dietary exposures to PCDD/F from seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products for the general population in Malaysia were 0.064, 0.183 and 0.736 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. However, the exposure was higher in seafood and seafood products (0.415 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and meat and meat products (0.317 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) when the data were estimated using the Malaysian food consumption statistics. The lower exposure was observed in dairy products with an estimation of 0.365 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1). Overall, these dietary exposure estimates were much lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) as recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that the dietary exposure to PCDD/F does not represent a risk for human health in Malaysia. PMID:24392728

  5. Exposure to 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) during production of flexible foam: determination of airborne TDI and urinary 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine (TDA).

    PubMed

    Kääriä, K; Hirvonen, A; Norppa, H; Piirilä, P; Vainio, H; Rosenberg, C

    2001-07-01

    Occupational exposure to 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (2,4- and 2,6-TDI) was measured during the production of flexible foam. The usefulness of urinalysis of the TDI-derived amines, 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine (2,4- and 2,6-TDA), for exposure assessment was compared with air monitoring. Urine samples were collected from 17 employees at two plants. The workers' personal exposure was measured using 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazine (2MP)-impregnated glass fibre filters for sampling and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) and electrochemical (EC) detection for quantification. The limit of detection (LOD) of 2,4- and 2,6-TDI was 0.01 microtg ml(-1) for a 20 microl injection. The precision of sample preparation, expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD), was 0.6% with UV detection and 0.8% with EC detection at a 2,4-TDI concentration of 0.2 microg ml(-1) (n = 6). For 2,6-TDI, the corresponding RSDs were 0.5% and 0.8%. The urinary 2,4- and 2,6-TDA metabolites were determined after acid hydrolysis as heptafluorobutyric anhydride derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The LOD in urine was 0.35 nmol l(-1) for 2,4-TDA and 0.04 nmol l(-1) for 2,6-TDA. The precision (RSD) of six analyses of human urine spiked to a concentration of 100 nmol l(-1) was 3.7% for 2,4-TDA and 3.6% for 2,6-TDA. There was a trend for linear correlation between urinary TDA concentration and the product of airborne TDI concentration and sampling time. Urinalysis of TDA is proposed as a practical method for assessing personal exposures in workers exposed intermittently to TDI. PMID:11478630

  6. Determination of unreacted 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (2,4TDI) and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (2,6TDI) in foams at ultratrace level by using HPLC-CIS-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Sébastien; Lesage, Jacques; Ostiguy, Claude; Van Tra, Huu

    2003-12-01

    Isocyanates can cause occupational asthma. By using available HPLC-UVF methods, isocyanates can be quantified only at levels above 1% of the Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL). Once sensitized, workers can react to concentrations below these limits of detection (LOD) making these methods insufficiently sensitive to adequately evaluate trace amounts of isocyanates present in air or in materials at safe levels for sensitized workers. This article describes a novel method for isocyanate analysis allowing the quantification of 2,4TDI and 2,6TDI monomers at very low concentrations using HPLC-CIS-MS-MS. The method's sensitivity increases with a decrease in the alkali radius. The LOD is 0.039 ng mL(-1) for 2,4TDI and 0.100 ng mL(-1) for 2,6TDI in solution when lithium is the alkali adduct, which is 20 times more sensitive than HPLC-UVF method. This new method allows determination in foam at levels of 0.078 ng g(-1) for 2,4TDI and 0.200 ng g(-1) for 2,6TDI respectively, for a 0.5 g foam sample. This is more than 100 times more sensitive than other methods for determining free monomers in solid materials. Analytical reproducibility and precision are better than 92% and 93% for both diisocyanate monomers. The use of HPLC-UVF conventional method failed to detect unreacted isocyanates in foam samples, but TDI monomers were quantified by HPLC-CIS-MS-MS. PMID:14737230

  7. Dietary lead intake of preschool children

    SciTech Connect

    Bander, L.K.; Morgan, K.J.; Zabik, M.E.

    1983-07-01

    A nationwide, seven-day food consumption survey of 371 preschool children between the ages of birth and five years indicated that a direct linear relationship existed between age and increased dietary lead intake from foods consumed. Daily dietary lead intake averaged 62 ..mu..g and ranged from 15 ..mu..g to 234 ..mu..g. The various levels of lead intake were attributed to frequency of consumption of food items, quantity of food consumed, and the lead content of particular food items. To account for variation in the quantity of food consumed by the various children, average lead intake per 500 kilocalories consumed and per 500 g of food consumed was calculated. When these standardization procedures were followed, an equalization in the average daily dietary lead intake values was observed among the various aged children.

  8. Dermal uptake and excretion of 14C-toluene diisocyante (TDI) and 14C-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in male rats. Clinical signs and histopathology following dermal exposure of male rats to TDI.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, H D; Leibold, E; Ehnes, C; Fabian, E; Landsiedel, R; Gamer, A; Poole, A

    2010-12-15

    Polyurethanes (PU) are polymers made with diisocyanates such as MDI (4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate) and TDI (2,4-toluene diisocyanate and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate). Investigations have been undertaken with MDI and TDI to assess dermal uptake and resulting systemic exposure. Absorption, distribution and excretion of MDI was studied in rats using a single dermal administration of (14)C-MDI dissolved in acetone at nominal 165 mg/kg body weight and 15 mg/kg bw (4.0 and 0.4 mg/cm(2)) and intradermal injection of (14)C-MDI dissolved in corn oil at nominal 1.4 mg/kg bw. Dermal absorption of (14)C-MDI (at both doses) was low; at or below 1% of the applied dose. Considerable amounts of the applied radioactivity were found at the application site which could not be washed off. By intradermal administration of (14)C-MDI approximately 66% of applied radioactivity remained at the application site with approximately 26% recovered in excreta, cage wash, tissues and carcass. The absorption, distribution and excretion of 2,4-TDI was studied in rats following a single dermal administration of radiolabelled (14)C-2,4-TDI at nominal 350 mg/kg body weight (12 mg/cm(2)). Dermal absorption of (14)C-2,4-TDI was at or below 1% of the applied dose. Considerable amounts of the applied radioactivity were found at the application site which could not be washed off. In summary the results show that dermal uptake of MDI and TDI is very low. Due to the chemical reactivity of isocyanates it can be expected that small amounts which might be absorbed will react with tissue constituents directly at the exposed skin area, or will be converted to adducts with biomacromolecules or to biologically inactive oligoureas. Overall it is concluded that, following dermal exposure to MDI and TDI, systemic exposures and resulting toxicity, other than the known sensitization, can be expected to be very low. In addition studies were performed with dermal application of unlabelled 2,4 and 2,6 TDI to check the availability and fate of this chemical on rat skin surface and to assess possible tissue damage. These experiments showed that unchanged test material can be detected on rat skin for up to 8h if not washed off. Dermal treatment with 2,4 or 2,6 TDI was associated with irritation with increased severity over a 48 h period after washing with a decontaminant solution. PMID:20933064

  9. Influence of Fluctuating Feed Intake on Feedlot Cattle Growth-Performance and Digestive Function

    E-print Network

    Delany, Mary E.

    Influence of Fluctuating Feed Intake on Feedlot Cattle Growth-Performance and Digestive Function R the influence of a 20% fluctuation in daily feed intake on performance and digestive function in Holstein steers-performance and digestive function were similar for both treatment groups. Implications A daily fluctuation in feed intake

  10. Implementation of pixel level digital TDI for scanning type LWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, Omer; Kayahan, Huseyin; Yazici, Melik; Afridi, Sohaib; Shafique, Atia; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2014-07-01

    Implementation of a CMOS digital readout integrated circuit (DROIC) based on pixel level digital time delay integration (TDI) for scanning type LWIR focal plane arrays (FPAs) is presented. TDI is implemented on 8 pixels with over sampling rate of 3. Analog signal integrated on integration capacitor is converted to digital domain in pixel, and digital data is transferred to TDI summation counters, where contributions of 8 pixels are added. Output data is 16 bit, where 8 bits are allocated for most significant bits and 8 bits for least significant bits. Control block of the ROIC, which is responsible of generating timing diagram for switches controlling the pixels and summation counters, is realized with VerilogHDL. Summation counters and parallel-to-serial converter to convert 16 bit parallel output data to single bit output are also realized with Verilog HDL. Synthesized verilog netlists are placed&routed and combined with analog under-pixel part of the design. Quantization noise of analog-to-digital conversion is less than 500e-. Since analog signal is converted to digital domain in-pixel, inaccuracies due to analog signal routing over large chip area is eliminated. ROIC is fabricated with 0.18?m CMOS process and chip area is 10mm2. Post-layout simulation results of the implemented design are presented. ROIC is programmable through serial or parallel interface. Input referred noise of ROIC is less than 750 rms electron, while power consumption is less than 30mW. ROIC is designed to perform in cryogenic temperatures.

  11. Constitution Daily

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Everyone could use a bit of the Constitution added to their daily lives, and this website more than delivers on its promise to deliver "smart conversation about the Constitution". Constitution Daily is an experimental blog edited by the National Constitution Center (NCC) in Philadelphia, and commentary here can include conversations about student privacy rights, the Second Amendment, and the activities of Congress. Visitors can click on the "Issues" section to dive into topic areas that include civility and privacy. After looking at each topic area, visitors can look at an interactive timeline that arranges comments, posts, and discussion on the subject. The site also contains some nice polls, and information about upcoming events at the NCC.

  12. ESTIMATED DAILY AVERAGE PER CAPITA WATER INGESTION BY CHILD AND ADULT AGE CATEGORIES BASED ON USDA'S 1994-96 AND 1998 CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKES BY INDIVIDUALS (JOURNAL ARTICLE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current water ingestion estimates are important for the assessment of risk to human populations of exposure to water-borne pollutants. This paper reports mean and percentile estimates of the distributions of daily average per capita water ingestion for 12 age range groups. The ...

  13. Engine intake system

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesaka, H.

    1989-02-07

    An intake system is described for an internal combustion engine, the system comprising: an intake passage having an intake port and an inertial supercharging intake pipe leading to the intake port; an intake valve mounted in the intake port and operatively connected to the engine for alternately opening and closing the intake port; a rotary valve operatively connected to the engine and disposed in the intake passage intermediate the inertial supercharging intake pipe and the intake port. The rotary valve is rotatable for opening and closing the intake passage, and timing adjusting means operatively connected to the engine and to the rotary valve for retarding the opening of the rotary valve relative to the opening of the intake valve at low engine speeds, and for advancing the opening of the rotary valve at high engine speeds, whereby the retarding and advancing of the opening of the rotary valve enables inertial supercharging in the intake pipe at both low and high engine speeds.

  14. Title: Health Policy Fellow Position #: 1011446 Department: TDI (The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice) Category: Exempt

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    & Knowledge Public health or health policy background and commitment to advancing health reform in the United experience in health policy, public health or related field in a professional setting. Experience workingTitle: Health Policy Fellow Position #: 1011446 Department: TDI (The Dartmouth Institute for Health

  15. A high SNR readout circuit design for TDI array with adaptive charge capacity control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chul Bum; Hwang, Chi Ho; Lee, Yong Soo; Lee, Hee Chul

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, a novel high SNR readout circuit for a satellite TDI array is presented. Since an input range of an IR image for environmental satellites is broad and especially the cloud top temperature (CTT) that is important in understanding phenomena of atmosphere is quite low, the readout of low temperature signal is important in satellite applications. However, the noise resulted from a readout circuit is no longer ignorable compared to a detector shot noise at low IR radiation. Hence, an adaptive charge capacity control method is proposed in this paper for an improved SNR at low temperature. It is found that SNR is improved as much as 11dB at 200K and 90% background-limited infrared photodetection (BLIP) condition is satisfied over a total input range by simulation.

  16. Temporal and Spatial Comparison of Gridded TMY, TDY, and TGY Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Lopez, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2014-02-01

    Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) data sets provide industry standard resource information for building designers and are commonly used by the solar industry to estimate photovoltaic and concentrating solar power system performance. Historically, TMY data sets were only available for certain station locations, but current TMY data sets are available on the same grid as the National Solar Radiation Database data and are referred to as the gridded TMY. In this report, a comparison of TMY, typical direct (normal irradiance) year (TDY), and typical global (horizontal irradiance) year (TGY) data sets were performed to better understand the impact of ancillary weather variables upon them. These analyses identified geographical areas of high and low temporal and spatial variability, thereby providing insight into the representativeness of a particular TMY data set for use in renewable energy as well as other applications.

  17. LONG-TERM CONTROL OF VOLUNTARY FOOD INTAKE IN SHEEP R. PAQUAY Franoise DOIZE J.-CI. BOUCHAT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ,2 % protein. Food intake was measured daily. Hay was given at 10 a.m. and concentrate at 11.30 a.m. Sheep were of the period. During the experiment, the animals gained a mean of 35 kg. 2. Voluniary food intake. The dailyLONG-TERM CONTROL OF VOLUNTARY FOOD INTAKE IN SHEEP R. PAQUAY Françoise DOIZE J.-CI. BOUCHAT

  18. Food Intake of Children with Short Stature Born Small for Gestational Age before and during a Randomized GH Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. H. Boonstra; N. J. T. Arends; T. Stijnen; W. F. Blum; O. Akkerman; A. C. S. Hokken-Koelega

    2006-01-01

    Parents of short children born SGA often report that their children have a serious lack of appetite and a low food intake. In this study we investigated food intake, by using a standardized 7-day food questionnaire, in 88 short SGA children before start of GH treatment. The intake was compared with the recommended daily intake (RDI) of age-matched children. We

  19. Dietary intake of pesticide residues: cadmium, mercury, and lead.

    PubMed

    Galal-Gorchev, H

    1991-01-01

    Information on the dietary intake of chemical contaminants has been obtained from institutions participating in GEMS/Food. Contaminants studied include certain organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides, PCBs, cadmium, mercury, and lead. The intakes are compared with toxicologically acceptable intake levels established by international expert groups. In most cases, dietary intakes of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides are well below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of the respective pesticide. Of some 21 countries providing information on the average dietary intake of cadmium, only in one case is the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) exceeded. Several countries identified cereals and cereal products and root and tuber vegetables as the main contributors to the dietary intake of cadmium. For mercury, all reported intakes are below the PTWI of methylmercury. The contribution of fish to the total intake of mercury varied from 20% to 85%, depending on the country. Therefore, the general assumption that fish is the main contributor to the total dietary intake of mercury may, at times, not be justified. Average dietary intake of lead exceeding or approaching the PTWI are reported for adults and infants and children in some countries. Foodstuffs which contribute most to the intake of lead vary from country to country, and have been identified as being alternately drinking water, beverages, cereals, vegetables and fruit. PMID:1812026

  20. Calcium deprivation increases salt intake.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, M G; Ulrich, P M; Schulkin, J

    1990-09-01

    Relative to rats fed chow or semisynthetic control diet, rats fed Ca2(+)-deficient diet increased daily "spontaneous" intake of 0.3 M NaCl solution by as much as eightfold. Intake of 0.3 M NaCl increased in monotonic relationship to the severity of Ca2+ deficiency, which was manipulated by both duration of depletion (0-32 days) and dietary Ca2+ content (0-50 mmol/kg Ca2+). The increased intake was specific to either Na+ or saltiness; relative to controls, Ca2(+)-deprived rats drank more of a wide range of NaCl solutions (0.05-0.50 M) but the same volume of 0.37 mM sucrose octaacetate (bitter), slightly more 2.5 mM citrate (sour), and significantly less 2.5 mM saccharin (sweet). Although urine volume of Ca2(+)-deprived rats was increased, total Na+ excretion was slightly decreased. Adrenal weights, hematocrit, and plasma concentrations of Na+, aldosterone, and angiotensin I were all normal. These results reveal that Ca2+ deficiency increases NaCl intake and thus challenge the notion that salt appetite is a specific response to perturbed Na+ homeostasis. PMID:2396702

  1. Analysis of the reactivity of [ 14C]toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in an isolated, perfused lung model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Kennedy; L. Lastbom; G. Skarping; M. Dalene; A. Ryrfeldt; P. Moldeus; W. E. Brown

    1995-01-01

    An isolated, perfused, guinea pig lung model was used to investigate the molecular events which occur when a 14C-labeled TDI vapor reaches the airways. Exposure concentrations of 0.2 and 0.7 ppm were tested. Perfusate composition included: Krebs Ringer buffer only, as well as buffer containing either guinea pig serum albumin, human serum albumin, or diluted guinea pig plasma. Radioactivity was

  2. Daily digestible protein and energy requirements for growth and maintenance of sub-adult Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) 

    E-print Network

    Siccardi, Anthony Joseph, III

    2009-06-02

    This study utilized two diets (25 and 35% crude protein) fed at 10 different rates to produce differences in shrimp specific growth rate which were regressed against daily digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE) intake to estimate daily...

  3. Does Lowering Fat Intake in Children's Diets Result in Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. Garceau; C. L. Perry; L. A. Lytle; W. L. Baker; H. A. Feldman; T. A. Nicklas; E. J. Stone; S. H. Kelder; M. M. Zive

    1997-01-01

    LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe the impact of CATCH on fruit and vegetable intake among the children in the trial.The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends 5 to 9 servings of fruits and vegetables daily for those over 2 years of age. Many school based programs that target fat, saturated fat, and sodium also suggest increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. Whether this

  4. Daily urinary excretion of bisphenol A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chikako Arakawa; Kayumi Fujimaki; Jun Yoshinaga; Hideki Imai; Shigeko Serizawa; Hiroaki Shiraishi

    2004-01-01

    Objectives  Concerns over dietary exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, have been raised because BPA is contained in\\u000a resins and plastics commonly used for the preservation of food and beverages. The purpose of the present study was to assess\\u000a daily intake levels of BPA in a group of male subjects by measuring total urinary BPA (free BPA plus BPA

  5. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Caroline M.; Black, Lucinda J.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements. PMID:24424459

  6. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  7. [Intake of trans fats; situation in Spain].

    PubMed

    Riobó, Pilar; Breton, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Current nutritional recommendations include decreasing the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA), since there exists sufficient scientific evidence of its influence to cardiovascular disease. During the last decades, in many European countries the TFA intake has considerably decreased through the established legislation and changes in the technological processes developed by the food industry. In Spain, just 2.1 g/day, a 0.7% of the daily energy intake comes from TFA, a lower value than the recommended maximum (<1%), according to data from TRANSFAIR study. The TFA content of processed products such as margarines, factory-baked goods and etc, has declined over recent years and is less than 1% in more than 90% of all these products in Spain. However, it is necessary to develop and implement regulations, governing the TFA content in the products sold in our country, in which there should be the requirement to include this information in the label too. PMID:24679011

  8. Assessment of dietary intake of patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prescha, Anna; Pieczy?ska, Joanna; Ilow, Rafa?; Poreba, Joanna; Neubauer, Katarzyna; Smereka, Adam; Grajeta, Halina; Biernat, Jadwiga; Paradowski, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    The dietary intake of patients with irritable bowel syndrome was assessed using 24-h dietary recall. The energy value and nutrient contents in the daily food rations were calculated by Nutritionist IV computer program with the Polish database. Differentiations in the Polish RDA coverage for energy and nutrients were observed in the studied group. Fat, saturated fatty acid, phosphorus and also vitamin A, E and C contents were above the RDA in the patients' daily food ration. The majority of IBS individuals did not meet recommendations for carbohydrate intake. Calcium and cooper intake was below the Polish RDA. The insufficient vitamin B2 intake and excessive Fe supply have been shown in the male patients. PMID:19803452

  9. Genetic parameters for measures of residual feed intake and growth traits in seven generations of Duroc pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Hoque; H. Kadowaki; T. Shibata; T. Oikawa; K. Suzuki

    2009-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) represents the deviation of the actual feed consumption of an animal from that predicted from combination of growth traits. Data on 1642 Duroc (380 boars, 868 gilts, and 394 barrows) pigs in seven generations were used to estimate genetic parameters for measures of RFI, daily feed intake (FI), average daily gain (ADG), backfat (BF), and loin

  10. Adults Meeting Fruit and Vegetable Intake Recommendations - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Moore, Latetia V; Thompson, Frances E

    2015-07-10

    Eating more fruits and vegetables adds nutrients to diets, reduces the risk for heart disease, stroke, and some cancers, and helps manage body weight when consumed in place of more energy-dense foods. Adults who engage in <30 minutes of moderate physical activity daily should consume 1.5-2.0 cup equivalents of fruit and 2-3 cups of vegetables daily.* However, during 2007-2010, half of the total U.S. population consumed <1 cup of fruit and <1.5 cups of vegetables daily; 76% did not meet fruit intake recommendations, and 87% did not meet vegetable intake recommendations. Although national estimates indicate low fruit and vegetable consumption, substantial variation by state has been observed (3). Fruit and vegetable intake information from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is the sole source of dietary surveillance information for most states, but frequency of intake captured by BRFSS is not directly comparable to federal intake recommendations, which are expressed in cup equivalents. CDC analyzed median daily frequency of fruit and vegetable intake based on 2013 BRFSS data for the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and applied newly developed prediction equations to BRFSS to calculate the percentage of each state's population meeting fruit and vegetable intake recommendations. Overall, 13.1% of respondents met fruit intake recommendations, ranging from 7.5% in Tennessee to 17.7% in California, and 8.9% met vegetable recommendations, ranging from 5.5% in Mississippi to 13.0% in California. Substantial new efforts are needed to build consumer demand for fruits and vegetables through competitive pricing, placement, and promotion in child care, schools, grocery stores, communities, and worksites. PMID:26158351

  11. Fluids Intake and Beverage Consumption Pattern among University Students

    PubMed Central

    Balaghi, Sima; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mahdavi, Reza; Ghaemmaghami, Jamal

    2011-01-01

    Background: Insufficient and inappropriate daily fluid intake in a long period may have adverse effect on human's health. Therefore, the present study evaluated the amounts and sources of fluids consumed by university students to determine whether these amounts and sources of fluid were enough and appropriate. Methods: In this descriptive study, 245 (142 females and 103 males) volunteer students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2009 were recruited. Food and fluid intake of subjects were as­sessed by 24-hour recall method of 3 days (two week days and one week- end included). Dietary intake of subjects was analyzed by Nutritionist III software program. The mean total fluid intake (drinking fluid values merged with data on the water content of foods) and the rate of metabolic water were figured out. Comparisons of the results with recommended dietary values were made using student's t-test.. Data of dietary intakes for two under-reporter female subjects were not included in the statistical analysis. Results: Daily total mean of fluid intake for girls (1598±40ml) and boys (1861±59ml) reflect the sum of beverages (Girls, 818±29ml; boys, 1147±57ml) and food water (Girls, 780±47ml; boys, 714±86m). The most consumed beverage for girls and boys were water (40%) and tea (49%) respectively. Daily mean intake of milk for girls and boys were 106.31±10ml (13%) and 57.30±11ml (5%), respectively. Conclusion: The mean daily fluid intake of subjects, specially water, and milk was lower than rec­ommended values. Therefore, there is an urgent need for tailored nutrition intervention targeting the young adults to improve their beverage choices. PMID:24688900

  12. Impact of food consumption habits on the pesticide dietary intake: Comparison between a French vegetarian and the general population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marieke Van Audenhaege; Fanny Héraud; Céline Menard; Juliette Bouyrie; Sophie Morois; Gloria Calamassi-Tran; Sébastien Lesterle; Jean-Luc Volatier; Jean-Charles Leblanc

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to compare the pesticide residue dietary intake of the French general population and the vegetarian population, separated into five specific diets: omnivorous (OMN), lacto-vegetarian (LV), ovo-lacto-vegetarian (OLV), pesco-lacto-vegetarian (PLV) and vegan (VG). Theoretical Maximum Daily Intakes (TMDIs) based on Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) were calculated as a percentage of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). Among the 421

  13. Usual Intake of Poultry

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Poultry Table A26. Poultry: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.9 (0.03) 0.3 (0.05) 0.4

  14. Modeling Daily Energy Balance of Dairy Cows in the First Three Lactations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Banos; M. P. Coffey; S. Brotherstone

    2005-01-01

    Daily energy balance was calculated for 111 Holstein cows in their first 3 lactations, based on combinations of smoothed preadjusted phenotypic records for milk yield, feed intake, live weight, and body condition score. Two energy balance traits were defined: one based on milk yield and feed intake (EB1) and the other on live weight and body condition score change (EB2).

  15. Your Health Daily

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Your Health Daily offers daily updates on health and medical news in a well-organized and easy-to-use format. Provided by The New York Times Syndicate, Your Health Daily includes news, features, analysis and columns from a variety of news sources in the United States, Asia and Europe, including Medical Tribune News Service. Users can browse the latest news or choose from 15 "Common Topics" for articles of personal interest. A database of past medical and health articles is available and searchable by topic or keyword. The site provides links to other NYT Syndicate services such as Computer News Daily and TimesFax.

  16. Access to food outlets and children's nutritional intake in urban China: a difference-in-difference analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years supermarkets and fast food restaurants have been replacing those “wet markets” of independent vendors as the major food sources in urban China. Yet how these food outlets relate to children’s nutritional intake remains largely unexplored. Method Using a longitudinal survey of households and communities in China, this study examines the effect of the urban built food environment (density of wet markets, density of supermarkets, and density of fast food restaurants) on children’s nutritional intake (daily caloric intake, daily carbohydrate intake, daily protein intake, and daily fat intake). Children aged 6–18 (n?=?185) living in cities were followed from 2004 to 2006, and difference-in-difference models are used to address the potential issue of omitted variable bias. Results Results suggest that the density of wet markets, rather than that of supermarkets, positively predicts children’s four dimensions of nutritional intake. In the caloric intake model and the fat intake model, the positive effect of neighborhood wet market density on children’s nutritional intake is stronger with children from households of lower income. Conclusion With their cheaper prices and/or fresher food supply, wet markets are likely to contribute a substantial amount of nutritional intake for children living nearby, especially those in households with lower socioeconomic status. For health officials and urban planners, this study signals a sign of warning as wet markets are disappearing from urban China’s food environment. PMID:22748026

  17. Contribution of daily and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and daily rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and daily rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal daily rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.

  18. Contribution of tap water to chlorate and perchlorate intake: a market basket study.

    PubMed

    Asami, Mari; Yoshida, Nobue; Kosaka, Koji; Ohno, Koichi; Matsui, Yoshihiko

    2013-10-01

    The contributions of water to total levels of chlorate and perchlorate intake were determined using food and water samples from a market basket study from 10 locations in Japan between 2008 and 2009. Foods were categorized into 13 groups and analyzed along with tap water. The average total chlorate intake was 333 (min. 193-max. 486) ?g/day for samples cooked with tap water. The contribution of tap water to total chlorate intake was as high as 47%-58%, although total chlorate intake was less than 32% of the tolerable daily intake, 1500 ?g/day for body weight of 50 kg. For perchlorate, daily intake from water was 0.7 (0.1-4.4) ?g/day, which is not high compared to the average total intake of 14 (2.5-84) ?g/day, while the reference dose (RfD) is 35 ?g/day and the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) is 500 ?g/day for body weight of 50 kg. The highest intake of perchlorate was 84 ?g/day, where concentrations in foods were high, but not in water. The contribution of water to total perchlorate intake ranged from 0.5% to 22%, while the ratio of highest daily intake to RfD was 240% and that to PMTDI was 17%. Eight baby formulas were also tested--total chlorate and perchlorate intakes were 147 (42-332) ?g/day and 1.11 (0.05-4.5) ?g/day, respectively, for an ingestion volume of 1 L/day if prepared with tap water. PMID:23807022

  19. Food chromium content, dietary chromium intake, and related biological variables in French free-living elderly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromium (Cr3+) is an essential trace element involved in insulin function. Cr deficiencies result in an increased risk of glucose intolerance and diabetes. Few studies have measured Cr intakes in the elderly. We measured the Cr food contents and daily intakes of freely chosen diets for three days i...

  20. Physical activity, muscle strength, and calcium intake in fracture of the proximal femur in Britain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Cooper; D. J. Barker; C. Wickham

    1988-01-01

    Regular exercise and high calcium intake possibly help to preserve bone mass. Little is known, however, about their role in preventing hip fracture. The physical activity and calcium intake of 300 elderly men and women with hip fractures were compared with those of 600 controls matched for age and sex. In both sexes increased daily activity, including standing, walking, climbing

  1. ESTIMATING HUMAN BREAST MILK ENERGY INTAKE IN 3-MONTH OLD INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several researchers have published equations to estimate caloric intake in exclusively breastfed (BF) infants. Our Beginnings study offers an opportunity to compare these estimates in a well-defined sample of healthy, BF infants (n=79, 38F, 41M) and contrast them to the Daily Reference Intake (DRI)...

  2. Effect of food fortification on folic acid intake in the United States1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eoin P Quinlivan; Jesse F Gregory

    Background: The addition of folic acid to all enriched cereal- grain foods, mandated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), was initiated in January 1998. Although this program was designed such that typical folate intakes would be increased by ? 100 ? g\\/d and that the risk of intakes > 1000 ? g\\/d (the FDA's safe upper limit of daily

  3. The impact of dietary protein intake on urinary creatinine excretion in a healthy pediatric population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Neubert; Thomas Remer

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of daily protein intake on urinary creatinine (CR) excretion in healthy children. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 24-hour urinary CR excretion rates were measured in 350 children aged 4 to 13 years. Body composition was assessed according to anthropometric measurements, and intake of protein was estimated from dietary records.

  4. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for feed intake and other traits in growing beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI), residual feed intake (RFI), average daily gain (ADG), mid-period body weight (MBW), gain to feed ratio (G:F) and flight speed (FS) were estimated using 1165 steers from a mixed-breed population using restricted maximum likelihood methodology applied to...

  5. An Evaluation of Residual Feed Intake Estimates Obtained with Computer Models Versus Empirical Regression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data on individual daily feed intake, bi-weekly BW, and carcass composition were obtained on 1,212 crossbred steers, in Cycle VII of the Germplasm Evaluation Project at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Within animal regressions of cumulative feed intake and BW on linear and quadratic days on fe...

  6. Feed intake of sheep when allowed ad libitum access to feed in methane respiration chambers.

    PubMed

    Bickell, S L; Revell, D K; Toovey, A F; Vercoe, P E

    2014-05-01

    The patterns of feed intake when animals are allowed ad libitum access to feed in a respiration chamber is not known, nor are the potential effects of the artificial environment of chambers on voluntary feed intake. The objectives of the study were to describe the pattern of hourly feed intake of sheep when fed for ad libitum intake in respiration chambers and determine the repeatability of this pattern and the correlation between feed intake and methane production calculated at hourly intervals. Daily and hourly measurements of methane production and feed intake of 47 Merino wethers were measured in respiration chambers twice, 4 wk apart. We found that hourly feed intake of sheep with ad libitum access to feed in respiration chambers showed a repeatable pattern over the 2 measurement periods (r = 0.89, P < 0.001). During both measurements, sheep ate continuously throughout the 23 h period, but most of the eating occurred during the first 8 h in the respiration chambers. There was a significant linear correlation (r = 0.22) between hourly feed intake and hourly methane production (P < 0.001). An unexpected result from this study was that despite using an accepted and published acclimatization procedure to habituate the animals to the respiration chambers, sheep had 15 to 25% lower feed intake in the respiration chambers compared with their feed intake during the previous week in the animal house pens. In addition, daily feed intake in the respiration chamber was not correlated with feed intake in any of the 7 d before entering the chamber (P > 0.05). Future methane research may consider using feed intake and changes in intake levels as a quantitative indicator of habituation to the methane measurement procedure and environment, which, given the tight association between feed intake and methane production, will be crucial in providing accurate values for methane production. PMID:24663203

  7. Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.L.

    1985-05-01

    Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

  8. Are Recommended Daily Allowances for Vitamin C Adequate?

    PubMed Central

    Pauling, Linus

    1974-01-01

    The Recommended Dietary Allowance of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) for adults has now been set at 45 mg day-1 by the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board. This intake suffices to prevent scurvy in most people. It is, however, much less than the optimum intake, the intake that leads to the best of health. A larger intake decreases the incidence and severity of the common cold and other diseases. Ascorbic acid has antiviral and antibacterial activity and is required for phagocytic activity of leukocytes. Several arguments indicate that for different human beings the optimum intake lies between 250 mg day-1 and a much higher value, 5000 mg day-1 or more. It is proposed that the present Recommended Dietary Allowance of 45 mg day-1 of vitamin C for adults be renamed the Minimum Dietary Allowance, defined as the amount needed to prevent scurvy, and that, after consideration of the evidence about intake and the best of health, there be formulated another category of values, the Recommended Daily Intake, with the suggested range of 250 mg day-1 to 4000 mg day-1 of ascorbic acid for an adult. PMID:4612519

  9. Estimated nutrient intakes from food generally do not meet dietary reference intakes among adult members of Pacific Northwest tribal nations.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-05-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases. PMID:20237069

  10. Hoover Dam Intake Towers

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

  11. Usual Intake of Meat

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Meat Table A24. Meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.5 (0.04) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2 (0.03) 0.3

  12. Factors associated with feed intake of Angus steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimates of variance components were obtained from 475 records of average (AFI) and residual feed intake (RFI). Covariates in various (8) models included average daily gain (G), age (A) and weight (W) on test, and slaughter (S) and ultrasound (U) carcass measures (fat thickness, ribeye area and ma...

  13. Residual feed intake and temperament breed differences among Florida heifers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate residual feed intake, average daily gain, chute temperament score, and exit velocity of Brahman (B),Angus (A), and Romosinuano (R) (n = 40, 19, and 26, respectively)and F1 (n = 7, 8, and 12 for BA, RA, and RB, respectively) heifers. One month after weaning ...

  14. An effective dietary survey framework for the assessment of total dietary arsenic intake in Bangladesh: part-A--FFQ design.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nasreen Islam; Owens, Gary; Bruce, David; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-04-01

    The accurate assessment of dietary intake patterns is important for the determination of total dietary arsenic (As) exposure in As-contaminated regions of Bangladesh. Food intake questionnaires are a common means of assessing food intake. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was designed to assess the daily intake of frequently consumed food items and was successfully implemented to assess dietary patterns and intake of the rural populations in 18 villages from three Districts of Bangladesh (Comilla, Manikganj Sadar, and Munshiganj). The FFQ presented in this paper comprises a complete set of tools which allowed not only collection of information on dietary patterns but also information on the spatial characteristics of the landscape, socio-demographic indicators, and geographic locations of the identified environmental media of the contaminants, which resulted in As exposure to humans. The FFQ was designed in three sections: (1) general household information, (2) household water and rice information, and (3) individual dietary intake of other foods. The dietary intake of other food was then further subdivided into five different food subgroups: (i) grain intake, (ii) protein intake, (iii) fruit intake (iv), vegetable intake, and (v) dal (pulse) intake. During the design and development of the FFQ, emphasis was given to the source of food, the frequency (day/week/month) of consumption, and the daily amount of food consumed by each adult male, adult female, and child to accurately determine the dietary pattern and intake of arsenic in the rural population of Bangladesh. PMID:19172402

  15. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, CALCIUM INTAKE AND CHILDHOOD BONE MINERAL

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, N. C.; Cole, Z. A.; Crozier, S. R.; Kim, M.; Goodfellow, L.; Robinson, S.M.; Inskip, H. M.; Godfrey, K. M.; Dennison, E. M.; Wareham, N.; Ekelund, U.; Cooper, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the relationships between childhood physical activity (PA), dietary calcium intake and bone size and density. Subjects and methods Children aged 4 years were recruited from the Southampton Women’s Survey. They underwent measurement of bone mass by DXA (Hologic, QDR 4000). Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry (Actiheart, Cambridge Neurotechnology Ltd, Cambridge, UK) for 7 continuous days. Results 422 children (212 boys) participated. After adjusting for gender, daily mean time (min/day) spent in moderate to very vigorous activity (MVPA) was positively related to hip bone area (p<0.001), mineral content (p<0.001), mineral density (p=0.001) and estimated volumetric density (p=0.01). Mean daily calcium intake positively predicted bone indices (p=0.002 with BMC) in those with a low calcium intake (<800 mg/day), but there was a much attenuated relationship in those above this threshold (p=0.229 with BMC). The relationships between MVPA and bone indices were stronger in children with higher calcium intakes (> 800mg/day) (For BMC and MVPA, p=0.121 below and p<0.001 above). Conclusions These results support the notion that adequate calcium intake may be required for optimal action of physical activity on bone development and that improving levels of physical activity and calcium intake in childhood may help to optimise accrual of bone mass. PMID:21562877

  16. Managing Daily Life

    MedlinePLUS

    Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts to have more problems moving around, consider making changes in ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

  17. Daily Life with Glaucoma

    MedlinePLUS

    Daily Life with Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: ... and comforting. Don't let glaucoma limit your life Don’t let glaucoma limit your life. You ...

  18. Shaundra Bryant Daily

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-09-18

    In this video from Science City, Shaundra Bryant Daily, an electrical engineer, describes a software program she developed to help girls reflect on their emotions, and how her two passions—science and dance—are connected.

  19. Daily Food Plan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Peterson

    2011-09-18

    Students will find daily food recommendations based upon their age, weight, height, and activity level. Standard 2 Objective1: a,b,c It is helpful to have a guide that can give us directions on the type and quantity of foods we should eat daily. Lets first view the basics of our food groups. Click the Food Group Basics link below and see if you can answer the questions provided. Food Group Basics What is the ...

  20. Methodological issues in estimating sodium intake in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ja; Oh, Kyungwon

    2014-01-01

    For policy goal setting, efficacy evaluations, and the development of related programs for reducing sodium intake, it is essential to accurately identify the amount of sodium intake in South Korea and constantly monitor its trends. The present study aimed to identify the status of sodium intake in South Korea and to review the methods and their validity for estimating sodium intake in each country; through this, we aim to determine more accurate methods for determining sodium intake and to monitor the trend in sodium intake for Korean citizens in the future. Using 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to estimate daily sodium intake, the average daily sodium intake among Koreans was 4,546 mg (men, 5,212 mg; women, 3,868 mg). In addition to the nutrition survey that uses the 24-hour dietary recall method, sodium intake can also be calculated from the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine, 8-hour overnight urine, and spot urine samples. Although KNHANES uses the 24-hour dietary recall method to estimate the sodium intake, the 24-hour dietary recall method has the disadvantage of not being able to accurately determine the amount of sodium intake owing to its unique characteristics of the research method and in the processing of data. Although measuring the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine is known to be the most accurate method, because collecting 24-hour urine from the general population is difficult, using spot urine samples to estimate sodium intake has been suggested to be useful for examining the trend of sodium intake in the general population. Therefore, we planned to conduct a study for estimating of 24-hour sodium excretion from spot urine and 8-hour overnight urine samples and testing the validity among subsamples in the KNHANES. Based on this result, we will adopt the most appropriate urine collection method for estimating population sodium intake in South Korea. PMID:25758212

  1. Methodological issues in estimating sodium intake in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Ja; Oh, Kyungwon

    2014-01-01

    For policy goal setting, efficacy evaluations, and the development of related programs for reducing sodium intake, it is essential to accurately identify the amount of sodium intake in South Korea and constantly monitor its trends. The present study aimed to identify the status of sodium intake in South Korea and to review the methods and their validity for estimating sodium intake in each country; through this, we aim to determine more accurate methods for determining sodium intake and to monitor the trend in sodium intake for Korean citizens in the future. Using 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to estimate daily sodium intake, the average daily sodium intake among Koreans was 4,546 mg (men, 5,212 mg; women, 3,868 mg). In addition to the nutrition survey that uses the 24-hour dietary recall method, sodium intake can also be calculated from the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine, 8-hour overnight urine, and spot urine samples. Although KNHANES uses the 24-hour dietary recall method to estimate the sodium intake, the 24-hour dietary recall method has the disadvantage of not being able to accurately determine the amount of sodium intake owing to its unique characteristics of the research method and in the processing of data. Although measuring the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine is known to be the most accurate method, because collecting 24-hour urine from the general population is difficult, using spot urine samples to estimate sodium intake has been suggested to be useful for examining the trend of sodium intake in the general population. Therefore, we planned to conduct a study for estimating of 24-hour sodium excretion from spot urine and 8-hour overnight urine samples and testing the validity among subsamples in the KNHANES. Based on this result, we will adopt the most appropriate urine collection method for estimating population sodium intake in South Korea. PMID:25758212

  2. A review of the dietary intakes of chemical contaminants*

    PubMed Central

    Gorchev, H. Galal; Jelinek, Charles F.

    1985-01-01

    Data on the dietary intakes of certain contaminants have been received from eleven collaborating centres participating in the Joint FAO/WHO Food Contamination Monitoring Programme. The data cover the period from 1971 to 1983 and include information on the intakes of a series of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, cadmium, lead, and aflatoxins. When compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) or provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of the pesticides/contaminants in question, the data indicate that, in some countries, the exposure to certain organochlorine pesticides may constitute a significant portion ofthe ADI. Because of the concentration of these compounds in the fatty portions of food, a high animal fat intake will increase the dietary exposure to organochlorine compounds Dietary intakes of cadmium and lead constitute an appreciable percentage oft he PTWI for these two contaminants. As the intakes of cadmium and lead per kilogram of body weight are highest for infants and children, every effort should be made to reduce the levels of these two contaminants in the food supply. PMID:3879207

  3. Flavonoid intakes in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Maras, Janice E.; Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Qiao, Ning; Lyle, Barbara; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Major sources of flavonoids were identified, and mean intakes over several decades were reported, among 1638 participants (mean age 62.1 +/? 16.0 y), of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). Dietary data were collected using 7-day diet records during three time periods (1980s, 1990s and 2000-present), and the USDA flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and isoflavone databases were used to estimate dietary flavonoid intakes. Dietary intake data were divided according to decade of visit. Foods were matched with appropriate foods in the USDA databases. Mixed dishes were disaggregated to individual foods and a similar procedure was followed. Total flavonoids and five sub-classes of flavonoids, including flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanidins, were computed by summing appropriate compounds. The median intakes of flavonoids and the contributions of various foods to intakes were calculated by decade. Age and sex adjusted mean (SE) daily intakes of flavonoids increased from 250 (7.4) in the 1980s to 280 (9.9) mg in the 2000s. Top contributors of flavonoids were tea, apple/pear (and juices), citrus fruits (and juices), peaches, plums, grapes, nectarines (and juices) and chocolate. The data show an increase in the consumption of flavonoids over the three decades, which appears to be related to intake of fruit. PMID:22228923

  4. Design and development of a fiber optic TDI CCD-based slot-scan digital mammography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toker, Emre; Piccaro, Michele F.

    1993-12-01

    We previously reported on the development, design, and clinical evaluation of a CCD-based, high performance, filmless imaging system for stereotactic needle biopsy procedures in mammography. The MammoVision system has a limited imaging area of 50 mm X 50 mm, since it is designed specifically for breast biopsy applications. We are currently developing a new filmless imaging system designed to cover the 18 cm X 24 cm imaging area required for screening and diagnostic mammography. The diagnostic mammography system is based on four 1100 X 330 pixel format, full-frame, scientific grade, front illuminated, MPP mode CCDs, with 24 micrometers X 24 micrometers square pixels Each CCD is coupled to an x-ray intensifying screen via a 1.7:1 fiber optic reducer. The detector assembly (180 mm long and 13.5 mm wide) is scanned across the patient's breast synchronously with the x-ray source, with the CCDs operated in time-delay integration (TDI) mode. The total scan time is 4.0 seconds.

  5. A Rapid Beverage Intake Questionnaire Can Detect Changes in Beverage Intake

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.; Ferguson, Katherine E.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Savla, Jyoti; Dietrich, Andrea M.; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    Attention on beverage intake, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), has increased in recent years. A brief valid, reliable and sensitive assessment tool for quantifying beverage consumption and determining its influence on weight status could help to advance research on this topic. The valid and reliable 15-item beverage questionnaire (BEVQ-15) estimates mean daily intake of water, SSB and total beverages (g, kcal) across multiple beverage categories. Objective: to determine the ability of the BEVQ-15 to detect changes in beverage intake over time. Participants (n=70; age=37±2 yrs; BMI=24.5±0.4 kg/m2) underwent two randomly assigned 30-day periods (Intervention, increased water and fruit juice consumption; Control, increased solid fruit consumption), with a 30-day washout phase between feeding periods. The BEVQ-15 was administered at the beginning and end of each period. Reliability was assessed by Pearson's correlations, paired sample t tests and Cronbach's Alpha. Paired sample t tests and repeated measures ANOVA were used to evaluate sensitivity to change. Sixty-nine participants completed all study sessions. Reliability was acceptable for most beverages (range: R2=0.52–0.95, P<0.001), but not for energy drinks. Increases in water (g), juice (kcal, g) and total beverage (g) were detected during the intervention period (P<0.001); no changes in these variables were detected in the control period. The BEVQ-15 demonstrates the ability to detect changes in beverage intake over time. This brief (~ 2 min), self-administered, valid, reliable and sensitive beverage intake assessment tool may be used by researchers and practitioners who evaluate and intervene upon beverage intake patterns in adults. PMID:23265410

  6. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

  7. POROUS DIKE INTAKE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a porous dike intake. A small-scale test facility was constructed and continuously operated for 2 years under field conditions. Two stone dikes of gabion construction were tested: one consisted of 7.5 cm stones; and the other, 20 cm st...

  8. Association between dietary intake and seasonal variations in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence supports that increasing number of postmenopausal women are suffering from one or more chronic diseases. Dietary patterns have a pivotal role in maintaining human health. The aim of this study was to characterize the nutrients and energy intake in postmenopausal women, with the special focus on seasonal variation effect in their food intake. Methods The study population consisted of 30 postmenopausal women referred to Dr. Shariati Hospital, Tehran (Iran). Socio-demographic characteristics and BMI were registered. Dietary assessment was performed by a 3 day food records in each season through one year, allowing the estimation of energy, protein, carbohydrate, total fat, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake. The mean of nutrient intake in each season was adjusted for energy intake. The effect of season on energy and nutrients intake was assessed based on the General linear model (GLM). Results The mean of daily intake of vitamin C, B, B2, B12, iron, zinc, phosphorus and chromium was significantly higher than Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDAs ) (p?intake was not different between seasons. However, the mean intake of fat, vitamin C, vitamin K and folate was significantly different between seasons. Conclusion These findings highlight some nutrients deficiency in postmenopausal women and therefore suggest nutritional education with emphasis on seasonal variation effect. PMID:24855630

  9. Inhomogeneities in daily data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, Victor; Aguilar, Enric; Auchmann, Renate; Auer, Ingeborg; Brandsma, Theo; Chimani, Barbara; Gilabert, Alba; Mestre, Olivier; Toreti, Andrea; Vertacnik, Gregor

    2015-04-01

    Daily datasets have become a focus of climate research because they are essential for studying the variability and extremes in weather and climate. However, long observational climate records are usually affected by changes due to nonclimatic factors, resulting in inhomogeneities in the time series. Looking at the known physical causes of these inhomogeneities, one may expect that the tails of the distribution are especially affected. Although the number of national and regional homogenized daily temperature datasets is increasing, inhomogeneities affecting the tails of the distribution are often not or insufficiently taken into account. In this literature review we investigate the physical causes of inhomogeneities and how they affect the distribution with respect to its mean and its tails. We review what is known about changes in the distribution from existing historical parallel measurements. We discuss effects of the state-of-the-art homogenization methods on the temperature distribution. Finally, we provide an overview of the quality of available daily datasets that are often used for studies on changes in extremes and additionally describe well-homogenized regional datasets. As expected, this review provides evidence that the tails of the distribution are generally more affected by non-climatic changes than the means. This is a problem because the question to which extent daily homogenization methods can reduce those effects is insufficiently studied and most available methods are focused on temperature only. More specifically, it is advised to study whether the current deterministic correction methods should be succeeded by stochastic methods. Concerning the large scale available daily datasets, many of them are not homogenized (with respect to the distribution), whereas the number of national and regional homogenized datasets is strongly growing. Given the strong interest in studying changes in weather variability and extremes and the existence of often large inhomogeneities in the raw data, the homogenization of daily data and the development of better methods should have a high research priority. This research would be much facilitated by a global reference database with parallel measurements. The climate community, and especially those involved in homogenization, bias correction and the evaluation of uncertainties, should take an active role to foster the compilation of such a reference database. We have started an initiative collecting parallel datasets, which is an expert team of the International Surface Temperature Initiative. Its aims will be explained and its progress will be presented.

  10. NOAA Daily Weather Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hydrometeorological Prediction Center

    2011-01-01

    The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

  11. Symposium: Optimizing Vitamin D Intake for Populations with Special Needs: Barriers to Effective Food Fortification and Supplementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Heaney

    Available data on metabolic utilization of vitamin D3 indicate a total daily requirement of ;4000 international units (IU) (100 mg) or twice the current tolerable upper intake level (UL). In young individuals, most of this comes from the skin. However, cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis declines with age, creating a need for increasing oral intake to maintain optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D

  12. Sodium and potassium intake among U.S. adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommend Americans reduce sodium intake and choose foods that contain potassium to decrease the risk of hypertension and subsequent heart disease and stroke. We estimated the distributions of usual daily sodium and potassium intakes by sociodemographic and health charact...

  13. Nutrient intakes of infants with atopic dermatitis and relationship with feeding type

    PubMed Central

    Han, Youngshin; Lee, Youngmi; Park, Haeryun; Park, Sunyoung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in infants is increasing worldwide. However, the nutrient intake status of infants with atopic dermatitis has not been studied properly. This study was conducted to compare the nutrient intake status of infants in the weaning period with atopic dermatitis by feeding type. MATERIALS/METHODS Feeding types, nutrient intake status and growth status of 98 infants with atopic dermatitis from age 6 to 12 months were investigated. Feeding types were surveyed using questionnaires, and daily intakes were recorded by mothers using the 24-hour recall method. Growth and iron status were also measured. RESULTS The result showed that breastfed infants consumed less energy and 13 nutrients compared to formula-fed or mixed-fed infants (p < 0.001). The breastfed group showed a significantly lower intake rate to the Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans than the other two groups (p < 0.001). In addition, they consumed less than 75% of the recommended intakes in all nutrients, except for protein and vitamin A, and in particular, iron intake was very low, showing just 18.7% of the recommended intake. There was no significant difference in growth by feeding type, but breastfed infants showed a significantly higher rate of iron deficiency anemia (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Continuous management programs should be prepared for breastfed infants with atopic dermatitis, who are in a period when rapid growth takes place and proper nutrient intake is essential. PMID:25671069

  14. Protein intake but not feed intake affects dietary energy for finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Moehn, S; Levesque, C L; Ball, R O

    2013-02-01

    The effects of dietary protein and feeding levels on dietary metabolizable (ME) and net energy (NE) content were determined in 24 pigs, each offered two diets at 2.0 times the energetic maintenance requirement or for ad libitum intake between 55 and 95?kg body weight. Within feeding levels, pigs received, in random order, low-protein (LP; 11.2% CP, 0.61% lysine) or high-protein (HP; 20.2% CP, 0.61% lysine) diets of similar digestible energy content. Dietary NE was calculated from heat production based on 24-h indirect calorimetry following a 7-day N-balance period. Feed intake was greater for LP than HP when fed for ad libitum intake (p?=?0.001). Protein level did not affect daily gain (p?>?0.1) but HP improved gain: feed (p?=?0.003). Dietary ME and NE were not significantly affected by feeding level but were decreased by high protein intake (p?intake. The results suggest that although there was an effect of protein level on NE, the greatest effect occurred at the level of ME. However, the prediction of both ME and NE may be improved by adopting energy values for dietary protein that changes with dietary protein content. PMID:22168230

  15. USIA: Daily Washington File

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    United States Information Agency.

    1999-01-01

    The United States Information Agency's daily news and information service prepares official texts, policy statements and interpretive material, features, and byline articles for transmission to United States Information Service (USIS) offices in 211 locations around the world for distribution to government officials, media, academics and other interested persons. Select "Current Issues and Events" for current news organized by geographic region or topic. Many of these items are translated by USIA into French, Spanish, and now Russian. The "Latest Items in English" section under Current Issues contains all USIS news items produced in the preceding 48 hours, regardless of topic or geographic focus.

  16. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension. PMID:25767289

  17. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris intake on cadmium detoxification in rats fed cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, You Jin; Kwon, Sanghee

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary Chlorella vulgaris (chlorella) intake would be effective on cadmium (Cd) detoxification in rats fed dietary Cd. Fourteen-week old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighing 415.0 ± 1.6 g were randomly divided into two groups and fed slightly modified American Institute of Nutrition-93 Growing (AIN-93G) diet without (n=10) or with (n=40) dietary Cd (200 ppm) for 8 weeks. To confirm alteration by dietary Cd intake, twenty rats fed AIN-93G diet without (n=10) and with (n=10) dietary Cd were sacrificed and compared. Other thirty rats were randomly blocked into three groups and fed slightly modified AIN-93G diets replacing 0 (n=10), 5 (n=10) or 10% (n=10) chlorella of total kg diet for 4 weeks. Daily food intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight (liver, spleen, and kidney), perirenal fat pad and epididymal fat pad weights were measured. To examine Cd detoxification, urinary Cd excretion and metallothonein (MT) concentrations in kidney and intestine were measured. Food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight and fat pad weights were decreased by dietary Cd intake. Urinary Cd excretion and MT concentrations in kidney and small intestine were increased by dietary Cd. After given Cd containing diet, food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weights and fat pad weights were not influenced by dietary chlorella intake. Renal MT synthesis tended to be higher in a dose-dependent manner, but not significantly. And chlorella intake did not significantly facilitate renal and intestinal MT synthesis and urinary Cd excretion. These findings suggest that, after stopping cadmium supply, chlorella supplementation, regardless of its percentage, might not improve cadmium detoxification from the body in growing rats. PMID:20016707

  18. Protein Intake of Growing Indigenous Chickens on Free-Range and Their Response to Supplementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Kingori; J. K. Tuitoek; H. K. Muiruri; A. M. Wachira; E. K. Birech

    2007-01-01

    3 Abstract: Three experiments were conducted to determine protein intake and the response of growin g indigenous chickens to protein supplementation under free-ranging conditions. In the first experiment, data were collected from which a model was designed to estimate daily feed intake of free-ranging indigenous chicken from the Crop Contents (CC). The second experiment applied the model under on-farm conditions

  19. Calcium intake, body composition, and lipoprotein-lipid concentrations in adults1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mélanie Jacqmain; Eric Doucet; Jean-Pierre Després; Claude Bouchard; Angelo Tremblay

    Background: Recent data suggest that variations in calcium intake may influence lipid metabolism and body composition. Objective: The association between daily calcium intake and body composition and plasma lipoprotein-lipid concentrations was studied cross-sectionally in adults from phase 2 of the Québec Family Study. Design: Adults aged 20-65 y (235 men, 235 women) were studied. Subjects who consumed vitamin or mineral

  20. Math in Daily Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What are your odds of hitting it big at the casino? Should you buy or lease a car? How much will you have when you retire? All of these questions involve math, and this latest addition to the Annenberg Media Projects Learner Online site (described in the September 12, 1997 Scout Report) explores the use of basic mathematical concepts in daily decision-making. The exhibit is divided into several topical sections exploring probability and gambling, compound interest and credit cards, population growth, geometry in the home, and ratios and recipes. In addition to an overview of the topic, each section offers several links to selected related sites and online tools, and two feature interactive learning activities.

  1. AstronomyDaily.Com

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Astronomy Daily.Com offers real time astronomical data tailored to the viewer's location and time zone. The personalized front page presents a chart of tonight's sky. Diagrams allow users to view the planets in their orbits. Educators and students can find images of today's moon and its phase on the calendar, plus data dealing with its current position and its physical and orbital characteristics. Phil Harrington, a supervisor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, provides two monthly articles; the first assesses a phenomenon in the sky that can be observed with binoculars and the second discusses a phenomenon in the Deep Sky. Viewers can also participate in many discussion forums with other interested astronomers. Although users are required to register in order to view the customized site, no personal identification is requested. This site is also reviewed in the October 3, 2003 NSDL Physical Sciences Report.

  2. Egypt Daily.com

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Part of the World News network, Egypt Daily.com provides a wealth of links to frequently updated news stories dealing primarily with Egypt. From the homepage, users can click on any number of recent items gathered from a variety of different sources, including the BBC, ABC News, Arabic News, and CNN. The archive of news items stretches back several weeks, and news items are also arranged thematically into sections dealing with the economy, tourism, and technology on the site's main page. The site also features a number of helpful links, such as those leading to English-language news resources for the Arabic-speaking world and to online newspapers in Arabic. The site is rounded out by a list of online travel guides for those seeking to plan a trip to Egypt or other parts of North Africa.

  3. ArchDaily

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Billed as the "world's most visited architecture website,â?ť ArchDaily is a treasure trove of materials on new building projects, architectural trends, design matters, and competitions. Along the top of its homepage, visitors can delve into areas that include News, Articles, Materials, Software, and Interviews. This last area is a great place to start as it includes fabulous conversations with notables such as Jeanne Gang, Jean-Louis Cohen, and Andreas G. Gjertsen. Moving along, the Materials section offers specific technical information on equipment, finishes, installation techniques, and structural work. The Projects area contains information on new and compelling works, such as the Soundcloud Headquarters in Berlin and the Bagnoli Futura in Italy.

  4. Estimated Nutrient Intakes from Food Generally Do Not Meet Dietary Reference Intakes among Adult Members of Pacific Northwest Tribal Nations1–3

    PubMed Central

    Fialkowski, Marie K.; McCrory, Megan A.; Roberts, Sparkle M.; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1–4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001–2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34–37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11–12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001–2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases. PMID:20237069

  5. A novel approach for food intake detection using electroglottography

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Muhammad; Fontana, Juan M; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Many methods for monitoring diet and food intake rely on subjects self-reporting their daily intake. These methods are subjective, potentially inaccurate and need to be replaced by more accurate and objective methods. This paper presents a novel approach that uses an Electroglottograph (EGG) device for an objective and automatic detection of food intake. Thirty subjects participated in a 4-visit experiment involving the consumption of meals with self-selected content. Variations in the electrical impedance across the larynx caused by the passage of food during swallowing were captured by the EGG device. To compare performance of the proposed method with a well-established acoustical method, a throat microphone was used for monitoring swallowing sounds. Both signals were segmented into non-overlapping epochs of 30 s and processed to extract wavelet features. Subject-independent classifiers were trained using Artificial Neural Networks, to identify periods of food intake from the wavelet features. Results from leave-one-out cross-validation showed an average per-epoch classification accuracy of 90.1% for the EGG-based method and 83.1% for the acoustic-based method, demonstrating the feasibility of using an EGG for food intake detection. PMID:24671094

  6. Dietary sugars intake and cardiovascular health: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rachel K; Appel, Lawrence J; Brands, Michael; Howard, Barbara V; Lefevre, Michael; Lustig, Robert H; Sacks, Frank; Steffen, Lyn M; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2009-09-15

    High intakes of dietary sugars in the setting of a worldwide pandemic of obesity and cardiovascular disease have heightened concerns about the adverse effects of excessive consumption of sugars. In 2001 to 2004, the usual intake of added sugars for Americans was 22.2 teaspoons per day (355 calories per day). Between 1970 and 2005, average annual availability of sugars/added sugars increased by 19%, which added 76 calories to Americans' average daily energy intake. Soft drinks and other sugar-sweetened beverages are the primary source of added sugars in Americans' diets. Excessive consumption of sugars has been linked with several metabolic abnormalities and adverse health conditions, as well as shortfalls of essential nutrients. Although trial data are limited, evidence from observational studies indicates that a higher intake of soft drinks is associated with greater energy intake, higher body weight, and lower intake of essential nutrients. National survey data also indicate that excessive consumption of added sugars is contributing to overconsumption of discretionary calories by Americans. On the basis of the 2005 US Dietary Guidelines, intake of added sugars greatly exceeds discretionary calorie allowances, regardless of energy needs. In view of these considerations, the American Heart Association recommends reductions in the intake of added sugars. A prudent upper limit of intake is half of the discretionary calorie allowance, which for most American women is no more than 100 calories per day and for most American men is no more than 150 calories per day from added sugars. PMID:19704096

  7. Purine-rich foods intake and recurrent gout attacks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqing; Chen, Clara; Choi, Hyon; Chaisson, Christine; Hunter, David; Niu, Jingbo; Neogi, Tuhina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine and quantify the relation between purine intake and the risk of recurrent gout attacks among gout patients. Methods The authors conducted a case-crossover study to examine associations of a set of putative risk factors with recurrent gout attacks. Individuals with gout were prospectively recruited and followed online for 1 year. Participants were asked about the following information when experiencing a gout attack: the onset date of the gout attack, clinical symptoms and signs, medications (including antigout medications), and presence of potential risk factors (including daily intake of various purine-containing food items) during the 2-day period prior to the gout attack. The same exposure information was also assessed over 2-day control periods. Results This study included 633 participants with gout. Compared with the lowest quintile of total purine intake over a 2-day period, OR of recurrent gout attacks were 1.17, 1.38, 2.21 and 4.76, respectively, with each increasing quintile (p for trend <0.001). The corresponding OR were 1.42, 1.34, 1.77 and 2.41 for increasing quintiles of purine intake from animal sources (p for trend <0.001), and 1.12, 0.99, 1.32 and 1.39 from plant sources (p=0.04), respectively. The effect of purine intake persisted across subgroups by sex, use of alcohol, diuretics, allopurinol, NSAIDs and colchicine. Conclusions The study findings suggest that acute purine intake increases the risk of recurrent gout attacks by almost fivefold among gout patients. Avoiding or reducing amount of purine-rich foods intake, especially of animal origin, may help reduce the risk of gout attacks. PMID:22648933

  8. Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks Table A43. Alcoholic drinks: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 number of drinks Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 19-30 1113 0.9

  9. Normative influences on food intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Peter Herman; Janet Polivy

    2005-01-01

    Hunger and satiety have conventionally provided the framework for understanding eating and overeating. We argue that hunger and satiety play a relatively small role in everyday eating. The normative control of food intake refers to the fact that our eating is largely governed by the motive to avoid eating excessively. Dieters impose a restrictive intake norm on themselves, but often

  10. Usual Intake of Added sugars

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

  11. Baclofen, raclopride, and naltrexone differentially affect intake of fat/sucrose mixtures under limited access conditions.

    PubMed

    Wong, K J; Wojnicki, F H W; Corwin, R L W

    2009-05-01

    This study assessed the effects of the opioid antagonist naltrexone, the dopamine 2-like (D2) antagonist raclopride, and the GABA(B) agonist baclofen on consumption of fat/sucrose mixtures (FSM) using a limited access protocol. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped according to two schedules of access (Daily [D] or Intermittent [I]) to an optional FSM. Each FSM was created by whipping 3.2% (L), 10% (M), or 32% (H) powdered sugar into 100% vegetable shortening in a w/w manner (n=10 per group). One-hour intakes of the IL and IM groups were significantly greater than intakes of the respective DL and DM groups, thus fulfilling our operational definition of binge-type eating in these groups. Baclofen reduced intakes of the L and M mixtures regardless of access schedule, but failed to reduce intake of the H mixture. Naltrexone reduced intake in all groups, but potency was greater in IL rats than in DL rats. Furthermore, potency was attenuated in Intermittent rats, but enhanced in Daily rats, at higher sucrose concentrations. Raclopride reduced intake in the DL and stimulated intake in the IL groups, reduced intake in both M groups, and was without effect in both H groups. These results indicate that fat/sucrose mixtures containing relatively low concentrations of sucrose allow distinctions to be made between: 1) intakes stimulated by different access schedules and 2) opioid and dopaminergic modulation of those intakes. These results also suggest that brief bouts of food consumption involving fatty, sugar-rich foods may prove to be particularly resistant to pharmacological intervention. PMID:19217918

  12. Chronic Daily Headache.

    PubMed

    Couch, James R.

    2003-11-01

    The therapy of chronic daily headache (CDH) is complex and involves a combination of drugs, supportive psychotherapy, nondrug therapy, "tender-loving care," and "tough love." CDH is a chronic problem with exacerbations and remissions. Patients with CDH often manifest mood disorders, and recognition and treatment of these problems is a key component of success. The use of preventative antimigraine therapy is a major component of treatment of this condition. Patients with exacerbations may need judicious short courses of medications that can produce medication-overuse headache. Patients may switch to another physician to get opiates or other pain relief medications. The patient may later realize this mistake and return to the physician. Use of patient "contracts," in which the patient agrees not to take more than a prescribed amount of restricted medication or seek it elsewhere, may be helpful. In this area, there is no standard patient or standard therapeutic regimen. The treatment plan must be individualized for each patient. Taking a little extra time to talk with patients and discuss medications, procedures, and goals and objectives may pay bigger dividends in the therapeutic relationship later in the course of treatment. PMID:14516524

  13. Health risk assessment of ochratoxin A for all age-sex strata in a market economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kuiper-Goodman; C. Hilts; S. M. Billiard; Y. Kiparissis; I. D. K. Richard; S. Hayward

    2010-01-01

    In order to manage risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) in foods, we re-evaluated the tolerable daily intake (TDI), derived the negligible cancer risk intake (NCRI), and conducted a probabilistic risk assessment. A new approach was developed to derive ‘usual’ probabilistic exposure in the presence of highly variable occurrence data, such as encountered with low levels of OTA. Canadian occurrence data

  14. Drinking behavior of lactating dairy cows and prediction of their water intake.

    PubMed

    Cardot, V; Le Roux, Y; Jurjanz, S

    2008-06-01

    The water intake of 41 lactating dairy cows managed according to current dairy farm practices was individually and continuously monitored to 1) investigate drinking behavior and 2) determine factors affecting water intake. The cows were housed in a free-stall barn and fed once daily with a corn silage and concentrate-based total mixed ration (48% dry matter content; 20.6 +/- 3.3 kg/d of dry matter intake). Cows were milked twice daily, with a yield of 26.5 +/- 5.9 kg/d. The daily free water intake (FWI) was 83.6 +/- 17.1 L, achieved during 7.3 +/- 2.8 drinking bouts. The drinking bout water intake was 12.9 +/- 5.0 L. Almost three-fourths of the FWI occurred during working hours (0600 to 1900 h). Consumption peaks corresponded to feeding and milking times. More than one quarter of the daily FWI was met during the 2 h after each milking. About 75% of the present cows visited the watering point at least once during the 2 h after the evening milking. It is probable that drinking behavior evolved with lactation, but further studies are required to identify the relationship between lactation stage and drinking behavior. The most relevant factors affecting the daily FWI of lactating cows were best combined according to the following predictive equation: (R(2) = 0.45; n = 41 cows, n = 1,837): FWI, L/d = 1.53 x dry matter intake (kg/d) + 1.33 x milk yield (kg/d) + 0.89 x dry matter content (%) + 0.57 x minimum temperature ( degrees C) - 0.30 x rainfall (mm/d) - 25.65. The results obtained using these equations were in agreement with the equations developed by other researchers. PMID:18487648

  15. Low sodium and high potassium intake for cardiovascular prevention: evidence revisited with emphasis on challenges in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Bigna, Jean Joel R; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N

    2015-01-01

    Reduction in dietary salt intake and increase in potassium intake can make a major contribution to the prevention and control of hypertension and consequential cardiovascular disease, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where prevalence rates are highest. African populations are going through a westernization of their traditional eating patterns, with a shift towards a US/Western-style diet, which contains an excessive amount of salt. Currently, the mean sodium intake in SSA populations is far above the recommended daily allowance. Besides, potassium intake is low, and, particularly, the supply of fruits and vegetables that are important sources of potassium is insufficient to meet current and growing population needs in SSA countries. Context-relevant strategies are needed for population-wide sodium intake reduction and increase in potassium intake. PMID:25382734

  16. Daily rainfall domains in Mallorca

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Sumner; C. Ramis; J. A. Guijarro

    1995-01-01

    A Pearson Product Moment Correlation matrix for four years of daily rainfall from 96 sites on the island of Mallorca has been used to derive and map correlation fields and construct composite correlation fields for different parts of the island based on previously defined daily rainfall affinity areas. Significant variations in rainfall organisation over the island are revealed. These reflect

  17. Video surveillance of medication intake.

    PubMed

    Valin, Myriam; Meunier, Jean; St-Arnaud, Alain; Rousseau, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    In the context of the growing proportion of seniors in the western world population and the efforts provided in home care services, we have developed a computer vision system for monitoring medication intake. The system detects automatically medication intake using a single low-cost webcam. Person detection and tracking over the video sequence is done using color-based techniques while the recognition of the medication intake activity is performed using our main contribution, a three-level scenario model. Experimental results in controlled conditions are shown and we discuss improvements to our system. PMID:17945965

  18. Primary genome scan to identify putative quantitative trait loci for feedlot growth rate, feed intake, and feed efficiency of beef cattle 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Nkrumah; E. L. Sherman; C. Li; E. Marques; D. H. Crews Jr; R. Bartusiak; B. Murdoch; Z. Wang; J. A. Basarab; S. S. Moore

    2010-01-01

    Feed intake and feed efficiency of beef cattle are economically relevant traits. The study was conducted to identify QTL for feed intake and feed effi- ciency of beef cattle by using genotype information from 100 microsatellite markers and 355 SNP genotyped across 400 progeny of 20 Angus, Charolais, or Alberta Hybrid bulls. Traits analyzed include feedlot ADG, daily DMI, feed-to-gain

  19. Effects of Feeding Prepubertal Heifers a High-Energy Diet for Three, Six, or Twelve Weeks on Feed Intake, Body Growth, and Fat Deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Davis Rincker; M. S. Weber Nielsen; L. T. Chapin; J. S. Liesman; M. J. VandeHaar

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of feeding prepubertal dairy heifers a high-energy diet for a dura- tion of 0, 3, 6, or 12 wk on feed intake, growth, and fat deposition. We also used feed composition, daily intake, and body growth data to evaluate the nutritional model of the 2001 National Research Council (NRC) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy

  20. Protein intake at 9 mo of age is associated with body size but not with body fat in 10-y-old Danish children1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camilla Hoppe; Christian Mřlgaard; Birthe Lykke Thomsen; Anders Juul; Kim Fleischer Michaelsen

    Background: During the complementary feeding period, infants shift from a daily protein intake (PI) of 1 g\\/kg body wt to an intake 3- 4 times as high. A high PI probably has both endocrine and physiologic effects and may increase the risk of obesity. Objective: We examined the associations between PI in infancy and body size and composition in late

  1. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, US Population, 2007-10

    Cancer.gov

    We have applied the NCI Method for estimating distributions of usual intake to data from two recent cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative sample, to estimate means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake (Tables A1-44) and the percentage of persons meeting recommendations (Tables B1-17) for a range of sex-age groups in the US population.

  2. 11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE COFFER DAM, OCTOBER 10, 1900. ONE OF THE HUBBELL COMPANY DREDGES IS AT WORK IN THE CENTER OF THE ILLUSTRATION, THE TIMBER FLOATING AROUND WAS PROBABLY FOR USE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF SIDE WALL RETAINING CRIBS. ONE OF THESE IS BEING CONSTRUCTED JUST TO THE LEFT AND TOWARDS THE VIEWER FROM THE DREDGES. (87) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  3. Dietary protein intake is associated with lean body mass in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Geirsdottir, Olof G; Arnarson, Atli; Ramel, Alfons; Jonsson, Palmi V; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-08-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) is important to maintain physical function during aging. We hypothesized that dietary protein intake and leisure-time physical activity are associated with LBM in community-dwelling older adults. To test the hypothesis, participants (n = 237; age, 65-92 years) did 3-day weighed food records and reported physical activity. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Protein intake was 0.98 ± 0.28 and 0.95 ± 0.29 g/kg body weight in male and female participants, respectively. Protein intake (in grams per kilogram of body weight) was associated with LBM (in kilograms); that is, the differences in LBM were 2.3 kg (P < .05) and 2.0 kg (P = .054) between the fourth vs the first and the fourth vs the second quartiles of protein intake, respectively. Only a minor part of this association was explained by increased energy intake, which follows an increased protein intake. Our study shows that dietary protein intake was positively associated with LBM in older adults with a mean protein intake higher than the current recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg per day. Leisure-time physical activity, predominantly consisting of endurance type exercises, was not related to LBM in this group. PMID:23890349

  4. Predictors of dietary intake in a functionally dependent elderly population in the community.

    PubMed Central

    Payette, H; Gray-Donald, K; Cyr, R; Boutier, V

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The aim of this study was to describe dietary intake and identify predictors of energy and protein intake in a group of high-risk elderly people. METHODS. All elderly persons receiving publicly financed home care services in the area of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, were eligible. Subjects (n = 145) 60 to 94 years of age from three home care programs were interviewed to measure sociodemographic, health, and food-related behavior variables. Three nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls were used to describe usual dietary intake. Independent predictors of energy and protein intake were derived from multiple regression analyses. RESULTS. Very low mean energy intakes were observed in this functionally dependent population. More than 50% of the study subjects did not meet the recommended levels of daily protein intake (0.8 g/kg body weight). Significant independent determinants of intake were burden of disease, stress, poor appetite, and vision. CONCLUSIONS. Results suggest that community-living elderly people with loss of autonomy may have more nutritional problems than healthy elderly individuals. Surveillance of predictors of dietary intake may enable early detection and prevention of nutritional deficits. PMID:7733428

  5. A short dutch questionnaire to measure fruit and vegetable intake: relative validity among adults and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Van Assema, Patricia; Brug, Johannes; Ronda, Gaby; Steenhuis, Ingrid; Oenema, Anke

    2002-01-01

    A short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake was validated. Forty-nine adults and fifty-one adolescents (12-18 years old) completed the FFQ at home, and subsequently kept diet records for seven successive days. Mean daily intake of F&V was overestimated by the FFQ as compared to the 7-day diet records. For adults, spearman correlations of at least 0.5 were observed between the two methods for intake of total fruit and intake of citrus fruit. For adolescents, acceptable spearman correlations (0.53-0.64) were observed between the two methods for total F&V intake, total fruit intake and consumption of fruit juice. Low correlations (0.22-0.35) between the FFQ and the diet records were found for vegetable intake. Relatively large percentages (22-37%) of respondents were incorrectly classified by the short FFQ as eating according to the Dutch recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. Based on the results of the present study as well as an overview of the results of 34 earlier validation studies of F&V FFQ's, it is concluded that the available FFQ's have only limited capability to make valid assessment of F&V intake levels. In spite of the practical advantages of the short FFQ tested in the present study and the similar validity scores as compared with other often used F&V FFQ's, it needs further revision, especially to be used for valid measurement of vegetable intake as well as total F&V intake among adults. PMID:12102370

  6. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  7. Hoover Dam Intake Towers Panorama

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

  8. Usual Dietary Intakes: Further Information

    Cancer.gov

    Freedman LS, Midthune D, Carroll RJ, Krebs-Smith S, Subar AF, Troiano RP, Dodd K, Schatzkin A, Bingham SA, Ferrari P, Kipnis V. Adjustments to improve the estimation of usual dietary intake distributions in the population.

  9. Usual Intake of Cured meat

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Cured meat Table A25. Cured meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.04) 0.2 (0.04) 0.3

  10. Cost and health consequences of reducing the population intake of salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randi M Selmer; Ivar Sřnbř Kristiansen; Anton Haglerřd; Sidsel Graff-Iversen; Hanne K Larsen; Haakon E Meyer; Kaare H Břnaa; Dag S Thelle

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVEThe aim was to estimate health and economic consequences of interventions aimed at reducing the daily intake of salt (sodium chloride) by 6 g per person in the Norwegian population. Health promotion (information campaigns), development of new industry food recipes, declaration of salt content in food and taxes on salty food\\/subsidies of products with less salt, were possible interventions.DESIGNThe

  11. RADIOGRAPHY OF INTAKE AND (PSEUDO) RUMINATION BEHAVIOUR A. DESWYSEN H.J. EHRLEIN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RADIOGRAPHY OF INTAKE AND (PSEUDO) RUMINATION BEHAVIOUR A. DESWYSEN H.J. EHRLEIN 111 Universite was greater than with short silage. It should therefore be expec- ted that rumination stimuli would of the main meal and the first rumination period, 2. - shorter total daily ruminating time, but slightly

  12. Binge eating and satiety in bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder: Effects of macronutrient intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet D. Latner; G. Terence Wilson

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The current study tested the hypothesis that supplemental dietary protein would reduce binge eating frequency and test meal intake in women with bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED). Method: Eighteen women with BN or BED ingested high- carbohydrate or high-protein supplements (280 kcal) three times daily over two 2-week periods. On the morning after each period, participants

  13. Effects of Royal Jelly Supplementation on Body Weight and Dietary Intake in Type 2 Diabetic Females

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoradian, Samira; Mahdavi, Reza; Mobasseri, Majid; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mobasseri, Mehrnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of royal jelly supple-mentation on body weight, total daily energy and macronutrients intakes in type2 diabetic fe-males. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, fifty female volunteers with type2 diabetes were as-signed into the supplemented (n=25) and placebo (n=25) groups, given a daily dose of 1000 mg royal jelly soft gel or placebo, for 8 weeks, respectively. Before and after the intervention, body weight and height of subjects were measured and body mass index was calculated. Dietary intake of patients was assessed using 24-hour food recall questionnaire for three non consecutive days (including 1 weekend day) and analyzed with Nutritionist IV software. The normally distributed data were compared using paired and independent t-tests, where appropriate. Results: Royal jelly supplementation significantly (P<0.01) decreased the mean body weight (72.45±4.42 vs. 71.00±6.44 kg) while it increased insignificantly in placebo group (73.02±6.44 vs 73.52±6.80 kg). Royal jelly supplementation resulted in significant decrease of mean daily total energy (P<0.01) and carbohydrate (P<0.01) intakes, while in placebo group the mean daily total energy and fat intakes were increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation with royal jelly may be beneficial in weight management of di-abetic patients. PMID:24688939

  14. Determination of Alkane Content in Fresh Fecal Samples to Estimate Intake on Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    External markers of wax alkanes C32 and C36 are effective tools for determining intake of grazing animals. The technique requires daily dosing of markers which is impractical under extensive grazing conditions, so controlled release capsules (CRC) have been used. However, consistency of payout from ...

  15. Growth and Efficiency of Holstein Steers as Influenced by Live Weight and Energy Intake1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. N. Almquist; V. H. Brungardt; W. J. Tyler; R. C. Waldman

    1971-01-01

    This investigation was to determine the influence of two energy intakes (H and M) in various sequences on live and carcass weight and muscle gains of 162 Holstein steers between birth and slaughter at 91, 227, 340, 454, or 590 kg live weight. Steers on M were fed to gain daily 60 to 70% of those on H fed ad

  16. Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-01-01

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors. PMID:18514747

  17. Estimating the Dietary Intake of Breastfeeding Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Greenslade, Sarah; Miller, Jacqueline; Tonkin, Emma; Marshall, Peter; Collins, Carmel T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine how accurately the daily prescribed feed volume (mL/day) estimates the actual intake of breastfeeding preterm infants and to characterise the volume taken during a breastfeed at differing gestational and postmenstrual ages. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on preterm infants born <37 weeks gestation from two Australian neonatal units. To determine the volume taken in a 24-h period infants were weighed before and after each breastfeed. This volume was added to the charted intake to determine the total intake and then compared to the prescribed feed volume. Bland Altman analyses were used to assess the level of agreement between the two methods. Results: Fifty six infants were studied on 206 breastfeeding occasions. There was a small bias (27 mLs/day) but large 95% limits of agreement (–76 to 130 mL/day). The volume taken during a single breastfeed ranged from 0 to 101 mL (median 23 mL, IQR 9 to 31 mL) and was greater in more mature infants. Conclusions: Using the prescribed feed volume to estimate total intake has limited clinical utility for the individual infant, however the relatively small bias means that it may be useful within a population or for comparison between groups in which population means are compared. There was a large variation in volume taken during a breastfeed across all gestational and postmenstrual ages. PMID:26006120

  18. Fluid intake patterns: an epidemiological study among children and adolescents in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Energy from liquids is one of the most important factors that could impact on the high prevalence of children and adolescents obesity around the world. There are few data on the liquid consumption in Brazil. The aim of this study is to evaluate the volume and quality of liquids consumed by Brazilian children and adolescents and to determine the proportion of their daily energy intake composed of liquids. Methods A multicenter study was conducted in five Brazilian cities; the study included 831 participants between 3 and 17 years of age. A four-day dietary record specific to fluids was completed for each individual, and the volume of and Kcal from liquid intake were evaluated. The average number of Kcal in each beverage was determined based on label information, and the daily energy intake data from liquids were compared with the recommendations of the National Health Surveillance Agency (Agęncia Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária– ANVISA), the Brazilian food regulation authority, according to each subject’s age. Results As the children aged, the volume of carbonated beverages that they consumed increased significantly, and their milk intake decreased significantly. For children between the ages of 3 and 10, milk and dairy products contributed the greatest daily number of Kcal from liquids. Sugar sweetened beverages which included carbonated beverages, nectars and artificial beverages, accounted for 37% and 45% of the total Kcal from liquid intake in the 3- to 6-year-old and 7- to 10- year-old groups, respectively. Among adolescents (participants 11- to 17- years old), most of the energy intake from liquids came from carbonated beverages, which accounted for an average of 207 kcal/day in this group (42% of their total energy intake from liquids). Health professionals should be attentive to the excessive consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in children and adolescents. The movement toward healthier dietary patterns at the individual and population levels may help to improve programs for preventing overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Conclusion From childhood to adolescence the daily volume of liquid ingested increased reaching a total of 2.0 liters on average. Of this volume, the daily volume of milk ingested decreased while the carbonated drinks, sweetened, nectars and artificial beverages increased significantly. The proportion of water remained constant in about 1/3 of the total volume. From 3 to 17 years of age the energy intake from carbonated beverages increased by about 20%. The carbonated drinks on average corresponded to a tenth of the daily requirements of energy of adolescents. PMID:23167254

  19. Daily Egyptian Diversity News Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed as part of the online collections at Southern Illinois University-Carbondale's Morris Library, the Daily Egyptian Diversity News Index provides historical insight into the campus climate at this unique school. In 2006, Dr. Seymour Bryson, the associate chancellor for diversity, teamed up with several other colleagues to identify articles in the Daily Egyptian (the University's student newspaper) related to the university's historic minority campus populations. The project entailed surveying microfilm and creating searchable transcripts for online access. Currently, the online archive contains over 1,400 items from the Daily Egyptian, and content includes pieces on African American members of the homecoming court, student activists, musical groups, and student government.

  20. Considerations regarding a permitted daily exposure calculation for ethyl methanesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lutz; Gocke, Elmar

    2009-11-12

    Specification of human exposure limits to compounds with toxicities based on modes of action that allow considerations of a threshold and the safe estimation of a no-observed-effect level (NOEL) is normally based on acceptable daily intake (ADI) or permitted daily exposure (PDE) calculations using appropriate safety factors to account for differences between species, populations, length of observation and severity of lesions. In view of the reliable experimental evidence for a thresholded dose response of the genotoxicity of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) as reported in this special issue of Toxicology Letters such an acceptable daily intake proposal is made using the approach for setting permitted daily exposure limits outlined in appendix 3 of the ICH Q3C consensus guideline on residual solvents in pharmaceuticals (ICH, 2005). Up to now the specification of EMS exposure limits was based on the generic threshold of toxicological concern (TTC)-derived limit of 1.5mug/person/day as advocated by the CHMP [CHMP, 2006. Guideline on the limits of genotoxic impurities. www.emea.europa.eu/pdfs/human/swp/519902en.pdf (June 28, 2006) with Q&A www.emea.europa.eu/pdfs/human/swp/43199407en.pdf (June 25, 2008)] or on as low as technically achievable criteria. Such limits have been based on conservative linear dose-effect extrapolations corresponding to an excess cancer risk of 1 in 100,000. We now present an EMS-specific PDE based on the reliable demonstration of a NOEL for induction of mutations in vivo of 25mg/kg/day. Using the most conservative safety factors described in ICH Q3C we derive a PDE of approximately 100 microg/person/day using product safety factors still amounting to 12,000. PMID:19857798

  1. Hibernation and daily torpor minimize mammalian extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiser, Fritz; Turbill, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Small mammals appear to be less vulnerable to extinction than large species, but the underlying reasons are poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that almost all (93.5%) of 61 recently extinct mammal species were homeothermic, maintaining a constant high body temperature and thus energy expenditure, which demands a high intake of food, long foraging times, and thus exposure to predators. In contrast, only 6.5% of extinct mammals were likely heterothermic and employed multi-day torpor (hibernation) or daily torpor, even though torpor is widespread within more than half of all mammalian orders. Torpor is characterized by substantial reductions of body temperature and energy expenditure and enhances survival during adverse conditions by minimizing food and water requirements, and consequently reduces foraging requirements and exposure to predators. Moreover, because life span is generally longer in heterothermic mammals than in related homeotherms, heterotherms can employ a ‘sit-and-wait’ strategy to withstand adverse periods and then repopulate when circumstances improve. Thus, torpor is a crucial but hitherto unappreciated attribute of small mammals for avoiding extinction. Many opportunistic heterothermic species, because of their plastic energetic requirements, may also stand a better chance of future survival than homeothermic species in the face of greater climatic extremes and changes in environmental conditions caused by global warming.

  2. Unravelling daily human mobility motifs

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Christian M.

    Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for ...

  3. Associations between the Intake of Miso Soup and Japanese Pickles and the Estimated 24-hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: A Population-based Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wakasugi, Minako; James Kazama, Junichiro; Narita, Ichiei

    2015-01-01

    Objective In Japan, reducing the consumption of miso soup and Japanese pickles, both traditional Japanese dishes, is recommended in order to decrease dietary salt intake. With the Westernization of dietary habits, however, these dishes are now consumed less frequently, and thus a reduction in their effect on sodium intake is suspected. This study examined cross-sectional associations between the frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles and the estimated 24-hour urine sodium excretion using data obtained from health examination surveys conducted in 2013 in Sado City, Japan. Methods The level of daily salt intake was estimated based on spot urine sodium and creatinine measurements. The frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles was determined using a self-reported questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess associations. Results Among a total of 8,821 participants (3,956 men; age range, 19-97 years), the mean daily salt intake was 9.4 g/day. The frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles increased with age and was associated with the level of daily salt intake (p for trend <0.0001). A linear regression model analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and chronic kidney disease revealed that daily salt intake was associated with the frequency of intake of miso soup (p<0.0001) and Japanese pickles (p<0.0001) in all age groups, except those ?80 years of age. Conclusion These findings suggest that reducing the consumption of miso soup and Japanese pickles may be an effective approach for decreasing the level of dietary salt intake in the general Japanese population, although not in octogenarians or nonagenarians. PMID:25876570

  4. Estimation of dietary 232Th, 238U, cesium, and strontium intakes in Vietnamese people from different geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Giang, N; Shiraishi, K; Sinh, N M; Kimura, S; Tuan, N N; Arae, H

    2001-06-01

    Diet samples were collected to estimate dietary intakes of 232Th, 238U, cesium, and strontium for Vietnamese adults using duplicate portion studies and market basket studies. Average concentrations of 232Th, 238U, cesium, and strontium in diet samples were 4.0 ng/g-dry, 2.5 ng/g-dry, 41 ng/g-dry, and 4.5 ng/g-dry, respectively. Daily intakes per person for 232Th, 238U, cesium, and strontium were estimated to be 0.99 microg, 0.66 microg, 10 microg, and 1.2 mg, respectively. Daily intakes of 232Th, 238U, and cesium differed statistically between northern and southern of Vietnam, depending on geological conditions and food habits. However, intakes of the four nuclides were similar to the global averages. PMID:11388732

  5. Sugar intake and body weight in Cambodian and Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Shikanai, Saiko; Koung Ry, Ly; Takeichi, Hitomi; Emiko, Suzuki; San, Pann; Sarukura, Nobuko; Kamoshita, Sumiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Because of the tastiness of sugars, it is easy to consume more than an adequate amount. There are many research reports that excess sugar intake contributes to dental decay, obesity, diabetes etc. Continuing economic development in Cambodia has made it easier than before for people to consume sugars in their daily life. Currently, isomerized sugar (a mixture of glucose and fructose) made from starches is commonly used in commercial beverages because of its low price. However, in Cambodia and Japan, sugar composition tables that include not only sucrose but also glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose have not been available. Prior to the present nutrition surveys, we made sugar composition tables for both countries. In this study we tried to estimate the intakes of various sugars by children in Cambodia and Japan and to determine the relationship between intake and body weight. Nutrition surveys of children aged 7, 10 and 13 years old were conducted for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method in 89 Cambodian children living in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, and 151 Japanese children living in 3 prefectures from north to south. Height and weight of children in Cambodia and Japan were similar until 10 years old but at 13 years old, the Cambodians were shorter and lighter than the Japanese. We could not observe any differences in BMI in either country. The sugar intakes from beverages and snacks were not different among the different gender and age. Thus we combined the mean total sugar intake for Cambodian and Japanese, 28.42 ± 25.28 g and 25.69 ± 16.16 g respectively. These were within the range of WHO recommendations (less than 10% of energy intakes). Cambodian children consumed about 46% of sugars from commercial beverages and snacks and Japanese children 26%. This means that for Cambodians half of the sugars came from isomerized sugar made from starches. Relationships between sugar intake and body weight were not observed in both countries. In conclusion, the Cambodian children consumed about 46% of sugar from glucose and fructose (probably in the form of isomerized sugar), while the Japanese children took 26%; however, the intakes in both countries met the WHO recommendation and there was no relationship to body weight. PMID:24705752

  6. [The influence of selected lifestyle factors on lycopene intake by women].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women aged 19-81 years from Central Poland and assess the influence of selected lifestyle factors on the intake of carotenoid. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The mean intake of lycopene was 4.51 mg/person/ day. In the present study a statistically significant relationships were not found between lycopene intake and age, place of dwelling, level of education, occupation, smoking status, alcohol drinking and coffee consumption, level of physical activity or BMI categories. However, some relations were observed e.g. the elderly, people living in big cities (over 100.000 inhabitants), people with higher level of education or physical activity and people with lower BMI categories consumed more lycopene in daily food rations. PMID:21365862

  7. [Food additive intake and health effects: public health challenges in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Polônio, Maria Lúcia Teixeira; Peres, Frederico

    2009-08-01

    This study uses a systematic literature review to contextualize the risks associated with food additive intake. Studies comparing food additive intake and cancer showed that adverse health effects appeared when Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) was exceeded. The review also detected a lack of studies on attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. There were more studies on non-specific hypersensitivity, highlighting such clinical manifestations as rhinitis, urticaria, and angioedema, all associated with food additives, particularly artificial colorants. Children are a vulnerable group as potential consumers of food additives, particularly artificial colorants. Studies on food additive intake should provide the basis for effective food and nutritional surveillance strategies, aiming to promote healthy eating habits. PMID:19649407

  8. No effect of 16 weeks flavor enhancement on dietary intake and nutritional status of nursing home elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natasja H. Essed; Wija A. van Staveren; Frans J. Kok; Cees de Graaf

    2007-01-01

    There is a lack of data to support the long-term effect of flavor enhancement on food intake and nutritional status. Our aim was to determine if daily addition of 700mg flavor and\\/or 300mg monosodium glutamate (MSG) to the animal protein part of the cooked meal for 16 weeks leads to an increase in energy intake and in body weight in

  9. Estimate of intake of benzoic acid in the Belgian adult population.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, S; Andjelkovic, M; De Wil, M; Vinkx, C; Huybrechts, I; Van Loco, J; Van Oyen, H; Goeyens, L

    2009-07-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate average daily benzoic acid intake for Belgian adults. Food consumption data were retrieved from the national food-consumption survey. As a first step, individual food-consumption data were multiplied with the maximum permitted use levels for benzoic acid per food group (Tier 2). As a second step, a label survey to identify the foods where benzoic acid is effectively used as an additive and a literature review of the possible occurrence of benzoic acid as a natural substance were performed. With this information, a refined list of foods was drafted for the quantification of benzoic acid, which was performed by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, optimized and validated for this purpose. Individual food-consumption data were then multiplied with the actual average concentrations of benzoic acid per food group (Tier 3). Usual intakes were calculated using the Nusser method. The mean benzoic acid intake was 1.58 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) (Tier 2) and 1.25 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) (Tier 3). In Tier 2, men exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 5 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) at the 99th percentile. The greatest contributors to the benzoic acid intake were soft drinks. Benzoic acid as a natural substance represents only a small percentage of the total intake. The results show that actual benzoic acid intake is very likely to be below the ADI. However, there is a need to collect national food-consumption data for children as they might be more vulnerable to an excessive intake. PMID:19680971

  10. Water consumption reduces energy intake at a breakfast meal in obese older adults.

    PubMed

    Davy, Brenda M; Dennis, Elizabeth A; Dengo, A Laura; Wilson, Kelly L; Davy, Kevin P

    2008-07-01

    Water consumed before a meal has been found to reduce energy intake among nonobese older adults. However, it is unknown whether this effect is evident among overweight and obese older adults, a population who would benefit from strategies to improve energy intake regulation. Our purpose was to determine whether premeal water consumption reduces meal energy intake in overweight and obese older adults. Twenty-four overweight and obese adults (body mass index=34.3+/-1.2), mean age 61.3+/-1.1 years, were given an ad libitum standardized breakfast meal on two randomly assigned occasions. Thirty minutes before the meal, subjects were given either a 500-mL water preload or no preload. Energy intake at each meal was covertly measured. Meal energy intake was significantly less in the water preload condition as compared with the no-preload condition (500+/-32 vs 574+/-38, respectively; P=0.004), representing an approximate 13% reduction in meal energy intake. The percentage reduction in meal energy intake following the water preload was not related to sex, age, body mass index, or habitual daily water consumption (all P>0.05). Given the high prevalence of overweight and obesity among older adults, future studies should determine whether premeal water consumption is an effective long-term weight control strategy for older adults. PMID:18589036

  11. Comparison of Two Methods – Regression Predictive Model and Intake Shift Model – For Adjusting Self-Reported Dietary Recall of Total Energy Intake of Populations

    PubMed Central

    Lankester, Joanna; Perry, Sharon; Parsonnet, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Daily dietary intake data derived from self-reported dietary recall surveys are widely considered inaccurate. In this study, methods were developed for adjusting these dietary recalls to more plausible values. In a simulation model of two National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), NHANES I and NHANES 2007–2008, a predicted one-third of raw data fell outside a range of physiologically plausible bounds for dietary intake (designated a 33% failure rate baseline). To explore the nature and magnitude of this bias, primary data obtained from an observational study were used to derive models that predicted more plausible dietary intake. Two models were then applied for correcting dietary recall bias in the NHANES datasets: (a) a linear regression to model percent under-reporting as a function of subject characteristics and (b) a shift of dietary intake reports to align with experimental data on energy expenditure. After adjustment, the failure rates improved to <2% with the regression model and 4–9% with the intake shift model – both substantial improvements over the raw data. Both methods gave more reliable estimates of plausible dietary intake based on dietary recall and have the potential for more far-reaching application in correction of self-reported exposures. PMID:25506048

  12. [Food intake during the month of Ramadan in Moroccan patients with type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Sebbani, M; El Ansari, N; El Mghari, G; Amine, M

    2013-03-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the daily dietary intake of type 2 diabetes patients attending Mohamed VI hospital in Marrakech during Ramadan 2010. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected by interview, and qualitative and quantitative food intake, based on French nutritional tables, was assessed by a dietician. Of the 71 patients recruited, 55% were fasting. The average age of participants was 56.3 (SD 11,2) years. There were no statistically significant clinical differences between the fasting and nonfasting groups except for overweight/obesity and insulin dependence, which were more prevalent in the nonfasting group. The mean total daily caloric intake was significantly lower in the fasting than nonfasting group [1447.5 (SD 756.3) versus 1919.0 (SD 823.4) Kcal/d], as was the carbohydrate, lipid and protein intake. Carbohydrate intake was 57% and 56% of total calories. Overall during Ramadan the diet of the fasting group was calorie deficient and inadequate while for non-fasters it was excessive, which put them at risk of complications. Nutritional education may be needed for diabetic patients for Ramadan. PMID:23879080

  13. A New Method for Measuring Meal Intake in Humans via Automated Wrist Motion Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yujie; Scisco, Jenna; Muth, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the energy intake (kcal) of a person in day-to-day life is difficult. The best laboratory tool achieves 95 % accuracy on average, while tools used in daily living typically achieve 60–80 % accuracy. This paper describes a new method for measuring intake via automated tracking of wrist motion. Our method uses a watch-like device with a micro-electro-mechanical gyroscope to detect and record when an individual has taken a bite of food. Two tests of the accuracy of our device in counting bites found that our method has 94 % sensitivity in a controlled meal setting and 86 % sensitivity in an uncontrolled meal setting, with one false positive per every 5 bites in both settings. Preliminary data from daily living indicates that bites measured by the device are positively related to caloric intake illustrating the potential of the device to monitor energy intake. Future research should seek to further explore the relationship between bites taken and kilocalories consumed to validate the device as an automated measure of energy intake. PMID:22488204

  14. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Schweitzer, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  15. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S; Fulgoni, Victor L; Schweitzer, Cindy M

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003-2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey's reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth "mixed dishes" group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%-20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%-25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  16. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

  17. water intake Water sampling site

    E-print Network

    x Drinking water intake WWTP discharge WWTP Water sampling site Reference MICROPOLLUTANT PLUME at WWTP discharge · Conductivity may be used to predict concentrations of waste water derived MPs downstream, a drinking water plant pumps lake water (ca. 100'000 m3 /day) for potable water (sand filter

  18. Effects of High Protein Intakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Axelsson

    2006-01-01

    Among other nutrients of breast milk, the amino acid pattern is considered normative throughout infancy. Exclusive breastfeeding by a healthy mother should be the standard from birth to 6 months. During the breastfeeding period the protein intake is low in the human being compared too many other animals. The protein content in breast milk is about 1 g\\/100 ml and

  19. Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Reid

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups comprised of WIC participants were held to identify perceived barriers to fruit and vegetable (F\\/V) consumption, helpful practices for increasing F\\/V intake, and preferred educational methods. The University Human Subjects Approval Committee approved study procedures. Two focus groups were conducted in metropolitan areas and two were held in rural areas of the state. Each focus group included five

  20. Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amschler, Denise H.

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

  1. Mental Health Clinic Intake Assessment

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    Mental Health Clinic Intake Assessment Welcome to the Mental Health Clinic at Boynton Health or ADHD evaluation for review prior to scheduling your first medication appointment in the Mental Health). Contact the Medical Social Worker for resources­ 612-624-8182. · Long Term Therapy: The Mental Health

  2. Milk intake of suckling kittens remains relatively constant from one to four weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, W H; Wamberg, S

    2000-01-01

    The daily milk intake of 14 domestic short-haired kittens (Felis catus) from five litters was estimated during wk 1-4 postpartum using the isotope dilution technique. Kittens received a single intraperitoneal injection of tritiated water, and blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein for radioactivity measurements at 2 and 96 h after injection. One kitten in each litter was used as a control to allow calculation of recycling of tritiated water. The mean (+/- SEM) biological half-life of tritiated water in the kittens increased from 2.4 +/- 0.1 d in wk 1 to 4.9 +/- 0.2 d in wk 4 postpartum. Recycling of tritiated water accounted for (mean +/- SEM) 5.9 +/- 0.8, 12.0 +/- 0.5, 7.7 +/- 1.3 and 10.0 +/- 1.3% of the kittens' daily water intake during postnatal wk 1-4, respectively. Daily milk intake of the kittens during wk 1-4 postpartum was 47.3 +/- 0.8, 47.4 +/- 1.5, 48.7 +/- 1.6 and 43.7 +/- 2.0 g, respectively. There was no effect of gender on milk intake. The daily metabolizable energy requirement of suckling kittens, estimated by multiple regression analysis, was 356 kJ/kg(0.75), whereas the metabolizable energy required per gram of gain was estimated to be 7. 8 kJ/d. The milk intake of suckling kittens remained relatively constant throughout the first 4 wk of lactation, and during this period, they seemed to have a lower energy requirement for maintenance. PMID:10613770

  3. Vitamin C Intake and the Risk of Gout in Men – A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyon K.; Gao, Xiang; Curhan, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Background Several metabolic studies and a recent double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized trial have shown that higher vitamin C intake significantly reduces serum uric acid levels. Yet, the relation with the risk of gout is unknown. Methods We prospectively examined over a 20-year period (1986–2006) the relation between vitamin C intake and the risk of incident gout in 46,994 male participants with no history of gout at baseline. We used a supplementary questionnaire to ascertain the American College of Rheumatology criteria for gout. Vitamin C intake was assessed every four years through validated questionnaires. Results During the 20 years of follow-up, we documented 1,317 confirmed incident cases of gout. Compared with men with vitamin C intake < 250mg/day, the multivariate relative risk (RR) of gout was 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 0.97) for total vitamin C intake 500–999 mg/day, 0.66 (0.52 to 0.86) for 1,000–1,499 mg/day, and 0.55 (0.38 to 0.80) for ? 1500 mg/day (P for trend < 0.001). The multivariate RR per 500mg increase in total daily vitamin C intake was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.77 to 0.90). Compared with men who did not use supplemental vitamin C, the multivariate RR of gout was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.49 to 0.88) for supplemental vitamin C intake 1,000–1,499 mg/day and 0.55 (0.36 to 0.86) for ? 1500 mg/day (P for trend < 0.001). Conclusions Higher vitamin C intake is independently associated with a lower risk of gout. Supplemental vitamin C intake may be beneficial in the prevention of gout. PMID:19273781

  4. FLUORIDE INTAKE FROM DRINKING WATER AND DENTIFRICE BY CHILDREN LIVING IN A TROPICAL AREA OF BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Omena, Leila Maria F.; Silva, Milton F. de A.; Pinheiro, Cleone Calheiros; Cavalcante, Jairo C.; Sampaio, Fábio Correia

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess fluoride (F-) intake from water and toothpaste by children aged 18 to 36 months and to monitor the F- concentrations in the drinking water system in a tropical city of Brazil. Methods: Children (n=58) aged 18-36 months, all lifetime residents of Penedo, state of Alagoas, Brazil, participated in this study. Water F- analyses were carried out in 7 different occasions at least a week apart. For 2 days all the water drunk by each child was accounted for. Fluoride intake from water for each child was estimated using the mean F- concentration of water in 7 different occasions. Fluoride intake from toothpaste was estimated by subtracting the recovered post-brushing F- from the original amount placed in the toothbrush. The F- intake from water and toothpaste was estimated by dividing the total amount of F- ingested by the weight of each child. Results: The mean F- concentration in the drinking water was 0.94 ppm (mean range 0.78-1.1 ppm), which is above the 0.7 ppm recommended for this area of Brazil. Mean total F- intake from water and toothpaste was 0.128 mg F-/Kg Body Weight/day. The daily means of F- intake from water and toothpaste were 0.021 and 0.107 mg F-/Kg Body Weight, respectively. Ninety six percent of children showed F- intake above 0.07 mg F-/Kg Body Weight/day. Conclusions: Children in Penedo are at risk for developing dental fluorosis due to high F- intake from fluoridated toothpastes. Water fluoridation showed low contribution to the total F- intake. However, high water F- concentrations in the water indicate the need of surveillance of the artificial water fluoridation system. PMID:19089062

  5. Consumer clusters in Denmark based on coarse vegetable intake frequency, explained by hedonics, socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle factors. A cross-sectional national survey.

    PubMed

    Beck, Tove K; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, Sonni Hansen; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kidmose, Ulla

    2015-08-01

    Vegetable intake seems to play a protective role against major lifestyle diseases. Despite this, the Danish population usually eats far less than the recommended daily intake. The present study focused on the intake of 17 coarse vegetables and the potential barriers limiting their intake. The present study drew upon a large Danish survey (n?=?1079) to study the intake of coarse vegetables among Danish consumers. Four population clusters were identified based on their intake of 17 different coarse vegetables, and profiled according to hedonics, socio-demographic, health, and food lifestyle factors. The four clusters were characterized by a very low intake frequency of coarse vegetables ('low frequency'), a low intake frequency of coarse vegetables; but high intake frequency of carrots ('carrot eaters'), a moderate coarse vegetable intake frequency and high intake frequency of beetroot ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects, 'beetroot eaters' were characterized as traditional food consumers, and 'high frequency' were individuals with a strong food engagement and high vegetable liking. 'Low frequency' identified more barriers than other consumer clusters and specifically regarded low availability of pre-cut/prepared coarse vegetables on the market as a barrier. Across all clusters a low culinary knowledge was identified as the main barrier. PMID:25916624

  6. Daily Hemodialysis: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita S. Suri; Gihad E. Nesrallah; Rahul Mainra; Amit X. Garg; Robert M. Lindsay; Tom Greene; John T. Daugirdas

    Several studies have reported improved outcomes with daily hemodialysis (DHD), but the strength of this evidence has not been evaluated. The published evidence on DHD was synthesized and its quality rated to inform need and sample size calculations for a randomized trial. Citations were identified in MEDLINE and EMBASE using validated search strategies. Dialysis journals that were not indexed and

  7. Individual and familial factors associated with fruit and vegetable intake among 11- to 14-year-old Romanian school children.

    PubMed

    Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Tutui, Iulia

    2015-09-01

    The healthy nutrition guidelines proposed by international research institutes and the World Health Organization recommend a daily intake of fruit and vegetables of at least 400 g, representing five servings a day (each serving contains around 80 g). Moreover, the recommendations stress the importance of consuming both fruit and vegetables daily, preferably at least two portions of fruit and three portions of vegetables per day. To efficiently develop interventions for promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among children, it is essential to identify and understand the factors that influence these behaviours. The present study aims at identifying the individual and familial factors which influence fruit and vegetable consumption among Romanian children. A cross-sectional survey by means of anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 361 school children, aged 11-14, from Cluj-Napoca, Romania (April-May 2011). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake. The results show that 44.6% of the children met the recommendations regarding fruit intake, while 9.1% of the children declared eating the daily recommended portions of vegetables. Knowledge regarding the recommended number of daily servings and higher self-efficacy concerning the intake of fruit and vegetables every day were positively associated with higher consumption of fruit and vegetables. Fruit preference also influenced positively the consumption of fruit. The familial factor associated with vegetable intake was the perceived behaviour of the mother, while fruit intake was higher among children who declared higher fruit availability at home. Hence, it is necessary to develop in Romania nutrition interventions addressing the determinants of fruit and vegetable intake as identified by this study; these interventions should target both children and parents. PMID:25323566

  8. Chronic intake of fermented floral nectar by wild treeshrews

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, Frank; Zitzmann, Annette; Lachance, Marc-André; Yegles, Michel; Pragst, Fritz; Wurst, Friedrich M.; von Holst, Dietrich; Guan, Saw Leng; Spanagel, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    For humans alcohol consumption often has devastating consequences. Wild mammals may also be behaviorally and physiologically challenged by alcohol in their food. Here, we provide a detailed account of chronic alcohol intake by mammals as part of a coevolved relationship with a plant. We discovered that seven mammalian species in a West Malaysian rainforest consume alcoholic nectar daily from flower buds of the bertam palm (Eugeissona tristis), which they pollinate. The 3.8% maximum alcohol concentration (mean: 0.6%; median: 0.5%) that we recorded is among the highest ever reported in a natural food. Nectar high in alcohol is facilitated by specialized flower buds that harbor a fermenting yeast community, including several species new to science. Pentailed treeshrews (Ptilocercus lowii) frequently consume alcohol doses from the inflorescences that would intoxicate humans. Yet, the flower-visiting mammals showed no signs of intoxication. Analysis of an alcohol metabolite (ethyl glucuronide) in their hair yielded concentrations higher than those in humans with similarly high alcohol intake. The pentailed treeshrew is considered a living model for extinct mammals representing the stock from which all extinct and living treeshrews and primates radiated. Therefore, we hypothesize that moderate to high alcohol intake was present early on in the evolution of these closely related lineages. It is yet unclear to what extent treeshrews benefit from ingested alcohol per se and how they mitigate the risk of continuous high blood alcohol concentrations. PMID:18663222

  9. Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Carole E.; Vivian, Wendy J.; Oddy, Wendy H.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Mori, Trevor A.; O’Sullivan, Therese A.

    2012-01-01

    Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01). Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01). Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01), due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health. PMID:23363991

  10. Influence of increased fibre intake on biliary lipids.

    PubMed

    Wechsler, J G; Wenzel, H; Swobodnik, W; Ditschuneit, H

    1987-01-01

    Influence of increased fibre intake on biliary lipids. The influence of dietary fibres (30 g wheat bran per day) on the lithogenicity of the bile was studied in ten healthy persons, whose body weight was 76.8 +/- 2.3 kg, height 189.9 +/- 2.1 cm, age 25.5 +/- 0.26 years. These 10 young male volunteers were given twice daily 15 g wheat bran additionally for six weeks in addition to their normal diet. The bile was obtained endoscopically prepapillarily following stimulation of the gallbladder with ceruletid. The contraction of the gallbladder was controlled sonographically. Increased dietary fibre intake resulted in significant lowering of cholesterol concentration in the bile from 3.27 +/- 0.89 mmol/1 to 2.50 +/- 0.67 mmol/1. The lithogenic index (Admirand and Small, 1968) decreased statistically significant from 1.01 +/- 0.14 to 0.67 +/- 0.11. Total cholesterol and HDL and LDL cholesterol remained unchanged; likewise, there was no change in serum triglyceride and phospholipid concentrations. Hence, an increased intake of dietary fibres of the wheat bran type should be the first dietary measure in both prevention and treatment of cholesterol gallstone disease. PMID:2820034

  11. Control of Food Intake in the Obese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Blundell; Angela Gillett

    2001-01-01

    Food intake (eating) is a form of behavior that is subject to conscious control. In practice, many obese and weight-gaining individuals claim that their eating is out of (their) control. Mechanistic models describe the interplay of biological and environmental forces that control food intake. However, because human food intake is characterized by individuals intervening to adjust their own patterns of

  12. Effect of intake flow on ambient turbulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahinder S. Uberoi; Randall T. Nishiyama

    1985-01-01

    A small streamlined axisymmetric intake is placed at various locations on the axis of a large axisymmetric turbulent jet. The ratio of the mean velocity in the intake to that of the ambient fluid is varied from zero to thirteen. The effective diameter d* of the intake is determined by its physical size and the range of influence of the

  13. Patterns of nutrients’ intake at six months in the northeast of Italy: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adequate complementary feeding is recognized as an important predictor of health later in life. The objective of this study was to describe the feeding practices and nutrients’ intake, and their association with breastfeeding at six months of age, in a cohort of infants enrolled at birth in the maternity hospital of Trieste, Italy. Methods Out of 400 infants enrolled at birth, 268 (67%) had complete data gathered through a 24-hour feeding diary on three separate days at six months, and two questionnaires administered at birth and at six months. Data from feeding diaries were used to estimate nutrients’ intakes using the Italian food composition database included in the software. To estimate the quantity of breastmilk, information was gathered on the frequency and length of breastfeeds. Results At six months, 70% of infants were breastfed and 94% were given complementary foods. The average daily caloric intake was higher in non-breastfed (723 Kcal) than in breastfed infants (547 Kcal, p?intakes of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. The mean intake of macronutrients was within recommended ranges in both groups, except for the higher protein intake in non-breastfed infants. These consumed significantly higher quantities of commercial baby foods than breastfed infants. Conclusions Contrary to what is recommended, 94% of infants were not exclusively breastfed and were given complementary foods at six months. The proportion of daily energy intake from complementary foods was around 50% higher than recommended and with significant differences between breastfed and non-breastfed infants, with possible consequences for future nutrition and health. PMID:24884789

  14. A STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORT ON INTAKE TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents an updated evaluation of mechanisms and intake designs for reducing the number of fish entrained and impinged at water intake facilities. These mechanisms consist of intake configurations, behavioral barriers for guiding fish past intake entrances, physical sc...

  15. Daily physical activity patterns of children with delayed eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Annette R; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Lundgren, Jennifer D; Allison, Kelly; Tremblay, Angelo; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Drapeau, Vicky

    2013-10-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is a delayed pattern of energy intake. It is unknown if symptoms associated with this syndrome are accompanied by a delayed pattern of physical activity. This study examines the relationship between physical activity patterns and delayed eating behaviors in children. Children from the QUALITY cohort (n = 269, 45% female, aged 8-11 y) completed the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), which measures NES symptoms on a continuous scale and identifies single NES symptoms. Daily accelerometer data were transformed into mean counts per wear-time minute for each hour of the day. Children with high NEQ scores had higher levels of daily (p < 0.001) and evening physical activity (p = 0.05) and reached 75% of their total daily physical activity 20 minutes later than children with low NEQ scores (p < 0.05). Excessive evening snacking and a strong urge to eat in the evening or at night were the symptoms most related to these physical activity patterns. Children with delayed eating behaviors had higher levels of physical activity in the late morning and evening and a delayed physical activity pattern compared to children with no or fewer symptoms. Future research is needed to determine if physical activity plays a role in the onset or maintenance of night eating. PMID:24132059

  16. Effect of feed intake and method of feeding and digestibility of nitrogen, amino acids and energy at the distal end of the small intestine and over the total tract in growing-finishing swine 

    E-print Network

    Haydon, Keith Dale

    1980-01-01

    UTILIZATION IN GROWING-FINISHING SWINE ~ . ~ ~ . ~ . ~ ~ 17 EFFECT OF FEED INTAKE ON APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY OF NUTRIENTS AND ENERGY VALUES OF DIETS MEASURED AT THE TERMINAL ILEUM AND OVER THE TOTAL DIGESTIVE TRACT USI'NG CHROMIC OXIDE AS AN INDIGESTIBLE... REVIEW OF LITERATURE Nutrient utilization. The possible effects of altering daily feed intake and daily feeding frequency, or a combination of these factors, on utilization of dietary nutrients by the pig has not been thoroughly investigated. However...

  17. Peripheral oxytocin treatment ameliorates obesity by reducing food intake and visceral fat mass.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Yamahara, Yui; Kodaira, Misato; Sedbazar, Udval; Yada, Toshihiko

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxytocin (Oxt) is implicated in energy metabolism. We aimed to explore acute and sub-chronic effects of peripheral Oxt treatment via different routes on food intake and energy balance. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Oxt concentration-dependently decreased food intake in mice. Ip Oxt injection induced c-Fos expression in the hypothalamus and brain stem including arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Subcutaneous (sc) injection of Oxt suppressed food intake in normal and high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Daily sc injection of Oxt for 17 days in DIO mice reduced food intake for 6 days and body weight for the entire treatment period and additional 9 days after terminating Oxt. Oxt infusion by sc implanted osmotic minipumps for 13 days in DIO mice reduced food intake, body weight, and visceral fat mass and adipocyte size. Oxt infusion also decreased respiratory quotient specifically in light phase, ameliorated fatty liver and glucose intolerance, without affecting normal blood pressure in DIO mice. These results demonstrate that peripheral Oxt treatment reduces food intake and visceral fat mass, and ameliorates obesity, fatty liver and glucose intolerance. Peripheral Oxt treatment provides a new therapeutic avenue for treating obesity and hyperphagia. PMID:22184277

  18. Headache and mechanical sensitization of human pericranial muscles after repeated intake of monosodium glutamate (MSG)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A single intake of monosodium glutamate (MSG) may cause headache and increased muscle sensitivity. We conducted a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study to examine the effect of repeated MSG intake on spontaneous pain, mechanical sensitivity of masticatory muscles, side effects, and blood pressure. Methods Fourteen healthy subjects participated in 5 daily sessions for one week of MSG intake (150?mg/kg) or placebo (24?mg/kg NaCl) (randomized, double-blinded). Spontaneous pain, pressure pain thresholds and tolerance levels for the masseter and temporalis muscles, side effects, and blood pressure were evaluated before and 15, 30, and 50?min after MSG intake. Whole saliva samples were taken before and 30?min after MSG intake to assess glutamate concentrations. Results Headache occurred in 8/14 subjects during MSG and 2/14 during placebo (P = 0.041). Salivary glutamate concentrations on Day 5 were elevated significantly (P < 0.05). Pressure pain thresholds in masseter muscle were reduced by MSG on Day 2 and 5 (P < 0.05). Blood pressure was significantly elevated after MSG (P < 0.040). Conclusion In conclusion, MSG induced mechanical sensitization in masseter muscle and adverse effects such as headache and short-lasting blood pressure elevation for which tolerance did not develop over 5?days of MSG intake. PMID:23565943

  19. Epidemiologic analysis of Crohn disease in Japan: increased dietary intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and animal protein relates to the increased incidence of Crohn disease in Japan13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryosuke Shod; Kei Matsueda; Shigeru Yamato; Noritsugu Umeda

    We examined the correlation between the mci- dence of Crohn disease and dietary change in a relatively homo- geneous Japanese population. The incidence and daily intake of each dietary component were compared annually from 1966 to 1985. The univariate analysis showed that the increased incidence of Crohn disease was strongly (P < 0.001) correlated with in- creased dietary intake of

  20. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535

  1. Assessment of fluoride concentration and daily intake by human from tea and herbal infusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Malinowska; I. Inkielewicz; W. Czarnowski; P. Szefer

    2008-01-01

    The fluoride content in infusions of commercially available black, green, oolong, pu-erh and white teas was determined by ion-selective electrode. Herbal infusions as well as instant tea and ready-to-drink tea beverages were also examined. It is found that brewing time (5, 10 and 30min) does increase the fluoride content, which in infusions of black tea (5min brewing) was higher than

  2. Concentrations of Trace Elements in Extensively Hydrolysed Infant Formulae and Their Estimated Daily Intakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Krachler; E. Rossipal; G. Chan; J. Kerner; S. Kharb; R. Kakkar

    2000-01-01

    The 18 trace elements Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Cu, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Tl, and Zn were determined in three extensively hydrolysed formulae by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Two formulae were whey hydrolysates, whereas one was based on soy-bovine collagen hydrolysate. Two skim milk powder reference materials, analyzed to ensure the analytical

  3. Safety assessment of ?-nitropropionic acid: a monograph in support of an acceptable daily intake in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A Burdock; Ioana G Carabin; Madhusudan G Soni

    2001-01-01

    Several molds, Aspergillus, Penicillium and to a lesser extent, Arthrinium can produce ?-nitropropionic acid (NPA). The presence of NPA has been detected in at least four families of higher plants. Use of Aspergillus as an economic mould in the production of foods and the accidental contamination of foods provides for an historically lengthy and widespread exposure of humans to NPA.

  4. Telemedicine in neurosurgical daily practice.

    PubMed

    Schulmeyer, F J; Brawanski, A

    1999-01-01

    Telemedicine has been in daily practice at our neurosurgical department for five years. In our experience the standard personal computer-based telemedicine systems Medicom and especially RADO Look are reliable, easy to use, and of high quality performance. Telemedicine makes possible better patient management at regional hospitals and the avoidance of patient transports. Therefore treatment costs in neurosurgical patients can be highly reduced. PMID:10747528

  5. Estimation of usual intake and food sources of choline and betaine in New Zealand reproductive age women.

    PubMed

    Mygind, Vanessa L; Evans, Sophie E; Peddie, Meredith C; Miller, Jody C; Houghton, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    Recently, choline has been associated with neurodevelopment, cognitive function and neural tube defect incidence. However, data on usual intakes are limited, and estimates of dietary intakes of choline and its metabolite betaine, are not available for New Zealanders. The objective of the present study was to determine usual intake and food sources of choline and betaine in a group of New Zealand reproductive age women. Dietary intake data were collected from a sample of 125 women, aged 18-40 years, by means of a 3-day weighed food record, and usual choline and betaine intake distributions were determined. The mean (SD) daily intakes of choline and betaine were 316 (66) mg and 178 (66) mg, respectively. The total choline intake relative to energy intake and body weight was 0.18 mg/kcal and 5.1 mg/kg, respectively. Only 16% of participants met or exceeded the Adequate Intake (AI) for adult women of 425 mg of choline. The top five major food contributors of choline were eggs, red meat, milk, bread and chicken; and of betaine were bread, breakfast cereal, pasta, grains and root vegetables (carrots, parsnips, beetroot, swedes). Our findings contribute towards the recent emergence of published reports on the range of dietary choline and betaine intakes consumed by free-living populations. In our sample of New Zealand women, few participants were meeting or exceeding the AI level. Given recent epidemiological evidence suggesting health benefits of increased choline and betaine intakes, recommendations should be made to encourage the consumption of choline and betaine-rich foods. PMID:23635379

  6. Assessing arsenic intake from groundwater and rice by residents in Prey Veng province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kongkea; Phan, Samrach; Heng, Savoeun; Huoy, Laingshun; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2014-02-01

    We investigated total daily intake of As by residents in Prey Veng province in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Groundwater (n = 11), rice (n = 11) and fingernail (n = 23) samples were randomly collected from the households and analyzed for total As by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Calculation indicated that daily dose of inorganic As was greater than the lower limits on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5 equals to 3.0 ?g d(-1) kg(-1)body wt.). Moreover, positive correlation between As in fingernail and daily dose of As from groundwater and rice and total daily dose of As were found. These results suggest that the Prey Veng residents are exposed to As in groundwater. As in rice is an additional source which is attributable to high As accumulation in human bodies in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. PMID:24231403

  7. Altered “set-point” of the hypothalamus determines effects of cortisol on food intake, adiposity, and metabolic substrates in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Henry; D. Blache; F. R. Dunshea; I. J. Clarke

    2010-01-01

    Chronic elevation of glucocorticoid concentrations is detrimental to health. We investigated effects of chronic increase in plasma cortisol concentrations on energy balance and endocrine function in sheep. Because food intake and reproduction are regulated by photoperiod, we performed experiments in January (JAN) and August (AUG), when appetite drive is either high or low, respectively. Ovariectomized ewes were treated (intramuscularly) daily

  8. EFFECTS OF AN AUTOMATIC FEEDER ON INTAKE AND MILK YIELD K.A. COLLIS R.J. TREACHER

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EFFECTS OF AN AUTOMATIC FEEDER ON INTAKE AND MILK YIELD K.A. COLLIS R.J. TREACHER ARC Institute of concentrates (except for 1 kg fed twice daily to both groups in the parlour) and the com- plete feed, less and effi- cient method of feeding dairy cows indivi- dually. They permitted cows to receive several

  9. ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to determine if intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) leaves by

    E-print Network

    Torr.) leaves by sheep could be increased by supplementing four levels of activated charcoal of activated charcoal. After the 7-d acclimation period, lambs were also given ad libitum access to honey if level of activated charcoal fed to lambs affected daily intake of mesquite leaves. No differences (P = 0

  10. The use of a commercial vegetable juice as a practical means to increase vegetable intake: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recommendations for daily dietary vegetable intake were increased in the 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines, as consumption of a diet rich in vegetables has been associated with lower risk of certain chronic health disorders including cardiovascular disease. However, vegetable consumption in the United St...

  11. Whole grain intakes in the diets of Irish children and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Niamh F C; McNulty, Breige A; Gibney, Michael J; Thielecke, Frank; Smith, Hayley; Nugent, Anne P

    2013-07-28

    A growing body of evidence supports the inclusion of whole grain foods in the diet to help prevent certain chronic diseases. Although much of the research has been conducted in adult cohorts, it is thought that younger populations may also benefit from whole-grain-rich diets. The aim of the present study was to quantify the intake of whole grain in Irish children and teenagers, and assess the major sources of intake. Data used in the present study were from the National Children's Food Survey and the National Teens' Food Survey, which used 7 d food diaries to collect data on habitual food and beverage consumption in representative samples of Irish children and teenagers. Results showed that over 90 % of children (5-12 years) and over 86 % of teenagers (13-17 years) are consumers of whole grain, with mean daily intakes of 18·5 and 23·2 g/d, respectively. Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals made the greatest contribution to whole grain intakes for both children and teenagers (59·3 and 44·3 %), followed by bread (14·4 and 26·5 %), with wheat being the major source of intake, accounting for over 65 % of all whole grains consumed. Whole grain consumers had significantly higher intakes of fibre, P and Mg in comparison with non-consumers of whole grain, even though whole grain intakes in this sample were well below the recommendation of three servings or 48 g/d. The present study characterises, for the first time, the patterns of whole grain consumption in Irish children and teenagers and shows whole grain intake to be low. PMID:23228207

  12. Effects of morphine on acquisition and maintenance of ethanol and water intake patterns in rats.

    PubMed

    Hodge, C W; Andrews, C M; Lewis, R S; Samson, H H

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of chronic subcutaneous injections of morphine (1.0 mg/kg) or saline on the pattern and amount of sweetened ethanol and water intake in fluid restricted Long-Evans rats. Following daily injections, 2-h two-bottle choice tests were conducted with water and an ethanol solution (15% ethanol v/v in 5% sucrose w/v). During a 20-day acquisition phase (Experiment 1), ethanol intake patterns and amounts did not differ between saline (n = 6) and morphine (n = 6) groups. Both groups exhibited ethanol intake patterns that decreased exponentially throughout the session suggesting control by fluid restriction procedures. Morphine decreased water intake during initial periods of each session and increased intake during later periods. In Experiment 2, morphine and saline injections were reversed across three phases with the same rats. Morphine increased total ethanol consumption during the first few days of each 15-day phase, but the groups did not differ thereafter, and the initial increases produced no statistically significant group differences. Additionally, morphine augmented ethanol intake in early portions of sessions, while water intake was decreased and increased during early and later portions of each session, respectively. Analysis of the data from the last 5 days of each phase indicated that, when injected with morphine, the group which received saline during acquisition consumed significantly more ethanol solution than the group injected with morphine during acquisition. The effect on patterns of water and ethanol intake were observed, regardless of the drug injected during acquisition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1418670

  13. Nutrient and nontraditional food intakes by Zambian children in a controlled feeding trial

    PubMed Central

    Schmaelzle, Samantha; Kaliwile, Chisela; Arscott, Sara A.; Gannon, Bryan; Masi, Cassim; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many programs aim to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Biofortification is an approach to improve provitamin A carotenoid concentrations of staple crops in some developing countries. In rural Zambia, maize accounts for the majority of energy intake. Provitamin A–biofortified (orange) maize has been released in Zambia. Objective This study quantified food intake of Zambian children from records collected in a feeding trial in 2012 in order to compare adoption of orange maize and a new vegetable (green beans) with white maize and traditional foods. Methods One hundred thirty-six children with a mean age of 71.5 ± 6.9 months were fed three meals a day for 6 days a week for 15 weeks at four feeding centers. Breakfast consisted of maize porridge, and lunch and dinner were stiff porridge (nshima) with various side dishes (relishes). There were three treatment groups, which received orange maize and placebo oil, white maize and placebo oil, or white maize and a daily vitamin A supplement. Food was weighed before and after consumption. Nutritionists were trained to interview the children’s caregivers about the previous day’s intake using dietary recalls. Nine dietary recalls for each child were recorded and analyzed. Results Total food intake did not differ among the groups (p = .31) and energy intakes on Sundays (<880 kcal) were below recommendations. Nshima intake was lower in the orange-maize group (p = .008), largely due to a genotype effect. Intakes of relish, green bean, and porridge did not differ among the groups (p > .19). Dietary recalls revealed that children living in sites closer to the main road consumed more on Sundays than children living about 8 km from the main road, but less in the evenings when children were off site. Conclusions The intakes of energy of these Zambian children suggest inadequacy. Implementation and adoption of new and biofortified foods is possible with promotion. PMID:24791580

  14. Dietary intake of vitamin D in a northern Canadian Dené First Nation community

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Joyce; Larcombe, Linda; Green, Chris; Slivinski, Caroline; Singer, Matthew; Denechezhe, Lizette; Whaley, Chris; Nickerson, Peter; Orr, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased awareness of the wide spectrum of activity of vitamin D has focused interest on its role in the health of Canada's Aboriginal peoples, who bear a high burden of both infectious and chronic disease. Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis is limited at northern latitudes, and the transition from nutrient-dense traditional to nutrient-poor market foods has left many Canadian Aboriginal populations food insecure and nutritionally vulnerable. Objective The study was undertaken to determine the level of dietary vitamin D in a northern Canadian Aboriginal (Dené) community and to determine the primary food sources of vitamin D. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Dietary vitamin D intakes of 46 adult Dené men and women were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and compared across age, gender, season and body mass index. The adequacy of dietary vitamin D intake was assessed using the 2007 Adequate Intake (AI) and the 2011 Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) values for Dietary Reference Intake (DRI). Results Mean daily vitamin D intake was 271.4 IU in winter and 298.3 IU in summer. Forty percent and 47.8% of participants met the vitamin D 1997 AI values in winter and summer, respectively; this dropped to 11.1 and 13.0% in winter and summer using 2011 RDA values. Supplements, milk, and local fish were positively associated with adequate vitamin D intake. Milk and local fish were the major dietary sources of vitamin D. Conclusions Dietary intake of vitamin D in the study population was low. Only 2 food sources, fluid milk and fish, provided the majority of dietary vitamin D. Addressing low vitamin D intake in this population requires action aimed at food insecurity present in northern Aboriginal populations. PMID:23984265

  15. From dietary guidelines to daily food guide: the Taiwanese experience.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Min Su

    2008-01-01

    In early 1980's, the first edition of dietary guidelines for Taiwanese was established by the Department of Health (DOH), Executive Yuan. The main purposes of the guidelines were to guide nutritional professionals and dieticians to plan diet for preventing general population from diseases. Besides the amount of daily cholesterol intake, the percentages of calories from carbohydrate, protein, and fat was recommended. Dietary guidelines were revised concurrently as the results of national nutrition survey showed dietary or nutrient deficits of Taiwanese population. The recent dietary guidelines were then revised for general public and consist of 8 items, including: maintain ideal body weight, eat well-balanced meals from all food groups, eat whole grains as staples for main meals, eat more high-fiber foods, eat less fat, less salt, and less sugar, consume plenty of high calcium content foods, drink plenty of water, if you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. In addition to these qualitative guidelines, a daily food guide was also established to instruct the general public to consume portions from six food groups. The suggested portions for food groups were calculated and based on basic balanced meal principles and the recommended energy, protein for different age groups from DRIs. The pictorial representation of the daily food guide was plum blossom which is the national flower. Leaflets, posters, and slides were developed for nutrition education. As the eating behavior and disease patterns may change, the governments and nutrition societies should keep revising dietary guidelines and daily food guides to encourage population health. PMID:18296302

  16. Assessment of dietary intake of fumonisin B? in Săo Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bordin, K; Rosim, R E; Neeff, D V; Rottinghaus, G E; Oliveira, C A F

    2014-07-15

    In this study, fumonisin B1 (FB1) consumption was assessed through determination of FB1 in corn meal, corn flour, corn flakes, polenta, canned corn and popcorn collected from homes of residents of Pirassununga, Săo Paulo, Brazil, and using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) filled out by the residents. One hundred and twenty samples were collected from 39 residents on four separate occasions. FB1 was determined by high performance liquid chromatography using a validated method that uses SAX column clean-up. The highest levels of FB1 were found in corn meal at a mean concentration of 474.6 ?g kg(-1). However, none of the samples tested for FB1 had levels above the tolerance limit established in Brazil. The mean probable daily intake (PDIM) of FB1 was 63.3 ng kg(-1)body weight day(-1), which is approximately 3% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) recommended for fumonisins. PMID:24594171

  17. Effects of bitterweed (Hymenoxys odorata) on voluntary feed intake and serum constituents of sheep.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, M C; Ueckert, D N; Livingston, C W; Baldwin, B C

    1981-10-01

    Effects of daily dosing with bitterweed (Hymenoxys odorata) on voluntary feed consumption and concentrations of serum constituents were determined in 2 experiments, using 12 lambs each. Feed intake decreased linearly as the bitterweed dose increased. Serum total protein and albumin decreased and urea nitrogen, creatinine, and total bilirubin increased with the increasing bitterweed dose. Serum lactic dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and creatine kinase activities increased at the highest bitterweed dose (0.264% of live body weight/day, air-dry basis). Depression in voluntary feed intake was more sensitive to the bitterweed dose than were serum constituents. This dose-related decrease in ad libitum feed intake provides a useful and less expensive short-term assay for assessing treatments for reducing bitterweed toxicosis, compared with the customary LD50 tests. PMID:7325432

  18. An exploratory study of dietary intake patterns among adults diagnosed with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulou, Archontia; Galitsianos, Ioannis; Fotiou, Maria; Menexes, Georgios; Tsakoumaki, Foteini; Tsitlakidou, Petra; Psirropoulos, Dimitrios; Michaelidou, Alexandra-Maria

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present exploratory study was to assess compliance with the nutrient recommendations among a convenience sample of adults diagnosed with cardiovascular risk factors in northern Greece and evaluate their dietary intake patterns. Ninety-two people participated in this cross-sectional study. Dietary assessment was carried out using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were adopted to obtain dietary patterns and classify individuals with similar dietary behaviour. HCA, performed on the factorial scores obtained from PCA, revealed a 4-group interpretable and statistically significant clustering of participants. For all clusters, the mean daily intake for saturated fatty acids was more than 10% of total calories, while the mean sodium intake was above 1500?mg; additionally, a relatively low mean Mediterranean diet score was recorded. Dietary interventions should be considered to raise awareness and expand knowledge on the nutritional and functional benefits of heart-healthy foods. PMID:26037078

  19. Relative intake of macronutrients impacts risk of mild cognitive impairment or dementia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rosebud O; Roberts, Lewis A; Geda, Yonas E; Cha, Ruth H; Pankratz, V Shane; O'Connor, Helen M; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C

    2012-01-01

    High caloric intake has been associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Total caloric intake is determined by the calories derived from macronutrients. The objective of the study was to investigate the association between percent of daily energy (calories) from macronutrients and incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. Participants were a population-based prospective cohort of elderly persons who were followed over a median 3.7 years (interquartile range, 2.5-3.9) of follow-up. At baseline and every 15 months, participants (median age, 79.5 years) were evaluated using the Clinical Dementia Rating scale, a neurological evaluation, and neuropsychological testing for a diagnosis of MCI, normal cognition, or dementia. Participants also completed a 128-item food-frequency questionnaire at baseline; total daily caloric and macronutrient intakes were calculated using an established database. The percent of total daily energy from protein (% protein), carbohydrate (% carbohydrate), and total fat (% fat) was computed. Among 937 subjects who were cognitively normal at baseline, 200 developed incident MCI or dementia. The risk of MCI or dementia (hazard ratio, [95% confidence interval]) was elevated in subjects with high % carbohydrate (upper quartile: 1.89 [1.17-3.06]; p for trend = 0.004), but was reduced in subjects with high % fat (upper quartile: 0.56 [0.34-0.91]; p for trend = 0.03), and high % protein (upper quartile 0.79 [0.52-1.20]; p for trend = 0.03) in the fully adjusted models. A dietary pattern with relatively high caloric intake from carbohydrates and low caloric intake from fat and proteins may increase the risk of MCI or dementia in elderly persons. PMID:22810099

  20. Milk Intake and Total Dairy Consumption: Associations with Early Menarche in NHANES 1999-2004

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Andrea S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Several components of dairy products have been linked to earlier menarche. Methods/Findings This study assessed whether positive associations exist between childhood milk consumption and age at menarche or the likelihood of early menarche (<12 yrs) in a U.S sample. Data derive from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Two samples were utilized: 2657 women age 20–49 yrs and 1008 girls age 9–12 yrs. In regression analysis, a weak negative relationship was found between frequency of milk consumption at 5–12 yrs and age at menarche (daily milk intake ??=??0.32, P<0.10; “sometimes/variable milk intake” ??=??0.38, P<0.06, each compared to intake rarely/never). Cox regression yielded no greater risk of early menarche among those who drank milk “sometimes/varied” or daily vs. never/rarely (HR: 1.20, P<0.42, HR: 1.25, P<0.23, respectively). Among the 9–12 yr olds, Cox regression indicated that neither total dairy kcal, calcium and protein, nor daily milk intake in the past 30 days contributed to early menarche. Girls in the middle tertile of milk intake had a marginally lower risk of early menarche than those in the highest tertile (HR: 0.6, P<0.06). Those in the lowest tertiles of dairy fat intake had a greater risk of early menarche than those in the highest (HR: 1.5, P<0.05, HR: 1.6, P<0.07, lowest and middle tertile, respectively), while those with the lowest calcium intake had a lower risk of early menarche (HR: 0.6, P<0.05) than those in the highest tertile. These relationships remained after adjusting for overweight or overweight and height percentile; both increased the risk of earlier menarche. Blacks were more likely than Whites to reach menarche early (HR: 1.7, P<0.03), but not after controlling for overweight. Conclusions There is some evidence that greater milk intake is associated with an increased risk of early menarche, or a lower age at menarche. PMID:21347271

  1. Milk intake in blue fox (Alopex lagopus) and silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) cubs in the early suckling period.

    PubMed

    Ahlstrřm, O; Wamberg, S

    2000-10-01

    Milk intake of fox cubs (2-16 days of age; body weight, 96-649 g) in ten blue fox litters and ten silver fox litters were measured by the water isotope dilution (WID) technique following a single intraperitoneal injection of tritiated water (3HHO). Litter size varied from four to 14 in blue foxes and from three to eight in silver foxes. Silver fox cubs had higher birth weights than blue foxes. Inter-species body weights and growth rates were apparently dependent on litter size and the dam's constitution. In both species growth rate increased with age and body weight (7-35 g per day). In the cubs, the biological half-life of body water turnover (BWT) rose from 1.5 days at 2-3 days of age to 2.5 days at 13-16 days of age, although a considerable scatter was seen. The mean daily milk intake of the cubs varied with body weight, from 31 to 193 g per day, whereas daily milk intake per unit of body mass remained stable at 30-35 g per 100 g body weight. The ratio of milk intake to body weight gain varied considerably among cubs, averaging 4.5 g/g during the 3-week experimental period. In suckling fox cubs, the calculated daily intake of metabolically energy (ME) corresponded fairly with the estimated energy requirements for growth and maintenance of the young. Finally, the applicability and the accuracy of the WID technique was evaluated in ten 3-week-old fox cubs, by tube-feeding with a milk replacer for 48 h, which documented that the daily rates of milk intake and water turnover can be accurately measured in suckling fox cubs by the WID technique following a single injection of 3HHO. PMID:11064289

  2. The effects of source of supplemental protein on intake and digestibility in calves grazing bermudagrass pasture

    E-print Network

    Martin, Steven David

    1989-01-01

    THE EFFECTS OF SOURCE OF SUPPLEMENTAL PROTEIN ON INTAKE AND DIGESTIBILITY IN CALVES GRAZING BERMUDAGRASS PASTURE A Thesis by STEVEN DAVID MARTIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... animal's back, cobalt, samarium, ytterbium and lanthanum were infused to serve as flow markers. Forage was marked with lutetium and dosed two times daily. The infused and dosed markers were used to estimate fecal output. Indigestible neutral detergent...

  3. Bone Mineral Density of Adolescents as Affected by Calcium Intake through Milk and Milk Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Renner; M. Hermes; H. Stracke

    1998-01-01

    Elevated levels of milk and milk products were incorporated into the diet of 15–16yr old adolescents with subaverage bone mineral density in order to obtain a daily calcium intake of about 1200mg. The bone mineral density was significantly improved by about 50% when compared with control subjects without such a dietary intervention (+0.053 vs +0.036gcm-2). The rate of increase, however,

  4. Daily Lesson Plan: Diagnosing Delusions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This New York Times Learning Network Daily Lesson Plan explores the dangers of widespread medical myths. Designed for grades 6-8 and 9-12, the lesson focuses on a NYT article about "a particular medical myth and how it has prevented some lung cancer patients from receiving treatment." Story link and discussion questions are provided. Students then conduct research and develop educational pamphlets on the topic for a neat interdisciplinary way to demonstrate their understanding of the issue. Extension activities, vocabulary words, and Web links are all included.

  5. Expression of candidate genes for residual feed intake in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Al-Husseini, W; Gondro, C; Quinn, K; Herd, R M; Gibson, J P; Chen, Y

    2014-02-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been adopted in Australia for the purpose of genetic improvement in feed efficiency in beef cattle. RFI is the difference between the observed feed intake of an animal and the predicted feed intake based on its size and growth rate over a test period. Gene expression of eight candidate genes (AHSG, GHR, GSTM1, INHBA, PCDH19, S100A10, SERPINI2 and SOD3), previously identified as differentially expressed between divergent lines of high- and low-RFI animals, was measured in an unselected population of 60 steers from the Angus Society Elite Progeny Test Program using quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that the levels of gene expression were significantly correlated with RFI. The genes explain around 33.2% of the phenotypic variance in RFI, and prediction equations using the expression data are reasonably accurate estimators of RFI. The association of these genes with economically important traits, such as other feed efficiency-related traits and fat, growth and carcass traits, was investigated as well. The expression of these candidate genes was significantly correlated with feed conversion ratio and daily feed intake, which are highly associated with RFI, suggesting a functional role for these genes in modulating feed utilisation. The expression of these genes did not show any association with average daily gain, eye muscle area and carcass composition. PMID:24134470

  6. Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions.

    PubMed

    Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light-dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light-dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high-amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light-dark cycle. PMID:25263204

  7. Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R.; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light–dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light–dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high?amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light–dark cycle. PMID:25263204

  8. Efficacy and safety of coadministration of once-daily indacaterol and glycopyrronium versus indacaterol alone in COPD patients: the GLOW6 study

    PubMed Central

    Vincken, Walter; Aumann, Joseph; Chen, Hungta; Henley, Michelle; McBryan, Danny; Goyal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Background Addition of a second bronchodilator from a different pharmacological class may benefit patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) whose symptoms are insufficiently controlled by bronchodilator monotherapy. GLOW6 evaluated the efficacy and safety of once-daily coadministration of the long-acting ?2-agonist indacaterol (IND) and the long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrronium (GLY) versus IND alone in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Materials and methods In this randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, 12-week study, patients were randomized 1:1 to IND 150 ?g and GLY 50 ?g daily (IND + GLY) or IND 150 ?g daily and placebo (IND + PBO) (all delivered via separate Breezhaler® devices). The primary objective was to demonstrate the superiority of IND + GLY versus IND + PBO for trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at week 12. Other end points included trough FEV1 at day 1, FEV1 area under the curve from 30 minutes to 4 hours (AUC30min–4h), peak FEV1, inspiratory capacity and trough forced vital capacity (FVC) at day 1 and week 12, and transition dyspnea index (TDI) focal score, COPD symptoms, and rescue medication use over 12 weeks. Results A total of 449 patients were randomized (IND + GLY, 226; IND + PBO, 223); 94% completed the study. On day 1 and at week 12, IND + GLY significantly improved trough FEV1 versus IND + PBO, with treatment differences of 74 mL (95% CI 46–101 mL) and 64 mL (95% CI 28–99 mL), respectively (both P<0.001). IND + GLY significantly improved postdose peak FEV1, FEV1 AUC30min–4h, and trough FVC at day 1 and week 12 versus IND + PBO (all P<0.01). TDI focal score and COPD symptoms (percentage of days able to perform usual daily activities and change from baseline in mean daytime respiratory score) were significantly improved with IND + GLY versus IND + PBO (P<0.05). The incidence of adverse events was similar for the two treatment groups. Conclusion In patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, once-daily coadministration of IND and GLY provides significant and sustained improvement in bronchodilation versus IND alone from day 1, with significant improvements in patient-centered outcomes. PMID:24596459

  9. Anthelmintics residues in raw milk. Assessing intake by a children population.

    PubMed

    Tsiboukis, D; Sazakli, E; Jelastopulu, E; Leotsinidis, M

    2013-01-01

    Anthelmintics, such as benzimidazoles and probenzimidazoles, are veterinary drugs used against endoparasites in food producing animals. A number of these drugs are considered responsible for embryotoxicity and teratogenicity. The residue levels of Albendazole, Febantel, Fenbendazole, Mebendazole and some of their metabolites (Albendazole sulphoxide, Albendazole sulphone, Fenbendazole sulfone) were assessed in 123 (42 goat, 69 sheep, 12 bovine) raw milk samples collected from all farms throughout Southern Greece. Sample analysis was performed by HPLC with Diode Array Detector. A high percentage (27.6%) of the samples examined was found to be positive for the investigated compounds. In 14 samples (11.4%), the residues' concentration exceeded the established Maximum Residue Limits. Estimated Daily Intakes were calculated for a population of 723 children aged 10-12 years. Data on milk consumption were obtained by personal interview through a 7-day food frequency questionnaire. The maximum Estimated Daily Intakes for the anthelmintic residues, concerning raw milk, did not exceed the current Acceptable Daily Intake. PMID:23691580

  10. Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

  11. Slow Food: Sustained Impact of Harder Foods on the Reduction in Energy Intake over the Course of the Day

    PubMed Central

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P.; Forde, Ciarán G.; Cheng, Yuejiao; Xu, Haohuan; Martin, Nathalie; de Graaf, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that oral processing characteristics like bite size and oral residence duration are related to the satiating efficiency of foods. Oral processing characteristics are influenced by food texture. Very little research has been done on the effect of food texture within solid foods on energy intake. Objectives The first objective was to investigate the effect of hardness of food on energy intake at lunch, and to link this effect to differences in food oral processing characteristics. The second objective was to investigate whether the reduction in energy intake at lunch will be compensated for in the subsequent dinner. Design Fifty subjects (11 male, BMI: 21±2 kg/m2, age: 24±2 y) participated in a cross-over study in which they consumed ad libitum from a lunch with soft foods or hard foods on two separate days. Oral processing characteristics at lunch were assessed by coding video records. Later on the same days, subjects consumed dinner ad libitum. Results Hard foods led to a ?13% lower energy intake at lunch compared to soft foods (P<0.001). Hard foods were consumed with smaller bites, longer oral duration per gram food, and more chewing per gram food compared to the soft foods (P<0.05). Energy intake at dinner did not differ after both lunches (P?=?0.16). Conclusions Hard foods led to reduced energy intake compared to soft foods, and this reduction in energy intake was sustained over the next meal. We argue that the differences in oral processing characteristics produced by the hardness of the foods explain the effect on intake. The sustained reduction in energy intake suggests that changes in food texture can be a helpful tool in reducing the overall daily energy intake. PMID:24695412

  12. Low whole grain intake in the UK: results from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme 2008-11.

    PubMed

    Mann, Kay D; Pearce, Mark S; McKevith, Brigid; Thielecke, Frank; Seal, Chris J

    2015-05-01

    Increased whole grain intake has been shown to reduce the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Countries including the USA, Canada, Denmark and Australia have specific dietary guidelines on whole grain intake but others, including the UK, do not. Data from 1986/87 and 2000/01 have shown that whole grain intake is low and declining in British adults. The aim of the present study was to describe whole grain intakes in the most current dietary assessment of UK households using data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme 2008-11. In the present study, 4 d diet diaries were completed by 3073 individuals between 2008 and 2011, along with details of socio-economic status (SES). The median daily whole grain intake, calculated for each individual on a dry weight basis, was 20 g/d for adults and 13 g/d for children/teenagers. The corresponding energy-adjusted whole grain intake was 27 g/10 MJ per d for adults and 20 g/10 MJ per d for children/teenagers. Whole grain intake (absolute and energy-adjusted) increased with age, but was lowest in teenagers (13-17 years) and younger adults up to the age of 34 years. Of the total study population, 18 % of adults and 15 % of children/teenagers did not consume any whole-grain foods. Individuals from lower SES groups had a significantly lower whole grain intake than those from more advantaged classifications. The whole grain intake in the UK, although higher than in 2000/01, remains low and below that in the US and Danish recommendations in all age classes. Favourable pricing with increased availability of whole-grain foods and education may help to increase whole grain intake in countries without whole-grain recommendations. Teenagers and younger adults may need targeting to help increase whole grain consumption. PMID:25904034

  13. REL3.0 SW DAILY LOCAL

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-09

    REL3.0 SW DAILY LOCAL Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 3.0 GEWEX Shortwave Daily Local Time Data in Native grid binary format   News:  ... Temporal Resolution:  Daily from 3-hourly Local Sun time values File Format:  BINARY Tools:  ...

  14. Accumulation of Cyanotoxins in Fish Tissue Cyanobacteria

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    concentrations in brain serum8 · The World Health Organization advises a Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in food9 0, China. Environmental Toxicology 20: 293-300. 8) Chen J., P. Xie, L. Li, J. Xu (2009). First with indication of hepatocellular damage.Toxicological Sciences 108: 81-89. 9)World Health Organization (WHO) 2006

  15. Biomonitoring Equivalents for DDT\\/DDE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher R. Kirman; Lesa L. Aylward; Sean M. Hays; Kannan Krishnan; Andy Nong

    2011-01-01

    Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration or range of concentrations of a chemical or its metabolite in a biological medium (blood, urine, or other medium) that is consistent with an existing health-based exposure guideline such as a reference dose (RfD) or tolerable daily intake (TDI). BE values can be used as a screening tool for the evaluation of

  16. Fast-Food and Full-service Restaurant Consumption among Children and Adolescents: Impact on Energy, Beverage and Nutrient Intake

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Nguyen, Binh T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on total energy intake, dietary indicators and beverage consumption. Design Individual-level fixed effects estimation based on two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Setting Nationally representative data from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, and 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants Children aged 2 to 11 (N=4717) and adolescents aged 12 to 19 (N=4699) Main Outcome Measures Daily total energy intake in kilocalories, intakes of grams of sugar, fat, saturated fat and protein and milligrams of sodium and total grams of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), regular soda and milk consumed. Results Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, was associated with a net increase in daily total energy intake of 126 kcal and 160 kcal for children and 310 kcal and 267 kcal for adolescents and higher intakes of regular soda (+74g and +88g for children and +163g and +107g for adolescents) and SSBs generally. Fast-food consumption increased intakes of total fat (+7–8g), saturated fat (+2–5g) and sugar (+6–16g) for both age groups and sodium (+396mg) and protein (+8g) for adolescents. Full-service restaurant consumption was associated with increases in all nutrients examined. Additional key findings were 1) adverse impacts on diet were larger for lower-income children and adolescents; and, 2) among adolescents, increased soda intake was twice as large when fast food was consumed away from home than at home. Conclusions Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption is associated with higher net total energy intake and poorer diet quality. PMID:23128151

  17. Sodium Intake Among U.S. Adults - 26 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, 2013.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jing; Cogswell, Mary E; Park, Soyoun; Jackson, Sandra L; Odom, Erika C

    2015-07-01

    Excess sodium intake is a major risk factor for hypertension, and subsequently, heart disease and stroke, the first and fifth leading causes of U.S. deaths, respectively. During 2011-2012, the average daily sodium intake among U.S. adults was estimated to be 3,592 mg, above the Healthy People 2020 target of 2,300 mg. To support strategies to reduce dietary sodium intake, 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from states and territories that implemented the new sodium-related behavior module were assessed. Across 26 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and Puerto Rico, 39%-73% of adults reported taking action (i.e., watching or reducing sodium intake) (median = 51%), and 14%-41% reported receiving advice from a health professional to reduce sodium intake (median = 22%). Compared with adults without hypertension, a higher percentage of adults with self-reported hypertension reported taking action and receiving advice to reduce sodium intake. For states that implemented the module, these results can serve as a baseline to monitor the effects of programs designed to reduce sodium intake. PMID:26135590

  18. Clinical effects of cesium intake.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Zélia

    2010-06-01

    The knowledge about cesium metabolism and toxicity is sparse. Oral intake of cesium chloride has been widely promoted on the basis of the hypothesis referred to as "high pH cancer therapy", a complimentary alternative medicine method for cancer treatment. However, no properly confirmed tumor regression was reported so far in all probability because of neither theoretical nor experimental grounds for this proposal. The aim of the present review was to resume and discuss the material currently available on cesium salts and their applications in medicine. The presence of cesium in the cell does not guarantee high pH of its content, and there is no clinical evidence to support the claims that cancer cells are vulnerable to cesium. Cesium is relatively safe; signs of its mild toxicity are gastrointestinal distress, hypotension, syncope, numbness, or tingling of the lips. Nevertheless, total cesium intakes of 6 g/day have been found to produce severe hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, prolonged QTc interval, episodes of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, with or without torsade de pointes, and even acute heart arrest. However, full information on its acute and chronic toxicity is not sufficiently known. Health care providers should be aware of the cardiac complications, as a result of careless cesium usage as alternative medicine. PMID:19655100

  19. Types of food and nutrient intake in India: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Maria Gabriella; Paramesh, Elizabeth Cherian; Paramesh, Haralappa; Loganes, Claudia; Ballali, Simonetta; Gafare, Claudia Elena; Verduci, Elvira; Gulati, Achal

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays India is undergoing an impressive economic growth accompanied by a very slow decline, almost stagnation, in malnutrition levels. In developing countries, studies on dietary patterns and their relationship with nutritional status are scarce. Over the years some nutritional studies have been performed to explore different types of food consumed in various Indian regions, among different social samples. The aim of the present paper is to review and describe trends in food and nutrition intake patterns in the different states of India. The review was carried out in PubMed, using the advanced research criteria: [food* OR ("meal pattern*") OR ("eating pattern*")] AND ("nutrient intake") AND India*. PubMed research gave back 84 results and out of these, 7 papers due to their focus on food intake and consumption levels in India have been included in this study. Food intake patterns showed that most of the Indians are vegetarians and that food items rich in micronutrients (pulses, other vegetables, fruits, nuts, oilseeds and animal foods) are generally consumed less frequently. Poor and monotonous cereals-based diet may promote inadequate nutrition intakes according to Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) standards. PMID:24928105

  20. Branched-chain fatty acid content of foods and estimated intake in the USA.

    PubMed

    Ran-Ressler, Rinat Rivka; Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao; Brenna, J Thomas

    2014-08-28

    Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2 % of fatty acids in cows' milk fat. There are few systematic data available on the BCFA content of other foods to estimate dietary intakes. In the present study, we report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods in the American diet and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant food products, and are absent from chicken, pork and salmon. The mean BCFA intake of 500 mg/d was delivered primarily from dairy and beef food products; by comparison, average intake of the widely studied long-chain PUFA EPA and DHA has been estimated to be 100 mg/d. Common adjustments in the diet could double the daily intake of BCFA. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA, but, overall, they are low-fat foods providing very small amounts of BCFA in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from the influence of microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef food products and highlight the need for research into their effects on health. PMID:24830474

  1. Total Maximum Daily Load Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides this informative resource on Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL). A term used to discuss water quality, TMDL refers to "a calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and still meet water quality standards." The TMDL Program Website offers background information on TMDLs (including FAQs), a National Overview of Impaired Waters in the US, and two standard presentations on TMDLs (HTML and Power Point). The heart of the site, however, is the interactive map of the US, which allows users access to each state's TMDL Program. Within each state, watershed names and maps, as well as source information (Water body, Parameter of Concern, Priority for TMDL Development), are provided.

  2. The Daily Palette Digital Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-10

    Every day, the staff members at the Daily Palette Digital Collection at the University of Iowa Libraries put up a new artwork by a different Iowa artist. Since the project was launched in 2004, the collection has profiled over 1,000 artists working in the fine arts, literature, video, and the performing arts. Visitors can scroll through the Highlights of Collection section near the bottom of the page for a taste of the very intriguing offerings here. The Subcollections area includes areas like Iowa Writes, Iowa on Stage, and Iowa at 30 Frames per second. This last area has 11 rather intriguing short films, including "Body Beasts," "Back of the Mike," and "Alternative Forms of Energy." Also, Iowa Writes includes over 700 poems, including "Ode to Thresher" and "16th Avenue, Cedar Rapids."

  3. Brown Daily Herald Digital Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Since 1891, the Brown Daily Herald has chronicled "political protest, athletic wins and losses, curricular changes, and students' initiative." Recently, Brown University's Center for Digital Initiatives and the Herald began working together to create this digital archive of the paper. On the site, visitors can learn more about the digitization project, sign up to be part of their LinkedIn group, and also take a look at their online store. Using the archive is quite simple, and visitors are encouraged to view specific issues by year or month, and they can also use a search engine to look for news coverage of particular interest. One rather compelling feature of the site is that returned search results include the page or story in question, along with thumbnails of the other pages in the issues on the bottom of the screen.

  4. Corticosteroid replacement therapy: twice or thrice daily?

    PubMed

    Groves, R W; Toms, G C; Houghton, B J; Monson, J P

    1988-09-01

    Although glucocorticoid replacement is conventionally administered twice daily, the pharmacokinetics of hydrocortisone would predict very low levels of plasma cortisol by mid-afternoon. This study compared plasma cortisol day profiles in 7 hypoadrenal patients while on twice daily and thrice daily hydrocortisone replacement. The twice daily regimen was associated with very low levels of cortisol at 16.00 and 18.00 h. This was eliminated by administering the same total dose in a thrice daily regimen. Furthermore, estimates of 'well-being' by visual analogue scale correlated significantly with simultaneous plasma cortisol levels and 5 of the patients expressed a preference for the thrice daily regimen. The findings suggest that thrice daily glucocorticoid replacement therapy should be adopted routinely. PMID:3184107

  5. Corticosteroid replacement therapy: twice or thrice daily?

    PubMed Central

    Groves, R W; Toms, G C; Houghton, B J; Monson, J P

    1988-01-01

    Although glucocorticoid replacement is conventionally administered twice daily, the pharmacokinetics of hydrocortisone would predict very low levels of plasma cortisol by mid-afternoon. This study compared plasma cortisol day profiles in 7 hypoadrenal patients while on twice daily and thrice daily hydrocortisone replacement. The twice daily regimen was associated with very low levels of cortisol at 16.00 and 18.00 h. This was eliminated by administering the same total dose in a thrice daily regimen. Furthermore, estimates of 'well-being' by visual analogue scale correlated significantly with simultaneous plasma cortisol levels and 5 of the patients expressed a preference for the thrice daily regimen. The findings suggest that thrice daily glucocorticoid replacement therapy should be adopted routinely. PMID:3184107

  6. Geismar TDI Plant Steam Optimization 

    E-print Network

    Baily, M.

    2013-01-01

    Landrum Jon Speier Jeff Selleck Christopher Batty Timothy Haydell Paulo Jimenez Jewell Miller Robert Levasseur Jon Walter Matt Lyons Mark Fair Laura Comeaux Tom Theising Sam Fortie 20 Acknowledgements ESL-IE-13-05-19 Proceedings...

  7. Towards the Fecal Metabolome Derived from Moderate Red Wine Intake

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Muńoz-González, Irene; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J.; Moreno-Arribas, María Victoria; Bartolomé, Begońa

    2014-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols, including red wine phenolic compounds, are extensively metabolized during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract; and their biological effects at the gut level (i.e., anti-inflammatory activity, microbiota modulation, interaction with cells, among others) seem to be due more to their microbial-derived metabolites rather than to the original forms found in food. In an effort to improve our understanding of the biological effects that phenolic compounds exert at the gut level, this paper summarizes the changes observed in the human fecal metabolome after an intervention study consisting of a daily consumption of 250 mL of wine during four weeks by healthy volunteers (n = 33). It assembles data from two analytical approaches: (1) UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of phenolic metabolites in fecal solutions (targeted analysis); and (2) UHPLC-TOF MS analysis of the fecal solutions (non-targeted analysis). Both approaches revealed statistically-significant changes in the concentration of several metabolites as a consequence of the wine intake. Similarity and complementarity between targeted and non-targeted approaches in the analysis of the fecal metabolome are discussed. Both strategies allowed the definition of a complex metabolic profile derived from wine intake. Likewise, the identification of endogenous markers could lead to new hypotheses to unravel the relationship between moderate wine consumption and the metabolic functionality of gut microbiota. PMID:25532710

  8. Motorcycle with closeable engine intake exhaust passages

    SciTech Connect

    Kazuta, H.; Kawai, Y.; Tsuchida, N.

    1984-03-06

    An intake and exhaust system for a compact motorcycle including a valve arrangement for closing both the intake and exhaust systems so as to preclude the excape of fuel vapors to the surrounding area when the motorcycle is not in use.

  9. EFFECT OF NUTRIENT INTAKE ON PREMENSTRUAL DEPRESSION

    E-print Network

    Wurtman, Richard

    EFFECT OF NUTRIENT INTAKE ON PREMENSTRUAL DEPRESSION JUDITHJ. WURTMAN,PhD, AMNONBRZEZINSKI and Qognitive Sciences. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Reprinted from AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS) (Printed in the U.S.A.) -- - ----- #12;Effect of nutrient intake on premenstrual depression Judith J

  10. Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars Table A41. Energy from added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 150.2

  11. Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats Table A39. Energy from solid fats: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 250.1

  12. Central nervous system control of food intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Schwartz; Stephen C. Woods; Daniel Porte Jr; Randy J. Seeley; Denis G. Baskin

    2000-01-01

    New information regarding neuronal circuits that control food intake and their hormonal regulation has extended our understanding of energy homeostasis, the process whereby energy intake is matched to energy expenditure over time. The profound obesity that results in rodents (and in the rare human case as well) from mutation of key signalling molecules involved in this regulatory system highlights its

  13. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:2 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:8/20/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Project ID:

  14. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:7 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:3/18/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Nicholas Restifo Building: 10-CRC Room: 3-5762 Telephone: 301-496-4904 E-Mail: restifo@nih.gov Project ID: N/A Shipping

  15. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:6 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:3/18/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Nicholas Restifo Building: 10-CRC Room: 3-5762 Telephone: 301-496-4904 E-Mail: restifo@nih.gov Project ID: N/A Shipping

  16. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:8 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:5/12/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Damian Kovalovsky Building: 10 Room: 4B17 Telephone: 301-435-6451 E-Mail: kovalovskyd@mail.nih.gov Project ID: 201415403124 Shipping

  17. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:5 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:11/13/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Alfred Singer Building: 10 Room: 3N113 Telephone: 301-496-5461 E-Mail: singera@exchange.nih.gov Project ID: N/A Shipping

  18. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:14 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:12/23/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Damian Kovalovsky Building: 10 Room: 4B17 Telephone: 301-435-6451 E-Mail: kovalovskyd@mail.nih.gov Project ID:

  19. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:9 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:5/15/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106A Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Project ID:

  20. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:1 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:6/26/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Jonathan Keller Building: 560 Room: 12-03 Telephone: 1461 E-Mail: kellerjo@mail.nih.gov Project ID: N/A Shipping

  1. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:4 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:10/22/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: andre nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 304-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Project ID:

  2. LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page

    Cancer.gov

    Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:3 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:8/20/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Project ID:

  3. IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. The report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that have been in satisfa...

  4. IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. he report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that ave been in satisfact...

  5. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; Del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES ("Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain") study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9-75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13-17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9-12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18-64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65-75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet. PMID:26076230

  6. US Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study: dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine.

    PubMed

    Murray, Clarence William; Egan, Sara Kathleen; Kim, Henry; Beru, Nega; Bolger, Philip Michael

    2008-11-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has conducted the Total Diet Study (TDS) since 1961, which designed to monitor the US food supply for chemical contaminants, nutritional elements, and toxic elements. Recently, perchlorate was analyzed in TDS samples. Perchlorate is used as an oxidizing agent in rocket propellant, is found in other items (e.g., explosives, road flares, fireworks, and car airbags), occurs naturally in some fertilizers, and may be generated under certain climatic conditions. It has been detected in surface and groundwater and in food. Perchlorate at high (e.g., pharmacological) doses can interfere with iodide uptake into the thyroid gland, disrupting its function. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has identified that "the fetuses of pregnant women who might have hypothyroidism or iodide deficiency as the most sensitive population." This study reports on intake estimates of perchlorate and iodine, a precursor to iodide, using the analytical results from the TDS. Estimated average perchlorate and iodine daily intakes as well as the contribution of specific food groups to total intakes were estimated for 14 age/sex subgroups of the US population. The estimated smallest lower bound to the largest upper bound average perchlorate intakes by the 14 age/sex groups range from 0.08 to 0.39 micrograms per kilogram body weight per day (microg/kg bw/day), compared with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference dose (RfD) of 0.7 microg/kg bw/day. Infants and children demonstrated the highest estimated intakes of perchlorate on a body weight basis. The estimated average iodine intakes by the 14 age/sex groups reveal a lower bound (ND=0) and upper bound (ND=LOD) range of average intakes from 138 to 353 microg/person/day. Estimated iodine intakes by infants 6-11 months exceed their adequate intake (AI), and intakes by children and adult age/sex groups exceed their relevant estimated average requirement (EAR). PMID:18167505

  7. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain”) study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet. PMID:26076230

  8. Ingestion of nutrition bars high in protein or carbohydrate does not impact 24-h energy intakes in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Trier, Catherine M; Johnston, Carol S

    2012-12-01

    Sales of nutrition bars increased almost 10-fold to $1.7billion over the past decade yet few studies have examined the impact of bar ingestion on dietary parameters. In this crossover trial, 24-h energy intakes were assessed in free-living college students ingesting a high-protein (HP, 280kcal) or a high-carbohydrate (HC, 260kcal) nutrition bar upon waking. Fifty-four students entered the trial, and 37 participants completed the three test days. Daily energy intakes ranged from 1752±99kcal for the non-intervention day to 1846±75 and 1891±110kcal for the days the HP and HC bars were consumed respectively (p=0.591). However, for individuals who reported high levels of physically activity (n=11), daily energy intakes increased significantly compared to the control day for the HC bar day (+45%; p=0.030) and HP bar day (+22%; p=0.038). Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes differed significantly across test days in the total sample mirroring the nutrient profile of the specific bars. These data suggest that young adults adjust caloric intakes appropriately following the ingestion of energy-dense nutrition bars over a 24-h period. Moreover, nutrition bars may represent a unique opportunity to favorably influence nutrient status of young adults. PMID:22918177

  9. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Clausen, Morten R; Dalsgaard, Trine K; Bertram, Hanne C

    2015-01-01

    Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health. PMID:26091233

  10. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hong; Clausen, Morten R.; Dalsgaard, Trine K.; Bertram, Hanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health. PMID:26091233

  11. Trans fatty acid intake and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Holt, Megan E; Lee, Jerry W; Morton, Kelly R; Tonstad, Serena

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether there is a relationship between trans fatty acid intakes and emotion regulation, mediated by positive or negative affect. Archival data on 1699 men and 3293 women were used to measure trans fatty acid intake at baseline, positive, and negative affects and emotion regulation at follow-up. Higher trans fatty acid intake related to subsequent difficulties with emotional awareness (p?=?0.045), clarity (p?=?0.012), and regulation strategies (p?=?0.009). Affect mediated these relationships. Lower trans fatty acid intake associated with increased positive and decreased negative affects which, in turn, associated with improved emotion regulation. Trans fatty acid intakes may be associated with subsequent ability to regulate emotions. PMID:26032795

  12. 30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56.13012...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall...

  13. 30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56.13012...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall...

  14. 30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57.13012...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall...

  15. 30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57.13012...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall...

  16. 30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57.13012...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall...

  17. 30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56.13012...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall...

  18. 30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56.13012...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall...

  19. 30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57.13012...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall...

  20. 40 CFR 91.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement specifications. 91.416 Section...Procedures § 91.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range...

  1. 40 CFR 90.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement specifications. 90.416 Section...Procedures § 90.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range...

  2. 40 CFR 90.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement specifications. 90.416 Section...Procedures § 90.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range...

  3. 40 CFR 90.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 true Intake air flow measurement specifications. 90.416 Section...Procedures § 90.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range...

  4. 40 CFR 90.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement specifications. 90.416 Section...Procedures § 90.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range...

  5. 40 CFR 91.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement specifications. 91.416 Section...Procedures § 91.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range...

  6. 40 CFR 91.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 true Intake air flow measurement specifications. 91.416 Section...Procedures § 91.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range...

  7. 40 CFR 91.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement specifications. 91.416 Section...Procedures § 91.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range...

  8. Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Modelling as a Tool to Support Risk Assessment: Three Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Hans; Gundert-Remy, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we present three case studies of physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) modelling in regulatory risk assessment. (1) Age-dependent lower enzyme expression in the newborn leads to bisphenol A (BPA) blood levels which are near the levels of the tolerated daily intake (TDI) at the oral exposure as calculated by EFSA. (2) Dermal exposure of BPA by receipts, car park tickets, and so forth, contribute to the exposure towards BPA. However, at the present levels of dermal exposure there is no risk for the adult. (3) Dermal exposure towards coumarin via cosmetic products leads to external exposures of two-fold the TDI. PBTK modeling helped to identify liver peak concentration as the metric for liver toxicity. After dermal exposure of twice the TDI, the liver peak concentration was lower than that present after oral exposure with the TDI dose. In the presented cases, PBTK modeling was useful to reach scientifically sound regulatory decisions. PMID:22649449

  9. Basic data on food intake, nutrient digestibility and energy requirements of lorikeets.

    PubMed

    Wolf, P; Häbich, A-C; Bürkle, M; Kamphues, J

    2007-06-01

    Although knowledge of the nutrient requirements of pet birds has increased a lot over the last few years, basic data on food and water intake and the energy requirements of nectarivorous species, such as lorikeets, are scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to try to generate some of these data for lorikeets kept at maintenance. Determination of the daily maintenance energy requirement enables calculation of the daily ration and thus, the appropriate nutrient concentrations in order to maintain body weight. Investigations were carried out with six Goldie's lorikeets (GL; Trichoglossus goldiei: 40-50 g BW; 1-4 years) and six rainbow lorikeets (RL; Trichoglossus haematodus haematodus: 120-140 g BW; 1-12 years). Three of the most commonly used diets/foods (commercial 'lory soup'/apples/pollen: crude ash - 52.9/17.8/18.8; crude protein - 178/32.5/191; crude fat - 52.8/0.89/73.1; crude fibre - 17.9/40.5/30.4; starch - 139/not detectable/127; sugar - 522/859/418 g/kg DM; ME - 13.9/14.6/10.9 MJ/kg DM) were individually offered ad libitum. The measured dry matter (DM) intake (g/100 g BW) corresponded well to the values reported for granivorous bird species of similar body mass. Both lorikeet species achieved an apparent digestibility of organic matter of more than 90% for apples, approximately 82% for 'lory soup' and approximately 55% for pollen. The water content of the food affected the DM content of the excreta; 8% when fed 'lory soup', 2% for apples and approximately 30% when fed pollen. Regression analysis of body weight change relative to energy intake demonstrated constant body mass (assuming no change in body composition) when the daily energy intakes were 860 (GL) or 650 (RL) kJ ME/kg BW(0.75). PMID:17516953

  10. High Sodium and Low Potassium Intake among Italian Children: Relationship with Age, Body Mass and Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Campanozzi, Angelo; Avallone, Sonia; Barbato, Antonio; Iacone, Roberto; Russo, Ornella; De Filippo, Gianpaolo; D’Angelo, Giuseppina; Pensabene, Licia; Malamisura, Basilio; Cecere, Gaetano; Micillo, Maria; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Tetro, Anna; Lombardi, Giuliano; Tonelli, Lisa; Castellucci, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Luigi; Di Biase, Rita; Lezo, Antonella; Salvatore, Silvia; Paoletti, Silvia; Siani, Alfonso; Galeone, Daniela; Strazzullo, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the leading cause of death in developed countries and reduction of salt intake is recommended as a key preventive measure. Objective To assess the dietary sodium and potassium intakes in a national sample of Italian children and adolescents and to examine their relationships with BMI and blood pressure (BP) in the framework of the MINISAL survey, a program supported by the Italian Ministry of Health. Population and Methods The study population included 1424 healthy subjects (766 boys, 658 girls) aged 6-18 years (mean age: 10.1±2.9) who were consecutively recruited in participating National Health Service centers in 10 Italian regions. Electrolyte intake was estimated from 24 hour urine collections tested for completeness by the concomitant measurement of creatinine content. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured with standardized procedures. Results The average estimated sodium intake was 129 mmol (7.4 g of salt) per day among boys and 117 mmol (6.7 g of salt) among girls. Ninety-three percent of the boys and 89% of the girls had a consumption higher than the recommended age-specific standard dietary target. The estimated average daily potassium intakes were 39 mmol (1.53 g) and 36 mmol (1.40 g), respectively, over 96% of the boys and 98% of the girls having a potassium intake lower than the recommended adequate intake. The mean sodium/potassium ratio was similar among boys and girls (3.5 and 3.4, respectively) and over 3-fold greater than the desirable level. Sodium intake was directly related to age, body mass and BP in the whole population. Conclusions The Italian pediatric population is characterized by excessive sodium and deficient potassium intake. These data suggest that future campaigns should focus on children and adolescents as a major target in the framework of a population strategy of cardiovascular prevention. PMID:25853242

  11. Maternal intake of supplemental iron and risk of autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Rebecca J; Tancredi, Daniel J; Krakowiak, Paula; Hansen, Robin L; Ozonoff, Sally

    2014-11-01

    Iron deficiency affects 40%-50% of pregnancies. Iron is critical for early neurodevelopmental processes that are dysregulated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined maternal iron intake in relation to ASD risk in California-born children enrolled in a population-based case-control study (the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) Study) from 2003 to 2009 with a diagnosis of ASD (n = 520) or typical development (n = 346) that was clinically confirmed using standardized assessments. Mean maternal daily iron intake was quantified on the basis of frequency, dose, and brands of supplements and cereals consumed each month from 3 months before pregnancy through the end of pregnancy and during breastfeeding (the index period), as reported in parental interviews. Mothers of cases were less likely to report taking iron-specific supplements during the index period (adjusted odds ratio = 0.63, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.91), and they had a lower mean daily iron intake (51.7 (standard deviation, 34.0) mg/day) than mothers of controls (57.1 (standard deviation, 36.6) mg/day; P = 0.03). The highest quintile of iron intake during the index period was associated with reduced ASD risk compared with the lowest (adjusted odds ratio = 0.49, 95% confidence interval: 0.29, 0.82), especially during breastfeeding. Low iron intake significantly interacted with advanced maternal age and metabolic conditions; combined exposures were associated with a 5-fold increased ASD risk. Further studies of this link between maternal supplemental iron and ASD are needed to inform ASD prevention strategies. PMID:25249546

  12. The Influence of Seasonal Frugivory on Nutrient and Energy Intake in Wild Western Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Shelly; Mundry, Roger; Ortmann, Sylvia; Cipolletta, Chloé; Boitani, Luigi; Robbins, Martha M.

    2015-01-01

    The daily energy requirements of animals are determined by a combination of physical and physiological factors, but food availability may challenge the capacity to meet nutritional needs. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are an interesting model for investigating this topic because they are folivore-frugivores that adjust their diet and activities to seasonal variation in fruit availability. Observations of one habituated group of western gorillas in Bai-Hokou, Central African Republic (December 2004-December 2005) were used to examine seasonal variation in diet quality and nutritional intake. We tested if during the high fruit season the food consumed by western gorillas was higher in quality (higher in energy, sugar, fat but lower in fibre and antifeedants) than during the low fruit season. Food consumed during the high fruit season was higher in digestible energy, but not any other macronutrients. Second, we investigated whether the gorillas increased their daily intake of carbohydrates, metabolizable energy (KCal/g OM), or other nutrients during the high fruit season. Intake of dry matter, fibers, fat, protein and the majority of minerals and phenols decreased with increased frugivory and there was some indication of seasonal variation in intake of energy (KCal/g OM), tannins, protein/fiber ratio, and iron. Intake of non-structural carbohydrates and sugars was not influenced by fruit availability. Gorillas are probably able to extract large quantities of energy via fermentation since they rely on proteinaceous leaves during the low fruit season. Macronutrients and micronutrients, but not digestible energy, may be limited for them during times of low fruit availability because they are hind-gut fermenters. We discuss the advantages of seasonal frugivores having large dietary breath and flexibility, significant characteristics to consider in the conservation strategies of endangered species. PMID:26154509

  13. Time of day influences the voluntary intake and behavioral response to methamphetamine and food reward

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Diana R.; Hart, Carl L.; Robotham, Margaret; Tariq, Maliha; Le Sauter, Joseph; Silver, Rae

    2015-01-01

    The circadian timing system influences a vast array of behavioral responses. Substantial evidence indicates a role for the circadian system in regulating reward processing. Here we explore time of day effects on drug anticipation, locomotor activity, and voluntary methamphetamine (MA) and food intake in animals with ad libitum food access. We compared responses to drug versus a palatable treat during their normal sleep times in early day (zeitgeber time (ZT) 0400) or late day (ZT 1000). In the first study, using a between-subjects design, mice were given daily 1-h access to either peanut butter (PB-Alone) or to a low or high concentration of MA mixed in PB (MA + PB). In study 2, we repeated the experiment using a within-subjects design in which mice could choose between PB-Alone and MA + PB at either ZT 0400 or 1000. In study 3, the effects of MA-alone were investigated by evaluating anticipatory activity preceding exposure to nebulized MA at ZT 0400 vs. ZT 1000. Time of day effects were observed for both drug and palatable treat, such that in the between groups design, animals showed greater intake, anticipatory activity, and post-ingestional activity in the early day. Furthermore, there were differences among mice in the amount of MA ingested but individuals were self-consistent in their daily intake. The results for the within-subjects experiment also revealed robust individual differences in preference for MA + PB or PB-Alone. Interestingly, time of day effects on intake were observed only for the preferred substance. Anticipatory activity preceding administration of MA by nebulization was also greater at ZT 0400 than ZT 1000. Finally, pharmacokinetic response to MA administered intraperitoneally did not vary as a function of time of administration. The results indicate that time of day is an important variable mediating the voluntary intake and behavioral effects of reinforcers. PMID:23711589

  14. Supplementation of cottonseed, linseed, and noug seed cakes on feed intake, digestibility, body weight, and carcass parameters of Sidama goats.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Wondwosen; Melaku, Solomon; Tolera, Adugna

    2010-04-01

    A digestibility, feed intake, and carcass evaluation experiment using 20 yearling intact male Sidama goats weighing 16.4 +/- 0.63 kg (mean +/- SD) was conducted in Ethiopia with the objectives to determine feed intake, digestibility, body weight (BW) gain, and carcass parameters. The treatments included feeding natural pasture hay (T1, control) and supplementation with cottonseed cake (284 g-T2), linseed cake (250 g-T3), and noug seed cake (296 g-T4) on dry matter (DM) basis to supply 85 g crude protein (CP) per head per day. Randomized complete block design for feed intake and BW parameters and complete randomized design for digestibility and carcass parameters were used. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.01) for T1 than for the other treatments. T3 promoted higher (P < 0.01) DM (29.3 g/kg W(0.75)/day) and CP (14.1 g/kg W(0.75)/day) intake than T4 (8.9 g/kg W(0.75)/day DM and 4.1 g/kg W(0.75)/day CP). T3 showed better (P < 0.05) organic matter and CP digestibility than T2. Goats in T3 had higher nitrogen intake (P < 0.01) and retention (P < 0.05) than those in T1. Goats in T2 and T3 showed higher (P < 0.05) daily BW gain and final BW than those in T4 and T1. Goats in T2 and T3 had higher (P < 0.05) slaughter weight, empty BW, hot carcass weight, rib-eye muscle area, and dressing percentage on slaughter weight basis than those in T1. The results showed that T2 and T3 had similar effect on CP intake, daily BW gain, and carcass parameters for growing Sidama goats fed natural pasture hay. PMID:19809885

  15. Association of Mammographic Breast Density with Dairy Product Consumption, Sun Exposure, and Daily Activity

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Azin; Alikhassi, Afsaneh; Bayani, Leila; Hosseini, Ladan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Mammographic density is a risk factor, for breast cancer and its association with various factors is under investigation; we carried out a study to assess its relationship with daily dairy intake, sun exposure, and physical activities. Patients and Methods. Women ?40 years of age were interviewed about habits of dairy product consumption, daily sun exposure and physical activity. Exclusion criteria consisted of history of breast cancer, consumption of calcium and vitamin D supplements, hormone replacement therapy, or renal disease. Mammographic densities were classified according to the classification system of the American College of Radiologists into 4 classes. Results. Overall 703 cases were entered in the study. The mean age was 48.2 ± 6.2 years. The most common and least frequent classes of mammographic density were classes 2 and 4, respectively. There was no significant association between mammographic density and rate of dairy consumption, amount of sunlight exposure, and daily physical activity. Conclusion. Relation of sunlight exposure and intake of milk products with mammographic density need further study, while the subject of physical activity can be evaluated by a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing literature. PMID:24729894

  16. Association of mammographic breast density with dairy product consumption, sun exposure, and daily activity.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Sadaf; Saberi, Azin; Alikhassi, Afsaneh; Bayani, Leila; Hosseini, Ladan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Mammographic density is a risk factor, for breast cancer and its association with various factors is under investigation; we carried out a study to assess its relationship with daily dairy intake, sun exposure, and physical activities. Patients and Methods. Women ?40 years of age were interviewed about habits of dairy product consumption, daily sun exposure and physical activity. Exclusion criteria consisted of history of breast cancer, consumption of calcium and vitamin D supplements, hormone replacement therapy, or renal disease. Mammographic densities were classified according to the classification system of the American College of Radiologists into 4 classes. Results. Overall 703 cases were entered in the study. The mean age was 48.2 ± 6.2 years. The most common and least frequent classes of mammographic density were classes 2 and 4, respectively. There was no significant association between mammographic density and rate of dairy consumption, amount of sunlight exposure, and daily physical activity. Conclusion. Relation of sunlight exposure and intake of milk products with mammographic density need further study, while the subject of physical activity can be evaluated by a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing literature. PMID:24729894

  17. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-07-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  18. Relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Spronk, Inge; Kullen, Charina; Burdon, Catriona; O'Connor, Helen

    2014-05-28

    The present systematic review examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake in adults (mean age ? 18 years). Relevant databases were searched from the earliest record until November 2012. Search terms included: nutrition; diet or food knowledge and energy intake; feeding behaviour; diet; eating; nutrient or food intake or consumption. Included studies were original research articles that used instruments providing quantitative assessment of both nutrition knowledge and dietary intake and their statistical association. The initial search netted 1,193,393 potentially relevant articles, of which twenty-nine were eligible for inclusion. Most of them were conducted in community populations (n 22) with fewer (n 7) in athletic populations. Due to the heterogeneity of methods used to assess nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, a meta-analysis was not possible. The majority of the studies (65·5%: community 63·6%; athletic 71·4%) reported significant, positive, but weak (r< 0·5) associations between higher nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, most often a higher intake of fruit and vegetables. However, study quality ranged widely and participant representation from lower socio-economic status was limited, with most participants being tertiary educated and female. Well-designed studies using validated methodologies are needed to clarify the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Diet quality scores or indices that aim to evaluate compliance to dietary guidelines may be particularly valuable for assessing the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Nutrition knowledge is an integral component of health literacy and as low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes, contemporary, high-quality research is needed to inform community nutrition education and public health policy. PMID:24621991

  19. Branched Chain Fatty Acid Content of United States Retail Cow’s Milk and Implications for Dietary Intake

    PubMed Central

    Ran-Ressler, R. R.; Sim, D.; Brenna, J. T.; O’Donnell-Megaro, A. M.; Bauman, D. E.; Barbano, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) have recently been shown to be a major component of the normal human newborn gastrointestinal tract and have long been known to be a component of human milk. Ruminant food products are major sources of fat in the American diet, but there are no studies of milkfat BCFA content in retail milk. We report here the profile and concentrations of BCFA in a representative sampling of retail milk in the 48 contiguous United States (US), and their estimated intake in the American diet. Conventionally produced whole fluid milk samples were obtained from 56 processing plants across the contiguous 48 states. Retail milk samples contain exclusively iso- and anteiso-BCFA with 14–18 carbons. BCFA were 2.05 ± 0.14%, w/w of milkfat fatty acids (mean ± SD), and anteiso-BCFA comprised more than half this total. Based on these data and USDA food availability data, the average per capita BCFA intake of Americans is estimated to be about 220 mg/d from dairy; if current dietary recommendations were followed, BCFA intake would be about 400 mg/d. Adding intake from beef consumption, these estimates rise to approximately 400 and 575 mg/d, respectively. These results indicate that BCFA intake is a substantial fraction of daily fat intake, in amounts exceeding those of many bioactive fatty acids. PMID:21293946

  20. Effects of feed delivery time on feed intake, milk production, and blood metabolites of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nikkhah, A; Furedi, C J; Kennedy, A D; Crow, G H; Plaizier, J C

    2008-11-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feed delivery time and its interactions with dietary concentrate inclusion and parity on milk production and on 24-h averages and patterns of feed intake and blood metabolites. Four multiparous and 4 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Experimental periods included 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling. A higher concentrate diet with a forage:concentrate ratio (dry matter basis) of 38:62 or a lower-concentrate diet with a forage:concentrate ratio of 51:49 was delivered at either 0900 or 2100 h. During sampling periods, daily feed intakes, as well as feed intakes during 3-h intervals relative to feed delivery, were determined. During 2 nonconsecutive days of the sampling period, jugular blood was sampled every 2 h. Average temperature and relative humidity in the experimental facility were 20.4 degrees C and 68.1%, and the maximum daily air temperature did not exceed 25 degrees C. This data does not suggest that cows were heat-stressed. Changing feed delivery time from 0900 to 2100 h increased the amount of feed consumed within 3 h after feeding from 27 to 37% of total daily intake but did not affect daily dry matter intake. The cows fed at 2100 h had lower blood glucose at 2 h after feeding but greater blood lactate and beta-hydroxybutyrate acid at 2 and 4 h after feeding than cows fed at 0900 h. These effects of feed delivery time on the 24-h patterns in blood metabolites may be caused by the greater feed intake during the 3 h after feed delivery of the cows fed at 2100 h. Daily averages of glucose, urea, lactate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate acid and nonesterified fatty acids in peripheral blood were not affected by time of feeding. The change in feed delivery time did not affect milk yield and milk protein but increased milk fat percentage from 2.5 to 2.9% and milk fat yield from 0.98 to 1.20 kg/d in multiparous cows, without affecting milk fat in primiparous cows. The interactions between diet and time of feeding on daily feed intake, milk production, and blood metabolites were not significant. The effects of the time of feed delivery on the 24-h patterns in blood metabolites suggest that this time may affect peripheral nutrient availability. Results of this study suggest beneficial effects of feeding at 2100 h instead of at 0900 h on milk fat production of lactating cows, but parity appears to mediate this effect. PMID:18946130

  1. Association of Magnesium Intake with High Blood Pressure in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Bae, Yun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnesium is known to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies on its relationship with hypertension, a single and common cause of various chronic diseases, are limited and their findings are not consistent. The purpose of the present study is to identify the relationship between magnesium intake and high blood pressure (HBP) risk in Koreans. Methods This research is a cross-sectional study based on the 2007~2009 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey data. This study investigated 11,685 adults aged over 20 to examine their general characteristics, anthropometry and blood pressure. Daily magnesium intake was analyzed using the 24-hour dietary recall method. To calculate the odds ratio (OR) of HBP risk (130/85 mmHg or over) according to the quartile of magnesium intake (mg/1000kcal) together with its 95% confidence interval (CI), multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. Results No significant association between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of HBP was found. In obese women, particularly, after adjusting relevant factors, the adjusted odds ratio of HBP prevalence in the highest magnesium intake quartile was 0.40 compared with the lowest magnesium intake quartile (95% CI = 0.25~0.63, P for trend = 0.0014). Women, especially obese women, were found to have a negative relationship of magnesium intake with HBP. Conclusions The present results indicate that sufficient magnesium intake could be useful in decreasing the high blood pressure risk of obese women. PMID:26075385

  2. Caloric and nutrient intake in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder treated with extended-release methylphenidate: analysis of a cross-sectional nutrition survey

    PubMed Central

    Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To study calorie and nutrients intake in a group of patients diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under treatment with extended-release methylphenidate (MPH-ER), and to analyse the need to design nutrition intervention strategies. Design Observational (case-control). Setting Navarra Hospital Complex, Pamplona, Spain. Participants A total of 100 patients diagnosed with ADHD under treatment with MPH-ER and 100 healthy children (control group). Main outcome measures A nutrition survey was carried out (food intake registration of 3 consecutive school days). Calorie and nutrient intake, as well as nutrition status, were evaluated and compared in both groups. Results Nutritional status in ADHD group was significantly lower (p?intake in mid-morning snack, lunch and afternoon snack was significantly higher (p?intake in supper was significantly higher (p?intake, as well as protein, carbohydrates, fat, fibre, calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, selenium and phosphorous, thiamine, niacin, vitamin B6 and folate intake, in control group was significantly higher than in ADHD group. Conclusions The daily calorie and nutrients intake in patients under treatment with MPH-ER is, generally, lower than in healthy population of similar age. The need to impart programmes of nutrition education simultaneously with multimodal treatment in order to avoid the nutrition consequences of treatment with MPH should be considered. PMID:25057372

  3. Food intake and meal patterns in rhesus monkeys: Significance of chronic hyperinsulinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hannah, J.; Hansen, B.C. (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (USA))

    1990-10-01

    To investigate the role of plasma insulin on food intake, we have examined the effect of naturally occurring chronic hyperinsulinemia on the feeding behavior of male rhesus monkeys. Two groups of monkeys, a group with normal fasting insulin concentrations (52.4 +/- 2.2 microU/ml) (mean +/- SE) and a hyperinsulinemic group (148.6 +/- 14.5 microU/ml), were selected to be similar in weight, 13.0 +/- 1.0 and 15.3 +/- 0.5 kg, respectively, prior to study. Food intake and feeding patterns were recorded and analyzed. No differences in either daily caloric intake, 815.2 +/- 27.4 versus 890.0 +/- 64.2 kcal (p less than 0.32), or feeding patterns were found. The number of meals taken per day did not differ between the two groups, 8.7 +/- 1.7 versus 6.7 +/- 1.1 (p less than 0.35), nor did meal size differ, 129 +/- 16.5 versus 110.5 +/- 16.3 (p less than 0.45). We conclude that chronic endogenous hyperinsulinemia as it occurs naturally in some obese rhesus monkeys has no significant effect on daily feeding behavior.

  4. Effects of water temperature and dissolved oxygen on daily feed consumption, feed utilization and growth of channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Alejandro Buentello; Delbert M Gatlin; William H Neill

    2000-01-01

    Feed intake (FI), feed efficiency (FE), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and weight gain (WG) of juvenile channel catfish initially weighing 15.0±0.23 g (10–12 cm initial total length) were evaluated under three regimes of time-varying water temperature (mean daily water temperature for Stoneville, MS, USA; mean +3; and, mean ?3°C) and three of dissolved oxygen (DO; 100, 70 and 30% air

  5. Potential intakes of total polyols based on UK usage survey data

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Polyols are approved for use as sweeteners in specific foods but they may be used for other technological purposes in a wider range of foods, all on a quantum satis basis. The European Polyols Association (EPA) has identified 24 categories of food where polyols are used and it has been able to establish the levels at which the polyols are used in each type of food and whether for sweetening or non-sweetening purposes. The UK National Dietary and Nutrition survey database was used to estimate potential exposures to total polyols based on reported use levels. It was possible to express potential polyol intake on the basis of exposure relating to a single eating occasion, a meal period, 1 day and the average over 4 days of the survey. Potential intakes of polyols were approximately twice that found on a per-item or a meal-period basis when estimated on a daily basis. Apparent intakes were lower when averaged over the 4 days of the survey. It was felt that intake expressed on a per-meal occasion basis was most relevant to the development of digestive discomfort. On the basis of maximum use levels of polyols in all food categories, adults had the highest intake of total polyols up to 5.6 g per meal period at the 95th percentile. However, when expressed on a bodyweight basis, children had higher intakes, up to 0.15 g kg?1 bw per meal period. Distributions of potential polyol exposures were highly skewed towards lower values with higher levels of exposure relating to sweetener uses occurring relatively infrequently. PMID:24447207

  6. Energy intake and snack choice by the meal patterns of employed people

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se Min

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide descriptive information on meal and snack patterns and to investigate snacks in relation to energy intake and food choice according to the meal patterns of employed people in Korea. 683 employed people (292 males, 391 females) were interviewed to collect one day dietary data by using 24-h dietary recall. A recorded day was divided into 3 meal and 3 snack periods by the respondent's criteria and the time of consumption. To analyze the eating pattern participants were divided as the more frequent snack eaters (MFSE) and the less frequent snack eaters (LFSE). They were also categorized into 6 groups according to the frequency of all eating occasions. The common meal pattern in nearly half of the subjects (47.6%) was composed of three meals plus one or two snacks per day. A trend of an increasing the number of snacks in between main meals emerges, although the conventional meal pattern is still retained in most employed Korean adults. Women, aged 30-39, and urban residents, had a higher number of being MFSE than LFSE. Increasing eating occasions was associated with higher energy, protein, and carbohydrate intakes, with the exception of fat intakes. 16.8% of the total daily energy intake came from snack consumption, while the 3 main meals contributed 83.2%. Energy and macronutrient intakes from snacks in the MFSE were significantly higher than the LFSE. Instant coffee was the most popular snack in the morning and afternoon, whereas heavy snacks and alcohol were more frequently consumed by both of the meal skipper groups (?2M+2,3S and ?2M+0,1S) in the evening. In conclusion, meal pattern is changing to reflect an increase of more snacks between the three main meals. Meal and snack patterns may be markers for the energy and macronutrient intakes of employed people in Korea. PMID:20198208

  7. Associations between dairy intake and metabolic risk parameters in a healthy French-Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Marine S; Julien, Pierre; Couture, Patrick; Lemieux, Simone; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Rudkowska, Iwona

    2014-12-01

    Observational studies support that dairy product intake is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes; however, several clinical studies report conflicting results on the association between dairy product consumption and metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine associations between dairy product consumption and metabolic profile. Dietary data, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and fasting blood samples were collected from 233 French Canadians. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FA) concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. Subjects consumed 2.5 ± 1.4 portions of dairy products daily, including 1.6 ± 1.3 portions of low-fat (LF) and 0.90 ± 0.70 portions of high-fat (HF) dairy products. Trans-palmitoleic acid level in plasma PL was related to HF dairy consumption (r = 0.15; p = 0.04). Total (r = -0.21; p = 0.001) and LF dairy (r = -0.20; p = 0.003) intakes were inversely correlated with fasting plasma glucose level. Total dairy intake was inversely associated to systolic blood pressure (r = -0.17; p = 0.008) and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.14; p = 0.03). LF dairy intake was also inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.17; p = 0.009). Total dairy intake was correlated with plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.15; p = 0.03). No association was found between HF dairy consumption and the risk factors studied. In conclusion, dairy intake is inversely associated with glycaemia and blood pressure; yet, it may modify CRP levels. Moreover, trans-palmitoleic FA levels in plasma PL may be potentially used to assess full-fat dairy consumption. PMID:25224707

  8. The effects of the HEALTHY study intervention on middle school student dietary intakes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The HEALTHY study was designed to respond to the alarming trends in increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in youth. The objective of this analysis was to examine the effects of the HEALTHY study on student self-reported dietary intakes (energy, macronutrients and grams consumed of selected food groups). Methods HEALTHY was a cluster-randomized study in 42 public middle schools. Students, n = 3908, self-reported dietary intake using the Block Kids Questionnaire. General linear mixed models were used to analyze differences in dietary intake at the end of the study between intervention and control schools. Results The reported average daily fruit consumption was 10% higher at the end of the study in the intervention schools than in the control schools (138 g or approximately 2 servings versus 122 g, respectively, p = 0.0016). The reported water intake was approximately 2 fluid ounces higher in the intervention schools than in the control (483 g versus 429 g respectively; p = 0.008). There were no significant differences between intervention and control for mean intakes of energy, macronutrients, fiber, grains, vegetables, legumes, sweets, sweetened beverages, and higher- or lower-fat milk consumption. Conclusion The HEALTHY study, a five-semester middle school-based intervention program that integrated multiple components in nutrition, physical education, behavior change, and social marketing-based communications, resulted in significant changes to student's reported fruit and water intake. Subsequent interventions need to go beyond the school environment to change diet behaviors that may affect weight status of children. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00458029 PMID:21294869

  9. Psychological distress is associated with inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese marriage immigrant women in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Sun Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Kim, Wha Young

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that the nutritional status of Vietnamese female marriage immigrants in Korea is inadequate. And the mediation of acculturation stress can contribute to problems in their eating practices and dietary intakes. This study examines an association between psychological distress and inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in Korea. A cross-sectional study analyzed baseline data (n=570) from the Cohort of Intermarried Women in Korea. Daily nutrient intakes were compared according to the quartiles of distress scores assessed by the Psychological Well-Being Index-Short Form. One-way analysis of variance and chi(2) tests were used to compare eating practices and nutrient intake across quartiles of psychological distress. Subjects in the highest stress scores were more likely to skip breakfast and to change their dietary habits after living in Korea than those in groups with low stress scores. Analyses of the subjects' Mini Dietary Assessments revealed that those with the highest stress scores were less likely to consume milk or dairy products, eat regular meals, or have balanced diets than those with the lowest stress scores. Nutrient intakes were found to be inadequate in the subjects, and those with the highest stress scores showed lower consumptions of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, calcium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, and folate compared to those with the lowest scores. The prevalence of underweight (body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] <18.5) increased from the lowest to highest quartiles of psychological distress scores. Psychological distress in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in Korea was negatively associated with dietary intake. These findings can assist dietetics practitioners working with minority immigrants because such information is important in designing appropriate strategies for dietary counseling. A follow-up study should address the underlying mechanisms of the observed diet-distress association in Vietnamese marriage immigrant women in Korea, as well as other various ethnic minority immigrants in Korea. PMID:20430141

  10. The impact of folic acid intake on the association between diabetes, obesity, and spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Samantha E; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Tinker, Sarah C; Mitchell, Allen A; Werler, Martha M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between spina bifida and two established risk factors, pregestational diabetes and obesity, in both the presence and absence of the recommended daily folic acid intake in the periconceptional period. Study Design Cases of spina bifida (n=1154) and controls (n=9439) from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study (1976–2011) were included. Information on preexisting diabetes (collected 1976+) and obesity (collected 1993+), defined as BMI ?30 kg/m2, were collected through interviews conducted within six months of delivery. Periconceptional folic acid intake was calculated using both dietary and supplement information. Mothers were classified as consuming more or less than 400µg/day of folic acid, with food folate included at a 30% discount for its lower bioavailability. Logistic regression models, adjusted for maternal race, education, and study site, were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the joint effects of low folic acid intake coupled with diabetes or obesity. Results Mothers of cases were more likely to have diabetes or be obese (0.7% and 19.0%, respectively) than control mothers (0.4% and 10.8%, respectively). The joint effect of diabetes and lower folic acid intake on spina bifida was larger (aOR:3.95; CI: 1.56, 10.00) than that of diabetes and higher folic acid intake (aOR:1.31; CI: 0.17, 10.30). Folic acid intake made little difference on the association between obesity and spina bifida. Conclusion Our findings suggest that folic acid further attenuates, though does not eliminate, the risk of spina bifida associated with diabetes, than that with obesity. PMID:23711668

  11. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muńoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6…

  12. Stochastic Modelling of Daily Rainfall sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Buishand

    1977-01-01

    Rainfall series of different climatic regions were analysed with the aim of generating daily rainfall sequences. A survey of the data is given in I, 1. When analysing daily rainfall sequences one must be aware of the following points:a. Seasonality. Because of seasonal variation of features of the rainfall process the analysis is done for each month or season separately

  13. Bayesian Adaptive Trading with a Daily Cycle

    E-print Network

    Almgren, Robert F.

    Bayesian Adaptive Trading with a Daily Cycle Robert Almgren and Julian Lorenz July 28, 2006 Abstract Standard models of algorithmic trading neglect the presence of a daily cycle. We construct a model in which the trader uses infor- mation from observations of price evolution during the day to con

  14. Techniques for Daily Living: Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldridge, Lillian; And Others

    Presented are specific guides concerning techniques for daily living which were developed by the child care staff at the Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School. The guides are designed for cottage parents of the children, who may have both visual and other handicaps, and show what daily living skills are necessary and appropriate for the…

  15. Does personality affect dietary intake?

    PubMed

    Lunn, Trevor E; Nowson, Caryl A; Worsley, Anthony; Torres, Susan J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence for an association between the Big Five dimensions of personality, dietary intake, and compliance to dietary recommendations. Poor diet is a known risk factor for overweight and obesity and associated chronic lifestyle diseases and it has been proposed that personality may be linked to dietary choices. Findings from cross-sectional surveys from different countries and cultures show a positive association between Openness and consumption of fruits and vegetables and between Conscientiousness and healthy eating. Although no evidence has been found that personality dimensions are associated with adherence to dietary recommendations over time, Conscientiousness is associated with a number of prosocial and health-promoting behaviors that include avoiding alcohol-related harm, binge-drinking, and smoking, and adherence to medication regimens. With emerging evidence of an association between higher Conscientiousness and lower obesity risk, the hypothesis that higher Conscientiousness may predict adoption of healthy dietary and other lifestyle recommendations appears to be supported. PMID:24607300

  16. Physical activity, energy requirements, and adequacy of dietary intakes of older persons in a rural Filipino community

    PubMed Central

    Risonar, Maria Grace D; Rayco-Solon, Pura; Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Cabalda, Aegina B; Tengco, Lorena W; Solon, Florentino S

    2009-01-01

    Background Aging is a process associated with physiological changes such as in body composition, energy expenditure and physical activity. Data on energy and nutrient intake adequacy among elderly is important for disease prevention, health maintenance and program development. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to determine the energy requirements and adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes of older persons living in private households in a rural Filipino community. Study participants were generally-healthy, ambulatory, and community living elderly aged 60–100 y (n = 98), 88 of whom provided dietary information in three nonconsecutive 24-hour food-recall interviews. Results There was a decrease in both physical activity and food intake with increasing years. Based on total energy expenditure and controlling for age, gender and socio-economic status, the average energy requirement for near-old (? 60 to < 65 y) males was 2074 kcal/d, with lower requirements, 1919 and 1699 kcal/d for the young-old (? 65 to < 75 y) and the old-old (? 75 y), respectively. Among females, the average energy requirements for the 3 age categories were 1712, 1662, and 1398 kcal/d, respectively. Actual energy intakes, however, were only ~65% adequate for all subjects as compared to energy expenditure. Protein, fat, and micronutrients (vitamins A and C, thiamin, riboflavin, iron and calcium) intakes were only ~24–51% of the recommended daily intake. Among this population, there was a weight decrease of 100 g (p = 0.012) and a BMI decrease of 0.04 kg/m2 (p = 0.003) for every 1% decrease in total caloric intake as percentage of the total energy expenditure requirements. Conclusion These community living elderly suffer from lack of both macronutrient intake as compared with energy requirements, and micronutrient intake as compared with the standard dietary recommendations. Their energy intakes are ~65% of the amounts required based on their total energy expenditure. Though their intakes decrease with increasing age, so do their energy expenditure, making their relative insufficiency of food intake stable with age. PMID:19409110

  17. Association between dietary calcium intake and arterial stiffness according to dietary vitamin D intake in men.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Hirokazu; Katsuura-Kamano, Sakurako; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Nakamoto, Mariko; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2014-10-28

    Studies on the associations of dietary Ca and vitamin D intakes with arterial stiffness are scarce. In the present study, these associations were evaluated in Japanese men. Data from a total of 535 eligible men, aged 35-69 years, who participated in the baseline survey of a cohort study in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan, and underwent brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) measurements were analysed. ba-PWV is a measure of arterial stiffness and is recognised as a marker of atherosclerotic vascular damage. Information regarding the cohort's lifestyle characteristics including dietary behaviour over the past year was obtained from a structured self-administered questionnaire. Dietary Ca and vitamin D intakes were adjusted for total energy intake using the residual method and divided into quartiles; the highest quartile was used as the reference. General linear models were used to evaluate the associations between dietary Ca and vitamin D intakes and ba-PWV values adjusted for probable covariates. The association between dietary Ca intake and ba-PWV was further evaluated using similar general linear models stratified by dietary vitamin D intake (median or below/above median). Dietary Ca intake was found to be significantly inversely associated with ba-PWV after adjusting for probable covariates (P for trend = 0·020). However, no such association was observed between dietary vitamin D intake and ba-PWV. The inverse association between dietary Ca intake and ba-PWV was striking in subjects with higher dietary vitamin D intake. However, no association was found in subjects with lower dietary vitamin D intake. These results indicate that adequate dietary Ca and vitamin D intakes may be protective against the development of arterial stiffness in Japanese men. PMID:25192171

  18. Selected Intakes as Ratios of Energy Intake, US Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI method provides the capability, for the first time, to estimate the distribution of usual intake of a nutrient expressed as a ratio of usual energy intake in the US population. This greatly enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to those recommendations that are expressed as ratios of energy intake and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses in these cases.

  19. Sodium intake and blood pressure in children.

    PubMed

    Hanevold, Coral D

    2013-10-01

    Elevation of blood pressure (BP) and the risk for progression to hypertension (HTN) is of increasing concern in children and adolescents. Indeed, it is increasingly recognized that target organ injury may begin with even low levels of BP elevation. Sodium intake has long been recognized as a modifiable risk factor for HTN. While it seems clear that sodium impacts BP in children, its effects may be enhanced by other factors including obesity and increasing age. Evidence from animal and human studies indicates that sodium may have adverse consequences on the cardiovascular system independent of HTN. Thus, moderation of sodium intake over a lifetime may reduce risk for cardiovascular morbidity in adulthood. An appetite for salt is acquired, and intake beyond our need is almost universal. Considering that eating habits in childhood have been shown to track into adulthood, modest sodium intake should be advocated as part of a healthy lifestyle. PMID:23949320

  20. Dietary calcium intake and overweight in adolescence 

    E-print Network

    Gerges, Amira Sami

    2005-02-17

    Recent research has shown an association between low dietary calcium intake and obesity in adults as well as overweight in young children; however, this relationship has not been investigated in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine...

  1. INFORMATION SOURCE ON COOLING WATER INTAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose: Supports the technical and financial analysis for the cooling water intake structure rule under Section 316(b) of the CWA. Legislation/Enabling Authority: Section 308 Supported Program: Water permits - implementation of Section 316(b) of ...

  2. Adolescent Daily and General Maladjustment: Is There Reactivity to Daily Repeated Measures Methodologies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishina, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether repeated exposure to daily surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' daily and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 daily reports tapping experienced or…

  3. When Daily Deal Services Meet Twitter: Understanding Twitter as a Daily Deal Marketing Platform

    E-print Network

    Chung, Chin-Wan

    When Daily Deal Services Meet Twitter: Understanding Twitter as a Daily Deal Marketing Platform, Yuseong-gu Daejeon, Korea +82-42-350-7837 chungcw@kaist.edu ABSTRACT Twitter, a microblogging service Twitter for marketing purpose; daily deal providers such as Groupon and LivingSocial are not only engaged

  4. Food intake is inhibited by oral oleoylethanolamide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mie Julin Nielsen; Gitte Petersen; Arne Astrup; Harald S. Hansen

    2004-01-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) may be an endoge- nous regulator of food intake, and intraperitoneal injection of this compound decreases food intake in 24 h-starved rats (Rodriguez de Fonseca, F., M. Navarro, R. Gómez, L. Es- curedo, F. Nava, J. Fu, E. Murillo-Rodríguez, A. Giuffrida, J. LoVerme, S. Gaetani, S. Kathuria, C. Gall, and D. Piomelli. 2001. An anorexic lipid mediator regulated

  5. Other Problems with High-Protein Intakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Speth

    \\u000a There are at least four other problems associated with diets high in protein that are worth noting here. The first of these\\u000a concerns water consumption. As already alluded to, high-protein intakes step up the rate of urea synthesis and excretion,\\u000a a process that may necessitate an increase in water intake (e.g., Bankir et al. 1996; Bankir and Kriz 1995; Denke

  6. Caffeine intake reduces sleep duration in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lodato, Francesca; Araújo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla; Agodi, Antonella; Barchitta, Martina; Ramos, Elisabete

    2013-09-01

    In our study, we hypothesized that higher caffeine intake would be associated with lower sleep duration among 13-year-old adolescents. In addition, we aimed to identify food sources of caffeine intake in this sample. Eligible participants were adolescents who were born in 1990 and attended school in Porto, Portugal, in 2003/2004. Self-administered questionnaires were used, and diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. From the 2160 eligible participants, only 1522 with valid information regarding their diet were included in this study. In our sample, the median intake of caffeine was 23.1 mg/d, with soft drinks being the major source. Ice tea presented the highest median (25th-75th percentiles) contribution (33.1% [14.0-52.1]), followed by cola (21.1% [6.4-37.6]). Regarding cocoa products, chocolate bars presented a median contribution of 5.1% (1.0-14.0), and snacks containing chocolate had a contribution of 3.0% (0.5-7.2). Coffee and tea presented a negligible contribution. Adolescents who reported less sleep duration and those who spent more time watching TV during the weekend had a significantly higher caffeine intake. Overall, boys had higher intakes of caffeine from soft drinks, and private school attendees, those who had parents with more education, who reported less television viewing time and had lower body mass index presented higher intakes of caffeine from chocolate. Considering sleeping more than 9.5 hours as a reference class, for each increase of 10 mg/d in caffeine intake, we found that the odds ratio of sleeping 8.5 hours or less was 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19). Our results support the hypothesis that caffeine intake was inversely associated with sleep duration in adolescents. PMID:24034572

  7. Inhibition of food intake in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Blavet; F. V. DeFeudis

    1982-01-01

    The effects of single oral administrations of tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine and desipramine), an atypical antidepressant (nomifensine), known anorexic agents, haloperidol, and diazepam on food intake were compared in Sprague-Dawley rats over a 4-day test period. The tricyclic antidepressants produced decreases in food intake during the total 4-day test period following their administration. In contrast, the anorexic agents (d-amphetamine, cocaine, mazindol,

  8. Increased Incidence of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Among Japanese Schoolchildren Correlates with an Increased Intake of Animal Protein and Fat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teruo Kitagawa; Misao Owada; Tatsuhiko Urakami; Kuniaki Yamauchi

    1998-01-01

    Non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) was diagnosed in 188 of more than 7 million Tokyo schoolchildren tested between 1974 and 1994 for glycosuria followed by oral glucose tolerance testing. The incidence rate of NIDDM in youth has continued to increase since 1976. While the daily energy intake has not changed significantly, the consumption of animal protein and fat by the Japanese

  9. Television Watching, Energy Intake, and Obesity in US Children Results From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos J. Crespo; Ellen Smit; Richard P. Troiano; Susan J. Bartlett; Caroline A. Macera; Ross E. Andersen

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between tele- vision watching, energy intake, physical activity, and obe- sity status in US boys and girls, aged 8 to 16 years. Methods: We used a nationally representative cross- sectional survey with an in-person interview and a medi- cal examination, which included measurements of height and weight, daily hours of television watching, weekly par- ticipation

  10. Predicting Forage Nutritive Value Using an In Vitro Gas Production Technique and Dry Matter Intake of Grazing Animals Using n-Alkanes

    E-print Network

    Aguiar, Andre D.

    2011-08-08

    (P = 0.0010), C33 (P = 0.0001), C31_0 (P = 0.0010), or C33_0 (P < 0.0001). There was no difference in average daily gain (ADG) between low and high residual feed intake (RFI) (P = 0.5709). The nonparametric analysis indicated that preranking animals...

  11. Formaldehyde adduct to human serum albumin with reference to aspartame intake.

    PubMed

    Gilli, Giorgio; Schilirň, Tiziana; Traversi, Deborah; Pignata, Cristina; Cordara, Sara; Carraro, Elisabetta

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary study was performed to evaluate the role of formaldehyde (F) deriving from aspartame intake in the production of the adduct F-human serum albumin (F-HSA) by mean of a sera-epidemiological investigation. A blood-donors population (68 subjects) was analysed for the presence of anti-F-HSA IgG by an indirect competitive immunoenzymatic assay (displacement assay). Only the 41% of the subjects were aspartame consumer and with a low daily intake (0.96mg/(kgday)). A 50% sera-prevalence of IgG anti-F-HSA was observed in the population, but no association between this biomarker and aspartame intake was pointed out. A significant association was found between the IgG anti-F-HSA presence and exogenous F exposure sources (cigarette active smoke and occupational exposure). Considering the low number of the investigated subjects and the low doses of aspartame consumption, the results of this preliminary study seems to suggest that aspartame low intake does not influence the formation of F adducts. PMID:21783841

  12. The Difference in Nutrient Intakes between Chinese and Mediterranean, Japanese and American Diets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ronghua; Wang, Zhaopin; Fei, Ying; Zhou, Biao; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wang, Lijuan; Huang, Lichun; Jiang, Shuying; Liu, Zeyu; Jiang, Jingxin; Yu, Yunxian

    2015-01-01

    Across countries, the predominant diets are clearly different and highly related with human health. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate dietary nutrients between them. This study aimed to evaluate dietary nutrients in China and compare those between Chinese and Mediterranean (Italian), Japanese and American diets. Dietary intakes of 2659 subjects in south-east China, Zhejiang province, from 2010 to 2012, were estimated by three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The contribution of carbohydrate to total energy in Chinese subjects was lower than that in Japanese and American subjects, but higher than that in Italian subjects. However, the energy contribution from fat in Chinese subjects was higher than that in Japanese and American subjects, and similar to that in Italian subjects. Moreover, the Chinese diet had lower daily intakes of fiber, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and vitamin C, compared with the Japanese, American and Italian diets. Nevertheless, intakes of sodium, iron, copper and vitamin E were higher among Chinese people relative to the people of other three countries. The present study demonstrated that the structure of the Chinese diet has been shifting away from the traditional diet toward high-fat, low-carbohydrate and low-fiber diets, and nutrients intakes in Chinese people have been changing even worse than those in American people. PMID:26066014

  13. Photoperiodic modulation of voluntary ethanol intake in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, A M; Fixaris, M C; McCulley, W D

    2015-08-01

    Seasonal and geographic variations in light exposure influence human mood and behavior, including alcohol consumption. Similarly, manipulation of the environmental lighting regimen modulates voluntary ethanol intake in experimental animals. Nevertheless, previous studies in rats and hamsters have been somewhat inconsistent, and little is known concerning such effects in mice. In the present study, we maintained male C57Bl/6 mice in running-wheel cages under either short- or long-photoperiod light-dark cycles (LD 6:18 vs. LD 18:6); subsequently, the same animals were maintained under short or long "skeleton photoperiods", consisting of two daily 15-min light pulses signaling dusk and dawn (SP 6:18 vs. SP 18:6). Running wheels were locked mechanically for half the animals under each photoperiod. Analysis of running wheel patterns showed that mice displayed stable circadian adaptation to both standard LD cycles and skeleton photoperiods. Mice consumed more ethanol and less water, and thus showed higher ethanol preference, under LD 6:18 and SP 6:18 relative to the corresponding long-photoperiod regimens. While running-wheel access increased water intake, ethanol intake was unaffected by this manipulation. These effects are consistent with previous studies showing that short photoperiods or constant darkness increases ethanol intake in rodents. Further, the similarity of the effects of complete and skeleton photoperiods suggests that these effects are mediated by photoperiod-induced alterations in the circadian entrainment pattern, rather than by light exposure per se. PMID:25992479

  14. Nutrition survey of schoolchildren in greater Winnipeg. II. Dietary intake and biochemical assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Ellestad-Sayed, J.; Haworth, J. C.; Medovy, H.

    1977-01-01

    The total dietary intake of energy and of individual nutrients of 99 grades 3 and 6 children from 10 greater Winnipeg shcools were generally comparable to those reported by Nutrition Canada for the Manitoba and national samples, although the percentile distributions of total caloric intake and dietary intake of vitamin A for the Winnipeg children tended to be lower. The median daily intake of protein was 212% of the Canadian Dietary Standard and most came from animal sources. Dietary fat was largely from animal sources as well. Hemoglobin concentrations were marginally low in four children, and urinary riboflavin:creatinine ratios were low in six children. There was no biochemical evidence of thiamin deficiency. The results suggest a need for change in dietary patterns and for education in nutrition, including relative nutrient/cost benefits. A well planned school snack program with an education component is a medium by which change could be introduced. This should preferable be part of a total school health program. PMID:837315

  15. The Difference in Nutrient Intakes between Chinese and Mediterranean, Japanese and American Diets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ronghua; Wang, Zhaopin; Fei, Ying; Zhou, Biao; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wang, Lijuan; Huang, Lichun; Jiang, Shuying; Liu, Zeyu; Jiang, Jingxin; Yu, Yunxian

    2015-01-01

    Across countries, the predominant diets are clearly different and highly related with human health. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate dietary nutrients between them. This study aimed to evaluate dietary nutrients in China and compare those between Chinese and Mediterranean (Italian), Japanese and American diets. Dietary intakes of 2659 subjects in south-east China, Zhejiang province, from 2010 to 2012, were estimated by three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The contribution of carbohydrate to total energy in Chinese subjects was lower than that in Japanese and American subjects, but higher than that in Italian subjects. However, the energy contribution from fat in Chinese subjects was higher than that in Japanese and American subjects, and similar to that in Italian subjects. Moreover, the Chinese diet had lower daily intakes of fiber, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and vitamin C, compared with the Japanese, American and Italian diets. Nevertheless, intakes of sodium, iron, copper and vitamin E were higher among Chinese people relative to the people of other three countries. The present study demonstrated that the structure of the Chinese diet has been shifting away from the traditional diet toward high-fat, low-carbohydrate and low-fiber diets, and nutrients intakes in Chinese people have been changing even worse than those in American people. PMID:26066014

  16. Do Chemosensory Changes Influence Food Intake in the Elderly?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara J Rolls

    1999-01-01

    Food intake declines with age, and elderly individuals frequently report a decrease in appetite. Changes in chemosensory systems may partially explain this low intake. However, few data have directly linked changes in gustatory or olfactory function to food choice or intake. In two studies, taste perception and preference were unrelated to sodium chloride or sugar intakes. Olfaction may be more

  17. Underreporting of energy intake and associated factors in a Latino population at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Olendzki, Barbara C; Ma, Yunsheng; Hébert, James R; Pagoto, Sherry L; Merriam, Philip A; Rosal, Milagros C; Ockene, Ira S

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the extent of underreporting of total energy intake and associated factors in a low-income, low-literacy, predominantly Caribbean Latino community in Lawrence, MA. Two hundred fifteen Latinos participated in a diabetes prevention study, for which eligibility included a >or=30% risk of developing diabetes in 7.5 years. Dietary self-reported energy intake was assessed using three randomly selected days of 24-hour diet recalls. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was estimated using the Mifflin-St Jeor equation. Underreporting was determined by computing a ratio of energy intake to BMR, with a ratio of 1.55 expected for sedentary populations. Linear regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with underreporting (energy intake:BMR ratio). The population was predominately women (77%), middle-aged (mean 52+/-11 years), obese (78% had a body mass index >or=30); low-literate (62% < high school education), unemployed (57% reported no job), married or living with partner (52%), and some had a family history of diabetes (37% had siblings with diabetes). Reported total daily energy intake was 1,540+/-599 kcal, whereas estimated BMR was 1,495.7+/-245.1 kcal/day. When multiplied by an activity factor (1.20 for sedentariness), expected energy intake was 1,794+/-294.0 per day, indicating underreporting by an average of 254 kcal/day. Mean energy intake:BMR was 1.03+/-0.37, and was lower for participants with higher body mass index, siblings with diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, and those who were unemployed. Energy intake underreporting is prevalent in this low-income, low-literacy Caribbean Latino population. Future studies are needed to develop dietary assessment measures that minimize underreporting in this population. PMID:18502234

  18. The Supplementation of Yam Powder Products Can Give the Nutritional Benefits of the Antioxidant Mineral (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Se) Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mee-Young; Cho, Young-Eun; Park, Chana; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Lim, Jae-Hwan; Kwun, In-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Yam has been recognized having the beneficial effects for the prevention of various diseases, such as cancer, immunity, infection and obesity etc. There is increasing consideration to supplement the antioxidant nutrients to make up the lack of the antioxidant nutrient intakes. No study has been reported for the analysis of antioxidant mineral contents and comparison to dietary recommended intake for the sense of health promotion. In our study, we analyzed the contents of antioxidant trace elements (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Se) and Cr contents in cultivated Korean yam powders for evaluation of nutrient intake aspects. We collected the commercial yam powders from six different cultivated areas in the South Korea and measured antioxidant minerals (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Se) and Cr contents using trace element-free plasma spectrometer (ICP) or atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) after dry-ashing and then wet-acid digestion. The accuracy of mineral analysis method was confirmed by the mineral analysis of standard reference material. Each analyzed element contents in yam were compared to dietary reference intakes of Koreans (KDRIs). The average levels of trace elements (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Se and Cr) in yam powders were 18.3, 11.9, 36.0, 3.7, 1.9 and 1.27 ?g/g yam powder, respectively. The intakes of Zn, Fe, Cu and Se of which KDRIs is determined, are accounted as being up to 23.8%, 55.6%, 32.5% and 236% recommended intake (RI) of KDRIs, if daily yam supplementation (50 g) of commercial instruction would be considered. The intake of Mn is about 25% adequate intake (AI) of KDRIs with the daily supplementation of yam powder. Most of mineral intakes from daily yam supplementation were with the range of non-detectable to <10% upper limit (UL) level, which is very much safe. The study results show that daily supplementation of Korean yam power is beneficial to provide the supplemental nutrient intake and also is safe, if the suggested dosage would be considered. PMID:24471100

  19. More Americans are eating "5 a day" but intakes of dark green and cruciferous vegetables remain low.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C S; Taylor, C A; Hampl, J S

    2000-12-01

    Epidemiological investigations repeatedly show that the regular consumption of dark green and cruciferous vegetables, tomatoes and citrus fruits in particular is related to reduced cancer risk. We used the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals to examine the types of fruits and vegetables consumed by Americans. The analytic sample population, which consisted of 4806 men and women (25-75 y old) who completed two nonconsecutive 24-h recalls, consumed 3.6 +/- 2.3 servings of vegetables and 1.6 +/- 2.0 servings of fruit daily. Iceberg lettuce, tomatoes, French fried potatoes, bananas and orange juice were the most commonly consumed fruits and vegetables, accounting for nearly 30% of all fruits and vegetables consumed. The most popular items, lettuce and tomatoes, were consumed by 39-42% of the sample population during the reporting period. Fewer respondents (16-24%) consumed French fried potatoes, bananas or orange juice. Only 3% of the sample consumed broccoli during the reporting period. White potato consumption averaged 1.1 servings daily, with French fried potatoes representing 0.4 serving. Tomato product consumption averaged 0.5 serving daily, dark green vegetable consumption averaged 0.2 serving daily and citrus, berries or melon consumption amounted to nearly 0.8 serving daily. These data indicate that Americans are consuming more fruits and vegetables but that dark green and cruciferous vegetable intake is low. PMID:11110870

  20. Arsenic Intake through Consumed Rice in Iran: Markets Role or Government Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Nemati, Sepideh; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Mohammadi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Background: the present study investigated arsenic content in Iranian, imported rice on sale in Tabriz (fourth most populous city of Iran) market, and assesses daily arsenic intake from rice. Methods: A total of 33 locally available rice samples from different brands were collected and then wet and dry ashing digestion procedures were compared for decomposition of them before analyzing by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Results: The mean arsenic concentration in Iranian rice was 0.065 mg/kg versus 0.082 mg/kg in imported samples. There was no significant difference between arsenic concentrations between two groups of samples (P=0.061). The average daily ingestion rate of total arsenic was 0.11 and 0.15 ?g/kg body weight from consumption of 110g of Iranian and imported rice respectively. Conclusion: Based on our estimation, daily dietary intake of arsenic from Iranian and imported rice was approximately 7 and 9 ?g/day for local population, respectively.All of the rice grains that were sampled from Tabriz market were low in total arsenic compared to the standard. Nonetheless regular monitoring of all rice varieties should be continued. PMID:25648387

  1. Bitter melon malt vinegar increases daily energy turnover in rats.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Mineko; Ohta, Minoru; Kanai, Setsuko; Yoshida, Yuki; Takano, Saeko; Ueoka, Takehito; Takahashi, Thanh; Kimoto, Koichi; Funakoshi, Akihiro; Miyasaka, Kyoko

    2003-12-01

    Vinegar is generally believed to be good for health. A mash consisting of 35% ethanolic extract from bitter melon malt vinegar-water (8:50:42) was subjected to further acetate fermentation and the resulting vinegar was converted to dried vinegar powder by spray drying after adsorption on dextrin, which was mixed with a commercial rat chow (CRF-1) in the ratio of 1:19 so as to prepare an experimental diet. Male 12-wk old rats of LETO and OLETF strains were fed this experimental diet in parallel with CRF-1 (control) and examined for respiratory quotient (RQ) and blood or plasma parameters associated with diabetes mellitus. Administration of the experimental diet increased daily food intake as well as daily energy expenditure in both strains. RQ significantly lessened in the vinegar diet-fed group of LETO strain, which was reflected not only in the increased energy consumption from fat but also in the decreased energy consumption from carbohydrate, while no significant difference was observed between both dietary groups of OLETF strain in this respect. The profiles of diurnal energy expenditure in both dietary groups of LETO strain exerted two peaks before lights-on and lights-off. Nevertheless, there was a clear difference between both dietary groups of OLETF strain: interestingly the reproduction of the two peaks became conspicuous in the vinegar diet-fed group despite the lack of such peaks in the control. As a consequence of blood or plasma inspection, it turned out that there was no change in HbA1c but a significant increase in plasma cholesterol in the vinegar diet-fed OLETF rats. From these results, a long-term administration of bitter melon malt vinegar can be expected to suppress a lowering of energy turnover inherent with aging and thereby improve anorexia rather than to bring about a preventive effect against the manifestation of NIDDM. PMID:14974734

  2. Prevalence and energy intake from snacking in Brazil: analysis of the first nationwide individual survey

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Pereira, Rosangela A.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Snacking has increased globally. We examine snacking patterns and common snack foods in Brazil. Subjects/Methods Data from the first of two non-consecutive food diaries from 34,003 individuals (aged ?10 years) in the first Brazillian nationally representative dietary survey (2008-2009) were used. Meals were defined as the largest (kcal) eating event reported during select times of the day (Breakfast, 6am-10am; Lunch, 12pm-3pm; Dinner, 6pm-9pm); all other eating occasions were considered snacks. We estimate daily energy intake, percent consuming, number of daily snacks, and per capita and per consumer energy from snacks (kcal/d, kcal/snack, and % of daily energy from snacks). Results 74% of Brazilians (?10 years) snacked, reporting an average 1.6 snacks/d. 23% of the sample were heavy snackers (?3 snacks/d). Snacking accounted for 21% of daily energy intake in the full sample, but 35.5% among heavy snackers. Compared to non-snackers (1548 kcal/d), light (1-2 snacks/d) and heavy snackers consumed more daily energy (1929 and 2334 kcal/d, respectively). By time of day, the largest percent of persons reported afternoon/early evening snacking (3:01-5:59 pm, 47.7%). Sweetened Coffee & Tea, Sweets & Desserts, Fruit, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB), and high-calorie Salgados (Fried/baked dough with Meat/Cheese/Vegetable) were the top 5 most commonly consumed snacks. Differences were observed by age groups. Trends in commercial sales were observed, especially for SSB’s. Conclusions Many commonly consumed snack foods in Brazil are classified, in the US, as being high in solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). The public health impact of snacking in Brazil requires further exploration. PMID:23486510

  3. Nitrate content in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) from organic and conventional origin: intake assessment.

    PubMed

    Gorenjak, Alenka Hmelak; Koležnik, Urška Rizman; Cenci?, Avrelija

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the actual intake of nitrate by consumption of different lettuce varieties, 52 samples of lettuce of different origins and dandelion from 15 different areas of northeast Slovenia were analysed. For determination of actual nitrate content, a continuous flow method was used. The lowest nitrate content was detected in dandelion, with a mean value of 195?mg?kg(-1) (ranging 47-487?mg?kg(-1)). Nitrate content in lettuce of different origins ranged 85-3237?mg?kg(-1), with a mean value of 1196?mg?kg(-1). The mean nitrate content in organically cultivated lettuce was 890?mg?kg(-1), which was considerably lower than the nitrate level in conventionally cultivated lettuce (1298?mg?kg(-1)). Consumption of 100?g of dandelion would result in a maximal nitrate intake corresponding to 22% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI), with values up to seven times higher for lettuce. PMID:24779737

  4. Energy intake associated with television viewing in adolescents, a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Van den Bulck, Jan; Van Mierlo, Jan

    2004-10-01

    The present study examines the energy intake resulting from eating snacks and drinking energy containing drinks while watching television. 2546 first and fourth year students in a random sample of 15 secondary schools in Flanders, Belgium received quantifiable, closed survey questions about average weekly TV viewing volume and about eating five types of snacks and drinking two types of soft drinks. On an average, the respondents watched 22:27 h of television per week (SD = 11:53). Only 3.5% of the adolescents never eat snacks or drink soft drinks while they watch TV. Estimated daily energy intake accompanying TV viewing amounts to 19% of the Belgian average energy allowance (AEA) in boys and between 12 and 14% of AEA in girls. On an average 1 h of watching television equals the consumption of 653 kJ. PMID:15458804

  5. Dietary intake of vitamin A in African pre-school children in Umlazi, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Coutsoudis, A; Zwane, M; Coovadia, H M; Gouws, E

    1992-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency has been shown to have an impact on morbidity and mortality and therefore prevalence rates are important for public health policy. We report the use of a 7-day recall, dietary questionnaire, which was validated and administered to 203 randomly selected urban African pre-school children in Umlazi, South Africa. Common vitamin A containing foods eaten were leafy green vegetables, pumpkin, sweet potato, mangoes and chicken liver. Although the mean daily intake of vitamin A was adequate, 19 children had intakes below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Thirteen of these children had eaten liver in the previous week, and as such were probably not at risk. It is therefore estimated that only 6 of the children (3%) were at risk for developing vitamin A deficiency. PMID:1587704

  6. The Effects of Teat Bar Design and Weaning Method on Behavior, Intake, and Gain of Dairy Calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. Nielsen; M. B. Jensen; L. Lidfors

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of teat-feeding method and weaning method on behavior, milk and concentrate intake, and weight gain of group-housed dairy calves. Forty-eight calves were housed in groups of 4 and offered 6 L of whole milk per calf in 2 daily feedings. In 6 of the 12 group pens, the calveswereofferedthemilkinateatbarwithaseparate

  7. The impact of self-efficacy and implementation intentions-based interventions on fruit and vegetable intake among adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Guillaumie; Gaston Godin; Jean-Claude Manderscheid; Elisabeth Spitz; Laurent Muller

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the effect of interventions designed for people who do not eat yet the recommended daily fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) but have a positive intention to do so. Adults (N?=?163) aged 20–65 were randomised into four groups: implementation intentions (II group), self-efficacy (SE group), combination of II?+?SE group) and a control group receiving written information on nutrition.

  8. The impact of self-efficacy and implementation intentions-based interventions on fruit and vegetable intake among adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Guillaumie; Gaston Godin; Jean-Claude Manderscheid; Elisabeth Spitz; Laurent Muller

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effect of interventions designed for people who do not eat yet the recommended daily fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) but have a positive intention to do so. Adults (N?=?163) aged 20–65 were randomised into four groups: implementation intentions (II group), self-efficacy (SE group), combination of II?+?SE group) and a control group receiving written information on nutrition.

  9. Response of several markers of bone collagen degradation to calcium supplementation in postmenopausal women with low calcium intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Said Kamel; Patrice Fardellone; Boumedienne Meddah; Florence Lorget-Gondelmann; Jean Luc Sebert; Michel Brazier

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the response of bone-specific resorp- tion markers in fasting urine samples from postmeno- pausal women with low daily dietary calcium (Ca) intake (<800 mg\\/day) who received either Ca supple- mentation (1200 mg\\/day, n 5 18) or placebo (n 5 14) for 2 months. We measured urinary hydroxyproline, total pyridinoline, and deoxypyridinoline by HPLC, and free deoxypyridinoline (i-F-Dpd) and

  10. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by 24-hour Urine Specimen Increase Urinary Calcium Excretion and Bone Resorption Marker

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun Mi; Jee, Jaehwan; Joung, Ji Young; Cho, Yoon Young; Sohn, Seo Young; Jin, Sang-Man; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Moon Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Background The average dietary sodium intake of Koreans is 2.6 times higher than the World Health Organization's recommended amount. The effect of a diet high in sodium on the skeletal system, especially osteoporosis, has not previously been examined in Korean postmenopausal women with low bone mass. We assessed the daily sodium intake, and determined the impact of sodium intake on urinary calcium excretion and bone resorption marker. Methods A retrospective review of medical records was performed for 86 postmenopausal subjects who were initially diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis at the health promotion center. They were subsequently referred to the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism between 2010 and 2013. All subjects completed a modified food frequency questionnaire. Twenty-four hour urine collection for sodium, calcium and creatinine excretion, and serum C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-I) were also obtained. Results The average amount of daily sodium and calcium intake were 3,466 mg and 813 mg, respectively. Average dietary sodium intake and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion showed significant positive linear correlation (r=0.29, P=0.006). There was also a significant positive linear correlation between 24-hour urine sodium and calcium excretion (r=0.42, P<0.001); CTX-I and 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (r=0.29, P=0.007). Conclusions Excessive sodium intake assessed by 24-hour urine specimen is associated with high calcium excretion in urine. High calcium excretion is also related to increasing bone resorption marker. PMID:25247156

  11. Chronic oxytocin administration inhibits food intake, increases energy expenditure, and produces weight loss in fructose-fed obese rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Blevins, James E; Graham, James L; Morton, Gregory J; Bales, Karen L; Schwartz, Michael W; Baskin, Denis G; Havel, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Despite compelling evidence that oxytocin (OT) is effective in reducing body weight (BW) in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents, studies of the effects of OT in humans and rhesus monkeys have primarily focused on noningestive behaviors. The goal of this study was to translate findings in DIO rodents to a preclinical translational model of DIO. We tested the hypothesis that increased OT signaling would reduce BW in DIO rhesus monkeys by inhibiting food intake and increasing energy expenditure (EE). Male DIO rhesus monkeys from the California National Primate Research Center were adapted to a 12-h fast and maintained on chow and a daily 15% fructose-sweetened beverage. Monkeys received 2× daily subcutaneous vehicle injections over 1 wk. We subsequently identified doses of OT (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) that reduced food intake and BW in the absence of nausea or diarrhea. Chronic administration of OT for 4 wk (0.2 mg/kg for 2 wk; 0.4 mg/kg for 2 wk) reduced BW relative to vehicle by 3.3 ± 0.4% (?0.6 kg; P < 0.05). Moreover, the low dose of OT suppressed 12-h chow intake by 26 ± 7% (P < 0.05). The higher dose of OT reduced 12-h chow intake by 27 ± 5% (P < 0.05) and 8-h fructose-sweetened beverage intake by 18 ± 8% (P < 0.05). OT increased EE during the dark cycle by 14 ± 3% (P < 0.05) and was associated with elevations of free fatty acids and glycerol and reductions in triglycerides suggesting increased lipolysis. Together, these data suggest that OT reduces BW in DIO rhesus monkeys through decreased food intake as well as increased EE and lipolysis. PMID:25540103

  12. Impact of food consumption habits on the pesticide dietary intake: comparison between a French vegetarian and the general population.

    PubMed

    Van Audenhaege, Marieke; Heraud, Fanny; Menard, Celine; Bouyrie, Juliette; Morois, Sophie; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Lesterle, Sebastien; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2009-10-01

    This study aims to compare the pesticide residue dietary intake of the French general population and the vegetarian population, separated into five specific diets: omnivorous (OMN), lacto-vegetarian (LV), ovo-lacto-vegetarian (OLV), pesco-lacto-vegetarian (PLV) and vegan (VG). Theoretical Maximum Daily Intakes (TMDIs) based on Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) were calculated as a percentage of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). Among the 421 pesticides studied, only 48 had TMDI above ADI for at least one population subgroup. An excessive exposure was noticed for 44, 43, 42, 41 and 30 pesticides in the OLV, VG, OMN, LV and PLV groups, respectively, versus 29 in the general population. Meat and egg products consumption was responsible for higher intakes of organochlorine pesticides in the general population than in the vegetarian population (TMDI = 348% versus 146-183% ADI for aldrin). However, as the limited consumption of animal-origin commodities was largely offset by a higher fruit, vegetable and cereal intake in the vegetarian diets, vegetarians appear to be preferentially exposed to pesticides, for which fruit, vegetables and cereals are the main contributors, such as tri-allate, chlorpyrifos-methyl and diazinon. This study illustrates that consumption habits have a real impact on pesticide exposure in terms of intake levels, number and type of pesticides, representing a potential risk of dietary exposure. Except for organochlorine compounds, the vegetarian population may be more exposed to pesticide residues than the general population due to specific dietary habits. Thus, this population should be considered for risk assessment of pesticide residues. PMID:19707917

  13. An investigation of the relationship between caloric intake and outcome in hospitalized dogs.

    PubMed

    Remillard, R L; Darden, D E; Michel, K E; Marks, S L; Buffington, C A; Bunnell, P R

    2001-01-01

    Malnutrition in veterinary patients is thought to increase morbidity and mortality, but this has not been statistically quantified. A study was designed to estimate the proportion of hospitalized canine patients in negative-energy balance; relate calories consumed in-hospital to appetite at home shortly after discharge; determine why these dogs were in a negative-energy balance; and assess the relationship between body condition score, physical status score (PSS), diagnosis, and caloric intake with patient outcome. Data were collected from 276 dogs over several days in one of the various referral hospitals. After eliminating partial hospital days, there were 821 dog-days for evaluation. A daily positive-energy balance (> 95% resting energy requirement) was achieved for only 27% of the 821 full dog-days. Of 226 dogs successfully followed after discharge, 83% were considered by their owners to have a normal appetite and/or food intake by the second day home. Of the 601 negative-energy-balance dog-days, 22% were due to poorly written feeding orders and 34% had orders to have feed withheld; most cases (44%) resulted from the dog refusing to eat any or all of the food offered. There were significant relationships between caloric intake and PSS, outcome and PSS, and outcome and caloric intake. In general, canine patients with lower PSSs (i.e., no or mild systemic diseases) consumed more daily calories and were more likely to be discharged whereas patients with higher PSSs (i.e., incapacitating, life-threatening systemic diseases) were less likely to meet the resting energy requirement and be discharged from the hospital. PMID:19746652

  14. Maternal separation stress in male mice: long-term increases in alcohol intake

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Fábio C.; Quadros, Isabel M.; da Planeta, Cleopatra S.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale In rodents, prolonged maternal separation has been used as a model of developmentally early environmental stress to influence adult drug intake. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term effects of prolonged maternal separation on alcohol consumption using two different self-administration procedures in mice: operant alcohol self-administration vs. three-bottle choice. Materials and methods From postnatal day (PND) 1 to 14, pups were separated from the dam (maternal separation, MS) daily for 180 min or were left undisturbed, only handled during cage cleaning (animal facility rearing, AFR). On PND 60, they were assigned to one of two experimental manipulations: either a three-bottle choice or operant oral alcohol self-administration. In the three-bottle choice procedure, mice were given access to 6% or 10% alcohol or 0.05% saccharin solution for 2 h/day for 10 days. In the second experiment, mice were reinforced for nose poking by delivery of oral alcohol (6% or 10% in saccharin) or 0.05% saccharin solutions during daily 30-min sessions. Following the acquisition phase, “break points” were determined. Later, mice were allowed 1 h access to the reinforcing solution with no dosage limitation. Results In the three-bottle choice procedure, MS mice showed higher alcohol intake than AFR at the 10% alcohol concentration. In the operant alcohol self-administration, MS mice achieved higher alcohol intake than AFR at the concentrations 6% and 10% during the 1-h session. Conclusions The results demonstrate the long-term consequences of MS on alcohol intake in male mice, suggesting early life stress as a risk factor for alcohol consumption and abuse. PMID:18766329

  15. Cassava Intake and Vitamin A Status among Women and Preschool Children in Akwa-Ibom, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    De Moura, Fabiana F.; Moursi, Mourad; Lubowa, Abdelrahman; Ha, Barbara; Boy, Erick; Oguntona, Babatunde; Sanusi, Rasaki A.; Maziya-Dixon, Busie

    2015-01-01

    Background As part of the HarvestPlus provitamin A-biofortified cassava program in Nigeria we conducted a survey to determine the cassava intake and prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among children 6-59 months and women of childbearing age in the state of Akwa Ibom. Methods A cluster-randomized cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 in Akwa Ibom, Nigeria. The usual food and nutrient intakes were estimated using a multi-pass 24-hour recall with repeated recall on a subsample. Blood samples of children and women were collected to analyze for serum retinol, serum ferritin, and acute phase proteins as indicators of infection. Vitamin A deficiency was defined as serum retinol <0.70 ?mol/L adjusted for infection. Results A total of 587 households of a mother-child dyad participated in the dietary intake assessment. Cassava was very widely consumed in Akwa Ibom, mainly as gari or foofoo. Daily cassava consumption frequency was 92% and 95% among children and women, respectively. Mean (±SD) cassava intake (expressed as raw fresh weight) was 348 ± 317 grams/day among children and 940 ± 777 grams/day among women. Intakes of most micronutrients appeared to be adequate with the exception of calcium. Median vitamin A intake was very high both for children (1038 ?g RAE/day) and women (2441 ?g RAE/day). Red palm oil and dark green leafy vegetables were the main sources of vitamin A in the diet, with red palm oil alone contributing almost 60% of vitamin A intake in women and children. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency ranged from moderate (16.9 %) among children to virtually non-existent (3.4 %) among women. Conclusion Consumption of cassava and vitamin A intake was high among women and children in Akwa Ibom with a prevalence of vitamin A deficiency ranging from moderate in children to non-existent among women. The provitamin A biofortified cassava and other vitamin A interventions should focus dissemination in states where red palm oil is not widely consumed. PMID:26083382

  16. Modifying effect of calcium/magnesium intake ratio and mortality: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Qi; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Deng, Xinqing; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Shrubsole, Martha J; Ji, Butian; Cai, Hui; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) antagonise each other in (re)absorption, inflammation and many other physiological activities. Based on mathematical estimation, the absorbed number of Ca or Mg depends on the dietary ratio of Ca to Mg intake. We hypothesise that the dietary Ca/Mg ratio modifies the effects of Ca and Mg on mortality due to gastrointestinal tract cancer and, perhaps, mortality due to diseases occurring in other organs or systems. Design Prospective studies. Setting Population-based cohort studies (The Shanghai Women's Health Study and the Shanghai Men's Health Study) conducted in Shanghai, China. Participants 74?942 Chinese women aged 40–70?years and 61?500 Chinese men aged 40–74?years participated in the study. Primary outcome measures All-cause mortality and disease-specific mortality. Results In this Chinese population with a low Ca/Mg intake ratio (a median of 1.7 vs around 3.0 in US populations), intakes of Mg greater than US Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) levels (320?mg/day among women and 420?mg/day among men) were related to increased risks of total mortality for both women and men. Consistent with our hypothesis, the Ca/Mg intake ratio significantly modified the associations of intakes of Ca and Mg with mortality risk, whereas no significant interactions between Ca and Mg in relation to outcome were found. The associations differed by gender. Among men with a Ca/Mg ratio >1.7, increased intakes of Ca and Mg were associated with reduced risks of total mortality, and mortality due to coronary heart diseases. In the same group, intake of Ca was associated with a reduced risk of mortality due to cancer. Among women with a Ca/Mg ratio ?1.7, intake of Mg was associated with increased risks of total mortality, and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases and colorectal cancer. Conclusions These results, if confirmed, may help to understand the optimal balance between Ca and Mg in the aetiology and prevention of these common diseases and reduction in mortality. PMID:23430595

  17. Workers exposed to thermal degradation products of TDI- and MDI-based polyurethane: biomonitoring of 2,4-TDA, 2,6-TDA, and 4,4'-MDA in hydrolyzed urine and plasma.

    PubMed

    Dalene, M; Skarping, G; Lind, P

    1997-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate biomarkers of exposure to thermal degradation products of 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI)- and 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI)-based polyurethane and the toxicokinetics of these products. Blood and urine were collected from 15 factory workers exposed to thermal degradation products of MDI-based polyurethane glue and TDI-based flexible foam. Four of these workers were also studied during an exposure-free period. Urine and plasma were analyzed after acidic hydrolysis and the concentrations of the isocyanates' corresponding amines, 2,4-, 2,6-toluenediamine (TDA), and 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA), were determined as derivatives of pentafluoropropionic anhydride by gas chromatography using chemical ionization mass spectrometry monitoring negative ions. Urinary elimination rates were in the range of < 0.01-5.7 micrograms of 2,4-TDA per hour, < 0.01-3.5 micrograms of 2,6-TDA per hour, and < 0.01-1.6 micrograms of 4,4'-MDA per hour. Plasma levels were in the range of < 0.1-5.5 ng of 2,4-TDA per mL, < 0.1-2.3 ng of 2,6-TDA per mL, and < 0.1-45 ng of 4,4'-MDA per mL. The urinary half-lives of 4,4'-MDA for four of the workers were found to be 59, 61, 73, and 82 hours. The half-lives of 4,4'-MDA in plasma were 10, 14, 16, and 22 days. Elimination rate peaks of 2,4-TDA, 2,6-TDA, and 4,4'-MDA in urine varied during and between workdays. The individual variation in plasma concentrations of 2,4-TDA, 2,6-TDA, and 4,4'-MDA with time was small, but between individuals the variation was great. PMID:9248033

  18. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study reported here was to assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, who were surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS...

  19. Does eating slowly influence appetite and energy intake when water intake is controlled?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2) who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL). Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation. PMID:23171246

  20. Water: Meeting Your Daily Fluid Needs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov . Nutrition for Everyone Nutrition Topics Share Compartir Water: Meeting Your Daily Fluid Needs Ever notice how ... drink more fluids. Where do I get the water I need? Most of your water needs are ...

  1. Adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations in a Nordic population with metabolic syndrome: high salt consumption and low dietary fibre intake (The SYSDIET study)

    PubMed Central

    Jonsdottir, Svandis Erna; Brader, Lea; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Kally Magnusdottir, Ola; Schwab, Ursula; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Risérus, Ulf; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Helgegren, Hannah; Johansson-Persson, Anna; Hukkanen, Janne; Poutanen, Kaisa; Uusitupa, Matti; Hermansen, Kjeld; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    Background The Nordic countries collaborate in setting recommendations for intake of nutrients by publishing the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Studies exploring how well the Nordic population adheres to the NNR are limited and none are available for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) subgroup. Individuals with MetS are a large part of the adult Nordic population and their diet's nutritional quality is of great importance as it can affect the progression of MetS. Objective To evaluate nutritional intake in a cohort of Nordic adults with MetS or MetS risk factors and their adherence to the NNR. Design A multi-centre study was carried out in six centres in four Nordic countries (SYSDIET CoE). Participants (n=175) were 30–65 years of age, with BMI 27–38 kg/m2 and had at least two criteria for MetS. The NNR was used to evaluate the baseline nutrient intake calculated from the participants’ 4-day food diaries using national nutrient databases. Results Less than 20% of participants consumed ?10 E% from saturated fat as recommended in the NNR. Recommended intake (RI) of polyunsaturated fat was met by approximately one-third of participants. Only 20% of men and 26% of women met the RI of dietary fibre. Intake below the defined lower intake level of 2.5 µg/day for vitamin D was observed in nearly 20% of participants. The daily median intake of salt was 8.8 g for men and 6.7 g for women. Conclusion Dietary quality of this Nordic population with Mets or MetS risk factors is unsatisfactory and characterised by high intakes of SFA and sodium and low intakes of PUFA and dietary fibre. Vitamin D intake was below RI level in a large part of the population. Authorities in the Nordic countries are encouraged to develop intervention programmes for high-risk groups. PMID:24358036

  2. Associations among Daily Stressors and Salivary Cortisol: Findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Robert S.; Cichy, Kelly E.; Piazza, Jennifer R.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally-occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1,694 adults (Age=57, Range=33–84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5,995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally-occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. PMID:23856186

  3. Vestibular loss disrupts daily rhythm in rats.

    PubMed

    Martin, T; Mauvieux, B; Bulla, J; Quarck, G; Davenne, D; Denise, P; Philoxčne, B; Besnard, S

    2015-02-01

    Hypergravity disrupts the circadian regulation of temperature (Temp) and locomotor activity (Act) mediated through the vestibular otolithic system in mice. In contrast, we do not know whether the anatomical structures associated with vestibular input are crucial for circadian rhythm regulation at 1 G on Earth. In the present study we observed the effects of bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) on the daily rhythms of Temp and Act in semipigmented rats. Our model of vestibular lesion allowed for selective peripheral hair cell degeneration without any other damage. Rats with BVL exhibited a disruption in their daily rhythms (Temp and Act), which were replaced by a main ultradian period (? <20 h) for 115.8 ± 68.6 h after vestibular lesion compared with rats in the control group. Daily rhythms of Temp and Act in rats with BVL recovered within 1 wk, probably counterbalanced by photic and other nonphotic time cues. No correlation was found between Temp and Act daily rhythms after vestibular lesion in rats with BVL, suggesting a direct influence of vestibular input on the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Our findings support the hypothesis that the vestibular system has an influence on daily rhythm homeostasis in semipigmented rats on Earth, and raise the question of whether daily rhythms might be altered due to vestibular pathology in humans. PMID:25505031

  4. Residual feed intake as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with feed intake, performance and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (79.66 g/kg BW(0.75)) compared to high RFI (87.74 g/kg BW(0.75)). Average initial BW, final BW and mid-test BW(0.75) did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (13.54 MJ/100 kg BW) as compared to that of high RFI group (15.56 MJ/100 kg BW). The present study indicates that RFI is a promising selection tool for the selection of buffaloes for increased feed efficiency. PMID:24563229

  5. Vascular consequences of dietary salt intake

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Animal and human studies support an untoward effect of excess dietary NaCl (salt) intake on cardiovascular and renal function and life span. Recent work has promoted the concept that the endothelium, in particular, reacts to changes in dietary salt intake through a complex series of events that are independent of blood pressure and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis. The cellular signaling events culminate in the intravascular production of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and nitric oxide in response to increased salt intake. Plasticity of the endothelium is integral in the vascular remodeling consequences associated with excess salt intake, because nitric oxide serves as a negative regulator of TGF-? production. Impairment of nitric oxide production, such as occurs with endothelial dysfunction in a variety of disease states, results in unopposed excess vascular TGF-? production, which promotes reduced vascular compliance and augmented peripheral arterial constriction and hypertension. Persistent alterations in vascular function promote the increase in cardiovascular events and reductions in renal function that reduce life span during increased salt intake. PMID:19339634

  6. Influence of weaning regimen on intake, growth characteristics and plasma blood metabolites in male buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M A; Pasha, T N; Jabbar, M A; Ijaz, A; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S

    2013-09-01

    Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, feed intake, feed efficiency (FE) and blood metabolites in Nili-Ravi male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Twenty-four male buffalo calves were assigned to one of the three treatment groups: continuous milk feeding (CMF), limited milk feeding (LMF) and early weaning (EW), and weaned off milk at 12, 10 and 8 weeks of age, respectively. For the first 3 days after birth, calves in all three treatments were fed colostrum, and were then moved to individual milk feeding at 10% of BW for the next 6 weeks. Thereafter, the provision of milk to the CMF group was gradually tapered to zero through week 12, using week 6 intakes as a base. The LMF calves were fed milk at 7.5%, 5.0%, 3.5%, and 1.5% of BW during weeks 7 to 10, respectively. Lastly, calves in the EW group were fed milk at 5.0% and 2.5% of BW at weeks 7 and 8, respectively. Calf starter (CS) feed was also provided ad libitum from weeks 2 to 12 and individual intakes were recorded on a daily basis. Blood samples were taken from weeks 6 to 12, on a weekly basis; whereas, the BW, heart girth, withers height and hip width were measured at the start of experiment and later on a weekly basis. Weight gain, average daily gain, and body measurements were the same across all three groups. Milk intake was lower (P < 0.05), whereas CS intake was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the other treatment groups. Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW and LMF calves compared with the CMF calves. The FE was greater (P < 0.05) in the CMF calves compared with the LMF and EW treatment groups. Blood glucose concentration was similar among the treatments; however, blood urea nitrogen was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the CMF and LMF groups. Plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was higher (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the CMF calves. In light of these results, it is evident that buffalo calves can be successfully weaned as early as 8 weeks of age without negatively affecting their growth performance. PMID:23688620

  7. Soy and Soy Products Intake, All-Cause Mortality, and Cause-Specific Mortality in Japan: The Jichi Medical School Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Kyoko; Kayaba, Kazunori; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo

    2015-07-01

    Soy and soy products are popular ingredients in the Japanese diet. This study aimed to determine whether soy or soy products intake was associated with all-cause mortality in a community-based cohort in Japan. A total of 11 066 participants were obtained from an annual community-based health examination program. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information concerning soy and soy products intake and potential confounding factors. Associations between soy and soy products intake and all-cause mortality were assessed using hazard ratios (HRs). After adjusting for all factors, morality was significantly higher in men with infrequent soy intake (HR = 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-2.07) and with almost daily intake (HR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.19-2.03) compared with intake 1 to 2 times per week. Cancer mortality was higher among men who reported rarely eating soy (HR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.08-2.79). Soy products intake was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality in both sexes. PMID:24958613

  8. Constraints on Energy Intake in Fish: The Link between Diet Composition, Energy Metabolism, and Energy Intake in Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Subramanian; Schrama, Johan W.; Figueiredo-Silva, A. Claudia; Kaushik, Sadasivam J.; Verreth, Johan A. J.; Geurden, Inge

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that fish fed to satiation with iso-energetic diets differing in macronutrient composition will have different digestible energy intakes (DEI) but similar total heat production. Four iso-energetic diets (2×2 factorial design) were formulated having a contrast in i) the ratio of protein to energy (P/E): high (HP/E) vs. low (LP/E) and ii) the type of non-protein energy (NPE) source: fat vs. carbohydrate which were iso-energetically exchanged. Triplicate groups (35 fish/tank) of rainbow trout were hand-fed each diet twice daily to satiation for 6 weeks under non-limiting water oxygen conditions. Feed intake (FI), DEI (kJ kg?0.8 d?1) and growth (g kg?0.8 d?1) of trout were affected by the interaction between P/E ratio and NPE source of the diet (P<0.05). Regardless of dietary P/E ratio, the inclusion of carbohydrate compared to fat as main NPE source reduced DEI and growth of trout by ?20%. The diet-induced differences in FI and DEI show that trout did not compensate for the dietary differences in digestible energy or digestible protein contents. Further, changes in body fat store and plasma glucose did not seem to exert a homeostatic feedback control on DEI. Independent of the diet composition, heat production of trout did not differ (P>0.05). Our data suggest that the control of DEI in trout might be a function of heat production, which in turn might reflect a physiological limit related with oxidative metabolism. PMID:22496852

  9. Effects of calcium intake, milk and dairy product intake, and blood vitamin D level on osteoporosis risk in Korean adults: analysis of the 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Jung-Sug

    2013-10-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, milk and dairy product intake, and serum vitamin D level on bone mineral density. The survey data from the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) for adults (3,819 males, 5,625 females) aged > 20 years were examined; osteoporosis was defined according to the standards for Asian populations (T-score < -2.5). The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as Ca intake increased; this effect persisted (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 of Ca intake: odds ratio [OR] 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.87) even after adjustment for gender, age, and other factors (body mass index, serum vitamin D, menstruation, female hormone intake, menopausal status, and the number of days per week of muscular strength exercise). Additionally, the risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the Ca/P ratio increased (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: OR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). The degree of risk was 0.96 (0.66-1.38) in those who consumed < 1 portion of milk or dairy products daily, and 0.71 (0.53-0.96) in those who consumed > 1 portion per day, compared with those who had zero intake. The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the serum 25(OH) vitamin D level increased. From these results, we advocate an increase in Ca, milk, and dairy product intake, and that serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels be maintained within the normal range, for the maintenance of bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis in adults. PMID:24133621

  10. Effects of calcium intake, milk and dairy product intake, and blood vitamin D level on osteoporosis risk in Korean adults: analysis of the 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, milk and dairy product intake, and serum vitamin D level on bone mineral density. The survey data from the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) for adults (3,819 males, 5,625 females) aged > 20 years were examined; osteoporosis was defined according to the standards for Asian populations (T-score < -2.5). The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as Ca intake increased; this effect persisted (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 of Ca intake: odds ratio [OR] 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.87) even after adjustment for gender, age, and other factors (body mass index, serum vitamin D, menstruation, female hormone intake, menopausal status, and the number of days per week of muscular strength exercise). Additionally, the risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the Ca/P ratio increased (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: OR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). The degree of risk was 0.96 (0.66-1.38) in those who consumed < 1 portion of milk or dairy products daily, and 0.71 (0.53-0.96) in those who consumed > 1 portion per day, compared with those who had zero intake. The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the serum 25(OH) vitamin D level increased. From these results, we advocate an increase in Ca, milk, and dairy product intake, and that serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels be maintained within the normal range, for the maintenance of bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis in adults. PMID:24133621

  11. Estimated Phytanic Acid Intake and Prostate Cancer Risk: a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Margaret E.; Bowen, Phyllis; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Gann, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Phytanic acid is a saturated fatty acid found predominantly in red meat and dairy products and may contribute to increases in prostate cancer risk that are observed with higher intakes of these foods. We constructed a novel summary measure of phytanic acid intake and prospectively examined its association with prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study – a cohort of Finnish male smokers ages 50–69 years. Diet was assessed at baseline in 27,111 participants using a validated 276-item dietary questionnaire. Since phytanic acid is not currently included in food composition tables, we used the published phytanic acid content of 151 major food items to estimate total daily intake. During up to 20 years of follow-up, a total of 1,929 incident prostate cancer cases (including 438 advanced cases) were identified. Higher phytanic acid intake, though unrelated to the risk of localized disease [relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for increasing quartiles of intake = 1.00 (ref), 0.83 (0.68–1.01), 0.76 (0.62–0.94), and 0.91 (0.74–1.13); p trend = 0.23], was associated with increased risks of advanced prostate cancer [RR and 95% CI = 1.00 (ref), 1.43 (1.09–1.89), 1.31 (0.99–1.75), and 1.38 (1.02–1.89); p trend = 0.06]. This association appeared to be driven predominantly by phytanic acid obtained from dairy products (particularly butter). Our study indicates that phytanic acid may contribute to previously observed associations between high-fat animal foods (particularly dairy products) and prostate cancer risk, although some caution is warranted as it may be acting as a surrogate marker of dairy fat. PMID:22120496

  12. The effect of nutrition knowledge on dietary intake among Croatian university students.

    PubMed

    Kresi?, Greta; Kendel Jovanovi?, Gordana; Pavici? Zezel, Sandra; Cvijanovi?, Olga; Ivezi?, Goran

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intakes among university students. The students (264 males and 741 females) were asked to answer a validated General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire and to fulfil a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Gender, university status (freshmen, juniors, seniors) and eating arrangements (home, restaurants, self-cooking) were used as predictors of the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. The findings indicated that women (p = 0.008), senior students (p < 0.001) and those who prepare food for themselves (p = 0.038) have higher nutrition knowledge scores. The assessment of nutrition knowledge had parallels in dietary intake, and adherence to the dietary recommendations was significantly associated with nutrition knowledge scores (p < 0.001). Regression analysis showed differences in daily intakes of grains (p < 0.001), meat and beans group (p < 0.001), vegetables (p < 0.001), fruits (p = 0.002) and oils (p < 0.001) in relation to all predictors. However nutrition knowledge acted as a modifier of the influence of eating arrangements. Logistic regression has shown that students with the highest nutrition knowledge are twelve times more likely to have a diet in accordance to recommendations compared to students with the lowest level of knowledge ([OR] = 12.03, 95% [CI] = 6.64-21.79, p < 0.001). The results support the value of including nutrition knowledge in health education campaigns targeting the student population with the aim of improving their dietary intake. PMID:20102047

  13. Magnesium intake, bone mineral density, and fractures: results from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study1234

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, Tonya S; Larson, Joseph C; Alghothani, Nora; Bout-Tabaku, Sharon; Cauley, Jane A; Chen, Zhao; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Jackson, Rebecca D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Magnesium is a necessary component of bone, but its relation to osteoporotic fractures is unclear. Objective: We examined magnesium intake as a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures and altered bone mineral density (BMD). Design: This prospective cohort study included 73,684 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Total daily magnesium intake was estimated from baseline food-frequency questionnaires plus supplements. Hip fractures were confirmed by a medical record review; other fractures were identified by self-report. A baseline BMD analysis was performed in 4778 participants. Results: Baseline hip BMD was 3% higher (P < 0.001), and whole-body BMD was 2% higher (P < 0.001), in women who consumed >422.5 compared with <206.5 mg Mg/d. However, the incidence and RR of hip and total fractures did not differ across quintiles of magnesium. In contrast, risk of lower-arm or wrist fractures increased with higher magnesium intake [multivariate-adjusted HRs of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.32) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.42) for quintiles 4 and 5, respectively, compared with quintile 1; P-trend = 0.002]. In addition, women with the highest magnesium intakes were more physically active and at increased risk of falls [HR for quintile 4: 1.11 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.16); HR for quintile 5: 1.15 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.20); P-trend < 0.001]. Conclusions: Lower magnesium intake is associated with lower BMD of the hip and whole body, but this result does not translate into increased risk of fractures. A magnesium consumption slightly greater than the Recommended Dietary Allowance is associated with increased lower-arm and wrist fractures that are possibly related to more physical activity and falls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611. PMID:24500155

  14. Food intake, nutrient utilization and water turnover in the lesser mouse-deer (Tragulus javanicus) given lundai (Sapium baccatum).

    PubMed

    Nolan, J V; Liang, J B; Abdullah, N; Kudo, H; Ismail, H; Ho, Y W; Jalaludin, S

    1995-05-01

    Voluntary food intake, digestibility and water turnover were determined in adult Malaysian lesser mouse-deer (Tragulus javanicus) given unlimited access to lundai foliage (Sapium baccatum). Daily dry matter (DM) intake was 42.4 g/kg metabolic live mass (M0.73) or 3.7% M. Digestible energy intake was 853 kJ/day (571 kJ metabolisable energy per M0.73), calculated to be used with 79% efficiency. Apparent digestibility (%) of organic matter was 83.8, crude fibre 63.7, acid detergent fibre 60.5, neutral detergent fibre 72.1 and crude protein 65.0. Urinary excretion of the purine derivative, allantoin, was 0.05 mg/g digestible DM intake suggesting rumen microbial yield efficiency may be lower than in other ruminant species. Total water intake was 182 ml/M0.82. The body-water content of the fed mouse-deer, from tritiated water dilution, was 77% M, consistent with a very lean carcass. Turnover of body water was 17% per day. The mouse-deer produced relatively dry, well-defined faecal pellets. PMID:7735907

  15. Effect of chronic treatment with clomipramine on food intake, macronutrient selection and body weight gain in rats.

    PubMed

    Calegari, Leonardo; Gorenstein, Clarice; Gentil, Valentim; Planeta, Cleopatra Silva; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo Luiz

    2007-08-01

    Long-term treatment with clomipramine (CMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, induces food craving and body weight gain in patients. The present study investigated the effects of chronic treatment with CMI on total food intake, macronutrient selection, and body weight gain in rats. Male Wistar rats were maintained on a dietary self-selection regime with separate sources of protein, fat and carbohydrate. Animals received i.p. injections of CMI (0, 3, 10, 30 mg/kg) during 27 consecutive days. Food consumption and body weight were recorded daily and results were calculated as average of three consecutive days, namely during pre-treatment (3 d before pharmacological treatment), treatment (7th-9th; 16th-18th and 25th-27th days), and post-treatment (28th-33rd days). Results showed that CMI (30 mg/kg) significantly decreased energy intake during all treatment period, an effect that was related to a decrease in both carbohydrate-rich diet intake and body weight gain. At dose of 3 mg/kg CMI increased the total energy intake in the 16th-18th days, suggesting an apparent biphasic effect of chronic treatment with CMI on caloric intake. Chronic administration with CMI (27 d) did not alter protein-rich or fat-rich diet consumption. The main result of this study indicated that chronic treatment with CMI decreases rather than increase food consumption and body weight gain in rats exposed to a macronutrient self-selection procedure. PMID:17666817

  16. Nutrient intake and socio-economic status among children attending a health exhibition in Malaysian rural villages.

    PubMed

    Norhayati, M; Noor Hayati, M I; Oothuman, P; Fatmah, M S; Zainudin, B; Fatimah, A

    1995-12-01

    A dietary survey was carried out in 216 children (109 males, 107 females) aged 1-7 years, living in rural villages in Selangor, Malaysia to assess their nutrient intake and to determine the association between nutrient consumption and socio-economic background. All the children studied had inadequate intakes of energy, iron and niacin according to Recommended Daily Intake (RDI). Children aged of 4-9 years showed inadequate intake of calcium, thiamine and riboflavin. However, the intake of protein, vitamin A and ascorbic acid were above the recommended value. The mean percentage requirements of protein, iron and niacin were significantly higher in children from small families compared with children from large families. However the employment status of mothers had a significantly effect on the mean percentage requirements of niacin. The results indicate that education level of the mothers, is strongly associated with the mean percentage nutrient requirements of children and we strongly feel that this is a strategy to be adopted for improvement in nutrition of children. PMID:8668061

  17. The bold and the beautiful. Influence of body size of televised media models on body dissatisfaction and actual food intake.

    PubMed

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Becker, Eni S; van Strien, Tatjana

    2008-11-01

    The effects of exposure to televised thin and average size models on body dissatisfaction and actual food intake were examined. Normal weight female students (N=104) were exposed to a 30-min movie clip featuring beautiful girls. Half of them viewed the movie clip in normal screen size (4:3) and the other half viewed the same movie clip in broad screen size (16:9), in which the body size of the actresses was slightly stretched breadthways. Actual food intake while watching and body dissatisfaction afterwards was examined. Additionally, restrained eating was assessed as a possible moderating variable. Two interaction effects were found between screen size and restrained eating on body dissatisfaction and actual food intake. Restrained eaters tended to feel worse and eat less in the average size condition compared to the thin model condition, whereas unrestrained eaters felt worse and ate less in the thin model condition compared to the average size condition. So, body size of televised images affected body dissatisfaction and food intake, differentially for restrained and unrestrained eaters. The screen sizes used correspond with widely used screen sizes nowadays enhancing the practical relevance of the study, since screen size might affect body dissatisfaction and food intake in daily life as well. PMID:18479780

  18. Effects of sucrose drinks on macronutrient intake, body weight, and mood state in overweight women over 4 weeks.

    PubMed

    Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Duffy, Maresa

    2010-08-01

    The long-term effects of sucrose on appetite and mood remain unclear. Normal weight subjects compensate for sucrose added blind to the diet (Reid et al., 2007). Overweight subjects, however, may differ. In a single-blind, between-subjects design, soft drinks (4x25cl per day; 1800kJ sucrose sweetened versus 67kJ aspartame sweetened) were added to the diet of overweight women (n=53, BMI 25-30, age 20-55) for 4 weeks. A 7-day food diary gave measures of total energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients. Mood and hunger were measured by ten single Likert scales rated daily at 11.00, 14.00, 16.00, and 20.00. Activity levels were measured by diary and pedometer. Baseline energy intake did not differ between groups. During the first week of the intervention energy intake increased slightly in the sucrose group, but not in the aspartame group, then decreased again, so by the final week intake again did not differ from the aspartame group. Compensation was not large enough to produce significant changes in the composition of the voluntary diet. There were no effects on hunger or mood. It is concluded that overweight women do not respond adversely to sucrose added blind to the diet, but compensate for it by reducing voluntary energy intake. Alternative explanations for the correlation between sugary soft drink intake and weight gain are discussed. PMID:20470840

  19. Chronic THC intake modifies fundamental cerebellar functions.

    PubMed

    Stella, Nephi

    2013-08-01

    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal bioactive component in the Cannabis plant, is truly a captivating drug. Acute and chronic THC intake produces a spectrum of biological effects ranging from transient psychotropic effects to prolonged medicinal benefits, many of which have been fostered for centuries by our society. In the July 2013 issue of the JCI, Cutando et al. combined mouse genetics with classic mouse behavioral analysis to deepen our understanding of the physiological consequence of subchronic THC intake on eyeblink reflexes, a fundamental neuronal adaptive response, revealing that this regimen leads to downregulation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (referred to as CB1 in the Cutando et al. article) in cerebellar stress fibers and the activation of microglia, raising provocative new questions about the safety profile of regimented THC intake. PMID:23863631

  20. Problems with estimating vitamin C intakes.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R; Block, G; Taylor, P R

    1993-04-01

    The vitamin C content of foods was examined from two national databases and new values were obtained by HPLC. HPLC values were lower in four of the five highest vitamin C contributors to the US diet (orange juice, grapefruit, tomatoes and tomato juice, and potatoes), as well as in broccoli, red peppers, and cooked collard and mustard greens, compared with values from the other databases. When HPLC values were substituted in the Health Habits and History Questionnaire, the resulting estimates of dietary intake of vitamin C in two studies were lower. Despite these lower estimates of absolute intake, in one study the correlation between dietary vitamin C and plasma ascorbic acid was similar. In conclusion, the accuracy of the vitamin C content of foods is important for estimating the absolute amount of vitamin C intake in the population but may not change the ranking of people in epidemiological studies. PMID:8460610

  1. Dietary intake of magnesium may modulate depression.

    PubMed

    Yary, Teymoor; Aazami, Sanaz; Soleimannejad, Kourosh

    2013-03-01

    Depressive symptoms are frequent in students and may lead to countless problems. Several hypotheses associate magnesium with depression because of the presence of this mineral in several enzymes, hormones, and neurotransmitters, which may play a key role in the pathological pathways of depression. The aim of this study was to assess whether magnesium intake could modulate depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a convenience sample of 402 Iranian postgraduate students studying in Malaysia to assess the relationship between magnesium intake and depressive symptoms. The mean age of the participants was 32.54 ± 6.22 years. The results of the study demonstrated an inverse relationship between magnesium intake and depressive symptoms, which persisted even after adjustments for sex, age, body mass index, monthly expenses, close friends, living on campus, smoking (current and former), education, physical activity, and marital status. PMID:23238611

  2. A comparison of daily CT localization to a daily ultrasound-based system in prostate cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Lattanzi; Shawn McNeeley; Wayne Pinover; Eric Horwitz; Indra Das; Timothy E Schultheiss; Gerald E Hanks

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Daily CT localization has been demonstrated to be a precise method of correcting radiation field placement by reducing setup and organ motion variations to facilitate dose escalation in prostate carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of daily ultrasound-guided localization utilizing daily CT as a standard. The relatively simple computer-assisted ultrasound-based system is

  3. [Vitamins and minerals intake in hyperlipidemic outpatients].

    PubMed

    Grzybek, Agnieszka; Targosz, Urszula; Pachocka, Lucyna; K?osiewicz-Latoszek, Longina

    2005-01-01

    Dietary modification is the first line treatment in cardiovascular disease. The dietary recommendations focus on the consumption of total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, additionally the adequate intake of some vitamins and minerals is also important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate vitamins and minerals intake in hyperlipidemic outpatients. The studied group comprised 103 women, with BMI 28.4 +/- 6.77 men with BMI 29 +/- 4.8, aged 20-60 years. Dietary assessment was based on 3-d food records. The energy intake in women was 1824.1 +/- 576 kcal/d, in men 2246.6 +/- 679 kcal/d. The average intake above the RDA was for vitamin A (147.5 +/- 94% of the RDA in women, 143.2 +/- 138% in men) vitamin E (119.8 +/- 58.7%, 130.2 +/- 76%), very close for vitamin B in women (98.9 +/- 33.1%) and in men additionally for iron (134.8 +/- 56%), niacin (110 +/- 38%) and vitamin B6 (101.7 +/- 36.2%). The lowest percentage of the RDA was for calcium (62.2 +/- 38%, 69.8 +/- 40.7%) and magnesium (76.2 +/- 25%, 78.6 +/- 24.6%) in women as well as in men and for vitamin B1 in women (76.2 +/- 28%) and for vitamin B2 in men (78.4 +/- 36.6%). The percentage of the RDA for vitamin C was 85.1 +/- 49% in women and 85.2 +/- 61.8% in men. In this studied group the low intake of certain vitamins and minerals was found. The nutritional education is required, which is aimed not only at lower intake of fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but also at adequate consumption of vitamins and minerals. PMID:16602424

  4. Nutritional Intake in Adult Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Susan; Snetselaar, Linda; Hall, Beth; Stone, Roslyn A.; Kim, Sunghee; Piraino, Beth; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background Research pertaining to the nutritional intake of hemodialysis patients is limited. Purpose Describe the nutritional quality of foods consumed by hemodialysis patients and variation by day of the week. Methods Dietary recalls were obtained from 22 hemodialysis patients and analyzed using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Results Few statistically significant differences were found by day of the week, but several dietary deficits were noted. Conclusion The data suggest poor intake of calories, protein, and several vitamins and minerals, as well as excess sodium consumption, but little variation by day of the week. Additional research is needed. PMID:25104876

  5. Association between dietary protein intake and the risk of hypertension: a cross-sectional study from rural western China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruru; Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Wang, Duolao; Zhao, Yaling; Li, Qiang; Liu, Xiaoning

    2013-11-01

    Evidence for an association between dietary proteins and the risk of hypertension in rural Chinese adults, whose diets are protein-poor and unbalanced, is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary proteins on hypertension among adults of rural western China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hanzhong, China, and 2241 residents were included in the analysis. Logistic regression models were used to examine whether dietary proteins (total, plant and animal protein) were independently correlated with hypertension. The total protein intake was inadequate (51.7 g per day for male and 40.1 g per day for female), accounting for 56-71% of the Chinese recommended nutrient intakes or adequate intakes. Nearly 80% of protein intake derived from plants, especially grains, and the proportion derived from plants was higher in females than in males. The daily animal protein intake was 12.1 g for males and 8.3 g for females. For females, no significant association was found between hypertension and total protein or plant protein intake. However, animal protein intake was significantly and negatively associated with the risk of hypertension after controlling for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, body mass index and other dietary nutrients. In addition, the odds ratio for the upper quartile compared with the bottom quartile was 0.64 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.43-0.95, P for trend <0.05). Furthermore, a significant decrease of 1.082 mm Hg (95%CI: 0.189-1.975) in systolic blood pressure and 0.668 mm Hg (95%CI: 0.105-1.232) in diastolic blood pressure was observed per s.d. increase of animal protein intake in females. For males, we did not observe a significant association between dietary proteins and hypertension or blood pressure. In conclusion, for the western rural Chinese population, especially women, whose dietary protein intake is low and largely derived from plants, the intake of animal protein may be related to a decreased risk of hypertension. PMID:23842622

  6. Feeding Behaviour, Swimming Activity and Boldness Explain Variation in Feed Intake and Growth of Sole (Solea solea) Reared in Captivity

    PubMed Central

    Mas-Muńoz, Julia; Komen, Hans; Schneider, Oliver; Visch, Sander W.; Schrama, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    The major economic constraint for culturing sole (Solea solea) is its slow and variable growth. The objective was to study the relationship between feed intake/efficiency, growth, and (non-) feeding behaviour of sole. Sixteen juveniles with an average (SD) growth of 2.7 (1.9) g/kg0.8/d were selected on their growth during a 4-week period in which they were housed communally with 84 other fish. Selected fish were housed individually during a second 4-week period to measure individual feed intake, growth, and behaviour. Fish were hand-fed three times a day during the dark phase of the day until apparent satiation. During six different days, behaviour was recorded twice daily during 3 minutes by direct observations. Total swimming activity, frequency of burying and of escapes were recorded. At the beginning and end of the growth period, two sequential behavioural tests were performed: “Novel Environment” and “Light Avoidance”. Fish housed individually still exhibited pronounced variation in feed intake (CV?=?23%), growth (CV?=?25%) and behavior (CV?=?100%). Differences in feed intake account for 79% of the observed individual differences in growth of sole. Fish with higher variation in feed intake between days and between meals within days had significantly a lower total feed intake (r?=??0.65 and r?=??0.77) and growth. Active fish showed significantly higher feed intake (r?=?0.66) and growth (r?=?0.58). Boldness during both challenge tests was related to fast growth: (1) fish which reacted with a lower latency time to swim in a novel environment had significantly higher feed intake (r?=??0.55) and growth (r?=??0.66); (2) fish escaping during the light avoidance test tended to show higher feed intake (P<0.1) and had higher growth (P<0.05). In conclusion, feeding consistency, swimming activity in the tank, and boldness during behavioral tests are related to feed intake and growth of sole in captivity. PMID:21738651

  7. Effects of repeated transport on Holstein calf post-transport behavior and feed intake.

    PubMed

    Adams-Progar, A L; Friend, T H; Holub, G A; Krenek, A J; Garey, S M; Terrill, C L

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have determined that stress causes decreases in feed intake and efficiency in livestock, but the effect of repeated transport on these parameters has not been well studied. This study determined how repeated transport affected calf post-transport behavior, feed intake, ADG, and feed conversion. Thirty-six 4-mo-old Holstein steer calves were housed in groups of 6 with each group randomly assigned to either transport or control treatments. Each calf was assigned to an individual Calan gate feeder and feed intake was recorded daily. Transport calves were transported for 6 h in their groups in a 7.3 by 2.4 m gooseneck trailer divided into 3 compartments, at an average density of 0.87 m/calf, every 7 d for 5 consecutive weeks. After return to their home pens, behavior was recorded for transported calves at 5-min intervals for 1 h. Calf ADG and feed conversion were analyzed in a mixed model ANOVA, whereas feed intake was analyzed as a repeated measure in a mixed model ANOVA. Post-transport, calves followed a pattern of drinking, eating, and then lying down. The highest (82 ± 5% calves) and lowest (0 ± 5% calves) incidences of eating behavior occurred 10 and 60 min post-transport, respectively. Control calves had a higher feed intake than transported calves overall (7.29 ± 0.22 kg for control and 6.91 ± 0.21 kg for transport; = 0.01), for the feeding posttreatment (6.78 ± 0.27 kg for control and 6.01 ± 0.28 kg for transport; = 0.007), and the day after treatment (7.83 ± 0.23 kg for control and 7.08 ± 0.15 kg for transport; = 0.02). Feed intake for the feeding post-transport for transport calves significantly decreased after the second transport but increased with each successive transport ( < 0.0001). Overall, control calves had higher ADG than transported calves (1.34 ± 0.13 kg/d for control and 1.15 ± 0.12 kg/d for transport; = 0.006). No significant difference ( = 0.12) between treatments was detected for feed conversion. These results suggest that calves exposed to repeated transport may decrease feed intake compared to nontransported calves as an initial response to transport; however, overall feed conversion was not affected and these Holstein calves may have quickly acclimated to repeated transport. PMID:26020754

  8. Long term ingestion of a preload containing fructo-oligosaccharide or guar gum decreases fat mass but not food intake in mice.

    PubMed

    Hadri, Zouheyr; Chaumontet, Catherine; Fromentin, Gilles; Even, Patrick C; Darcel, Nicolas; Bouras, Abdelkader Dilmi; Tomé, Daniel; Rasoamanana, Rojo

    2015-08-01

    Fermentable dietary fibre such as fructo-oligosaccharide and viscous dietary fibers such as guar gum and alginate affect energy homeostasis. The goal of this study was to compare the impact of long term intake of these three dietary fibers on food intake, meal pattern, body weight and fat accumulation in mice. Over a period of 3weeks, the mice were fed daily with a preload containing 32mg of fructo-oligosaccharide or alginate or 13mg of guar gum. Food intake and body weight were monitored weekly, while meal patterns, adiposity and the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes were evaluated at the end of the study period. The 3 dietary fibers produced a similar decrease in total daily food intake (14 to 22%) at the end of the first week, and this effect disappeared over time. The 3 dietary fibers induced a slight variation in satiation parameters. Body weight and expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes were not affected by any of the treatment. Preload of fructo-oligosaccharide and guar gum induced a similar and substantial decrease in the development of adiposity (17% and 14%, respectively), while alginate had no effect. Our results demonstrate mainly that the inhibitory effect of dietary fiber on food intake is lost over time, and that guar gum limits fat storage. PMID:25914171

  9. Beneficial Effect of Higher Dietary Fiber Intake on Plasma HDL-C and TC/HDL-C Ratio among Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Quan; Wu, Jiang; Tang, Jie; Wang, Jia-Ji; Lu, Chu-Hong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that high-dose supplemental dietary fiber intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. To clarify such a relationship, we examined the association between daily dietary fiber intake and plasma lipids using a cross-sectional design including 1034 (M 502, F 532) rural-to-urban workers in China. We found a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intakes and increase of HDL cholesterol in male workers. There was also a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intake and decreased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio in both male and female workers, after adjusting for potential confounders (p for trend, all p < 0.05). When the average dietary fiber intake increased from less than 18 g/day to over 30 g/day, the average HDL cholesterol level increased by 10.1%, and the TC/HDL-C ratio decreased by 14.4% for males (p = 0.020) and by 11.1% for females (p = 0.048). In conclusion, higher daily dietary fiber consumption is associated with beneficial effect on cholesterol for rural-to-urban workers in China, suggesting its potential beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25938914

  10. Virtual waterless manufacturing: zero intake, zero emission.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A

    2003-01-01

    Innovative application of a systematic approach to reduce freshwater intake and achieve zero emissions could help in reducing the adverse impact of industrial activity on world water resources. Cleantech is a strategic enviro-management technique to reduce the generation of pollutants in a process at source, through minor process modification, material substitution, improved manufacturing practices or low cost treatment. PMID:12731774

  11. Protein intake, IGF-1 and osteoporosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-P. Bonjour; M. A. Schüren; T. Chevalley; P. Ammann; R. Rizzoli

    1997-01-01

    Deficiency in nutritional elements could play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoporotic fracture in the elderly. Results of several studies indicate that calcium supplementation reduces bone loss and fracture incidence in vitamin D replete elderly subjects [1]. Other investigations have suggested that the level of protein intake could influence either calcium phosphate metabolism, bone mass or the risk

  12. Increased protein intake in military special operations.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Arny A

    2013-11-01

    Special operations are so designated for the specialized military missions they address. As a result, special operations present some unique metabolic challenges. In particular, soldiers often operate in a negative energy balance in stressful and demanding conditions with little opportunity for rest or recovery. In this framework, findings inferred from the performance literature suggest that increased protein intake may be beneficial. In particular, increased protein intake during negative caloric balance maintains lean body mass and blood glucose production. The addition of protein to mixed macronutrient supplements is beneficial for muscle endurance and power endpoints, and the use of amino acids improves gross and fine motor skills. Increasing protein intake during periods of intense training and/or metabolic demand improves subsequent performance, improves muscular recovery, and reduces symptoms of psychological stress. Consumption of protein before sleep confers the anabolic responses required for the maintenance of lean mass and muscle recovery. A maximal response in muscle protein synthesis is achieved with the consumption of 20-25 g of protein alone. However, higher protein intakes in the context of mixed-nutrient ingestion also confer anabolic benefits by reducing protein breakdown. Restricted rations issued to special operators provide less than the RDA for protein ( ? 0.6 g/kg), and these soldiers often rely on commercial products to augment their rations. The provision of reasonable alternatives and/or certification of approved supplements by the U.S. Department of Defense would be prudent. PMID:24027188

  13. Cholecystokinin decreases food intake in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Gibbs; Robert C. Young; Gerard P. Smith

    1973-01-01

    Tested the effects of cholecystokinin (CCK) on a total of 120 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Partially purified CCK was injected intraperitoneally into fasted Ss prior to food presentation. The hormone produced a large dose-related suppression of intake of solid and liquid diets. Identical doses of the synthetic terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin produced identical results. An effective dose of CCK did

  14. Protein intake, calcium balance and health consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Calvez; N Poupin; C Chesneau; C Lassale; D Tomé

    2012-01-01

    High-protein (HP) diets exert a hypercalciuric effect at constant levels of calcium intake, even though the effect may depend on the nature of the dietary protein. Lower urinary pH is also consistently observed for subjects consuming HP diets. The combination of these two effects was suspected to be associated with a dietary environment favorable for demineralization of the skeleton. However,

  15. Dietary Flavonoids: Intake, Health Effects and Bioavailability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. H. Hollman; M. B. Katan

    1999-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that occur ubiquitously in foods of plant origin. Over 4000 different flavonoids have been described. They may have beneficial health effects because of their antioxidant properties and their inhibitory role in various stages of tumour development in animal studies. An estimation of the total flavonoid intake is difficult, because only limited data on food contents are

  16. SURFACE WATER INTAKES, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, developed the Surface Water Intakes digital data to enhance planning, siting and impact analysis in a...

  17. Dietary intake of organophosphate pesticides in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wajih N Sawaya; Fawzia A Al-Awadhi; Talat Saeed; Ali Al-Omair; Adnan Husain; Nissar Ahmad; Husam Al-Omirah; Sameer Al-Zenki; Sherif Khalafawi; Jamla Al-Otaibi; Hanan Al-Amiri

    2000-01-01

    The State of Kuwait, in cooperation with the U.S. FDA, conducted a total diet study (TDS) to estimate pesticide intake by the population. The organophosphate (OP) pesticide levels in 139 food items, constituting the TDS core list, are reported here. The TDS core food list was established through a nationwide food consumption survey. All foods were prepared as eaten, and

  18. Dietary calcium intake and overweight in adolescence

    E-print Network

    Gerges, Amira Sami

    2005-02-17

    .......................................................................................17 Measurements ................................................................................................................17 Training to Measure Anthropometrics and to Conduct Food Frequency Questionnaire Interviews... ...............................................................................................18 Phase I: Inter-measurer Reliability for Skinfold Thickness Measurements and Validation of the Food Frequency Questionnaire Group Method .................................20 Phase II: Collection of Anthropometrics and Calcium Intake Assessment...

  19. Measurement of dietary intake in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. E. Livingstone; P. J. Robson

    2000-01-01

    When children and adolescents are the target population in dietary surveys many different respondent and observer considerations surface. The cognitive abilities required to self-report food intake include an adequately developed concept of time, a good memory and attention span, and a knowledge of the names of foods. From the age of 8 years there is a rapid increase in the

  20. Understanding Forage Intake in Range Animals 

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Robert K.; Machen, Richard V.; Forbes, T. D. A.

    1999-02-08

    Forage quality influences the performance of range livestock and wildlife, and it is often assumed that, if forage quality meets animal nutrient requirements, animal performance will meet expectations. However, forage intake can be at least... production potential. ? Forage quality. ? Supplemental feed. ? Forage availability. ? Environmental factors. Considering these factors can help you better understand the relationship between rangeland resources and herbivore production. Herbivore Species...

  1. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. With this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer...

  2. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is a major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants, and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product o...

  3. MathMastery.com: Daily Brains

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    Six days a week, a new math problem is posted on this Web site to intrigue and challenge grade school students. Each Daily Brain has a different theme, considering some mathematical perspective of science, history, geography, and more. After solving the problem, or for a little help, students can look at a step-by-step solution that is also posted online. All old Daily Brains are kept in an archive, and as of May 2003, they numbered around 400. The problems are mostly intended for students between fourth and sixth grades.

  4. View of Irving Intake System showing shed and steel flume. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Irving Intake System showing shed and steel flume. Looking west-northwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Irving System, Intake System, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  5. View of Irving intake system showing shed and a portion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Irving intake system showing shed and a portion of the concrete cover (foreground). Looking south-southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Irving System, Intake System, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  6. 2. LEE VINING INTAKE, MONO LAKE IN BACKGROUND. Los ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LEE VINING INTAKE, MONO LAKE IN BACKGROUND. - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. LEE VINING INTAKE LOOKING SOUTH. (MOTTLED SKY FROM CONDENSED MOISTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEE VINING INTAKE LOOKING SOUTH. (MOTTLED SKY FROM CONDENSED MOISTURE ON NEGATIVE AFFECTING EVEN PROCESSING OF SKY, SAVED FOR DOCUMENTARY PURPOSES) - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Lee Vining Intake Structure, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 1. LEE VINING INTAKE LOOKING EAST TO MONO LAKE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LEE VINING INTAKE LOOKING EAST TO MONO LAKE. - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. View of Diversion Dam and Flume Intake of the Childs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Diversion Dam and Flume Intake of the Childs System at the Irving Powerhouse. Looking northwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Intake & Forebay, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  10. View of Pressure Tunnel Intake at Stehr Lake. Looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Pressure Tunnel Intake at Stehr Lake. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Pressure Tunnel Intake, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  11. 46. INTAKE DAM NO. 2, VIEW LOOKING UPSTREAM. THIS WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. INTAKE DAM NO. 2, VIEW LOOKING UPSTREAM. THIS WAS FORMERLY THE MAIN INTAKE FOR THE SYSTEM. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  12. 98. (Credit BLV) Detail of gravity, flow conduit intake at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. (Credit BLV) Detail of gravity, flow conduit intake at cross Lake dam Cribbing supports extra suction intake installed in 1930. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  13. 1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS THE INTAKE CHANNEL HERE. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  14. Testis development and daily sperm output in guinea-fowl raised under constant daily photoperiods

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Testis development and daily sperm output in guinea-fowl raised under constant daily photoperiods J was consistent with the observations on testis weights. Under neither photoschedule was a correlation found in the guinea-fowl. The present paper describes for the first time changes in testis weight and sperm output

  15. Damage to Human Hair Caused by Repeated Bleaching Combined with Daily Weathering during Daily Life Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Masukawa; Hisashi Tsujimura; H. Tanamachi; H. Narita; Genji Imokawa

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although it is well known that chemical oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide damages human hair, little is known about the effects of bleaching during daily life activities which may alter hair components. Objective: To determine the effects of bleaching combined with daily weathering on lipids and amino acids in hair. Methods: Levels of lipids and amino acids were analyzed

  16. Soy Food Intake and Breast Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiao Ou; Zheng, Ying; Cai, Hui; Gu, Kai; Chen, Zhi; Zheng, Wei; Lu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Context Soy foods are rich in isoflavones, a major group of phytoestrogens that have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of breast cancer. However, the estrogen-like effect of isoflavones and the potential interaction between isoflavones and tamoxifen have led to concern about soy food consumption among breast cancer patients. Objective To evaluate the association of soy food intake after diagnosis of breast cancer with total mortality and cancer recurrence. Design, Setting, and Participants The Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study, a large, population-based cohort study of 5,042 female breast cancer survivors. Study participants were recruited between March 2002 and April 2006 and followed through June 2009. Information on cancer diagnosis and treatment, lifestyle exposures after cancer diagnosis, and disease progression was collected at approximately 6 months after cancer diagnosis and was reassessed at three follow-up interviews conducted at 18, 36, and 60 months after diagnosis. Annual record linkage with the Shanghai Vital Statistics Registry database was carried out to obtain survival information for participants who were lost to follow-up. Medical charts were reviewed to verify disease and treatment information. Main Outcome Measures Any death and recurrence or breast cancer-related death. Cox regression analysis was carried out with adjustment for known clinical predictors and other lifestyle factors. Soy food intake was treated as a time-dependent variable. Results During the median follow-up of 3.9 years (range: 0.5-6.2), 444 deaths and 534 recurrences or breast cancer-related deaths were documented in 5,033 surgically-treated breast cancer patients. Soy food intake, as measured either by soy protein or soy isoflavone intake, was inversely associated with mortality and recurrence. The hazard ratio (HR) associated with highest quartile of soy protein intake was 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.51-0.88) for total mortality and 0.66 (95%CI=0.52-0.84) for recurrence compared with the lowest quartile of intake. The multivariate adjusted 5-year mortality rates were 13.1% and 9.2% and 5-year recurrence rates were 13.0% and 8.9%, respectively, for women in the lowest and highest quartiles of soy protein intake. The inverse association was evident among women with either ER?positive or ER-negative breast cancer and was present in both users and non-users of tamoxifen. Conclusion Among women with breast cancer, soy food consumption was significantly associated with decreased risk of death and recurrence. PMID:19996398

  17. CONVOLUTION APPROACH TO EVALUATING INTAKE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR INHALED PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE FOR THE STOCHASTIC INTAKE PARADIGM

    EPA Science Inventory

    For airborne toxic particles, the stochastic intake (SI) paradigm involves relatively low numbers of particles that are presented for inhalation. Each person at risk may inhale a different number of particles, including zero particles. For such exposure scenarios, probabilistic d...

  18. Fruit and vegetable intake of US adults: comparing intake by mode of survey administration.

    PubMed

    Erinosho, Temitope O; Thompson, Olivia M; Moser, Richard P; Yaroch, Amy L

    2011-03-01

    Modes for collecting dietary data vary across studies and include in-person/interviewer-administered surveys, mail, and telephone surveys. Few studies use mixed modes to assess dietary intakes. Using data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, we compared fruit and vegetable intake of adults measured through dual modes (mail and random-digit dial [RDD] telephone), and discussed potential factors that could account for mode differences. The Health Information National Trends Survey data were collected through mailed (n=3,582), and RDD (n=4,092) surveys from December 2007 to May 2008. Data were weighted and analyzed in SUDAAN. Unadjusted mean fruit and vegetable intake was 0.48 servings higher (P<0.001) among mail (mean 5.40) vs RDD (mean 4.09) participants. In a multivariate model that controlled for other predictors, the odds of consuming ?5 servings of fruit and vegetables per day was 83% higher among mail respondents compared to RDD (odds ratio 1.83, 95% confidence interval 1.62 to 2.07). Other predictors of fruit and vegetable intake were sex, education, participation in physical activity, self-rated health, and knowledge of the fruit and vegetable recommendation. Methodologic issues may account for modal differences in fruit and vegetable intake. Different measures (cups, servings) were used to assess fruit and vegetable intake in both modes, details about portion sizes were provided on the mail mode vs RDD, and closed-ended responses were provided on the mail vs open-ended responses for RDD. We cannot recommend one mode over the other nor attribute mode differences to real differences in reported fruit and vegetable intake between participants from both modes. Future research that uses dual modes needs to use identical methods of dietary assessment to minimize these potential sources of error. Further research is needed to validate the use of dual modes to assess dietary intake and inform research practice. PMID:21338740

  19. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in crops and related products from Vojvodina, Serbia: estimated dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Skrbi?, B; Predojevi?, Z

    2008-05-01

    Levels of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in 39 composite samples of agricultural crops, related by-products, and foodstuffs collected in Vojvodina, Serbia, in 2002 through 2004. After extraction and cleanup, OCPs were determined by capillary gas chromatography using electron-capture detection. The highest mean level of 0.971 ng/g whole weight (ww) was found for alpha-HCH in wheat flour samples. OCPs levels were well lower than the respective maximum residue limits set by current European and Serbian regulations. Mean OCP levels were low (<1 ng/g ww) for all sample types. The most frequently determined residue was 4,4'-DDT (identified in 76.9% of all samples analyzed), followed by gamma-HCH (66.7%), beta-HCH (48.7%), and endosulfan II (41.0%). OCP levels were compared with data from other international surveys. Calculated daily intakes of OCPs by way of consumption of the crop products included in this study according to data of the Serbian National Institute for Statistics were compared with the acceptable daily intakes established by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. The average level of contamination of the Vojvodina diet was believed to be harmless regarding the studied food commodities. PMID:18197356

  20. The intake and excretion of lead and cadmium by the elderly.

    PubMed

    Bunker, V W; Lawson, M S; Delves, H T; Clayton, B E

    1984-05-01

    Metabolic balance for lead and cadmium were carried out in 23 healthy elderly people aged 69.7 to 85.5 yr while living in their own homes and eating self-selected diets. Mean intakes of lead and cadmium were 54.6 and 8.6 micrograms/day, with mean retentions of -8.7 and -1.7 micrograms/day, respectively. Daily dietary lead correlated (p less than 0.05) with the intake of energy, nitrogen, calcium, iron, and zinc but not with manganese or copper. Dietary intake of cadmium correlated (p less than 0.05) only with that of zinc and manganese. There was a highly significant (p less than 0.001) inverse correlation between the percentage cadmium absorbed and body iron stores measured as serum iron, percentage iron saturation, and ferritin. Mean whole blood concentrations were 138 micrograms/l for lead and 0.79 microgram/l for cadmium. The negative balances observed in these elderly people were very different from the positive balances found in a previous similar study in children. PMID:6711483

  1. [Nitrate contents in autumn vegetables and assessment of nitrate intake in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Guo, Kai-Xiu; Yao, Chun-Xia; Chen, Yi; Yang, Ye-Feng; Lu, Li-Min

    2011-04-01

    To analyze and assess the nitrate contents in Autumn vegetables and nitrate intake in Shanghai resident 25 groups and 439 various vegetables were collected and analyzed from the green houses and outdoors in Songjiang, Fengxian, Jinshan and Pudong of Shanghai during Sep.-Nov., 2009. Nitrate contents were analyzed by UV-spectrophotometer. The results showed that the prevalence of severe contamination was 41.46%, the prevalence of heavy and medium contamination was 30.53%, the prevalence of mild contamination was 28.02%; the content of nitrate in vegetables was in the following descent order: leafy vegetables, root and stem vegetables, melons, egg plants, beans, the nitrate contents in different species differed greatly; the nitrate contents in leafy, root and stem vegetables with green-house planting were less than that of outdoor planting in Fengxian and Songjiang except Pudong and Jinshan. According to the assessment of nitrate intake, the average daily intake of local resident is 445.22 mg which exceeds ADI 38.42%, so limited standard and control are urgently needed. PMID:21717766

  2. The Improvement of Sleep by Oral Intake of GABA and Apocynum venetum Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Yamatsu, Atsushi; Yamashita, Yusuke; Maru, Isafumi; Yang, Jinwei; Tatsuzaki, Jin; Kim, Mujo

    2015-01-01

    The effects of two food materials, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) produced by natural fermentation and Apocynum venetum leaf extract (AVLE), on the improvement of sleep were investigated in humans. The electroencephalogram (EEG) test revealed that oral administration of GABA (100 mg) and AVLE (50 mg) had beneficial effects on sleep. GABA shortened sleep latency by 5.3 min and AVLE increased non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep time by 7.6%. Simultaneous intake of GABA and AVLE shortened sleep latency by 4.3 min and increased non-REM sleep time by 5.1%. The result of questionnaires showed that GABA and AVLE enabled subjects to realize the effects on sleep. These results mean that GABA can help people to fall asleep quickly, AVLE induces deep sleep, and they function complementarily with simultaneous intake. Since both GABA and AVLE are materials of foods and have been ingested for a long time, they can be regarded as safe and appropriate for daily intake in order to improve the quality of sleep. PMID:26052150

  3. Voluntary ethanol intake predicts ?-opioid receptor supersensitivity and regionally distinct dopaminergic adaptations in macaques.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Cody A; Calipari, Erin S; Cuzon Carlson, Verginia C; Helms, Christa M; Lovinger, David M; Grant, Kathleen A; Jones, Sara R

    2015-04-15

    The dopaminergic projections from the ventral midbrain to the striatum have long been implicated in mediating motivated behaviors and addiction. Previously it was demonstrated that ?-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling in the striatum plays a critical role in the increased reinforcing efficacy of ethanol following ethanol vapor exposure in rodent models. Although rodents have been used extensively to determine the neurochemical consequences of chronic ethanol exposure, establishing high levels of voluntary drinking in these models has proven difficult. Conversely, nonhuman primates exhibit similar intake and pattern to humans in regard to drinking. Here we examine the effects of chronic voluntary ethanol self-administration on dopamine neurotransmission and the ability of KORs to regulate dopamine release in the dorsolateral caudate (DLC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. Using voltammetry in brain slices from cynomolgus macaques after 6 months of ad libitum ethanol drinking, we found increased KOR sensitivity in both the DLC and NAc. The magnitude of ethanol intake predicted increases in KOR sensitivity in the NAc core, but not the DLC. Additionally, ethanol drinking increased dopamine release and uptake in the NAc, but decreased both of these measures in the DLC. These data suggest that chronic daily drinking may result in regionally distinct disruptions of striatal outputs. In concert with previous reports showing increased KOR regulation of drinking behaviors induced by ethanol exposure, the strong relationship between KOR activity and voluntary ethanol intake observed here gives further support to the hypothesis that KORs may provide a promising pharmacotherapeutic target in the treatment of alcoholism. PMID:25878269

  4. Associations between Dietary Antioxidant Intake and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Zeng, Chao; Gong, Qian-yi; Li, Xiao-xiao; Lei, Guang-hua; Yang, Tu-bao

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary antioxidant intake (carotenoid, vitamin C, E and selenium) intake and metabolic syndrome (MS). Method This cross-sectional study included 2069 subjects undergoing a regular health checkup. Biochemical test results and data on dietary intakes were collected for analysis. Adjustment for energy intake and multi-variable logistic regression were performed to determine adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for the relationship between dietary antioxidants intake and MS. The lowest quartile of antioxidant intake was regarded as the reference category. Result Dietary vitamin C intake (P values for trend were 0.02 in energy adjusted analysis and 0.08 in multivariable adjusted analysis) had a negative association with MS, as did selenium intake in the second quartile (energy adjusted OR: 0.60, 95%CI: 0.43 to 0.85; multivariable adjusted OR: 0.60, 95%CI: 0.43 to 0.86). However, there was no significant relationship between dietary carotenoid and vitamin E intake and MS. Conclusion Subjects with low intake of vitamin C might be predisposed to development of MS, while dietary selenium intake had a moderate negative association with MS. Dietary carotenoid and vitamin E intake was not associated with MS. PMID:26098747

  5. Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Knekt; Jorma Kumpulainen; Ritva Järvinen; Harri Rissanen; Markku Heliövaara; Antti Reunanen; Timo Hakulinen; Arpo Aromaa

    Background: Flavonoids are effective antioxidants and may pro- tect against several chronic diseases. Objective: The association between flavonoid intake and risk of several chronic diseases was studied. Design: The total dietary intakes of 10 054 men and women dur- ing the year preceding the baseline examination were determined with a dietary history method. Flavonoid intakes were estimated, mainly on the

  6. Dietary mercury intake and human exposure in an Adriatic population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Buzina; P. Stegnar; K. Buzina-Suboticanec; M. Horvat; I. Petric; T. M. M. Farley

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine human exposure to mercury through dietary mercury intake in a population living in an industrially non-polluted area of the Adriatic Sea. The results have shown that ? 20% of the subjects had a weekly dietary mercury intake above the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), primarily those consuming fish and other seafood > 6 times\\/week.

  7. Control of food intake in Octopus briareus Robson

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarina T. Borer

    1971-01-01

    Studied the role of environmental factors on the control of food intake in 6 experiments with 2 male and 9 female Octopus briareus Robson. Water temperature and crab density were found to exert the most pronounced effect. Food intake doubled with a temperature rise of 10– C and with doubling of crab density. Food intake was unaffected by overeating. Undereating

  8. The Association of Meal Practices and Other Dietary Correlates With Dietary Intake Among High School Students in the United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    Demissie, Zewditu; Eaton, Danice K; Lowry, Richard; Kim, Sonia A; Park, Sohyun; Grimm, Kirsten A; Merlo, Caitlin; Harris, Diane M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose . To examine behavioral and environmental factors that may be related to dietary behaviors among U.S. high school students. Design . Data were obtained from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a cross-sectional study. Setting . The study was school-based. Subjects . Study subjects were a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 to 12 (n = 11,458). Measures . Variables of interest included meal practices, in-home snack availability, and intakes of healthful foods/beverages (fruits, vegetables, water, and milk) and less healthful foods/beverages (fried potatoes, pizza, and sugar-sweetened beverages). Analysis . Sex-stratified logistic regression models were used to examine associations of meal practices and snack availability with dietary intake. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for race/ethnicity and grade. Results . Eating breakfast daily, frequent family dinners, and bringing lunch from home were associated with higher odds of consuming at least three healthful foods or beverages. High fast-food intake was associated with lower odds of healthful dietary intake and higher odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake (female OR = 3.73, male OR = 4.60). Students who mostly/always had fruits and vegetables available at home had increased odds of fruits (female OR = 3.04, male OR = 2.24), vegetables (female OR = 2.12, male OR = 1.65), water (female OR = 1.82, male OR = 1.85), and milk intake (female OR = 1.45, male OR = 1.64). Conclusion . Encouraging daily breakfast consumption, frequent family dinners, and fruit and vegetable availability at home may lead to higher intakes of healthful foods among high school students. PMID:25372239

  9. An investigation into the use of biokinetic models when assessing intakes of plutonium

    E-print Network

    Hrycushko, Brian Andrew

    2008-10-10

    of biokinetic models predicted intakes within 30% for a case study which included a relatively long inhalation chronic intake followed by a much shorter chronic inhalation intake. It was shown that the predicted initial chronic intake for each combination...

  10. Covering Religion News at Daily Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddenbaum, Judith M.

    A study surveyed the religion news reporters at daily newspapers in all circulation classes to assess the current state of the religion beat. Mail surveys were completed by 141 newspapers. Information concerning the following areas was solicited: (1) demographic characteristics (respondent's age, sex, religious preference), (2) staffing…

  11. INTERPOLATING VANCOUVER'S DAILY AMBIENT PM 10 FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article we develop a spatial predictive distribution for the ambient space- time response field of daily ambient PM10 in Vancouver, Canada. Observed responses have a consistent temporal pattern from one monitoring site to the next. We exploit this feature of the field b...

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROTOTYPE ALTERNATIVE DAILY COVER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl D. Bishop; Susan G. MacKay; Zeomatrix Orono; Michael A. Bilodeau

    Alternative Daily Covers, or ADC's, are primarily valued for their ability to conserve airspace by reducing the soil cover needed for landfills. ADCs fall into two major categories: tarps and spray-on materials. The various spray-on ADCs include foam, mulch, and slurries which harden after application. Each of these alternatives provides adequate cover while freeing up hundreds of cubic yards of

  13. 2011 Daily Fire Log Date & Time

    E-print Network

    Boyce, Richard L.

    /19/2011 0827 Welcome Ctr Parking Garage Unintentional-- Vehicle Fire Engine compartment of parked vehicle--Closed Comments: Engine compartment of parked vehicle was on fire; no injuries. Report #: 2011-00496 Reported: 102011 Daily Fire Log Fire Log Report # Date & Time Occurred General Location Nature of the Fire

  14. Daily Reporting Rainfall Station CAPE YORK RIVERS

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    Daily Reporting Rainfall Station CAPE YORK RIVERS Manual Heavy Rainfall Station Manual River Station Telemetry Rainfall Station Telemetry River Station Revised: Nov 2011 MAP 919.1 FLOOD WARNING River Pormpuraaw Kowanyama Southwell Croydon Yappar R Blackbull Siding M itchellR StaatenR Dorunda TM

  15. Migrating Songbirds Recalibrate Their Magnetic Compass Daily

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Troy G.

    Migrating Songbirds Recalibrate Their Magnetic Compass Daily from Twilight Cues William W. Cochran, the same individuals migrated northward again. We suggest that birds orient with a magnetic compass­3) after a voyage of up to 25,000 km (4, 5). Migratory songbirds can orient on the basis of compass

  16. Your Future in Daily Newspapers. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this booklet is to examine the nature and growing responsibilities of the daily newspaper in an era of ferment and change. It is intended primarily as an instructive guide to upperclassmen in high school, where career decisions begin to take shape, but it is also of value to college students and researchers. Career opportunities on…

  17. National Institutes of Health Daily Food List

    Cancer.gov

    DAILY FOOD LIST PARTICIPANT ID HERE NOTIFICATION TO RESPONDENT OF ESTIMATED BURDEN Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 5 minutes per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information.

  18. Daily prostate targeting using implanted radiopaque markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale Litzenberg; Laura A Dawson; Howard Sandler; Martin G Sanda; Daniel L McShan; Randall K Ten Haken; Kwok L Lam; Kristy K Brock; James M Balter

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: A system has been implemented for daily localization of the prostate through radiographic localization of implanted markers. This report summarizes an initial trial to establish the accuracy of patient setup via this system.Methods and Materials: Before radiotherapy, three radiopaque markers are implanted in the prostate periphery. Reference positions are established from CT data. Before treatment, orthogonal radiographs are acquired.

  19. TRENDS IN ANNUAL AND DAILY PRECIPITATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual precipitation in the Great Plains was generally higher during the last two decades of the 20th century. Corresponding changes in daily precipitation amount, number of rainy days, and distribution throughout the year were investigated for Kingfisher in central Oklahoma. The number of rainy da...

  20. INVEST IN YOUR BONES Daily Activities

    E-print Network

    INVEST IN YOUR BONES Daily Activities Leaflet 3 Another osteoporosis prevention step to decrease lifestyle. Let's see how you can do that. If you have osteoporosis, follow carefully the activity program. Remember the following about osteoporosis: is largely preventable and treatable is a serious