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1

Heavy metals in common foodstuff: Daily intake  

SciTech Connect

Lately, toxic effects of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) as well as desirable ones of some others (Ni, Mn, Zn) have been a field of thorough investigation. The main way of human body fortification in metals is through foodchain depending on the kind and quantity of the consumed food, according to dietary habits. The purpose of this study is the calculation of metals daily intake through common foodstuff of Greek inhabitants. The calculation is based on results from quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn in common foodstuff from the market of the city of Thessaloniki. The daily food consumption data is derived from three sources: (a) answers to a questionnaire distributed to families of the city of Thessaloniki, (b) nutrition data provided by the Agricultural Bank of Greece and (c) nutrition data according to international bibliography.

Tsoumbaris, P.; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H. (Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

1994-07-01

2

Establishment of the Korean Tolerable Daily Intake of Bisphenol A Based on Risk Assessments by an Expert Committee  

PubMed Central

Recently, reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of bisphenol A (BPA) have been documented, and thus a review was requested for BPA management direction by the government. Therefore, this study was performed to establish a Korean tolerable daily intake (TDI) for BPA. An expert committee, consisting of specialists in fields such as toxicology, medicine, pharmacology, and statistics, was asked to evaluate BPA health based guidance values (HbGVs) . Although many toxicological studies were reviewed to select a point of departure (POD) for TDI, rat and mouse reproductive studies by Tyl et al. (2002, 2006) , which were performed according to GLP standards and OECD guidelines, were selected. This POD was the lowest value determined from the most sensitive toxicological test. The POD, a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/day, was selected based on its systemic toxicity as critical effects. An uncertainty factor of 100 including interspecies and intraspecies differences was applied to calculate the TDI. According to the evaluation results, a TDI of BPA for Korean was suggested at 0.05 mg/kg bw/day. In addition, the BPA exposure level based on food consumption by the Korean population was estimated as 1.509 ?g/kg bw/day, and the HI was evaluated at 0.03 when the TDI of 0.05 mg/kg bw/day was applied. This HI value of 0.03 indicated that hazardous effects would not be expected from BPA oral exposures. Although highly uncertain, further studies on low dose neurobehavioral effects of BPA should be performed. In addition, it is recommended that the ‘as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) principle be applied for BPA exposure from food packaging materials in newborn infants and children. PMID:24278536

Choi, Chan-Woong; Jeong, Ji-Yoon; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Jung, Ki-Kyung; Lee, Kwang-Ho

2010-01-01

3

Inorganic arsenic in the Japanese diet: daily intake and source.  

PubMed

The concentrations of arsenic (As) species in 19 food composites prepared from 159 food items purchased in Shizuoka city, Japan, were determined (1) to estimate total daily intake of inorganic As (InAs) and some organic As species and (2) to determine food contributing to total daily InAs intake. As analysis included extraction of As species with a synthetic gastric juice (0.07 mol/L HCl + 0.01 % pepsin) from food composite and high-performance liquid chromatography-high efficiency photo-oxidation-hydride generation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. InAs was detected in 9 of 19 food composites at a concentration of 0.423-450 ng As/g fresh-weight. Daily intake of InAs from cereals was greatest (13 ?g/person/day) followed by algae (5.7 ?g/person/day), and the intake from the two categories constituted 90 % of the total daily InAs intake of adults (21 ?g/person/day on a bioaccessible-fraction basis and 24 ?g/person/day on a content basis). Analysis of individual food items showed that rice and hijiki contributed virtually 100 % of InAs from cereals and algae, respectively. The present survey indicated that InAs from rice and hijiki consumption contributed to total daily InAs intake and consequently to significant cancer risk of the general Japanese population. Daily intake of some organic forms of As and their contributing food categories was also estimated. PMID:23949604

Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Tao, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Tetsuya

2014-01-01

4

Caffeine daily intake from dietary sources in Brazil.  

PubMed

A survey on the potential intake of caffeine was carried out in Campinas, SP, Brazil, in the summer of 1993. The survey was based on a representative sample of 600 individuals, 9-80 years old, who were asked about their habitual usage of coffee, tea, chocolate products and carbonated beverages. Caffeine levels in the products were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with a UV-visible detector at 254 nm. Individual daily intakes (mg/kg b.w.) of caffeine were calculated from the consumption data generated by the survey and the caffeine content of the analysed products. Of all those interviewed, 81% consumed soft drinks regularly, 75% coffee, 65% chocolate products and 37% tea. Of the analysed products, coffee showed the highest amount of caffeine. The average and median potential daily intake of caffeine by the studied population were, respectively, 2.74 and 1.85 mg/kg b.w. Coffee, tea, chocolate products and carbonated beverages accounted for median individual daily intakes of 1.90, 0.32, 0.19, and 0.19 mg/kg b.w., respectively. These data show that coffee is the most important vehicle for caffeine intake within the studied population. PMID:10435077

Camargo, M C; Toledo, M C; Farah, H G

1999-02-01

5

Projected Aspartame Intake: Daily Ingestion of Aspartic Acid,  

E-print Network

The safety assessment of any food additive requires a knowledge of the pharmacology and toxicology of the additive and information regarding exposure. Population exposure is generally difficult to determine for a new compound and cannot be accurately established before its introduction. For this reason it is important to ensure that estimates of exposure be conservative. Usually this means consciously overestimating rather than underestimating intake exposure. Elsewhere in this volume there is extensive discussion of the metabolism and toxicology of aspartame and its degradation products phenylalanine, aspartic acid, methanol, and diketopiperazine. These extensive studies demonstrate that high doses of aspartame are well tolerated. However, it is important to estimate the probable range of aspartame intake that might be anticipated. We have used two approaches to estimate exposure to aspartame or its metabolites. The simplest involved the assumption that aspartame would replace the apparent per capita sugar intake. The per capita caloric sweetener intake was calculated, on the basis of disappearance, to be 156 g/day (1). Using a sweetener ratio of 180:1, this yields a daily estimated aspartame intake of 867 mg/day. Actual intake would be somewhat lower, since it is recognized that disappearance data overestimate consumption and not all of the sweetener applications can be replaced by aspartame. The second approach used to project aspartame intake involved developing a menu containing generous amounts of added sugars and assuming the substitution of aspartame for the added sweeteners. This menu is shown in Table 1. In Table 2

Roberta Roak-foltz; Gilbe Rt A. Leveille

6

New approaches in the derivation of acceptable daily intake (ADI)  

SciTech Connect

Current methods for estimating human health risks from exposure to threshold-acting toxicants in water or food, such as those established by the U.S. EPA, the FDA, the NAS, the WHO and the FAO, consider only chronic or lifetime exposure to individual chemicals. These methods generally estimate a single, constant daily intake rate which is low enough to be considered safe or acceptable. The intake rate is termed the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Two problems with the approach have been recognized. The first problem is that the method does not readily account for the number of animals used to determine the appropriate 'no-observed-effect-level' (NOEL). The second problem with the current approach is that the slope of the dose-response curve of the critical toxic effect is generally ignored in estimating the ADI. The report illustrates both a revised approach to estimate ADIs with all toxicity data which includes methods for partial lifetime assessment, and novel methods for ADI estimation with quantal or continuous toxicity data. The latter method addresses to a degree the common problems with the current approach.

Dourson, M.L.

1986-01-01

7

Daily intake of metals by females in Osaka, Japan  

SciTech Connect

Recent remarkable progress in analytical chemistry has made it possible to quantitatively determine trace elements which could not be analyzed by conventional means. Under these circumstances, relationships between trace elements and living organisms have intensely attracted public attention. It is known that the incorporation of dietary metals in food for human consumption would be affected by the chemical form of each element, substances present together with them, and interactions among inorganic elements. It should be noted that a trace amount of selenium taken from foods would form an inactive complex together with a toxic heavy metal compound so as to suppress the expression of the toxicity of said heavy metal. To evaluate the safety and to compare recommended daily intake of food of humans, it is important to know the amounts of metals taken in from their daily diet. Thus, we examined the diets of 25 female adults living in Osaka, Japan thrice, namely, 75 samples in total, by the duplicate portion method, and determined daily dietary intake of 22 metal elements contained in these samples. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

Ikebe, Katsuhiko [Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health (Japan)

1992-10-01

8

Long-term daily intake estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers from food in Finnish children: risk assessment implications.  

PubMed

Food is contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) worldwide. Previous data show elevated intakes in children. We determined intakes of POPs in Finnish children. Because no children-specific safe limit values exist, we used tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) set for adults by international expert bodies to examine the proportion of the study population that exceed those limits. We utilised dietary monitoring data with food consumption of Finnish boys and girls aged 1-6 years, measured the contaminant concentrations in all the main food items and calculated age-specific contaminant sum and congener-specific long-term daily intake levels. Our food intake and contaminant data correspond to years 2002-2005. The long-term upper-bound dioxin intakes ranged between 0.1 and 12.8 pg WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ/kg bw/d (min and max). An immediate TDI for WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQs of 4.0 pg/kg bw/d were exceeded by 2.5%-7.5% of the children. PBDE long-term upper-bound intake was between 0.1 and 5.8 ng/kg bw/d (min and max). Congener-specific analyses indicated a typical Finnish adult exposure pattern of the children to PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs. The highest POP intakes were observed in children aged 3 years. Long-term daily PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE intakes among Finnish children varied greatly between individuals and ages. In each age group of the study population, there was a proportion of children with their WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ intake exceeding considered safe limits set for adults. Based on the exposure profile reported herein, children should be clearly considered as a specific sub-population in food-mediated contaminant risk assessment. PMID:22765049

Karjalainen, Anna K; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Sinkko, Harri; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Virtanen, Suvi M; Hallikainen, Anja; Leino, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Tuomisto, Jouni T

2012-01-01

9

Daily mercury intake in fish-eating populations in the Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although high levels of fish consumption and bioindicators of mercury exposure have been reported for traditional populations in the Amazon, little is known about their actual daily intake of Hg. Using an ecosystem approach, calculate daily mercury intake in adult fish-eaters, examine the relations between mercury intake and bioindicators of exposure and the factors that influence these relations. A cross-sectional

Carlos José Sousa Passos; Delaine Sampaio Da Silva; Mélanie Lemire; Myriam Fillion; Jean Rémy Davée Guimarães; Marc Lucotte; Donna Mergler

2008-01-01

10

Copper content in foods of Java Island and estimation of daily copper intake  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was first to determine copper content in soil, foodstuff and feces of villagers, and estimate the daily copper intake of the villagers and a guest. The data obtained may help clarify the relationships of copper content in the soil-plant (food)-daily intake-feces in Indonesia. Secondly, the percentage of copper contribution of food groups was calculated to determine the influence of the food patterns of villagers and a guest on daily copper intake. Finally, evaluation was made of daily copper intake of villagers in terms of estimated daily copper requirement by WHO.

Rivai, I.F.; Suzuki, S.; Koyama, H.; Hyodo, K.; Djuangsih, N.; Soemarwoto, O.

1988-07-01

11

Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

2011-01-01

12

Estimation of Daily Salt Intake through a 24-Hour Urine Collection in Pohang, Korea  

PubMed Central

There is an established relationship between a high salt diet and public health problems, especially hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We estimated daily salt intake in a group of adults and assessed its association with related variables in Pohang, Korea. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2013 with 242 adults. Urine was collected for 24 hr to estimate daily salt intake, and questionnaires about salt preference were administered. The mean daily salt intake was 9.9±4.6 g. There was no difference in salt intake between high systolic blood pressure (SBP) participants and normal SBP participants (10.5±4.7 g/d vs. 9.6±4.3 g/d, P=0.339), but high diastolic blood pressure (DBP) participants reported more salt intake than normal DBP participants (10.4±4.9 g/d vs. 9.7±4.1 g/d, P=0.049). Salt intake and body mass index demonstrated a positive correlation (P=0.001). A preference for Korean soup or stew was associated with high salt intake (P=0.038). Dietary salt intake in Korean adults is still higher than the recommendation from the World Health Organization. More efforts should be made to reduce the salt consumption of Korean adults. PMID:25317022

2014-01-01

13

The estimated daily manganese intake of Korean children aged 11-12  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to estimate the daily manganese (Mn) intake of Korean children. This study was done using a three-day dietary intake survey of 257 Korean children (boys 123; girls 134). The Mn intake values were calculated based on a database that provides the Mn content of the frequently consumed Korean foods, alongside the food composition table provided by the Korean National Rural Living Science Institute. The average age, height, weight and body mass index of our subjects were 11.9 years, 155.4 cm, 48.9 kg and 20.2 kg/m2 in boys and 11.9 years, 154.1 cm, 43.5 kg and 18.3 kg/m2 in girls. The average daily energy intakes were 2,249.2 kcal in boys and 2,044.5 kcal in girls. Boys consumed significantly more Mn than girls, based on intake estimates of 4,585.3 µg (117.6% of adequate intake) and 4,029.3 µg (117.1% of adequate intake), respectively (P < 0.001). Boys had a Mn intake of 2,041.1 µg per 1,000 kcal of energy consumption, whereas for girls this was at 1,983.9 µg per 1,000 kcal. Neither group exceeded the tolerable upper intake level for Mn. The major food groups which contributed to Mn intake in our subjects were cereals (50.8%), vegetables (21.0%), seasonings (8.9%), and pulses (7.7%). Notably, boys derived a higher Mn intake through cereals and vegetable than did girls (P < 0.001, P < 0.05). The key food sources of Mn, in descending order, were rice, soybean curd, kimchi, black rice and cereals. We propose that the results of our study may be used as a basis for follow-up studies that examine the Mn intake of children. PMID:22259680

Choi, Mi Kyeong

2011-01-01

14

Relationship between water intake, dry matter intake and daily milk yield on a German research farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between milk yield, water and dry matter intake and to clarify whether these relationships remained constant over the stages of lactation. Data recording was performed on the dairy research farm Futterkamp of the Chamber of Agriculture Schleswig-Holstein. A dataset of about 39,000 observations from 225 Holstein cows was used.

E. Kramer; E. Stamer; K. Mahlkow; W. Lüpping; J. Krieter

2008-01-01

15

Daily intake of selenium and concentrations in blood of residents of Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Concentrations of selenium (Se) in food from local markets of Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) were measured and daily intake calculated based on information from a questionnaire of foods eaten by healthy Saudis. The daily intake of Se was then compared to concentrations of Se in blood serum. Primary sources of Se in the diet of Saudis were as follows: meat and meat products (31%), egg (20.4%), cereals and cereal products (16%), legumes (8.7%), fruits (6.8%), milk and dairy products (2.0%), beverages (2%), sweets (1.8%), pickles (0.2%), and oil (0.02%). Daily intake of Se, estimated to be 93 ?g Se/person/day, was slightly greater than that calculated from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) food balance sheet for KSA, which was approximately 90 ?g Se/person/day. The daily intake of Se by Saudis in Riyadh was greater than that of Australians or Dutch but less that of Canadians and Americans. There was a statistically significant correlation (R = +0.38, P < 0.05) between daily intake of Se and concentrations of Se in blood serum of Saudis in Riyadh. The mean concentration of Se in serum was 1.0 × 10(2) ± 30.5 ?g Se/l. Taken together, the results suggest that the average Se intake and Se serum concentrations are within the known limits and recommendations, making it unlikely that Saudis are on average at risk of deficiency or toxicity. PMID:22270491

Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M; Al-Othman, Zeid A; El-Desoky, Gaber E; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A M; Habila, Mohamed A; Giesy, John P

2012-08-01

16

Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women  

PubMed Central

Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (?0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (<0.165 kcal/g), and total energy intake and energy intake from solid food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women’s daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines. PMID:24041722

Appelhans, Bradley M.; Bleil, Maria E.; Waring, Molly E.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Nackers, Lisa M.; Busch, Andrew M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.

2013-01-01

17

Estimates of the theoretical maximum daily intake of phenolic antioxidants BHA, BHT and TBHQ in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical maximum daily intakes (TMDI) of the phenolic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tertbutyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) in Brazil were estimated using food consumption data derived from a household economic survey and a packaged goods market survey. The estimates were based on maximum levels of use of the food additives specified in national food standards. The calculated

Gisele C. Maziero; C. Baunwart; M. Cecilia F. Toledo

2001-01-01

18

Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake.BackgroundThe amount of oxalate ingested may be an important risk factor in the development of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Reliable food tables listing the oxalate content of foods are currently not available. The aim of this research was to develop an accurate and reliable method to measure the food content

Ross P Holmes; Martha Kennedy

2000-01-01

19

Comparison of three methods to reduce energy density: effects on daily energy intake  

PubMed Central

Reductions in food energy density can decrease energy intake, but it is not known if the effects depend on the way that energy density is reduced. We investigated whether three methods of reducing energy density (decreasing fat, increasing fruit and vegetables, and adding water) differed in their effects on energy intake across the day. In a crossover design, 59 adults ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for four weeks. Across conditions, the entrées were either standard in energy density or were reduced in energy density by 20% using one of the three methods. Each meal included a manipulated entrée along with unmanipulated side dishes, and all foods were consumed ad libitum. Reducing the energy density of entrées significantly decreased daily energy intake compared to standard entrées (mean intake 2667±77 kcal/day; 11,166±322 kJ/day). The mean decrease was 396±44 kcal/day (1658±184 kJ/day) when fat was reduced, 308±41 kcal/day (1290±172 kJ/day) when fruit and vegetables were increased, and 230±35 kcal/day (963±147 kJ/day) when water was added. Daily energy intake was lower when fat was decreased compared to the other methods. These findings indicate that a variety of diet compositions can be recommended to reduce overall dietary energy density in order to moderate energy intake. PMID:23523752

Williams, Rachel A.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

2013-01-01

20

Daily mercury intake in fish-eating populations in the Brazilian Amazon CARLOS JOSE SOUSA PASSOSa,d  

E-print Network

Daily mercury intake in fish-eating populations in the Brazilian Amazon CARLOS JOSE´ SOUSA PASSOSa Although high levels of fish consumption and bioindicators of mercury exposure have been reported an ecosystem approach, calculate daily mercury intake in adult fish-eaters, examine the relations between

Long, Bernard

21

Duplicate portion sampling combined with spectrophotometric analysis affords the most accurate results when assessing daily dietary phosphorus intake.  

PubMed

The assessment of daily dietary phosphorus (P) intake is a major concern in human nutrition because of its relationship with Ca and Mg metabolism and osteoporosis. Within this context, we hypothesized that several of the methods available for the assessment of daily dietary intake of P are equally accurate and reliable, although few studies have been conducted to confirm this. The aim of this study then was to evaluate daily dietary P intake, which we did by 3 methods: duplicate portion sampling of 108 hospital meals, combined either with spectrophotometric analysis or the use of food composition tables, and 24-hour dietary recall for 3 consecutive days plus the use of food composition tables. The mean P daily dietary intakes found were 1106 ± 221, 1480 ± 221, and 1515 ± 223 mg/d, respectively. Daily dietary intake of P determined by spectrophotometric analysis was significantly lower (P < .001) and closer to dietary reference intakes for adolescents aged from 14 to 18 years (88.5%) and adult subjects (158.1%) compared with the other 2 methods. Duplicate portion sampling with P analysis takes into account the influence of technological and cooking processes on the P content of foods and meals and therefore afforded the most accurate and reliable P daily dietary intakes. The use of referred food composition tables overestimated daily dietary P intake. No adverse effects in relation to P nutrition (deficiencies or toxic effects) were encountered. PMID:22935340

Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; Zambrano, Esmeralda; Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Agil, Ahmad; Olalla, Manuel

2012-08-01

22

Monitoring oxidative damage in patients with liver cirrhosis and different daily alcohol intake.  

PubMed Central

This study looked at the possible association between alcohol abuse and free radical mediated oxidative injury by examining the presence of oxidative damage, as monitored by erythrocyte malonildialdehyde and plasma lipid hydroperoxides, in patients with liver cirrhosis and different lifetime daily alcohol intake. All patients with an alcohol intake above 100 g/day (ALC) showed concentrations of malonildialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxide on average four to fivefold higher than cirrhotic patients with alcohol intake below 100 g/day (NAC) or healthy controls. Further subgrouping of ALC patients showed that those with alcohol intake ranging between 100 and 200 g/day (ALC1) had malonildialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxide concentrations significantly lower than those with an intake higher than 200 g/day (ALC2). These differences were not related to the extent of liver injury or to the liver derangement as assessed by Child's classification. The increase in lipid peroxidation markers in ALC cirrhotic patients was associated with a decrease in, respectively, plasma alpha-tocopherol and erythrocyte glutathione concentrations. Significant differences were also seen between ALC1 and ALC2 groups in plasma alpha-tocopherol, but not in erythrocyte glutathione concentrations. The concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and glutathione in the blood of NAC patients were in contrast not substantially different from those of healthy controls. The close association between oxidative damage and alcohol abuse suggested that free radical intermediates produced during ethanol metabolism might be responsible for causing oxidative damage. PMID:7828989

Clot, P; Tabone, M; Arico, S; Albano, E

1994-01-01

23

Daily intake of copper from drinking water among young children in Sweden.  

PubMed Central

Copper is an essential trace element that may cause intoxication if intake becomes excessive. Young children are at risk of intoxication because of high consumption of drinking water and immature copper metabolism. The aims of this prospective study were to estimate concentrations of copper in drinking water, volumes of drinking water consumed by children, and children's daily intake of copper. Concentrations of copper in unflushed drinking water were analyzed for 1,178 children living in Uppsala and Malmö, Sweden, and concentrations and amounts of copper consumed from drinking water were estimated for 430 of these children, 9-21 months of age. The study children were from Swedish families, were not enrolled in publicly provided day care, and were not breast-fed more than three times a day. In the initial population, the 10th percentile for copper concentration in unflushed drinking water was 0.17 mg/L, the median was 0.72 mg/L, and the 90th percentile was 2.11 mg/L. In the subpopulation of 430 children, the 10th percentile for daily intake of copper from drinking water was 0.03 mg/L, the median was 0.32 mg/L, and the 90th percentile was 1.07 mg/L. The median daily intake of copper from drinking water was higher in Uppsala, at 0.46 mg, than in Malmö, at 0.26 mg. For groups of children whose families took part in a later prospective diary study, the copper concentration in consumed water could, to some extent, be predicted from the concentration of copper in unflushed drinking water. The lowest concentrations of copper in drinking water were found in households with old water-pipe systems and in those living in detached houses. A large proportion of the young children satisfied their daily requirement of copper solely from drinking water. About 10% of the children had a copper intake above the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10339444

Pettersson, R; Rasmussen, F

1999-01-01

24

Revising the Daily Values May Affect Food Fortification and in Turn Nutrient Intake Adequacy123  

PubMed Central

The Nutrition Facts panel on food labels in the United States currently displays Daily Values (DVs) that are based on outdated RDAs. The FDA has indicated that it plans to update the DVs based on the newer Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), but there is controversy regarding the best method for calculating new DVs from the DRIs. To better understand the implications of DV revisions, assuming that manufacturers choose to maintain current label claims for micronutrients from voluntarily fortified foods, we modeled intake of 8 micronutrients using NHANES 2007–2008 data and 2 potential methods for calculating DVs: the population-weighted Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and the population-coverage RDA. In each scenario, levels of fortified nutrients were adjusted to maintain the current %DV. Usual nutrient intakes and percentages with usual intakes less than the EAR were estimated for the U.S. population and subpopulations aged ?4 y (n = 7976). For most nutrients, estimates of the percentage of the U.S. population with intakes below the EAR were similar regardless of whether the DV corresponded to the population-weighted EAR or the population-coverage RDA. Potential decreases were observed in adequacy of nutrients of concern for women of childbearing age, namely iron and folate (up to 9% and 3%, respectively), adequacy of calcium among children (up to 6%), and adequacy of vitamin A intakes in the total population (5%) assuming use of the population-weighted EAR compared with the population-coverage RDA for setting the DV. Results of this modeling exercise will help to inform decisions in revising the DVs. PMID:24132571

Murphy, Mary M.; Spungen, Judith H.; Barraj, Leila M.; Bailey, Regan L.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

2013-01-01

25

Daily intake of manganese by local population around Kylleng Pyndengsohiong Mawthabah (Domiasiat), Meghalaya in India.  

PubMed

Present work is carried out adjacent to world's highest rainfall area Kylleng Pyndengsohiong (KP) Mawthabah (Domiasiat), Meghalaya in India to establish the baseline value of manganese intake through dietary route by the local tribe population in view of proposed uranium mining. The locally available food items collected from villages surrounding the proposed uranium mining site at KP Mawthabah (Domiasiat) were analysed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Technique. The manganese concentration in different food categories varies from 2.76-12.50 mg kg(-1) in cereals, 1.8-4.20 mg kg(-1) in leafy vegetables, 0.30-13.50 mg kg(-1) in non leafy vegetables, 0.50-15.30 mg kg(-1) in roots and tubers, 0.70-1.50 mg kg(-1) in fruits and 0.12-0.96 mg kg(-1) in flesh food. The mean dietary intake of Mn was found to be 3.83+/-0.25 mg d(-1) compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) of 2-5 mg d(-1). The daily intake of Manganese by the local tribe population is comparable with the value (3.7 mg d(-1)) recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for reference man and lower than the intake value observed for Indian and other Asian population. PMID:19193395

Gothankar, S S; Jha, S K; Lenka, P; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

2009-04-01

26

International project on human daily dietary intake of minor and trace elements  

SciTech Connect

A coordinate research program on dietary intake of nutrient and other elements initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is currently under way. The purpose of the core program of this project is to obtain reliable data on the average daily intakes of several important minor and trace elements in diets consumed in a number of developed and developing countries such as Brazil, Canada, China, Iran, Italy, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Thailand, and Turkey. In the core program which will be collected for determination of the nutrient elements such as calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, iodine, selenium, and zinc, among others. The project also provides for the measurement of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in view of the biological significance of these elements as toxicants in the diet and includes estimation of the energy, phytate, and fiber components of the diet.

Iyengar, V.

1986-01-01

27

Analysis of the nonlinear dynamics of daily broiler growth and feed intake.  

PubMed

Daily BW velocity (BWV) and acceleration (BWA) of individual birds have been demonstrated to be oscillatory. Daily feed intake velocity (FIV) and acceleration (FIA) were hypothesized to be oscillatory and to have a positive relationship with BWV and BWA, respectively. Forty-eight male broiler chicks were individually caged and provided a commercial starter feed ad libitum for 49 d. BW and feed intake (FI) were measured daily. Experiment 1 confirmed that, on a daily basis, BWV, BWA, FIV, and FIA were oscillatory. There was a positive correlation between BW and FI, BWV and FIV, and BWA and FIA. A Kohonen neural network (KNN) clustered BWV and FIV into two and three sequential phases. BWA and FIA analysis did not make definitive clusters. In experiment 2, it was hypothesized that correlation between BWV and FIV would increase with feeding of grower and finisher rations. It was hypothesized that KNN three phase clusters may provide more biologically ideal times of ration change (TORC) for starter, grower, and finisher rations. For 49 d, five treatments, nine birds per treatment, were fed starter, grower, and finisher rations singly or together with dietary changes according to an industry or KNN-determined TORC. Evaluation was made of BW, FI, and carcass characteristics. No significant mean differences were found. Compared to the industry group, the KNN group demonstrated significantly improved uniformity (i.e., smaller SD) of BW (bled out), FI, dressing percentage, and some of the carcass characteristics. Differences between KNN and industry TORC results might have been related to the length of time the birds were fed the starter, grower, and finisher diets. PMID:12872964

Vandegrift, K J; Cravener, T L; Hulet, R M; Roush, W B

2003-07-01

28

A simple individual model for simulating weight gain dynamics in response to intake rate and daily behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often necessary to estimate the weight that an individual may be capable of gaining depending on its degree of activity. A simple individual-based model was developed for studying the dynamics of weight in terms of daily behavior and ingestion rate. It was based on the balance between the individual's energy intake and the cost of its daily activities.

María Verónica Simoy

2011-01-01

29

Daily intake of bisphenol A and potential sources of exposure: 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Nationally representative data on urinary levels of bisphenol A (BPA) and its metabolites in the United States from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to estimate daily BPA intakes. In addition, NHANES data on potential sources of BPA exposure and personal characteristics were explored for their association with urinary BPA levels. On the basis of 2005–2006 NHANES urinary BPA data and assumptions described in this paper, median daily intake for the overall population is approximately 34?ng/kg-day. Median daily BPA intakes for men are statistically significantly higher than for women; there is a significant decrease in daily BPA intake with increasing age. Gender- and age-specific median intakes differ from the overall population by less than a factor of 2. Although estimates of daily BPA intake have decreased compared with those from the 2003–2004 NHANES, it is premature to draw conclusions regarding trends at this time, as there is no indication that BPA use declined from 2003 to 2006. On the basis of an assessment of urinary BPA and questionnaire data from the 2005–2006 NHANES, consumption of soda, school lunches, and meals prepared outside the home — but not bottled water or canned tuna — was statistically significantly associated with higher urinary BPA. PMID:20237498

LaKind, Judy S; Naiman, Daniel Q

2011-01-01

30

Daily intake of bisphenol A and potential sources of exposure: 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Nationally representative data on urinary levels of bisphenol A (BPA) and its metabolites in the United States from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to estimate daily BPA intakes. In addition, NHANES data on potential sources of BPA exposure and personal characteristics were explored for their association with urinary BPA levels. On the basis of 2005-2006 NHANES urinary BPA data and assumptions described in this paper, median daily intake for the overall population is approximately 34 ng/kg-day. Median daily BPA intakes for men are statistically significantly higher than for women; there is a significant decrease in daily BPA intake with increasing age. Gender- and age-specific median intakes differ from the overall population by less than a factor of 2. Although estimates of daily BPA intake have decreased compared with those from the 2003-2004 NHANES, it is premature to draw conclusions regarding trends at this time, as there is no indication that BPA use declined from 2003 to 2006. On the basis of an assessment of urinary BPA and questionnaire data from the 2005-2006 NHANES, consumption of soda, school lunches, and meals prepared outside the home--but not bottled water or canned tuna--was statistically significantly associated with higher urinary BPA. PMID:20237498

Lakind, Judy S; Naiman, Daniel Q

2011-01-01

31

Energy intake, expenditure and pattern of daily activity of Nigerian male students.  

PubMed

1. Twenty apparently healthy and normal Nigerian male students, resident at the University of Ibadan campus, were studied for seven consecutive days to assess their food energy intake and expenditure and pattern of their daily activities. 2. The mean age (years) of the group was 24.0 (SD 3.23, range 20-30), mean height (m) 1.71 (SD 0.06, range 1.61-1.84) and body-weight (kg) was 61.1 (SD 5.01, range 51.0-69.5). 3. The food intake of each subject was obtained by direct weighing and its energy value determined using a ballistic bomb calorimeter. Patterns of daily activities were recorded and the energy costs of representative activities were determined by indirect calorimetry. 4. Activities mainly involved sitting, mean 580 (SD 167, range 394-732) min/d. Sleeping and standing activities took a mean of 445 (SD 112) and 115 (SD 75) min/d respectively. Personal domestic activities took a mean of 94 (SD 40) min/d. 5. The mean energy intake of the group was 11,182 (SD 1970) kJ/d or 183 (SD 32) kJ/kg body-weight per d. This value is lower than the 12.5 MJ/d recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) (1973) as the energy requirement for an adult man engaged in moderate activities, but it is higher than the FAO/WHO/United Nations University (UNU) (1985) recommended value of 10.8 MJ/d for a male office clerk (light activity). It is also lower than the recommended energy requirement of 11.6 MJ/d for a subsistence farmer (moderately active work) (FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985). 6. The mean energy expenditure of the male subjects was 9876 (SD 1064, range 7159-12,259) kJ/d and was lower than mean intake. 7. The energy intake and expenditure values indicated that the groups participating in the present study were not physically very active. It is an indication that the Nigerian male students expended less but probably consumed more energy than required. It is suggested for health reasons and for mental fitness that the Nigerian male students might undertake more physical exercise. PMID:3689743

Cole, A H; Ogbe, J O

1987-11-01

32

Increasing the protein content of meals and its effect on daily energy intake.  

PubMed

High-protein preloads have been shown to enhance satiety, but little is known about the satiating effects of protein in more typical situations when meals are consumed ad libitum. To investigate the effects of protein in amounts commonly consumed over a day, a crossover study was conducted in 2008. In this experiment, 18 normal-weight women consumed ad libitum lunch and dinner entrées 1 day a week that were covertly varied in protein content (10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, or 30% energy). Entrées were manipulated by substituting animal protein for starchy ingredients and were matched for energy density, fat content, palatability, and appearance. Unmanipulated breakfasts and evening snacks were consumed ad libitum. Participants rated their hunger and fullness before and after meals as well as the taste and appearance of entrées. Data were analyzed using a mixed linear model. Results showed that mean 24-hour protein intake increased significantly across conditions, from 44±2 g/day in the 10% protein condition to 82±6 g/day in the 30% condition. Daily energy intake did not differ significantly across the 10% to 30% protein conditions (means 1,870±93, 1,887±93, 1,848±111, 1,876±100, and 1,807±98 kcal in the 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% energy groups, respectively). There were no significant differences in hunger and fullness ratings across conditions or in taste and appearance ratings of the manipulated entrées. This study showed that varying the protein content of several entrées consumed ad libitum did not differentially influence daily energy intake or affect ratings of satiety. PMID:21272705

Blatt, Alexandria D; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

2011-02-01

33

Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate ingested may be an important risk factor in the development of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Reliable food tables listing the oxalate content of foods are currently not available. The aim of this research was to develop an accurate and reliable method to measure the food content of oxalate. METHODS: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) were compared as direct techniques for the estimation of the oxalate content of foods. Foods were thoroughly homogenized in acid, heat extracted, and clarified by centrifugation and filtration before dilution in water for analysis. Five individuals consuming self-selected diets maintained food records for three days to determine their mean daily oxalate intakes. RESULTS: Both techniques were capable of adequately measuring the oxalate in foods with a significant oxalate content. With foods of very low oxalate content (<1.8 mg/100 g), IC was more reliable than CE. The mean daily intake of oxalate by the five individuals tested was 152 +/- 83 mg, ranging from 44 to 352 mg/day. CONCLUSIONS: CE appears to be the method of choice over IC for estimating the oxalate content of foods with a medium (>10 mg/100 g) to high oxalate content due to a faster analysis time and lower running costs, whereas IC may be better suited for the analysis of foods with a low oxalate content. Accurate estimates of the oxalate content of foods should permit the role of dietary oxalate in urinary oxalate excretion and stone formation to be clarified. Other factors, apart from the amount of oxalate ingested, appear to exert a major influence over the amount of oxalate excreted in the urine.

Holmes, R. P.; Kennedy, M.

2000-01-01

34

Determination of daily dietary intake of chromium by duplicate diet sampling: in vitro availability study.  

PubMed

Intake of chromium was estimated using a duplicate diet sampling method of 108 meals (36 breakfasts, 36 lunches and 36 dinners) from the restaurant of the Hospital of Motril (S.E. Spain), corresponding to 36 consecutive days. Total and dialyzable Cr levels were measured by a validated electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) method. A mean Cr fraction of 26 +/- 12 microg meal (-1) was found. The Cr uptake from meals was directly and significantly (p < 0.001) correlated with their macronutrient (carbohydrates, fibre and protein) content. Cereals and cereal by-products, legumes, dry fruits, meat, potatoes, dairy products and seafood are the primary sources of Cr. The mean Cr fraction dialyzed through dialysis tubing was 1.2 +/- 1.1 microg meal(-1) (4.6 +/- 3.8% as mean Cr dialysability). Cr intake for breakfasts was significantly lower (p < 0.001). A correlation between the logarithmic data of total and dialyzable fraction of Cr in meals (p = 0.020) was found and dialysis ratio enhancement and, therefore, bioavailability increased with total Cr. The dialysed element content present in meals was significantly correlated with fibre, protein, Fe, Na, I, F, sodium, ascorbic acid and vitamin A levels (p < 0.05). At Fe contents in meals higher than congruent with7.5 mg meal(-1) the net absorption of Cr decreased significantly. The mean Cr daily dietary intake (DDI) was 77 +/- 17 microg day (-1) which indicates that no adverse effects in relation to Cr nutrition (deficiency or toxicity) should occur in individuals from the area. PMID:18478480

Velasco-Reynold, Carlos; Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; De La Serrana, Herminia Lopez-Ga; Perez-Valero, Vidal; Lopez-Martinez, Maria C

2008-05-01

35

Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes  

PubMed Central

Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation. PMID:23803740

Kobayashi, Yukiko; Hattori, Mikako; Wada, Sayori; Iwase, Hiroya; Kadono, Mayuko; Tatsumi, Hina; Kuwahata, Masashi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Kido, Yasuhiro

2013-01-01

36

The daily rhythm of milk synthesis is dependent on the timing of feed intake in dairy cows  

PubMed Central

Abstract Regulation of the daily rhythm of milk synthesis is important to production animals and breastfeeding, but is difficult to observe in nursing animals. The rate of food intake varies over the day and is expected to create a daily rhythm of nutrient absorption. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of food intake entrains a daily pattern of milk synthesis. Seventeen Holstein cows were used in a crossover design. Treatments were ad libitum feeding of a total mixed ration once daily (1× fed) or fed in four equal meals every 6 h (4× fed). Cows were milked every 6 h the last 7 days of each period. There was a treatment by time of day interaction for milk and milk component yield and concentration. Milk fat and protein concentration and yield exhibited a daily rhythm and the amplitude of the rhythm was reduced in 4× fed. In addition, milk fat percent was higher in 4× fed than 1× fed at three of the four milking intervals (0.22–0.45% higher) and 4× fed increased daily milk fat yield. Treatment by time of day interactions were detected for plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen. These variables also fit a cosine function with a 24 h period and the amplitudes of plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen rhythms were decreased by 4× feeding. In conclusion, there is a circadian pattern of milk synthesis in the dairy cow that is responsive to the timing of food intake. PMID:24963033

Rottman, L. Whitney; Ying, Yun; Zhou, Kan; Bartell, Paul A.; Harvatine, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

37

Estimated daily intakes of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) antioxidants in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to establish the estimated daily intake (EDI) of antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) in Korea. The EDIs were obtained from two sources. One of the estimations was based on the analytical determination of BHA, BHT and TBHQ in 12 food categories (ten food categories for TBHQ) and on

H.-J. Suh; M.-S. Chung; Y.-H. Cho; J.-W. Kim; D.-H. Kim; K.-W. Han; C.-J. Kim

2005-01-01

38

Use of limited daily access to food in measuring the heat production associated with food intake in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Two experiments were carried out to determine the heat production associated with food intake in laying hens allowed access to food for one (experiment 2) or two hours (experiment 1) daily.2. In experiment 1, heat production in the fed state was measured for two successive days after 46 h of food deprivation. The rate of heat production in the

Yuzhi Li; Toshio Ito; Sadaki Yamamoto

1991-01-01

39

Bisphenol A (BPA) daily intakes in the United States: Estimates from the 2003–2004 NHANES urinary BPA data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations into human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) have, for the most part, assessed intake based on food consumption estimates combined with measurements or estimates of BPA in foods. In this study, nationally representative data on urinary levels of BPA in the United States (US) from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to estimate daily

Judy S Lakind; Daniel Q Naiman; Judy S

2008-01-01

40

Daily milk intake improves vitamin B-12 status in young vegetarian Indians: an intervention trial  

PubMed Central

Background Asymptomatic Indian lacto vegetarians, who make up more than half of the Indian population in different geographic regions, have distinctly low vitamin B-12 concentrations than non- vegetarians. Vegetarians consume milk but it seems that the amount is not enough to improve vitamin B-12 status or vitamin B-12 concentration in milk itself may be low. The aim of this study was to determine if daily milk consumption can improve vitamin B-12 status. Methods Fifteen male and 36 female, young healthy post-graduate volunteers participated. Blood from ten participants (4 males and 6 females) was collected (day-1). They continued their regular diet for next fourteen days and on day-15, blood of all 51 participants was collected, plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was measured and were divided into two groups; Normal (vitamin B-12 >148 pmol/L, n?=?22) and Vitamin B-12 deficient (<148 pmol/L, n?=?29), the remaining plasma was stored. All participants consumed 600 ml. of non-enriched buffalo milk (200 × 3) during the day along with their usual diet. Next day blood was collected for plasma holotranscobalamin II measurement. Subjects from deficient group continued to drink 400 ml of milk daily for next 14 days and blood was collected on day-30. Plasma holotranscoabalamin II (day-1, 15, 16, 30), vitamin B-12, folate, total homocysteine, creatinine and hematoloical parameters (day-1, 15, 30), and milk vitamin B-12 concentrations (day-15, 16, 30) were measured. Results Fifty seven per cent of the participants were vitamin B-12 deficient and 65% were hyperhomocysteinemic. No significant difference in biomarkers was observed when there was no intervention. Plasma holotranscobalamin II concentration increased from 19.6 to 22.27 pmol/L (p?intake in vitamin B-12 deficient subjects. Conclusions Regular intake of milk improved vitamin B-12 status of vitamin B-12 deficient vegetarians indicating a potential dietary strategy to improve the vitamin status. PMID:24107225

2013-01-01

41

Contribution of aluminum from packaging materials and cooking utensils to the daily aluminum intake.  

PubMed

Migration of aluminum (Al) from packaging materials and cooking utensils into foods and beverages was determined at intervals during cooking or during storage by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. High amounts of Al migrated into acidic products such as mashed tomatoes during normal processing in normal, non-coated Al pans. After 60 min cooking an Al content of 10-15 mg/kg was measured in tomato sauce. Surprisingly, the Al concentration was also increased up to 2.6 mg/L after boiling tap water for 15 min in Al pans. Storage of Coca-Cola in internally lacquered Al cans resulted in Al levels below 0.25 mg/L. In contrast, non-coated Al camping bottles containing lime blossom tea acidified with lemon juice released up to 7 mg Al/L within 5 days. The Al concentration in coffee was lower than that of the tap water used in its preparation, even if prepared in Al heaters. In Switzerland, where most pans nowadays are made of stainless steel or teflon-coated Al, the average contribution for the use of Al utensils to the daily Al intake of 2-5 mg from the diet is estimated to be less than 0.1 mg. PMID:8249476

Müller, J P; Steinegger, A; Schlatter, C

1993-10-01

42

Acute and chronic flow-mediated dilation and blood pressure responses to daily intake of boysenberry juice: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

There is an increasing interest in dietary polyphenols for risk reduction in cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate acute and chronic flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and blood pressure responses to daily intake of boysenberry juice. FMD of the brachial artery was measured in six subjects in the initial, intermediate and follow-up stages of a 4-week open-label intervention study. The intake of boysenberry juice (180?ml/d) increased FMD with progression of intervention stage, and FMD differed in the follow-up stage compared with pre-intake baseline (p?=?0.0163?intake only in the follow-up stage (r?=?-0.961 and p?=?0.0007 at 3.5?h), indicating a greater SBP reduction in subjects with higher SBP. These results suggest that daily intake of boysenberry juice is beneficial for reducing cardiovascular risk. PMID:23848379

Matsusima, Akito; Furuuchi, Ryo; Sakaguchi, Yoshiko; Goto, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Tadayuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Masao

2013-12-01

43

Daily polyphenol intake from fresh fruits in Portugal: contribution from berry fruits.  

PubMed

Fresh fruits, particularly berries, are rich in polyphenols. These bioactive compounds are important in the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to assess polyphenol intake from fresh fruit in Portugal and the relative contribution of berries to overall intake, using an online semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of processed berry products was also studied. Mean fresh fruit consumption was 365.6?±?8.2?g/day. Berries accounted for 9% of total fresh fruit intake, from which 80% were due to strawberries. Total polyphenol intake from fresh fruits was 783.9?±?31.7?mg of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) per day, from which 14% were from berries. Within berries, strawberries accounted for 11% of total polyphenol intake, with the other consumed berries accounting for 3% of the total polyphenol intake per day. Main reasons reported for relative low consumption of berries were market availability and price. The most consumed processed berry product was yogurt. PMID:23862729

Pinto, Paula; Cardoso, Susana; Pimpão, Rui Carlos; Tavares, Lucélia; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Santos, Cláudia Nunes

2013-12-01

44

Risk assessment for consumer exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) derived from polyurethane flexible foam.  

PubMed

Polyurethanes (PU) are polymers made from diisocyanates and polyols for a variety of consumer products. It has been suggested that PU foam may contain trace amounts of residual toluene diisocyanate (TDI) monomers and present a health risk. To address this concern, the exposure scenario and health risks posed by sleeping on a PU foam mattress were evaluated. Toxicity benchmarks for key non-cancer endpoints (i.e., irritation, sensitization, respiratory tract effects) were determined by dividing points of departure by uncertainty factors. The cancer benchmark was derived using the USEPA Benchmark Dose Software. Results of previous migration and emission data of TDI from PU foam were combined with conservative exposure factors to calculate upper-bound dermal and inhalation exposures to TDI as well as a lifetime average daily dose to TDI from dermal exposure. For each non-cancer endpoint, the toxicity benchmark was divided by the calculated exposure to determine the margin of safety (MOS), which ranged from 200 (respiratory tract) to 3×10(6) (irritation). Although available data indicate TDI is not carcinogenic, a theoretical excess cancer risk (1×10(-7)) was calculated. We conclude from this assessment that sleeping on a PU foam mattress does not pose TDI-related health risks to consumers. PMID:22871374

Arnold, Scott M; Collins, Michael A; Graham, Cynthia; Jolly, Athena T; Parod, Ralph J; Poole, Alan; Schupp, Thomas; Shiotsuka, Ronald N; Woolhiser, Michael R

2012-12-01

45

Consuming More of Daily Caloric Intake at Dinner Predisposes to Obesity. A 6-Year Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives It has been hypothesized that assuming most of the caloric intake later in the day leads to metabolic disadvantages, but few studies are available on this topic. Aim of our study was to prospectively examine whether eating more of the daily caloric intake at dinner leads to an increased risk of obesity, hyperglycemia, metabolic syndrome, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Subjects/Methods 1245 non-obese, non-diabetic middle-aged adults from a population-based cohort underwent a 3-day food record questionnaire at enrollment. Anthropometric values, blood pressure, blood metabolic variables, and estimated liver fat were measured at baseline and at 6-year follow-up. Design Prospective cohort study. Results Subjects were divided according to tertiles of percent daily caloric intake at dinner. A significant increase in the incidence rate of obesity (from 4.7 to 11.4%), metabolic syndrome (from 11.1 to 16.1%), and estimated NAFLD (from 16.5 to 23.8%) was observed from the lower to higher tertile. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for multiple covariates, subjects in the highest tertile showed an increased risk of developing obesity (OR?=?2.33; 95% CI 1.17–4.65; p?=?0.02), metabolic syndrome (OR?=?1.52; 95% CI 1.01–2.30; p?=?0.04), and NAFLD (OR?=?1.56; 95% CI 1.10–2.22; p?=?0.01). Conclusions Consuming more of the daily energy intake at dinner is associated with an increased risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD. PMID:25250617

Bo, Simona; Musso, Giovanni; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Fadda, Maurizio; Fedele, Debora; Gambino, Roberto; Gentile, Luigi; Durazzo, Marilena; Ghigo, Ezio; Cassader, Maurizio

2014-01-01

46

Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review  

E-print Network

different level of exercise. Articles were excluded if they provided no data on energy or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity, manipulated or controlled energy intake, or were conducted in non-recreational athletes or individuals...Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad- Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review Joseph E. Donnelly*, Stephen D. Herrmann, Kate Lambourne, Amanda N. Szabo, Jeffery J. Honas...

Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

2014-01-15

47

Long-term daily intake estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers from food in Finnish children: risk assessment implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food is contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD\\/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) worldwide. Previous data show elevated intakes in children. We determined intakes of POPs in Finnish children. Because no children-specific safe limit values exist, we used tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) set for adults by international expert bodies to examine the proportion of the study population

Anna K. Karjalainen; Tero Hirvonen; Hannu Kiviranta; Harri Sinkko; Carina Kronberg-Kippilä; Suvi M. Virtanen; Anja Hallikainen; Olli Leino; Mikael Knip; Riitta Veijola; Olli Simell; Jouni T. Tuomisto

2012-01-01

48

Estimates of the theoretical maximum daily intake of erythorbic acid, gallates, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in Italy: a stepwise approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three recent EU directives which fixed maximum permitted levels (MPL) for food additives for all member states also include the general obligation to establish national systems for monitoring the intake of these substances in order to evaluate their use safety. In this work, we considered additives with primary antioxidant technological function for which an acceptable daily intake (ADI) was

C Leclercq; D Arcella; A Turrini

2000-01-01

49

Betel quid chewing as a source of manganese exposure: total daily intake of manganese in a Bangladeshi population  

PubMed Central

Background A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Methods Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Results Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 ?g L-1) compared to non-chewers (0.62 ?g L-1). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg-1 (range 26 -518 mg kg-1). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg-1 (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. Conclusion We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity. PMID:21299859

2011-01-01

50

Determination of several elements in duplicate meals from catering establishments using closed vessel microwave digestion with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection: estimation of daily dietary intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimation of the dietary exposure of French consumers to 21 essential and non-essential mineral elements using duplicate meals (breakfast and lunch) purchased from catering establishments was investigated after digestion by a closed vessel microwave procedure and quantification by ICP-MS. Daily dietary exposure estimates for metals and minerals were compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intakes (PTWI), the Tolerable Daily

J.-C. Leblanc; T. Guérin

2003-01-01

51

Investigations of energy metabolism in weanling barrows: the interaction of dietary energy concentration and daily feed (energy) intake.  

PubMed

Much of our understanding of energy metabolism in the pig has been derived from studies in which the energy supply was controlled through regulated feed intake. In commercial situations, where ad libitum feeding is practiced, dietary energy concentration, but not daily feed intake, is under producer control. This study evaluated the interactive effects of dietary energy concentration and feeding level (FL) on growth, body composition, and nutrient deposition rates. Individually penned PIC barrows, with an initial BW of 9.5 +/- 1.0 kg, were allotted to 1 of 9 treatments in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement plus an initial slaughter group (n = 6) that was slaughtered at the beginning of the trial. Three NE concentrations (low, 2.15; medium, 2.26; and high, 2.37 Mcal of NE/kg) and 3 feeding levels (FL: 100, 80, or 70% of ad libitum access to feed) were investigated. Daily feed allowance for the restricted-fed pigs was adjusted twice per week on a BW basis until completion of the experiment at 25 +/- 1 kg of BW. Average daily gain, ADFI, and G:F were unaffected by NE (mean = 572 g, 781 g, and 0.732 g/g, respectively). Average daily gain and ADFI, but not G:F, increased (P < 0.05) with FL. Empty body lipid concentration increased with dietary NE concentration and with FL; a significant (P < 0.01) interaction revealed that empty body lipid concentration increased most rapidly as ADFI increased on the highest energy diet. Empty body lipid concentration was greatest in pigs with ad libitum access to the high-NE diet. Empty body protein concentration decreased with increasing NE (P < 0.05) but was not affected by FL. Empty body protein deposition (PD) increased with increasing FL (P < 0.001), but not with NE. Empty body lipid deposition (LD) and the LD:PD ratio increased (P < 0.01) in pigs with ad libitum access to the high-NE diet. In conclusion, NE did not interact with FL on growth, body protein concentration, or PD, suggesting that the conclusions regarding energy utilization obtained from experiments using restricted feed intake may not easily be applied to pigs fed under ad libitum conditions. The interactive effects of NE and FL on body lipid concentration, LD, and the LD:PD ratio indicate that changes in dietary energy concentration alter the composition of gain without necessarily changing overall BW gain. Consequently, the composition of gain is an important outcome in studies on energy utilization. PMID:17998419

Oresanya, T F; Beaulieu, A D; Patience, J F

2008-02-01

52

Selenium content in wheat and estimation of the selenium daily intake in different regions of Algeria.  

PubMed

In this work, we have measured the selenium content in wheat produced locally in eight different regions of Algeria from east to west, and we have established the annual consumption of selenium for five socio-professional categories. Instrumental neutron activation analysis is used. The selenium levels in wheat samples varied from 21 (Tiaret) to 153 ?g/kg (Khroub), with a mean value about 52 ?g/kg. The mean of selenium daily consumption from ingestion of wheat per person in the eight regions varied from 32 to 52 ?g/day which is close to the minimal FAO recommendation. PMID:23079485

Beladel, B; Nedjimi, B; Mansouri, A; Tahtat, D; Belamri, M; Tchanchane, A; Khelfaoui, F; Benamar, M E A

2013-01-01

53

Mineral Composition of Organically Grown Wheat Genotypes: Contribution to Daily Minerals Intake  

PubMed Central

In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved. PMID:20948934

Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva

2010-01-01

54

Process waste assessment (PWA) for monomeric TDI polyurethane foam encapsulation machine mix. [Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI)  

SciTech Connect

A process waste assessment (PWA) is a systematic, planned procedure with the overall objective of identifying opportunities and methods to reduce or eliminate waste. A PWA also provides emission and waste stream information for regulatory reporting requirements. This specific PWA examines waste minimization and emission information for the process of encapsulating electronic assemblies with monomeric TDI polyurethane foam, using an automated foam encapsulation machine for mixing.

Gerding, M.J.

1992-08-01

55

Polybrominated biphenyl ethers in breast milk and infant formula from Shanghai, China: temporal trends, daily intake, and risk assessment.  

PubMed

To investigate the temporal trend of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk and assess the risks to breast- and formula-fed infants, breast milk and infant formula samples were collected from Shanghai, China. The PBDE concentrations decreased from 14.8 to 4.85 pmol/g lipid weight during 2006-2012, with a rate of decrease by half approximately every four years. Although there were no significant correlations between the total PBDEs in breast milk and age, parity, and pre-pregnant BMI of mothers, there were significant differences between primiparous and multiparous mothers for tri- to hepta-BDEs. PBDEs in breast milk were much higher than those in infant formula (equivalent to 91.9 vs. 5.25 pg/mL). Among the different brand infant formulas, there were no significant differences in their PBDE concentrations. The estimated daily intake of PBDEs by breast- and formula-fed infants suggested that breast-fed infants are exposed to much more PBDEs than formula-fed ones (12.9 vs. 0.72 ng/kg-bw/day). However, the hazard quotient values were much smaller than one, indicating that the ingested PBDEs did not exert obvious adverse effects on both breast- and formula-fed infants considering non-carcinogenic effect endpoint. This is the first report on temporal trend of PBDEs in breast milk from China. PMID:25155891

Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Kaiqiong; Yang, Dan; Ma, Li; Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhou, Jing; Fang, Xiangming; Yu, Yingxin

2014-11-01

56

41 CFR 101-39.203-1 - Obtaining motor vehicles while on temporary duty (TDY) travel.  

...vehicles while on temporary duty (TDY) travel. 101-39.203-1 Section 101-39...vehicles while on temporary duty (TDY) travel. Federal employees on TDY requiring...appropriate sources listed in the Federal Travel Directory (available from the...

2014-07-01

57

Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland  

SciTech Connect

Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)] [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)] [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

2010-08-15

58

Arsenic levels in rice grain and assessment of daily dietary intake of arsenic from rice in arsenic-contaminated regions of Bangladesh--implications to groundwater irrigation.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) causes significant human health effects, including various cancers and skin disorders. Naturally elevated concentrations of As have been detected in the groundwater of Bangladesh. Dietary intake and drinking water are the major routes of As exposure for humans. The objectives of this study were to measure As concentrations in rice grain collected from households in As-affected villages of Bangladesh where groundwater is used for agricultural irrigation and to estimate the daily intake of As consumed by the villagers from rice. The median and mean total As contents in 214 rice grain samples were 131 and 143 microg/kg, respectively, with a range of 2-557 microg/kg (dry weight, dw). Arsenic concentrations in control rice samples imported from Pakistan and India and on sale in Australian supermarkets were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than in rice from contaminated areas. Daily dietary intake of As from rice was 56.4 microg for adults (males and females) while the total daily intake of As from rice and from drinking water was 888.4 and 706.4 microg for adult males and adult females, respectively. From our study, it appears that the villagers are consuming a significant amount of As from rice and drinking water. The results suggest that the communities in the villages studied are potentially at risk of suffering from arsenic-related diseases. PMID:19142738

Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Owens, Gary; Naidu, Ravi

2009-04-01

59

Estimated daily intake of plasticizers in 1-week duplicate diet samples following regulation of DEHP-containing PVC gloves in Japan.  

PubMed

Duplicate hospital diet samples obtained over 1 week in 2001 were analysed to estimate the daily intake of plasticizers and the results were compared with those obtained in 1999. The plasticizers quantified in this study were: dibutyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), diisononyl adipate (DINA) and O-acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC). Dipropyl, dipentyl, dihexyl and dicyclohexyl phthalate were also analysed but not detected. The analytical procedure for this follow-up study was essentially the same as in the previous one. Detection limits were 0.1-15.6 ng g(-1) for each plasticizer. One-week duplicate diet samples provided by three hospitals in three remote prefectures of Japan were analysed as individual meals. DEHP was detected at 6-675 ng g(-1) in 62 of 63 meals, significantly lower levels compared with those detected in 1999. Levels of DEHA and DINP also decreased. The mean intake of plasticizers estimated from all samples was 160 microg DEHP day(-1), 12.5 microg DEHA day(-1), 4.7 microg DINP day(-1) and 3.4 microg BBP day(-1). Levels of DINA were relatively high in meals from one hospital: in those meals, the average daily intake was 1338 microg day(-1). Those of ATBC were also higher in meals from another hospital: the average daily intake was 1228 microg day(-1). The sources of DINA and ATBC can be cling-film or sausage packaging. PMID:12775472

Tsumura, Y; Ishimitsu, S; Saito, I; Sakai, H; Tsuchida, Y; Tonogai, Y

2003-04-01

60

Changes to daily feed intake during the laying period alters embryonic MSTN and MYOG gene expression in genetically fat and lean lines of chickens.  

PubMed

1. Broiler breeders are unable to self-regulate feed intake to a level that permits reproductive function and restricted feeding is normal for broiler parent stock. The aim of this study was to determine whether myostatin (MSTN) and myogenin (MYOG) mRNA expression could be altered in relation to differences in body composition of the embryos and the hen's diet. 2. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with two dietary intake levels (100% and 75% of nutrition recommendation) and two broiler genotypes (Fat line and Lean line). Hens (384 of each line) were randomly divided at 23 weeks of age into 4 treatments, with each treatment represented by 12 replicates of 16 birds each. The experiment started when the rate of lay reached 5% and continued until 54 weeks of age. 3. There were significant effects of line and dietary intake, and interactions between them on MSTN and MYOG mRNA expression levels in embryonic tissues. The trend in MSTN mRNA expression level over the embryonic period was similar between lines. Low daily feed intake did not alter the trend in MSTN mRNA expression levels in either line, but significantly changed the peak values. MYOG mRNA expression varied by line and over time, with a delay in the Lean line. Low daily feed intake influenced the trend in MYOG mRNA expression levels in both lines and delayed its onset. PMID:24397509

Li, F; Shan, A S; Hu, J W; Zheng, Y B; Xu, L M; Chen, Z H

2013-01-01

61

Daily intake of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) by German children – A comparison of two estimation models based on urinary DEHP metabolite levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a general-purpose plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and has become a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. It is suspected to be an endocrine disrupting\\/modulating substance in humans. Children are of special concern due to their developmental state. In our study we estimated the daily DEHP intake of 239 children aged 2–14 years by extrapolating from their urinary levels of

Matthias Wittassek; Wolfgang Heger; Holger M. Koch; Kerstin Becker; Jürgen Angerer; Marike Kolossa-Gehring

2007-01-01

62

Estimated daily intake of plasticizers in 1-week duplicate diet samples following regulation of DEHP-containing PVC gloves in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplicate hospital diet samples obtained over 1 week in 2001 were analysed to estimate the daily intake of plasticizers and the results were compared with those obtained in 1999. The plasticizers quantified in this study were: dibutyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), diisononyl adipate (DINA) and O-acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC). Dipropyl, dipentyl,

Y. Tsumura; S. Ishimitsu; I. Saito; H. Sakai; Y. Tsuchida; Y. Tonogai

2003-01-01

63

Associations between daily food intake and excess adiposity in Irish adults: towards the development of food-based dietary guidelines for reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:The prevalence of obesity has nearly doubled in Ireland since 1990 and over half of the population has a large waist circumference (WC). No food-based, dietary guidelines exist in Ireland for a reduction in the prevalence of body fat or obesity.Objective:To examine the association between daily food intake and categories of body mass index and WC for the development of

S N McCarthy; P J Robson; M B E Livingstone; M Kiely; A Flynn; G W Cran; M J Gibney

2006-01-01

64

Exposure estimates to Fusarium mycotoxins through cereals intake.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are harmful substances produced by fungi in several commodities with a widespread presence in foodstuffs. Human exposure to mycotoxins occurs mainly by contaminated food. The quantitation of mycotoxins in cereal-based food, highly consumed by different age population, is of concern. In this survey, 159 cereal-based samples classified as wheat, maize and rice-based, have been evaluated for the occurrence of patulin, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, nivalenol, neosolaniol, HT-2, T-2 and zearalenone by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Intakes were calculated for average consumers among adults, children and infants and compared with the tolerable daily intakes (TDI). Data obtained were used to estimate the potential exposure levels. 65.4% of the samples were contaminated with at least one mycotoxin and 15.7% of the analyzed samples showed co-occurrence of mycotoxin. The dietary exposure to HT-2 and T-2 toxins was estimated as 0.010 and 0.086 ?g kg(-1) bw d(-1), amounting to 10% and 86% of the TDI, for adults and infants respectively. These results back up the necessity to take a vigilant attitude in order to minimize human intake of mycotoxins. PMID:24012140

Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Ruiz, María José; Font, Guillermina; Berrada, Houda

2013-11-01

65

Modeling and simulation of TDI CMOS image sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a mathematical model of TDI CMOS image sensors was established in behavioral level through MATLAB based on the principle of a TDI CMOS image sensor using temporal oversampling rolling shutter in the along-track direction. The geometric perspective and light energy transmission relationships between the scene and the image on the sensor are included in the proposed model. A graphical user interface (GUI) of the model was also established. A high resolution satellitic picture was used to model the virtual scene being photographed. The effectiveness of the proposed model was verified by computer simulations based on the satellitic picture. In order to guide the design of TDI CMOS image sensors, the impacts of some parameters of TDI CMOS image sensors including pixel pitch, pixel photosensitive size, and integration time on the performance of the sensors were researched through the proposed model. The impacts of the above parameters on the sensors were quantified by sensor's modulation transfer function (MTF) of the along-track direction, which was calculated by slanted-edge method. The simulation results indicated that the TDI CMOS image sensor can get a better performance with smaller pixel photosensitive size and shorter integration time. The proposed model is useful in the process of researching and developing a TDI CMOS image sensor.

Nie, Kai-ming; Yao, Su-ying; Xu, Jiang-tao; Gao, Jing

2013-09-01

66

Report of workshop on the significance of excursions of intake above the ADI.  

PubMed

The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for humans was originally developed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and defined as "an estimate of the amount of a food additive, expressed on a body weight basis, that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without appreciable health risk." JECFA has not provided any firm guidance on how to evaluate excursions of intake above the ADI, but WHO in 1987 stated that "because in most cases, data are extrapolated from life-time animal studies, the ADI relates to life-time use and provides a margin of safety large enough for toxicologists not to be particularly concerned about short-term use at exposure levels exceeding the ADI, providing the average intake over longer periods of time does not exceed it." In discussing short-term intakes in excess of recommended limits, JECFA in 1989 concluded that short-term exposures to levels exceeding the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for a contaminant is not a cause of concern, provided the individual's intake averaged over longer periods of time does not exceed the level set. JECFA also stated that it was impossible to make a generalization concerning the length of time during which intakes in excess of the PTWI would be toxicologically detrimental. Any detrimental effect would depend upon the nature of the toxicity and the biological half-life of the chemical concerned. JECFA considered intakes of food additives in excess of the ADI less likely to occur and easier to control than in the case of contaminants which are allocated either a PTWI or a tolerable daily intake (TDI). The ILSI Europe Acceptable Daily Intake Task Force together with the Food Chemical Intake Task Force initiated a workshop which took place April 21-23, 1998, in Milan, Italy, in order to help identify what information would be needed, with what precision, and what is already available to evaluate the significance of excursions of intake above the ADI. The specific aims of the workshop were to address the following questions: By how much can the ADI be exceeded? For how long can excursions above the ADI be tolerated with respect to chronic toxicity, accumulation, and mechanisms of toxicity? What methods should be used to estimate intakes so that the estimates are relevant to the ADI? Do the same principles apply to contaminants that have TDI or PTWI values? PMID:10597607

Larsen, J C; Richold, M

1999-10-01

67

Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n?=?17), 69% of acute (n?=?40), 50% of short-term (n?=?10), 92% of non-randomized (n?=?12) and 75% of randomized trials (n?=?24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure, or employed adequate assessment methods for energy and macronutrient intake. Conclusions We found no consistent evidence that increased physical activity or exercise effects energy or macronutrient intake. PMID:24454704

Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

2014-01-01

68

Daily Manganese Intake Status and Its Relationship with Oxidative Stress Biomarkers under Different Body Mass Index Categories in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for human and plays an important role as a cofactor for several enzymes involving fatty acid synthesis, hepatic gluconeogenesis, and oxidative stresses. Also, Mn intake status has been reported to have beneficial effects in reversing metabolic dysfunction including obesity and nonalcoholic steatosis which is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses, however, information on dietary Mn intake in Koreans are limited. Hence we investigated the relationship between dietary Mn intake and antioxidant defense factors in healthy and obese subjects. Total of 333 healthy subjects were recruited in the study and were assigned to one of three study groups: a normal group (18.5-22.9), a overweight group (23-24.9), and a obesity group (>25) according to their body mass index (BMI). We assessed Mn intakes (24-hr recall method) and several indicators for antioxidative defenses such as glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and urinary malonaldehyde (MDA). Results showed that body weight and blood pressure of study subjects were increased in dependent of their BMI (p < 0.01). However dietary Mn intakes and oxidative stress biomarkers (GSH, GPx, and MDA) were not significantly different by groups defined by BMI. In correlation analysis adjusting for age, sex and energy intake, dietary Mn intake of the subjects in different BMI categories were not significantly correlated with GSH, GPx, MDA and showed a weak or no association with these oxidative stress markers. In conclusion dietary Mn intake at least in this study has a little or no influence on markers of oxidative status in both healthy and obese subjects. PMID:23431039

Bu, So-Young

2012-01-01

69

Relationships of feeding behaviors with average daily gain, dry matter intake, and residual feed intake in Red Angus-sired cattle.  

PubMed

Feeding behavior has the potential to enhance prediction of feed intake and to improve understanding of the relationships between behavior, DMI, ADG, and residual feed intake (RFI) in beef cattle. Two cohorts, born in 2009 and 2010, the progeny of Red Angus bulls (n = 58 heifers and n = 53 steers), were evaluated during the growing phase, and the latter group of steers was also evaluated during the finishing phase. All behavior analyses were based on 7 feeding behavior traits (bunk visit frequency, bunk visit duration [BVDUR], feed bout frequency, feed bout duration, meal frequency, meal duration, and average meal intake) and their relationships with ADG, DMI, and RFI. During the growing phase, feeding duration traits were most indicative of DMI with positive correlations between BVDUR and DMI for cohort 1 steers, growing phase (n = 28, r = 0.52, P = 0.00); cohort 2 steers, growing phase (n = 25, r = 0.44, P = 0.01); and cohort 2 heifers, growing phase (n = 29, r = 0.28 P = 0.05). There were similar trends toward correlation of BVDUR and RFI for both steer groups and cohort 1 heifers, growing phase (C1HG; n = 29; r = 0.27, P = 0.06; r = 0.30, P = 0.07; and r = 0.26, P = 0.08, respectively). Feed bout frequency was correlated with ADG in C1HG and in cohort 2 steers, finishing phase (r = -0.31, P = 0.04, and r = 0.43, P = 0.01, respectively). Feed bout duration was correlated with ADG in heifer groups (r = 0.29 and r = 0.28, P = 0.05 for both groups) and DMI for all growing phase animals (r = 0.29 to 0.55, P ? 0.05 for all groups). Evaluation of growing vs. finishing phase steer groups suggests that all behaviors, RFI, and DMI, but not ADG, are correlated through the growing and finishing phases (P ? 0.01 for all variables excluding ADG), implying that feeding behaviors determined during the growing phase are strong predictors of DMI in either life stage. Sire maintenance energy EPD effects (measured as high or low groups) on progeny feeding behaviors revealed a difference in meal duration with a tendency to differ in average meal intake (P = 0.01 and P = 0.07, respectively). Feeding behavior duration traits may be useful predictors of DMI in Red Angus cattle. PMID:25349363

McGee, M; Welch, C M; Ramirez, J A; Carstens, G E; Price, W J; Hall, J B; Hill, R A

2014-11-01

70

Essential and toxic metals in taros (Colocasia esculenta) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain): evaluation of content and estimate of daily intake.  

PubMed

Taros are a staple in the diet of many people around the world, and they are an excellent source of minerals. Monitoring the levels of metals in food provides basic information that is useful from the perspectives of safety, regulation, and nutrition. Forty-two samples of taros were randomly obtained from supermarkets, vegetable markets, and farmer's plots on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determine the contents of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The levels of Cr, Ni, Cd, and Pb were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Mean concentrations (mg/kg) were 565.6 Na, 2947 K, 231.4 Ca, 364.5 Mg, 1.224 Cu, 3.818 Fe, 1.408 Mn, 2.242 Zn, 0.044 Cr, 0.021 Ni, 0.003 Cd, and 0.006 Pb. The mean concentrations of Cd and Pb were well below the accepted European Commission limits (0.1 mg/kg weight for both metals, respectively). Daily consumption of taro (10.41 g taro/person/day) contributes to the dietary intake of essential metals and trace elements, mainly Mg (1.265 % in adult women and 1.084 % in adult men) and Cu (1.182 % for adult men and women). The average daily intakes of Cd (0.031 ?g/day) and Pb (0.062 ?g/day) from taro were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes (TWIs). Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat based on their metal concentrations and legislated allowable intakes. PMID:25412891

Luis-González, Gara; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Angel; González-Weller, Dailos; Revert, Consuelo; Hardisson, Arturo

2015-01-01

71

Information-Efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor With Tdi  

DOEpatents

A programmable optical filter for use in multispectral and hyperspectral imaging employing variable gain time delay and integrate arrays. A telescope focuses an image of a scene onto at least one TDI array that is covered by a multispectral filter that passes separate bandwidths of light onto the rows in the TDI array. The variable gain feature of the TDI array allows individual rows of pixels to be attenuated individually. The attenuations are functions of the magnitudes of the positive and negative components of a spectral basis vector. The spectral basis vector is constructed so that its positive elements emphasize the presence of a target and its negative elements emphasize the presence of the constituents of the background of the imaged scene. This system provides for a very efficient determination of the presence of the target, as opposed to the very data intensive data manipulations that are required in conventional hyperspectral imaging systems.

Rienstra, Jeffrey L. (Albuquerque, NM); Gentry, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM); Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2004-01-13

72

Morphological and Metabolic Changes Associated with Large Differences in Daily Food Intake in Crossed-Intestines Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Koopmans, H. S., T. J. McDonald and M. DiGirolamo. Morphological and metabolic changes associated with large changes in food intake in crossed-intestines rats. Physiol Behav 62(1) 129–136, 1997.—Twenty-two inbred male Lewis rats were made into parabiotic pairs and 7 pairs had a further operation in which the small intestines of the 2 rats were connected so that one rat continually

Henry S Koopmans; Thomas J McDonald; Mario Digirolamo

1997-01-01

73

Dietary intake of ochratoxin A from conventional and organic bread.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin A (OTA) was extracted from 100 bread samples by using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and analyzed with liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. The presence of OTA was confirmed by methyl-ester derivatization. Bread samples were bought from different bakeries and supermarkets, 74 of non-organic and 26 of organic bread. The incidence of OTA varied between 20.3% and 23.0% for non-organic and organic bread, respectively. The highest values were obtained with non-organic versus organic products, five samples exceeded the European maximum permitted limit of OTA (3 ng/g) for this product. Estimated daily intake of OTA in this study was 1.6 ng/kg b.w./day. This value represents 32% and 10% of the tolerable daily intake (TDI) according to the Scientific Committee on Food of the European Commission and the FAO/WHO Committee of Experts on Food Additives, respectively. The daily intake estimated from this study reflects the necessity to take a vigilant attitude to guarantee food safety. PMID:17610975

González-Osnaya, L; Soriano, J M; Moltó, J C; Mañes, J

2007-08-15

74

An Adaptive SensitivityTM TDI CCD Sensor Sarit Chen and Ran Ginosar  

E-print Network

An Adaptive SensitivityTM TDI CCD Sensor Sarit Chen and Ran Ginosar VLSI Systems Research Center and integrate) CCD sensor test circuit has been designed and fabricated. The sensor comprises 18 TDI integration of TDI sensors presents much more demanding architectural and circuit challenges. 1. INTRODUCTION CCD

Ginosar, Ran

75

Feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and real-time ultrasound traits in Duroc pigs: II. Genomewide association.  

PubMed

Efficient use of feed resources has become a clear challenge for the U.S. pork industry as feed costs continue to be the largest variable expense. The availability of the Illumina Porcine60K BeadChip has greatly facilitated whole-genome association studies to identify chromosomal regions harboring genes influencing those traits. The current study aimed at identifying genomic regions associated with variation in feed efficiency and several production traits in a Duroc terminal sire population, including ADFI, ADG, feed conversion ratio, residual feed intake (RFI), real-time ultrasound back fat thickness (BF), ultrasound muscle depth, intramuscular fat content (IMF), birth weight (BW at birth), and weaning weight (BW at weaning). Single trait association analyses were performed using Bayes B models with 35,140 SNP on 18 autosomes after quality control. Significance of nonoverlapping 1-Mb length windows (n = 2,380) were tested across 3 QTL inference methods: posterior distribution of windows variances from Monte Carlo Markov Chain, naive Bayes factor, and nonparametric bootstrapping. Genes within the informative QTL regions for the traits were annotated. A region ranging from166 to 140 Mb (4-Mb length) on SSC 1, approximately 8 Mb upstream of the MC4R gene, was significantly associated with ADFI, ADG, and BF, where SOCS6 and DOK6 are proposed as the most likely candidate genes. Another region affecting BW at weaning was identified on SSC 4 (84-85 Mb), harboring genes previously found to influence both human and cattle height: PLAG1, CHCHD7, RDHE2 (or SDR16C5), MOS, RPS20, LYN, and PENK. No QTL were identified for RFI, IMF, and BW at birth. In conclusion, we have identified several genomic regions associated with traits affecting nutrient utilization that could be considered for future genomic prediction to improve feed utilization. PMID:24962532

Jiao, S; Maltecca, C; Gray, K A; Cassady, J P

2014-07-01

76

Cancer risk assessment using blood dioxin levels and daily dietary TEQ intake in general populations of industrial and non-industrial countries.  

PubMed

We previously measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in U.S. foods and estimated the daily dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ) intake to be from 0.3 to 3.0 pg 1-TEQ/kg body weight for adults. These values are similar to values reported in Canada, Germany, England, and the Netherlands. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Dioxin Reassessment Draft Documents currently propose a cancer risk-specific dose estimate of 0.01 pg TEQ/kg body weight/day (U.S. EPA, 1994). This risk-specific dose estimate represents a lifetime (70 years) dose which results in a plausible upper bound cancer risk of 1 x 10(-6) (the probability of one additional cancer per one million exposed population over a lifetime). The proximate source of almost all dioxin intake in the general population is from food. Using our data for daily dietary dioxin exposure and the EPA's proposed risk specific dose, we estimate that over a lifetime a maximum of 30 to 300 excess cancers per million could result from the ingestion of dioxin containing food products. In the U.S. population of 260 million, a maximum range of 7,800 to 78,000 excess cancers over a lifetime (70 years) or 111 to 1,114 cases/year might be directly linked to dioxin exposure from food. Because these calculations are based on conservative approaches to setting an upper bound, "true" risk is not likely to exceed this value. At present, one-third of all Americans will develop cancer over a lifetime and one in four Americans are likely to die from cancer. For 1995, it was estimated that there would be 1,252,000 new cancer cases in the U.S. From this, we calculate that a maximum between 0.009% and 0.09% (111-1,114 cases/year) of all cancer cases in the U.S. might be directly linked to dioxin intake in food, assuming intakes have remained constant over a lifetime. Previous studies have suggested that as much as 70% of the total cancer risk in humans may be attributable to diet, primarily as a function of caloric and synthetic chemicals in the diet. (NAS, 1996) These figures do not take into account the ingestion of more contaminated food products, other sources of exposure, possible interactions of PCDDs and PCDFs with other chemicals, or increased incidence of cancer from the cancer promoting actions of dioxins. In addition, we reviewed average U.S. general population blood TEQ (ppt, lipid) levels, which reflect body burden, with levels of persons living in less industrialized countries. These data were used to compare the cancer risk of individuals living in the U.S., an industrial country, to those living in selected less industrialized countries. With the assumption that similar populations were being compared, it is estimated that in the non-industrial region of north Vietnam there is one-third the risk of dioxin-related cancer compared with the United States, while Cambodians have a dioxin-related cancer risk that is 14 fold less than the U.S. at this time. PMID:9134688

Schecter, A; Olson, J R

1997-01-01

77

No Evidence of Dehydration with Moderate Daily Coffee Intake: A Counterbalanced Cross-Over Study in a Free-Living Population  

PubMed Central

It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3–6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na+ excretion was higher in C than W (p?=?0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

Killer, Sophie C.; Blannin, Andrew K.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

2014-01-01

78

No evidence of dehydration with moderate daily coffee intake: a counterbalanced cross-over study in a free-living population.  

PubMed

It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3-6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na(+) excretion was higher in C than W (p?=?0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

Killer, Sophie C; Blannin, Andrew K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

2014-01-01

79

Effect of rice-cooking water to the daily arsenic intake in Bangladesh: results of field surveys and rice-cooking experiments.  

PubMed

The effect of rice-cooking water to the daily arsenic intake of Bangladeshi people was investigated. At the first field survey, uncooked rice and cooked rice of 29 families were collected. Their arsenic concentrations were 0.22+/-0.11 and 0.26+/-0.15 mg/kg dry wt, respectively. In 15 families, arsenic concentration in rice increased after cooking. Good correlation (R(2)=0.89) was observed between arsenic in rice-cooking water and the difference of arsenic concentration in rice by cooking. In the second survey, we collected one-day duplicated food of 18 families. As a result, we estimated that six of 18 families likely used the arsenic contaminated water for cooking rice even they drank less arsenic-contaminated water for drinking purpose. We also conducted rice-cooking experiments in the laboratory, changing arsenic concentration in rice-cooking water. Clear linear relationships were obtained between the arsenic in rice-cooking water and the difference of arsenic concentration in rice by cooking. Factors that affect arsenic concentration in cooked rice are suggested as follows: (1) arsenic concentration in uncooked rice, (2) that in rice-cooking water, (3) difference in water content of rice before and after cooking, and (4) types of rice, especially, the difference between parboiled and non-parboiled rice. PMID:19182328

Ohno, K; Matsuo, Y; Kimura, T; Yanase, T; Rahman, M H; Magara, Y; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y

2009-01-01

80

Effects of daily intake of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components on chronic stress responses: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Chronic stress has a negative influence on health. The aim was to determine stress reducing effects of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components as compared to normal yoghurt. High-trait anxiety individuals (n?=?67) aged 18-63 years participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention with parallel groups. They received either yoghurt enriched with alpha-lactalbumin, casein tripeptides and B vitamins (active) or isoenergetic standard yoghurt (control). To detect changes in psychological and physiological stress, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, salivary cortisol, inflammatory markers, blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV) and actigraphy were monitored. We observed higher ratings of vigor (p?=?0.047) and reduced feeling of inefficiency (p?=?0.048) in the active group. HRV (baseline adjusted mean 49.1?±?2.3?ms) and recovery index (106.6?±?33.4) were higher in the active group than in controls (42.5?±?2.2?ms and 80.0?±?29.3) (p?=?0.046 and p?=?0.02, respectively). In conclusion, daily intake of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components may aid in stress coping. PMID:24490888

Jaatinen, Nora; Korpela, Riitta; Poussa, Tuija; Turpeinen, Anu; Mustonen, Sari; Merilahti, Juho; Peuhkuri, Katri

2014-06-01

81

Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations  

PubMed Central

A trial was conducted to: i) evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii) evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii) to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts), two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg) corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg) with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen) recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI), ME (MEI) and NE (NEI) intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d) were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively). Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001) than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001) for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d). However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49) or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13), thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377) and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113) was less (p<0.001) for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150), therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of growth and G:F than MEI. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.4% greater ADG:Mcal MEI and 0.11% greater ADG:NEI above maintenance than pigs fed LE diets, again demonstrating that NEI is a better predictor of pig performance than MEI. Pigs fed LE diets had similar daily NEI and MEI but grew slower and less efficiently on both ME and NE basis than pigs fed HE diets. The data suggest that the midds NE value (2.132 Mcal/kg) was too high for this source or that maintenance was increased for pigs fed LE diets. PMID:25049580

Schinckel, A. P.; Einstein, M. E.; Jungst, S.; Matthews, J. O.; Booher, C.; Dreadin, T.; Fralick, C.; Wilson, E.; Boyd, R. D.

2012-01-01

82

Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) disposition and co-localization of immune cells in hair follicles.  

PubMed

Diisocyanates (dNCOs) are potent chemical allergens utilized in various industries. It has been proposed that skin exposure to dNCOs produces immune sensitization leading to work-related asthma and allergic disease. We examined dNCOs sensitization by using a dermal murine model of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposure to characterize the disposition of TDI in the skin, identify the predominant haptenated proteins, and discern the associated antigen uptake by dendritic cells. Ears of BALB/c mice were dosed once with TDI (0.1% or 4% v/v acetone). Ears and draining lymph nodes (DLNs) were excised at selected time points between 1 h and 15 days post-exposure and were processed for histological, immunohistochemical, and proteomic analyses. Monoclonal antibodies specific for TDI-haptenated protein (TDI-hp) and antibodies to various cell markers were utilized with confocal microscopy to determine co-localization patterns. Histopathological changes were observed following exposure in ear tissue of mice dosed with 4% TDI/acetone. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated TDI-hp localization in the stratum corneum, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands. TDI-hp were co-localized with CD11b(+) (integrin ?M/Mac-1), CD207(+) (langerin), and CD103(+) (integrin ?E) cells in the hair follicles and in sebaceous glands. TDI-hp were also identified in the DLN 1 h post-exposure. Cytoskeletal and cuticular keratins along with mouse serum albumin were identified as major haptenated species in the skin. The results of this study demonstrate that the stratum corneum, hair follicles, and associated sebaceous glands in mice are dendritic cell accessible reservoirs for TDI-hp and thus identify a mechanism for immune recognition following epicutaneous exposure to TDI. PMID:24798378

Nayak, Ajay P; Hettick, Justin M; Siegel, Paul D; Anderson, Stacey E; Long, Carrie M; Green, Brett J; Beezhold, Donald H

2014-08-01

83

Prevalence of Dental Caries in relation to Body Mass Index, Daily Sugar Intake, and Oral Hygiene Status in 12-Year-Old School Children in Mathura City: A Pilot Study.  

PubMed

Aim. To correlate the prevalence of dental caries to body mass index, daily sugar intake, and oral hygiene status of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and included 100 school children aged 12 years (n = 50 boys and n = 50 girls) who were randomly selected from two schools based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. Body weight/height was recorded and BMI was calculated and plotted on CDC-BMI for age growth charts/curves for boys and girls to obtain percentile ranking. Dental caries was recorded using WHO criteria. Oral hygiene status of the study subjects was assessed using oral hygiene index-simplified. Data regarding the daily sugar intake was recorded using 24-hour recall diet frequency chart. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS version 11.5 for windows. Result. Only 27 subjects were affected by caries. The mean DMFT/dmft was 0.37 ± 0.79 and 0.12 ± 0.60, respectively. Statistical analysis by means of a logistic regression model revealed that only oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence (OR = 5.061, P = 0.004), whereas daily sugar intake and body mass index had no significant effect. Conclusion. From the analysis, it was concluded that oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city. PMID:24688550

Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

2014-01-01

84

41 CFR 301-30.4 - When an illness or injury occurs on TDY, what expenses may be allowed?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...occurs on TDY, what expenses may be allowed? 301-30.4 Section 301-30.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 30-EMERGENCY TRAVEL § 301-30.4 When an...

2010-07-01

85

41 CFR 301-30.3 - What should I do if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel? 301-30.3 Section 301-30.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES...

2011-07-01

86

41 CFR 301-30.3 - What should I do if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel? 301-30.3 Section 301-30.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES...

2010-07-01

87

41 CFR 301-30.3 - What should I do if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel? 301-30.3 Section 301-30.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES...

2012-07-01

88

Focal plane resolution and overlapped array TDI imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we model sub-pixel image registration for a generic earth-observing satellite system with a focal plane using two offset Time Delay and Integrate (TDI) arrays in the focal plane to improve the achievable ground resolution over the resolution achievable with a single array. The modeling process starts with a high-resolution image as ground truth. The Parameterized Image Chain Analysis & Simulation SOftware (PICASSO) modeling tool is used to degrade the images to match the optical transfer function, sampling, and noise characteristics of the target system. The model outputs a pair of images with a separation close to the nominal half-pixel separation between the overlapped arrays. A registration estimation algorithm is used to measure the offset for image reconstruction. The two images are aligned and summed on a grid with twice the capture resolution. We compare the resolution in images between the inputs before overlap, the reconstructed image, and a simulation for the image which would have been captured on a focal plane with twice the resolution. We find the performance to always be better than the lower resolution baseline, and to approach the performance of the high-resolution array in the ideal case. We show that the overlapped array imager significantly outperforms both the conventional high- and low-resolution imagers in conditions with high image smear.

Grycewicz, Thomas J.; Cota, Stephen A.; Lomheim, Terrence S.; Kalman, Linda S.

2008-08-01

89

Persistent asthma due to isocyanates. A follow-up study of subjects with occupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate (TDI)  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-five subjects with occupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposure were examined. All the subjects were studied with inhalation challenges with TDI and with methacholine. TDI asthma was documented by a positive inhalation challenge to low levels of TDI. Airway responsiveness to methacholine was in the range of asthmatic patients at the time of diagnosis. After an average follow-up interval of 10 months, all the subjects were re-examined. Of the 35 subjects examined, 30 subjects (85.7%) left the workplace, and 5 remained in the same job. Twenty-seven subjects (77.1%) continued to have asthmatic attacks requiring medication for relief of symptoms. At follow-up examination, TDI asthma was documented by a positive inhalation challenge to TDI in 27 subjects. Of these 27 TDI reactors, 22 subjects were removed from occupational exposure to TDI. The TDI reactors had persistent respiratory symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. At follow-up visit, 8 subjects (22.9%) lost sensitization to TDI; 5 subjects (62.5%) in this group had also normal airway responsiveness to methacholine after removal from exposure. Only 1 subject among the TDI nonreactors complained of mild respiratory symptoms. At diagnosis, there were no significant differences between subjects who recovered and those who did not with regard to age, smoking habits, atopy, duration of exposure to isocyanates, duration of symptoms, baseline FEV1 (% pred), and baseline airway responsiveness to methacholine.

Mapp, C.E.; Corona, P.C.; De Marzo, N.; Fabbri, L.

1988-06-01

90

76 FR 46216 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 2011-0002; Sequence 5] Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting; Correction...general public in an effort to streamline travel policies, incorporated travel...

2011-08-02

91

76 FR 43236 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...streamline travel policies, increase travel efficiency and effectiveness...pertain to Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances that include special...industry and the public will be time limited. Each registered presenter...Dobbs, Director, Office of Travel, Transportation & Asset...

2011-07-20

92

41 CFR 101-39.203-1 - Obtaining motor vehicles while on temporary duty (TDY) travel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Federal employees on TDY requiring short-term use of vehicles in the destination area shall obtain service directly from the appropriate sources listed in the Federal Travel Directory (available from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC...

2010-07-01

93

Symptoms and lung function in low-exposure to TDI by polyurethane foam manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional investigation was performed in seven polyurethane foam manufacturing factories. Lung function tests were performed at the factories by spirometric and nitrogen wash-out methods. Sixty-seven persons were investigated before and after the work shift, and exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) was evaluated by subject-carried sampling equipment on the same day. The day mean exposure to TDI was 0.008 mg\\/

Rolf Alexandersson; Göran Hedenstierna; Ester Randma; Gunnar Rosen; Åke Swenson; Göran Tornling

1985-01-01

94

Feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and real-time ultrasound traits in Duroc pigs: I. Genetic parameter estimation and accuracy of genomic prediction.  

PubMed

The efficiency of producing salable products in the pork industry is largely determined by costs associated with feed and by the amount and quality of lean meat produced. The objectives of this paper were 1) to explore heritability and genetic correlations for growth, feed efficiency, and real-time ultrasound traits using both pedigree and marker information and 2) to assess accuracy of genomic prediction for those traits using Bayes A prediction models in a Duroc terminal sire population. Body weight at birth (BW at birth) and weaning (BW at weaning) and real-time ultrasound traits, including back fat thickness (BF), muscle depth (MD), and intramuscular fat content (IMF), were collected on the basis of farm protocol. Individual feed intake and serial BW records of 1,563 boars obtained from feed intake recording equipment (FIRE; Osborne Industries Inc., Osborne, KS) were edited to obtain growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency traits, including ADG, ADFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI). Correspondingly, 1,047 boars were genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. The remaining 516 boars, as an independent sample, were genotyped with a low-density GGP-Porcine BeadChip and imputed to 60K. Magnitudes of heritability from pedigree analysis were moderate for growth, feed intake, and ultrasound traits (ranging from 0.44 ± 0.11 for ADG to 0.58 ± 0.09 for BF); heritability estimates were 0.32 ± 0.09 for FCR but only 0.10 ± 0.05 for RFI. Comparatively, heritability estimates using marker information by Bayes A models were about half of those from pedigree analysis, suggesting "missing heritability." Moderate positive genetic correlations between growth and feed intake (0.32 ± 0.05) and back fat (0.22 ± 0.04), as well as negative genetic correlations between growth and feed efficiency traits (-0.21 ± 0.08, -0.05 ± 0.07), indicate selection solely on growth traits may lead to an undesirable increase in feed intake, back fat, and reduced feed efficiency. Genetic correlations among growth, feed intake, and FCR assessed by a multiple-trait Bayes A model resulted in increased genetic correlation between ADG and ADFI, a negative correlation between ADFI and FCR, and a positive correlation between ADG and FCR. Accuracies of genomic prediction for the traits investigated, ranging from 9.4% for RFI to 36.5% for BF, were reported that might provide new insight into pig breeding and future selection programs using genomic information. PMID:24671579

Jiao, S; Maltecca, C; Gray, K A; Cassady, J P

2014-06-01

95

The high CA diet had no effect upon phosphorus utilization. Daily amounts of excreted, absorbed and retained calcium were increased whereas Ca absorption relative to intake was not  

E-print Network

and retained calcium were increased whereas Ca absorption relative to intake was not significantly decreased in high CA fed pigs. All signs of phosphorus deficiency such as hypophosphatemia, hypercalcemia, hypophos diet. It was concluded that harmful effects of phosphorus deficiency are intensified by dietary Ca

Boyer, Edmond

96

Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

2012-01-01

97

Determination of PCDD/Fs in breast milk of women living in the vicinities of Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (Vietnam) and estimation of the infant's daily intake.  

PubMed

Seventeen toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in breast milks using the high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method. Twenty seven breast milk samples were collected from primiparae who have lived over 5 years in wards namely Chinh Gian, An Khe, Khue Trung, and Hoa Thuan Tay which are located near the Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (the AO/Dioxin hot spot). The samples were then analyzed for PCDD/F residues in order to assess the human exposure to dioxins from the AO/Dioxin hot spot, especially health risk to the breast-fed infants. The average TEQ levels in the four studied cohorts ranged from 8.1 to 26 pg/g lipid, with the highest level up to 51 pg TEQ/g lipid found in the An Khe ward. The TEQ level was correlated with geographical position and ranking in the order of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe. The mean estimated PCDD/Fs infant's daily intake in the cohort of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe was about 41, 122, 124, and 134 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, respectively, which are much higher than the tolerable daily intake proposed by the World Health Organization (4 pg TEQ/kg bw/day). PMID:24613651

Hue, N T M; Nam, V D; Thuong, N V; Huyen, N T; Phuong, N T H; Hung, N X; Tuan, N H; Son, L K; Minh, N H

2014-09-01

98

Validity and Reproducibility of a Self-Administered Semi-Quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Usual Daily Fat, Fibre, Alcohol, Caffeine and Theobromine Intakes among Belgian Post-Menopausal Women  

PubMed Central

A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d) estimated diet records (EDR, n 64) and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79). Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47–0.94; weighted ? 0.25–0.66) and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71–0.87) with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted ? 0.33–0.80). In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population. PMID:19440274

Bolca, Selin; Huybrechts, Inge; Verschraegen, Mia; De Henauw, Stefaan; Van de Wiele, Tom

2009-01-01

99

Impact of dietary fat source and concentration and daily fatty acid intake on the composition of carcass fat and iodine value sampled in three regions of the pork carcass.  

PubMed

The increased inclusion of unsaturated fats in pig diets has raised issues related to pork carcass fat quality. The objective of this experiment was to more precisely measure how differing levels of daily fatty acid intake alters the fatty acid composition in 3 different fat depots. A total of 42 gilts and 21 barrows (PIC 337 × C22/29) with an average initial weight of 77.80 ± 0.38 kg were allotted randomly based on sex and BW to 7 treatments: 3 and 6% of each of tallow (TAL; iodine value [IV] = 41.9), choice white grease (CWG; IV = 66.5), or corn oil (CO; IV = 123.1) and a control (CNTR) corn-soybean meal-based diet with no added fat. Pigs were individually housed to allow accurate measurement of individual feed intake, in particular, daily dietary fatty acid and energy intake. Fat samples were collected from the jowl, belly, and loin at slaughter. Diet and carcass fat samples were analyzed for IV. Belly weights were recorded at slaughter along with a subjective belly firmness score (1 = firmest to 3 = least firm). Carcass lipid IV was increased (P < 0.001) by increasing the degree of unsaturation of the dietary fat source (66.8, 70.3, and 76.3 for TAL, CWG, and CO, respectively). Carcass lipid IV for TAL and CWG was not affected (P > 0.05) by inclusion levels; however, carcass lipid IV was greater (P < 0.001) in pigs fed 6 than 3% CO (80.0 vs. 72.6), and carcasses of gilts had greater IV (P < 0.001) than carcasses of barrows (71.5 vs. 69.1). Increasing the level of TAL and CO but not CWG from 3 to 6% decreased the apparent total tract digestibility of GE, resulting in a source × level interaction (P < 0.05). Dietary fat source had no effect (P ? 0.66) on apparent total tract digestibility of either DM or GE, but feeding 6% dietary fat increased G:F (P = 0.006) over pigs fed 3% fat (0.358 vs. 0.337). Of all the fatty acids measured, only linoleic acid intake presented a reasonable coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.61). Overall, IV product (IVP) was approximately equal to linoleic acid intake as a predictor of carcass IV (R(2) = 0.93 vs. R(2) = 0.94). When inclusion of dietary fat and PUFA intake increased, IVP placed more emphasis on the dietary fat inclusion level rather than the dietary fat composition. Linoleic acid intake corrected the overemphasis placed on dietary fat inclusion by IVP. To conclude, linoleic acid intake showed a strong relationship with carcass IV and can be used as a predictor. PMID:25367509

Kellner, T A; Prusa, K J; Patience, J F

2014-12-01

100

Influence of the method of production of eggs on the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine contaminants: an independent study in the Canary Islands (Spain).  

PubMed

Analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were performed on eggs from three different production types (conventional, free-run and organic) collected from the markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). Unlike other studies we did not found differences in the content of PCBs or OCPs of eggs in relation to its production type. Median ?OCPs content was 3.87 ng g?¹ fat, being dieldrin, dicofol, hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT the most frequently detected. Median ?PCBs value was 3.93 ng g?¹ fat, with 79.9% of this amount coming from the marker PCBs. Two samples, one free-run and one organic, greatly exceeded the current European Commission (EC) limit of 2.5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F) g?¹ lipid, but the rest were well below of this limit. The concentrations of PAHs in conventionally produced eggs were almost 4 times higher than in free-run or organic eggs. Mean dietary intake estimates of the organochlorine contaminants based on consumption of eggs, regardless of the type chosen, is negligible for the Canary Islands' population. However, the median dietary intake estimates of PAHs greatly depend on the type of eggs chosen, being much lower when free-run and organic eggs are consumed. PMID:23939041

Luzardo, Octavio P; Rodríguez-Hernández, Angel; Quesada-Tacoronte, Yohana; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Almeida-González, Maira; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

2013-10-01

101

The Application of the TDI Method to Observations of Lunar Occultations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In my dissertation, I discuss how the time delay integration (TDI) method can be applied to observations of lunar occultations. The TDI method allows us to track the diffraction pattern of an occulted star by stepping the photon-generated charge packages in a CCD array placed in the pupil plane of a large telescope. The use of TDI should considerably improve the signal-to-noise ratio that can be reached in occultation observations compared with that which can be obtained currently using conventional high-speed photometers. This novel method could extend lunar occultation studies to faint stars and telescopes with large apertures without the aperture distortion effect inherent in the conventional method. The high signal-to-noise ratio allows us to obtain stellar angular diameters with accuracy better than 2% for mv<5 and ? >1 mas as well as more accurate photometry in close double systems.

Sturmann, Laszlo

1997-12-01

102

Realization of the FPGA based TDI algorithm in digital domain for CMOS cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to make the CMOS image sensors suitable for space high resolution imaging applications, a new method realizing TDI in digital domain by FPGA is proposed in this paper, which improves the imaging mode for area array CMOS sensors. The TDI algorithm accumulates the corresponding pixels of adjoining frames in digital domain, so the gray values increase by M times, where M is for the integration number, and the image's quality in signal-to-noise ratio can be improved. In addition, the TDI optimization algorithm is discussed. Firstly, the signal storage is optimized by 2 slices of external RAM, where memory depth expanding and the table tennis operation mechanism are used. Secondly, the FIFO operation mechanism reduces the reading and writing operation on memory by M×(M-1) times, It saves so much signal transfer time as is proportional to the square of integration number M2, that the frame frequency is able to increase greatly. At last, the CMOS camera based on TDI in digital domain is developed, and the algorithm is validated by experiments on it.

Tao, Shuping; Jin, Guang; Zhang, Xuyan; Qu, Hongsong

2012-10-01

103

Asthma Symptoms and Specific IgE Levels among Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI) Exposed Workers in Tehran, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is an imperative chemical substance used in the production of polyurethane foams, elastomers, paints and coatings that cause a variety of health problems in workers who are exposed in work places. This study aimed to determine the asthma symptoms and serum specific IgE levels in TDI exposed workers and comparing the results with healthy control group. Methods: All the plants that use TDI in the manufacturing of paint and glue in the west of Tehran Province entered to the study and all the workers (550) completed modified initial questionnaire of the NIOSH, the questions were consisted of asthma symptoms. For each symptomatic exposed worker one healthy, sex and age matched control selected. Total IgE and Specific TDI IgE tests were done for each case and control groups. Results: Among 550 TDI exposed workers, 26(4.7%) had asthma symptoms. Nine (34.6%) of symptomatic workers who were exposed to TDI were active cigarette consumer versus 3(11.5%) unexposed workers, P=0.049(CI= 0.953–17.29) OR=4.059. Nine (34.6%) workers had positive family history of atopy versus 1(3.8%) unexposed workers, P=0.0138 (CI= 1.45–305.41) OR=13.24. TDI specific IgE was found in 2 TDI exposed workers and 1 unexposed worker (P=0.5). Mean of total IgE was 339.05 in exposed workers (P=0.201). Conclusion: This study provides clinical and paraclinical data of workers exposed to TDI and points to a relation between atopy and smoking habit with asthma symptoms that offer preventing recommendations for TDI exposed workers and their heath administrators. PMID:23785679

SHARIFI, Laleh; KARIMI, Akram; SHOKOUHI SHOORMASTI, Raheleh; MIRI, Sara; HEYDAR NAZHAD, Hassan; BOKAIE, Saied; FAZLOLLAHI, Mohammad Reza; SADEGHNIIAT HAGHIGHI, Khosro; POURPAK, Zahra; MOIN, Mostafa

2013-01-01

104

A configurable distributed high-performance computing framework for satellite's TDI-CCD imaging simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper renders a configurable distributed high performance computing(HPC) framework for TDI-CCD imaging simulation. It uses strategy pattern to adapt multi-algorithms. Thus, this framework help to decrease the simulation time with low expense. Imaging simulation for TDI-CCD mounted on satellite contains four processes: 1) atmosphere leads degradation, 2) optical system leads degradation, 3) electronic system of TDI-CCD leads degradation and re-sampling process, 4) data integration. Process 1) to 3) utilize diversity data-intensity algorithms such as FFT, convolution and LaGrange Interpol etc., which requires powerful CPU. Even uses Intel Xeon X5550 processor, regular series process method takes more than 30 hours for a simulation whose result image size is 1500 * 1462. With literature study, there isn't any mature distributing HPC framework in this field. Here we developed a distribute computing framework for TDI-CCD imaging simulation, which is based on WCF[1], uses Client/Server (C/S) layer and invokes the free CPU resources in LAN. The server pushes the process 1) to 3) tasks to those free computing capacity. Ultimately we rendered the HPC in low cost. In the computing experiment with 4 symmetric nodes and 1 server , this framework reduced about 74% simulation time. Adding more asymmetric nodes to the computing network, the time decreased namely. In conclusion, this framework could provide unlimited computation capacity in condition that the network and task management server are affordable. And this is the brand new HPC solution for TDI-CCD imaging simulation and similar applications.

Xue, Bo; Mao, Bingjing; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang

2010-11-01

105

41 CFR 301-11.8 - What is the maximum per diem rate I will receive if lodging is not available at my TDY location?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...lodging is not available at my TDY location? 301-11.8 Section 301-11.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules §...

2010-07-01

106

Analysis of dioxins, furans and DL-PCBs in food and feed samples from Lithuania and estimation of human intake.  

PubMed

The methods, validated for determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin like-polychlorinated biphenyls were applied for investigation of food and feed matrixes. Validation criteria on repeatability and reproducibility conditions comply with the requirements of European Commission. Validated methods were successfully applied for determination of PCDD/F and DL-PCB in fish, meat and feed using HRGC-HRMS. Statistical data was evaluated. One focal point of this work was to determine a fit for dioxins, furans and DL-PCBs of fatty fish for human consumption from the Baltic Sea ICES 26. Daily intake was found to be in the range of 2-4 TEQ pg/kg body weight and it is in the range of recommended TDI of 1-4 TEQ pg/kg body weight. The range of Baltic cod liver was 2-4 pg TEQ kgbw(-1)d(-1) WHO-TEQ((1998)) PCDD/F, PCB and its consumption was forbidden in Lithuania in 2011. Baltic fish represents 97.9% of human daily intake. Other matrixes like meat, eggs and feed did not exceed the maximum limit set by EU during the period of 2005-2011. PMID:22939936

Godliauskien?, R; Petraitis, J; Jarmalait?, I; Naujalis, E

2012-11-01

107

A large area TDI image sensor for low light level imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1030 x 128 element time delay and integration (TDI) CCD image sensor has been developed for low-light-level (LLL) imaging applications. For LLL imaging, output is derived from a high-gain low-noise floating-gate amplifier (FGA). For larger input signal levels, a second, resettable floating-gate amplifier (RFGA) with lower gain and wider dynamic range provides output in parallel to the FGA. The

M. G. Farrier; R. H. Dyck

1980-01-01

108

Modeling formation and distribution of toluene-2,4-diamine (TDA) after spillage of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) into a river.  

PubMed

Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a large volume chemical used for the production of polyurethanes. It is sparingly soluble in water, but hydrolyses instantaneously liberating toluene diamine (TDA), which is highly reactive to TDI. The ecotoxicity of TDI is dominated by TDA. The hydrolysis of TDI under static and dynamic conditions was investigated previously. Previously published data on TDI hydrolysis were re-visited, and based on these data a model was developed that allows a conservative and quick estimation of TDA concentrations in rivers following a major incident with TDI. As earlier published model experiments indicate, the maximum achievable TDA concentration is about 30 mg/L. Model simulations based on these experiments indicate that the TDA concentrations in a river after TDI discharge may be up to three orders of magnitude lower. PMID:23507364

Schupp, Thomas

2013-05-15

109

Effect of amphetamine on human macronutrient intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six male subjects participated in a 15-day residential study examining the effects of amphetamine on macronutrient intake. During the first 11 days, carbohydrate intake was manipulated by providing lunch meals high (155 g) or low (25 g) in carbohydrate. Subjects received oral d-amphetamine (5, 10 mg\\/70 kg, BID) or placebo. Total daily caloric intake was similar under both lunch conditions

Richard W. Foltin; Thomas H. Kelly; Marian W. F

1995-01-01

110

Dermal uptake and excretion of 14C-toluene diisocyante (TDI) and 14C-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in male rats. Clinical signs and histopathology following dermal exposure of male rats to TDI.  

PubMed

Polyurethanes (PU) are polymers made with diisocyanates such as MDI (4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate) and TDI (2,4-toluene diisocyanate and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate). Investigations have been undertaken with MDI and TDI to assess dermal uptake and resulting systemic exposure. Absorption, distribution and excretion of MDI was studied in rats using a single dermal administration of (14)C-MDI dissolved in acetone at nominal 165 mg/kg body weight and 15 mg/kg bw (4.0 and 0.4 mg/cm(2)) and intradermal injection of (14)C-MDI dissolved in corn oil at nominal 1.4 mg/kg bw. Dermal absorption of (14)C-MDI (at both doses) was low; at or below 1% of the applied dose. Considerable amounts of the applied radioactivity were found at the application site which could not be washed off. By intradermal administration of (14)C-MDI approximately 66% of applied radioactivity remained at the application site with approximately 26% recovered in excreta, cage wash, tissues and carcass. The absorption, distribution and excretion of 2,4-TDI was studied in rats following a single dermal administration of radiolabelled (14)C-2,4-TDI at nominal 350 mg/kg body weight (12 mg/cm(2)). Dermal absorption of (14)C-2,4-TDI was at or below 1% of the applied dose. Considerable amounts of the applied radioactivity were found at the application site which could not be washed off. In summary the results show that dermal uptake of MDI and TDI is very low. Due to the chemical reactivity of isocyanates it can be expected that small amounts which might be absorbed will react with tissue constituents directly at the exposed skin area, or will be converted to adducts with biomacromolecules or to biologically inactive oligoureas. Overall it is concluded that, following dermal exposure to MDI and TDI, systemic exposures and resulting toxicity, other than the known sensitization, can be expected to be very low. In addition studies were performed with dermal application of unlabelled 2,4 and 2,6 TDI to check the availability and fate of this chemical on rat skin surface and to assess possible tissue damage. These experiments showed that unchanged test material can be detected on rat skin for up to 8h if not washed off. Dermal treatment with 2,4 or 2,6 TDI was associated with irritation with increased severity over a 48 h period after washing with a decontaminant solution. PMID:20933064

Hoffmann, H D; Leibold, E; Ehnes, C; Fabian, E; Landsiedel, R; Gamer, A; Poole, A

2010-12-15

111

INPE-12145-TDI/969 ANLISE DE EPISDIOS DE TORNADO EM SANTA CATARINA  

E-print Network

INPE-12145-TDI/969 ANÁLISE DE EPIS�DIOS DE TORNADO EM SANTA CATARINA: CARACTERIZA��O SIN�TICA E. Análise de episódios de tornados em Santa Catarina: caracterização sinótica e mineração de dados / I. P. O(meteorologia). 3.Meteorologia sinótica. 4.Imagem de satélite. 5.Mineração de dados. 6.Paisagem. 7.Brasil. 8.Santa

112

A relativistic orbit model for the LISA mission to be used in LISA TDI simulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LISA mission is an interferometer, formed by three spacecraft, that aims at the detection of gravitational waves in the [10-4, 10-1] Hz frequency band. Present LISA TDI simulators, aimed at validating the novel Time Delay Interferometry method, use a classical Keplerian orbit model at first order in eccentricity in the gravitational field of a spherical non-rotating Sun, without planets. We propose to use the same model but described in the framework of relativistic gravity, and we focus here on quantifying the differences between classical and relativistic orbits for the LISA spacecraft, under the same assumptions.

Pireaux, Sophie; Chauvineau, Bertrand

2010-01-01

113

Design of 90×8 ROIC with pixel level digital TDI implementation for scanning type LWIR FPAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design of a 90×8 CMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) based on pixel level digital time delay integration (TDI) for scanning type LWIR focal plane arrays (FPAs) is presented. TDI is implemented on 8 pixels which improves the SNR of the system with a factor of ?8. Oversampling rate of 3 improves the spatial resolution of the system. TDI operation is realized with a novel under-pixel analog-to-digital converter, which improves the noise performance of ROIC with a lower quantization noise. Since analog signal is converted to digital domain in-pixel, non-uniformities and inaccuracies due to analog signal routing over large chip area is eliminated. Contributions of each pixel for proper TDI operation are added in summation counters, no op-amps are used for summation, hence power consumption of ROIC is lower than its analog counterparts. Due to lack of multiple capacitors or summation amplifiers, ROIC occupies smaller chip area compared to its analog counterparts. ROIC is also superior to its digital counterparts due to novel digital TDI implementation in terms of power consumption, noise and chip area. ROIC supports bi-directional scan, multiple gain settings, bypass operation, automatic gain adjustment, pixel select/deselect, and is programmable through serial or parallel interface. Input referred noise of ROIC is less than 750 rms electrons, while power consumption is less than 20mW. ROIC is designed to perform both in room and cryogenic temperatures.

Ceylan, Omer; Kayahan, Huseyin; Yazici, Melik; Gurbuz, Yasar

2013-06-01

114

Relation between dietary intake and nutritional status in cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated adherence to current dietary recommendations of children with cystic fibrosis and mild lung disease and their siblings by comparing energy intake. Fifty children (25 with cystic fibrosis) aged between 7 and 12 years completed the study. Energy intake was assessed by weighed dietary intake, resting energy expenditure was used to calculate recommended daily intakes. The children with

H Anthony; J Bines; P Phelan; S Paxton

1998-01-01

115

Daily Care  

MedlinePLUS

... in daily life . Help the person remain as independent as possible. Offer opportunities for choice. Establish a familiar routine . Sign up for our e-Newsletter for care tips and news. ALZConnected ® Connect with our online caregiver community at ...

116

Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy of MDI and TDI Polyurethane Stephen G. Urquhart,*, Archie P. Smith, Harald W. Ade, Adam P. Hitchcock,  

E-print Network

Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy of MDI and TDI Polyurethane Polymers Stephen) to differences in key chemical components of polyurethane polymers is presented. Carbon 1s NEXAFS spectra of polyurethane polymers made from 4,4-methylene di-p-phenylene isocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI

117

Micronuclei, hemoglobin adducts and respiratory tract irritation in mice after inhalation of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI).  

PubMed

Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), used in the production of polyurethane foam, are well known for their irritating and sensitizing properties. Contradictory results have been obtained on their genotoxicity. We investigated the genotoxicity and protein binding of inhaled TDI and MDI in mice by examining micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in bone marrow and peripheral blood and TDI- and MDI-derived adducts in hemoglobin. Male C57Bl/6J mice (8 per group) were exposed head-only to TDI vapour (mean concentrations 1.1, 1.5, and 2.4mg/m(3); the mixture of isomers contained, on the average, 63% 2,4-TDI and 37% 2,6-TDI) or MDI aerosol (mean concentrations 10.7, 20.9 and 23.3mg/m(3)), during 1h/day for 5 consecutive days. Bone marrow and peripheral blood were collected 24h after the last exposure. Inhalation of TDI caused sensory irritation (SI) in the upper respiratory tract, and cumulative effects were observed at the highest exposure level. Inhalation of MDI produced SI and airflow limitation, and influx of inflammatory cells into the lungs. Hemoglobin adducts detected in the exposed mice resulted from direct binding to globin of 2,4- and 2,6-TDI and MDI, and dose-dependent increases were observed especially for 2,4-TDI-derived adducts. Adducts originating from the diamines of TDI (toluene diamine) or MDI (methylene dianiline) were not observed. No significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated PCEs was detected in the bone marrow or peripheral blood of the mice exposed to TDI or MDI. The ratio of PCEs and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs) was reduced at the highest concentration of MDI, and a slight reduction of the PCE/NCE ratio, dependent on cumulative inhaled dose, was also seen with TDI. Our results indicate that inhalation of TDI or MDI (1h/day for 5 days), at levels that induce toxic effects and formation of TDI- or MDI-specific adducts in hemoglobin, does not have detectable genotoxic effects in mice, as studied with the micronucleus assay. PMID:21453781

Lindberg, Hanna K; Korpi, Anne; Santonen, Tiina; Säkkinen, Kirsi; Järvelä, Merja; Tornaeus, Jarkko; Ahonen, Niina; Järventaus, Hilkka; Pasanen, Anna-Liisa; Rosenberg, Christina; Norppa, Hannu

2011-07-14

118

Title: Health Policy Fellow Position #: 1011446 Department: TDI (The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice) Category: Exempt  

E-print Network

and the Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform at The Brookings Institution in an effort to translate policy ideasTitle: Health Policy Fellow Position #: 1011446 Department: TDI (The Dartmouth Institute for Health Position Purpose To support the Center for Population Health at The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy

Myers, Lawrence C.

119

REQUEST AND AUTH FOR TDY TRAVEL OF INT'L MILITARY STUDENT (Reference: DSCA SAMM) (Read Privacy Act Statement on  

E-print Network

or preclude timely authorization of travel request. 16. REMARKS (Continued) (Use this space for specialREQUEST AND AUTH FOR TDY TRAVEL OF INT'L MILITARY STUDENT (Reference: DSCA SAMM) (Read Privacy Act Statement on back before completing form.) 1. DATE OF REQUEST (YYYYMMDD) REQUEST FOR OFFICIAL TRAVEL 2. NAME

120

Comparison of PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels in Turkish foodstuffs: industrial versus rural, local versus supermarket products, and assessment of dietary intake.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like (indicator) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored in various foodstuffs of animal origin and edible oil samples obtained from two different cities in Turkey both rural and industrial. Total dioxin+dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCB concentrations of pooled samples ranged 0.20-4.19 pg World Health Organization-Toxic Equivalency (WHO-TEQ)(1998)/g fat and 57.2-1710 pg/g fat, respectively. The dominant congeners were 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDD and PCB126. Dietary intake of dioxin+dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCBs from fish, dairy products, edible oil, egg and meat was 0.509 pg WHO-TEQ1998/kg bw (body weight)/day and 839 pg/kg bw/day in Afyon and 0.588 pg WHO-TEQ1998/ kg bw/day and 1070 pg/kg bw/day in Kocaeli, respectively. The major contributors to total exposure were dairy products and fish. Despite the unexplained high contamination level in an individual egg sample from Kocaeli, average concentration levels in Turkey, even in industrialized regions, were low compared to reported concentrations in Western Europe. Exposure levels were well below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 2 pg WHO-TEQ1998/kg body weight. PMID:21547797

Kilic, Devrim; Çak?ro?ullar?, Gül Çelik; Uçar, Yunus; Theelen, Rob; Traag, Wim

2011-07-01

121

Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ?3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

2014-01-01

122

Daily consumption of individual snack foods decreases their reinforcing value  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reinforcing value of food is one factor that influences energy intake. The purpose of this study was to determine if the reinforcing value of highly liked snack foods could be modified by restriction or daily intake of individual preferred foods in the absence of changes in total energy intake. Food reinforcement was tested at baseline and after each of

Jennifer L. Temple; Ashley Chappel; Jennifer Shalik; Suzanne Volcy; Leonard H. Epstein

2008-01-01

123

Usual Dietary Intakes: Details of the Method  

Cancer.gov

If estimating usual intakes of nutrients (or any dietary component consumed daily), the steps are simpler because there is no need to model probability. Therefore, a two-part model is not needed in Step 1.

124

Constitution Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyone could use a bit of the Constitution added to their daily lives, and this website more than delivers on its promise to deliver "smart conversation about the Constitution". Constitution Daily is an experimental blog edited by the National Constitution Center (NCC) in Philadelphia, and commentary here can include conversations about student privacy rights, the Second Amendment, and the activities of Congress. Visitors can click on the "Issues" section to dive into topic areas that include civility and privacy. After looking at each topic area, visitors can look at an interactive timeline that arranges comments, posts, and discussion on the subject. The site also contains some nice polls, and information about upcoming events at the NCC.

125

Reaction monitoring of toluenediisocyanate (TDI) polymerization on a non-mixable aqueous surface by MALDI mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The polymerization reaction of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and hydroxyl compounds has been widely used for the production of polyurea resins. Since the composition and molecular-weight distribution of polymer adducts greatly influence the final properties of the resuting polymer, the development of analytical tools capable of monitoring the polyaddition reactions is important to control them as well as the properties of the resuting polymer. Here we report that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) is useful to precisely monitor time-dependent dynamic events occurring in the polymerization reaction of TDI with water. For this purpose, the polymerization reactions were conducted in two different reaction systems, continuously supplying sufficient water and depleting water after an initial exposure of water to provide an anhydrous storage condition of prepolymer adducts. Samples prepared in a time course from the two different reaction systems were analyzed by a MALDI TOF mass spectrometer. The polymerization adducts of TDI and water were monitored and showed to consist of three structural types of polymer adduct series, including diisocyanate, monoamino, and diamino series. These MALDI mass data efficiently reflected changes in the reaction conditions of each TDI polymerization reaction, thereby providing precise information at the molecular level for time-dependent events occurring during the polymerization reaction. These events included changes between the polymer adduct series and in the molecular-weight distribution of each polymer adduct series. The results obtained in this study suggest that high-throughput MALDI MS-based dynamic monitoring of polymerization can be used to precisely control the polymerization reaction as well as to rapidly monitor the state of prepolymers in storage. PMID:23842412

Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Ji Seok; Kim, Sung Ho

2013-01-01

126

Introduction to dietary reference intakes.  

PubMed

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are nutrient reference standards used for planning and assessing the diets of apparently healthy Canadians and Americans. The development of DRIs reflects a joint initiative by the United States and Canada to update, expand on, and replace the former Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Canadians and Recommended Dietary Allowances for Americans. DRIs include the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The EAR is the average daily intake level that meets the requirement of 50% of healthy individuals in a life stage and gender group, whereas the RDA is set at a level that will meet the requirements of almost all (97%-98%) individuals in that life stage and gender group. An AI is a recommended intake level that is thought to meet the needs of almost all healthy individuals, and is set when there are insufficient data to establish an EAR (and therefore an RDA). The UL represents a threshold above which adverse effects of excessive intake may increase. In addition to these DRIs, macro nutrients have an Acceptable Macro nutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) and, for energy, an Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) is described. PMID:16604144

Barr, Susan I

2006-02-01

127

Dietary lead intake of preschool children  

SciTech Connect

A nationwide, seven-day food consumption survey of 371 preschool children between the ages of birth and five years indicated that a direct linear relationship existed between age and increased dietary lead intake from foods consumed. Daily dietary lead intake averaged 62 ..mu..g and ranged from 15 ..mu..g to 234 ..mu..g. The various levels of lead intake were attributed to frequency of consumption of food items, quantity of food consumed, and the lead content of particular food items. To account for variation in the quantity of food consumed by the various children, average lead intake per 500 kilocalories consumed and per 500 g of food consumed was calculated. When these standardization procedures were followed, an equalization in the average daily dietary lead intake values was observed among the various aged children.

Bander, L.K.; Morgan, K.J.; Zabik, M.E.

1983-07-01

128

[Arterial hypertension and salt intake].  

PubMed

More than 25% of adult population worldwide and according to the EHUH study 37% of the adult population of Croatia have hypertension. In the last decades, a dramatic increase has been recorded in the prevalence of hypertension, and it is predicted that this trend will lead to an even higher prevalence in the near future. This could primarily be explained by strong influence of environmental factors. Many epidemiological and interventional studies have proved that high salt intake is one of the most important risk factors. High salt intake increases total peripheral vascular resistance, induces oxidative stress and inflammation, thus accelerating the atherosclerotic process. Independently of the effects on blood pressure, salt intake promotes left ventricular hypertrophy and microalbuminuria and increases the risk of stroke. Interventional studies have shown that salt intake reduction is associated with lower blood pressure and lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Reducing salt intake in daily meals should be the main measure in primary prevention of cardiovascular and renal diseases, and it should be repeatedly emphasized not only to hypertensive patients, but also to the population at large. PMID:20649075

Jelakovi?, Bojan; Vukovi?, Ivana; Reiner, Zeljko

2010-05-01

129

Prednisone as Initial Treatment of Analgesic-Induced Daily Headache  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the patients who seek medical care in tertiary headache centres present with transformed migraine, and convert to daily headache, as a result of excessive intake of symptomatic medications (SM). This study aimed to analyse the possibility of using a short course of oral prednisone for detoxifying patients with chronic daily headache due to medication overuse in an

A V Krymchantowski; J S Barbosa

2000-01-01

130

Obesity = physical activity + dietary intake + sleep stages + light exposure.  

PubMed

Daily levels of physical activity and calories from dietary intake have been the focus of obesity prevention measures. Recent findings have made a twist in the line of thinking. The timing of physical exercise and that of dietary intake are also important to obesity prevention. Night-time sleep and exposure to light are therefore important targets of intervention. PMID:25088724

Partonen, Timo

2014-08-01

131

Eating patterns and fat intake in school children in Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the quality of children’s daily diet and some nutritional habits with regard to fat, cholesterol and saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake. Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) with weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat as anthropometric parameter was used in children aged 7–10 years. The average energy intake in almost all

I. Coli? Bari?; Z. Šatali?

2002-01-01

132

Hidden vegetables: an effective strategy to reduce energy intake and increase vegetable intake in adults123  

PubMed Central

Background: The overconsumption of energy-dense foods leads to excessive energy intakes. The substitution of low-energy-dense vegetables for foods higher in energy density can help decrease energy intakes but may be difficult to implement if individuals dislike the taste of vegetables. Objective: We investigated whether incorporating puréed vegetables to decrease the energy density of entrées at multiple meals reduced daily energy intakes and increased daily vegetable intakes. Design: In this crossover study, 20 men and 21 women ate ad libitum breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for 3 wk. Across conditions, entrées at meals varied in energy density from standard versions (100% condition) to reduced versions (85% and 75% conditions) by the covert incorporation of 3 or 4.5 times the amount of puréed vegetables. Entrées were accompanied by unmanipulated side dishes. Participants rated their hunger and fullness before and after meals. Results: Subjects consumed a consistent weight of foods across conditions of energy density; thus, the daily energy intake significantly decreased by 202 ± 60 kcal in the 85% condition (P < 0.001) and by 357 ± 47 kcal in the 75% condition (P < 0.0001). Daily vegetable consumption significantly increased from 270 ± 17 g of vegetables in the 100% condition to 487 ± 25 g of vegetables in the 75% condition (P < 0.0001). Despite the decreased energy intake, ratings of hunger and fullness did not significantly differ across conditions. Entrées were rated as similar in palatability across conditions. Conclusions: Large amounts of puréed vegetables can be incorporated into various foods to decrease the energy density. This strategy can lead to substantial reductions in energy intakes and increases in vegetable intakes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01165086. PMID:21289225

Blatt, Alexandria D; Roe, Liane S

2011-01-01

133

Arguments at Mealtime and Child Energy Intake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine how arguments at mealtimes relate to children's daily energy intake. Design: A cross-sectional study using data obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 (QLSCD), a representative sample of children born in 1998, in the province of Quebec, Canada. Setting: Face-to-face interviews,…

Burnier, Daniel; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

2011-01-01

134

Food Intake of Children with Short Stature Born Small for Gestational Age before and during a Randomized GH Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents of short children born SGA often report that their children have a serious lack of appetite and a low food intake. In this study we investigated food intake, by using a standardized 7-day food questionnaire, in 88 short SGA children before start of GH treatment. The intake was compared with the recommended daily intake (RDI) of age-matched children. We

V. H. Boonstra; N. J. T. Arends; T. Stijnen; W. F. Blum; O. Akkerman; A. C. S. Hokken-Koelega

2006-01-01

135

NEW APPROACHES IN THE DERIVATION OF ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE (ADI)  

EPA Science Inventory

Current methods for estimating human health risks from exposure to threshold-acting toxicants in water or food, such as those established by the U.S. EPA, the FDA, the NAS, the WHO and the FAO, consider only chronic or lifetime exposure to individual chemicals. These methods gene...

136

Nutrient intakes and impact of fortified breakfast cereals in schoolchildren.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To report micronutrient intakes in Northern Ireland schoolchildren, and to establish the contribution of fortified breakfast cereal to overall nutrient intakes and achievement of current dietary recommendations. DESIGN: Analysis of dietary intakes and physical characteristics of participants in a randomly selected 2% population sample of 1015 schoolchildren aged 12 and 15 years in Northern Ireland during the 1990/1 school year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dietary intakes, physical characteristics, and their association with consumption of fortified breakfast cereal. RESULTS: Mean micronutrient intakes were generally adequate with the exception of low intakes of folate (boys and girls) and iron (girls). Fortified breakfast cereals, consumed by a high proportion (94% boys; 83% girls) of the sample, were associated with higher daily intakes of most micronutrients and fibre and with a macronutrient profile consistent with current nutritional recommendations. Appreciable proportions of subjects who did not consume fortified breakfast cereals had daily intakes that fell below the lower reference nutrient intake for riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin B-12, and iron (girls). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the potential of fortification in contributing to micronutrient intakes of schoolchildren, particularly where requirements are high, or for those on marginal diets of low nutritional quality. PMID:9014598

McNulty, H; Eaton-Evans, J; Cran, G; Woulahan, G; Boreham, C; Savage, J M; Fletcher, R; Strain, J J

1996-01-01

137

Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium  

PubMed Central

Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake???75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P?=?0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health consequences, interventions involving parents and school environment to promote water consumption seem pertinent. PMID:24964803

2014-01-01

138

Daily urinary excretion of bisphenol A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Concerns over dietary exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, have been raised because BPA is contained in\\u000a resins and plastics commonly used for the preservation of food and beverages. The purpose of the present study was to assess\\u000a daily intake levels of BPA in a group of male subjects by measuring total urinary BPA (free BPA plus BPA

Chikako Arakawa; Kayumi Fujimaki; Jun Yoshinaga; Hideki Imai; Shigeko Serizawa; Hiroaki Shiraishi

2004-01-01

139

Inhibition of food intake induced by acute stress in rats is due to satiation effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute mild stress induces an inhibition of food intake in rats. In most studies, the cumulative daily food intake is measured but this only provides a quantitative assessment of ingestive behavior. The present study was designed to analyze the reduction in food intake induced by acute stress and to understand which behavioral and central mechanisms are responsible for it. Two

J. Calvez; G. Fromentin; N. Nadkarni; N. Darcel; P. Even; D. Tomé; N. Ballet; C. Chaumontet

2011-01-01

140

Design and development of a fiber optic TDI CCD-based slot-scan digital mammography system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We previously reported on the development, design, and clinical evaluation of a CCD-based, high performance, filmless imaging system for stereotactic needle biopsy procedures in mammography. The MammoVision system has a limited imaging area of 50 mm X 50 mm, since it is designed specifically for breast biopsy applications. We are currently developing a new filmless imaging system designed to cover the 18 cm X 24 cm imaging area required for screening and diagnostic mammography. The diagnostic mammography system is based on four 1100 X 330 pixel format, full-frame, scientific grade, front illuminated, MPP mode CCDs, with 24 micrometers X 24 micrometers square pixels Each CCD is coupled to an x-ray intensifying screen via a 1.7:1 fiber optic reducer. The detector assembly (180 mm long and 13.5 mm wide) is scanned across the patient's breast synchronously with the x-ray source, with the CCDs operated in time-delay integration (TDI) mode. The total scan time is 4.0 seconds.

Toker, Emre; Piccaro, Michele F.

1993-12-01

141

Food Insecurity Is not Associated With Lower Energy Intakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the association between food insecurity and total daily energy intakes in American men and women. We estimated the number of daily snacks and meals consumed by individuals in different food security categories. Also, we calculated the energy contribution, energy density, and food group sources of those snacks and meals. Using the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Claire A. Zizza; Patricia A. Duffy; Shirley A. Gerrior

2008-01-01

142

The beverage intake questionnaire: determining initial validity and reliability.  

PubMed

Consuming energy-containing beverages may lead to weight gain, yet research investigating this issue is limited. An easily administered beverage intake assessment tool could facilitate research on this topic. The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to determine the validity and reliability of a self-administered beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ) that estimates mean daily intake of beverages consumed across 19 beverage categories. Participants (N=105; aged 39+/-2 years) underwent assessments of height, weight, body mass index, and dietary intake using 4-day food intake records from June 2008 to June 2009. The BEVQ was completed at two additional visits (BEVQ1, BEVQ2). Urine samples were collected to objectively determine total fluid intake and encourage accurate self-reporting. Validity was assessed by comparing BEVQ1 with food intake record results; reliability was assessed by comparing BEVQ1 and BEVQ2. Analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, paired samples t tests, and independent samples t tests. Self-reported water and total beverage intake (in grams) were not different between the BEVQ1 and food intake records (mean difference 129+/-77 g [P=0.096] and 61+/-106 g [P=0.567], respectively). Total beverage and sugar-sweetened beverage energy intake were significantly different, although mean differences were small (63 and 44 kcal, respectively). Daily consumption (in grams) of water (r=0.53), total beverages (r=0.46), and sugar-sweetened beverages (r=0.49) determined by the BEVQ1 were correlated with reported intake determined by the food intake record, as was energy from total beverages (r=0.61) and sugar-sweetened beverages (r=0.59) (all P values <0.001). Reliability was demonstrated, with correlations (P<0.001) detected between BEVQ1 and BEVQ2 results. The BEVQ is a valid, reliable, and rapid self-administered dietary assessment tool. PMID:20656099

Hedrick, Valisa E; Comber, Dana L; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Brenda M

2010-08-01

143

Exposure to phthalates in 5-6 years old primary school starters in Germany--a human biomonitoring study and a cumulative risk assessment.  

PubMed

We determined the internal exposure of 111 German primary school starters by analyzing urinary metabolites of six phthalates: butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-iso-decylphthalate (DiDP). From the urinary metabolite levels, we calculated daily intakes and related these values to Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values. By introducing the concept of a relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum)) value, we tried to account for the cumulative exposure to several of the above-mentioned phthalates. The TDI(cum) was derived as follows: the daily intake (DI) calculated from the metabolite level was divided by the TDI for each phthalate; this ratio was multiplied by 100% indicating the TDI percentage for which the DI accounted. Finally the % TDIs of the different phthalates were totalled to get the TDI(cum). A TDI(cum) above 100% is a potential cause for concern. We confirmed the ubiquitous exposure of the children to all phthalates investigated. Exposures were within range of levels previously reported for GerES, albeit slightly lower. Regarding daily intakes, two children exceeded the TDI for DnBP, whereas one child closely approached the TDI for DEHP. 24% of the children exceeded the TDI(cum) for the three most critical phthalates: DEHP, DnBP and DiBP. Furthermore, 54% of the children had total exposures that used up more than 50% the TDI(cum). Therefore, the overall exposure to a number of phthalates, and the knowledge that these phthalates (and other anti-androgens) act in a dose-additive manner, urgently warrants a cumulative risk assessment approach. PMID:21371937

Koch, Holger M; Wittassek, Matthias; Brüning, Thomas; Angerer, Jürgen; Heudorf, Ursel

2011-06-01

144

Maternal Calcium Intake and Offspring Blood Pressure  

PubMed Central

Background Few data exist on the intergenerational influence of calcium intake during pregnancy on offspring blood pressure. Methods and Results As part of the ongoing US prospective cohort study Project Viva, we analyzed 4091 Dinamap blood pressure measurements from 936 six-month-old infants whose mothers had completed food frequency questionnaires during the second trimester of pregnancy. We used mixed models to estimate effects of maternal calcium intake on offspring systolic blood pressure. Mean±SD daily total maternal calcium intake was 1494±523 mg, consisting of 1230±486 mg from foods and 264±191 mg from supplements. Mean±SD 6-month blood pressure was 89.9±12.9 mm Hg. From bottom to top quartile of dietary calcium from foods adjusted for energy intake and measurement conditions, mean infant systolic blood pressures were 91.0, 90.2, 90.9, and 90.2 mm Hg (trend P=0.62). From calcium supplements only, the values were 91.5, 90.2, 90.4, and 88.4 mm Hg (trend P=0.006). After further adjustment for demographic, anthropometric, dietary, social, and economic variables, the decrease in 6-month systolic blood pressure was ?3.0 mm Hg (95% CI, ?4.9 to ?1.1) for each 500-mg increment of maternal supplemental calcium intake during pregnancy. We did not find evidence of effect modification by maternal vitamin D or potassium intake or by infant body mass index. First-trimester calcium intake was not associated with offspring blood pressure. Conclusions These observational data suggest that supplementing maternal midgestational calcium intake may lower offspring blood pressure, thus helping to prevent hypertension in the next generation. PMID:15451777

Gillman, Matthew W.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Lipshultz, Steven E.

2007-01-01

145

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-print Network

from exposure to dioxins include reproductive and developmental problems, damage the immune system.7) and 2.0 (S.D. ¼ 0.5) respectively. The 46% of babies have and estimated total daily intake (TDI) which

Silver, Whendee

146

[Salt intake in children].  

PubMed

Very early in life, sodium intake correlates with blood pressure level. This warrants limiting the consumption of sodium by children. However, evidence regarding exact sodium requirements in that age range is lacking. This article focuses on the desirable sodium intake according to age as suggested by various groups of experts, on the levels of sodium intake recorded in consumption surveys, and on the public health strategies implemented to reduce salt consumption in the pediatric population. Practical recommendations are given by the Committee on nutrition of the French Society of Pediatrics in order to limit salt intake in children. PMID:24686038

Girardet, J-P; Rieu, D; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Hankard, R; Goulet, O; Simeoni, U; Turck, D; Vidailhet, M

2014-05-01

147

Chronic daily headaches  

PubMed Central

Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches. PMID:23024563

Ahmed, Fayyaz; Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Khalil, Modar

2012-01-01

148

Usual Intake of Poultry  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Poultry Table A26. Poultry: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.9 (0.03) 0.3 (0.05) 0.4

149

Usual Intake of Yogurt  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Yogurt Table A35. Yogurt: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1 (0.01) 0.0 (0.00) 0.0

150

Usual Intake of Cheese  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Cheese Table A36. Cheese: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.4 (0.03) 0.1 (0.02) 0.1

151

Usual Intake of Tomatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Tomatoes Table A10. Tomatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1 (0.01) 0.1

152

Total energy intake, adolescent discretionary behaviors and the energy gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To estimate total energy intake and the energy gap—the daily imbalance between energy intake and expenditure—associated with discretionary behaviors of adolescents, namely their leisure active behaviors (playing or participating in sports and heavy chores), leisure sedentary behaviors (television (TV) viewing and playing video and computer games), productive sedentary behaviors (reading or doing homework).Design:Prospective observational study.Participants:A total of 538 students (mean

K R Sonneville; S L Gortmaker

2008-01-01

153

Development of a respiratory sensitization/elicitation protocol of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in Brown Norway rats to derive an elicitation-based occupational exposure level.  

PubMed

Toluene diisocyanate (TDI), a known human asthmagen, was investigated in skin-sensitized Brown Norway rats for its concentration×time (C×t)-response relationship on elicitation-based endpoints. The major goal of study was to determine the elicitation inhalation threshold dose in sensitized, re-challenged Brown Norway rats, including the associated variables affecting the dosimetry of inhaled TDI-vapor in rats and as to how these differences can be translated to humans. Attempts were made to duplicate at least some traits of human asthma by using skin-sensitized rats which were subjected to single or multiple inhalation-escalation challenge exposures. Two types of dose-escalation protocols were used to determine the elicitation-threshold C×t; one used a variable C (Cvar) and constant t (tconst), the other a constant C (Cconst) and variable t (tvar). The selection of the "minimal irritant" C was based an ancillary pre-studies. Neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) were considered as the endpoint of choice to integrate the allergic pulmonary inflammation. These were supplemented by physiological measurements characterizing nocturnal asthma-like responses and increased nitric oxide in exhaled breath (eNO). The Cconst×tvar regimen yielded the most conclusive dose-response relationship as long C was high enough to overcome the scrubbing capacity of the upper airways. Based on ancillary pre-studies in naïve rats, the related human-equivalent respiratory tract irritant threshold concentration was estimated to be 0.09ppm. The respective 8-h time-adjusted asthma-related human-equivalent threshold C×t-product (dose), in 'asthmatic' rats, was estimated to be 0.003ppm. Both thresholds are in agreement of the current ACGIH TLV(®) of TDI and published human evidence. In summary, the findings from this animal model suggest that TDI-induced respiratory allergy is likely to be contingent on two interlinked, sequentially occurring mechanisms: first, dermal sensitizing encounters high enough to cause systemic sensitization. Second, when followed by inhalation exposure(s) high enough to initiate and amplify an allergic airway inflammation, then a progression into asthma may occur. This bioassay requires an in-depth knowledge on respiratory tract dosimetry and irritation of the involved test substance to clearly understand the dosimetry causing C- and/or C×t-dependent respiratory tract irritation and eventually asthma. PMID:24572447

Pauluhn, Jürgen

2014-05-01

154

Tips for Daily Life  

MedlinePLUS

... chapter Join our online community Tips for Daily Life Coping skills will help you handle day-to- ... challenges, maximize your independence and live a meaningful life with your diagnosis. Accepting changes Creating a coping ...

155

Shaundra Bryant Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from Science City, Shaundra Bryant Daily, an electrical engineer, describes a software program she developed to help girls reflect on their emotions, and how her two passions—science and dance—are connected.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-09-18

156

Tips for Daily Living  

MedlinePLUS

... Read Stroke Prevention Tips Read Encouraging Messages More Post-Stroke Tips Regaining Independence Technology for People with ... for Improving Fine Motor Skills One-side Neglect Post-Stroke Planning Daily Money Management Paying for Long- ...

157

Loudness in Daily Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Acquiring a comprehensive understanding of how people perceive loudness in daily environments requires us to take the study\\u000a of loudness out of artificial controlled laboratories and observe the perception of loudness under more ecologically valid\\u000a conditions. In doing so, we find that some assumptions made in the laboratories do not apply to daily environments.

Hugo Fastl; Mary Florentine

158

Daily Food Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will find daily food recommendations based upon their age, weight, height, and activity level. Standard 2 Objective1: a,b,c It is helpful to have a guide that can give us directions on the type and quantity of foods we should eat daily. Lets first view the basics of our food groups. Click the Food Group Basics link below and see if you can answer the questions provided. Food Group Basics What is the ...

Peterson, Mr.

2011-09-18

159

Contribution of daily and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and daily rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and daily rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal daily rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.

Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz

2014-07-01

160

Calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium intakes in Japanese children aged 3 to 5 years.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate in preschool children the intakes of Ca, Mg that possibly affect health and tooth formation and the intakes of K and Na that may affect lifestyle-related diseases. Information on dietary intake was collected from 90 preschool children (15 boys and 15 girls each in the 3-, 4- and 5-year old groups) on 3 separate days in the school fiscal year 1999 (April 1999 to March 2000) by the duplicate-diet technique. The Ca, Mg, K, and Na concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry using wet-ashed samples. The medians of mean daily intakes of Ca, Mg, K and Na in 3- to 5-year-old children were 432 mg, 110 mg, 1.18 g and 1.60 g, respectively, and no significant differences with regard to gender were observed. Seasonal varia-tion of intake was seen for each mineral. Calcium intake in most preschool children did not meet adequate intake (AI), probably due to low intakes of milk and dairy products in Japan. Magnesium intake was below the estimated average requirement (EAR) in 13.3% of the subjects, while the K intake met the AI. Sodium intake in a quarter of preschool children exceeded the tentative dietary goal. We concluded that in Japanese children aged 3-5 years; Ca intake is low, Na intake is high, and K intake is adequate, but some children could be at risk for Mg deficiency. PMID:18818164

Shibata, Tomiko; Murakami, Taeko; Nakagaki, Haruo; Narita, Naoki; Goshima, Miho; Sugiyama, Tomoko; Nishimuta, Mamoru

2008-01-01

161

Usual Intake of Eggs  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Eggs Table A28. Eggs: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.4 (0.03) 0.1 (0.02) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2

162

Usual Intake of Meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Meat Table A24. Meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.5 (0.04) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2 (0.03) 0.3

163

Usual Intake of Oils  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Oils Table A37. Oils: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 grams Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 11.3 (0.36) 5.2 (0.40) 6.2 (0.38) 8.2

164

Diurnal Triglyceridemia in Relation to Alcohol Intake in Men  

PubMed Central

Fasting and postprandial triglyceride concentrations largely depend on dietary and lifestyle factors. Alcohol intake is associated with triglycerides, but the effect of alcohol on diurnal triglyceridemia in a free living situation is unknown. During three days, 139 men (range: 18–80 years) measured their own capillary triglyceride (cTG) concentrations daily on six fixed time-points before and after meals, and the total daily alcohol intake was recorded. The impact of daily alcohol intake (none; low, <10 g/day; moderate, 10–30 g/day; high, >30 g/day) on diurnal triglyceridemia was analyzed by the incremental area under the cTG curve (?cTG-AUC) reflecting the mean of the six different time-points. Fasting cTG were similar between the alcohol groups, but a trend of increased cTG was observed in men with moderate and high alcohol intake after dinner and at bedtime (p for trend <0.001) which persisted after adjustment for age, smoking and body mass index. The ?cTG-AUC was significantly lower in males with low alcohol intake (3.0 ± 1.9 mmol·h/L) (n = 27) compared to males with no (7.0 ± 1.8 mmol·h/L) (n = 34), moderate (6.5 ± 1.8 mmol·h/L) (n = 54) or high alcohol intake (7.2 ± 2.2 mmol·h/L) (n = 24), when adjusted for age, smoking and body mass index (adjusted p value < 0.05). In males, low alcohol intake was associated with decreased diurnal triglyceridemia, whereas moderate and high alcohol intake was associated with increased triglycerides after dinner and at bed time. PMID:24352090

Torres do Rego, Ana; Klop, Boudewijn; Birnie, Erwin; Elte, Jan Willem F.; Cachofeiro Ramos, Victoria; Alvarez-Sala Walther, Luis A.; Castro Cabezas, Manuel

2013-01-01

165

Daily bowel care program  

MedlinePLUS

... constipation (hard bowel movements). A daily bowel care program can help you avoid embarrassment and spend less ... Following a regular bowel program may often help prevent accidents. Learn to be aware of small signs that you need to have a bowel movement ...

166

Daily Food Plan  

MedlinePLUS

... for their age and gender. Height, feet: feet Height, inches: inches Physical Activity: Amount of moderate or vigorous activity (such as brisk walking, jogging, biking, aerobics, or yard work) you do in addition to your normal daily routine , most days. Physical Activity:

167

Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

Texas Child Care, 1993

1993-01-01

168

Daily Life with Glaucoma  

MedlinePLUS

Daily Life with Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: Your friend's name: Your ... can be useful and comforting. Don't let glaucoma limit your life Don’t let glaucoma limit ...

169

Cadmium levels in hair and other tissues during continuous cadmium intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats that received cadmium 300 ppm in drinking water (average daily cadmium intake = 4.5 mg\\/rat) for 12 wk attained peak cadmium levels of 112, 34, and 19 ?g\\/g in hair, liver, and kidney, respectively, at week 4. Rats that ingested cadmium 200 ppm (average daily cadmium intake = 3.6 mg\\/rat) for 13 wk attained peak cadmium levels of 29

David J. Brancato; Albert L. Picchioni; Lincoln Chin

1976-01-01

170

Use of nutritional supplements by elite adult Portuguese athletes is not associated with nutritional intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to characterise the nutritional intake according the use of nutritional supplements (NS) by elite adult Portuguese athletes. Two hundred and two adult (23±4 years) athletes (78% males), representatives of Portugal in 13 sports, voluntarily filled a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire about the use of NS. The total nutritional daily intake did not consider the nutrients

M Sousa; M J Fernandes; P Moreira; V H Teixeira

2010-01-01

171

Australian Food Sources and Intakes of Omega–6 and Omega–3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Both ?–6 and ?–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are recognised as essential nutrients in the human diet, yet we have little information on the extent to which different food sources contribute to their intake. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the daily intakes and food sources of ?–6 and ?–3 PUFAs in our local community. Methods:

Tennille E. Ollis; Barbara J. Meyer; Peter R. C. Howe

1999-01-01

172

The impact of ordinary illnesses on the dietary intakes of malnourished children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of respiratory infections, diarrhea, illness-induced apathy, and of a summary variable of selected common symptoms on food intake was estimated from data collected on preschool children from rural Guatemala. The presence of selected common symptoms was associated with an average reduction in daily intake of nearly 20%, equivalent to 175 kcal and 4.8 g of protein. Effects were

R. Martorell; C. Yarbrough; S. Yarbrough; R. E. Klein

173

Dietary intakes of eighteen elements and 40 K in eighteen food categories by Japanese subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Dietary intakes of eighteen elements and 40K were estimated by Japanese subjects using a market basket study. High concentrations of most nuclides were found in 4 categories among 18 categories (nuts and seeds, bean products, seaweeds, and fishes and shellfishes). The main contributors were rice, bean products, and fishes and shellfishes. Daily intakes were estimated (in mg) as follows: sodium

K. Shiraishi

2005-01-01

174

Contribution of Snacking to Older Adults' Vitamin, Carotenoid, and Mineral Intakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreased food and beverage consumption among older adults can lead to inadequate intakes of energy and numerous micronutrients. Although older adults are prone to having inadequate diets, little research attention has been directed at their dietary behaviors, such as snacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between snacking frequency and older adults' daily intakes of vitamins,

Claire A. Zizza; Dilbur D. Arsiwalla; Kathy Jo Ellison

2010-01-01

175

Contribution of beverages to the intake of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the Spanish diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the contribution of beverages to the intake of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the Spanish diet.Design: This includes the following (i) estimation of the daily intakes of beverages in Spain, from national food consumption data obtained from annual surveys of 5400 households, 700 hotels and restaurants and 200 institutions; (ii) determination of total antioxidant capacity in the

R Pulido; M Hernández-García; F Saura-Calixto

2003-01-01

176

Effect of Level of Protein Intake on Urinary and Fecal Calcium and Calcium Retention of Young Adult Males1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

When calcium and phosphorus intakes were maintained con stant at 1400 mg daily, increasing the protein intake of 18-to-20-year-old males from 48 to 141 g daily caused a highly significant increase in urinary calcium, the mean daily values being 175 and 338 mg, respectively. The apparent absorp tion of calcium was higher by 69 mg daily when the high protein

NANCY E. JOHNSON; EMERITA N. ALCANTARAÂ; HELLEN LINKSWILER

177

Feed intake of sheep when allowed ad libitum access to feed in methane respiration chambers.  

PubMed

The patterns of feed intake when animals are allowed ad libitum access to feed in a respiration chamber is not known, nor are the potential effects of the artificial environment of chambers on voluntary feed intake. The objectives of the study were to describe the pattern of hourly feed intake of sheep when fed for ad libitum intake in respiration chambers and determine the repeatability of this pattern and the correlation between feed intake and methane production calculated at hourly intervals. Daily and hourly measurements of methane production and feed intake of 47 Merino wethers were measured in respiration chambers twice, 4 wk apart. We found that hourly feed intake of sheep with ad libitum access to feed in respiration chambers showed a repeatable pattern over the 2 measurement periods (r = 0.89, P < 0.001). During both measurements, sheep ate continuously throughout the 23 h period, but most of the eating occurred during the first 8 h in the respiration chambers. There was a significant linear correlation (r = 0.22) between hourly feed intake and hourly methane production (P < 0.001). An unexpected result from this study was that despite using an accepted and published acclimatization procedure to habituate the animals to the respiration chambers, sheep had 15 to 25% lower feed intake in the respiration chambers compared with their feed intake during the previous week in the animal house pens. In addition, daily feed intake in the respiration chamber was not correlated with feed intake in any of the 7 d before entering the chamber (P > 0.05). Future methane research may consider using feed intake and changes in intake levels as a quantitative indicator of habituation to the methane measurement procedure and environment, which, given the tight association between feed intake and methane production, will be crucial in providing accurate values for methane production. PMID:24663203

Bickell, S L; Revell, D K; Toovey, A F; Vercoe, P E

2014-05-01

178

Hypothalamic dopamine and serotonin in the regulation of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because daily food intake is the product of the size of a meal and the frequency of meals ingested, the characteristic of meal size to meal number during a 24-h light–dark cycle constitutes an identifiable pattern specific to normal states and obesity and that occurs during early cancer anorexia. An understanding of simultaneous changes in meal size and meal number

Michael M Meguid; Serguei O Fetissov; Madhu Varma; Tomoi Sato; Lihua Zhang; Alessandro Laviano; Filippo Rossi-Fanelli

2000-01-01

179

Intake of Inorganic Arsenic in the North American Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary intake of inorganic arsenic, previously assumed to be an insignificant source of arsenic exposure in humans, was estimated for Canadian and United States populations. Input data included arsenic contents of various food groups, a limited historical database from the Ontario Ministry of the Environment measuring the percent inorganic arsenic in food groups, and food consumption data. Estimated daily dietary

L. J. Yost; R. A. Schoof; R. Aucoin

1998-01-01

180

NOAA Daily Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

Center, Hydrometeorological P.

2011-01-01

181

Does caffeine intake protect from Alzheimer's disease?  

PubMed

Caffeine is the most widely consumed behaviourally active substance in the western world. Neuroprotective effects of caffeine in low doses, chronically administered, have been shown in different experimental models. If caffeine intake could protect against neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD), then higher levels of caffeine consumption in normal subjects as compared with AD patients should be detectable in the presumably long period before diagnosis when insidious pathogenic changes are taking place. A case-control study was used: cases were 54 patients with probable AD fulfilling the National Institute of Neurologic and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the AD and Related Disorders Association criteria, in a Dementia Clinics setting. Controls were 54 accompanying persons, cognitively normal, matched for age (+/-3 years) and sex. Patients with AD had an average daily caffeine intake of 73.9 +/- 97.9 mg during the 20 years that preceded diagnosis of AD, whereas the controls had an average daily caffeine intake of 198.7 +/- 135.7 mg during the corresponding 20 years of their lifetimes (P < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed ranks test). Using a logistic regression model, caffeine exposure during this period was found to be significantly inversely associated with AD (odds ratio=0.40, 95% confidence interval=0.25-0.67), whereas hypertension, diabetes, stroke, head trauma, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamin E, gastric disorders, heart disease, education and family history of dementia were not statistically significantly associated with AD. Caffeine intake was associated with a significantly lower risk for AD, independently of other possible confounding variables. These results, if confirmed with future prospective studies, may have a major impact on the prevention of AD. PMID:12099922

Maia, L; de Mendonça, A

2002-07-01

182

Daily Food Checklist  

Cancer.gov

The daily food checklist method is a form of food record. The tool is comprised of a list of foods; over the course of a day, a respondent makes a check beside a food each time she or he eats it. The checklist shares an advantage of other record methods in that it does not rely on memory. In addition, it avoids some disadvantages of complete quantitative food records in that it has relatively low respondent and investigator burden.

183

Data?derived safety factors for the evaluation of food additives and environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A safety factor of 100?fold is commonly applied to animal data to derive the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of food additives; other factors have been used in some cases and higher values are used more frequently for determining the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of environmental chemicals. The 100?fold factor is considered to represent the product of a 10?fold factor to

A. G. Renwick

1993-01-01

184

Fat intake in Hong Kong Chinese children.  

PubMed

The people of Hong Kong are experiencing a transition in dietary practices and lifestyle that can be observed in the fat intakes of Hong Kong children as compared with those of their counterparts on mainland China. The studies described here include 1) a longitudinal and observational dietary survey beginning with a cohort of 174 newborns and concluding with 124 children at age 7 y; 2) a biochemical study of serum lipids in relation to dietary fat intake at age 7 y; 3) a chemical fatty acid analysis and comparison of duplicate meals collected from 20 Hong Kong and 20 mainland Chinese children at age 7 y; 4) a dietary assessment of 52 lactoovovegetarian children aged 4-14 y; and 5) a comparison of the growth of all subjects with US National Center for Health Statistics standards. About 30% of the total daily energy intake of Hong Kong Chinese children aged 1-7 y was contributed by fat-much more than that in the traditional Chinese diet. Growth of the children was not impaired, including that of children on the mainland and of those lactoovovegetarians in Hong Kong whose fat intakes were lower. Mean serum cholesterol of Hong Kong Chinese children at age 7 y was 4.59 mmol/L, significantly higher than that of their counterparts on the mainland, 4.16 mmol/L. Foods consumed in Hong Kong had a significantly lower ratio of 18:2 to 14:0. Nutritional deficiency was uncommon. Chinese children in Hong Kong had a dietary fat intake that was both quantitatively and qualitatively different from the traditional Chinese diet. PMID:11063480

Leung, S S; Lee, W T; Lui, S S; Ng, M Y; Peng, X H; Luo, H Y; Lam, C W; Davies, D D

2000-11-01

185

Peptides and Food Intake  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aranzazu; Puebla Jimenez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

2014-01-01

186

Increased fluid intake is associated with bothersome bowel symptoms among women with urinary incontinence  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the association between the type and volume of fluid intake and bowel symptoms in women with urinary incontinence. We hypothesize that a lower volume of fluid intake would be associated with greater straining with bowel movements in women with urinary incontinence. Methods We performed a cross sectional study of 256 women presenting with complaints of urinary incontinence from 2009 to 2010. Data on fluid intake, fluid intake behavior, urinary and bowel symptoms was collected using validated questionnaires. The relationship between quartiles of total daily fluid intake and bowel symptoms was analyzed. Results The behavior of restricting fluid intake was reported by 32% women. Increasing quartiles of total daily fluid intake was significantly associated with greater bother from straining with bowel movements (p=0.04). Women with no bother from straining with bowel movements had significantly lower median daily fluid intake (2839 mL) than women with quite a bit of bother (3312 mL, p=0.01). The association between volume of fluid intake and straining with bowel movements persisted after controlling for age, body mass index, history of prolapse or incontinence surgery, and stage of prolapse (p <0.05). There was no association between caffeinated fluid intake and any bowel symptom or between the behavior of restricting fluid intake and any bowel symptom. Conclusion In women with urinary incontinence, higher volume of total fluid intake is reported by women with greater straining with bowel movements. The behavior of fluid restriction is not associated with bothersome bowel symptoms. PMID:23611933

Saks, Emily K.; Asfaw, Tirsit S.; Arya, Lily A.

2013-01-01

187

Dietary intake of Senegalese adults  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

2010-01-01

188

Effect of level of fish meal on intake and performance in calves grazing sorghum  

E-print Network

) supplement intake protein (SIP, g/kg BW) while to daily digestible forage organic matter and potentially digestible fiber as well as daily gains were unrelated. Fecal crude protein excreted (FCP, g/kg BW) and concentration (g/kg fecal OM) were positively...

Scaglia Alonso, Guillermo

2012-06-07

189

School Lunch Contribution to Nutritional Intake of Low Income West Virginia Sixth Graders  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe compliance of consumed school lunches to nutrient goals and the strengths and weaknesses of lunch contributions to total daily intakes of 6th graders from low income areas of West Virginia.The purpose of this study was to assess compliance of the consumed school lunch (SL) to nutrient goals and to identify SL contributions to the daily nutritional

W. L. Stuhldreher

1996-01-01

190

Effect on Blood Pressure of Daily Lemon Ingestion and Walking  

PubMed Central

Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon) has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (?%) of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure ?%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration ?% and the number of steps with blood pressure ?%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms. PMID:24818015

Domoto, Tokio; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Katagiri, Takao; Sato, Kimiko; Miyake, Yukiko; Aoi, Satomi; Ishihara, Katsuhide; Ikeda, Hiromi; Umei, Namiko; Takigawa, Atsusi; Harada, Toshihide

2014-01-01

191

Effect on blood pressure of daily lemon ingestion and walking.  

PubMed

Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon) has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (?%) of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure ?%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration ?% and the number of steps with blood pressure ?%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms. PMID:24818015

Kato, Yoji; Domoto, Tokio; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Katagiri, Takao; Sato, Kimiko; Miyake, Yukiko; Aoi, Satomi; Ishihara, Katsuhide; Ikeda, Hiromi; Umei, Namiko; Takigawa, Atsusi; Harada, Toshihide

2014-01-01

192

Characteristics Influencing Daily Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables and Low-Fat Dairy Products in Older Adults with Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics that may influence fruit, vegetable, and dairy intake in older adults with hypertension. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a random sample of older adults who participate in a Pennsylvania pharmaceutical assistance program. Among those who reported having hypertension (N = 592), daily fruit\\/vegetable intake was more prevalent among women,

Kristie J. Lancaster

2004-01-01

193

ArchDaily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Billed as the "world's most visited architecture website,â ArchDaily is a treasure trove of materials on new building projects, architectural trends, design matters, and competitions. Along the top of its homepage, visitors can delve into areas that include News, Articles, Materials, Software, and Interviews. This last area is a great place to start as it includes fabulous conversations with notables such as Jeanne Gang, Jean-Louis Cohen, and Andreas G. Gjertsen. Moving along, the Materials section offers specific technical information on equipment, finishes, installation techniques, and structural work. The Projects area contains information on new and compelling works, such as the Soundcloud Headquarters in Berlin and the Bagnoli Futura in Italy.

194

Math in Daily Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are your odds of hitting it big at the casino? Should you buy or lease a car? How much will you have when you retire? All of these questions involve math, and this latest addition to the Annenberg Media Projects Learner Online site (described in the September 12, 1997 Scout Report) explores the use of basic mathematical concepts in daily decision-making. The exhibit is divided into several topical sections exploring probability and gambling, compound interest and credit cards, population growth, geometry in the home, and ratios and recipes. In addition to an overview of the topic, each section offers several links to selected related sites and online tools, and two feature interactive learning activities.

1998-01-01

195

New daily persistent headache  

PubMed Central

New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. PMID:23024565

Tyagi, Alok

2012-01-01

196

Math in Daily Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Math in the "real world" happens all the time, and it can involve everything from buying a car to following a simple (or complex) recipe. The "Math in Daily Life" site offers up a series of interesting ways to get students thinking about how math works in everyday life. Created by Annenberg Media, this set of interactive exercises looks at the manifestation of mathematical principles in areas of life such as home decorating, finances, and of course, cooking. In each section, users will find hands-on exercises that complement well-written essays that help introduce visitors to seven different topical areas. Finally, the site includes a list of relevant websites, including links to The Math Forum, the U.S. Census Bureau, and The Metric Conversion Card.

197

Importance of milk replacer intake and composition in rearing orphan foals  

PubMed Central

Effects of milk replacer composition and intake on the growth of orphan foals were evaluated. Twenty foals were assigned to four treatments: 1) mare-nursed, 2) commercial foal milk replacer at recommended intakes (standard), 3) commercial foal milk replacer at high intakes (high), and 4) acidified replacer at recommended intakes (acidified). Foals fed milk replacer diets were weaned at 12-24 hours postpartum and fed milk replacer for 50 days. Mare-nursed foals were weaned between 52 and 56 days of age. Foals fed replacer diets gained 12% to 28% less weight than mare-nursed foals up to two weeks of age. However, by four months of age, weights of replacer-fed foals were similar to those of mare-nursed foals and 32 other mare-nursed foals at the farm weaned between three and four months postparium. Foals drank 10 to 12 L/100 kg body weight (BW) in fluid replacer daily over the trial period. During the first week, high intake foals consumed 26% more replacer (p<0.05) than foals fed acidified or standard diets. This higher intake resulted in diarrhea earlier (6-11 days vs 11-22 days) and for a longer time (6.3 days vs 2.5-3.6 days) than in foals fed recommended amounts. Mare-nursed foals developed “foal heat scours” in the second week postpartum. After the first week, foals fed high replacer diet voluntarily consumed the same volume of fluid replacer as foals fed the standard intake. Foals ate less than 1 kg grain mix/100 kg BW daily to one month of age, then increased intake to 1.5-2 kg/ 100 kg BW to weaning. Water intake was 20-40% of daily fluid intake and was correlated (r = 0.85) to dry matter intake. Foals in the high intake group ate less (p<0.05) solid feed and drank less water than foals fed the standard and acidified diets. The foal's stomach capacity appears to limit meal size and thus replacer intake. If recommended feeding intervals are used, replacer intakes by foals are less than 15% BW daily. High volume intakes appeared to prolong diarrhea. Normal growth rates occur when replacer and good-quality feeds are fed concurrently. PMID:17424268

Cymbaluk, Nadia F.; Smart, Marion E.; Bristol, Frank M.; Pouteaux, Victor A.

1993-01-01

198

Skipping meals and alcohol consumption. The regulation of energy intake and expenditure among weight loss participants.  

PubMed

Research suggests that specific eating patterns (e.g., eating breakfast) may be related to favorable weight status. This investigation examined the relationship between eating patterns (i.e., skipping meals; consuming alcohol) and weight loss treatment outcomes (weight loss, energy intake, energy expenditure, and duration of exercise). Fifty-four overweight or obese adults (BMI> or =27 kg/m(2)) participated in a self-help or therapist-assisted weight loss program. Daily energy intake from breakfast, lunch, dinner, and alcoholic beverages, total daily energy intake, total daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weekly weight loss were assessed. On days that breakfast or dinner was skipped, or alcoholic beverages were not consumed, less total daily energy was consumed compared to days that breakfast, dinner, or alcoholic beverages were consumed. On days that breakfast or alcohol was consumed, daily energy expenditure (breakfast only) and duration of exercise were higher compared to days that breakfast or alcohol was not consumed. Individuals who skipped dinner or lunch more often had lower energy expenditure and exercise duration than individuals who skipped dinner or lunch less often. Individuals who consumed alcohol more often had high daily energy expenditure than individuals who consumed alcohol less often. Skipping meals or consuming alcoholic beverages was not associated with weekly weight loss. In this investigation, weight loss program participants may have compensated for excess energy intake from alcoholic beverages and meals with greater daily energy expenditure and longer exercise duration. PMID:18511146

Carels, Robert A; Young, Kathleen M; Coit, Carissa; Clayton, Anna Marie; Spencer, Alexis; Wagner, Marissa

2008-11-01

199

Magnesium intake is associated with strength performance in elite basketball, handball and volleyball players.  

PubMed

Magnesium plays significant roles in promoting strength. Surveys of athletes reveal that intake of magnesium is often below recommended levels. We aimed to understand the impact of magnesium intake on strength in elite male basketball, handball, and volleyball players. Energy and nutrient intake were assessed from seven-day diet record. Strength tests included maximal isometric trunk flexion, extension, and rotation, handgrip, squat and countermovement Abalakov jump, and maximal isokinetic knee extension and flexion peak torques. Linear regression models were performed with significance at p<0.1. Mean magnesium intake was significantly lower than the recommended daily allowance. Regression analysis indicated that magnesium was directly associated with maximal isometric trunk flexion, rotation, and handgrip, with jumping performance tests, and with all isokinetic strength variables, independent of total energy intake. The observed associations between magnesium intake and muscle strength performance may result from the important role of magnesium in energetic metabolism, transmembrane transport and muscle contraction and relaxation. PMID:21983266

Santos, Diana Aguiar; Matias, Catarina Nunes; Monteiro, Cristina Paula; Silva, Analiza Mónica; Rocha, Paulo Manuel; Minderico, Cláudia Sofia; Bettencourt Sardinha, Luís; Laires, Maria José

2011-12-01

200

Dietary intakes and food sources of n?6 and n?3 PUFA in french adult men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intake of individual n?6 and n?3 PUFA has been estimated in 4,884 adult subjects (2,099 men and 2,785 women), volunteers\\u000a from the French SU.VI.MAX intervention trial. The food intakes of each subject were recorded in at least ten 24-h record questionnaires\\u000a completed over a period of 2.5 yr, allowing the estimation of the daily intake of energy; total fat;

Pierre Astorg; Nathalie Arnault; Sébastien Czernichow; Nathalie Noisette; Pilar Galan; Serge Hercberg

2004-01-01

201

Intake of arsenic from water, food composites and excretion through urine, hair from a studied population in West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the main intake source of arsenic by the villagers from arsenic-affected families in Jalangi and Domkol blocks in Mushidabad district, West Bengal—India, we determined the concentrations of arsenic in tubewell water and in food composites, mainly including vegetables and cereals collected from the surveyed families which were cultivated in that region. The daily dietary intakes of arsenic by

T. Uchino; T. Roychowdhury; M. Ando; H. Tokunaga

2006-01-01

202

Water intake and bladder cancer risk in Los Angeles County.  

PubMed

The overall evidence of an association between fluid intake and bladder cancer is not entirely consistent. We examined the fluid intake-bladder cancer relationship in the Los Angeles bladder cancer case-control study. A total of 1,586 cases and their age-, sex-, and race-matched neighborhood controls were interviewed in-person from 1987 to 1999. Information on total fluid intake was derived from the consumption of specific fluids including water, coffee, tea, alcohol, milk, juice, hot chocolate and soda. Total fluid intake was not associated with bladder cancer. Daily water intake was associated with a slight decrease in bladder cancer risk, with the protection more pronounced among women (p for trend = 0.039) than among men (p for trend = 0.62). Compared to drinking <1 glass of water per day, drinking > or =6 glasses/day was associated with 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.67-1.22) times the risk of bladder cancer among all subjects, 0.94 (0.67-1.32) times the risk among men, and 0.69 (0.36-1.33) times the risk among women. The water intake-bladder cancer association also seemed to be modified by daytime urination frequency with significant inverse association among subjects who urinated > or =6 times/day (p for trend = 0.015), but not among those who urinated less frequently. Similarly, the protection from water intake was confined to women who did not experience nocturia and to men who did. Results from our study suggest that water intake may be associated with a slight reduction in bladder cancer risk. PMID:18623082

Jiang, Xuejuan; Castelao, Jose E; Groshen, Susan; Cortessis, Victoria K; Shibata, Darryl K; Conti, David V; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela

2008-10-01

203

Maternal protein intake is not associated with infant blood pressure  

PubMed Central

Background Animal data show that low protein intake in pregnancy programs higher offspring blood pressure, but similar data in humans are limited. We examined the associations of first and second trimester maternal protein intake with offspring blood pressure (BP) at the age of six months. Methods In a prospective US cohort study, called Project Viva, pregnant women completed validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaires (FFQ) to measure gestational protein intake. Among 947 mother-offspring pairs with first trimester dietary data and 910 pairs with second trimester data, we measured systolic blood pressure (SBP) up to five times with an automated device in the offspring at the age of six months. Controlling for blood pressure measurement conditions, maternal and infant characteristics, we examined the effect of energy-adjusted maternal protein intake on infant SBP using multivariable mixed effects models. Results Mean daily second trimester maternal protein intake was 17.6% of energy (mean 2111 kcal/day). First trimester nutrient intakes were similar. Mean SBP at age 6 months was 90.0 mm Hg (SD 12.9). Consistent with prior reports, adjusted SBP was 1.94 mm Hg lower [95% confidence interval (CI) ?3.45 to ?0.42] for each kg increase in birth weight. However, we did not find an association between maternal protein intake and infant SBP. After adjusting for covariates, the effect estimates were 0.14 mm Hg (95% CI ?0.12 to ?0.40) for a 1% increase in energy from protein during the second trimester, and ?0.01 mm Hg (95% CI ?0.24 to ?0.23) for a 1% increase in energy from protein in the first trimester. Conclusions Variation in maternal total protein intake during pregnancy does not appear to program offspring blood pressure. PMID:15576466

Huh, Susanna Y; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kleinman, Ken P; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Lipshultz, Steven E; Gillman, Matthew W

2007-01-01

204

Iron intake of infants: the importance of infant cereals.  

PubMed Central

Since 1976 many baby foods have been reformulated and the iron used to fortify infant cereals has been changed to a more bioavailable form. Therefore, the dietary intake of iron by infants from 1 to 18 months of age was assessed in a longitudinal survey conducted in Toronto and Montreal between 1977 and 1979. Except in the 1st and 18th months the mean daily iron consumption of the infants was above that recommended in the Dietary Standard for Canada. The main source of this nutrient was infant cereals. Examination of the diets of the infants who did not have the recommended daily intake of iron showed that they did not consume sufficient amounts of infant cereals and other iron-rich foods. These results indicate that without such cereals it is difficult to provide infants with the amount of iron they need. Therefore, infants should receive these cereals during the first 2 years of life. PMID:7332896

Yeung, D. L.; Pennell, M. D.; Leung, M.; Hall, J.; Anderson, G. H.

1981-01-01

205

Voluntary sodium intake during effort in hot environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors that influence the amount of salt that a person adds to his food at mealtime, and the part played by the general requirement for salt in the daily diet stemming from the coluntary input of salt are studied. Careful measurements of salt intake and outflow were performed on ten marchers in a high temperature environment who were given individual salt shakers that were weighed before and after each meal. Some marchers were told to add salt to their meals on specific days. No parallelity was found between the voluntary sodium intake and the general sodium intake, the excretion of sodium in the urine or the environmental heat stress. Individual food habit was found to be the most important factor.

Sohar, E.; Adar, R.; Hershco, A.

1982-01-01

206

Predictors of fruit and vegetable intake in young adulthood  

PubMed Central

Few young adults meet national recommendations to consume at least two cups of fruit and two to three cups of vegetables daily. Effective strategies and messaging are needed to address this disparity, but research examining influences on fruit and vegetable intake during young adulthood has been limited and primarily cross-sectional. This study was conducted to identify five-year and 10-year longitudinal predictors of fruit and vegetable intake in young adulthood. The sample included 476 males and 654 females enrolled in a population-based cohort study (Projects EAT-I, II, and III). Participants completed surveys and food frequency questionnaires in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota high school classrooms in 1998–1999 (mean age=15.8, “adolescence”) and follow-up measures in 2003–2004 (mean age=20.4, “emerging adulthood”) and 2008–2009 (mean age=26.2, “young adulthood”). In young adulthood, average daily intake was 0.9 servings of fruit (excluding juice) and 1.8 servings of vegetables (excluding potatoes). Factors examined in adolescence and in emerging adulthood that were predictive of both fruit and vegetable intake in young adulthood included favorable taste preferences, fewer perceived time barriers to healthy eating, higher home availability of fruits and vegetables, and limited home availability of unhealthy foods. Analyses also identified additional factors that were specifically relevant to fruit (e.g., breakfast patterns) or vegetable intake (e.g., home food preparation) and of particular relevance during emerging adulthood (e.g., significant other’s healthy eating attitudes). Findings suggest individual and socio-environmental factors, particularly food preferences and home food availability, during adolescence and emerging adulthood may influence fruit and vegetable intake in young adulthood. PMID:22698924

Laska, Melissa Nelson; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2012-01-01

207

Warmer daily temperatures since 1951  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Days and nights have indeed become warmer over the past 60 years, a new study finds. Although several observation-based studies have shown that daily average temperatures as well as daily maximum and minimum temperatures have increased over the past few decades, controversy has remained as to how the observed trends in extreme and average temperatures are related to each other: Are the warming trends in extreme temperatures a result of a shifting mean climate, or have temperatures become more variable? Using a global observational data set of daily temperatures, Donat and Alexander compared the probability distributions of daily maximum and minimum temperatures over two 30-year periods, 1951-1980 and 1981-2010. The authors show that the maximum and minimum daily temperatures all over the globe have significantly shifted toward higher values during the latter period. They further show that the distributions have become skewed toward the hotter part of the distribution; changes are greater for daily minimum (nighttime) temperatures than for the daily maximum (daytime) temperatures. The authors conclude that the distribution of global daily temperatures has indeed become “more extreme” compared to the middle of the twentieth century. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2012GL052459, 2012)

Bhattacharya, Atreyee

2012-09-01

208

Daily Texan October 17, 2013  

E-print Network

Daily Texan October 17, 2013 University sign shop dedicated to quality University Sign Shop to make a sign. On any given day, the University Sign Shop is processing 2 to 10 work orders for the university. Photo Credit: Charlie Pearce | Daily Texan Staff Published on October 17, 2013 at 12:55 am Last

Johnston, Daniel

209

Grazed grass herbage intake and performance of beef heifers with predetermined phenotypic residual feed intake classification.  

PubMed

Data were collected on 85 Simmental and Simmental × Holstein-Friesian heifers. During the indoor winter period, they were offered grass silage ad libitum and 2 kg of concentrate daily, and individual dry matter intake (DMI) and growth was recorded over 84 days. Individual grass herbage DMI was determined at pasture over a 6-day period, using the n-alkane technique. Body condition score, skeletal measurements, ultrasonic fat and muscle depth, visual muscularity score, total tract digestibility, blood hormones, metabolites and haematology variables and activity behaviour were measured for all heifers. Phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) was calculated for each animal as the difference between actual DMI and expected DMI during the indoor winter period. Expected DMI was calculated for each animal by regressing average daily DMI on mid-test live weight (LW)(0.75) and average daily gain (ADG) over an 84-day period. Standard deviations above and below the mean were used to group animals into high (>0.5 s.d.), medium (±0.5 s.d.) and low (<0.5 s.d.) RFI. Overall mean (s.d.) values for DMI (kg/day), ADG (kg), feed conversion ratio (FCR) kg DMI/kg ADG and RFI (kg dry matter/day) were 5.82 (0.73), 0.53 (0.18), 12.24 (4.60), 0.00 (0.43), respectively, during the RFI measurement period. Mean DMI (kg/day) and ADG (kg) during the grazing season was 9.77 (1.77) and 0.77 (0.14), respectively. The RFI groups did not differ (P > 0.05) in LW, ADG or FCR at any stage of measurement. RFI was positively correlated (r = 0.59; P < 0.001) with DMI during the RFI measurement period but not with grazed grass herbage DMI (r = 0.06; P = 0.57). Low RFI heifers had 0.07 greater (P < 0.05) concentration of plasma creatinine than high RFI heifers and, during the grazed herbage intake period, spent less time standing and more time lying (P < 0.05) than high RFI heifers. However, low and high RFI groups did not differ (P > 0.05) in ultrasonic backfat thickness or muscle depth, visual muscle scores, skeletal size, total tract digestibility or blood hormone and haematology variables at any stage of the experiment. Despite a sizeable difference in intake of grass silage between low and high RFI heifers during the indoor winter period, there were no detectable differences between RFI groupings for any economically important performance traits measured when animals were offered ensiled or grazed grass herbage. PMID:23031564

Lawrence, P; Kenny, D A; Earley, B; McGee, M

2012-10-01

210

Vegetable and fruit intake and its relevance with serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline in Korean adults  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the daily vegetable and fruit intake status of Korean adults and to examine the relationship of vegetable and fruit intake with bone metabolism. The vegetable and fruit intake of 542 healthy male and female adults was analyzed. Then, by selecting 51 targets from the subjects, the relation of vegetable and fruit intake with serum calcium, osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) excretion in urine was examined. The total vegetable intake per day was 397.7 g and 333.5 g by men and women respectively for the age group of 20-29, 366.9 g and 309.2 g respectively for the age group of 30-49, 378.4 g and 325.9 g respectively for the age group of 50-64. Of vegetable varieties, leafy and stem vegetables displayed the highest intake. The order of major intake items of vegetables and fruits was found to be Chinese cabbage kimchi, onion, radish, cucumber, and welsh onion for the age group of 20-29, watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, peach, potato, and onion for the age group of 30-49 and watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, tomato, potato, and peach for the age group of 50-64. Of 51 targets, ?-carotene intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with serum osteocalcin. While caloric intake as well as protein, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorous, zinc and total food intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with DPD excretion in urine, tuber vegetable intake displayed a significantly positive correlation with DPD excretion in urine. In the future, a study will be necessary to accurately explain the relevance of vegetable and fruit intake with bone mineral density and bone metabolism. Also, efforts will be required to increase vegetable and fruit intake. PMID:21103089

Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Myung-Hee; Bae, Yun-Jung

2010-01-01

211

Usual Intake of Added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

212

Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks Table A43. Alcoholic drinks: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 number of drinks Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 19-30 1113 0.9

213

Usual Intake of Refined grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Refined grains Table A19. Refined grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 3.5 (0.10) 1.7

214

Usual Intake of Soy products  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Soy products Table A30. Soy products: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.0 (0.00) 0.0

215

Usual Intake of White potatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of White potatoes Table A13. White potatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1

216

Usual Intake of Total fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total fruit Table A1. Total fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1.5 (0.07) 0.6

217

Usual Intake of Total grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total grains Table A17. Total grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 4.1 (0.10) 2.2

218

Usual Intake of Total seafood  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total seafood Table A27. Total seafood: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1 (0.02) 0.0

219

Usual Intake of Total dairy  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total dairy Table A33. Total dairy: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 2.5 (0.07) 1.0

220

Effects of monensin on intake, digestibility, gastrointestinal fill and flow in cattle grazing coastal bermuda pasture  

E-print Network

grazing pasture is difficult. Early experimentation to quantify monensin's ef- fect on forage intake involved penned animals fed hay. Oregon workers measured hay consumption by cows receiving no monensin versus those re- ceiving 200 mg monensin daily... pasture). 2. To relate effects on intake and digestibility to the rate of passage of undigested residues through the gastro-intestinal tract and the animal's fill of undigested organic matter. 12 CHAPTER IV EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE ~E I f 't( Three...

Pond, Kevin Roy

2012-06-07

221

A novel approach for food intake detection using electroglottography.  

PubMed

Many methods for monitoring diet and food intake rely on subjects self-reporting their daily intake. These methods are subjective, potentially inaccurate and need to be replaced by more accurate and objective methods. This paper presents a novel approach that uses an electroglottograph (EGG) device for an objective and automatic detection of food intake. Thirty subjects participated in a four-visit experiment involving the consumption of meals with self-selected content. Variations in the electrical impedance across the larynx caused by the passage of food during swallowing were captured by the EGG device. To compare performance of the proposed method with a well-established acoustical method, a throat microphone was used for monitoring swallowing sounds. Both signals were segmented into non-overlapping epochs of 30 s and processed to extract wavelet features. Subject-independent classifiers were trained, using artificial neural networks, to identify periods of food intake from the wavelet features. Results from leave-one-out cross validation showed an average per-epoch classification accuracy of 90.1% for the EGG-based method and 83.1% for the acoustic-based method, demonstrating the feasibility of using an EGG for food intake detection. PMID:24671094

Farooq, Muhammad; Fontana, Juan M; Sazonov, Edward

2014-05-01

222

Effect of dietary selenium restriction on selected parameters of selenium status in men with high life-long intake 1 1 Published with the approval of the Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station as Technical Paper number 11,383  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of selenium (Se) restriction on disposition in plasma and urine fractions of infused 74Se (selenite) was studied when adult males (Enshi City, Hubei Province, PRC) whose habitual daily Se intake is approximately 480 ?g per day were transferred to Lichuan County, where the daily intake is approximately 30 ?g. The subjects received an infusion (106 ?g Se) on

M Janghorbani; Y Xia; P Ha; P. D Whanger; J. A Butler; J. W Olesik; E Grunwald

1999-01-01

223

Dietary sources of sodium intake in Brazil in 2008-2009.  

PubMed

Information on the main dietary sources of sodium is essential for developing public health strategies to reduce sodium intake. This study aimed to describe sodium intake according to sex, age, and income and identify the main dietary sources of sodium in Brazil. In total, 34,003 subjects aged 10 years and older participated in the first Brazilian National Dietary Survey, conducted in 2008-2009. Food was classified according to the sodium profile into 31 groups based on a 1-day food record. The daily per capita intake of sodium (mg/day) and sodium density (mg/100 g) were estimated for each food group and stratified by sex, age, and per capita income quartile. The average daily intake of sodium was 3,190 mg/day. The sodium density of the diet increased with age and income (P<0.05). Food groups with the highest densities for both sexes and across all income quartiles included salty preserved meats (997 mg/100 g), processed meats (974 mg/100 g), cheeses (883 mg/100 g), crackers (832 mg/100 g), sandwiches (800 mg/100 g), pizza (729 mg/100 g), and breads (646 mg/100 g), as well as oils, spreads, sauces, and condiments (804 mg/100 g). Altogether, these food groups contributed to 811 mg/day of sodium, which is more than half of the recommended daily sodium intake. Mean sodium intake in Brazil exceeded the tolerable upper intake level of 2,300 mg/day. Processed food contributed to half of the recommended intake and should be targeted by future public health policies aiming at reducing total sodium intake. PMID:23830323

de Moura Souza, Amanda; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Peterson, Karen Eileen; Sichieri, Rosely

2013-10-01

224

Intake of Probiotic Food and Risk of Preeclampsia in Primiparous Women  

PubMed Central

Probiotics have been suggested to modify placental trophoblast inflammation, systemic inflammation, and blood pressure, all potentially interesting aspects of preeclampsia. The authors examined the association between consumption of milk-based probiotic products in pregnancy and development of preeclampsia and its subtypes. The study was performed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study by using a prospective design in 33,399 primiparous women in the years 2002–2008. The intake of milk-based products containing probiotic lactobacilli was estimated from a self-reported food frequency questionnaire. Preeclampsia diagnoses were obtained from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. Intake of probiotic milk products was associated with reduced risk of preeclampsia. The association was most prominent in severe preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66, 0.96). With probiotic intakes divided into categories representing no, monthly, weekly, or daily intake, a lower risk for preeclampsia (all subtypes) was observed for daily probiotic intake (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.96). Lower risks for severe preeclampsia were observed for weekly (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.98) and daily (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.89) intakes. These results suggest that regular consumption of milk-based probiotics could be associated with lower risk of preeclampsia in primiparous women. PMID:21821542

Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Myhre, Ronny; Haugen, Margaretha; Myking, Solveig; Sengpiel, Verena; Magnus, Per; Jacobsson, Bo; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

2011-01-01

225

Health risk assessment of ochratoxin A for all age-sex strata in a market economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to manage risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) in foods, we re-evaluated the tolerable daily intake (TDI), derived the negligible cancer risk intake (NCRI), and conducted a probabilistic risk assessment. A new approach was developed to derive ‘usual’ probabilistic exposure in the presence of highly variable occurrence data, such as encountered with low levels of OTA. Canadian occurrence data

T. Kuiper-Goodman; C. Hilts; S. M. Billiard; Y. Kiparissis; I. D. K. Richard; S. Hayward

2010-01-01

226

Calcium and vitamin D intake by postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in Spain: an observational calcium and vitamin D intake (CaVIT) study  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoporotic fractures are important causes of morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. However, the risk of osteoporotic fractures can be decreased, with clinical studies supporting the use of calcium and vitamin D supplements to promote bone health. Vitamin D insufficiency is widespread, particularly among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, and this indicates that dietary intake is suboptimal, even though vitamin D supplements are widely available. Methods We conducted an observational study, using telephone surveys, to estimate vitamin D and calcium intake and the use of prescription osteoporosis medications in Spanish women aged ? 50 years with osteoporosis. Results Among the study participants, mean dietary calcium intake was 1239 mg/day and generally appeared sufficient in terms of the recommended daily intake guidance documents. Participants aged ? 75 years had a significantly lower mean dietary calcium intake (988 mg/day), thus one-half were below the level advised by the World Health Organization. Daily calcium intake was also lower in participants who were not taking prescription medications for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake was 167 IU/day, which is well below both the established target dose (400 IU/day) and the more recent, higher guideline recommended for postmenopausal women (800–1300 IU/day). Dietary vitamin D intake was even lower for participants aged ? 75 years (120 IU/day) and was not related to the use of bone health prescription medications. Conclusion These results support the need for greater promotion of the benefits of higher vitamin D intake in Spanish women with osteoporosis. PMID:23818767

Fan, Tao; Nocea, Gonzalo; Modi, Ankita; Stokes, Leah; Sen, Shuvayu S

2013-01-01

227

Caffeine levels in beverages from Argentina's market: application to caffeine dietary intake assessment.  

PubMed

The caffeine content of different beverages from Argentina's market was measured. Several brands of coffees, teas, mates, chocolate milks, soft and energy drinks were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. The highest concentration level was found in short coffee (1.38 mg ml(-1)) and the highest amount per serving was found in instant coffee (95 mg per serving). A consumption study was also carried out among 471 people from 2 to 93 years of age to evaluate caffeine total dietary intake by age and to identify the sources of caffeine intake. The mean caffeine intake among adults was 288 mg day(-1) and mate was the main contributor to that intake. The mean caffeine intake among children of 10 years of age and under was 35 mg day(-1) and soft drinks were the major contributors to that intake. Children between 11 and 15 years old and teenagers (between 16 and 20 years) had caffeine mean intakes of 120 and 240 mg day(-1), respectively, and mate was the major contributor to those intakes. Drinking mate is a deep-rooted habit among Argentine people and it might be the reason for their elevated caffeine mean daily intake. PMID:19680899

Olmos, V; Bardoni, N; Ridolfi, A S; Villaamil Lepori, E C

2009-03-01

228

Intakes of total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in Irish children, teenagers and adults.  

PubMed

Recommendations limiting the intake of total fat, SFA, MUFA and PUFA have been established in several countries with the aim of reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as CVD. Studies have shown that intakes of total fat and SFA are above desired recommended intake levels across a wide range of age and sex groups. In addition, intakes of PUFA and MUFA are often reported to be less than the desired recommended intake levels. The aims of the present paper are to provide the first data on estimates of current intakes and main food sources of SFA, MUFA and PUFA in Irish children (aged 5-12 years), teenagers (aged 13-17 years) and adults (aged 18-64 years) and to analyse compliance with current dietary recommendations. Data for this analysis were based on the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (n 1379, 18-64 years), the National Children's Food Survey (n 594, 5-12 years) and the National Teen Food Survey (n 441, 13-17 years). Results showed that SFA intakes in Irish children, teenagers and adults are high, with only 6 % of children, 11 % of teenagers and 21 % of adults in compliance with the recommended daily intake. The main food groups that contributed to SFA intakes were whole milk; fresh meat; meat products; biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries; and sugars, confectionery and preserves. PMID:19026091

Joyce, Triona; Wallace, Alison J; McCarthy, Sinead N; Gibney, Michael J

2009-02-01

229

A critical assessment of the upper intake levels for infants and children.  

PubMed

The dietary reference intake (DRI) committees of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine were charged with establishing DRIs for all of the essential nutrients, including fat and energy. These reference values are quantitative estimates of the nutrient intakes to be used to plan and assess the diets of healthy people. The reference values include both recommended intakes and tolerable upper intake levels (ULs). The ULs are defined as "the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population." As intake increases above the UL, the risk of adverse effects increases. The term "tolerable intake" was chosen to avoid the implication of a possible beneficial effect. Instead, the term is intended to connote a level of intake that can, with a high probability, be tolerated biologically. Yet, with intakes above the ULs, the risk of adverse health effects increases. Thus, there is no obvious benefit for healthy individuals to consume quantities of nutrients above the UL. PMID:16424135

Zlotkin, Stanley

2006-02-01

230

Physical activity, calcium intake and childhood bone mineral: a population-based cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In a free-living cohort of 4-year old children, mean daily time in moderate–vigorous physical activity and daily calcium intake\\u000a at 3 years, were positively related to hip bone size and density. Relationships between physical activity and bone indices\\u000a were stronger when calcium intake was above compared with below median (966 mg\\/day).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  We examined the cross-sectional relationships between childhood physical activity, dietary calcium

N. C. Harvey; Z. A. Cole; S. R. Crozier; M. Kim; G. Ntani; L. Goodfellow; S. M. Robinson; H. M. Inskip; K. M. Godfrey; E. M. Dennison; N. Wareham; U. Ekelund; C. Cooper

231

Protein intake and stress levels in nurses and housewives of Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Stress has many biological effects on human daily life. In the present study, dietary protein intake was correlated with the investigated stress levels of nurses and housewives of the targeted urban population. Age group ranged from 30 to 45 years and both the groups belonged to middle socioeconomic status. After calculations of environmental, psychological and physiological stresses, it was observed that the levels of stress in housewives were significantly higher than those of nurses. Recommended dietary allowances, RDA and actual protein intakes, API were also compared in both the groups. The found protein intake was less in housewives as compared to that of nurses. PMID:23961140

Wattoo, Feroza Hamid; Memon, Muhammad Saleh; Memon, Allah Nawaz; Wattoo, Muhammad Hamid Sarwar; Asad, Muhammad Javaid; Siddique, Farzana

2011-01-01

232

Geismar TDI Plant Steam Optimization  

E-print Network

-05-19 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 BASF North America BASF Corporation (U.S.), BASF Canada, BASF Mexicana 6 ESL-IE-13-05-19 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology...-05-19 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 BASF North America BASF Corporation (U.S.), BASF Canada, BASF Mexicana 6 ESL-IE-13-05-19 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology...

Baily, M.

2013-01-01

233

Calcium intake and serum calcium status in Mongolian children.  

PubMed

Dietary calcium intake in relation to calcium status in Mongolian children was investigated. This survey was a cross-sectional survey. A total of 835 children were randomly selected from 4 economic regions and Ulaanbaatar city. Information on dietary intake was collected from 835 children in the 1-3, 4-7, and 8-14 year old groups by a 24-h recall method. The average daily intake of calcium from diet was calculated for individuals. Blood samples were collected from 104 children. The mean of daily calcium intakes as 273±30.0mg in 1-3-year old children, 309.0±30.0mg in 4-7 year old children, and 317.0±31.0mg in 8-14 year old children, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in calcium intakes between the age groups 1-3 years, 4-7 years, and 1-3 years, 8-14 years of children (p<0.001). Calcium intakes in all studied children of all age groups were lower (39%, 30.9%, and 24.4%) than the recommended level of calcium intakes. In 22.1% of studied children, the serum total calcium concentration levels were below the normal range. Based on the total serum calcium, the prevalence of hypocalcemia was higher among children in the age group 8-14 years (27.6%) than the prevalence among children in the age group <1 year (p<0.05). Based on the corrected serum calcium values, the prevalence of hypocalcemia was higher (52.4%, 63.6%, and 51.1%) among children in the age groups 1-3, 4-7, and 8-14 years. The mean level of corrected serum calcium were low (2.02±0.04, 2.05±0.73, and 1.99±0.64mg) in children in the age groups 1-3, 4-7, and 8-14 years. These findings suggest that low dietary calcium intakes may be reflected by hypocalcemia in Mongolian children. In conclusion, there is a need to improve a consumption of milk, dairy products in Mongolian children. In addition, there is need to use a vitamin D supplementation with a calcium supplementation in children with severe vitamin D deficiency rickets. This article is part of a Special issue entitled "16th Vitamin D Workshop". PMID:24681400

Uush, Tserendolgor

2014-10-01

234

Unravelling daily human mobility motifs  

PubMed Central

Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These networks, called here motifs, are sufficient to capture up to 90 per cent of the population in surveys and mobile phone datasets for different countries. Each individual exhibits a characteristic motif, which seems to be stable over several months. Consequently, daily human mobility can be reproduced by an analytically tractable framework for Markov chains by modelling periods of high-frequency trips followed by periods of lower activity as the key ingredient. PMID:23658117

Schneider, Christian M.; Belik, Vitaly; Couronne, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Gonzalez, Marta C.

2013-01-01

235

Green and black tea intake in relation to prostate cancer risk among Singapore Chinese  

PubMed Central

Purpose Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages worldwide. To date, observational data from prospective cohort studies investigating the relationship between green and black tea intake and prostate cancer risk are sparse and equivocal. In a population-based, prospective cohort study of Chinese men in Singapore, we investigated the relationship between green and black tea intake and prostate cancer risk. Methods Tea consumption data for 27,293 men were collected at baseline (between 1993 and 1998) using a validated food frequency questionnaire. After an average of 11.2 years of follow-up, 298 men had developed prostate cancer. Proportional hazards regression methods were used to assess the associations between tea intake and prostate cancer risk. Results There was no association between daily green tea intake and prostate cancer risk, compared with no green tea intake [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.79, 1.47]. For black tea, a statistically significant positive association and trend were observed for daily intake compared with no black tea intake (HR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.03, 1.92; p for trend <0.01) Conclusions Few prospective data are available from populations that have both a high level and wide range of black and green tea intake; this study represents a unique opportunity to evaluate their individual effects on prostate cancer risk. Our findings support the notion that green tea intake does not protect against prostate cancer and that black tea intake may increase prostate cancer risk. PMID:22864870

Montague, Julia A.; Wu, Anna H.; Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wong, Alvin S.; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.

2013-01-01

236

Relation between urinary hydration biomarkers and total fluid intake in healthy adults  

PubMed Central

Background/objectives: In sedentary adults, hydration is mostly influenced by total fluid intake and not by sweat losses; moreover, low daily fluid intake is associated with adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to model the relation between total fluid intake and urinary hydration biomarkers. Subjects/methods: During 4 consecutive weekdays, 82 adults (age, 31.6±4.3 years; body mass index, 23.2±2.7?kg/m2; 52% female) recorded food and fluid consumed, collected one first morning urine (FMU) void and three 24-h (24hU) samples. The strength of linear association between urinary hydration biomarkers and fluid intake volume was evaluated using simple linear regression and Pearson's correlation. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modeled the association between fluid intake and 24hU hydration biomarkers. Results: Strong associations (|r|?0.6; P<0.001) were found between total fluid intake volume and 24hU osmolality, color, specific gravity (USG), volume and solute concentrations. Many 24hU biomarkers were collinear (osmolality versus color: r=0.49–0.76; USG versus color: r=0.46–0.78; osmolality versus USG: 0.86–0.97; P<0.001). Measures in FMU were not strongly correlated to intake. Multivariate PLS and simple linear regression using urine volume explained >50% of the variance in fluid intake volume (r2=0.59 and 0.52, respectively); however the error in both models was high and the limits of agreement very large. Conclusions: Hydration biomarkers in 24hU are strongly correlated with daily total fluid intake volume in sedentary adults in free-living conditions; however, the margin of error in the present models limits the applicability of estimating fluid intake from urinary biomarkers. PMID:23695204

Perrier, E; Rondeau, P; Poupin, M; Le Bellego, L; Armstrong, L E; Lang, F; Stookey, J; Tack, I; Vergne, S; Klein, A

2013-01-01

237

Effects of life-long fluoride intake on bone measures of adolescents: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Controversy persists concerning the impact of community water fluoridation on bone health in adults, and few studies have assessed relationships with bone at younger ages. Ecological studies of fluoride's effects showed some increase in bone mineral density of adolescents and young adults in areas with fluoridated water compared with non-fluoridated areas. However, none had individual fluoride exposure measures. To avoid ecological fallacy and reduce bias, we assessed associations of average daily fluoride intake from birth to age 15 yr for Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members with age 15 yr dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone outcomes (whole body, lumbar spine, and hip), controlling for known determinants (including daily calcium intake, average daily time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, and physical maturity). Mean (SD) daily fluoride intake was 0.66 mg (0.24) for females and 0.78 mg (0.30) for males. We found no significant relationships between daily fluoride intake and adolescents' bone measures in adjusted models (for 183 females, all p values ? .10 and all partial R(2) ? 0.02; for 175 males, all p values ? .34 and all partial R(2) ? 0.01). The findings suggest that fluoride exposures at the typical levels for most US adolescents in fluoridated areas do not have significant effects on bone mineral measures. PMID:24470542

Levy, S M; Warren, J J; Phipps, K; Letuchy, E; Broffitt, B; Eichenberger-Gilmore, J; Burns, T L; Kavand, G; Janz, K F; Torner, J C; Pauley, C A

2014-04-01

238

11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE COFFER DAM, OCTOBER 10, 1900. ONE OF THE HUBBELL COMPANY DREDGES IS AT WORK IN THE CENTER OF THE ILLUSTRATION, THE TIMBER FLOATING AROUND WAS PROBABLY FOR USE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF SIDE WALL RETAINING CRIBS. ONE OF THESE IS BEING CONSTRUCTED JUST TO THE LEFT AND TOWARDS THE VIEWER FROM THE DREDGES. (87) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

239

Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, US Population, 2007-10  

Cancer.gov

We have applied the NCI Method for estimating distributions of usual intake to data from two recent cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative sample, to estimate means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake (Tables A1-44) and the percentage of persons meeting recommendations (Tables B1-17) for a range of sex-age groups in the US population.

240

Usual Dietary Intakes: Further Information  

Cancer.gov

Freedman LS, Midthune D, Carroll RJ, Krebs-Smith S, Subar AF, Troiano RP, Dodd K, Schatzkin A, Bingham SA, Ferrari P, Kipnis V. Adjustments to improve the estimation of usual dietary intake distributions in the population.

241

Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

Brender, Jean D.; And Others

1985-01-01

242

Usual Intake of Cured meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Cured meat Table A25. Cured meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.04) 0.2 (0.04) 0.3

243

Calcium Intake and Body Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Five clinical studies of calcium intake, designed with a primary skeletal end point, were reevaluated to explore associations be- tween calcium intake and body weight. All subjects were women, clustered in three main age groups: 3rd, 5th, and 8th decades. Total sample,size was,780. Four of the studies,were,observational;,two were cross-sectional, in which body mass index was regressed against entry level

K. Michael Davies; Robert P. Heaney; Robert R. Recker; Joan M. Lappe; M. Janet Barger-lux; Karen Rafferty; Sharilyn Hinders

2000-01-01

244

Salt Intake Is Associated with Inflammation in Chronic Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) is highly prevalent and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. It has been well established that excessive intake of sodium chloride (salt) induced hypertension in some populations. Although salt seems to induce cardiovascular diseases through elevation of blood pressure, it has also been indicated that salt can induce cardiovascular diseases independently from blood pressure elevation. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the association between salt consumption and inflammation in CHF patients. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 86 patients between 18 and 65 years old who were diagnosed with New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class I and II heart failure. Salt intake was calculated by using 24 hour urine sodium excretion. Besides, the association between inflammation and daily salt intake was evaluated regarding C - reactive protein (CPR), High sensitive CRP (HsCPR), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), and ferritin and fibrinogen levels using Pearson correlation analysis. Results: Our results showed a statistically significant difference between the low (n = 41) and high (n = 45) salt intake groups in terms of serum HsCRP levels (5.21 ± 2.62 vs. 6.36 ± 2.64) (P < 0.048). Additionally, a significant correlation was observed between the amount of salt consumption and HsCRP levels. In this study, daily salt consumption of the enrolled patients was 8.53 gram/day. The medications and even the blood pressures were similar in the two groups, but daily pill count, prevalence of hypertension, and coronary heart disease were higher in the high salt intake group; however, the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.065). Also, no significant difference was observed between the groups concerning the inflammation markers, such as CRP, ESR, ferritin, and fibrinogen. Conclusions: Neurohumoral and inflammatory factors are thought to contribute to high mortality and morbidity rates in CHF. Yet, inflammatory markers may early diagnose CHF and predict the prognosis. Excessive salt intake also worsens the inflammation as well as volume control. PMID:25177670

Azak, Alper; Huddam, Bulent; Gonen, Namik; Yilmaz, Seref Rahmi; Kocak, Gulay; Duranay, Murat

2014-01-01

245

The relationship between water intake and foetal growth and preterm delivery in a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Interpretation of previous associations between water intake and adverse birth outcomes is challenging given that amount and type of water consumed can be non-specific markers of exposure or underlying behavioural characteristics. We examined the relationship between water intake measures and adverse birth outcomes in participants from three study sites in the United States. Methods Using a prospective cohort study, we examined daily intake of bottled, cold tap, total tap, and total water in relation to birth weight and risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) among term births and risk of preterm delivery. Results Based on water consumption data collected between 20-24 weeks of gestation, the adjusted mean birth weight was 27 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -34, 87), 39 (95% CI: -22, 99), and 50 (95% CI: -11, 110) grams higher for the upper three total water intake quartiles (> 51-78, > 78-114, and > 114 ounces/day) compared to the lowest quartile (? 51 ounces/day). Adjusted birth weight results were similar for bottled water, cold tap water, and total tap water intake. An exposure-response gradient was not detected for either preterm delivery or SGA with increasing total water intake and total tap water intake, but adjusted relative risks for all three upper quartiles were below 1.0 (range: 0.6-0.9) for SGA. Conclusion These data suggest that high water intake may be associated with higher mean birth weight following adjustment for confounding. PMID:20735835

2010-01-01

246

Variable iodine intake persists in the context of universal salt iodization in China.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency disorders were prevalent in China until the introduction of universal salt iodization in 1995. Concerns have recently arisen about possible excess iodine intake in this context. To document iodine intake and the contribution from iodized salt in China, we surveyed dietary iodine intake during China's nationally representative 2007 total diet study (TDS) and during an additional TDS in 4 coastal provinces and Beijing in 2009. Iodine intake was broken down by age and sex in 2009. Mean daily iodine and salt intake and the contribution from different food and beverage groups (and in 2009, individual items) was measured. The iodine in food cooked with iodized and noniodized salt was also assessed. The mean calculated iodine intake of a standard male in China was 425 ?g/d in 2007 and 325 ?g/d in coastal areas in 2009, well below the upper limit (UL) in all provinces. In 2009, iodine intake was above the UL in only 1-7% of age-sex groups, except among children (18-19%). A concerning number of individuals consumed less than the WHO-recommended daily allowance, including 31.5% of adult women. Salt contributed 63.5% of food iodine, and 24.6% of salt iodine was lost in cooking. Overall salt consumption declined between the surveys. Salt iodization assures iodine nutrition in China where environmental iodine is widely lacking. The risk of iodine excess is low, but planned decreases in salt iodization levels may increase the existing risk of inadequate intake. Regular monitoring of urinary iodine and more research on the impact of excess iodine intake is recommended. PMID:22810983

Wu, Yongning; Li, Xiaowei; Chang, Suying; Liu, Liping; Zou, Shurong; Hipgrave, David Barry

2012-09-01

247

Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake  

PubMed Central

Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors. PMID:18514747

Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

2008-01-01

248

The sodium and potassium intake of 3 to 5 year olds.  

PubMed Central

The sodium intake of preschool children in their home environment was investigated and the major sources of sodium other than added table salt identified. Thirty five children from a Southampton general practice were studied. Twenty four hour urinary sodium excretion was measured as a reliable indicator of daily total sodium intake. The daily intake of sodium other than that from added table salt, and of potassium and other nutrients, was also calculated from three day dietary diaries collected using the household measures method. Median excretion of sodium was 62 mmol/24h (range 28-105, 28 urine collections) and of potassium was 25 mmol/24 h (range 14-46). The sodium:potassium ratio was 2.7 (1.4-5.2). From the diaries, the average daily intake of sodium was 68 mmol (32-98) and of potassium was 47 mmol (24-95), and the sodium:potassium ratio was 1.4 (0.5-2.7) (median and ranges, 35 children). Foods contributing more than 30 mmol sodium to one day's intake were mainly processed convenience foods. PMID:3954440

Allison, M E; Walker, V

1986-01-01

249

Daily Log 2009 September 2009  

E-print Network

-00488 Reported: 09/30/09 1530 Occurred: Same Incident: Receiving Stolen Property Location: Off Campus Bookstore Location: Parking Lot I Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Two vehicle accident; no injuries. #12;Daily of breathing problems and vomiting; transported to hospital by ambulance. Report #: 2009-00484 Reported: 09

Boyce, Richard L.

250

Daily practices, consumption and citizenship.  

PubMed

This paper promotes a reflection on the relationship between daily practices and consumption. Understanding how conflicts, resistance and consensus are generated from daily consumption practices opens up possibilities for reflecting on the construction of sustainability in the context of diversity, one of the landmarks of the globalized world. Within this socio-cultural context, the central issue is: can consumption generate citizenship practices? The concepts of subject and agent help one think about collective action and subjectivation processes and their interferences on the collective consuming behavior. Based on empirical data from a research carried out in the municipality of Estrela in 2007, in the Taquari Valley - Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil) on local reality consumption practices, it was possible to conclude that various reasoning mechanisms and values underlie the daily consumption practices. Citizenship construction, based on consumption practices, depends on the subject's reflection capacity on his/her daily practices or on what goes through the circulation of environmental information based on sociability spaces. PMID:22011770

Mazzarino, Jane M; Morigi, Valdir J; Kaufmann, Cristine; Farias, Alessandra M B; Fernandes, Diefersom A

2011-12-01

251

Children's body mass index, participation in school meals, and observed energy intake at school meals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Data from a dietary-reporting validation study with fourth-grade children were analyzed to investigate a possible relationship of body mass index (BMI) with daily participation in school meals and observed energy intake at school meals, and whether the relationships differed by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). METHODS: Data were collected in 17, 17, and 8 schools during three school years. For

Suzanne Domel Baxter; James W Hardin; Caroline H Guinn; Julie A Royer; Alyssa J Mackelprang; Christina M Devlin

2010-01-01

252

Calcium Retention in the Adult Human Male as Affected by Protein Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of level of protein intake on the excretion and reten tion of calcium in the adult human male was studied. Nine young men given 800 mg calcium daily were fed 47, 95 and 142 g protein each for 15 days. Sub jects retained an average of 12 and 1 mg calcium, respectively, when fed 47 and 95 g

RUTH M. WALKER; HELLEN M. LINKSWILER

253

Cost and health consequences of reducing the population intake of salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVEThe aim was to estimate health and economic consequences of interventions aimed at reducing the daily intake of salt (sodium chloride) by 6 g per person in the Norwegian population. Health promotion (information campaigns), development of new industry food recipes, declaration of salt content in food and taxes on salty food\\/subsidies of products with less salt, were possible interventions.DESIGNThe

Randi M Selmer; Ivar Sønbø Kristiansen; Anton Haglerød; Sidsel Graff-Iversen; Hanne K Larsen; Haakon E Meyer; Kaare H Bønaa; Dag S Thelle

2000-01-01

254

Food Sources, Dietary Behavior, and the Saturated Fat Intake of Latino Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies dietary patterns that distinguish children with higher and lower mean daily percentages of calories from saturated fat using data from mothers of 205 Latino children aged 4-7 years in New York City. Substituting low-fat for whole milk appears a key strategy for lowering saturated fat intake. (SLD)

Basch, Charles E.; And Others

1992-01-01

255

Protein intake and stress levels in nurses and housewives of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress has many biological effects on human daily life. In the present study, dietary protein intake was correlated with the investigated stress levels of nurses and housewives of the targeted urban population. Age group ranged from 30 to 45years and both the groups belonged to middle socioeconomic status. After calculations of environmental, psychological and physiological stresses, it was observed that

Feroza Hamid Wattoo; Muhammad Saleh Memon; Allah Nawaz Memon; Muhammad Hamid Sarwar Wattoo; Muhammad Javaid Asad; Farzana Siddique

2011-01-01

256

Effects of sward structure upon herbage intake by grazing dairy cows  

E-print Network

Effects of sward structure upon herbage intake by grazing dairy cows L Astigarraga JL Peyraud 'INRA was strip-grazed at a high daily herbage allowance of 28 kg OM/cow. HOMI was estimated as described Peyraud et al (this issue). Grazing time (GT), rumination time (RT), extended tiller height (ETH) and leaf

Boyer, Edmond

257

Effects of different types of isocaloric parenteral nutrients on food intake and metabolic concomitants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether spontaneous food intake (SFI) is controlled by infused nutrient type or its caloric content, irrespective of nutrient type, was investigated. Rats were infused for 4 days with isocaloric solutions of different nutrient type but sharing the same intermediary metabolic oxidative pathway, providing 25% of daily caloric needs. One parenteral solution was a glucose, fat and amino acid mix (TPN-25%);

Gyorgy Bodoky; Michael M. Meguid; Zhong-Jin Yang; Alessandro Laviano

1995-01-01

258

Fluid intake patterns: an epidemiological study among children and adolescents in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Energy from liquids is one of the most important factors that could impact on the high prevalence of children and adolescents obesity around the world. There are few data on the liquid consumption in Brazil. The aim of this study is to evaluate the volume and quality of liquids consumed by Brazilian children and adolescents and to determine the proportion of their daily energy intake composed of liquids. Methods A multicenter study was conducted in five Brazilian cities; the study included 831 participants between 3 and 17 years of age. A four-day dietary record specific to fluids was completed for each individual, and the volume of and Kcal from liquid intake were evaluated. The average number of Kcal in each beverage was determined based on label information, and the daily energy intake data from liquids were compared with the recommendations of the National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária– ANVISA), the Brazilian food regulation authority, according to each subject’s age. Results As the children aged, the volume of carbonated beverages that they consumed increased significantly, and their milk intake decreased significantly. For children between the ages of 3 and 10, milk and dairy products contributed the greatest daily number of Kcal from liquids. Sugar sweetened beverages which included carbonated beverages, nectars and artificial beverages, accounted for 37% and 45% of the total Kcal from liquid intake in the 3- to 6-year-old and 7- to 10- year-old groups, respectively. Among adolescents (participants 11- to 17- years old), most of the energy intake from liquids came from carbonated beverages, which accounted for an average of 207 kcal/day in this group (42% of their total energy intake from liquids). Health professionals should be attentive to the excessive consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in children and adolescents. The movement toward healthier dietary patterns at the individual and population levels may help to improve programs for preventing overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Conclusion From childhood to adolescence the daily volume of liquid ingested increased reaching a total of 2.0 liters on average. Of this volume, the daily volume of milk ingested decreased while the carbonated drinks, sweetened, nectars and artificial beverages increased significantly. The proportion of water remained constant in about 1/3 of the total volume. From 3 to 17 years of age the energy intake from carbonated beverages increased by about 20%. The carbonated drinks on average corresponded to a tenth of the daily requirements of energy of adolescents. PMID:23167254

2012-01-01

259

Effects of recommendations on dietary intake in physically disabled students.  

PubMed

An investigation of dietary intake was performed in 37 motor-handicapped adolescents (median age = 20 years) at Ingemundskolan (an upper secondary school for physically disabled young people) in Stockholm in order to study the effects of recommendations provided six years earlier for improvement of the diet (2). The objective of the recommendations was a higher content of protein and other nutritients and a lower fat content in the diet. Iron was given daily to the students with the most severe motor handicap causing a low energy intake. The results of the follow-up study demonstrated that the measures undertaken led to a higher content of nutrients in the diet, a lower fat content and a decrease in the extra consumption of food. There were no signs of iron-deficiency anaemia in the disabled students in contrast to the 1966 study. PMID:130676

Hagman, U; Lundberg, A

1975-01-01

260

Genetic correlations for daily gain between ram and ewe lambs fed in feedlot conditions and ram lambs fed in Pinpointer units1  

Microsoft Academic Search

When performance is recorded in auto- mated facilities that measure feed intake of individual lambs that are penned in a group, such as Pinpointer units, a legitimate question is the degree to which daily gain is genetically correlated with daily gain achieved under feedlot conditions. Lambs were from a composite population (¹?? Columbia, ¹?? Suffolk, and ¹?? Hampshire germplasm) and

L. D. Van Vleck; K. A. Leymaster; T. G. Jenkins

261

30 Days in the Life: Daily Nutrient Balancing in a Wild Chacma Baboon  

PubMed Central

For most animals, the ability to regulate intake of specific nutrients is vital to fitness. Recent studies have demonstrated nutrient regulation in nonhuman primates over periods of one observation day, though studies of humans indicate that such regulation extends to longer time frames. Little is known about longer-term regulation in nonhuman primates, however, due to the challenges of multiple-day focal follows. Here we present the first detailed study of nutrient intake across multiple days in a wild nonhuman primate. We conducted 30 consecutive all day follows on one female chacma baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa. We documented dietary composition, compared the nutritional contribution of natural and human-derived foods to the diet, and quantified nutrient intake using the geometric framework of nutrition. Our focus on a single subject over consecutive days allowed us to examine daily dietary regulation within an individual over time. While the amounts varied daily, our subject maintained a strikingly consistent balance of protein to non-protein (fat and carbohydrate) energy across the month. Human-derived foods, while contributing a minority of the diet, were higher in fat and lower in fiber than naturally-derived foods. Our results demonstrate nutrient regulation on a daily basis in our subject, and demonstrate that she was able to maintain a diet with a constant proportional protein content despite wide variation in the composition of component foods. From a methodological perspective, the results of this study suggest that nutrient intake is best estimated over at least an entire day, with longer-term regulatory patterns (e.g., during development and reproduction) possibly requiring even longer sampling. From a management and conservation perspective, it is notable that nearly half the subject’s daily energy intake derived from exotic foods, including those currently being eradicated from the study area for replacement by indigenous vegetation. PMID:23894645

Johnson, Caley A.; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M.; Clarke, David; Swedell, Larissa

2013-01-01

262

Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, US Population, 2001-04  

Cancer.gov

The NCI Method provides the capability, for the first time, to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the US population. This greatly enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

263

UVIS CCD Daily Monitor A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program obtains full-frame, four-amp readout bias and dark frames as part of a daily monitor of the behavior of the WFC3/UVIS CCD. All images are post-flashed at a level of 12 e-; a separate program {13559} will be used to obtain un-flashed UVIS darks to monitor non-postflashed behavior. The frames from this proposal, in addition to those that are obtained as part of the WFC3/UVIS anneal program {13554}, will be used to create superbias and superdark calibration reference files for the Calibration Database System {CDBS}.This is the first of three daily monitoring programs of Cycle 21 {the others are 13557 and 13558}. It covers November 2, 2013 through February 24, 2014. The combination of the three programs provides full coverage of Cycle 21.

Bourque, Matthew

2013-10-01

264

UVIS CCD Daily Monitor B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program obtains full-frame, four-amp readout bias and dark frames as part of a daily monitor of the behavior of the WFC3/UVIS CCD. All images are post-flashed at a level of 12 e-; a separate program {13559} will be used to obtain un-flashed UVIS darks to monitor non-postflashed behavior. The frames from this program, in addition to those that are obtained as part of the WFC3/UVIS anneal program {13554}, will be used to create superbias and superdark calibration reference files for the Calibration Database System {CDBS}.This program is the second of three daily monitoring programs of Cycle 21 {the others being 13556 and 13558}. This program spans February 24, 2013 through June 18, 2014. The combination of this and the other programs span the entirety of Cycle 21.

Bourque, Matthew

2013-10-01

265

UVIS CCD Daily Monitor C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program obtains full-frame, four-amp readout bias and dark frames as part of a daily monitor of the behavior of the WFC3/UVIS CCD. All images are post-flashed at a level of 12 e-; a separate program {13559} will be used to obtain un-flashed UVIS darks to monitor non-postflashed behavior. The frames from this program, in addition to those that are obtained as part of the WFC3/UVIS anneal program {13554}, will be used to create superbias and superdark calibration reference files for the Calibration Database System {CDBS}.This program is the second of three daily monitoring programs of Cycle 21 {the others being 13556 and 13557}. This program spans June 18, 2013 through November 4, 2014. The combination of this and the other programs span the entirety of Cycle 21.

Bourque, Matthew

2013-10-01

266

Toward cinematizing our daily lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a cinematographic video production system to create movie-like attractive footage from our indoor daily life.\\u000a Since the system is designed for ordinary users in non-studio environments, it is composed of standard hardware components,\\u000a provides a simple interface, and works in near real-time of 5?~?6 frames\\/sec. The proposed system reconstructs a visual hull\\u000a from acquired multiple videos and then

Hansung Kim; Ryuuki Sakamoto; Itaru Kitahara; Tomoji Toriyama; Kiyoshi Kogure

2009-01-01

267

Gender in Spanish Daily Newspapers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the portrayal of women and men in a Spanish daily newspaper and to find whether there\\u000a were gender differences among the authors of the articles in said newspaper. A content analysis was conducted of 4,060 articles\\u000a and advertisements from 24 issues of a randomly selected, large-circulation, Spanish newspaper. Men were found to

M. Pilar Matud; Carmen Rodríguez; Inmaculada Espinosa

2011-01-01

268

Update on Chronic Daily Headache  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Chronic daily headache (CDH), defined as a primary headache occurring at least 15 days per month, is a problem of worldwide\\u000a scope, which is seen in 3% to 5% of the population. Though it has been recognized since ancient times, only recently have\\u000a there been attempts to define and classify it. CDH usually consists of a mixture of migraine and

James R. Couch

2011-01-01

269

Inadequate food intake among adults living with HIV.  

PubMed

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE The number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Brazil is between 600,000 and 890,000. Assessing the diet is important in planning healthcare actions and improving PLHIV's quality of life. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of inappropriate protein, total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, fiber, sodium, calcium and cholesterol intake among PVHIV on highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). DESIGN AND SETTING Cross-sectional study in nine Specialized STD/AIDS Healthcare Centers in São Paulo. METHODS Men and women aged 20 to 59 years, on HAART for at least three months, were included. Nutrient intake was assessed using 24-hour food recall applied in person and repeated among 30% of the population by telephone. The between and within-person variances were corrected. RESULTS 507 individuals were evaluated: 58% male, mean age 41.7 years (standard deviation, SD = 7.8). The mean time since HIV diagnosis was 6.6 years (SD = 4.1), and since HAART onset, 5.1 years (SD = 3.3). More than 20% of the population presented intake above the recommendations for saturated fat, cholesterol and/or sodium, and below the recommendations for fiber. The recommended maximum tolerable sodium level was exceeded by 99% of the sample, and 86% of men and 94% of women did not reach the daily recommendations for calcium. Protein, carbohydrate and total fat intakes were adequate for the majority of the population. CONCLUSIONS A significant portion of the population presented inappropriate intake of saturated fat, sodium, fiber and calcium. Interventions aimed at improving PLHIV's dietary quality are needed. PMID:23903262

Giudici, Kelly Virecoulon; Duran, Ana Clara Fonseca Leitao; Jaime, Patricia Constante

2013-01-01

270

Timing of food intake and obesity: a novel association.  

PubMed

Recent studies link energy regulation to the circadian clock at the behavioral, physiological and molecular levels, emphasizing that the timing of food intake itself may have a significant role in obesity. In this regards, there is emerging literature in animals demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation. Unusual feeding time can produce a disruption of the circadian system which might produce unhealthy consequences in humans. In a longitudinal study, we recently showed that the timing of the main meal was predictive of weight loss during a 20-week dietary intervention and that this effect was independent from total 24-h caloric intake. The importance of caloric distribution across the day on weight loss therapy was supported by a recent 12-week experimental study showing that subjects assigned to high caloric intake during breakfast lost significantly more weight than those assigned to high caloric intake during the dinner. Furthermore, one of the most influential discoveries relevant for this area of research in the last years is the presence of an active circadian clock in different organs related to food intake. This is the case for stomach, intestine, pancreas or liver. New data also suggest that there is a temporal component in the regulation of adipose tissue functions. Thus, a specific temporal order in the daily patterns of adipose tissue genes appears to be crucial for adipose tissue to exclusively either accumulate fat or to mobilize fat at the proper time. Taking into account that feeding is the source of energy for adipose tissue, the time of feeding, particularly for high-energy content meals, may be decisive, and changes in this timing could have metabolic consequences for the development of obesity and for weight loss. PMID:24467926

Garaulet, Marta; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación

2014-07-01

271

Phytoestrogens in Soy-Based Infant Foods: Concentrations, Daily Intake and Possible Biological Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to estrogenic compounds may pose a developmental hazard to infants. Soy products, which contain the phytoestrogens, genistein and daidzein, are becoming increasingly popular as infant foods. To begin to evaluate the potential of the phytoestrogens in these products to affect infants, we measured total genistein and daidzein contents of commercially-available soy-based infant formulae, infant cereals, dinners and rusks. We

C. H. G. Irvine; M. G. Fitzpatrick; S. L. Alexander

272

Isoflavone content of Italian soy food products and daily intakes of some specific classes of consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Western countries food products containing soybean proteins are primarily directed to some specific classes of consumers, in particular vegetarians, milk-intolerant or gluten-intolerant subjects, and hypercholesterolemic patients. The consumption of these products is associated with the presence of isoflavones, which recently have become a very controversial issue because their beneficial properties are counterbalanced by some undesirable effects. Taking into account

Sheila Morandi; Alessandra D’Agostina; Francesca Ferrario; Anna Arnoldi

2005-01-01

273

Concentrations of Trace Elements in Extensively Hydrolysed Infant Formulae and Their Estimated Daily Intakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 18 trace elements Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Cu, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Tl, and Zn were determined in three extensively hydrolysed formulae by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Two formulae were whey hydrolysates, whereas one was based on soy-bovine collagen hydrolysate. Two skim milk powder reference materials, analyzed to ensure the analytical

M. Krachler; E. Rossipal; G. Chan; J. Kerner; S. Kharb; R. Kakkar

2000-01-01

274

Amylinergic control of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylin is a pancreatic B-cell hormone that plays an important role in the regulation of nutrient fluxes. As such, amylin reduces food intake in laboratory animals and man, slows gastric emptying and it reduces postprandial glucagon secretion. Amylin deficiency which occurs concomitantly to insulin deficiency in diabetes mellitus, may therefore contribute to some of the major derangements associated with this

Thomas A. Lutz

2006-01-01

275

water intake Water sampling site  

E-print Network

x Drinking water intake WWTP discharge WWTP Water sampling site Reference MICROPOLLUTANT PLUME at WWTP discharge · Conductivity may be used to predict concentrations of waste water derived MPs downstream, a drinking water plant pumps lake water (ca. 100'000 m3 /day) for potable water (sand filter

276

Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

Amschler, Denise H.

1985-01-01

277

Estimated fluoride intake of 6-month-old infants in four dietary regions of the United States.  

PubMed

Eleven composite food groups comprising the infant "market basket" food collections for 1977 or 1978 from each of four dietary regions of the United States were analyzed for their fluoride content. Based upon the determined fluoride content of each composite and Food and Drug Administration estimates of food consumption the daily fluoride intake of an average 6-month-old infant residing in each of the dietary regions was calculated. The daily fluoride intake varied from 0.207 mg/day in Grand Rapids, Mich. (north central dietary region) to 0.541 mg/day in Orlando, Fla. (south dietary region). Flouride intakes of 0.272 and 0.354 mg/day were calculated for Philadelphia, Pa. (northeast dietary region) and Los Angeles, Calif. (west dietary region), respectively. The fluoride content of the water supplies ranged from 0.37 ppm (Los Angeles) to 1.04 ppm (Grand Rapids). Drinking water, dairy products and substitutes (other than milk), and grain and cereal products contributed 44 to 80% of the daily fluoride intake. In three of the four dietary regions the daily fluoride intake was less than the optimum level of 0.05 mg/kg body weight. PMID:7355802

Ophaug, R H; Singer, L; Harland, B F

1980-02-01

278

Higher dietary lycopene intake is associated with longer cardiac event-free survival in patients with heart failure  

PubMed Central

Background The antioxidant lycopene may be beneficial for patients with heart failure (HF). Processed tomato products are a major source of lycopene, although they are also high in sodium. Increased sodium intake may counter the positive antioxidant effect of lycopene. Methods This was a prospective study of 212 patients with HF. Dietary intake of lycopene and sodium was obtained from weighted 4-day food diaries. Patients were grouped by the median split of lycopene of 2471 ?g/day and stratified by daily sodium levels above and below 3 g/day. Patients were followed for 1 year to collect survival and hospitalization data. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to compare cardiac event-free survival between lycopene groups within each stratum of sodium intake. Results Higher lycopene intake was associated with longer cardiac event-free survival compared with lower lycopene intake (p = 0.003). The worst cardiac event-free survival was observed in the low lycopene intake group regardless of sodium intake (> 3 g/day HR = 3.01; p = 0.027 and ? 3 g/day HR= 3.34; p = 0.023). Conclusion These findings suggest that increased lycopene intake has the potential to improve cardiac event-free survival in patients with HF independent of sodium intake. PMID:23076979

Biddle, Martha; Moser, Debra; Song, Eun Kyeung; Heo, Seongkum; Payne-Emerson, Heather; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Pressler, Susan; Lennie, Terry

2012-01-01

279

The Daily Martian Weather Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science Team features the results of a detailed study of the Martian atmosphere in the form of a daily weather report and precise atmospheric measurements for the planet Mars. Atmospheric temperature and pressure profiles which have been archived with NASA's Planetary Data System are also available on this site. These profiles illustrate the vertical structure of the atmosphere of Mars. The site also includes links to many images of Martian atmospheric and weather phenomena (with captions) from the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MGS MOC), the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) and the Hubble Space Telescope.

Team, Mars G.; University, Stanford

280

Heavy metal and metalloids intake risk assessment in the diet of a rural population living near a gold mine in the Peruvian Andes (Cajamarca).  

PubMed

This study evaluates the diet composition of a rural population near a gold mine in the Cajamarca district of Peru. The main consumed items by this population were tubers and cereals, and the mean energy intake (1990 kcal) was shown not to cover the recommended intake values for the male population. The concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Zn, Al, Cr and, Cu in drinking water and food samples of items contributing to 91% of this diet (145 samples, 24 different items) were determined and used to calculate their daily intakes for risk assessment. The As, Cd and Pb daily intakes exceeded the limit values established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), entailing serious concerns for the population's health. Moreover, the intake values of As and Pb were shown to be higher, the closer to the gold mine the studied population was. PMID:24994564

Barenys, Marta; Boix, Nuria; Farran-Codina, Andreu; Palma-Linares, Imma; Montserrat, Roser; Curto, Ariadna; Gomez-Catalan, Jesus; Ortiz, Pedro; Deza, Nilton; Llobet, Juan M

2014-09-01

281

Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

2013-01-01

282

Control of Food Intake in the Obese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food intake (eating) is a form of behavior that is subject to conscious control. In practice, many obese and weight-gaining individuals claim that their eating is out of (their) control. Mechanistic models describe the interplay of biological and environmental forces that control food intake. However, because human food intake is characterized by individuals intervening to adjust their own patterns of

John E. Blundell; Angela Gillett

2001-01-01

283

Intake and Assessment: CETA Program Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this monograph, methods and models for revising or developing intake and assessment activities, facilitating enrollee success, and offering other program benefits are presented. The report, divided into four chapters, describes intake and assessment in chapter 1. Intake is defined as any process controlling the enrollee's flow into a program at…

Bruno, Lee

284

Calcium and vitamin D supplementation: state of the art for daily practice  

PubMed Central

Background Calcium and vitamin D play an essential role in bone metabolism but deficiency and/or inadequate intake are common. Objectives To describe a practical approach based on the literature regarding clinically important aspects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Methods A systematic evaluation of relevant literature in Medline was conducted. We included physiological studies, publications on relevant guidelines, meta-analysis, randomized clinical trials, and cohort studies. Results An adequate calcium intake and vitamin D supplementation is recommended in most guidelines xon fracture prevention. Daily supplementation with 800 IU is advocated in most guidelines, appears to be safe, and with this approach it is generally not necessary to determine vitamin D levels. There are no data on additional effects of loading doses of vitamin D on fracture or fall prevention. Calcium supplementation should be tailored to the patient’s need: usually 500 mg per day is required. The intestinal absorption of calcium citrate is approximately 24% better than that of calcium carbonate independent of intake with meals. Data on difference between calcium absorption with calcium carbonate compared to calcium citrate with simultaneous use of proton pump inhibitors are lacking. Concern has arisen about a possible link between calcium supplementation and an increased risk of myocardial infarction. Probably only well-designed prospective randomized controlled trials will be able to allow definite conclusions on this subject. Conclusion Daily supplementation with 800 IU vitamin D is a practical and safe strategy without the need for prior determination of vitamin D levels. Calcium supplementation should be tailored to the patient’s need based on total daily dietary calcium intake. In most patients 500 mg per day is required to achieve a total intake of 1,200 mg, or in some 1,000 mg per day. More calcium is absorbed from calcium citrate compared to calcium carbonate. PMID:25147494

van der Velde, Robert Y.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; Geusens, Piet P.; Lems, Willem F.; van den Bergh, Joop P. W.

2014-01-01

285

Daily cycles in coastal dunes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.

1988-01-01

286

Changes in dairy food and nutrient intakes in Australian adolescents.  

PubMed

Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01). Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01). Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01), due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health. PMID:23363991

Parker, Carole E; Vivian, Wendy J; Oddy, Wendy H; Beilin, Lawrence J; Mori, Trevor A; O'Sullivan, Therese A

2012-12-01

287

Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01). Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01). Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01), due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health. PMID:23363991

Parker, Carole E.; Vivian, Wendy J.; Oddy, Wendy H.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Mori, Trevor A.; O'Sullivan, Therese A.

2012-01-01

288

Chronic intake of fermented floral nectar by wild treeshrews  

PubMed Central

For humans alcohol consumption often has devastating consequences. Wild mammals may also be behaviorally and physiologically challenged by alcohol in their food. Here, we provide a detailed account of chronic alcohol intake by mammals as part of a coevolved relationship with a plant. We discovered that seven mammalian species in a West Malaysian rainforest consume alcoholic nectar daily from flower buds of the bertam palm (Eugeissona tristis), which they pollinate. The 3.8% maximum alcohol concentration (mean: 0.6%; median: 0.5%) that we recorded is among the highest ever reported in a natural food. Nectar high in alcohol is facilitated by specialized flower buds that harbor a fermenting yeast community, including several species new to science. Pentailed treeshrews (Ptilocercus lowii) frequently consume alcohol doses from the inflorescences that would intoxicate humans. Yet, the flower-visiting mammals showed no signs of intoxication. Analysis of an alcohol metabolite (ethyl glucuronide) in their hair yielded concentrations higher than those in humans with similarly high alcohol intake. The pentailed treeshrew is considered a living model for extinct mammals representing the stock from which all extinct and living treeshrews and primates radiated. Therefore, we hypothesize that moderate to high alcohol intake was present early on in the evolution of these closely related lineages. It is yet unclear to what extent treeshrews benefit from ingested alcohol per se and how they mitigate the risk of continuous high blood alcohol concentrations. PMID:18663222

Wiens, Frank; Zitzmann, Annette; Lachance, Marc-Andre; Yegles, Michel; Pragst, Fritz; Wurst, Friedrich M.; von Holst, Dietrich; Guan, Saw Leng; Spanagel, Rainer

2008-01-01

289

Pilot Study to Assess Isoflavone Intake in Middle-Aged Italian Subjects  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of isoflavone (IF) intake in Western populations is scarce, primarily because data about the content of these compounds in non-soy derived foods are incomplete or unavailable. The aims of this study were 1) to enrich the data available in literature about the IF content in traditional Italian foods, 2) to estimate daidzein (D) and genistein (G) intake in an Italian population sample. Eighteen Italian foods have been selected and analysed for IF content by GC-MS; the assessment of IF intake was performed in sixty healthy middle-aged Italian subjects after investigation of their dietary habits by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The mean IF intake was 171 ± 261 ?g/die (26-1415 ?g/die). The mean G intake was greater than D (98 ± 131 ?g/die vs 76 ± 131 ?g/die). As expected, soy products, even though poorly consumed (27%), resulted the main contributor to IF intake (IF intake was 473.4 ± 440 ?g/die vs 75 ± 38 ?g/die in soy consumers and non soy consumers respectively p<0.001). Among Mediterranean foods, the main contributor resulted fresh bread that is widely consumed (97%). The percentage contribution of the cereal group to mean IF intake was 91%; the legume, fruit and vegetables groups brought a low contribution (3%, 2% and 4% respectively). The total daily IF intake found was low and probably not sufficient to produce biological effects. However more studies are necessary to investigate whether low exposure to IF for a long time could have positive effects on human health. PMID:23675065

Bertoli, Simona; Spadafranca, Angela; Ravelli, Laura; Foti, Paola; Erba, Daniela; Testolin, Giulio; Battezzati, Alberto

2008-01-01

290

Products to Aid in Daily Living  

MedlinePLUS

... Products to Aid in Daily Living Share Print Products to Aid in Daily Living The materials and ... Check back for an update to this message. Product List Product/Services Topics Care Services Information and ...

291

Does nutritional intake differ between children with autism spectrum disorders and children with typical development?  

PubMed

Consumption of macro- and micronutrients and food group servings by children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; n = 46) and typical development (n = 31) were compared using 3-day diet records. Children with ASDs consumed significantly more vitamin B6 and E and non-dairy protein servings, less calcium, and fewer dairy servings (p < .05). The significantly lower dairy serving intake persisted after controlling for child age and sex and parental dietary restrictions, and excluding children on the gluten-free casein-free (GFCF) diet. Large proportions of children in both groups did not meet national recommendations for daily intake of fiber, calcium, iron, vitamin E, and vitamin D. PMID:18600441

Herndon, Alison C; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Johnson, Susan L; Leiferman, Jenn; Reynolds, Ann

2009-02-01

292

Efficacy and safety of coadministration of once-daily indacaterol and glycopyrronium versus indacaterol alone in COPD patients: the GLOW6 study  

PubMed Central

Background Addition of a second bronchodilator from a different pharmacological class may benefit patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) whose symptoms are insufficiently controlled by bronchodilator monotherapy. GLOW6 evaluated the efficacy and safety of once-daily coadministration of the long-acting ?2-agonist indacaterol (IND) and the long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrronium (GLY) versus IND alone in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Materials and methods In this randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, 12-week study, patients were randomized 1:1 to IND 150 ?g and GLY 50 ?g daily (IND + GLY) or IND 150 ?g daily and placebo (IND + PBO) (all delivered via separate Breezhaler® devices). The primary objective was to demonstrate the superiority of IND + GLY versus IND + PBO for trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at week 12. Other end points included trough FEV1 at day 1, FEV1 area under the curve from 30 minutes to 4 hours (AUC30min–4h), peak FEV1, inspiratory capacity and trough forced vital capacity (FVC) at day 1 and week 12, and transition dyspnea index (TDI) focal score, COPD symptoms, and rescue medication use over 12 weeks. Results A total of 449 patients were randomized (IND + GLY, 226; IND + PBO, 223); 94% completed the study. On day 1 and at week 12, IND + GLY significantly improved trough FEV1 versus IND + PBO, with treatment differences of 74 mL (95% CI 46–101 mL) and 64 mL (95% CI 28–99 mL), respectively (both P<0.001). IND + GLY significantly improved postdose peak FEV1, FEV1 AUC30min–4h, and trough FVC at day 1 and week 12 versus IND + PBO (all P<0.01). TDI focal score and COPD symptoms (percentage of days able to perform usual daily activities and change from baseline in mean daytime respiratory score) were significantly improved with IND + GLY versus IND + PBO (P<0.05). The incidence of adverse events was similar for the two treatment groups. Conclusion In patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, once-daily coadministration of IND and GLY provides significant and sustained improvement in bronchodilation versus IND alone from day 1, with significant improvements in patient-centered outcomes. PMID:24596459

Vincken, Walter; Aumann, Joseph; Chen, Hungta; Henley, Michelle; McBryan, Danny; Goyal, Pankaj

2014-01-01

293

Patterns of nutrients' intake at six months in the northeast of Italy: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Adequate complementary feeding is recognized as an important predictor of health later in life. The objective of this study was to describe the feeding practices and nutrients’ intake, and their association with breastfeeding at six months of age, in a cohort of infants enrolled at birth in the maternity hospital of Trieste, Italy. Methods Out of 400 infants enrolled at birth, 268 (67%) had complete data gathered through a 24-hour feeding diary on three separate days at six months, and two questionnaires administered at birth and at six months. Data from feeding diaries were used to estimate nutrients’ intakes using the Italian food composition database included in the software. To estimate the quantity of breastmilk, information was gathered on the frequency and length of breastfeeds. Results At six months, 70% of infants were breastfed and 94% were given complementary foods. The average daily caloric intake was higher in non-breastfed (723 Kcal) than in breastfed infants (547 Kcal, p?intakes of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. The mean intake of macronutrients was within recommended ranges in both groups, except for the higher protein intake in non-breastfed infants. These consumed significantly higher quantities of commercial baby foods than breastfed infants. Conclusions Contrary to what is recommended, 94% of infants were not exclusively breastfed and were given complementary foods at six months. The proportion of daily energy intake from complementary foods was around 50% higher than recommended and with significant differences between breastfed and non-breastfed infants, with possible consequences for future nutrition and health. PMID:24884789

2014-01-01

294

Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

2014-01-01

295

Are reductions in population sodium intake achievable?  

PubMed

The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

Levings, Jessica L; Cogswell, Mary E; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

2014-01-01

296

Contrails reduce daily temperature range.  

PubMed

The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period. PMID:12167846

Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

2002-08-01

297

The Daily Palette Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every day, the staff members at the Daily Palette Digital Collection at the University of Iowa Libraries put up a new artwork by a different Iowa artist. Since the project was launched in 2004, the collection has profiled over 1,000 artists working in the fine arts, literature, video, and the performing arts. Visitors can scroll through the Highlights of Collection section near the bottom of the page for a taste of the very intriguing offerings here. The Subcollections area includes areas like Iowa Writes, Iowa on Stage, and Iowa at 30 Frames per second. This last area has 11 rather intriguing short films, including "Body Beasts," "Back of the Mike," and "Alternative Forms of Energy." Also, Iowa Writes includes over 700 poems, including "Ode to Thresher" and "16th Avenue, Cedar Rapids."

2012-08-10

298

Daily Chemical Bulk Storage Inspection Form  

E-print Network

Daily Chemical Bulk Storage Inspection Form Chemical Bulk Storage Form Approved by: Paul Jennette, CVM Last revised by: Barbara English Revision date: 3/19/14 Daily_Chemical://sp.ehs.cornell.edu/env/bulk-material-storage/chemical-bulk- storage/Documents/Daily_Chemical

Pawlowski, Wojtek

299

Calcium intake increases risk of prostate cancer among Singapore Chinese  

PubMed Central

Consumption of dairy products, the primary source of calcium in Western diets, has been found to be positively associated with prostate cancer. In an Asian diet, non-dairy foods are the major contributors of calcium. Thus, a study of dietary calcium and prostate cancer in Asians can better inform on whether calcium, as opposed to other dairy components is responsible for the dairy foods-prostate cancer association. We examined calcium intake and prostate cancer risk among 27,293 men of the Singapore Chinese Health Study that was established between 1993 and 1998. As of December 31, 2007, 298 incident prostate cancer cases had been diagnosed among the cohort members. Diet was assessed at baseline with a validated 165-item food frequency questionnaire. It is hypothesized that there is greater net absorption of calcium in smaller individuals. Therefore, the calcium-prostate cancer association was also assessed in stratified analyses by median body mass index (BMI). Vegetables were the largest contributor of daily calcium intake in the study population. Overall, we observed a modest, statistically nonsignificant 25% increase in prostate cancer risk for the 4th (median = 659 mg/day) versus 1st (median=211 mg/day) quartiles of calcium intake after adjustment for potential confounders. The association became considerably stronger and achieved statistical significance (hazard ratio=2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.34; P for trend=0.01) for men with below median (22.9 kg/m2) BMI. Dietary calcium may be a risk factor for prostate cancer even at relatively low intake. PMID:20516117

Butler, Lesley M.; Wong, Alvin S.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.

2010-01-01

300

Calcium intake increases risk of prostate cancer among Singapore Chinese.  

PubMed

Consumption of dairy products, the primary source of calcium in Western diets, has been found to be positively associated with prostate cancer. In an Asian diet, nondairy foods are the major contributors of calcium. Thus, a study of dietary calcium and prostate cancer in Asians can better inform on whether calcium, as opposed to other dairy components, is responsible for the dairy foods-prostate cancer association. We examined calcium intake and prostate cancer risk among 27,293 men in the Singapore Chinese Health Study that was established between 1993 and 1998. As of December 31, 2007, 298 incident prostate cancer cases had been diagnosed among the cohort members. Diet was assessed at baseline with a validated 165-item food-frequency questionnaire. It is hypothesized that there is greater net absorption of calcium in smaller individuals. Therefore, the calcium-prostate cancer association was also assessed in stratified analyses by median body mass index. Vegetables were the largest contributor of daily calcium intake in the study population. Overall, we observed a modest, statistically nonsignificant 25% increase in prostate cancer risk for the 4th (median = 659 mg/d) versus 1st (median = 211 mg/d) quartiles of calcium intake after adjustment for potential confounders. The association became considerably stronger and achieved statistical significance (hazard ratio, 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-3.34; P for trend = 0.01) for men with a below median body mass index (22.9 kg/m(2)). Dietary calcium might be a risk factor for prostate cancer even at relatively low intake. PMID:20516117

Butler, Lesley M; Wong, Alvin S; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C

2010-06-15

301

Peripheral oxytocin treatment ameliorates obesity by reducing food intake and visceral fat mass  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that oxytocin (Oxt) is implicated in energy metabolism. We aimed to explore acute and sub-chronic effects of peripheral Oxt treatment via different routes on food intake and energy balance. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Oxt concentration-dependently decreased food intake in mice. Ip Oxt injection induced c-Fos expression in the hypothalamus and brain stem including arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Subcutaneous (sc) injection of Oxt suppressed food intake in normal and high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Daily sc injection of Oxt for 17 days in DIO mice reduced food intake for 6 days and body weight for the entire treatment period and additional 9 days after terminating Oxt. Oxt infusion by sc implanted osmotic minipumps for 13 days in DIO mice reduced food intake, body weight, and visceral fat mass and adipocyte size. Oxt infusion also decreased respiratory quotient specifically in light phase, ameliorated fatty liver and glucose intolerance, without affecting normal blood pressure in DIO mice. These results demonstrate that peripheral Oxt treatment reduces food intake and visceral fat mass, and ameliorates obesity, fatty liver and glucose intolerance. Peripheral Oxt treatment provides a new therapeutic avenue for treating obesity and hyperphagia. PMID:22184277

Maejima, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Yamahara, Yui; Kodaira, Misato; Sedbazar, Udval; Yada, Toshihiko

2011-01-01

302

Branched Chain Fatty Acid Content of United States Retail Cow's Milk and Implications for Dietary Intake  

PubMed Central

Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) have recently been shown to be a major component of the normal human newborn gastrointestinal tract and have long been known to be a component of human milk. Ruminant food products are major sources of fat in the American diet, but there are no studies of milkfat BCFA content in retail milk. We report here the profile and concentrations of BCFA in a representative sampling of retail milk in the 48 contiguous United States (US), and their estimated intake in the American diet. Conventionally produced whole fluid milk samples were obtained from 56 processing plants across the contiguous 48 states. Retail milk samples contain exclusively iso- and anteiso-BCFA with 14–18 carbons. BCFA were 2.05 ± 0.14%, w/w of milkfat fatty acids (mean ± SD), and anteiso-BCFA comprised more than half this total. Based on these data and USDA food availability data, the average per capita BCFA intake of Americans is estimated to be about 220 mg/d from dairy; if current dietary recommendations were followed, BCFA intake would be about 400 mg/d. Adding intake from beef consumption, these estimates rise to approximately 400 and 575 mg/d, respectively. These results indicate that BCFA intake is a substantial fraction of daily fat intake, in amounts exceeding those of many bioactive fatty acids. PMID:21293946

Ran-Ressler, R. R.; Sim, D.; Brenna, J. T.; O'Donnell-Megaro, A. M.; Bauman, D. E.; Barbano, D. M.

2011-01-01

303

Food intake and energy expenditure of Nigerian female students.  

PubMed

Twenty apparently healthy and normal Nigerian female students, resident at the University of Ibadan campus, were studied for seven consecutive days to assess their food energy intake and energy expenditure during sedentary and physical activities. The mean age (years) of the group was 20.05 (SD 3.44, range 16-29), mean height (m) 1.62 (SD 0.07, range 1.47-1.74) and body-weight (kg) 51.28 (SD 3.21, range 46-58). The food intake of each subject was obtained by direct weighing, and the energy value determined using a ballistic bomb calorimeter. Daily activities were recorded and the energy cost of representative activities was determined by indirect calorimetry. Activities mainly involved sitting, mean (min/d) 354 (SD 84, range 253-475). Personal domestic activities took a mean of 162 (SD 73) min/d. Sleeping took a mean of 451 (SD 62) min/d. The mean energy intake of the group was 8480 (SD 1316) kJ/d or 167 (SD 30.6) kJ/kg body-weight per d. This value is lower than that recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) (1973) as the energy requirement for adult women engaged in light activities (9205 kJ/d), but it is higher than the FAO/WHO/United Nations University (UNU) (1985) recommended value of 8326 kJ (1990 kcal)/d for a housewife in an affluent society. It is lower than the recommended intake of 9350 kJ/d for rural women in developing countries (FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985). The mean energy expenditure (kJ/d) of the female subjects was 6865 (SD 214, range 6519-7222). Mean energy expenditure was lower than mean energy intake. The energy intake and expenditure values indicated that the subjects participating in the present study were not physically very active. It is suggested, for health reasons, that they might undertake more physical activity. PMID:3593664

Cole, A H; Ogungbe, R F

1987-05-01

304

A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535

Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

2013-01-01

305

Energy expenditure and dietary intake during high-volume and low-volume training periods among male endurance athletes.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of this study was to examine dietary intake in endurance-trained athletes during a week of high-volume and a week of low-volume training while measuring exercise energy expenditure (EEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). In addition, compliance with current American College of Sports Medicine/American Dietetic Association nutrition and performance recommendations for macronutrients was evaluated. Energy expenditure and dietary intake were measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 nonconsecutive weeks resembling a high-volume and a low-volume training period. Anthropometric measurements were taken and percentage body fat was determined at the beginning and end of each week of training. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was calculated by summing RMR, NEAT, and EEE. Dietary intake was assessed with an online food-frequency questionnaire completed at the end of each week of data collection. Despite significant differences between TDEE and energy intake, no difference in body composition between the beginning and end of either week of training was observed, suggesting underreporting of caloric intake. Further, no changes in total caloric intake or macronutrient intake occurred even though TDEE increased significantly during the high-volume training. Reported carbohydrate intake (4.5 g·kg(-1)) and fiber intake (25 g·day(-1)) were below recommendations, whereas fat intake (1.3 g·kg(-1)) was slightly above recommendations. In summary, no short-term dietary adjustments occurred in response to differences in training regimen. Because these athletes were generally consuming a Western diet, they may have required some support to achieve desirable intakes for health and performance. PMID:22360344

Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Pivarnik, James M

2012-04-01

306

Estimating Daily Surface Soil Moisture Using a Daily Diagnostic Soil Moisture Equation  

E-print Network

Estimating Daily Surface Soil Moisture Using a Daily Diagnostic Soil Moisture Equation Feifei Pan1 moisture for scheduling irri- gation: errors in the estimated soil moisture are cumulative and frequent recalibrations are needed. A simple and robust approach to estimation of daily soil moisture using a daily

Pan, Feifei

307

Visual stimuli in daily life.  

PubMed

People of all ages, but especially children and adolescents, are increasingly exposed to visual stimuli. Typical environmental stimuli that can trigger epileptic seizures in susceptible persons are televisions (TVs), computers, videogames (VGs), discothèque lights, venetian blinds, striped walls, rolling stairs (escalators), striped clothing, and sunlight reflected from snow or the sea or interrupted by trees during a ride in a car or train. Less common stimuli are rotating helicopter blades, disfunctioning fluorescent lighting, welding lights, etc. New potentially provocative devices turn up now and then unexpectedly. During the last decades especially, displays have become increasingly dominant in many of our daily-life activities. We therefore focus mainly on the characteristics of artificial light and on current and future developments in video displays and videogames. Because VG playing has been shown also to have positive effects, a rating system might be developed for provocativeness to inform consumers about the content. It is important that patients with epilepsy be informed adequately about their possible visual sensitivity. PMID:14706037

Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée G A; van der Beld, Gerrit; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Groen, Paul

2004-01-01

308

Sedoanalgesia in pediatric daily surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The present report was focused on clinical advantages of sedoanalgesia in the pediatric outpatient surgical cases. Method: Sedoanalgesia has been used to sedate patients for a variety of pediatric procedures in our department between 2007 and 2010. This is a retrospective review of 2720 pediatric patients given ketamine for sedation with midazolam premedication. Ketamine was given intravenously (1-2 mg/kg) together with atropine (0.02 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.1 mg/kg) + a local infiltration anesthetic 2 mg/kg 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride. Result: Median age of the patients included in the study was 5.76 ± 2.12 (0-16 years). The main indications for ketamine include circumcision (69%), inguinal pathologies (inguinal hernia (17%), orchidopexy (2.68%), hydrocele (3.38%), hypospadias (1.94%), urethral fistula repair (0.33%), urethral dilatation (0.25%), and other conditions. All of our patients were discharged home well. In this regard, we have the largest group of patients ever given ketamine. Conclusion: Sedoanalgesia might be used as a quite effective method for daily surgical procedures in children. PMID:23936597

Ozkan, Aybars; Okur, Mesut; Kaya, Murat; Kaya, Ertugrul; Kucuk, Adem; Erbas, Mesut; Kutlucan, Leyla; Sahan, Leyla

2013-01-01

309

Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions.  

PubMed

In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light-dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light-dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high-amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light-dark cycle. PMID:25263204

Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

2014-09-01

310

Biomonitoring Equivalents for DDT\\/DDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration or range of concentrations of a chemical or its metabolite in a biological medium (blood, urine, or other medium) that is consistent with an existing health-based exposure guideline such as a reference dose (RfD) or tolerable daily intake (TDI). BE values can be used as a screening tool for the evaluation of

Christopher R. Kirman; Lesa L. Aylward; Sean M. Hays; Kannan Krishnan; Andy Nong

2011-01-01

311

Association of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 fatty acids) have been shown to have a beneficial effect on bone in animal studies, although little is known about their role in bone metabolism in humans. We investigated the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and daily n-3 fatty acid intake. This cross-sectional, community-based, epidemiologic study was conducted among 205 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 63.5 years, range 46-79). We examined BMD, serum N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), urinary type-I collagen cross-linked-N-telopeptide (uNTX), total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Nutrient intake was calculated using a food-frequency questionnaire. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Simple regression analysis showed that intake of neither n-3 fatty acid nor n-6 fatty acid was associated with age or lipid metabolism indices. However, simple regression analysis showed that n-3 fatty acid intake was positively associated with both lumbar spine BMD and femoral neck BMD. n-6 fatty acid intake was positively associated with femoral neck BMD but not lumbar spine BMD. Multiple regression analysis showed that n-3 fatty acid intake was positively associated with lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, BMI, duration of menopausal state, grip strength, PINP, uNTX, and intakes of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, and n-6 fatty acid. In conclusion, n-3 fatty acid intake was positively associated with lumbar spine BMD independent of bone resorption and serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in postmenopausal women. PMID:23708886

Nawata, Kiyoko; Yamauchi, Mika; Takaoka, Shin; Yamaguchi, Toru; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

2013-08-01

312

Angiotensin II stimulates intake of ethanol in C57BL/6J mice.  

PubMed

The influence of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of angiotensin II on intake of water and ethanol solutions was determined in C57BL/6J mice. Compared to other mice, C57 mice do not show an aversion to ethanol solutions. With both water and ethanol solutions available, the C57 mice consumed 40-60% of their total daily fluid intake as ethanol solution when the concentration of ethanol solution offered was 4-14%. When given a choice between 0.3 M KCl and either 4 or 10% ethanol solution, the mice clearly preferred the ethanol solution. With water only available, i.c.v. infusion of angiotensin II increased intake from 3-5 mL/day (baseline) to 11-12 mL/ day (Day 4 of infusion). A similar increase in intake occurred in mice with access to a nonpreferred solution of 0.3 M KCl. In comparison, when only 4% ethanol solution was available, angiotensin II increased intake to 7-8 mL/day, and when only 10% ethanol solution was available, intake was transiently increased. The results demonstrated that thirst for water caused by i.c.v. infusion of angiotensin II in C57 mice is similar to that observed in BALB/C mice. Unlike BALB/C mice, however, i.c.v. infusion of angiotensin II stimulated intake of ethanol solution. The failure of angiotensin II to cause a large increase in 4% ethanol solution or a sustained increase in 10% ethanol solution intake does not seem to be caused by an aversion to the taste of ethanol solution, but most likely due to postingestional factors. PMID:10497955

Weisinger, R S; Blair-West, J R; Denton, D A; McBurnie, M I

1999-09-01

313

Effects of Experimental Sleep Restriction on Weight Gain, Caloric Intake, and Meal Timing in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Examine sleep restriction's effects on weight gain, daily caloric intake, and meal timing. Design: Repeated-measures experiments assessing body weight at admittance and discharge in all subjects (N = 225) and caloric intake and meal timing across days following 2 baseline nights, 5 sleep restriction nights and 2 recovery nights or across days following control condition nights in a subset of subjects (n = 37). Setting: Controlled laboratory environment. Participants: Two hundred twenty-five healthy adults aged 22-50 y (n = 198 sleep-restricted subjects; n = 31 with caloric intake data; n = 27 control subjects; n = 6 with caloric intake data). Interventions: Approximately 8-to-1 randomization to an experimental condition (including five consecutive nights of 4 h time in bed [TIB]/night, 04:00-08:00) or to a control condition (all nights 10 h TIB/night, 22:00-08:00). Measurements and Results: Sleep-restricted subjects gained more weight (0.97 ± 1.4 kg) than control subjects (0.11 ± 1.9 kg; d = 0.51, P = 0.007). Among sleep-restricted subjects, African Americans gained more weight than Caucasians (d = 0.37, P = 0.003) and males gained more weight than females (d = 0.38, P = 0.004). Sleep-restricted subjects consumed extra calories (130.0 ± 43.0% of daily caloric requirement) during days with a delayed bedtime (04:00) compared with control subjects who did not consume extra calories (100.6 ± 11.4%; d = 0.94, P = 0.003) during corresponding days. In sleep-restricted subjects, increased daily caloric intake was due to more meals and the consumption of 552.9 ± 265.8 additional calories between 22:00-03:59. The percentage of calories derived from fat was greater during late-night hours (22:00-03:59, 33.0 ± 0.08%) compared to daytime (08:00-14:59, 28.2 ± 0.05%) and evening hours (15:00-21:59, 29.4 ± 0.06%; Ps < 0.05). Conclusions: In the largest, most diverse healthy sample studied to date under controlled laboratory conditions, sleep restriction promoted weight gain. Chronically sleep-restricted adults with late bedtimes may be more susceptible to weight gain due to greater daily caloric intake and the consumption of calories during late-night hours. Citation: Spaeth AM; Dinges DF; Goel N. Effects of experimental sleep restriction on weight gain, caloric intake, and meal timing in healthy adults. SLEEP 2013;36(7):981-990. PMID:23814334

Spaeth, Andrea M.; Dinges, David F.; Goel, Namni

2013-01-01

314

Sodium and Potassium Intake of Urban Dwellers: Nothing Changed in Yazd, Iran  

PubMed Central

To assess the daily salt intake of people aged 20-74 years based on the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion in urban population of Yazd, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted. This is a substudy of Yazd Healthy Heart Project in Iran. From 2004 to 2005, two thousand people of the urban population of Yazd city, aged 20-74 years, were enrolled in the main study. Overall, 219 volunteer participants of 20-70 years were enrolled in this substudy. Sample frame was the household numbers according to the database of Yazd City Health Services. Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and creatinine were measured in the urine samples collected from the participants over a 24-hour period. Sodium content in urine over 24 hours was 171.7±82.9 mmol/day in males and 127.8±56.1 mmol/day in females (p<0.0001) while potassium content was 49.4±23.2 mmol/day in males and 41.5±25.1 mmol/day in females (p=0.2). Estimated average daily salt (NaCl) intake was 10.0±4.8 g/day in males and 7.5±3.3 g/day in females (p<0.0001). Only one participant had the ideal Na/K ratio of less than one. Na/K ratios greater than one and less than two were seen in 11.3% (n=24), and a ratio equal to or greater than 2 was observed in 82.3% (n=118) of the participants. The average Na/K ratio was 3.69±1.58. Unlike many developed countries where sodium intake declined over the past few decades, the daily sodium intake in Yazd is high, and daily potassium intake is low. This is similar to what was observed four decades ago in an area not far from Yazd. Efforts must be directed towards health promotion interventions to increase public awareness to reduce sodium intake and increase potassium intake. PMID:24847600

Mirzaei, Masoud; Namayandeh, Mahdieh; GharahiGhehi, Neda

2014-01-01

315

Cokriging estimation of daily suspended sediment loads  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with daily river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated daily loads were compared with the daily measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated daily sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured daily values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating daily sediment loads with CK when daily discharge data is available. The estimated daily loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the daily S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Li, Z.; Zhang, Y. -K.; Schilling, K.; Skopec, M.

2006-01-01

316

Altered “set-point” of the hypothalamus determines effects of cortisol on food intake, adiposity, and metabolic substrates in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic elevation of glucocorticoid concentrations is detrimental to health. We investigated effects of chronic increase in plasma cortisol concentrations on energy balance and endocrine function in sheep. Because food intake and reproduction are regulated by photoperiod, we performed experiments in January (JAN) and August (AUG), when appetite drive is either high or low, respectively. Ovariectomized ewes were treated (intramuscularly) daily

B. A. Henry; D. Blache; F. R. Dunshea; I. J. Clarke

2010-01-01

317

Studies on Intake and Body Fluid Concentrations of Thorium for Subjects Working and Living in Thorium Rich Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blood serum is the fluid medium through which most of the minerals are absorbed into the human body and get metabolized. The concentrations of Th in blood serum is in equilibrium with the content of Th in human body and therefore could reflect its content in the body. The daily intake (ingestion and inhalation) and the corresponding concentration of

H. S. Dang; D. D. Jaiswal; V. R. Pullat; U. C. Mishra

2000-01-01

318

THE DIETARY INTAKE OF YOUNG CHILDREN (2-7 YEARS) WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES COMPARED WITH THE NEW MYPLATE RECOMMENDATIONS.  

E-print Network

saturated fat intake (p=.000), and with the USDA daily score (p=.000), but not with the MyPlate Meal score. Both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Hemoglobin A1c were not significantly correlated with the Myplate Meal score, USDA Day score or HEI score; however...

Moore, Ashley

2013-05-31

319

Assessment of dietary intake of fumonisin B? in São Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

In this study, fumonisin B1 (FB1) consumption was assessed through determination of FB1 in corn meal, corn flour, corn flakes, polenta, canned corn and popcorn collected from homes of residents of Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil, and using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) filled out by the residents. One hundred and twenty samples were collected from 39 residents on four separate occasions. FB1 was determined by high performance liquid chromatography using a validated method that uses SAX column clean-up. The highest levels of FB1 were found in corn meal at a mean concentration of 474.6 ?g kg(-1). However, none of the samples tested for FB1 had levels above the tolerance limit established in Brazil. The mean probable daily intake (PDIM) of FB1 was 63.3 ng kg(-1)body weight day(-1), which is approximately 3% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) recommended for fumonisins. PMID:24594171

Bordin, K; Rosim, R E; Neeff, D V; Rottinghaus, G E; Oliveira, C A F

2014-07-15

320

Activity levels, dietary energy intake, and body composition in children who walk to school.  

PubMed

Although differences in daily activity levels have been assessed in cross-sectional walk-to-school studies, no one has assessed differences in body composition and dietary energy intake at the same time. In this study of 239 primary school children, there were no significant differences in daily activity levels, body composition, or estimated dietary energy intake between those who walk to school (WALK) and those who travel by car (CAR; p < .05). WALK children were more active between 8 a.m. and 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. and 4 p.m. than CAR children (p < .05). In addition, there were no significant differences in the main analysis when participants were subgrouped by gender and age. PMID:18089907

Ford, Paul; Bailey, Richard; Coleman, Damien; Woolf-May, Kate; Swaine, Ian

2007-11-01

321

The Determinants of the food Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An analysis of the determinants of the food intake is made on the basis of the personal experience of the author in attempting\\u000a to control his own food intake. Hunger and appetite are distinguished as factors serving different functions in the food intake.\\u000a Hunger is regarded as the desire to eat which impels one to seek food, try things as

Frederick Hoelzel

1951-01-01

322

Understanding Forage Intake in Range Animals  

E-print Network

as important as forage quality, especially when quality is marginal. Forage intake in a rangeland environment is influenced by a num- ber of important factors, including: ? Herbivore species and size. ? Foraging behavior. ? Physiological status. ? Animal... intake associated with declining leaf material. Bite size also has a great influence on forage intake. While bite size declines as leaf material becomes less available, animals temporarily com- pensate by increasing bite rate and grazing time. However...

Lyons, Robert K.; Machen, Richard V.; Forbes, T. D. A.

1999-02-08

323

Rate of maturation during the teenage years: nutrient intake and physical activity between ages 12 and 22.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study evaluates the relationship of food intake and physical activity with biological maturation of 200 boys and girls during adolescence and young adulthood. The subjects were followed during 9 years from ages 12 to 22 years, with repeated measurements at ages 13, 14, 15, 16, and 21. Biological maturation was estimated four times between ages 12 and 17 as skeletal age by radiographs of the left hand and wrist. Daily nutritional intake (macro- and micronutrients) was assessed with a cross-checked dietary history method. Daily physical activity was assessed through structured interview, whereby average weekly time spent in activity was used to assign a weighted activity score. The 107 girls and 93 boys were divided into three maturity groups: early maturers, late maturers, and average maturers. It was concluded that in both sexes, late maturation seemed to coincide with a higher energetic food intake and a slightly higher activity pattern than early maturation during adolescence. PMID:9286746

Kemper, H C; Post, G B; Twisk, J W

1997-09-01

324

Association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes among adult men and women in India  

PubMed Central

Background It is postulated that a diet high in legumes may be beneficial in preventing diabetes. However, little empirical evidence on this association exists in developing countries. We aimed to examine the association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes status in adult men and women in India. Methods The analysis is based on a population-based cross sectional study of 99,574 women and 56,742 men aged 20–49 years included in India’s third National Family Health Survey conducted in 2005–06. Association of legume intake, determined by the frequency of consumption of pulses and beans (daily, weekly and occasionally or never), with the reported prevalence of diabetes were estimated using multiple logistic regression after adjusting for frequency of consumption of other food items, BMI status, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, watching television, age, education, living standard of the household, residence and geographic regions. Results Daily (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59–0.87; p=0.001) and weekly (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.54–0.80; p<0.001) legumes intake were associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of diabetes among adult Indian women even after controlling for the effects of potentially confounding factors, whereas non-significant inverse associations were observed in men. Conclusion Daily or weekly intake of legumes was inversely associated with presence of diabetes in the Indian population. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. More epidemiological research with better measures of legumes intake and clinical measures of diabetes is needed to clarify this relationship. PMID:23915141

2013-01-01

325

Milk Intake and Total Dairy Consumption: Associations with Early Menarche in NHANES 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Background Several components of dairy products have been linked to earlier menarche. Methods/Findings This study assessed whether positive associations exist between childhood milk consumption and age at menarche or the likelihood of early menarche (<12 yrs) in a U.S sample. Data derive from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Two samples were utilized: 2657 women age 20–49 yrs and 1008 girls age 9–12 yrs. In regression analysis, a weak negative relationship was found between frequency of milk consumption at 5–12 yrs and age at menarche (daily milk intake ??=??0.32, P<0.10; “sometimes/variable milk intake” ??=??0.38, P<0.06, each compared to intake rarely/never). Cox regression yielded no greater risk of early menarche among those who drank milk “sometimes/varied” or daily vs. never/rarely (HR: 1.20, P<0.42, HR: 1.25, P<0.23, respectively). Among the 9–12 yr olds, Cox regression indicated that neither total dairy kcal, calcium and protein, nor daily milk intake in the past 30 days contributed to early menarche. Girls in the middle tertile of milk intake had a marginally lower risk of early menarche than those in the highest tertile (HR: 0.6, P<0.06). Those in the lowest tertiles of dairy fat intake had a greater risk of early menarche than those in the highest (HR: 1.5, P<0.05, HR: 1.6, P<0.07, lowest and middle tertile, respectively), while those with the lowest calcium intake had a lower risk of early menarche (HR: 0.6, P<0.05) than those in the highest tertile. These relationships remained after adjusting for overweight or overweight and height percentile; both increased the risk of earlier menarche. Blacks were more likely than Whites to reach menarche early (HR: 1.7, P<0.03), but not after controlling for overweight. Conclusions There is some evidence that greater milk intake is associated with an increased risk of early menarche, or a lower age at menarche. PMID:21347271

Wiley, Andrea S.

2011-01-01

326

The endocrinology of food intake.  

PubMed

Many questions must be considered with regard to consuming food, including when to eat, what to eat and how much to eat. Although eating is often thought to be a homeostatic behaviour, little evidence exists to suggest that eating is an automatic response to an acute shortage of energy. Instead, food intake can be considered as an integrated response over a prolonged period of time that maintains the levels of energy stored in adipocytes. When we eat is generally determined by habit, convenience or opportunity rather than need, and meals are preceded by a neurally-controlled coordinated secretion of numerous hormones that prime the digestive system for the anticipated caloric load. How much we eat is determined by satiation hormones that are secreted in response to ingested nutrients, and these signals are in turn modified by adiposity hormones that indicate the fat content of the body. In addition, many nonhomeostatic factors, including stress, learning, palatability and social influences, interact with other controllers of food intake. If a choice of food is available, what we eat is based on pleasure and past experience. This article reviews the hormones that mediate and influence these processes. PMID:23877425

Begg, Denovan P; Woods, Stephen C

2013-10-01

327

Intake device of an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

An intake device is described for an internal combustion engine having an intake port, an intake valve and a valve guide projecting downwardly from the upper wall of the intake port. The device comprises: a rotary valve mounted for rotation in the intake port and having a substantially vertically extending valve shaft. The valve shaft is offset relative to the longitudinal axis of the intake port. The rotary valve has a valve plate positioned in the intake port; an actuator connected to the valve shaft for rotating the rotary valve from a closed position to a fully opened position in which the valve plate extends substantially parallel to the axis of the intake port; and a projecting wall projecting downwardly from the upper wall of the intake port and having an air-flowing-guiding portion which extends from the valve guide toward the rotary valve. The air-flow-guiding portion has its width gradually decreasing in a direction toward the rotary valve and terminating in an end which is positioned downstream of the valve plate and which is aligned with the valve plate and adjacent to the downstream end of the valve plate when the rotary valve is in the fully opened position.

Sakurai, K.; Hattori, K.

1987-10-20

328

Regulation of protein intake in adult dogs.  

PubMed

To determine whether adult dogs are able to regulate their intake of protein, 2-year-old female Beagles were allowed self-selection from 2 diets that differed in concentration of protein. Such a feeding regimen permitted the dogs to select for protein without affecting energy intake. Within the 1st week of the 4-week study, the dogs had established their pattern of protein intake. They selected approximately 30% of metabolizable energy from protein. Adult female rats offered the same diets also selected 30% of metabolizable energy from protein. The results indicated that adult dogs are able to regulate protein and energy intake. PMID:6822458

Romsos, D R; Ferguson, D

1983-01-01

329

Alterations in blood pressure and heart rate during cyclic changes in food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

In people trying to loose body weight, cycles of hypophagia followed by hyperphagia are quite common. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the alterations in daily mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) during short-term (5-day) changes in food intake.Adult male lop-eared rabbits were instrumented for continuous measurement of blood pressure and HR by telemetry (24

Vladan Antic; Jean-Pierre Montani

2002-01-01

330

Observed dietary intake in adults with intellectual disability living in the community  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge is lacking about dietary habits among people with intellectual disability (ID) living in community residences under new living conditions. Objective To describe the dietary habits of individuals with ID living in community residences, focusing on intake of food, energy and nutrients as well as meal patterns. Design Assisted food records and physical activity records over a 3-day observation period for 32 subjects. Results Great variation was observed in daily energy intake (4.9–14 MJ) dispersed across several meals, with on average 26% of the energy coming from in-between-meal consumption. Main energy sources were milk products, bread, meat products, buns and cakes. The daily intake of fruit and vegetables (320±221 g) as well as dietary fiber (21±9.6 g) was generally low. For four vitamins and two minerals, 19–34% of subjects showed an intake below average requirement (AR). The physical activity level (PAL) was low for all individuals (1.4±0.1). Conclusion A regular meal pattern with a relatively high proportion of energy from in-between-meal eating occasions and a low intake of especially fruits were typical of this group of people with ID. However, the total intake of energy and other food items varied a great deal between individuals. Thus, every adult with ID has to be treated as an individual with specific needs. A need for more knowledge about food in general and particularly how fruit and vegetables could be included in cooking as well as encouraged to be eaten as in-between-meals seems imperative in the new living conditions for adults with ID. PMID:19109653

Adolfsson, Paivi; Sydner, Ylva Mattsson; Fjellstrom, Christina; Lewin, Barbro; Andersson, Agneta

2008-01-01

331

Fruit and vegetable intake and associated factors in older adults in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background and objective Numerous studies support the protective effect of high fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption on chronic disease risk, mainly against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Compared with younger adults, older people experience additional health, social, and environmental conditions that affect dietary intake. To identify those additional dimensions and examine them in association with FV intake, data on 3,840 participants in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) in South Africa were analyzed. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study in 2008 with a sample of 3,840 participants, aged 50 years or older, in South Africa. The questionnaire included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometry, and blood pressure measurements. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between socio-demographic factors, health variables, and inadequate FV consumption. Results Overall prevalence rates of insufficient FV intake were 68.5%, 64.8% among men and 71.4% among women, with a mean intake of 4.0 servings of FV among older adults (50 years and older). In multivariable analysis, coming from the Black African or Colored population group, lower educational level and daily tobacco use were associated with inadequate FV intake. Conclusions The amount of fruit and vegetables (FVs) consumed by older South African participants was considerably lower than current recommendations (daily intake of at least five servings; 400 g). Public education and campaigns on adequate consumption of FVs should be promoted targeting lower educated and Black African and Colored population groups. PMID:23195518

Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

2012-01-01

332

Association of physical exercise and calcium intake with bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Background Interventions other than medications in the management of osteoporosis are often overlooked. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of physical activity and calcium intake with bone parameters. Methods We measured the heel T-score and stiffness index (SI) in 1890 pre- and postmenopausal women by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and assessed physical activity and dietary calcium intake by questionnaire. Participants were divided according to their weekly physical activity (sedentary, moderately active, systematically active) and daily calcium consumption (greater than or less than 800 mg/day). Results SI values were significantly different among premenopausal groups (p = 0.016) and between sedentary and systematically active postmenopausal women (p = 0.039). QUS T-scores in systematically active premenopausal women with daily calcium intake > 800 mg/day were significantly higher than those in all other activity groups (p < 0.05) independent of calcium consumption. Conclusions Systematic physical activity and adequate dietary calcium intake are indicated for women as a means to maximize bone status benefits. PMID:20374619

2010-01-01

333

Expression of candidate genes for residual feed intake in Angus cattle.  

PubMed

Residual feed intake (RFI) has been adopted in Australia for the purpose of genetic improvement in feed efficiency in beef cattle. RFI is the difference between the observed feed intake of an animal and the predicted feed intake based on its size and growth rate over a test period. Gene expression of eight candidate genes (AHSG, GHR, GSTM1, INHBA, PCDH19, S100A10, SERPINI2 and SOD3), previously identified as differentially expressed between divergent lines of high- and low-RFI animals, was measured in an unselected population of 60 steers from the Angus Society Elite Progeny Test Program using quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that the levels of gene expression were significantly correlated with RFI. The genes explain around 33.2% of the phenotypic variance in RFI, and prediction equations using the expression data are reasonably accurate estimators of RFI. The association of these genes with economically important traits, such as other feed efficiency-related traits and fat, growth and carcass traits, was investigated as well. The expression of these candidate genes was significantly correlated with feed conversion ratio and daily feed intake, which are highly associated with RFI, suggesting a functional role for these genes in modulating feed utilisation. The expression of these genes did not show any association with average daily gain, eye muscle area and carcass composition. PMID:24134470

Al-Husseini, W; Gondro, C; Quinn, K; Herd, R M; Gibson, J P; Chen, Y

2014-02-01

334

Are Recommended Daily Allowances for Vitamin C Adequate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Recommended Dietary Allowance of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) for adults has now been set at 45 mg day-1 by the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board. This intake suffices to prevent scurvy in most people. It is, however, much less than the optimum intake, the intake that leads to the best of health. A larger intake decreases the incidence and

Linus Pauling

1974-01-01

335

A new mathematical model for combining growth and energy intake in animals: the case of the growing pig.  

PubMed

A simultaneous model for analysis of net energy intake and growth curves is presented, viewing the animal's responses as a two dimensional outcome. The model is derived from four assumptions: (1) the intake is a quadratic function of metabolic weight; (2) the rate of body energy accretion represents the difference between intake and maintenance; (3) the relationship between body weight and body energy is allometric and (4) animal intrinsic variability affects the outcomes so the intake and growth trajectories are realizations of a stochastic process. Data on cumulated net energy intake and body weight measurements registered from weaning to maturity were available for 13 pigs. The model was fitted separately to 13 datasets. Furthermore, slaughter data obtained from 170 littermates was available for validation of the model. The parameters of the model were estimated by maximum likelihood within a stochastic state space model framework where a transform-both-sides approach was adopted to obtain constant variance. A suitable autocorrelation structure was generated by the stochastic process formulation. The pigs' capacity for intake and growth were quantified by eight parameters: body weight at maximum rate of intake (149-281 kg); maximum rate of intake (25.7-35.7 MJ/day); metabolic body size exponent (fixed: 0.75); the daily maintenance requirement per kg metabolic body size (0.232-0.303 MJ/(day x kg(0.75))); reciprocal scaled energy density (0.192-0.641 kg/MJ(theta(6)) ; a dimensional exponent, theta(6) (0.730-0.867); coefficient for animal intrinsic variability in intake (0.120-0.248 MJ(0.5)) and coefficient for animal intrinsic variability in growth (0.029-0.065 kg(0.5)). Model parameter values for maintenance requirements and body energy gains were in good agreement with those obtained from slaughter data. In conclusion, the model provides biologically relevant parameter values, which cannot be derived by traditional analysis of growth and energy intake data. PMID:19665033

Strathe, A B; Sørensen, H; Danfaer, A

2009-11-21

336

Effects of intake of pickles containing Lactobacillus brevis on immune activity and bowel symptoms in female students.  

PubMed

Forty-four female students with a tendency for constipation (mean age, 20.2±3.3 y) were asked to consume 30 g test pickles daily for 2 wk and were divided into 3 groups: viable-cell intake subjects (n=14, 3.0×10? colony-forming units of viable LAB (lactic acid bacteria) cells per sample), dead-cells intake subjects (n=15, viable cells were heat sterilized), and placebo-intake subjects (n=15, LAB removed from the pickles). ?-Aminobutyric acid content of 75.1±3.2 mg per sample was noted, with no marked difference between samples containing viable and dead cells. Natural killer (NK)-cell activity (% specific lysis) in serum from dead-cell intake subjects was 37.5±17.0% before the start of the test-food intake and 47.7±20.1% after intake, indicating statistically significant effects (p<0.01). However, viable-cell intake and placebo intake subjects showed no statistically significant difference. The number of days with bowel movements significantly increased from 3.8±1.5 to 4.9±1.8 d in the dead-cell intake group, whereas a slight change from 4.6±1.5 to 5.1±1.7 d was observed in the viable-cell intake group. Additionally, the feeling of incomplete evacuation fell and a refreshed feeling increased among the subjects with constipation. Thus, marked enhancement of NK-cell activity and improved bowel symptoms were observed in subjects consuming pickles containing dead LAB cells. PMID:24418874

Takii, Yukio; Nishimura, Sayaka; Yoshida-Yamamoto, Syumi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Nagayoshi, Emi

2013-01-01

337

Variations in food intake of Pecten maximus (L.) from the Bay of Brest (France): influence of environmental factors and phytoplankton species composition.  

PubMed

Previous studies carried out in the bay of Brest on daily shell growth of Pecten maximus have demonstrated that temperature is a major control on daily shell growth in contrast to food supply. However, repeated events of slow growth have been observed during diatom and dinoflagellate blooms. The aim of this study was to determine how fluctuations in environmental parameters influence P. maximus food intake and daily shell growth rate. In 1995, P. maximus food intake and growth were highest when Cerataulina pelagica (diatom) blooms occurred and lowest during Gymnodinium cf. nagasakiense (dinoflagellate) blooms. During blooms of other diatom species, P. maximus food intake and growth were high when the algal concentration did not exceed a critical threshold, dependent upon the dominant species and sedimentation rate of diatoms. These results demonstrate that the morphological and physiological features of phytoplankton bloom species strongly affect benthic microphytophagy, a component of benthic-pelagic coupling. PMID:11510420

Chauvaud, L; Donval, A; Thouzeau, G; Paulet, Y M; Nézan, E

2001-08-01

338

Fast-Food and Full-service Restaurant Consumption among Children and Adolescents: Impact on Energy, Beverage and Nutrient Intake  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the impact of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on total energy intake, dietary indicators and beverage consumption. Design Individual-level fixed effects estimation based on two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Setting Nationally representative data from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, and 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants Children aged 2 to 11 (N=4717) and adolescents aged 12 to 19 (N=4699) Main Outcome Measures Daily total energy intake in kilocalories, intakes of grams of sugar, fat, saturated fat and protein and milligrams of sodium and total grams of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), regular soda and milk consumed. Results Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, was associated with a net increase in daily total energy intake of 126 kcal and 160 kcal for children and 310 kcal and 267 kcal for adolescents and higher intakes of regular soda (+74g and +88g for children and +163g and +107g for adolescents) and SSBs generally. Fast-food consumption increased intakes of total fat (+7–8g), saturated fat (+2–5g) and sugar (+6–16g) for both age groups and sodium (+396mg) and protein (+8g) for adolescents. Full-service restaurant consumption was associated with increases in all nutrients examined. Additional key findings were 1) adverse impacts on diet were larger for lower-income children and adolescents; and, 2) among adolescents, increased soda intake was twice as large when fast food was consumed away from home than at home. Conclusions Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption is associated with higher net total energy intake and poorer diet quality. PMID:23128151

Powell, Lisa M.; Nguyen, Binh T.

2013-01-01

339

Quantification of Food Intake in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of food intake in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is often necessary for studies of behaviour, nutrition and drug administration. There is no reliable and agreed method for measuring food intake of flies in undisturbed, steady state, and normal culture conditions. We report such a method, based on measurement of feeding frequency by proboscis- extension, validated by short-term measurements

Richard Wong; Matthew D. W. Piper; Bregje Wertheim; Linda Partridge

2009-01-01

340

Quantification of Food Intake in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of food intake in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is often necessary for studies of behaviour, nutrition and drug administration. There is no reliable and agreed method for measuring food intake of flies in undisturbed, steady state, and normal culture conditions. We report such a method, based on measurement of feeding frequency by proboscis-extension, validated by short-term measurements of

Richard Wong; Matthew D. W. Piper; Bregje Wertheim; Linda Partridge; Nigel E. Raine

2009-01-01

341

Central nervous system control of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

New information regarding neuronal circuits that control food intake and their hormonal regulation has extended our understanding of energy homeostasis, the process whereby energy intake is matched to energy expenditure over time. The profound obesity that results in rodents (and in the rare human case as well) from mutation of key signalling molecules involved in this regulatory system highlights its

Michael W. Schwartz; Stephen C. Woods; Daniel Porte Jr; Randy J. Seeley; Denis G. Baskin

2000-01-01

342

EFFECT OF NUTRIENT INTAKE ON PREMENSTRUAL DEPRESSION  

E-print Network

. depression, anxiety. mood swings, cravings for carbohydrate-rich foods, sleep dis- turbances, and somatic craving. Calorie and nutrient intakes were measured directly. The subjects with premenstrual syndrome failed to change, whereas intake of fat, a fixed constituent of all of the test foods, rose in proportion

Wurtman, Richard

343

IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. he report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that ave been in satisfact...

344

IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. The report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that have been in satisfa...

345

FEED INTAKE BEHAVIOR AND IMPLICATIONS FOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of feed intake has been greatly facilitated by the recent development of computerized systems that monitor the feed intake of individual animals within a group. Such equipment was originally designed for use by breeding stock supply organizations in the performance testing of pigs in group situations. The majority of selection programs for pigs place considerable emphasis on feed

Mike Ellis

346

Influence of Calcium Intake on Gestational Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium intake during the third trimester of pregnancy was determined in 82 pregnant women by recording the consumption of foods over a 5-day period and by calculation of the quantity of this element provided by dietary supplements. For each subject, blood pressures were measured once per week using an aneroid sphygmomanometer, to detect and analyze differences in calcium intake between

Rosa M. Ortega; Rosa M. Martínez; Ana M. López-Sobaler; Pedro Andres; M. Elena Quintas

1999-01-01

347

Usual Intake of Total starchy vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total starchy vegetables Table A12. Total starchy vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2

348

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit Table A2. Total whole fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.8

349

Usual Intake of Citrus, melon, berries  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Citrus, melon, berries Table A3. Citrus, melon, berries: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2

350

Dietary fluoride intake of 6-month and 2-year-old children in four dietary regions of the United States13  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACF Based upon the analysis of 44 market basket food collections, the average daily dietary fluoride intakes of6-mo-old and 2-yr-old children residing in cities with water fluoride levels of 0.05 to 1.04 ppm were determined. In cities with >0.7 ppm fluoride in the drinking water, a 6- mo-old child (infant) and a 2-yr-old child (toddler) had mean dietary fluoride intakes

Robert H Ophaug; Leon Singer; Barbara F Harland

351

Voluntary intake, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of fresh forages fed to Guinea pigs in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bindelle, J., Ilunga, Y., Delacollette, M., Muland Kayij, M., Umba di M’Balu, J., Kindele, E. and Buldgen, A. Voluntary intake,\\u000a chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of fresh forages fed to Guinea pigs in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa\\u000a (Democratic Republic of Congo). Tropical Animal Health and Production.\\u000a \\u000a The daily voluntary intake (DVI) of Guinea pigs (GP) fed 15 fresh

J. Bindelle; Y. Ilunga; M. Delacollette; M. Muland Kayij; J. Umba di M’Balu; E. Kindele; A. Buldgen

2007-01-01

352

Field energetics and the estimation of pollen and nectar intake in the marsupial honey possum, Tarsipes rostratus , in heathland habitats of South-Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described, based on the simultaneous turnover of both stable (18O) and radioactive isotopes (3H and 22Na), whereby the daily nectar and pollen intake of free-ranging marsupial honey possums (Tarsipes rostratus) may be estimated. The field metabolic rate is measured using doubly labelled water and nectar intake is estimated independently\\u000a from the measured water and sodium fluxes. The

S. D. Bradshaw; F. J. Bradshaw

1999-01-01

353

Daily Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.…

Einolf, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

354

Influence of calcium intake on gestational hypertension.  

PubMed

Calcium intake during the third trimester of pregnancy was determined in 82 pregnant women by recording the consumption of foods over a 5-day period and by calculation of the quantity of this element provided by dietary supplements. For each subject, blood pressures were measured once per week using an aneroid sphygmomanometer, to detect and analyze differences in calcium intake between those with normal blood pressure and those suffering from gestational hypertension (7.3%). Calcium intake was significantly lower amongst subjects with high blood pressure (757.7 +/- 154.5 compared to 986.4 +/- 502.3 mg/day in normotensive subjects). The relationship between calcium intake and blood pressure was independent of other variables such as body mass index, number of previous pregnancies, weight gain, subject age or hematocrit levels. Though further investigation is needed, the results obtained seem to support the idea that pregnant women should try to maintain an optimal calcium intake. PMID:10364629

Ortega, R M; Martínez, R M; López-Sobaler, A M; Andres, P; Quintas, M E

1999-01-01

355

[Optimization of energy intake in artificial nutrition: second lecture Jesús Culebras].  

PubMed

A primary goal of nutritional support is to provide the energy requirements needed to sustain metabolic processes, maintain body temperature and tissue repair. The beginnings of artificial nutrition were characterized by high calorie nutritional formulae. The assimilation of physiological concepts, accumulating research data and clinical experience led to a progressive reduction of this intake. During the decade of the 90s of the past century, the concept of permissive underfeeding was proposed. Since then, there has been a controversy between supporters of an initial reduction of energy intake for the critical patient and advocates of a full administration of the estimated calorie needs since the very first days of admission to the Intensive Care Unit. This controversy has extended into clinical practice guidelines, showing a clear disagreement between recent recommendations of ASPEN and ESPEN. In the future we will see the publication of new studies that might better define the evidence on which to base the recommendations of caloric intake. There is also a clear need to deepen the knowledge about the optimal caloric intake in the non-critically ill patient requiring artificial nutrition. It is of great importance that these new concepts, which will arise undoubtedly, are incorporated quickly in the design of nutritional formulas produced by the pharmaceutical industry. Finally, it is important to encourage active participation in continuous educational activities in the field of Nutrition for achieving a rapid incorporation in daily practice of these new concepts of optimal caloric intake. PMID:22411361

León Sanz, M

2011-01-01

356

Sodium intake in a cross-sectional, representative sample of new york city adults.  

PubMed

Objectives. We estimated sodium intake, which is associated with elevated blood pressure, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and assessed its association with related variables among New York City adults. Methods. In 2010 we conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey of 1656 adults, the Heart Follow-Up Study, that collected self-reported health information, measured blood pressure, and obtained sodium, potassium, and creatinine values from 24-hour urine collections. Results. Mean daily sodium intake was 3239 milligrams per day; 81% of participants exceeded their recommended limit. Sodium intake was higher in non-Hispanic Blacks (3477 mg/d) and Hispanics (3395 mg/d) than in non-Hispanic Whites (3066 mg/d; both P?intake was associated with higher blood pressure in adjusted models, and this association varied by race/ethnicity. Conclusions. Higher sodium intake among non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics than among Whites was not previously documented in population surveys relying on self-report. These results demonstrate the feasibility of 24-hour urine collection for the purposes of research, surveillance, and program evaluation. PMID:24432875

Angell, Sonia Y; Yi, Stella; Eisenhower, Donna; Kerker, Bonnie D; Curtis, Christine J; Bartley, Katherine; Silver, Lynn D; Farley, Thomas A

2014-12-01

357

Types of food and nutrient intake in India: a literature review.  

PubMed

Nowadays India is undergoing an impressive economic growth accompanied by a very slow decline, almost stagnation, in malnutrition levels. In developing countries, studies on dietary patterns and their relationship with nutritional status are scarce. Over the years some nutritional studies have been performed to explore different types of food consumed in various Indian regions, among different social samples. The aim of the present paper is to review and describe trends in food and nutrition intake patterns in the different states of India. The review was carried out in PubMed, using the advanced research criteria: [food* OR ("meal pattern*") OR ("eating pattern*")] AND ("nutrient intake") AND India*. PubMed research gave back 84 results and out of these, 7 papers due to their focus on food intake and consumption levels in India have been included in this study. Food intake patterns showed that most of the Indians are vegetarians and that food items rich in micronutrients (pulses, other vegetables, fruits, nuts, oilseeds and animal foods) are generally consumed less frequently. Poor and monotonous cereals-based diet may promote inadequate nutrition intakes according to Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) standards. PMID:24928105

Vecchio, Maria Gabriella; Paramesh, Elizabeth Cherian; Paramesh, Haralappa; Loganes, Claudia; Ballali, Simonetta; Gafare, Claudia Elena; Verduci, Elvira; Gulati, Achal

2014-09-01

358

Relation of caffeine intake during pregnancy to intrauterine growth retardation and preterm birth.  

PubMed

Whether caffeine intake during pregnancy is related to intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and preterm birth remains unclear. The purpose of this population-based study is to assess these associations and to evaluate the interaction between caffeine intake and smoking. The study participants (n = 7,025) were women who lived in Quebec City, Canada, and the surrounding area who gave birth between January 1989 and October 1989 to a singleton liveborn neonate. Information on gestational age at delivery, caffeine intake (coffee, tea, chocolate, and colas) during pregnancy, and several potential confounders was obtained by telephone a few weeks after delivery. Birth weight was abstracted from the birth certificate. Caffeine consumption was associated with an increased risk of intrauterine growth retardation (birth weight less than the 10th percentile for sex and gestational age). For women whose average daily caffeine consumption was 0-10, 11-150, 151-300, or > 300 mg, the adjusted odds ratios for delivering a newborn with growth retardation were 1.00, 1.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.59), 1.42 (95% CI 1.07-1.87), and 1.57 (95% CI 1.05-2.33), respectively. Caffeine intake, however, was not related to preterm delivery or low birth weight. We conclude that caffeine intake during pregnancy is a risk factor for intrauterine growth retardation. PMID:8317450

Fortier, I; Marcoux, S; Beaulac-Baillargeon, L

1993-05-01

359

Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure to low-levels of organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), induces oxidative stress and could be related to neurological disorders. Hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. We explore whether intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) can protect Wistar rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were gavaged daily with 6.75mg/kg body weight (1/20 LD50) of CPF and given HRW by oral intake. Nissl staining and electron microscopy results indicated that HRW intake had protective effects on the CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons and neuronal mitochondria. Immunostaining results showed that the increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes induced by CPF exposure can be ameliorated by HRW intake. Moreover, HRW intake also attenuated CPF-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by enhanced level of MDA, accompanied by an increase in GSH level and SOD and CAT activity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity tests showed significant decrease in brain AChE activity after CPF exposure, and this effect can be ameliorated by HRW intake. An in vitro study demonstrated that AChE activity was more intense in HRW than in normal water with or without chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), the metabolically-activated form of CPF. These observations suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity, and the protective effects of hydrogen may be mediated by regulating the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats. Furthermore, this work defines a novel mechanism of biological activity of hydrogen by directly increasing the AChE activity. PMID:24967689

Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Mengyu; Xie, Fei; Ma, Xuemei; Zhao, Pengxiang; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Jiala; Wang, Minglian; Yang, Zhaona; Zhang, Yutong

2014-10-01

360

RGS6 Variants Are Associated With Dietary Fat Intake in Hispanics: The IRAS Family Study  

PubMed Central

Recently, a genome-wide association scan was completed in the IRAS (Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study) Family Study (IRASFS) Hispanic-American cohort. Multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6) gene were found to be associated with adiposity phenotypes. RGS6 has shown downstream antagonistic interplay with opioid receptors, targets of fatty/sugary food agonists. The possibility that RGS6 promotes tolerance and tachyphylaxis among the opioid receptor is a plausible pathway for overconsuming fat/sugar-laden food. Therefore, we hypothesized that RGS6 variants are associated with intake of fatty/sugary foods. In 932 Hispanics from San Antonio and San Luis Valley, CO, the following dietary intake variables were assessed using the Block Brief 2000 food frequency questionnaire: total calories, total fat, % calories from fat, % calories from saturated fat, protein, % calories from protein, carbohydrates, % calories from carbohydrates, and daily frequency of servings of fats/oils/sweets. We tested for association between 23 SNPs in RGS6 and dietary intake using a variance components measured genotype approach. All models were adjusted for gender, recruitment site, admixture, BMI, and age. Using an additive genetic model, rs1402064 was associated with higher intake of fats/oils/sweets, total calories, total fat and saturated fat (P = 0.0007, 0.026, 0.023, and 0.024). SNPs rs847330 and rs847354 were associated with higher intake of fats/oils/sweets (P = 0.002 and 0.018), total fat (P = 0.040 and 0.048) and saturated fat (P = 0.044 and 0.041). Finally, rs769148 was associated with higher intake of fats/oils/sweets (P = 0.002). RGS6 is a new candidate gene for adiposity traits that may be associated with a behavioral tendency toward fat-laden food intake. PMID:21233807

Sibbel, Scott P.; Talbert, Matthew E.; Bowden, Donald W.; Haffner, Steve M.; Taylor, Kent D.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Norris, Jill M.

2013-01-01

361

Choline intake in a large cohort of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease123  

PubMed Central

Background: There is significant histologic and biochemical overlap between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis associated with choline deficiency. Objective: We sought to determine whether subjects with biopsy-proven NAFLD and evidence of an inadequate intake of choline had more severe histologic features. Design: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 664 subjects enrolled in the multicenter, prospective Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN) with baseline data on diet composition (from a recall-based food-frequency questionnaire) within 6 mo of a liver biopsy. Food questionnaires were analyzed with proprietary software to estimate daily intakes of choline. Liver biopsies were centrally read, and consensus was scored with the NASH CRN–developed scoring system. Because choline needs vary by age, sex, and menopausal status, participants were segregated into corresponding categories (children 9–13 y old, males ?14 y old, premenopausal women ?19 y old, and postmenopausal women) on the basis of the Institute of Medicine's definition of adequate intake (AI) for choline. Deficient intake was defined as <50% AI. Results: Postmenopausal women with deficient choline intake had worse fibrosis (P = 0.002) once factors associated with NAFLD (age, race-ethnicity, obesity, elevated triglycerides, diabetes, alcohol use, and steroid use) were considered in multiple ordinal logistic regression models. Choline intake was not identified as a contributor to disease severity in children, men, or premenopausal women. Conclusion: Decreased choline intake is significantly associated with increased fibrosis in postmenopausal women with NAFLD. The Pioglitazone vs Vitamin E vs Placebo for Treatment of Non-Diabetic Patients With Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00063622, and the Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00063635. PMID:22338037

Guerrerio, Anthony L; Colvin, Ryan M; Schwartz, Amy K; Molleston, Jean P; Murray, Karen F; Diehl, AnnaMae; Mohan, Parvathi; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B; Lavine, Joel E; Torbenson, Michael S

2012-01-01

362

Adolescent daily and general maladjustment: is there reactivity to daily repeated measures methodologies?  

PubMed

The present study examined whether repeated exposure to daily surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' daily and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 daily reports tapping experienced or experienced and witnessed negative events, or they completed no daily reports. General maladjustment was measured in 2-week intervals before, at the end of, and 2 weeks after the daily report study. Daily maladjustment either decreased or did not change across the 5 daily report exposures. General maladjustment decreased across the three 2-week intervals. Combined, results indicate that short-term daily report studies do not place youth at risk for increased maladjustment. PMID:22288493

Nishina, Adrienne

2012-01-01

363

30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250...Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a...

2013-07-01

364

30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250...Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a...

2010-07-01

365

30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

... 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250...Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a...

2014-07-01

366

30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250...Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a...

2012-07-01

367

When Daily Deal Services Meet Twitter: Understanding Twitter as a Daily Deal Marketing Platform  

E-print Network

When Daily Deal Services Meet Twitter: Understanding Twitter as a Daily Deal Marketing Platform, Yuseong-gu Daejeon, Korea +82-42-350-7837 chungcw@kaist.edu ABSTRACT Twitter, a microblogging service Twitter for marketing purpose; daily deal providers such as Groupon and LivingSocial are not only engaged

Chung, Chin-Wan

368

Adolescent Daily and General Maladjustment: Is There Reactivity to Daily Repeated Measures Methodologies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined whether repeated exposure to daily surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' daily and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 daily reports tapping experienced or…

Nishina, Adrienne

2012-01-01

369

Intake of fat and fiber-rich foods according to socioeconomic status: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study  

PubMed Central

This study describes the food intake of adolescents participating in the 1993 birth cohort from Pelotas, Southern Brazil, according to socioeconomic position. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the 2004-2005 follow-up visit. Food intake in the previous year was evaluated using the Block questionnaire. Socioeconomic status was evaluated based on an assets index, divided into quintiles. Foods with the highest frequency of daily intake were white bread (83%), butter or margarine (74.6%), beans (66.4%) and milk (48.5%). Intake of butter or margarine, bread, and beans was more frequent among poorer adolescents, and the inverse was true for milk. Intake of fruits and vegetables was low in all socioeconomic strata, but particularly low among the poor. In early adolescence, all socioeconomic groups showed high consumption of foods rich in fat and low consumption of foods rich in fiber. PMID:20963287

Neutzling, Marilda B.; Araujo, Cora Luiza; Vieira, Maria de Fatima A.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Victora, Cesar G.

2013-01-01

370

Fat intake and injury in female runners  

PubMed Central

Background Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Methods Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Results Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 ± 20 vs. 80 ± 50 g/d) and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 8 %) compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Conclusion Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women. PMID:18173851

Gerlach, Kristen E; Burton, Harold W; Dorn, Joan M; Leddy, John J; Horvath, Peter J

2008-01-01

371

Dairy Food at the First Occasion of Eating Is Important for Total Dairy Food Intake for Australian Children  

PubMed Central

The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%–138%) greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%–37%). Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children’s intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent. PMID:25251295

Riley, Malcolm D.; Baird, Danielle L.; Hendrie, Gilly A.

2014-01-01

372

A practical procedure for achieving a steady state of NOx concentration in plasma: with special reference to the NOx content of Japanese daily food.  

PubMed

To establish a concrete procedure to achieve a steady state plasma NOx concentration with Japanese daily food, NOx contents of about 200 types of food and beverages consumed daily were measured and NOx concentration in plasma was monitored till steady state after various degree of intake of NOx restricted food. The NOx content was found to be high in dark green leaved vegetables and low in grains, processed food, fresh and processed seafood. Tap water and mineral water were found to contain various amounts of NOx that were drastically reduced by treatment with a reverse osmosis column and remained in trace amounts after ion exchange column treatment. NOx content was low in drinks such as cola, but was extremely high in vegetable juice containing dark green leaved vegetables. The intake of high NOx drinks resulted in elevated plasma NOx concentration, but intake of low NOx drinks did not change the plasma NOx concentration. Based on these findings, a steady state could be achieved by 18 hours fasting after the intake of a moderately NOx-restricted diet (about 370, micromoles/day) and by 13 hours fasting after the intake of an extremely NOx-restricted diet (< 100 micromoles/day). NOx concentrations in randomly collected blood samples without these conditions were sometimes ten times higher than that at steady state. This procedure can be undertaken under normal Japanese daily life and is expected to be applicable even to outpatients. PMID:12705354

Himeno, Mariko; Ishibashi, Takaharu; Nakano, Shigeru; Furuya, Keisuke; Kigoshi, Toshikazu; Uchida, Kenzo; Nishio, Matomo

2003-02-01

373

Food intake in women two years or more after bariatric surgery meets adequate intake requirements.  

PubMed

Restricted food intake after bariatric surgery can be an important factor both in the long-term control of body weight and in the onset of nutritional deficiencies. The objective of this study was to assess the adequacy of food intake in women two or more years after bariatric surgery according to the excess weight lost. A group of 141 women who underwent banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was divided according to the percentage of excess weight they lost (%EWL)<50; 50?75; = 75. The habitual energy and nutrient intakes were determined by a 24-hour recall over two days and the probability of adequate intake was based on the Dietary Reference Intake. The mean total estimated energy requirement (EER) as well as energy, macronutrient and cholesterol intakes did not differ among the groups. Only the %EWL<50 group had an intake equal to their EER, but they presented a higher number of inadequacies, such as low levels of magnesium, folic acid and vitamins C and E. Calcium and dietary fiber intakes were extremely low in all three groups. In conclusion, weight loss after surgery is associated with food habits that favor energy intake over micronutrient intake. PMID:22652372

Novais, Patrícia Fátima Sousa; Rasera, Irineu; Leite, Celso Vieira de Souza; Marin, Flávia Andréia; de Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques

2012-05-01

374

Does personality affect dietary intake?  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence for an association between the Big Five dimensions of personality, dietary intake, and compliance to dietary recommendations. Poor diet is a known risk factor for overweight and obesity and associated chronic lifestyle diseases and it has been proposed that personality may be linked to dietary choices. Findings from cross-sectional surveys from different countries and cultures show a positive association between Openness and consumption of fruits and vegetables and between Conscientiousness and healthy eating. Although no evidence has been found that personality dimensions are associated with adherence to dietary recommendations over time, Conscientiousness is associated with a number of prosocial and health-promoting behaviors that include avoiding alcohol-related harm, binge-drinking, and smoking, and adherence to medication regimens. With emerging evidence of an association between higher Conscientiousness and lower obesity risk, the hypothesis that higher Conscientiousness may predict adoption of healthy dietary and other lifestyle recommendations appears to be supported. PMID:24607300

Lunn, Trevor E; Nowson, Caryl A; Worsley, Anthony; Torres, Susan J

2014-04-01

375

Does iodine gas released from seaweed contribute to dietary iodine intake?  

PubMed

Thyroid hormone levels sufficient for brain development and normal metabolism require a minimal supply of iodine, mainly dietary. Living near the sea may confer advantages for iodine intake. Iodine (I(2)) gas released from seaweeds may, through respiration, supply a significant fraction of daily iodine requirements. Gaseous iodine released over seaweed beds was measured by a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based method and iodine intake assessed by measuring urinary iodine (UI) excretion. Urine samples were obtained from female schoolchildren living in coastal seaweed rich and low seaweed abundance and inland areas of Ireland. Median I(2) ranged 154-905 pg/L (daytime downwind), with higher values (~1,287 pg/L) on still nights, 1,145-3,132 pg/L (over seaweed). A rough estimate of daily gaseous iodine intake in coastal areas, based upon an arbitrary respiration of 10,000L, ranged from 1 to 20 ?g/day. Despite this relatively low potential I(2) intake, UI in populations living near a seaweed hotspot were much higher than in lower abundance seaweed coastal or inland areas (158, 71 and 58 ?g/L, respectively). Higher values >150 ?g/L were observed in 45.6% of (seaweed rich), 3.6% (lower seaweed), 2.3% (inland)) supporting the hypothesis that iodine intake in coastal regions may be dependent on seaweed abundance rather than proximity to the sea. The findings do not exclude the possibility of a significant role for iodine inhalation in influencing iodine status. Despite lacking iodized salt, coastal communities in seaweed-rich areas can maintain an adequate iodine supply. This observation brings new meaning to the expression "Sea air is good for you!" PMID:21431377

Smyth, P P A; Burns, R; Huang, R J; Hoffman, T; Mullan, K; Graham, U; Seitz, K; Platt, U; O'Dowd, C

2011-08-01

376

Maternal intake of supplemental iron and risk of autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency affects 40%-50% of pregnancies. Iron is critical for early neurodevelopmental processes that are dysregulated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined maternal iron intake in relation to ASD risk in California-born children enrolled in a population-based case-control study (the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) Study) from 2003 to 2009 with a diagnosis of ASD (n = 520) or typical development (n = 346) that was clinically confirmed using standardized assessments. Mean maternal daily iron intake was quantified on the basis of frequency, dose, and brands of supplements and cereals consumed each month from 3 months before pregnancy through the end of pregnancy and during breastfeeding (the index period), as reported in parental interviews. Mothers of cases were less likely to report taking iron-specific supplements during the index period (adjusted odds ratio = 0.63, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.91), and they had a lower mean daily iron intake (51.7 (standard deviation, 34.0) mg/day) than mothers of controls (57.1 (standard deviation, 36.6) mg/day; P = 0.03). The highest quintile of iron intake during the index period was associated with reduced ASD risk compared with the lowest (adjusted odds ratio = 0.49, 95% confidence interval: 0.29, 0.82), especially during breastfeeding. Low iron intake significantly interacted with advanced maternal age and metabolic conditions; combined exposures were associated with a 5-fold increased ASD risk. Further studies of this link between maternal supplemental iron and ASD are needed to inform ASD prevention strategies. PMID:25249546

Schmidt, Rebecca J; Tancredi, Daniel J; Krakowiak, Paula; Hansen, Robin L; Ozonoff, Sally

2014-11-01

377

Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations between dietary fiber intake and various cardiovascular risk factors were investigated cross-sectionally. Results Body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein negatively associated with dietary fiber intake after adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, total energy intake, fat intake, saturated fatty acid intake, leisure-time physical activity and use of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. The homeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity and HDL cholesterol positively associated with dietary fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome after multivariate adjustments including obesity. Furthermore, dietary fiber intake was associated with lower prevalence of albuminuria, low estimated glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease after multivariate adjustments including protein intake. Additional adjustments for obesity, hypertension or metabolic syndrome did not change these associations. Conclusion We demonstrated that increased dietary fiber intake was associated with better glycemic control and more favorable cardiovascular disease risk factors including chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients should be encouraged to consume more dietary fiber in daily life. PMID:24330576

2013-01-01

378

2010 Daily Fire Log Date & Time  

E-print Network

and transported to Campbell Co. jail. Fire/Smoke/Sprinkler Alarm Log December 2010 Report #: 2010-00571 Reported responded and cleared the scene; subject transported to Campbell County jail. #12;2010 Daily Fire Log CAD

Boyce, Richard L.

379

2010 Daily Log Report #: 2010-00262  

E-print Network

of Marijuana Report #: 2010-00256 Reported: 06/17/10 0851 Occurred: Same Incident: Traffic Crash Location: Lot;2010 Daily Log Report #: 2010-00249 Reported: 06/03/10 1702 Occurred: Same Incident: Medical Emergency

Boyce, Richard L.

380

Daily Crime Log Wednesday, June 25, 2014  

E-print Network

Daily Crime Log Wednesday, June 25, 2014 8:53:25 AM Calendar Year: 2014 Date/Time Reported Offense) CO A 17-year-old juvenile was issued a Carbondale City notice to appear and released. (140619001) LOT

381

AMSR2 Daily Arctic Sea Ice - 2014  

NASA Video Gallery

In this animation, the daily Arctic sea ice and seasonal land cover change progress through time, from March 21, 2014 through the 3rd of August, 2014. Over the water, Arctic sea ice changes from da...

382

Homogenization of Chinese Daily Surface Air Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme climate events have large potential of impacts on the society and economy. However, analysis of long-term changes in climate extremes need to use homogeneous time series of high resolution climatic data (e.g., daily or sub-daily), to diminish non-climatic influences. Thus, more and more attention has been drawn to the development of high quality daily climatic data. Since both temporal and spatial variations are much larger in daily data than in the corresponding monthly or annual data, it is important and yet more difficult to choose a reference series for homogenization of daily data. We tested and compared different methods to select reference series. The reference series that leads to the best match of detected changepoints with metadata information is selected and used to perform homogeneity test for data time series from stations within the grid box. Specifically, we divided the whole country into 2.5-by-2.5 degree lat-long grid boxes. The time series of the averages of observations at all stations in each grid box was considered to be the series representing the climatic variations/changes in each grid box. We calculated the correlation coefficient of annual data series at each station with the average series of annual data in each grid box, and chose the five stations of highest correlations. Then, we obtained the daily difference series between each chosen station and the average series in each grid box, and applied the PMTred method to test the homogeneity of the daily difference series, We chose the homogeneous station as the reference station for testing inhomogeneities in other station's series in the grid box, using the PMTred method. In addition to testing the daily series, we also tested the corresponding annual and monthly series. We adjusted for change points that are identified in both daily and monthly/annual series and also supported by metadata. Daily maximum and minimum temperatures recorded at 822 Chinese stations were tested in this study. The results show that site relocations are the main source of inhomogeneity. The impacts of inhomogeneities on the estimates of climate trends and extremes were assessed. The resulting daily data set is also compared with a previous version of homogenized temperature data set.

Wenhui, X.; Quingxiang, L.; Wang, X. L.; Su, Y.; Yani, Z.; Lijuan, C.

2012-04-01

383

Effects of water temperature and dissolved oxygen on daily feed consumption, feed utilization and growth of channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feed intake (FI), feed efficiency (FE), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and weight gain (WG) of juvenile channel catfish initially weighing 15.0±0.23 g (10–12 cm initial total length) were evaluated under three regimes of time-varying water temperature (mean daily water temperature for Stoneville, MS, USA; mean +3; and, mean ?3°C) and three of dissolved oxygen (DO; 100, 70 and 30% air

J. Alejandro Buentello; Delbert M Gatlin; William H Neill

2000-01-01

384

Daily Occupational Stressors and Marital Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined daily fluctuations in marital behavior (anger and withdrawal) as a function of same-day job stressors, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). Forty-three couples provided daily diary reports of their workload and negative social interactions at work on 5 consecutive days. Within-subject analyses demonstrate that husbands and wives reported greater marital anger and withdrawal following negative social interactions at

Lisa B. Story; Rena Repetti

2006-01-01

385

Variability of daily precipitation over Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study identified coherent daily precipitation regions in Nigeria by analyzing the spatial and temporal homogeneity of daily precipitation; investigating the dependence of wet day amount (WDAMT) and percentage of wet day (PWD) on latitude, longitude, elevation and distance from the ocean and finally regionalizing the daily precipitation stations. Non-parametric spatial homogeneity test was carried out on daily precipitation over 23 stations in Nigeria between 1992 and 2000 while the temporal analysis was done from 1971 to 2000. Regression analysis was used to determine the dependence of WDAMT and PWD on latitude, longitude, elevation and distance from the ocean. Principal component and cluster analyses were conducted to regionalize the precipitation stations. Seven homogeneous groups of stations were identified. Elevation explains 19.9 and 4.8 % of the variance in WDAMT and PWD, respectively, while latitude explains 76.2 % of variance in PWD. Eight principal components that explain 63.1 % of the variance in the daily precipitation data were retained for cluster analysis. Precipitation in the six daily precipitation regions that emerged from the cluster analysis is influenced by the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone, latitude, distance from ocean and southwesterlies while the northern region alone is influenced by the African Easterly Wave. In addition, precipitation in all the regions is influenced by topography. Low to medium spatial coherence exists in the precipitation regions. The spatial variations of PWD and WDAMT have implications for agricultural productivity and water resources in different parts of the country.

Adeniyi, M. O.

2014-08-01

386

Variability of daily precipitation over Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study identified coherent daily precipitation regions in Nigeria by analyzing the spatial and temporal homogeneity of daily precipitation; investigating the dependence of wet day amount (WDAMT) and percentage of wet day (PWD) on latitude, longitude, elevation and distance from the ocean and finally regionalizing the daily precipitation stations. Non-parametric spatial homogeneity test was carried out on daily precipitation over 23 stations in Nigeria between 1992 and 2000 while the temporal analysis was done from 1971 to 2000. Regression analysis was used to determine the dependence of WDAMT and PWD on latitude, longitude, elevation and distance from the ocean. Principal component and cluster analyses were conducted to regionalize the precipitation stations. Seven homogeneous groups of stations were identified. Elevation explains 19.9 and 4.8 % of the variance in WDAMT and PWD, respectively, while latitude explains 76.2 % of variance in PWD. Eight principal components that explain 63.1 % of the variance in the daily precipitation data were retained for cluster analysis. Precipitation in the six daily precipitation regions that emerged from the cluster analysis is influenced by the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone, latitude, distance from ocean and southwesterlies while the northern region alone is influenced by the African Easterly Wave. In addition, precipitation in all the regions is influenced by topography. Low to medium spatial coherence exists in the precipitation regions. The spatial variations of PWD and WDAMT have implications for agricultural productivity and water resources in different parts of the country.

Adeniyi, M. O.

2014-11-01

387

Effects of learning and food form on energy intake and appetitive responses.  

PubMed

Energy-yielding beverages reportedly contribute to positive energy balance uniquely. They are highly consumed and evoke weaker satiety signaling and dietary energy compensation than solid foods of the same energy content. This study measured the contribution of learning to appetitive sensations and adjustments of energy intake for preloads varying in energy content and food form in lean and obese adults. One-hundred seven participants received four preload trials before and after a dietary intervention in this randomized cross-over trial with the stipulation that lean and obese individuals were evenly assigned to each intervention. The study entailed monitoring appetitive sensations and daily energy intake after consumption of low and high energy beverage and solid food loads on weekly visit days. Preload testing was conducted at baseline, followed by daily ingestion of one load for 14days and then retesting responses to the four treatments. Lean individuals compensated precisely for the high energy beverage and solid loads from the onset of the study, whereas the obese did not alter eating patterns after consuming the higher energy beverage load. The learning intervention did not have an effect on the responses to the preloads, as responses in both lean and obese participants did not differ from baseline values. Responses to personality and eating behavior questionnaires revealed differences between the lean and obese groups and weakly, but significantly, predicted challenge meal and total daily energy intake. These data suggest that lean and obese individuals respond to energy in beverage form differently, and this is not altered by purposeful daily exposure to loads varying in physical form and energy content for two weeks. PMID:24955495

Jones, Joshua B; Mattes, Richard D

2014-10-01

388

Dietary calcium intake and overweight in adolescence  

E-print Network

Recent research has shown an association between low dietary calcium intake and obesity in adults as well as overweight in young children; however, this relationship has not been investigated in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine...

Gerges, Amira Sami

2005-02-17

389

OSU Breastfeeding Support Initiative Intake Form  

E-print Network

OSU Breastfeeding Support Initiative Intake Form Name ______________________________________ Date hours More than 20 hours What breastfeeding support services are you aware of? How did you hear about breastfeeding plans: Nursing (baby present) exclusively, including while at work or school. Breastfeeding

Escher, Christine

390

Sea water intake, McMurdo  

NSF Publications Database

... water and supplying water to research aquariums. Water is drawn through a vertical well pipe which ... intake well was constructed when the quay was extended in order to draw water from a point farther ...

391

Optimal dietary intake for cardiovascular risk reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthful dietary intake and physical activity are advocated as first-line prevention and treatment of many diseases. Dietary\\u000a intake plays a major role in preventing and promoting the leading cause of death in the United States: cardiovascular disease.\\u000a Despite continually growing evidence on the relationship between nutrition and cardiovascular risk, many Americans consume\\u000a an atherogenic diet resulting in a proinflammatory and

Wendy M. Miller; Katherine E. Nori Janosz; Kerstyn C. Zalesin; Peter A. McCullough

2009-01-01

392

Intent to quit among daily and non-daily college student smokers  

PubMed Central

Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking category as it relates to readiness to quit among current smokers. Of the 4438 students at six Southeast colleges who completed an online survey, 69.7% (n = 3094) were non-smokers, 6.6% (n = 293) were quitters, 7.1% (n = 317) were native non-daily smokers, 6.4% (n = 283) were converted non-daily smokers and 10.2% (n = 451) were daily smokers. There were differences in sociodemographics, substance use (alcohol, marijuana, other tobacco products) in the past 30 days and psychosocial factors among these subgroups of students (P < 0.001). Among current smokers, there were differences in cigarettes smoked per day, recent quit attempts, self-identification as a smoker, self-efficacy and motivation to quit (P < 0.001). After controlling for important factors, converted non-daily smokers were more likely to be ready to quit in the next month versus native non-daily smokers (OR = 2.15, CI 1.32–3.49, P = 0.002). Understanding differences among young adults with different smoking patterns and histories is critical in developing interventions targeting psychosocial factors impacting cessation among this population. PMID:23197630

Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

2013-01-01

393

A blinded evaluation of the efficacy and safety of glycopyrronium, a once-daily long-acting muscarinic antagonist, versus tiotropium, in patients with COPD: the GLOW5 study  

PubMed Central

Background Two once-daily long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are currently available for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) – tiotropium and glycopyrronium. Previous studies have compared glycopyrronium with open-label tiotropium. In the GLOW5 study, we compare glycopyrronium with blinded tiotropium. Methods In this blinded, double-dummy, parallel group, 12-week study, patients with moderate-to-severe COPD were randomized 1:1 to glycopyrronium 50 ?g once daily or tiotropium 18 ?g once daily. The primary objective was to demonstrate the non-inferiority of glycopyrronium versus blinded tiotropium with respect to trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) following 12 weeks of treatment (non-inferiority margin: –50 mL). Secondary objectives were to evaluate glycopyrronium versus tiotropium for other spirometric outcomes, breathlessness (Transition Dyspnea Index; TDI), health status (St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire; SGRQ), daily rescue medication use, COPD exacerbations and COPD symptoms over 12 weeks of treatment. Results 657 patients were randomized (glycopyrronium: 327; tiotropium: 330); 96% (630 patients) completed the study. Least squares mean trough FEV1 for both glycopyrronium and tiotropium was 1.405 L at Week 12, meeting the criterion for non-inferiority (mean treatment difference: 0 mL, 95% CI: –32, 31 mL). Glycopyrronium demonstrated rapid bronchodilation following first dose on Day 1, with significantly higher FEV1 at all time points from 0–4 h post-dose versus tiotropium (all p?TDI focal score, SGRQ total score, rescue medication use and the rate of COPD exacerbations (all p?=?not significant). Patients on glycopyrronium also had a significantly lower total COPD symptom score versus patients on tiotropium after 12 weeks (p?=?0.035). Adverse events were reported by a similar percentage of patients receiving glycopyrronium (40.4%) and tiotropium (40.6%). Conclusion In patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, 12-week blinded treatment with once-daily glycopyrronium 50 ?g or tiotropium 18 ?g, provided similar efficacy and safety, with glycopyrronium having a faster onset of action on Day 1 versus tiotropium. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT01613326 PMID:24438744

2014-01-01

394

Inconsistencies in the assessment of food intake.  

PubMed

Many peptides and other compounds that influence metabolism also influence food intake, and numerous hypotheses explaining the observed effects in terms of energy homeostasis have been suggested over the years. For example, cholecystokinin (CCK), a duodenal peptide secreted during meals that aids in digestion, also reduces ongoing food intake, thereby contributing to satiation; and insulin and leptin, hormones secreted in direct proportion to body fat, act in the brain to help control adiposity by reducing energy intake. These behavioral actions are often considered to be hard-wired, such that negative experiments, in which an administered compound fails to have its purported effect, are generally disregarded. In point of fact, failures to replicate the effects of compounds on food intake are commonplace, and this occurs both between and within laboratories. Failures to replicate have historically fueled heated debate about the efficacy and/or normal function of one or another compound, leading to confusion and ambiguity in the literature. We review these phenomena and their implications and argue that, rather than eliciting hard-wired behavioral responses in the maintenance of homeostasis, compounds that alter food intake are subjected to numerous influences that can render them completely ineffective at times and that a major reason for this variance is that food intake is not under stringent homeostatic control. PMID:23074241

Woods, Stephen C; Langhans, Wolfgang

2012-12-15

395

Hypospadias and Maternal Intake of Phytoestrogens  

PubMed Central

Experimental data indicate that gestational exposures to estrogenic compounds impact risk of hypospadias. We examined whether risk of hypospadias (i.e., a congenital malformation in which the opening of the penile urethra occurs on the ventral side of the penis) was associated with maternal intake of phytoestrogens, given their potential impact on estrogen metabolism. The analysis included data on mothers of 1,250 hypospadias cases and 3,118 controls who delivered their infants from 1997 to 2005 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multistate, population-based, case-control study. After adjustment for several covariates, high intakes of daidzein, genistein, glycetin, secoisolariciresinol, total isoflavones, total lignans, and total phytoestrogens were associated with reduced risks; odds ratios comparing intakes ?90th percentile with intakes between the 11th and 89th percentiles ranged from 0.6 to 0.8. For example, the odds ratio for total phytoestrogen intake was 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 1.0). This study represents the first large-scale analysis of phytoestrogen intake and hypospadias. The observed associations merit investigation in additional populations before firm conclusions can be reached. PMID:23752918

Carmichael, Suzan L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Ma, Chen; Gonzalez-Feliciano, Amparo; Olney, Richard S.; Correa, Adolfo; Shaw, Gary M.

2013-01-01

396

Estimated dietary intake of thiocyanate from Brassicaceae family in Korean diet.  

PubMed

Glucosinolate, sulfur-containing organic anions bonded to glucose, is found in plants including the family of Brassicaceae. Glucosinolate is hydrolyzed by myrosinase and produces various by-products that possess biological activities. Among the decomposed products, thiocyanate is known for its adverse effects on thyroid metabolism due to competition with iodine. This is of concern in that Korean dietary habits consist of consumption of large amounts of Brassicaceae vegetables such as cabbage and radishes, which may be correlated with high incidence of thyroid dysfunction. Thus, quantification of thiocyanate in Brassicaceae vegetables was performed by hydrolysis and spectrophotometrical detection. Average daily intake of Brassicaceae vegetables was obtained from the Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III), 2005-Nutrition Survey and from The Vegetable Production Statistics, 2007. Average daily intake of thiocyanate through Brassicaceae vegetables in Korea was estimated to be 16.3 micromol SCN(-)/d/person. When this was compared to published animal studies, average thiocyanate intake per person was lower than doses required to produce adverse effects. However, further studies may be warranted to ensure safety with sufficient margins of safety. PMID:20077209

Han, Hyejung; Kwon, Hoonjeong

2009-01-01

397

Effect of changing milk and yogurt consumption on human nutrient intake and serum lipoproteins.  

PubMed

Thirty-two healthy, normolipemic male college students eating in a single dining hall participated in a study designed to ascertain the effect of changing milk consumption on nutrient intake and lipoprotein. The men drank no milk for 3 wk, then 1500 ml milk with 2% fat daily for 3 wk, their usual diet for 2 wk, no milk again for 3 wk, 1250 ml nonfat milk daily for 3 final wk. Similarly, 30 female college students consumed either 480 ml lowfat yogurt, then no yogurt for 4 wk each in a crossover design. Body weight and physical activity were not different among dietary treatments. Protein, energy, and calcium intake varied significantly with changes of milk consumption. Total dietary fat decreased significantly when no milk or nonfat milk was consumed, whereas dietary cholesterol was significantly lower only when nonfat milk was consumed. Yogurt supplementation significantly increased intake of calcium and carbohydrate. Although some serum lipid means differed significantly among some sampling points, there was no effect on total cholesterol, total triglycerides, high density lipoproteins cholesterol, or distribution of electrophoretic lipoprotein fractions that could be attributed to changing milk or yogurt consumption. PMID:6715624

Massey, L K

1984-02-01

398

Trends in dietary intake among US 2-6 year old children, 1989 2008  

PubMed Central

Background Between 1989 and 2008, obesity increased markedly in children of all ages. We examine changes in the diets of children ages 2-6 in the US between 1989 and 2008. Our study provides new insight into diet changes that may have contributed to the sharp rise in obesity during this period. Objectives Describe changes in diet among 2-6 year olds from 1989 to 2008 related to sharp rises in obesity during this period. Methods This analysis included 10,647 children ages 2-6 from five nationally representative surveys of dietary intake in the U.S.: Continuing Survey of Food Intake in Individuals (CSFII) 1989-1991; CSFII 1994-1998; and the What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (WWEIA, NHANES) 2003-2004, 2005-2006 and 2007-2008. Diet data were categorized into groupings using the UNC-CH approach. Analyses were carried out using a single 24-h dietary recall with appropriate survey weighting. T-tests were used to compare means across survey years with P<.05 considered significant. Results Over the 20-year period, there were increases in per capita intake of savory snacks (+51 kcal, P<.01), pizza/calzones (+32 kcal, P<.01), sweet snacks and candy (+25 kcal, P<.01), mixed Mexican dishes (+22 kcal, P<.01) and fruit juice (+18 kcal, P<.01), whereas total daily energy intake increased by 109 kcal (from 1475 to 1584) (P<.05). Fruit intake increased marginally (+24 kcal, P<.01). Six of the 10 greatest absolute changes in per capita intake between sequential survey years occurred between CSFII 1994-1998 and NHANES 2003-2004 (P<.05). Conclusions Foods high in added sugars and solid fats such as savory snacks, pizza/calzones, mixed Mexican dishes, sweet snacks and candy, and fruit juice, predominated the top changes in per capita consumption between 1989 and 2008. PMID:23260722

Ford, Christopher N; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

2012-01-01

399

Effects of acute exercise on appetite hormones and ad libitum energy intake in men and women.  

PubMed

Acute exercise suppresses relative energy intake; however, it remains unclear whether this occurs in both men and women exposed to the same relative exercise treatment. Eleven healthy men (22 ± 2 years; 16% ± 6% body fat (BF); 26 ± 4 body mass index (BMI); 42.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O(2peak))) and 10 healthy women (21 ± 2 years; 24 ± 2 BMI; 23% ± 3% BF; 39.9 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) [Formula: see text]O(2peak)) rested for 60 min or exercised on a cycle ergometer at 70% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended (men, expenditure = 975 ± 195 kcal in 82 ± 13 min; women, expenditure = 713 ± 86 kcal in 84 ± 17 min) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. Appetite hormones and appetite ratings were assessed in response to each condition. Forty minutes after both conditions, ad libitum total and relative energy intake (energy intake minus energy cost of exercise) were assessed at a buffet meal. There was no significant sex or condition effect in appetite hormones (PYY(3-36), acylated ghrelin, insulin) and appetite ratings (hunger, satisfaction, fullness). Total energy intake in men was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in exercise and rest conditions (1648 ± 950, 1216 ± 633 kcal, respectively) compared with women (591 ± 183, 590 ± 231 kcal, respectively). Relative energy intake was significantly lower (P < 0.05) after exercise compared with rest in men (672 ± 827, 1133 ± 619 kcal, respectively) and women (-121 ± 243, 530 ± 233 kcal, respectively). These data highlight the effectiveness of acute exercise to suppress relative energy intake regardless of sex. PMID:23368830

Hagobian, Todd Alan; Yamashiro, Megan; Hinkel-Lipsker, Jake; Streder, Katherine; Evero, Nero; Hackney, Terry

2013-01-01

400

The effects of the HEALTHY study intervention on middle school student dietary intakes  

PubMed Central

Background The HEALTHY study was designed to respond to the alarming trends in increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in youth. The objective of this analysis was to examine the effects of the HEALTHY study on student self-reported dietary intakes (energy, macronutrients and grams consumed of selected food groups). Methods HEALTHY was a cluster-randomized study in 42 public middle schools. Students, n = 3908, self-reported dietary intake using the Block Kids Questionnaire. General linear mixed models were used to analyze differences in dietary intake at the end of the study between intervention and control schools. Results The reported average daily fruit consumption was 10% higher at the end of the study in the intervention schools than in the control schools (138 g or approximately 2 servings versus 122 g, respectively, p = 0.0016). The reported water intake was approximately 2 fluid ounces higher in the intervention schools than in the control (483 g versus 429 g respectively; p = 0.008). There were no significant differences between intervention and control for mean intakes of energy, macronutrients, fiber, grains, vegetables, legumes, sweets, sweetened beverages, and higher- or lower-fat milk consumption. Conclusion The HEALTHY study, a five-semester middle school-based intervention program that integrated multiple components in nutrition, physical education, behavior change, and social marketing-based communications, resulted in significant changes to student's reported fruit and water intake. Subsequent interventions need to go beyond the school environment to change diet behaviors that may affect weight status of children. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00458029 PMID:21294869

2011-01-01

401

IMPACT OF CALORIC INTAKE ON PARENTERAL NUTRITION-ASSOCIATED INTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY AND MUCOSAL BARRIER FUNCTION  

PubMed Central

Précis Despite providing adequate amounts of energy delivered via parenteral nutrition in a mouse model, mice still developed intestinal villus atrophy, epithelial cell apoptosis and bacterial translocation. Mice, however, are intolerant of very high infusions of PN, as technical complications were the major cause of death and complications in this group. Background Parenteral nutrition (PN) is known to induce villus atrophy, epithelial cell (EC) apoptosis, and increase mucosal permeability. The study hypothesized that increasing amounts of energy delivery to mice to would result in the best outcome, with the least effects on the mucosa. Methods Mice were randomized to Enteral Controls (saline infusion with ad lib enteral food) or to one of three PN groups (with no enteral nutrition): Full (100% of daily average energy intake for the mouse), Reduced (75% of energy intake) or Very Low (50% of energy intake). Mice received PN for 7 days. Mucosal morphology, EC apoptosis, and bacterial translocation were assessed. Results are expressed as mean ± SD. Results Villus height decreased significantly with decreasing levels of caloric intake, and was significantly lower in all PN groups compared to Controls. Body weight loss was significantly greater in PN groups versus Controls, and was greatest in mice with the lowest caloric delivery. A consistent trend towards a higher EC apoptotic index with decreasing caloric intake was observed and apoptosis in all PN groups exceeded Controls (2-fold). All PN groups demonstrated greater bacterial translocation than Controls. Conclusions PN induces intestinal EC apoptosis, and villus and crypt atrophy even at 100% of predicted energy needs; and such changes increased with greater reduction of energy intake. This study supports a concept that lack of enteral nutrition, rather than absolute caloric levels are responsible for many of the adverse effects of PN. The study also allows the investigators to better optimize a mouse model of PN delivery in mice. PMID:17047170

Sun, Xiaoyi; Spencer, Ariel U.; Yang, Hua; Haxhija, Emir Q.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

2006-01-01

402

The impact of folic acid intake on the association between diabetes, obesity, and spina bifida  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the relationship between spina bifida and two established risk factors, pregestational diabetes and obesity, in both the presence and absence of the recommended daily folic acid intake in the periconceptional period. Study Design Cases of spina bifida (n=1154) and controls (n=9439) from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study (1976–2011) were included. Information on preexisting diabetes (collected 1976+) and obesity (collected 1993+), defined as BMI ?30 kg/m2, were collected through interviews conducted within six months of delivery. Periconceptional folic acid intake was calculated using both dietary and supplement information. Mothers were classified as consuming more or less than 400µg/day of folic acid, with food folate included at a 30% discount for its lower bioavailability. Logistic regression models, adjusted for maternal race, education, and study site, were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the joint effects of low folic acid intake coupled with diabetes or obesity. Results Mothers of cases were more likely to have diabetes or be obese (0.7% and 19.0%, respectively) than control mothers (0.4% and 10.8%, respectively). The joint effect of diabetes and lower folic acid intake on spina bifida was larger (aOR:3.95; CI: 1.56, 10.00) than that of diabetes and higher folic acid intake (aOR:1.31; CI: 0.17, 10.30). Folic acid intake made little difference on the association between obesity and spina bifida. Conclusion Our findings suggest that folic acid further attenuates, though does not eliminate, the risk of spina bifida associated with diabetes, than that with obesity. PMID:23711668

Parker, Samantha E; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Tinker, Sarah C; Mitchell, Allen A; Werler, Martha M

2013-01-01

403

Associations between dairy intake and metabolic risk parameters in a healthy French-Canadian population.  

PubMed

Observational studies support that dairy product intake is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes; however, several clinical studies report conflicting results on the association between dairy product consumption and metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine associations between dairy product consumption and metabolic profile. Dietary data, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and fasting blood samples were collected from 233 French Canadians. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FA) concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. Subjects consumed 2.5 ± 1.4 portions of dairy products daily, including 1.6 ± 1.3 portions of low-fat (LF) and 0.90 ± 0.70 portions of high-fat (HF) dairy products. Trans-palmitoleic acid level in plasma PL was related to HF dairy consumption (r = 0.15; p = 0.04). Total (r = -0.21; p = 0.001) and LF dairy (r = -0.20; p = 0.003) intakes were inversely correlated with fasting plasma glucose level. Total dairy intake was inversely associated to systolic blood pressure (r = -0.17; p = 0.008) and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.14; p = 0.03). LF dairy intake was also inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.17; p = 0.009). Total dairy intake was correlated with plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.15; p = 0.03). No association was found between HF dairy consumption and the risk factors studied. In conclusion, dairy intake is inversely associated with glycaemia and blood pressure; yet, it may modify CRP levels. Moreover, trans-palmitoleic FA levels in plasma PL may be potentially used to assess full-fat dairy consumption. PMID:25224707

Da Silva, Marine S; Julien, Pierre; Couture, Patrick; Lemieux, Simone; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Rudkowska, Iwona

2014-12-01

404

Sex Differences in Ethanol Intake and Sensitivity to Aversive Effects during Adolescence and Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Aims: The present experiments examined sex differences in ethanol intake and in the influence of a social context on aversive properties of ethanol in adolescent and adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Experiment 1 examined ethanol intake, with animals receiving daily 2-h access to ethanol and water for 8 days. Experiment 2 assessed the aversive effects of ethanol using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm, with animals placed either alone or with a same-sex, same-age peer during the ethanol intoxication phase of conditioning. Results: Ethanol intake varied with both age and sex, although the sex differences emerging at each age were opposite in nature. Adolescent males consumed more ethanol relative to their body weights than adolescent females and adults of both sexes, whereas adult females generally consumed more than adult males. The CTA test revealed no sex differences in aversive effects of ethanol in adults, whereas adolescent males were less sensitive to the aversive properties of ethanol than adolescent females when intoxication occurred in the presence of a peer. Ethanol-induced CTA was evident in adults at lower doses than in adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that age differences in ethanol intake in males and sex differences in intake during adolescence may be associated in part with the relative insensitivity of the male adolescents to ethanol's aversive properties, especially when intoxication occurred in a social context. However, the elevated ethanol intake observed in adult females relative to their male counterparts appears to be unrelated to the aversive properties of ethanol. PMID:19767625

Vetter-O'Hagen, Courtney; Varlinskaya, Elena; Spear, Linda

2009-01-01

405

Potential intakes of total polyols based on UK usage survey data.  

PubMed

Polyols are approved for use as sweeteners in specific foods but they may be used for other technological purposes in a wider range of foods, all on a quantum satis basis. The European Polyols Association (EPA) has identified 24 categories of food where polyols are used and it has been able to establish the levels at which the polyols are used in each type of food and whether for sweetening or non-sweetening purposes. The UK National Dietary and Nutrition survey database was used to estimate potential exposures to total polyols based on reported use levels. It was possible to express potential polyol intake on the basis of exposure relating to a single eating occasion, a meal period, 1 day and the average over 4 days of the survey. Potential intakes of polyols were approximately twice that found on a per-item or a meal-period basis when estimated on a daily basis. Apparent intakes were lower when averaged over the 4 days of the survey. It was felt that intake expressed on a per-meal occasion basis was most relevant to the development of digestive discomfort. On the basis of maximum use levels of polyols in all food categories, adults had the highest intake of total polyols up to 5.6 g per meal period at the 95th percentile. However, when expressed on a bodyweight basis, children had higher intakes, up to 0.15 g kg(-1) bw per meal period. Distributions of potential polyol exposures were highly skewed towards lower values with higher levels of exposure relating to sweetener uses occurring relatively infrequently. PMID:24447207

Tennant, David R

2014-04-01

406

Poor food and nutrient intake among Indigenous and non-Indigenous rural Australian children  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04) years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys) completed three 24-hour food recalls (including 1 weekend day), over an average of two weeks in the Australian summer of late 2005. Results A high proportion of children consumed less than the Australian Nutrient Reference Values for fibre (74-84% less than Adequate Intake (AI)), calcium (54-86% less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)), folate and magnesium (36% and 28% respectively less than EAR among girls), and the majority of children exceeded the upper limit for sodium (68-76% greater than Upper Limit (UL)). Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) food consumption contributed between 45% and 49% to energy. Hot chips, sugary drinks, high-fat processed meats, salty snacks and white bread were the highest contributors to key nutrients and sugary drinks were the greatest per capita contributor to daily food intake for all. Per capita intake differences were apparent by Indigenous status. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was low for all children. Indigenous boys had a higher intake of energy, macronutrients and sodium than non-Indigenous boys. Conclusions The nutrient intake and excessive EDNP food consumption levels of Australian rural children from disadvantaged areas are cause for concern regarding their future health and wellbeing, particularly for Indigenous boys. Targeted intervention strategies should address the high consumption of these foods. PMID:22304829

2012-01-01

407

Potential intakes of total polyols based on UK usage survey data  

PubMed Central

Polyols are approved for use as sweeteners in specific foods but they may be used for other technological purposes in a wider range of foods, all on a quantum satis basis. The European Polyols Association (EPA) has identified 24 categories of food where polyols are used and it has been able to establish the levels at which the polyols are used in each type of food and whether for sweetening or non-sweetening purposes. The UK National Dietary and Nutrition survey database was used to estimate potential exposures to total polyols based on reported use levels. It was possible to express potential polyol intake on the basis of exposure relating to a single eating occasion, a meal period, 1 day and the average over 4 days of the survey. Potential intakes of polyols were approximately twice that found on a per-item or a meal-period basis when estimated on a daily basis. Apparent intakes were lower when averaged over the 4 days of the survey. It was felt that intake expressed on a per-meal occasion basis was most relevant to the development of digestive discomfort. On the basis of maximum use levels of polyols in all food categories, adults had the highest intake of total polyols up to 5.6 g per meal period at the 95th percentile. However, when expressed on a bodyweight basis, children had higher intakes, up to 0.15 g kg?1 bw per meal period. Distributions of potential polyol exposures were highly skewed towards lower values with higher levels of exposure relating to sweetener uses occurring relatively infrequently. PMID:24447207

Tennant, David R.

2014-01-01

408

Comparing Intake Concerns and Goals with Career Counseling Concerns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the relationship among clients' intake concerns, intake goals, and career counseling concerns. Results indicate that intake goals focused primarily on resolving D. E. Super's (1957) exploration stage tasks, but concerns included education-related issues and ego dystonic emotions related to work. Intake concerns and goals were not…

Niles, Spencer G.; Anderson, Walter P., Jr.; Cover, Stephanie

2000-01-01

409

Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling.  

PubMed

We determined the effects of varying daily carbohydrate intake by providing or withholding carbohydrate during daily training on endurance performance, whole body rates of substrate oxidation, and selected mitochondrial enzymes. Sixteen endurance-trained cyclists or triathletes were pair matched and randomly allocated to either a high-carbohydrate group (High group; n = 8) or an energy-matched low-carbohydrate group (Low group; n = 8) for 28 days. Immediately before study commencement and during the final 5 days, subjects undertook a 5-day test block in which they completed an exercise trial consisting of a 100 min of steady-state cycling (100SS) followed by a 7-kJ/kg time trial on two occasions separated by 72 h. In a counterbalanced design, subjects consumed either water (water trial) or a 10% glucose solution (glucose trial) throughout the exercise trial. A muscle biopsy was taken from the vastus lateralis muscle on day 1 of the first test block, and rates of substrate oxidation were determined throughout 100SS. Training induced a marked increase in maximal citrate synthase activity after the intervention in the High group (27 vs. 34 micromol x g(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.001). Tracer-derived estimates of exogenous glucose oxidation during 100SS in the glucose trial increased from 54.6 to 63.6 g (P < 0.01) in the High group with no change in the Low group. Cycling performance improved by approximately 6% after training. We conclude that altering total daily carbohydrate intake by providing or withholding carbohydrate during daily training in trained athletes results in differences in selected metabolic adaptations to exercise, including the oxidation of exogenous carbohydrate. However, these metabolic changes do not alter the training-induced magnitude of increase in exercise performance. PMID:20466803

Cox, Gregory R; Clark, Sally A; Cox, Amanda J; Halson, Shona L; Hargreaves, Mark; Hawley, John A; Jeacocke, Nikki; Snow, Rodney J; Yeo, Wee Kian; Burke, Louise M

2010-07-01

410

Anthropometric characteristics and competition dietary intakes of professional rugby league players.  

PubMed

This study aimed to describe the physique characteristics and competition nutrient intake of professional Rugby League players and to assess use of a statistical technique for evaluating validity of dietary reporting. Players (n = 74) were endomorphic mesomorphs and had a mean weight, height, and BMI of 93.4 +/- 10.9 kg, 179.9 +/- 7.3 cm, and 28.5 +/- 2.1 kg/m2 respectively. Mean sum of eight skinfolds was 78.9 +/- 2.2 mm (12.4 +/- 2.9% fat). Players (n = 34) reported a mean daily energy intake of 17,708 +/- 3,688 kJ (carbohydrate 51%, protein 18%, fat 25%, alcohol 4%) with 6 and 2.0 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) from carbohydrate and protein respectively. Micronutrient intake was adequate but alcohol consumption was high relative to health standards. The dietary records provided a plausible estimate of energy intake however further research is required to evaluate statistical techniques for assessing dietary validity in athlete groups. PMID:16779926

Lundy, Bronwen; O'Connor, Helen; Pelly, Fiona; Caterson, Ian

2006-04-01

411

Intake of thickened liquids by hospitalized adults with dysphagia after stroke.  

PubMed

Abstract There is widespread concern that individuals with dysphagia as a result of stroke do not drink enough fluids when they are prescribed thickened liquids. This paper details a retrospective audit of thickened liquid consumption of 69 individuals with dysphagia following stroke in acute and rehabilitation hospitals in Adelaide, South Australia. Hospitalized individuals with dysphagia following stroke drank a mean of 781 ml (SD = 507 ml) of prescribed thickened liquids per day, significantly less in the acute setting (M = 519 ml, SD = 305 ml) than in the rehabilitation setting (M = 1274 ml, SD = 442 ml) (t(67) = -8.34, p < .001). This daily intake of thickened liquids was lower than recommended standards of fluid intake for hospitalized adults. Fluid intake could be increased with definitive protocols for the provision and monitoring of consumption of thickened liquids, by offering more fluid via food or free water protocols or by routine use of non-oral supplementary routes. Future research into the effectiveness of such recommendations needs to evaluate not only the impact on fluid intake but also on health outcomes. PMID:24007386

Murray, Jo; Miller, Michelle; Doeltgen, Sebastian; Scholten, Ingrid

2014-10-01

412

Nutrient intake of highly competitive male and female collegiate karate players.  

PubMed

Nutrient intake of 29 male (M Group) and 16 female (F Group) highly competitive collegiate karate players were compared. The results were also compared with the daily energy expenditure (DEE), Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes (ADIs). Dietary information was collected using a 3-weekday diet record. Although the M Group showed significantly higher mean %RDAs or %ADIs in iron, vitamin B1, phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium than the F Group, many of the mean %RDAs or %ADIs were below RDAs or ADIs in both groups. The subjects who skipped meals tended to show lower mean %DEE, Japanese %RDAs or %ADIs in minerals and vitamins than the subjects who did not skip in both M and F Groups. The consumption of green and other vegetables and milk and dairy products in both M and F Groups were low. It is concluded that the male and female highly competitive karate players studied in the present study may be at risk of sub-optimal nutrient intake, which increases the potential for nutrient deficiency. The subjects were advised not to skip meals, and to consume a balanced high-carbohydrate, moderate-protein, low-fat diet with increasing green and other vegetables and milk and dairy products to increase mineral, vitamin and dietary fiber intakes. PMID:12407989

Teshima, Kaori; Imamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Nishimura, Seiji; Miyamoto, Noriko; Yamauchi, Yoichi; Hori, Hitoshi; Moriwaki, Chinatsu; Shirota, Tomoko

2002-07-01

413

Assessment of age-dependent uranium intake due to drinking water in Hyderabad, India.  

PubMed

A study has been done to assess the uranium intake through drinking water. The area of study is twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad, India. Uranium concentration in water samples was analysed by laser-induced fluorimetry. The associated age-dependent uranium intake was estimated by taking the prescribed water intake values. The concentration of uranium varies from below detectable level (minimum detectable level = 0.20 ± 0.02 ?g l(-1)) to 2.50 ± 0.18 ?g l(-1), with the geometric mean (GM) of 0.67 ?g l(-1) in tap water, whereas in ground water, the range is 0.60 ± 0.05 to 82 ± 7.1 µg l(-1) with GM of 10.07 µg l(-1). The daily intake of uranium by drinking water pathway through tap water for various age groups is found to vary from 0.14 to 9.50 µg d(-1) with mean of 1.55 µg d(-1). PMID:21561938

Balbudhe, A Y; Srivastava, S K; Vishwaprasad, K; Srivastava, G K; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

2012-03-01

414

Green tea intake is associated with urinary estrogen profiles in Japanese-American women  

PubMed Central

Scope Intake of green tea may reduce the risk of breast cancer; polyphenols in this drink can influence enzymes that metabolize estrogens, known causal factors in breast cancer etiology. Methods and results We examined the associations of green tea intake (<1 time/week, 1-6 times weekly, or 7+ times weekly) with urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites (jointly EM) in a cross-sectional sample of healthy Japanese American women, including 119 premenopausal women in luteal phase and 72 postmenopausal women. We fit robust regression models to each log-transformed EM concentration (picomoles per mg creatinine), adjusting for age and study center. In premenopausal women, intake of green tea was associated with lower luteal total EM (P trend?=?0.01) and lower urinary 16-pathway EM (P trend?=?0.01). In postmenopausal women, urinary estrone and estradiol were approximately 20% and 40% lower (P trend?=?0.01 and 0.05, respectively) in women drinking green tea daily compared to those drinking <1 time/week. Adjustment for potential confounders (age at menarche, parity/age at first birth, body mass index, Asian birthplace, soy) did not change these associations. Conclusions Findings suggest that intake of green tea may modify estrogen metabolism or conjugation and in this way may influence breast cancer risk. PMID:23413779

2013-01-01

415

An examination of dietary intakes and nutritional status of chronic healthy spinal cord injured individuals.  

PubMed

To examine the nutritional composition of the dietary intake of chronic healthy spinal cord injured (SCI) individuals, 33 subjects affiliated with 3 SCI rehabilitation centers logged their food consumption for 7 days. Prior to record keeping, subjects were trained by a registered dietitian on the accurate recording of their standard food choices and portion size, and were provided with scales to weigh food accurately. Dietary macro and micronutrients were analyzed with a computer software package, with nutritional analysis compared to the recommended daily allowances (RDA) of the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences. Analysis showed caloric intake to be 75% of that recommended for able bodies persons, with a high reliance on fat for calories. Fat intake accounted for 37.9% of calories, well above the recommended level of 30%, but typical of the American diet. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat was approximately one half the recommended level, with carbohydrate calories averaging 16.5% below optimal RDA. Protein consumption was within normal range, but average dietary fiber was only 25% of recommended levels. Micronutrient analysis showed deficiencies in both water and fat-soluble vitamins, with suboptimal intake of multiple minerals. Given the apparent reliance on a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet, this research shows that nutritional intervention and education of SCI persons are needed, and that a registered dietitian should be included in the SCI health care team. PMID:1287542

Levine, A M; Nash, M S; Green, B A; Shea, J D; Aronica, M J

1992-12-01

416

Child care choices, food intake, and children's obesity status in the United States.  

PubMed

This article studies two pathways in which selection into different types of child care settings may affect likelihood of childhood obesity. Frequency of intake of high energy-dense and low energy-dense food items may vary across care settings, affecting weight outcomes. We find that increased use of paid and regulated care settings, such as center care and Head Start, is associated with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables. Among children from single-mother households, the probability of obesity increases by 15 percentage point with an increase in intake of soft drinks from four to six times a week to daily consumption and by 25 percentage point with an increase in intake of fast food from one to three times a week to four to six times a week. Among children from two-parent households, eating vegetables one additional time a day is associated with 10 percentage point decreased probability of obesity, while one additional drink of juice a day is associated with 10 percentage point increased probability of obesity. Second, variation across care types could be manifested through differences in the structure of the physical environment not captured by differences in food intake alone. This type of effect is found to be marginal and is statistically significant among children from two-parent households only. Data are used from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort surveys (N=10,700; years=2001-2008). Children's age ranged from four to six years in the sample. PMID:24958453

Mandal, Bidisha; Powell, Lisa M

2014-07-01

417

Cheese. What is its contribution to the sodium intake of Brazilians?  

PubMed

The heightened intake of sodium from processed foods is of great public health concern throughout the world. This study evaluated the sodium contents of cheeses available in Brazil and the contribution of cheese to the daily intake of this micronutrient. The labels of 156 commercial samples of various types of Brazilian cheese (Minas, Prato, mozarella, and requeijão cheese, as well as padrão cheese) were evaluated with respect to the reported sodium content. A high variability in the sodium contents of cheeses within each category was observed, although no significant difference was observed in the sodium content present in one serving (30 g) of cheese versus that present in 100 g of product (p > 0.05). With the exception of Minas cheese, more than 70% of the other cheeses examined in this study could be classified as high-sodium cheeses, with sodium contents exceeding 400 mg Na/100 g of product. These results suggest that cheese manufacturers need to reformulate their products and that public health authorities need to take additional measures to curb sodium intake from cheese consumption, including demand-specific labeling and implementing educational campaigns to inform the public about the dangers associated with high