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1

Precision of Estimates of an ADI (or TDI or PTWI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors influencing the precision of an acceptable daily intake (ADI) are discussed in this paper. As the same principles apply to tolerable daily intake (TDI) or provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), although not specifically mentioned, this paper also refers to TDI and PTWI. The allocation of an ADI is in principle based on the most critical (many times the lowest)

Gerrit J. A. Speijers

1999-01-01

2

Daily intake of trace metals through coffee consumption in India.  

PubMed

The trace element contents of five varieties of instant coffee powder available in the Indian market have been analysed. Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sr, Zn and Pb, Cd, Cu have been determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, respectively. The metal levels in the coffee powders observed in this study are comparable with those reported for green coffe beans (Arabica and Robusta variety) reported worldwide with the exception of Sr and Zn, which were on the lower side of the reported values. Concentrations of these metals have been converted into intake figures based on coffee consumption. The daily intakes of the above metals through ingestion of coffee are 1.4 mg, 1.58 microg, 124 microg, 41.5 mg, 4.9 mg, 17.9 microg, 2.9 microg, 3.8 microg, 12.5 microg, 0.2 microg, 0.03 microg and 15.5 microg, respectively. The values, which were compared with the total dietary, intake of metals through ingestion by the Mumbai population, indicate that the contribution from coffee is less than or around 1% for most of the elements except for Cr and Ni which are around 3%. PMID:11288908

Suseela, B; Bhalke, S; Kumar, A V; Tripathi, R M; Sastry, V N

2001-02-01

3

Daily mercury intake in fish-eating populations in the Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although high levels of fish consumption and bioindicators of mercury exposure have been reported for traditional populations in the Amazon, little is known about their actual daily intake of Hg. Using an ecosystem approach, calculate daily mercury intake in adult fish-eaters, examine the relations between mercury intake and bioindicators of exposure and the factors that influence these relations. A cross-sectional

Carlos José Sousa Passos; Delaine Sampaio Da Silva; Mélanie Lemire; Myriam Fillion; Jean Rémy Davée Guimarães; Marc Lucotte; Donna Mergler

2008-01-01

4

Risk assessment of coumarin using the bench mark dose (BMD) approach: children in Norway which regularly eat oatmeal porridge with cinnamon may exceed the TDI for coumarin with several folds.  

PubMed

Coumarin is a naturally occurring flavouring substance in cinnamon and many other plants. It is known that coumarin can cause liver toxicity in several species, and it is considered a non-genotoxic carcinogen in rodents. By using the bench mark dose approach we re-assessed coumarin toxicity and established a new TDI for coumarin of 0.07 mg/kg bw/day. Oral intake of coumarin is related to consumption of cinnamon-containing foods and food supplements. Cinnamon is a widely used spice in Norway, and can be used as topping on oatmeal porridge. Based on analyses of coumarin in Norwegian foods, intake calculations for children and adults were conducted, and a risk assessment of coumarin in the Norwegian population was performed. Intake estimates of coumarin show that small children eating oatmeal porridge several times a week sprinkled with cinnamon could have a coumarin intake of 1.63 mg/kg bw/day and may exceeding the TDI with several folds. Adults drinking cinnamon-based tea and consuming cinnamon supplements also can exceed TDI. The coumarin intake could exceed the TDI by 7- to 20-fold in some intake scenarios. Such large daily exceedances of TDI, even for a limited time period of 1-2 weeks, cause concern of adverse health effects. PMID:22178604

Fotland, T Ø; Paulsen, J E; Sanner, T; Alexander, J; Husøy, T

2012-03-01

5

Impact of breakfast on daily energy intake - an analysis of absolute versus relative breakfast calories  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The role of breakfast energy in total daily energy intake is a matter of debate. Acute feeding experiments demonstrated that high breakfast energy leads to greater overall intake supported by cross-sectional data of a free-living population. On the other hand, a large intraindividual analysis has indicated that a high proportion of breakfast to overall intake is associated with lower

Volker Schusdziarra; Margit Hausmann; Claudia Wittke; Johanna Mittermeier; Marietta Kellner; Aline Naumann; Stefan Wagenpfeil; Johannes Erdmann

2011-01-01

6

Taste does not determine daily intake of dilute sugar solutions in mice  

PubMed Central

When a rodent licks a sweet-tasting solution, taste circuits in the central nervous system that facilitate stimulus identification, motivate intake, and prepare the body for digestion are activated. Here, we asked whether taste also determines daily intake of sugar solutions in C57BL/6 mice. We tested several dilute concentrations of glucose (167, 250, and 333 mM) and fructose (167, 250, and 333 mM). In addition, we tested saccharin (38 mM), alone and in binary mixture with each of the sugar concentrations, to manipulate sweet taste intensity while holding caloric value constant. In experiment 1, we measured taste responsiveness to the sweetener solutions in two ways: chorda tympani nerve responses and short-term lick tests. For both measures, the mice exhibited the following relative magnitude of responsiveness: binary mixtures > saccharin > individual sugars. In experiment 2, we asked whether the taste measures reliably predicted daily intake of the sweetener solutions. No such relationship was observed. The glucose solutions elicited weak taste responses but high daily intakes, whereas the fructose solutions elicited weak taste responses and low daily intakes. On the other hand, the saccharin + glucose solutions elicited strong taste responses and high daily intakes, while the saccharin + fructose solutions elicited strong taste responses but low daily intakes. Overall, we found that 1) daily intake of the sweetener solutions varied independently of the magnitude of the taste responses and 2) the solutions containing glucose stimulated substantially higher daily intakes than did the solutions containing isomolar concentrations of fructose. Given prior work demonstrating greater postoral stimulation of feeding by glucose than fructose, we propose that the magnitude of postoral nutritive stimulation plays a more important role than does taste in determining daily intake of dilute sugar solutions.

Beltran, F.; Benton, L.; Cheng, S.; Gieseke, J.; Gillman, J.; Spain, H. N.

2010-01-01

7

Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

2011-01-01

8

Monitoring oxidative damage in patients with liver cirrhosis and different daily alcohol intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study looked at the possible association between alcohol abuse and free radical mediated oxidative injury by examining the presence of oxidative damage, as monitored by erythrocyte malonildialdehyde and plasma lipid hydroperoxides, in patients with liver cirrhosis and different lifetime daily alcohol intake. All patients with an alcohol intake above 100 g\\/day (ALC) showed concentrations of malonildialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxide

P Clot; M Tabone; S Aricò; E Albano

1994-01-01

9

Daily polyphenol intake in France from fruit and vegetables.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to create a French database on the polyphenol content of fruit and vegetables as uncooked fruits and vegetables and then to evaluate polyphenol intake through fruit and vegetable consumption in France. To achieve this, we used the Folin-Ciocalteu method adapted to fruit and vegetable polyphenol quantitation (1). Vegetables with the highest polyphenol concentration were artichokes, parsley, and brussels sprouts [>250 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh edible portion (FEP)]; fruits with the highest concentrations were strawberries, lychees, and grapes (>180 mg of GAE/100 g FEP). Conversely, melons (Cantaloupe cv.) and avocados had the lowest polyphenol concentration for fruits and vegetables, respectively. Based on fruit consumption data, apples and strawberries are the main sources of polyphenols in the French diet, whereas potatoes, lettuces, and onions are the most important vegetable sources. Total polyphenol intake from fruit is about 3 times higher than from vegetables, due to the lower polyphenol concentration in vegetables. The calculation of polyphenol intake, based on both assessment methods used [(Société d'Etudes de la Communication, Distribution et Publicité (SECODIP) and Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SUVIMAX)], showed that apples and potatoes provide approximatively half of the total polyphenol intake from fruit and vegetables in the French diet. PMID:16920856

Brat, Pierre; Georgé, Stéphane; Bellamy, Annick; Du Chaffaut, Laure; Scalbert, Augustin; Mennen, Louise; Arnault, Nathalie; Amiot, Marie Josèphe

2006-09-01

10

Daily Polyphenol Intake in France from Fruit and Vegetables1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to create a French database on the polyphenol content of fruit and vegetables as uncooked fruits and vegetables and then to evaluate polyphenol intake through fruit and vegetable consumption in France. To achieve this, we used the Folin-Ciocalteu method adapted to fruit and vegetable polyphenol quantitation (1). Vegetables with the highest polyphenol concentration were

Pierre Brat; Stephane George; Annick Bellamy; Laure Du Chaffaut; Augustin Scalbert; Louise Mennen; Nathalie Arnault; Marie Josephe Amiot

11

The Relationship between Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Proportion of Daily Protein Intake  

PubMed Central

Background The association between daily protein intake and osteoporosis is still controversial and only a few studies have explored the issue in Korea. This study investigated the relationship between daily protein intake and the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korean adults. Methods This study analyzed data extracted from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 4. Participants were aged 19 years or older and had never been treated for osteoporosis. The percentage of calories coming from protein intake was assessed by 24-hour recall method, and participants were divided into three groups according to recommended daily dietary protein intake as a proportion of total daily calories (i.e., <10%, 10%-20%, and >20%). A lumbar or femur neck bone mineral density T-score less than -2.5 was indicative of the presence osteoporosis. The influence of daily protein intake on the prevalence of osteoporosis was analyzed. Results In both sexes, the group with the highest protein intake had significantly lower odds of developing lumber osteoporosis when compared to the group with the lowest protein intake, after adjusting for associated factors (females: odds ratio [OR], 0.618; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.610 to 0.626; P for trend <0.001; males: OR, 0.695; 95% CI, 0.685 to 0.705; P for trend <0.001). Conclusion Sufficient daily protein intake lowered the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korean adults. Further prospective studies are necessary to verify the preventive effect of adequate protein intake on osteoporosis.

Kim, Junga; Lee, Hani; Choi, Hyunrim; Won, Changwon

2013-01-01

12

The estimated daily manganese intake of Korean children aged 11-12  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to estimate the daily manganese (Mn) intake of Korean children. This study was done using a three-day dietary intake survey of 257 Korean children (boys 123; girls 134). The Mn intake values were calculated based on a database that provides the Mn content of the frequently consumed Korean foods, alongside the food composition table provided by the Korean National Rural Living Science Institute. The average age, height, weight and body mass index of our subjects were 11.9 years, 155.4 cm, 48.9 kg and 20.2 kg/m2 in boys and 11.9 years, 154.1 cm, 43.5 kg and 18.3 kg/m2 in girls. The average daily energy intakes were 2,249.2 kcal in boys and 2,044.5 kcal in girls. Boys consumed significantly more Mn than girls, based on intake estimates of 4,585.3 µg (117.6% of adequate intake) and 4,029.3 µg (117.1% of adequate intake), respectively (P < 0.001). Boys had a Mn intake of 2,041.1 µg per 1,000 kcal of energy consumption, whereas for girls this was at 1,983.9 µg per 1,000 kcal. Neither group exceeded the tolerable upper intake level for Mn. The major food groups which contributed to Mn intake in our subjects were cereals (50.8%), vegetables (21.0%), seasonings (8.9%), and pulses (7.7%). Notably, boys derived a higher Mn intake through cereals and vegetable than did girls (P < 0.001, P < 0.05). The key food sources of Mn, in descending order, were rice, soybean curd, kimchi, black rice and cereals. We propose that the results of our study may be used as a basis for follow-up studies that examine the Mn intake of children.

Choi, Mi Kyeong

2011-01-01

13

Influence of salty food preference on daily salt intake in primary care  

PubMed Central

Purpose A salt preference questionnaire may be a convenient and cost-effective method for predicting salt intake; however, the influence of salt preference on daily salt intake is unclear. This study aimed at revealing the effectiveness of the salt preference question in determining the daily salt intake in primary care outpatients. Patients and methods This cross-sectional study included 1,075 outpatients (men, n=436, 40.6%) at six primary care institutions in Japan. Primary outcomes included a salty food preference assessed by using one question and a daily salt intake, assessed using early morning second urine samples. Multivariate analyses determined the relationships between the salt intake and the two salt preference levels. Results The mean age was 67.6±14.6 years, and 594 (55.3%) preferred salty foods. The daily salt intake was 12.3±4.0 g per day and 11.4±3.7 g per day in the salt preference and nonsalt preference groups, respectively (P<0.001). A salt intake <10 g per day was consumed by 169 (28.5%) and 181 (37.6%) patients (P=0.001), respectively, and <6 g salt per day was consumed by 28 (4.7%) and 26 (5.4%) patients (P=0.606), respectively. The patients who preferred salty foods consumed a significantly larger amount of salt per day than those who did not prefer salty foods (? coefficient, 0.621; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.146–1.095). There was no difference in the number of patients who consumed <10 g salt per day (adjusted odds ratio [ad-OR], 1.29; 95% CI, 0.99–1.69) or <6 g salt per day (ad-OR, 1.39; 0.90–1.69) between the groups. Conclusion Preference for salty foods was positively associated with daily salt intake. However, daily salt intake was not always appropriate, even in the patients who did not prefer salty foods. Behavioral interventions for salt restriction after an assessment of daily salt intake are necessary for primary care patients, regardless of their preference for salty foods.

Takamura, Kazuhiro; Okayama, Masanobu; Takeshima, Taro; Fujiwara, Shinji; Harada, Masanori; Murakami, Junichi; Eto, Masahiko; Kajii, Eiji

2014-01-01

14

Estimates of the theoretical maximum daily intake of phenolic antioxidants BHA, BHT and TBHQ in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical maximum daily intakes (TMDI) of the phenolic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tertbutyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) in Brazil were estimated using food consumption data derived from a household economic survey and a packaged goods market survey. The estimates were based on maximum levels of use of the food additives specified in national food standards. The calculated

Gisele C. Maziero; C. Baunwart; M. Cecilia F. Toledo

2001-01-01

15

Simultaneous estimation of daily weight and feed intake curves for growing pigs by random regression.  

PubMed

In this study, random regression models were used to estimate covariance functions between feed intake and BW in boars from the two breeds: the Norwegian Landrace and the Norwegian Duroc. In total, 1476 animals of the Norwegian Landrace breed and 1300 animals of the Norwegian Duroc breed had registrations on daily feed intake and growth from 54 to 180 days of age. Random regressions on the Legendre polynomials of age were used to describe genetic and permanent environmental curves in BW (up to the second order) and feed intake (up to the first order) for both the breeds. Heritabilities on BW increased over time for the Landrace (0.18 to 0.24), but were approximately constant for the Duroc (0.33 to 0.35). Average heritabilities for feed intake were approximately the same in both the breeds (0.09 to 0.11), and the estimates decreased over time, most pronounced in Duroc. On the basis of the current data, daily feed intake was seemingly controlled by the same genetic factors throughout the test period for Duroc; however, for Landrace, genetic correlations between test days decreased with increasing distance in time. For BW, the genetic correlations between test days were in general high, and did not go below 0.8 for any of the two breeds in this study. For both feed intake and BW, permanent environmental correlations between start and end of the test were reduced with increasing difference in days, most pronounced in Duroc. This study indicates that weight of the animal at the end of the test was more closely genetically correlated to feed intake of earlier periods compared with later periods of growth for both the breeds. This may be explained by the fact that BW is the cumulative growth of an individual, which is likely to be heavily affected by the feed intake during the most intense growth period. PMID:22436222

Wetten, M; Ødegård, J; Vangen, O; Meuwissen, Th H E

2012-03-01

16

An Assessment of Daily Food Intake in Participants with Anorexia Nervosa in the Natural Environment  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the caloric intake in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and how it varies by day as a function of the presence or absence of binge eating and/or purging behaviors. Method Female participants with AN (n = 84, mean age = 24.4, range 18–51) were recruited from three different sites. Data on food intake were obtained through the use of 24-h dietary recall using the Nutritional Data Systems for Research, and data on binge eating and purging behaviors were collected on palmtop computers using an ecological momentary assessment paradigm. Daily macronutrient intake was compared on days during which binge eating and/or purging behaviors did or did not occur. Results On days during which binge eating and purging behaviors both occurred, participants reported significantly greater kilocalorie intake when compared with days when neither behavior occurred, or when only binge eating or purging occurred. Binge eating episodes were only modest in size on days when purging did not occur. Energy intake overall was higher than expected. Discussion Intake on days where binge eating occurred varied dramatically based on whether or not purging occurred. Whether markedly increased binge eating intake was causally related to purging is unclear. Nonetheless eating episodes were at times quite large and equivalent to those reported by participants with bulimia nervosa in other research.

Burd, Carlye; Mitchell, James E.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Lystad, Chad; Le Grange, Daniel; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott

2013-01-01

17

Measurement Error Webinar Series: Estimating usual intake distributions for dietary components consumed daily by nearly all persons  

Cancer.gov

Identify considerations in estimating usual intakes of nutrients and foods consumed nearly daily by nearly all persons. Describe statistical modeling techniques and associated data requirements for estimating usual intake distributions for nutrients and foods consumed nearly daily by nearly all persons. Describe assumptions made in current approaches to estimating usual intake distributions and challenges in self-report dietary data not addressed by current statistical modeling techniques.

18

[Pollution of fish and shellfish with organotin compounds and estimation of daily intake].  

PubMed

Tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) compounds have been widely used as antifouling paint for ship bottoms and fishery firm nets, and they are known to be aquatic environmental contaminants. A survey of the pollution with organotin compounds in fish and shellfish has been carried out for samples (180 samples from 43 kinds) which were collected in the Hokkaido prefecture during the period from February, 1989 to September, 1992. On the other hand, daily intakes of organotin compounds have been investigated using the Market Basket Method. Relatively high concentrations of TBT and TPT were detected from flat fish and shellfish such as Hirame (bastard halibut), Kurogarei (black plaice), Asari (Japanese littleneck), Hokkigai (Japanese surf clam) and Kaki (oyster). The maximum value of TBT in samples was 0.38 microgram/g (for both Asari and Kaki), and TPT was 0.47 microgram/g (Kurogarei). Estimated daily intakes of DBT, TBT and TPT were 0.45 microgram, 2.40 micrograms and 4.11 micrograms, respectively. The values presented in this study were lower in comparison with the acceptable daily intake. It was revealed that the values of the organotin compounds in this study were not so high as to have any efect on human health at the present. PMID:8157252

Yamamoto, I

1994-03-01

19

Daily Dietary Selenium Intake in a High Selenium Area of Enshi, China  

PubMed Central

Enshi is a high selenium (Se) region in Hubei, China, where human selenosis was observed between 1958 and 1963. This study investigated the daily dietary Se intake of residents in Shadi, a town located 72 km northeast of Enshi City, to assess the risk of human selenosis in the high Se area. Foods consumed typically by the local residents and their hair samples were analyzed for total Se concentration. Concentrations of Se in different diet categories were as follows: cereals: 0.96 ± 0.90 mg kg?1 DW in rice and 0.43 ± 0.55 mg kg?1 DW in corn; tuber: 0.28 ± 0.56 mg kg?1 in potato and 0.36 ± 0.12 mg kg?1 in sweet potato; vegetables: ranging from 0.23 ± 1.00 mg kg?1 in carrot to 1.57 ± 1.06 mg kg?1 in kidney bean; animal proteins: 1.99 ± 1.11 mg kg?1 in chicken and egg. Based on the food Se concentrations and the daily per-capita consumption, the estimated daily Se intake in Shadi was 550 ± 307 µg per capita. Moreover, the Se concentrations in the hairs of local adult residents were 3.13 ± 1.91 mg kg?1 (n = 122) and 2.21 ± 1.14 mg kg?1 (n = 122) for females and males, respectively, suggesting that females might be exposed to higher levels of Se from daily cooking. Although there was no human selenosis occurrence in recent years, the high level of the daily Se intake suggested that the potential risk of selenosis for local residents, especially females, might be a matter of concern.

Huang, Yang; Wang, Quanxin; Gao, Jin; Lin, Zhiqing; Banuelos, Gary S.; Yuan, Linxi; Yin, Xuebin

2013-01-01

20

Daily intake of copper from drinking water among young children in Sweden.  

PubMed Central

Copper is an essential trace element that may cause intoxication if intake becomes excessive. Young children are at risk of intoxication because of high consumption of drinking water and immature copper metabolism. The aims of this prospective study were to estimate concentrations of copper in drinking water, volumes of drinking water consumed by children, and children's daily intake of copper. Concentrations of copper in unflushed drinking water were analyzed for 1,178 children living in Uppsala and Malmö, Sweden, and concentrations and amounts of copper consumed from drinking water were estimated for 430 of these children, 9-21 months of age. The study children were from Swedish families, were not enrolled in publicly provided day care, and were not breast-fed more than three times a day. In the initial population, the 10th percentile for copper concentration in unflushed drinking water was 0.17 mg/L, the median was 0.72 mg/L, and the 90th percentile was 2.11 mg/L. In the subpopulation of 430 children, the 10th percentile for daily intake of copper from drinking water was 0.03 mg/L, the median was 0.32 mg/L, and the 90th percentile was 1.07 mg/L. The median daily intake of copper from drinking water was higher in Uppsala, at 0.46 mg, than in Malmö, at 0.26 mg. For groups of children whose families took part in a later prospective diary study, the copper concentration in consumed water could, to some extent, be predicted from the concentration of copper in unflushed drinking water. The lowest concentrations of copper in drinking water were found in households with old water-pipe systems and in those living in detached houses. A large proportion of the young children satisfied their daily requirement of copper solely from drinking water. About 10% of the children had a copper intake above the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Pettersson, R; Rasmussen, F

1999-01-01

21

Revising the Daily Values May Affect Food Fortification and in Turn Nutrient Intake Adequacy123  

PubMed Central

The Nutrition Facts panel on food labels in the United States currently displays Daily Values (DVs) that are based on outdated RDAs. The FDA has indicated that it plans to update the DVs based on the newer Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), but there is controversy regarding the best method for calculating new DVs from the DRIs. To better understand the implications of DV revisions, assuming that manufacturers choose to maintain current label claims for micronutrients from voluntarily fortified foods, we modeled intake of 8 micronutrients using NHANES 2007–2008 data and 2 potential methods for calculating DVs: the population-weighted Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and the population-coverage RDA. In each scenario, levels of fortified nutrients were adjusted to maintain the current %DV. Usual nutrient intakes and percentages with usual intakes less than the EAR were estimated for the U.S. population and subpopulations aged ?4 y (n = 7976). For most nutrients, estimates of the percentage of the U.S. population with intakes below the EAR were similar regardless of whether the DV corresponded to the population-weighted EAR or the population-coverage RDA. Potential decreases were observed in adequacy of nutrients of concern for women of childbearing age, namely iron and folate (up to 9% and 3%, respectively), adequacy of calcium among children (up to 6%), and adequacy of vitamin A intakes in the total population (5%) assuming use of the population-weighted EAR compared with the population-coverage RDA for setting the DV. Results of this modeling exercise will help to inform decisions in revising the DVs.

Murphy, Mary M.; Spungen, Judith H.; Barraj, Leila M.; Bailey, Regan L.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

2013-01-01

22

Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain.  

PubMed

Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ?5%; however, energy intake--especially at night after dinner--was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to -0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity. PMID:23479616

Markwald, Rachel R; Melanson, Edward L; Smith, Mark R; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

2013-04-01

23

Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain  

PubMed Central

Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ?5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to ?0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity.

Markwald, Rachel R.; Melanson, Edward L.; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.

2013-01-01

24

Gastro-duodenal injury associated with intake of 100-325 mg aspirin daily.  

PubMed Central

During the year 1991, 43 patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and one with severe epigastric pain associated with intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were admitted for emergency endoscopy to our unit. Fourteen patients (33%) had been treated with 100-325 mg aspirin daily, 11 of them for at least one year. The mean age of this group was 71. Only two patients had a previous history of peptic ulcer. Five patients used anticoagulants or antiplatelet drugs concomitantly with aspirin. The endoscopic diagnosis of the sources of bleeding was erosive gastritis in eight patients, gastric ulcer in four, duodenal ulcer in five and oesophageal ulcer in one. Our results support findings by other groups, showing that doses of aspirin as low as 75 mg daily should be used in the management of elderly patients with thrombo-embolic disease.

Oren, R.; Ligumsky, M.; Lysy, J.; Gonzales, J.; Zimmerman, J.

1993-01-01

25

Multiple trait model combining random regressions for daily feed intake with single measured performance traits of growing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A random regression model for daily feed intake and a conventional multiple trait animal model for the four traits average daily gain on test (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass lean content and meat quality index were combined to analyse data from 1 449 castrated male Large White pigs performance tested in two French central testing stations in 1997. Group

Urs Schnyder; Andreas Hofer; Florence Labroue; Niklaus Künzi

2002-01-01

26

Daily intake of bisphenol A and potential sources of exposure: 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Nationally representative data on urinary levels of bisphenol A (BPA) and its metabolites in the United States from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to estimate daily BPA intakes. In addition, NHANES data on potential sources of BPA exposure and personal characteristics were explored for their association with urinary BPA levels. On the basis of 2005-2006 NHANES urinary BPA data and assumptions described in this paper, median daily intake for the overall population is approximately 34 ng/kg-day. Median daily BPA intakes for men are statistically significantly higher than for women; there is a significant decrease in daily BPA intake with increasing age. Gender- and age-specific median intakes differ from the overall population by less than a factor of 2. Although estimates of daily BPA intake have decreased compared with those from the 2003-2004 NHANES, it is premature to draw conclusions regarding trends at this time, as there is no indication that BPA use declined from 2003 to 2006. On the basis of an assessment of urinary BPA and questionnaire data from the 2005-2006 NHANES, consumption of soda, school lunches, and meals prepared outside the home--but not bottled water or canned tuna--was statistically significantly associated with higher urinary BPA. PMID:20237498

Lakind, Judy S; Naiman, Daniel Q

2011-01-01

27

Daily intake of bisphenol A and potential sources of exposure: 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Nationally representative data on urinary levels of bisphenol A (BPA) and its metabolites in the United States from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to estimate daily BPA intakes. In addition, NHANES data on potential sources of BPA exposure and personal characteristics were explored for their association with urinary BPA levels. On the basis of 2005–2006 NHANES urinary BPA data and assumptions described in this paper, median daily intake for the overall population is approximately 34?ng/kg-day. Median daily BPA intakes for men are statistically significantly higher than for women; there is a significant decrease in daily BPA intake with increasing age. Gender- and age-specific median intakes differ from the overall population by less than a factor of 2. Although estimates of daily BPA intake have decreased compared with those from the 2003–2004 NHANES, it is premature to draw conclusions regarding trends at this time, as there is no indication that BPA use declined from 2003 to 2006. On the basis of an assessment of urinary BPA and questionnaire data from the 2005–2006 NHANES, consumption of soda, school lunches, and meals prepared outside the home — but not bottled water or canned tuna — was statistically significantly associated with higher urinary BPA.

LaKind, Judy S; Naiman, Daniel Q

2011-01-01

28

Assessment of intake of iron and nutrients that affect bioavailability of daily food rations of girls.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION AND AIM In a human body iron occurs at a level of 3 to 5 g, 60-70 % of which are in hemoglobin, ca. 10% in myoglobin, and ca. 3% are accumulated in enzymes of cellular respiration or enzymes degrading toxic hydrogen peroxide. The other part of iron is accumulated in liver, spleen, kidneys and bone marrow. The dietary deficiency of iron appears at its insufficient level in a diet and at impaired absorption of iron ions present in food products by a body. Groups at an especially high risk of iron deficiencies include, among others, menstruating girls in the pubescence period and women with heavy and irregular menstruations, as well as vegetarians and patients with chronic enteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of iron and nutrients that affect its bioavailability from daily food rations of girls. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 159 girls aged 17-18, students of high schools in the city of Wroclaw. The study was conducted between November 2010 and ay 2011. Girls were divided into 3 subgroups according to the BMI score. Girls' diets were analyzed with the method of a direct interview of the last 24 hours before the test and the interview was repeated seven times. RESULTS The present study demonstrated that the intake of iron from food rations of almost all the girls surveyed was below the requirements defined for this age group. Statistically significant differences were noted in the intake of energy and nutrients among the three distinguished subgroups of girls. CONCLUSIONS Food rations of the surveyed girls were characterized by a low, compared to dietary allowances, calorific value, which resulted in deficiencies of nutrients increasing iron bioavailability. PMID:24959783

Broniecka, Anna; Wyka, Joanna; Bronkowska, Monika; Piotrowska, Ewa; Biernat, Jadwiga

2014-06-10

29

Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate ingested may be an important risk factor in the development of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Reliable food tables listing the oxalate content of foods are currently not available. The aim of this research was to develop an accurate and reliable method to measure the food content of oxalate. METHODS: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) were compared as direct techniques for the estimation of the oxalate content of foods. Foods were thoroughly homogenized in acid, heat extracted, and clarified by centrifugation and filtration before dilution in water for analysis. Five individuals consuming self-selected diets maintained food records for three days to determine their mean daily oxalate intakes. RESULTS: Both techniques were capable of adequately measuring the oxalate in foods with a significant oxalate content. With foods of very low oxalate content (<1.8 mg/100 g), IC was more reliable than CE. The mean daily intake of oxalate by the five individuals tested was 152 +/- 83 mg, ranging from 44 to 352 mg/day. CONCLUSIONS: CE appears to be the method of choice over IC for estimating the oxalate content of foods with a medium (>10 mg/100 g) to high oxalate content due to a faster analysis time and lower running costs, whereas IC may be better suited for the analysis of foods with a low oxalate content. Accurate estimates of the oxalate content of foods should permit the role of dietary oxalate in urinary oxalate excretion and stone formation to be clarified. Other factors, apart from the amount of oxalate ingested, appear to exert a major influence over the amount of oxalate excreted in the urine.

Holmes, R. P.; Kennedy, M.

2000-01-01

30

The comparison in daily intake of nutrients, dietary habits and body composition of female college students by body mass index.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the body composition, dietary habits, daily intake of nutrients and clinical blood indices in female college students by body mass index of normal weight, overweight and obese. The subjects of this research were 141 respondents of a survey carried out on students, and subjects were given 60 minutes to answer questionnaires, by recording their own answers. The average heights and weights of subjects by BMI were 162.17 cm, 52.73 kg in normal weight group, 162.35 cm, 62.22 kg in overweight group and 161.72 cm, 69.82 kg in obesity group, respectively. As for the survey daily of meals, starving breakfast and kind of snacks of subjects were significantly different among the groups by BMI. In animal protein food intakes, meat intake was the highest 'every day' food consumed by subjects, and there was a significant difference in distribution of BMI among subjects. Fruits, and greenish and yellow vegetables intakes were the highest 'every day' foods indicated by the normal weight group. Consumption of carbonated beverages and juices showed a significant difference among groups by BMI. The average of total-cholesterol was the overweight group was the higher value. There was a significant difference in diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure among the groups by BMI. Average daily calories intake levels were insufficient and the intake ratio of carbohydrates, protein, and fat was the normal weight group 68:17:15, the overweight group 64:18:18 and the obese group 73:14:13. Results of the daily vitamin intake analyses displayed riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, and folic acid levels lower than the RI levels. Fe intake was the normal weight group 81%, overweight group 76%, obese group 59% of the RI level. Therefore, it is necessary for college students to establish regular meals, good quality snacks and consuming more vitamin and mineral nutritions for optimal health conditions. PMID:20535399

Ko, Myung-Soo

2007-01-01

31

The comparison in daily intake of nutrients, dietary habits and body composition of female college students by body mass index  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the body composition, dietary habits, daily intake of nutrients and clinical blood indices in female college students by body mass index of normal weight, overweight and obese. The subjects of this research were 141 respondents of a survey carried out on students, and subjects were given 60 minutes to answer questionnaires, by recording their own answers. The average heights and weights of subjects by BMI were 162.17 cm, 52.73 kg in normal weight group, 162.35 cm, 62.22 kg in overweight group and 161.72 cm, 69.82 kg in obesity group, respectively. As for the survey daily of meals, starving breakfast and kind of snacks of subjects were significantly different among the groups by BMI. In animal protein food intakes, meat intake was the highest 'every day' food consumed by subjects, and there was a significant difference in distribution of BMI among subjects. Fruits, and greenish and yellow vegetables intakes were the highest 'every day' foods indicated by the normal weight group. Consumption of carbonated beverages and juices showed a significant difference among groups by BMI. The average of total-cholesterol was the overweight group was the higher value. There was a significant difference in diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure among the groups by BMI. Average daily calories intake levels were insufficient and the intake ratio of carbohydrates, protein, and fat was the normal weight group 68:17:15, the overweight group 64:18:18 and the obese group 73:14:13. Results of the daily vitamin intake analyses displayed riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, and folic acid levels lower than the RI levels. Fe intake was the normal weight group 81%, overweight group 76%, obese group 59% of the RI level. Therefore, it is necessary for college students to establish regular meals, good quality snacks and consuming more vitamin and mineral nutritions for optimal health conditions.

2007-01-01

32

Self-reported taste preference can be a proxy for daily sodium intake in middle-aged Japanese adults.  

PubMed

Reducing dietary salt intake remains a challenging issue in the management of chronic disease. Taste preference is suspected to be an important proxy index of daily sodium consumption. This study examined the difference in daily sodium intake according to self-reported taste preference for miso soup as representative of homemade cooking in middle-aged urban Japanese adults. Among 896 candidates randomly selected from examinees of cancer screening provided by the National Cancer Center, Japan, 143 men and women participated in this cross-sectional study. During the period from May 2007 through April 2008, participants provided a food frequency questionnaire, which included information on taste preference and dietary behaviors, a weighed food record over 4 consecutive days, a simultaneous 24-hour urine collection, and a sample of miso soup as it is usually prepared in the home. Mean 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and daily sodium intake were compared according to the self-reported taste preference for miso soup. Taste preference was significantly associated with both 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (trend P<0.01) and daily sodium intake (trend P=0.01), with a corresponding regression coefficient per 1 rank preference increment of 403 mg and 315 mg/day, respectively. The observed association between preference and urinary excretion was attenuated by further adjustment for discretionary salt-related behaviors. These findings suggest that self-reported taste preference for homemade cooking is a defining feature of daily sodium intake through discretionary salt-related dietary behaviors. A reduction in daily sodium consumption per 1 rank light preference was estimated to equate to approximately 1 g salt/day. PMID:24144991

Takachi, Ribeka; Ishihara, Junko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Ishii, Yuri; Tsugane, Shoichiro

2014-05-01

33

Relations Between Body Weight, Feed Intake, Daily Weight Gain, and Exocrine Pancreatic Secretion in Chronically Catheterized Growing Pigs1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation was to develop models that would make it possible to correct exocrine pancreatic secretion data for the effect of BW and feed intake in growing pigs. In addition, the significance of exocrine pancreatic secretion for daily weight gain (DWG) was studied. Data were used from 10 pigs (16 to 32 kg BW) surgically fitted with

J. A. M. Botermans; S. G. Pierzynowski

34

Estimated daily intakes of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) antioxidants in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to establish the estimated daily intake (EDI) of antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) in Korea. The EDIs were obtained from two sources. One of the estimations was based on the analytical determination of BHA, BHT and TBHQ in 12 food categories (ten food categories for TBHQ) and on

H.-J. Suh; M.-S. Chung; Y.-H. Cho; J.-W. Kim; D.-H. Kim; K.-W. Han; C.-J. Kim

2005-01-01

35

Application of TLC method with video scanning in estimation of daily dietary intake of specific flavonoids--preliminary studies.  

PubMed

Flavonoids, substances present in foods of plant origin, play an important role in many metabolic processes. Numerous properties of these substances were described, including their anti-allergic, antitumor and antioxidant properties. Therefore, an increased intake of these nutrients may play a beneficial role in human health. The aim of the presented study was to estimate the daily intake of specific flavonoid compounds using thin layer chromatography (TLC) combined with densitometric qualitative and quantitative analysis. Performed investigations revealed the presence of two flavonoids in the extracts from daily food rations--naringenin and hesperidin. Naringenin content in the daily food ration of women was calculated to be 179-537 mg, whereas in the group of men it ranged around 181-550 mg, depending on the conducted method of extraction and solvent system used. Daily dietary intake of hesperidin was calculated to be 193-534 mg in the group of women and 194-562 mg in the group of men. The highest degree of extraction of these flavonoids was obtained for the mixture of acetone and water (7 : 3, v/v) by means of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). PMID:23923385

Koch, Wojciech; Kuku?a-Koch, Wirginia; Marzec, Zbigniew; Mar?, Diana

2013-01-01

36

Daily polyphenol intake from fresh fruits in Portugal: contribution from berry fruits.  

PubMed

Fresh fruits, particularly berries, are rich in polyphenols. These bioactive compounds are important in the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to assess polyphenol intake from fresh fruit in Portugal and the relative contribution of berries to overall intake, using an online semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of processed berry products was also studied. Mean fresh fruit consumption was 365.6?±?8.2?g/day. Berries accounted for 9% of total fresh fruit intake, from which 80% were due to strawberries. Total polyphenol intake from fresh fruits was 783.9?±?31.7?mg of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) per day, from which 14% were from berries. Within berries, strawberries accounted for 11% of total polyphenol intake, with the other consumed berries accounting for 3% of the total polyphenol intake per day. Main reasons reported for relative low consumption of berries were market availability and price. The most consumed processed berry product was yogurt. PMID:23862729

Pinto, Paula; Cardoso, Susana; Pimpão, Rui Carlos; Tavares, Lucélia; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Santos, Cláudia Nunes

2013-12-01

37

Temporal trends in daily dietary intakes of DDTs and HCHs in urban populations from Beijing and Shenyang, China.  

PubMed

The temporal trends in daily dietary exposure of the populations in Beijing and Shenyang, China to DDTs and HCHs through consumption of various food categories and the associated health risks were investigated in this work. The estimated dietary intakes of DDTs and HCHs in 2005/2007 were almost one and two orders of magnitude lower than those in 1992 and in the 1970s, respectively, revealing the historical decrease of DDT and HCH in Chinese foods after their applications were banned. The relative contributions of different foodstuffs to the overall intakes of DDTs and HCHs in the 1970s and in 1992 were very different from those in 2005/2007, mainly due to the remarkable concentration variance in foodstuffs and changes in diet habit of population. According to the hazard guidelines, it is concluded that intakes of these two pesticides in 2005/2007 may not exert adverse effects on human health. PMID:23427859

Yu, Yanxin; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Cao, Jun; Wong, Minghong; Tao, Shu

2013-06-01

38

Differential effects of daily snack food intake on the reinforcing value of food in obese and nonobese women123  

PubMed Central

Background: Food reinforcement, ie, motivation to obtain food, is associated with energy intake and obesity. Finding ways to decrease the reinforcing value of unhealthy foods may help with adherence to diets and maintenance of weight loss. Our previous study in nonobese adults showed that daily consumption of the same snack food (food consumed apart from meals) for 14 d significantly decreased its reinforcing value. Objectives: The aims of this study were to replicate and extend these findings to obese individuals and to examine the effects of different portion sizes of snack foods on food reinforcement. Design: Food reinforcement and liking were tested in 31 obese and 27 nonobese women at baseline and after 2 wk of daily consumption of 0, 100, or 300 kcal/d of the same snack food. Results: We found a significant interaction of phase, portion size, and body mass index on the pattern of operant responding for food. Obese women had a significant increase in food reinforcement after consuming the 300-kcal portion of food for 2 wk, whereas nonobese women had the opposite response. No significant differences were found on the reinforcing value with the 0- and 100-kcal portion-size conditions. Women in the 300-kcal group (obese and nonobese) reported a significant decrease in snack food liking from baseline to after daily intake. Conclusions: These findings suggest that obese and nonobese women respond differently to the daily intake of a snack food and that this may not be a viable mechanism for reducing food reinforcement in obese women. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00837694.

Bulkley, Alison M; Badawy, Rebecca L; Krause, Nicole; McCann, Sarah; Epstein, Leonard H

2009-01-01

39

Long-term daily intake estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers from food in Finnish children: risk assessment implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food is contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD\\/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) worldwide. Previous data show elevated intakes in children. We determined intakes of POPs in Finnish children. Because no children-specific safe limit values exist, we used tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) set for adults by international expert bodies to examine the proportion of the study population

Anna K. Karjalainen; Tero Hirvonen; Hannu Kiviranta; Harri Sinkko; Carina Kronberg-Kippilä; Suvi M. Virtanen; Anja Hallikainen; Olli Leino; Mikael Knip; Riitta Veijola; Olli Simell; Jouni T. Tuomisto

2012-01-01

40

Protein content of diets dictates the daily energy intake of a free-ranging primate  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important goal in nutritional ecology is to understand what governs the diet selection of free-living animals. Relevant information is however scarce because of the considerable challenges of collecting and interpreting such data. Here we use recent advances in nutritional theory to analyze data on food selection and nutrient intake by wild spider monkeys (Ateles chamek). We show that hypotheses

Annika M. Felton; Adam Felton; David Raubenheimer; Stephen J. Simpson; William J. Foley; Jeff T. Wood; Ian R. Wallis; David B. Lindenmayer

2009-01-01

41

Effect of Daily Fiber Intake on Luteinizing Hormone Levels in Reproductive-Aged Women  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate whether the association between fiber intake and LH levels is driven by the association between fiber and estradiol, or whether there is an independent association. Methods A prospective cohort of 259 premenopausal women were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles. Estrogen and LH were measured ? 8 times per cycle at visits scheduled using fertility monitors. Diet was assessed ? 4 times per cycle by 24-hour recall. Linear mixed models on the log scale of hormones were utilized to evaluate the total effects of fiber intake. Inverse probability weights were utilized to estimate the independent effect of fiber on LH levels. Results In unweighted analyses, we observed a significant, inverse association between fiber intake (in 5g/day increments) and log LH levels (?, ?0.051, 95% Confidence Interval (CI), ?0.100, ?0.002). No association was observed in the weighted analyses, after estradiol levels were taken into account (?, ?0.016, 95% CI, ?0.060, 0.027). Conclusions The decreased levels of LH associated with high fiber intake were attenuated after taking estradiol levels into account, suggesting that the association between fiber and LH is most likely a consequence of fiber’s impact on estradiol and not due to an independent mechanism.

Gaskins, Audrey J; Mumford, Sunni L; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F

2014-01-01

42

Children's phthalate intakes and resultant cumulative exposures estimated from urine compared with estimates from dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their homes and daycare centers.  

PubMed

Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw) and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw). For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum)), which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDI(cum). Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child's total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values. PMID:23626820

Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J; Langer, Sarka; Callesen, Michael; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

2013-01-01

43

Determination of several elements in duplicate meals from catering establishments using closed vessel microwave digestion with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection: estimation of daily dietary intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimation of the dietary exposure of French consumers to 21 essential and non-essential mineral elements using duplicate meals (breakfast and lunch) purchased from catering establishments was investigated after digestion by a closed vessel microwave procedure and quantification by ICP-MS. Daily dietary exposure estimates for metals and minerals were compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intakes (PTWI), the Tolerable Daily

J.-C. Leblanc; T. Guérin

2003-01-01

44

Daily intake of heavy metals and nitrate through greenhouse cucumber and bell pepper consumption and potential health risks for human.  

PubMed

Limited information is available on the health quality of greenhouse vegetables. Lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and their dietary intakes were determined. The non-cancer risk for NO3- was determined using the non-cancer hazard quotient. Lead non-cancer risk in children was calculated using the Integrated Exposure-Uptake Biokinetic model. Higher concentrations of cadmium, lead, and chromium were found in bell pepper than cucumber. The mean NO3- concentration in the greenhouse cucumber was about 2.7 times higher than the World Health Organization standard limit. Cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium daily intake for different populations groups through consumption of the vegetables were < 0.01-0.04, 0.35-1.00, 0.03-0.24, and 0.05-0.27 microg/g, respectively. The dietary intake of NO3- for adult was greater than children. Elevated lead and NO3- concentrations in the greenhouse vegetables are important concerns for consumers. Potential health quality problems in greenhouse products have to be considered. PMID:19330637

Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Aghili, Forough; Sanaeiostovar, Azadeh

2009-01-01

45

Relations between body weight, feed intake, daily weight gain, and exocrine pancreatic secretion in chronically catheterized growing pigs.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to develop models that would make it possible to correct exocrine pancreatic secretion data for the effect of BW and feed intake in growing pigs. In addition, the significance of exocrine pancreatic secretion for daily weight gain (DWG) was studied. Data were used from 10 pigs (16 to 32 kg BW) surgically fitted with chronic pancreatic catheters. The samples were collected under controlled conditions for two to five experimental days per animal (a total of 39 observations), during 2 h preprandially and during 2 h when feeding (postprandially). The exocrine pancreatic secretion traits included the hourly output of volume, the amount of protein, and trypsin and amylase activities. Multiple linear regressions were used to develop models to describe exocrine pancreatic secretion. The individual pig was the most important source of variation in the model. With increasing BW, 7 out of 10 pigs showed an increase in exocrine pancreatic secretion. However, the slopes of the regression lines differed between animals, which made it impossible to develop general models for the correction of secretion data for the effect of BW. Postprandial exocrine pancreatic secretion was always higher than preprandial secretion, but the amount of feed intake per se did not seem to affect secretion. Exocrine pancreatic secretion and DWG were positively correlated. We concluded that, under the present circumstances, expressing secretion per kilogram BW or kilogram feed intake was not feasible. Expressing secretion per hour was the best way to present the data. PMID:10100676

Botermans, J A; Pierzynowski, S G

1999-02-01

46

Comparative research for the dietary pattern of patients with esophageal cancer at different developing stages and the daily intake of vitamin A, E and ?-carotene.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the different stages of normal esophageal's developing to esophageal cancer, and the difference among dietary patterns of patients with esophageal cancer and acceptable daily intake of vitamin A, E and beta carotene intake in diet. This paper takes advantage of food composition table, calculates the intake amount of dietary vitamin A, E and beta carotene in all kinds of food for patients with esophageal cancer, and analyzes the intake amount difference of dietary vitamin A, E and beta carotene in each kind of food for different groups of people. Research conclusions: the low content level of dietary vitamin A, E beta-carotene and low intake amount of beans, vegetables and fruit intake may increase the risk of esophageal cancer' occurring, while the relationship among dietary vitamin E, the occurrence and development of esophageal cancer needs further discussion. PMID:25016272

Hu, Jigang; Qi, Qingbin; Zhang, Yanli

2014-07-01

47

A systematic review of salicylates in foods: estimated daily intake of a Scottish population.  

PubMed

Several studies suggest that natural salicylates in plant-based foods may benefit health. However, large variation in published values of the salicylate content of foods means that relating dietary intakes to disease risk is problematical. Consequently, we have systematically reviewed the available literature using prescribed selection criteria. By combining these literature values with in-house analysis, we have constructed a food composition database describing median salicylate values for 27 different types of fruits, 21 vegetables, 28 herbs, spices and condiments, 2 soups and 11 beverages. Application of a validated food frequency questionnaire estimated median dietary intakes of 4.42 (range 2.90-6.27) and 3.16 (2.35-4.89) mg/day for Scottish males and females, respectively. Major dietary sources of salicylates were alcoholic beverages (22%), herbs and spices (17%), fruits (16%), non-alcoholic beverages including fruit juices (13%), tomato-based sauces (12%) and vegetables (9%). Application of the database to populations with differing dietary habits and disease risk profiles may provide further evidence for the role of dietary salicylates in the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:21351247

Wood, Adrian; Baxter, Gwen; Thies, Frank; Kyle, Janet; Duthie, Garry

2011-05-01

48

Phthalate metabolites in obese individuals undergoing weight loss: Urinary levels and estimation of the phthalates daily intake.  

PubMed

Human exposure to chemicals commonly encountered in our environment, like phthalates, is routinely assessed through urinary measurement of their metabolites. A particular attention is given to the specific population groups, such as obese, for which the dietary intake of environmental chemicals is higher. To evaluate the exposure to phthalates, nine phthalate metabolites (PMs) were analyzed in urine collected from obese individuals and a control population. Obese individuals lost weight through either bariatric surgery or a conservative weight loss program with dietary and lifestyle counseling. Urine samples were also collected from the obese individuals after 3, 6 and 12months of weight loss. Individual daily intakes of the corresponding phthalate diesters were estimated based on the urinary PM concentrations. A high variability was recorded for the levels of each PM in both obese and control urine samples showing the exposure to high levels of PMs in specific subgroups. The most important PM metabolite as percentage contribution to the total PM levels was mono-ethyl phthalate followed by the metabolites of di-butyl phthalate and di 2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP). No differences in the PM levels and profiles between obese entering the program and controls were observed. Although paralleled by a significant decrease of their weight, an increase in the urinary PM levels after 3 to 6months loss was seen. Constant figures for the estimated phthalates daily intake were observed over the studied period, suggesting that besides food consumption, other human exposure sources to phthalates (e.g. air, dust) might be also important. The weight loss treatment method followed by obese individuals influenced the correlations between PM levels, suggesting a change of the intake sources with time. Except for few gender differences recorded between the urinary DEHP metabolites correlations, no other differences were observed for the urinary PM levels as a function of age, body mass index or waist circumference. Linear regression analysis showed almost no significance of the relationship between measured urinary PMs and serum free thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) for all obese individuals participating to the study, while for the control samples, several PMs were significantly associated with the serum TSH levels. PMID:23892227

Dirtu, Alin C; Geens, Tinne; Dirinck, Eveline; Malarvannan, Govindan; Neels, Hugo; Van Gaal, Luc; Jorens, Philippe G; Covaci, Adrian

2013-09-01

49

Monitoring programme on nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain: levels and estimated daily intake.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine the current levels of nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods (a total of 1150 samples) marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain, over the period 2000-2008, and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. Average (median) levels of nitrate in lettuce, iceberg-type lettuce and spinach (1156, 798 and 1410 mg kg(-1) w/w, respectively) were lower than the maximum limits established by European Union legislation. Thirteen fresh spinach samples exceeded the regulatory limits. Median nitrate values in other vegetables for which a maximum limit has not been fixed by the European Commission were 196, 203, 1597, 96, 4474 and 2572 mg kg(-1) w/w (for potato, carrot, chard, artichoke, rucola and lamb's lettuce, respectively). The estimated nitrate daily intakes through vegetables consumption for adult, extreme consumers and children were found to be about 29%, 79.8% and 15.1%, respectively, of the acceptable daily intake (3.7 mg kg(-1)). The levels (median = 60.4 mg kg(-1) w/w) found in vegetable-based baby foods were, in all cases, lower the maximum level proposed by European Union legislation. The estimated nitrate daily intake through baby foods for infants between 0-1 and 1-2 years of age were 13% and 18%, respectively, of the acceptable daily intake. PMID:20234964

Pardo-Marín, O; Yusà-Pelechà, V; Villalba-Martín, P; Perez-Dasí, J A

2010-04-01

50

Characterization studies of lower and non-TDI polyurethane encapsulants  

SciTech Connect

Polyurethane prepolymers containing toluene diisocyanate (TDI) are used within the Nuclear Weapons complex for many adhesive and encapsulation applications. As part of a program for minimizing hazards to workers and the environment, TDI will be eliminated. This report presents evaluation of alternative encapsulants.

Wilson, M.H.

1993-09-01

51

Personal, social and environmental predictors of daily fruit and vegetable intake in 11-year-old children in nine European countries. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

De Bourdeaudhuij I, te Velde S, Brug J, Due P, Wind M, Sandvik C, Maes L, Wolf A, Perez Rodrigo C, Yngve A, Thorsdottir I, Rasmussen M, Elmadfa I, Franchini B, Klepp KI. Personal, social and environmental predictors of daily fruit and vegetable intake in 11-year-old children in nine European countries.

52

Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) induces calcium elevation and interleukine-4 (IL-4) release - early responses upon TDI stimulation.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to toluene diisocyanats (TDI) may cause asthma. In asthma patients, the allergic syndromes correlate cytokine production with the elevation in cytosolic calcium concentration [Ca(2+)](c) of lymphocytes in airway. We previously found TDI induces calcium signaling in neuronal cells. TDI mainly gets into human body via inhalation; therefore this study investigated the possibility of TDI inducing the changes in [Ca(2+)](c) in airway. We used human lung epithelial cell line H1355, human T-cell line Jurkat, and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to present the kinds of cells existing in airway. The changes of [Ca(2+)](c) were measured by Fura-2 fluorescent dye. Results show that TDI induced an elevation in [Ca(2+)](c )in those cell lines and two primary isolated cells, bovine adrenal chromaffin cells and human white blood cells. Cytokine release and their gene expressions of Jurkat cells and human white blood cells were measured by ELISA and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. TDI acutely promoted the interleukine-4 (IL-4) release significantly in both Jurkat cells and human white blood cells. TDI-induced IL-4 release was suppressed in the presence of 1,2-bis- (O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'- tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, in Jurkat cells. In the hand of gene expression, TDI induced an increase in the mRNA level of TNF-alpha and IL-4 in Jurkat cells. We conclude that the release of IL-4 were coupled with the elevation in [Ca(2+)](c) induced by TDI. Further studies are required to clarify the roles of TDI-induced IL-4 secretion in acute inflammation. PMID:20371970

Chiung, Yin-Mei; Kao, Yi-Yun; Chang, Wei-Fang; Yao, Chen-Wen; Liu, Pei-Shan

2010-04-01

53

Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland  

SciTech Connect

Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)] [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)] [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

2010-08-15

54

[Iodine prophylaxis in Poland in light of the WHO recommendation on reduction of the daily salt intake].  

PubMed

Iodine prophylaxis started in Poland in 1935, was suspended in periods of time 1939-1945 and 1980-1988. In 1991 Polish Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (PCCIDD) was established and epidemiological survey performed in 1992-1993, defined Poland as an area with moderated - at seaside part as light - severity of iodine deficiency. In 1996 the Minister of Health introduced disposition on obligatory iodization of household salt with 30+/-10 mg KJ/kg and neonates formula with 10 ug/100 ml. Additionally supplementation the pregnant and breast feeding women with daily dose of iodides 100-150 ug was recommended. This very effective model resulted with eradication of endemic goiter in schoolchildren 6-12-years-old, decrease of prevalence of goiter in adults and pregnant women decrease of frequency of the elevated TSH concentration in neonates blood and decrease of dynamic of increasing an incidence rate of differentiated thyroid cancer and its follicular fraction. Poland has been defined by WHO and ICCIDD as a country with sufficient iodine prophylaxis and WHO collaborating Centre for Nutrition has been established at the Department of Endocrinology CMUJ in Krakow. WHO in 2006 and 2007 formulated recommendation on reduction of daily salt intake and additional new carriers of iodine are recommended: milk and natural mineral water containing known concentration of iodide (100-200 ug/l). The coordinating organization for iodine prophylaxis in Poland is PCCIDD as executive body of the National Program for Elimination of Iodine Deficiency financed by the Ministry of Health. PMID:19772817

Szybi?ski, Zbigniew

2009-01-01

55

Lithium cation conducting TDI anion-based ionic liquids.  

PubMed

In this paper we present the synthesis route and electrochemical properties of new class of ionic liquids (ILs) obtained from lithium derivate TDI (4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl)imidazolium) anion. ILs synthesized by us were EMImTDI, PMImTDI and BMImTDI, i.e. TDI anion with 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations, where alkyl meant ethyl, propyl and butyl groups. TDI anion contains fewer fluorine atoms than LiPF6 and thanks to C-F instead of P-F bond, they are less prone to emit fluorine or hydrogen fluoride due to the rise in temperature. Use of IL results in non-flammability, which is making such electrolyte even safer for both application and environment. The thermal stability of synthesized compounds was tested by DSC and TGA and no signal of decomposition was observed up to 250 °C. The LiTDI salt was added to ILs to form complete electrolytes. The structures of tailored ILs with lithium salt were confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. The electrolytes showed excellent properties regarding their ionic conductivity (over 3 mS cm(-1) at room temperature after lithium salt addition), lithium cation transference number (over 0.1), low viscosity and broad electrochemical stability window. The ionic conductivity and viscosity measurements of pure ILs are reported for reference. PMID:24803282

Niedzicki, Leszek; Karpierz, Ewelina; Zawadzki, Maciej; Dranka, Maciej; Kasprzyk, Marta; Zalewska, Aldona; Marcinek, Marek; Zachara, Janusz; Doma?ska, Urszula; Wieczorek, W?adys?aw

2014-06-21

56

Exposure estimates to Fusarium mycotoxins through cereals intake.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are harmful substances produced by fungi in several commodities with a widespread presence in foodstuffs. Human exposure to mycotoxins occurs mainly by contaminated food. The quantitation of mycotoxins in cereal-based food, highly consumed by different age population, is of concern. In this survey, 159 cereal-based samples classified as wheat, maize and rice-based, have been evaluated for the occurrence of patulin, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, nivalenol, neosolaniol, HT-2, T-2 and zearalenone by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Intakes were calculated for average consumers among adults, children and infants and compared with the tolerable daily intakes (TDI). Data obtained were used to estimate the potential exposure levels. 65.4% of the samples were contaminated with at least one mycotoxin and 15.7% of the analyzed samples showed co-occurrence of mycotoxin. The dietary exposure to HT-2 and T-2 toxins was estimated as 0.010 and 0.086 ?g kg(-1) bw d(-1), amounting to 10% and 86% of the TDI, for adults and infants respectively. These results back up the necessity to take a vigilant attitude in order to minimize human intake of mycotoxins. PMID:24012140

Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Ruiz, María José; Font, Guillermina; Berrada, Houda

2013-11-01

57

75 FR 63184 - Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sequence 4] Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide...agencies subject to the FTR to enhance travel cost savings and reduce greenhouse gas...guidance will improve management of agency travel programs, save money on travel...

2010-10-14

58

High performance multispectral TDI CCD image sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a Time Delay Integration (TDI) CCD image sensor that consists of four multispectral bands (B1-B4 zone) and one panchromatic band (P zone) in an integrated, compact package. The B zones have a horizontal resolution of 3k columns, with a pixel size of 28 ?m x 28 ?m. The P zone has a horizontal resolution of 12k columns, with a pixel size of 7 ?m x 7 ?m. The large pixel size of B zones provides excellent colour differentiation even under extremely low light intensity, while the small pixel size and the large pixel number of broad band zone (P zone) provides high resolution images within a wide spectrum range. By utilizing a particularly designed hybrid optical filter, the sensor is able to collect blue, green, red, and near infrared images with only negligible optical crosstalk. The sensor uses selectable outputs and data rate: 2 or 1 outputs running at 16.5 MHz (B1-B4 Zone) per output, and 8 or 4 outputs running at 33 MHz (P Zone) per output. Special design features minimize optical crosstalk between the image zones, and achieve a low signal noise: ? 85 e- in B zone, and ? 35 e- in P zone. To acquire spectral reflectance signatures with good fidelity, the image sensor must be very sensitive to weak light in some spectral bands and cannot be over exposed to light in other spectral bands. To fulfil this requirement, the sensor is designed to show a balanced responsivity in all the image zones. Over all, the sensor demonstrates outstanding performance, providing exceptional images that are crucial for remote sensing applications.

Luo, Yichun; Smith, Charles; O, Nixon; Ledgerwood, Melanie; Kullar, Sukhbir

2013-10-01

59

Usual Dietary Intakes: Background  

Cancer.gov

Usual dietary intake is the long-run average daily intake of a nutrient or food. The concept of long-term average daily intake, or "usual intake," is important because dietary recommendations are intended to be met over time and diet-health hypotheses are based on dietary intakes over the long term.

60

Daily dietary intake of copper, zinc, and selenium of exclusively breast-fed infants of middle-class women in Burundi, Africa.  

PubMed

Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in human milk of middle-class Burundian women during the first 10 mo of lactation have been determined. Wet acid digestion, using nitric and perchloric acids, and atomic absorption spectrometric analysis have been used. Daily intakes have been calculated and proven to decrease from 0.39 +/- 0.05 (colostrum) to 0.16 +/- 0.02 (mature milk), 2.3 +/- 0.3 (colostrum), to 1.2 +/- 0.2 mg (mature milk) and 10.9 +/- 1.5 (colostrum) to 5.3 +/- 0.8 micrograms (mature milk) for Cu, Zn, and Se, respectively. Since values for this African country are nonexistent, intake levels are compared with literature data and found to be somewhat higher than those observed in other poorly nourished countries. The recommended safe and adequate daily intake for infants of 0-6 mo of age, as proposed by the National Research Council of the USA, is only met for Burundian infants < 1 mo of age. The function of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) as essential trace elements has been known for quite a number of years (1). Also, selenium (Se) is a trace element essential for the activity of glutathione peroxidase (2) and type I iodothyronine 5-deiodinase (3). For all three elements, an adequate intake is necessary for satisfactory infant growth and development (4). In view of the almost total lack of relevant data on Burundi (Africa), we have determined Cu, Zn, and Se in human milk of middle-class Burundian women during the first 10 mo of lactation (5). The aim of this study is to assess infants' elemental intake for this country and compare this with literature data on trace elemental intake of exclusively breast-fed infants. PMID:8562283

Robberecht, H; Benemariya, H; Deelstra, H

1995-01-01

61

Regular Daily Intake of Black Tea Improves Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Decreases Serum C-Reactive Protein Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible effects of different daily doses of black tea intake on certain oxidative stress, inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Forty-six patients with known T2DM were randomly assigned either to the test (n = 23, 57.0 ± 7.9 years) or the control (n = 23,

Tirang R. Neyestani; Nastaran Shariatzade; Ali Kalayi; A’azam Gharavi; Niloufar Khalaji; Monireh Dadkhah; Telma Zowghi; Homa Haidari; Sakineh Shab-bidar

2010-01-01

62

THE CONTRIBUTION OF DRINKING WATER TO TOTAL DAILY DIETARY INTAKES OF SELECTED TRACE MINERAL NUTRIENTS IN THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although foods are the major source of mineral nutrients in the diet, drinking water can contribute variable fractions of the total intake. The magnitude of the drinking water contribution, however, has not been characterized because little work has been done to quantify its contribution. The major reason is that drinking water intake is not included in most dietary surveys, and

Joyce Morrissey Donohue; R. D. Charles; O. Abernathy; D. Peter Lassovszky; George Hallberg

63

Restoration of TDI camera images with motion distortion and blur  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Platform movement during exposure of imaging system severely degrades image quality. In the case of Time delay and integration (TDI) camera, abnormal movements cause not only image blur but also distortion, for image Point Spread Function (PSF) is space-variant. In this paper, we present a motion degradation model of TDI image, and provide a method to restore such degraded image. While a TDI camera is imaging, it outputs images row by row (or line by line) along the scanning axis, and our method processes in the same track. We firstly calculate the space-invariant PSF of each row using the movement information of the TDI camera. Then, we substitute pixels of the row and the ones of their neighbor rows together with the PSF into standard Richardson-Lucy algorithm. By deconvoluting we get the restored pixels of the row. The same operations are executed for all rows of the degraded TDI image. Finally, a restored image can be reconstructed from those restored rows. Both simulated and experimental results prove the effectiveness of our method.

Wu, Jiagu; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, qi; Chen, Yueting

2010-11-01

64

Analysis of Magnesium Contents in Commonly Consumed Foods and Evaluation of its Daily Intake in Korean Independent-Living Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium, an element involved in a variety of biochemical and physiological processes in the human body, is closely linked\\u000a to maintaining health and preventing disease. Even so, studies on the status of magnesium intake have never been conducted\\u000a sufficiently since only recently a dietary reference intake value was proposed, and data on magnesium contents in food items\\u000a have always been

Yun-Jung Bae; Mi-Hyun Kim; Mi-Kyeong Choi

2010-01-01

65

Information-Efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor With Tdi  

DOEpatents

A programmable optical filter for use in multispectral and hyperspectral imaging employing variable gain time delay and integrate arrays. A telescope focuses an image of a scene onto at least one TDI array that is covered by a multispectral filter that passes separate bandwidths of light onto the rows in the TDI array. The variable gain feature of the TDI array allows individual rows of pixels to be attenuated individually. The attenuations are functions of the magnitudes of the positive and negative components of a spectral basis vector. The spectral basis vector is constructed so that its positive elements emphasize the presence of a target and its negative elements emphasize the presence of the constituents of the background of the imaged scene. This system provides for a very efficient determination of the presence of the target, as opposed to the very data intensive data manipulations that are required in conventional hyperspectral imaging systems.

Rienstra, Jeffrey L. (Albuquerque, NM); Gentry, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM); Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2004-01-13

66

Genetics of steer daily and residual feed intake in two tropical beef genotypes, and relationships among intake, body composition, growth and other post-weaning measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic parameters for Brahman (BRAH) and Tropical Composite (TCOMP) cattle were estimated for steer production traits recorded at weaning (WEAN), 80 days post-weaning (POSTW), feedlot entry (ENTRY) and after ? 120 days feedlot finishing (EXIT). The TCOMP was 50% Bos indicus, African Sanga or other tropically adapted Bos taurus,and50%non-tropicallyadaptedBostaurus.Datainvolved2216steers,comprising1007BRAHby53siresand1209 TCOMPby50sires. Individualdailyfeed intake(DFI)andresidual feedintake (RFI)wereassessedon680BRAH and783 TCOMP steers over an ~70-day

S. A. BarwickA; M. L. WolcottA; D. J. JohnstonA; Cand M. T. SullivanA

67

Daily calcium intake and its relation to blood pressure, blood lipids, and oxidative stress biomarkers in hypertensive and normotensive subjects  

PubMed Central

Several studies revealed that low calcium intake is related to high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is high in Koreans along with their low dietary calcium consumption. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the status of calcium intake between the hypertension and normotension groups and to investigate the correlation between dietary calcium intake and blood pressure, blood lipid parameters, and blood/urine oxidative stress indices. A total of 166 adult subjects participated in this study and were assigned to one of two study groups: a hypertension group (n = 83) who had 140 mmHg or higher in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or 90 mmHg or higher in diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and an age- and sex-matched normotension group (n = 83, 120 mmHg or less SBP and 80 mmHg or less DBP). The hypertension group consumed 360.5 mg calcium per day, which was lower than that of the normotension group (429.9 mg) but not showing significant difference. In the hypertension group, DBP had a significant negative correlation with plant calcium (P < 0.01) after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and energy intake. In the normotension group, total calcium and animal calcium intake were significantly and positively correlated with serum triglycerides. No significant relationship was found between calcium intake and blood/urine oxidative stress indices in both groups. Overall, these data suggest reconsideration of food sources for calcium consumption in management of the blood pressure or blood lipid profiles in both hypertensive and normotensive subjects.

Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bu, So Young

2012-01-01

68

Evaluation of daily dietary intake of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and benzene hexachloride (BHC) in India.  

PubMed

Duplicate samples of the diet of vegetarian adults were analyzed to estimate the residues of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and benzene hexachloride (BHC). The total food consumed by an adult per day was collected and categorized as fatty food, non-fatty food, water, and beverages. Fatty food was the main source of these chlorinated insecticides, and it contributed almost 50% of the total dietary intake. The average total DDT and BHC consumed by an adult were 19.24 micrograms/d and 77.15 micrograms/d, respectively. Blood DDT and BHC levels reflected intake (r = 0.685 for DDT; r = 0.515 for BHC). PMID:7509592

Kashyap, R; Iyer, L R; Singh, M M

1994-01-01

69

Children's Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers  

PubMed Central

Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child’s home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw) and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw). For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDIcum), which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDIcum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child’s total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.

Beko, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.; Langer, Sarka; Callesen, Michael; Toftum, J?rn; Clausen, Geo

2013-01-01

70

High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: influence of contaminated fish consumption.  

PubMed

An abandoned pentachlorophenol plant and nearby area in southern Taiwan was heavily contaminated by dioxins, impurities formed in the PCP production process. The investigation showed that the average serum PCDD/Fs of residents living nearby area (62.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) was higher than those living in the non-polluted area (22.5 and 18.2 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) (P<0.05). In biota samples, average PCDD/F of milkfish in sea reservoir (28.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g) was higher than those in the nearby fish farm (0.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g), and Tilapia and shrimp showed the similar trend. The average daily PCDD/Fs intake of 38% participants was higher than 4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day suggested by the world health organization. Serum PCDD/F was positively associated with average daily intake (ADI) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status. In addition, a prospective cohort study is suggested to determine the long-term health effects on the people living near factory. PMID:16213641

Lee, C C; Lin, W T; Liao, P C; Su, H J; Chen, H L

2006-05-01

71

Genome-wide association and systems genetic analyses of residual feed intake, daily feed consumption, backfat and weight gain in pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Feed efficiency is one of the major components determining costs of animal production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed and the expected feed intake given a certain production. Residual feed intake 1 (RFI1) was calculated based on regression of individual daily feed intake (DFI) on initial test weight and average daily gain. Residual feed intake 2 (RFI2) was as RFI1 except it was also regressed with respect to backfat (BF). It has been shown to be a sensitive and accurate measure for feed efficiency in livestock but knowledge of the genomic regions and mechanisms affecting RFI in pigs is lacking. The study aimed to identify genetic markers and candidate genes for RFI and its component traits as well as pathways associated with RFI in Danish Duroc boars by genome-wide associations and systems genetic analyses. Results Phenotypic and genotypic records (using the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip) were available on 1,272 boars. Fifteen and 12 loci were significantly associated (p?

2014-01-01

72

Evaluation of content and estimation of daily intake of cadmium and lead in several varieties of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain).  

PubMed

Monitoring the metal content in foods such as potatoes is an important aspect of food safety and regulation. Samples of nine varieties of potatoes (73 samples of local potatoes and 77 samples of imported potatoes) were randomly obtained from supermarkets, farmers markets, and farmer plots in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis because Spaniards traditionally eat only peeled potatoes. Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd concentrations ranged from 0.006 mg/kg in the Cara and Negra varieties to 0.019 mg/kg in the Bonita variety, and Pb concentrations ranged from 0.007 mg/kg in the Up-to-date variety to 0.023 mg/kg in the Recara variety. The mean concentrations of Cd (0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.014 mg/kg) were below the limits established by European regulations for potatoes (0.1 mg/kg of wet weight for each metal). Based on a mean consumption of 143.2 g of potato per person per day for the Canary Islands population, the mean daily intakes of Cd (0.015 mg/day) and Pb (0.023 mg/day) were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes. Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat with regard to the metal concentrations found. PMID:24680081

Luis, G; Rubio, C; González-Weller, D; Gutiérrez, A J; Revert, C; Hardisson, A

2014-04-01

73

Feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and real-time ultrasound traits in Duroc pigs: II. Genomewide association.  

PubMed

Efficient use of feed resources has become a clear challenge for the U.S. pork industry as feed costs continue to be the largest variable expense. The availability of the Illumina Porcine60K BeadChip has greatly facilitated whole-genome association studies to identify chromosomal regions harboring genes influencing those traits. The current study aimed at identifying genomic regions associated with variation in feed efficiency and several production traits in a Duroc terminal sire population, including ADFI, ADG, feed conversion ratio, residual feed intake (RFI), real-time ultrasound back fat thickness (BF), ultrasound muscle depth, intramuscular fat content (IMF), birth weight (BW at birth), and weaning weight (BW at weaning). Single trait association analyses were performed using Bayes B models with 35,140 SNP on 18 autosomes after quality control. Significance of nonoverlapping 1-Mb length windows (n = 2,380) were tested across 3 QTL inference methods: posterior distribution of windows variances from Monte Carlo Markov Chain, naive Bayes factor, and nonparametric bootstrapping. Genes within the informative QTL regions for the traits were annotated. A region ranging from166 to 140 Mb (4-Mb length) on SSC 1, approximately 8 Mb upstream of the MC4R gene, was significantly associated with ADFI, ADG, and BF, where SOCS6 and DOK6 are proposed as the most likely candidate genes. Another region affecting BW at weaning was identified on SSC 4 (84-85 Mb), harboring genes previously found to influence both human and cattle height: PLAG1, CHCHD7, RDHE2 (or SDR16C5), MOS, RPS20, LYN, and PENK. No QTL were identified for RFI, IMF, and BW at birth. In conclusion, we have identified several genomic regions associated with traits affecting nutrient utilization that could be considered for future genomic prediction to improve feed utilization. PMID:24962532

Jiao, S; Maltecca, C; Gray, K A; Cassady, J P

2014-07-01

74

CellTracks TDI: an image cytometer for cell characterization.  

PubMed

Characterization of rare cells usually requires high sensitivity quantification of multiple parameters. Detection of morphological features of these cells is highly desired when routinely identifying circulating tumor cells (CTC) in blood of patients. We have designed an image cytometer intended for fast and sensitive routine analysis of CTC. After an initial scan, prospective events can be revisited for more detailed analysis. The image cytometer features: 375, 491, and 639 nm laser lines, a 40×/0.6NA objective, a CCD camera operating in TDI mode, servo stages to move the sample in two dimensions and a piëzo microscope objective positioner to move the objective in the third dimension. ImageJ is used for dedicated image analysis. A homogeneous illumination area, measuring 180 × 180 ?m(2) , was created by the use of a rotating diffuser in combination with two micro-lens arrays. For feed-forward automatic focusing of the sample during a scan, a 3D spline was fitted through 30 predetermined focus positions before scanning the sample. Continuous signal acquisition is made possible by using a CCD operating in TDI mode synchronized to the movement of two servo scan stages. The limit of fluorescence sensitivity is 120 PE molecules on a bead with a diameter of 6.8 ?m, at a scanning speed of 1.0 mm s(-1) . The resolution of the imaging system is 0.76 ?m in the TDI scan direction at a wavelength of 580 nm. Identification of cells is facilitated by scatter plots of the fluorescent parameters in which each individual event can be viewed for its morphological features by fluorescence as well as bright field. The image cytometer measures quantitative fluorescence and morphological features at a high sensitivity, high resolution, and with minimal overhead time. It has the ability torelocate events of interest for further detailed analysis. The system can be used for routine identification and characterization of rare cells. PMID:21337699

Scholtens, Tycho M; Schreuder, Frederik; Ligthart, Sjoerd T; Swennenhuis, Joost F; Tibbe, Arjan G J; Greve, Jan; Terstappen, Leon W M M

2011-03-01

75

No evidence of dehydration with moderate daily coffee intake: a counterbalanced cross-over study in a free-living population.  

PubMed

It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3-6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na(+) excretion was higher in C than W (p?=?0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

Killer, Sophie C; Blannin, Andrew K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

2014-01-01

76

Effects of daily intake of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components on chronic stress responses: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Chronic stress has a negative influence on health. The aim was to determine stress reducing effects of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components as compared to normal yoghurt. High-trait anxiety individuals (n?=?67) aged 18-63 years participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention with parallel groups. They received either yoghurt enriched with alpha-lactalbumin, casein tripeptides and B vitamins (active) or isoenergetic standard yoghurt (control). To detect changes in psychological and physiological stress, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, salivary cortisol, inflammatory markers, blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV) and actigraphy were monitored. We observed higher ratings of vigor (p?=?0.047) and reduced feeling of inefficiency (p?=?0.048) in the active group. HRV (baseline adjusted mean 49.1?±?2.3?ms) and recovery index (106.6?±?33.4) were higher in the active group than in controls (42.5?±?2.2?ms and 80.0?±?29.3) (p?=?0.046 and p?=?0.02, respectively). In conclusion, daily intake of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components may aid in stress coping. PMID:24490888

Jaatinen, Nora; Korpela, Riitta; Poussa, Tuija; Turpeinen, Anu; Mustonen, Sari; Merilahti, Juho; Peuhkuri, Katri

2014-06-01

77

Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations  

PubMed Central

A trial was conducted to: i) evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii) evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii) to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts), two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg) corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg) with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen) recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI), ME (MEI) and NE (NEI) intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d) were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively). Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001) than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001) for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d). However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49) or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13), thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377) and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113) was less (p<0.001) for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150), therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of growth and G:F than MEI. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.4% greater ADG:Mcal MEI and 0.11% greater ADG:NEI above maintenance than pigs fed LE diets, again demonstrating that NEI is a better predictor of pig performance than MEI. Pigs fed LE diets had similar daily NEI and MEI but grew slower and less efficiently on both ME and NE basis than pigs fed HE diets. The data suggest that the midds NE value (2.132 Mcal/kg) was too high for this source or that maintenance was increased for pigs fed LE diets.

Schinckel, A. P.; Einstein, M. E.; Jungst, S.; Matthews, J. O.; Booher, C.; Dreadin, T.; Fralick, C.; Wilson, E.; Boyd, R. D.

2012-01-01

78

Measurement Velocity by the CCD Linear Image Sensor Operating in the TDI Mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper is devoted to description, analysis and practical verification of a new method of control of CCD linear image sensor working in TDI (Time Delay Integration) mode. TDI mode of operation is used when objects observed by CCD sensor move in the direction of sensor line. The results of experiments with test patterns moving with different velocities are

Jan Fischer

79

Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011  

PubMed Central

Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95% CI [0.14, 0.83]). Conclusion Interventions aimed at improving fruit and vegetable intake need to consider where individuals’ purchase food and the availability within stores as a behavioral and environmental strategy.

2013-01-01

80

Compared with daily, weekly n-3 PUFA intake affects the incorporation of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid into platelets and mononuclear cells in humans.  

PubMed

Consumption of oily fish is sporadic, whereas controlled intervention studies of n-3 (?-3) fatty acids usually provide capsules containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a daily dose. This methodologic study explored whether there are differences in the short-, medium-, and long-term incorporation of EPA and DHA into blood plasma and cells with the provision of identical amounts of EPA and DHA, equivalent to 2 oily fish servings per week (or 6.54 g/wk EPA and DHA), either intermittently (i.e., 1 portion twice per week) or continuously (i.e., divided into daily amounts). The study was part of a randomized, double-blind controlled intervention lasting 12 mo, with participants stratified by age and sex. There were 5 intervention groups, 2 of which are reported here: the 2 intermittent portions (2I) and 2 continuous portions (2C) groups. EPA and DHA were measured in plasma phosphatidylcholine, platelets, and blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) at 9 time points. Sixty-five participants completed the study (2I group, n = 30, mean age of 49.2 y; 2C group, n = 35, mean age of 50.6 y). The incorporation pattern over the 12-mo intervention was different between the 2 groups in all samples (P < 0.0001, time × treatment interaction). At the end of the 12-mo intervention, the 2C group had higher EPA, DHA, and EPA + DHA in platelets (all P < 0.01) and higher EPA and EPA + DHA in MNCs (both P < 0.05) compared with the 2I group. No significant differences were shown for plasma phosphatidylcholine EPA (P = 0.1), DHA (P = 0.15), EPA + DHA (P = 0.07), or MNC DHA (P = 0.06). In conclusion, the pattern of consumption does affect the incorporation of EPA and DHA into cells used as biomarkers of intake. The differences identified here need to be considered in the design of studies and when extrapolating results from continuous capsule-based intervention studies to dietary guidelines for oily fish consumption. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN48398526. PMID:24647395

Browning, Lucy M; Walker, Celia G; Mander, Adrian P; West, Annette L; Gambell, Joanna; Madden, Jackie; Calder, Philip C; Jebb, Susan A

2014-05-01

81

Capabilities of different liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry systems in determining pesticide residues in food. Application to estimate their daily intake.  

PubMed

Three different liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) instruments equipped with triple quadrupole (QqQ), quadrupole ion trap (QIT) and quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqTOF), suitable to carry out tandem mass spectrometry, were examined to determine pesticide residues in food. Twelve pesticides (acrinathrin, bupirimate, buprofezin, cyproconazole, lambda-cyhalothrin, fluvalinate, hexaflumuron, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, pyrifenox, pyriproxyfen and tebufenpyrad) and six matrices (oranges, strawberries, cherries, peaches, apricots and pears) were taken as model. The comparison was focused on two aspects: the quantitative, covering sensitivity, precision and accuracy as well as the qualitative, checking the possibility to identify any metabolite present in the samples, which were not targeted in the methods. The extraction was carried out using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with ethyl acetate and acid alumina. Recoveries were over 70 % for all the analytes. Repeatabilities were better for the QqQ (5-12%) than for QIT (6-15%) and for QqTOF (14-19%). QqQ offered a linear dynamic range of at least three orders of magnitude, whereas those of QIT and QqTOF were two and one orders of magnitude, respectively. QqQ reached at least 20-fold higher sensitivity than QIT and QqTOF. However, the QqQ failed to identify non-target compounds. QIT and QqTOF were able to successfully identify the metabolite of bupirimate, ethirimol. Application to monitor the content in fruits, taken from agricultural cooperatives, and to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) to establish if there is any difference of toxicological interest is also reported. PMID:17466998

Soler, Carla; James, K J; Picó, Yolanda

2007-07-20

82

Three-dimensional imaging using TDI CCD sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atherosclerosis is an arterial disorder characterized by the development of arterial plaques which reduce the distensibility of the artery and obstruct blood flow. Little is known about the mechanisms which initiate the plaques and cause them to grow; however, it is generally agreed that hemodynamic factors are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. To study this disease it is essential to know not only the geometry of the arterial lumen but also the shape of the intimal surface in order to assess the importance of hemodynamic effects. The authors constructed a table-top volume CT scanner with high resolution in all 3 dimensions, which can be used to analyze human arterial specimens in vitro. This system uses an x-ray image intensifier optically coupled to a TDI CCD sensor to obtain low-noise, low-scatter projection digital radiographs from many angles. A slot beam of radiation is scanned across the sample to reduce the detection of scattered radiation without causing excess x-ray tube heating. Objects to be imaged are placed on a computer-controlled stage and projections are obtained as the specimen is rotated through 180 degree(s). CT reconstructions of the resulting data produces volume images with 0.12 X 0.12 X 0.15 mm(superscript 3) volume resolution.

Fenster, Aaron; Holdsworth, David W.; Drangova, Maria

1991-07-01

83

76 FR 46216 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 2011-0002; Sequence 5] Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting; Correction...general public in an effort to streamline travel policies, incorporated travel...

2011-08-02

84

Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of MDI and TDI polyurethane polymers  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivity of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) to differences in key chemical components of polyurethane polymers is presented. Carbon is NEXAFS spectra of polyurethane polymers made from 4,4{prime}-methylene di-p-phenylene isocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) isocyanate monomers illustrate that there is an unambiguous spectroscopic fingerprint for distinguishing between MDI-based and TDI-based polyurethane polymers. NEXAFS spectra of MDI and TDI polyurea and polyurethane models show that the urea and carbamate (urethane) linkages in these polymers can be distinguished. The NEXAFS spectroscopy of the polyether component of these polymers is discussed, and the differences between the spectra of MDI and TDI polyurethanes synthesized with polyether polyols of different molecular composition and different molecular weight are presented. These polymer spectra reported herein provide appropriate model spectra to represent the pure components for quantitative microanalysis.

Urquhart, S.G.; Smith, A.P.; Ade, H.W. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics] [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hitchcock, A.P. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Brockhouse Inst. for Materials Research] [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Brockhouse Inst. for Materials Research; Rightor, E.G. [Dow Chemical USA, Midland, MI (United States)] [Dow Chemical USA, Midland, MI (United States); Lidy, W. [Dow Chemical USA, Freeport, TX (United States)] [Dow Chemical USA, Freeport, TX (United States)

1999-06-03

85

InSb 288*32 FPA with digital TDI for low background application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

32*288 format FPA based on InSb two dimension arrays (IDA) of photodiodes with function of digital TDI were investigated at low background flow. Dark currents of TDA photodiodes in wide temperature region, spectral noise distribution and threshold power with TDI simulation are investigated. It was established that at T=77K dark current is (I - 3)*10-11A at optimal negative bias and decreases in the order of magnitude at T=65K. Threshold power at T=77K at integration time Ti=6 ms is not more 2*10-14 W/pixel and is limited commonly by dark current noise. Modeling of digital TDI showed that not more than twenty TDI stages are effective because of the presence of 1/f noise and threshold power would be at about 3*10-15 W/pixel.

Chishko, V. F.; Kasatkin, I. L.; Lopukhin, A. A.

2007-05-01

86

Using a TDI camera in vibration conditions with nonzero viewing angles for surface inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of time delay and integration (TDI) arrays have been developed. The TDI image sensor offers significant improvement in performance over a linear CCD-sensor with respect to sensitivity. This is particularly significant in low light level operation since the effective exposure time is increased by a factor which is equal to the number of the TDI stages in the sensor. Our previous work has indicated that the TDI camera can be used with viewing angles up to 30 degrees from the surface normal. The effects caused by vibration of the viewed surface become critical when using a TDI camera at non-zero viewing angles.FOr this reason, a study was made on the vibration effects. This paper reports this study, concentrating ont he relation between the vibration of the inspected surface and the sharpness of the image. The contrast perceived by the TDI camera as a function of the vibration amplitude and frequency is measured. The measurements are performed using a special test pattern in a dynamic situation. The results based on the contrast modulation function (CMF) in the vertical and horizontal directions are reported. A hypothesis of the effect of vibration on the CMF was formulated as a rule, which was then tested with measured data. Tentative result support the hypothesis.

Miettinen, Jari; Ailisto, Heikki J.

1997-08-01

87

Feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and real-time ultrasound traits in Duroc pigs: I. Genetic parameter estimation and accuracy of genomic prediction.  

PubMed

The efficiency of producing salable products in the pork industry is largely determined by costs associated with feed and by the amount and quality of lean meat produced. The objectives of this paper were 1) to explore heritability and genetic correlations for growth, feed efficiency, and real-time ultrasound traits using both pedigree and marker information and 2) to assess accuracy of genomic prediction for those traits using Bayes A prediction models in a Duroc terminal sire population. Body weight at birth (BW at birth) and weaning (BW at weaning) and real-time ultrasound traits, including back fat thickness (BF), muscle depth (MD), and intramuscular fat content (IMF), were collected on the basis of farm protocol. Individual feed intake and serial BW records of 1,563 boars obtained from feed intake recording equipment (FIRE; Osborne Industries Inc., Osborne, KS) were edited to obtain growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency traits, including ADG, ADFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI). Correspondingly, 1,047 boars were genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. The remaining 516 boars, as an independent sample, were genotyped with a low-density GGP-Porcine BeadChip and imputed to 60K. Magnitudes of heritability from pedigree analysis were moderate for growth, feed intake, and ultrasound traits (ranging from 0.44 ± 0.11 for ADG to 0.58 ± 0.09 for BF); heritability estimates were 0.32 ± 0.09 for FCR but only 0.10 ± 0.05 for RFI. Comparatively, heritability estimates using marker information by Bayes A models were about half of those from pedigree analysis, suggesting "missing heritability." Moderate positive genetic correlations between growth and feed intake (0.32 ± 0.05) and back fat (0.22 ± 0.04), as well as negative genetic correlations between growth and feed efficiency traits (-0.21 ± 0.08, -0.05 ± 0.07), indicate selection solely on growth traits may lead to an undesirable increase in feed intake, back fat, and reduced feed efficiency. Genetic correlations among growth, feed intake, and FCR assessed by a multiple-trait Bayes A model resulted in increased genetic correlation between ADG and ADFI, a negative correlation between ADFI and FCR, and a positive correlation between ADG and FCR. Accuracies of genomic prediction for the traits investigated, ranging from 9.4% for RFI to 36.5% for BF, were reported that might provide new insight into pig breeding and future selection programs using genomic information. PMID:24671579

Jiao, S; Maltecca, C; Gray, K A; Cassady, J P

2014-06-01

88

Characterization of polyurethane systems which contain low levels of free TDI  

SciTech Connect

EN-7, EN-8, and EN-9 are polyurethane systems that are used in numerous applications in the Department of Energy complex. These systems contain high levels of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Currently, TDI is being treated as a suspect human carcinogen within the Department of Energy complex. This report documents the results of a material characterization study of three polyurethane systems that contain low levels of free (potentially airborne) TDI. The characterization has been accomplished by performing a set of statistically designed experiments. The purpose of these experiments is to explore the effects of formulation and cure schedule on various material properties. In general, the material properties (pot life, glass transition temperature, hardness, and tear strength) were relatively insensitive to variation in the cure schedule. On the other hand, variation in curative level had measurable effects on material properties for the polyurethane systems studied. Furthermore, the material properties of the three low-free-TDI polyurethane systems were found to be comparable or superior (for certain curative levels) to commonly-used polyurethane systems. Thus, these low-free-TDI systems appear to be viable candidates for applications where a polyurethane is needed.

Myers, R.L.; Thomas, E.V.

1995-04-01

89

TDI and clock noise removal for the split interferometry configuration of LISA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser phase noise is the dominant noise source in the on-board measurements of the space-based gravitational wave detector LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna). A well-known data analysis technique, the so-called time-delay interferometry (TDI), provides synthesized data streams free of laser phase noise. At the same time, TDI also removes the next largest noise source: phase fluctuations of the on-board clocks which distort the sampling process. TDI needs precise information about the spacecraft separations, sampling times and differential clock noise between the three spacecrafts. These are measured using auxiliary modulations on the laser light. Hence, there is a need for algorithms that account for clock noise removal schemes combined with TDI while preserving the gravitational wave signal. In this paper, we will present the mathematical formulation of the LISA-like data streams and discuss a compliant algorithm that corrects for both clock and laser noise in the case of a rotating, non-breathing LISA constellation. In contrast to previous papers, we consider the current optical bench design (split interferometry configuration), i.e. the test mass readout is done by the local oscillators only, instead of reflecting the weak inter-spacecraft light off the test mass. Furthermore, the absolute order of laser frequencies is taken into account and it can be shown that the TDI equations remain invariant. This is a crucial issue and was, up to now, completely neglected in the analysis.

Otto, Markus; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

2012-10-01

90

Normal structure and expression of Zfy genes in XY female mice mutant in Tdy.  

PubMed

Zfy-1 and Zfy-2 are candidate genes for Tdy, the testis-determining gene in mice. We have analysed these genes in a line of XY female mice that have been shown to be mutated in Tdy. We have used Southern blot analysis to show that the Zfy genes have not undergone any major structural alterations, and have also demonstrated that both genes are transcribed normally from the mutant Y chromosome (Y) in both adult XYY testis and XY female embryonic gonads. The fact that these genes show a normal structure and expression pattern in mice with a Y chromosome known to carry a mutation in Tdy and that mutant embryos develop into females despite Zfy-1 expression, strongly supports other recent evidence that Zfy genes are not directly involved in primary testis determination. PMID:1698142

Gubbay, J; Koopman, P; Collignon, J; Burgoyne, P; Lovell-Badge, R

1990-07-01

91

Validity and Reproducibility of a Self-Administered Semi-Quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Usual Daily Fat, Fibre, Alcohol, Caffeine and Theobromine Intakes among Belgian Post-Menopausal Women  

PubMed Central

A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d) estimated diet records (EDR, n 64) and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79). Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47–0.94; weighted ? 0.25–0.66) and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71–0.87) with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted ? 0.33–0.80). In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population.

Bolca, Selin; Huybrechts, Inge; Verschraegen, Mia; De Henauw, Stefaan; Van de Wiele, Tom

2009-01-01

92

Validity and reproducibility of a self-administered semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire for estimating usual daily fat, fibre, alcohol, caffeine and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women.  

PubMed

A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d) estimated diet records (EDR, n 64) and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79). Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47-0.94; weighted kappa 0.25-0.66) and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71-0.87) with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted kappa 0.33-0.80). In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population. PMID:19440274

Bolca, Selin; Huybrechts, Inge; Verschraegen, Mia; De Henauw, Stefaan; Van de Wiele, Tom

2009-01-01

93

Determination of PCDD/Fs in breast milk of women living in the vicinities of Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (Vietnam) and estimation of the infant's daily intake.  

PubMed

Seventeen toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in breast milks using the high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method. Twenty seven breast milk samples were collected from primiparae who have lived over 5years in wards namely Chinh Gian, An Khe, Khue Trung, and Hoa Thuan Tay which are located near the Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (the AO/Dioxin hot spot). The samples were then analyzed for PCDD/F residues in order to assess the human exposure to dioxins from the AO/Dioxin hot spot, especially health risk to the breast-fed infants. The average TEQ levels in the four studied cohorts ranged from 8.1 to 26pg/g lipid, with the highest level up to 51pgTEQ/g lipid found in the An Khe ward. The TEQ level was correlated with geographical position and ranking in the order of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe. The mean estimated PCDD/Fs infant's daily intake in the cohort of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe was about 41, 122, 124, and 134pgTEQ/kg bw/day, respectively, which are much higher than the tolerable daily intake proposed by the World Health Organization (4pgTEQ/kgbw/day). PMID:24613651

Hue, N T M; Nam, V D; Thuong, N V; Huyen, N T; Phuong, N T H; Hung, N X; Tuan, N H; Son, L K; Minh, N H

2014-09-01

94

Influence of the method of production of eggs on the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine contaminants: an independent study in the Canary Islands (Spain).  

PubMed

Analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were performed on eggs from three different production types (conventional, free-run and organic) collected from the markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). Unlike other studies we did not found differences in the content of PCBs or OCPs of eggs in relation to its production type. Median ?OCPs content was 3.87 ng g?¹ fat, being dieldrin, dicofol, hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT the most frequently detected. Median ?PCBs value was 3.93 ng g?¹ fat, with 79.9% of this amount coming from the marker PCBs. Two samples, one free-run and one organic, greatly exceeded the current European Commission (EC) limit of 2.5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F) g?¹ lipid, but the rest were well below of this limit. The concentrations of PAHs in conventionally produced eggs were almost 4 times higher than in free-run or organic eggs. Mean dietary intake estimates of the organochlorine contaminants based on consumption of eggs, regardless of the type chosen, is negligible for the Canary Islands' population. However, the median dietary intake estimates of PAHs greatly depend on the type of eggs chosen, being much lower when free-run and organic eggs are consumed. PMID:23939041

Luzardo, Octavio P; Rodríguez-Hernández, Angel; Quesada-Tacoronte, Yohana; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Almeida-González, Maira; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

2013-10-01

95

Research on radiometric calibration of interline transfer CCD camera based on TDI working mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interline transfer CCD camera can be designed to work in time delay and integration mode similar to TDI CCD to obtain higher responsivity and spatial resolution under poor illumination condition. However it was found that outputs of some pixels were much lower than others' as interline transfer CCD camera work in TDI mode in laboratory radiometric calibration experiments. As a result photo response non-uniformity(PRNU) and signal noise ratio(SNR) of the system turned for the worse. This phenomenon's mechanism was analyzed and improved PRNU and SNR algorithms of interline transfer CCD camera were advanced to solve this problem. In this way TDI stage was used as a variant in PRNU and SNR algorithms and system performance was improved observably with few influences on use. In validation experiments the improved algorithms was applied in radiometric calibration of a camera with KAI-0340s as detector. Results of validation experiments proved that the improved algorithms could effectively improve SNR and lower PRNU of the system. At the same time characteristic of the system could be reflected better. As working in 16 TDI stages, PRUN was reduced from 2.25% to 0.82% and SNR was improved about 2%.

Wu, Xing-Xing; Liu, Jin-Guo

2010-05-01

96

Realization of the FPGA based TDI algorithm in digital domain for CMOS cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to make the CMOS image sensors suitable for space high resolution imaging applications, a new method realizing TDI in digital domain by FPGA is proposed in this paper, which improves the imaging mode for area array CMOS sensors. The TDI algorithm accumulates the corresponding pixels of adjoining frames in digital domain, so the gray values increase by M times, where M is for the integration number, and the image's quality in signal-to-noise ratio can be improved. In addition, the TDI optimization algorithm is discussed. Firstly, the signal storage is optimized by 2 slices of external RAM, where memory depth expanding and the table tennis operation mechanism are used. Secondly, the FIFO operation mechanism reduces the reading and writing operation on memory by M×(M-1) times, It saves so much signal transfer time as is proportional to the square of integration number M2, that the frame frequency is able to increase greatly. At last, the CMOS camera based on TDI in digital domain is developed, and the algorithm is validated by experiments on it.

Tao, Shuping; Jin, Guang; Zhang, Xuyan; Qu, Hongsong

2012-10-01

97

41 CFR 301-11.8 - What is the maximum per diem rate I will receive if lodging is not available at my TDY location?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...lodging is not available at my TDY location? 301-11.8 Section 301-11.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules §...

2013-07-01

98

Nutritional survey in Greek children: nutrient intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the survey was to record the food habits and nutrient intake of Greek children. Data was obtained by a 3 d household measured diet record from a random stratified sample (1936 children aged 2–14 y). Mean daily protein intake was much higher than PRI and none of the children had lower intake than AR. Mean energy intake

E Roma-Giannikou; D Adamidis; M Gianniou; R Nikolara; N Matsaniotis

1997-01-01

99

A new design of signal processing system for TDI infrared focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, according to the characteristics of TDI infrared focal plane array output signal, a novel signal processing system based on AC coupling technology is proposed. Firstly, the output signal characteristics of TDI infrared focal plane array are analyzed. Secondly, the signal processing system based on AC-coupled technology is introduced. The designed system is consist of high pass filter circuit, signal conditioning circuit, differential input analog to digital converting circuit and digital data processing circuit. Thirdly, the designed system is simulated and tested. Simulation and test results show that the novel design idea of signal processing circuit is reasonable and feasible. Compared with the traditional design, the system has the characteristics of high common mode noise rejection, low temperature drift and low power consumption.

Wang, Hua; Wei, Zhiyong; Lei, Ning; Wang, Xu; Zhang, WenYu; Li, Tao

2012-12-01

100

Modeling formation and distribution of toluene-2,4-diamine (TDA) after spillage of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) into a river.  

PubMed

Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a large volume chemical used for the production of polyurethanes. It is sparingly soluble in water, but hydrolyses instantaneously liberating toluene diamine (TDA), which is highly reactive to TDI. The ecotoxicity of TDI is dominated by TDA. The hydrolysis of TDI under static and dynamic conditions was investigated previously. Previously published data on TDI hydrolysis were re-visited, and based on these data a model was developed that allows a conservative and quick estimation of TDA concentrations in rivers following a major incident with TDI. As earlier published model experiments indicate, the maximum achievable TDA concentration is about 30 mg/L. Model simulations based on these experiments indicate that the TDA concentrations in a river after TDI discharge may be up to three orders of magnitude lower. PMID:23507364

Schupp, Thomas

2013-05-15

101

Adaptive beamforming with TDI CCD-based true-time-delay processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an adaptation of the BEAMTAP (Broadband and Efficient Adaptive Method for True-time-delay Array Processing) algorithm, previously developed for wideband phased array radars, to lower bandwidth applications such as sonar. This system utilizes the emerging time or wavelength multiplexed optical hydro-phone sensors and processes the cohered array of signals in the optical domain without conversion to the electronic domain or digitization. Modulated signals from an optical hydro-phone array are pre- processed then imaged through a photorefractive crystal where they interfere with a reference signal and its delayed replicas. The diffraction of the sonar signals off these adaptive weight gratings and detection on a linear time- delay-and-integrate charge coupled device (TDI CCD) completes the true-time-delay (TTD) beamforming process. Optical signals focused on different regions of the TDI CCD accumulate the appropriate delays necessary to synchronize and coherently sum the acoustic signals arriving at various angles on the hydro-phone array. In this paper, we present an experimental demonstration of TTD processing of low frequency signals (in the KHz sonar regime) using a TDI CCD tapped delay line. Simulations demonstrating the performance of the overall system are also presented.

Kiruluta, Andrew M.; Kriehn, Gregory; Silveira, Paulo E.; Weaver, Samuel; Kraut, Shawn; Wagner, Kelvin H.; Anderson, Dana Z.

1999-10-01

102

Low-temperature spectral dynamics of single TDI molecules in n-alkane matrixes.  

PubMed

We report on studies of the influence of the matrix on the spectral dynamics of the zero-phonon-line (ZPL) emission by means of single molecule spectroscopy at low temperature. The host-guest system combinations consist of terrylenediimide (TDI) molecules embedded in four n-alkane matrixes of hexane, heptane, pentadecane, and hexadecane. Excitations into the broad vibronic absorption band and spectrally dispersed detection allows us to monitor fluorescence of single TDI molecules as a function of time. In the case of long-chain n-alkanes (pentadecane and hexadecane), the ZPL line is quite stable, showing spectral jumps of moderate frequency of less than 10 cm(-1) with an average time between the jumps of 10 s. In a clear contrast, the spectral dynamics of TDI molecules embedded within the short-length n-alkane matrixes (heptane and hexane) feature much more frequent spectral jumps that occur on a broader energy scale. The results suggest that matrixes composed of short-chain molecules are more susceptible to translations and/or rotations, which influence the fluorescence of single guest chromophores. PMID:18278543

Mackowski, Sebastian; Wörmke, Stephan; Ehrl, Moritz; Bräuchle, Christoph

2008-01-01

103

Determination of phthalates in raw bovine milk by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS) and dietary intakes.  

PubMed

Low levels of phthalates, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), in raw bovine milk were determined using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). A fast and convenient process of sample treatment combined with TOF-MS analysis (medium resolution >5000), yielded good recoveries (85-125%) and low limits of detection (<0.002 mg kg(-1)). The most commonly used phthalate, DEHP, was found in 15 out of 30 samples monitored in this study. DEHP concentrations in raw milk ranged from not detected to 0.154 mg kg(-1), and the mean concentration was 0.057 mg kg(-1). The dietary intake of DEHP was about 0.004 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) if a child (24 months, 13 kg body weight) drinks 1 L day(-1) of milk that contains the mean concentration of DEHP found in raw milk. The estimated dietary intake corresponded to 8% of the European Union tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.05 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1). Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were found from two and 20 samples, respectively, at low levels. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were not found in any of the samples. PMID:19680881

Kim, Meekyung; Yun, Seon Jong; Chung, Gab-Soo

2009-01-01

104

Daily Care  

MedlinePLUS

... You Need to Know Online Tools Enhancing Daily Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing Dressing & Grooming Dental Care Medical Care Working with the Doctor Treatments ...

105

A high SNR readout circuit design for TDI array with adaptive charge capacity control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a novel high SNR readout circuit for a satellite TDI array is presented. Since an input range of an IR image for environmental satellites is broad and especially the cloud top temperature (CTT) that is important in understanding phenomena of atmosphere is quite low, the readout of low temperature signal is important in satellite applications. However, the noise resulted from a readout circuit is no longer ignorable compared to a detector shot noise at low IR radiation. Hence, an adaptive charge capacity control method is proposed in this paper for an improved SNR at low temperature. It is found that SNR is improved as much as 11dB at 200K and 90% background-limited infrared photodetection (BLIP) condition is satisfied over a total input range by simulation.

Kim, Chul Bum; Hwang, Chi Ho; Lee, Yong Soo; Lee, Hee Chul

2007-05-01

106

Time delay and integration array (TDI) using charge transfer device technology. Phase 2, volume 1: Technical  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 20x9 TDI array was developed to meet the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper Requirements. This array is based upon a self-aligned, transparent gate, buried channel process. The process features: (1) buried channel, four phase, overlapping gate CCD's for high transfer efficiency without fat zero; (2) self-aligned transistors to minimize clock feedthrough and parasitic capacitance; and (3) transparent tin oxide electrode for high quantum efficiency with front surface irradiation. The requirements placed on the array and the performance achieved are summarized. This data is the result of flat field measurements only, no imaging or dynamic target measurements were made during this program. Measurements were performed with two different test stands. The bench test equipment fabricated for this program operated at the 8 micro sec line time and employed simple sampling of the gated MOSFET output video signal. The second stand employed Correlated Doubled Sampling (CDS) and operated at 79.2 micro sec line time.

1977-01-01

107

Analysis and simulation of the phenomenon of secondary spots of the TDI CCD camera irradiated by CW laser.  

PubMed

The phenomenon of secondary spots is observed in the experiment of TDI CCD camera irradiated by CW He-Ne laser. It is considered to be related to the scattering of the slit in front of the sensor and the reflection of the window of the TDI CCD chip. Additional experiments and ray tracing simulation are performed to study the mechanism of the secondary spots. The experimental and simulated results demonstrated that the scattering of the side walls of the slit is the main source of the secondary spots. Furthermore, the operation mode of rotary scanning provides the chance of scattering incident beam to the side wall of the slit. This paper will provide a preliminary hint to the optimum design of slit in camera to reduce the effects of the secondary spots to the image quality. PMID:22109414

Sun, Ke; Huang, Liangjin; Cheng, Xiang'ai; Jiang, Houman

2011-11-21

108

Reaction monitoring of toluenediisocyanate (TDI) polymerization on a non-mixable aqueous surface by MALDI mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The polymerization reaction of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and hydroxyl compounds has been widely used for the production of polyurea resins. Since the composition and molecular-weight distribution of polymer adducts greatly influence the final properties of the resuting polymer, the development of analytical tools capable of monitoring the polyaddition reactions is important to control them as well as the properties of the resuting polymer. Here we report that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) is useful to precisely monitor time-dependent dynamic events occurring in the polymerization reaction of TDI with water. For this purpose, the polymerization reactions were conducted in two different reaction systems, continuously supplying sufficient water and depleting water after an initial exposure of water to provide an anhydrous storage condition of prepolymer adducts. Samples prepared in a time course from the two different reaction systems were analyzed by a MALDI TOF mass spectrometer. The polymerization adducts of TDI and water were monitored and showed to consist of three structural types of polymer adduct series, including diisocyanate, monoamino, and diamino series. These MALDI mass data efficiently reflected changes in the reaction conditions of each TDI polymerization reaction, thereby providing precise information at the molecular level for time-dependent events occurring during the polymerization reaction. These events included changes between the polymer adduct series and in the molecular-weight distribution of each polymer adduct series. The results obtained in this study suggest that high-throughput MALDI MS-based dynamic monitoring of polymerization can be used to precisely control the polymerization reaction as well as to rapidly monitor the state of prepolymers in storage. PMID:23842412

Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Ji Seok; Kim, Sung Ho

2013-01-01

109

Analysis of the reactivity of [ 14C]toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in an isolated, perfused lung model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An isolated, perfused, guinea pig lung model was used to investigate the molecular events which occur when a 14C-labeled TDI vapor reaches the airways. Exposure concentrations of 0.2 and 0.7 ppm were tested. Perfusate composition included: Krebs Ringer buffer only, as well as buffer containing either guinea pig serum albumin, human serum albumin, or diluted guinea pig plasma. Radioactivity was

A. L. Kennedy; L. Lastbom; G. Skarping; M. Dalene; A. Ryrfeldt; P. Moldeus; W. E. Brown

1995-01-01

110

Poetry Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some might say that a poem a day isn't nearly enough, while the skeptical might say that it is quite enough already, thank you very much. Regardless of that debate, Poetry Daily is a splendid resource that brings visitors new poems from books, magazines and journals currently in print. Visitors to the site will find themselves looking straight at "Today's Poem", which of course features the daily poem, along with links to other works by the author. If one poem is simply not enough, the site also contains an archive that goes back approximately one year. Additionally, the site also contains a "News, Reviews, & Special Features" section, which digests recent news stories about the world of poetry.

111

Constitution Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyone could use a bit of the Constitution added to their daily lives, and this website more than delivers on its promise to deliver "smart conversation about the Constitution". Constitution Daily is an experimental blog edited by the National Constitution Center (NCC) in Philadelphia, and commentary here can include conversations about student privacy rights, the Second Amendment, and the activities of Congress. Visitors can click on the "Issues" section to dive into topic areas that include civility and privacy. After looking at each topic area, visitors can look at an interactive timeline that arranges comments, posts, and discussion on the subject. The site also contains some nice polls, and information about upcoming events at the NCC.

112

41 CFR 301-11.16 - What reimbursement will I receive if I prepay my lodging expenses and my TDY is curtailed...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true What reimbursement will I receive if I prepay my lodging expenses and my TDY is curtailed, canceled or interrupted for official purposes or for other reasons beyond my control that are acceptable to my agency?...

2013-07-01

113

Usual Dietary Intakes: Details of the Method  

Cancer.gov

If estimating usual intakes of nutrients (or any dietary component consumed daily), the steps are simpler because there is no need to model probability. Therefore, a two-part model is not needed in Step 1.

114

Hair protein and amino acid 13C and 15N abundances take more than 4 weeks to clearly prove influences of animal protein intake in young women with a habitual daily protein consumption of more than 1 g per kg body weight.  

PubMed

A high protein or meat intake might be a risk factor for metabolic disorders. Stable isotopic abundances (SIA) of hair can be used as biomarkers for animal protein intake due to characteristic isotopic patterns of food proteins. We investigated if an additional meat intake (M, 200 g pork fillet/day) or an omission of meat and meat products (NOM) can influence the natural (15)N and (13)C SIA within 4 weeks in hair and plasma of young women. The daily protein intake (means +/- SD) was 1.40 +/- 0.29, 2.25 +/- 0.35, and 1.15 +/- 0.26 g/kg at baseline, during M, and during NOM, respectively. At baseline the animal protein intake correlated with bulk SIA of hair ((15)N: R(2) = 0.416; (13)C: R(2) = 0.664; n = 14). However, isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) analyses have not shown that hair and plasma SIA were changed significantly after M or NOM. Possible reasons were discussed. Urinary SIA were significantly lower after M than after NOM ((15)N: p = 0.039; (13)C: p = 0.006) and close to those of pork fillet. Characteristic patterns of SIA were measured in individual amino acids (AA) by gas chromatography/combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). The results confirmed considerable differences in SIA between AA (delta(15)N, up to 22 per thousand; delta(13)C, up to 31 per thousand). Plots of (15)N versus (13)C abundances in hair revealed characteristic differences between indispensable and dispensable AA. The intervention-dependent changes of AA-specific SIA were not as clear as expected. Although the AA-specific SIA may reveal more detailed characteristics of physiological conditions, further methodological research is required. We suggest that the SIA of leucine can be potential markers of protein intake. The reliability of SIA as biomarkers of protein intake still have to be tested in longer lasting intervention studies in humans. The results may have implications in the assessment for possible benefits and risks of protein consumption. PMID:19603474

Petzke, Klaus J; Lemke, Susen

2009-08-30

115

Determinants of macronutrient intake in elderly people  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the determinants of nutritional intake may be helpful in the early detection and prevention of malnutrition. A vast amount of literature exists on factors influencing daily energy or food intake. Although far less is known about population and subject characteristics influencing the macronutrient composition of the diet, associations appear to exist with cultural factors, snacking and disease.

CPGM de Groot; WA van Staveren; C de Graaf; C PGM de Groot

2000-01-01

116

Nicotine intake by snuff users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured in 27 volunteers before and after taking snuff. Within 10 minutes after snuffing blood nicotine concentrations were comparable to those obtained after the 10 minutes or so that it takes to smoke a cigarette. Nicotine intake from snuffing was related to the experience of the snuffer. In daily and occasional snuffers increases in

M A Russell; M J Jarvis; G Devitt; C Feyerabend

1981-01-01

117

Elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts demonstrate energy and dietary intake deficiencies during periods of intense training.  

PubMed

This study determined dietary intake and energy balance of elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts during their preseason training. Forty rhythmic gymnasts and 40 sedentary age-matched females (10-12 yrs) participated in the study. Anthropometric profile and skeletal ages were determined. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed to estimate daily energy intake, daily energy expenditure, and resting metabolic rate. Groups demonstrated comparable height, bone age, pubertal development, resting metabolic rate. Gymnasts had lower body mass, BMI, body fat than age-matched controls. Although groups demonstrated comparable daily energy intake, gymnasts exhibited a higher daily energy expenditure resulting in a daily energy deficit. Gymnasts also had higher carbohydrate intake but lower fat and calcium intake. Both groups were below the recommended dietary allowances for fiber, water, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin intake. Gymnasts may need to raise their daily energy intake to avoid the energy deficit during periods of intense training. PMID:22109784

Michopoulou, Eleni; Avloniti, Alexandra; Kambas, Antonios; Leontsini, Diamanda; Michalopoulou, Maria; Tournis, Symeon; Fatouros, Ioannis G

2011-11-01

118

ESTIMATED DAILY AVERAGE PER CAPITA WATER INGESTION BY CHILD AND ADULT AGE CATEGORIES BASED ON USDA'S 1994-96 AND 1998 CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKES BY INDIVIDUALS (JOURNAL ARTICLE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Current water ingestion estimates are important for the assessment of risk to human populations of exposure to water-borne pollutants. This paper reports mean and percentile estimates of the distributions of daily average per capita water ingestion for 12 age range groups. The ...

119

Ad Libitum Water Intake by Neonatal Calves and Its Relationship to Calf Starter Intake, Weight Gain, Feces Score, and Season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water intakes and other experimental data over 3 yr encompassing 335 calves raised under an early weaning program at the Purina Research Farm were summar- ized. Water intake closely paralleled calf starter intake particularly during the last 2 wk of the 4-wk feeding period. Calves with weight gains below the median daily gain of 272 g had reduced water and

A. F. Kertz; L. F. Reutzel; J. H. Mahoney

1984-01-01

120

Tdy-negative XY, XXY and XYY female mice: breeding data and synaptonemal complex analysis.  

PubMed

In this paper we have compared the breeding performance of Tdy-negative XY, XXY and XYY females to assess the relative importance of the lack of a second X chromosome compared with the presence of a Y chromosome, in reducing fertility. The XY females were of poor fertility, although five of twelve produced at least one offspring. The XXY females had larger, more frequent litters, and a longer reproductive lifespan, implicating the lack of a second X as the major cause of the poor fertility of XY females. Nevertheless, XYY females appeared to be more seriously affected than the XY females, suggesting that the presence of the Y may be a contributory factor. Pachytene analysis demonstrated that the Y is a very inefficient pairing partner for the X during female meiosis. In XY females only 11% of pachytene cells had the X and Y paired; in XXY females the two X chromosomes paired and the Y was almost always a univalent, while in XYY females the X paired with a Y in only 15% of pachytene cells. The presence of unpaired sex chromosomes has previously been implicated as a cause of oocyte loss during pachytene, and the proportion of cells with unsynapsed sex chromosomes decreased as pachytene proceeded, suggesting that they were progressively eliminated. Significantly, protection against elimination was afforded not only by synapsis between sex chromosomes, but also by self-synapsis if a sex chromosome remained as a univalent. It is concluded that sex chromosome univalence leading to pachytene oocyte failure is responsible for the postnatal oocyte deficiency seen in XY females. A separate study has shown that XXY females have a similar level of oocyte deficiency. It is suggested that the presence of a second X chromosome improves the fertility of XXY females, compared with XY females, by improving oocyte quality and by eliminating the production of lethal XY and OY zygotes. The genotype frequencies for the offspring of XY and XYY females differed from those predicted from the pachytene data. The XY females showed a marked deficiency of XO offspring compared with XXY and XYY aneuploid offspring, whereas the XXY females had fewer than expected XXY and XYY aneuploid offspring. PMID:8464005

Mahadevaiah, S K; Lovell-Badge, R; Burgoyne, P S

1993-01-01

121

Dietary lead intake of preschool children.  

PubMed Central

A nationwide, seven-day food consumption survey of 371 preschool children between the ages of birth and five years indicated that a direct linear relationship existed between age and increased dietary lead intake from foods consumed. Daily dietary lead intake averaged 62 micrograms and ranged from 15 micrograms to 234 micrograms. The various levels of lead intake were attributed to frequency of consumption of food items, quantity of food consumed, and the lead content of particular food items. To account for variation in the quantity of food consumed by the various children, average lead intake per 500 kilocalories consumed and per 500 g of food consumed was calculated. When these standardization procedures were followed, an equalization in the average daily dietary lead intake values was observed among the various aged children.

Bander, L K; Morgan, K J; Zabik, M E

1983-01-01

122

Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure  

PubMed Central

Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To investigate these effects, 12 men were provided with an ad libitum cafeteria-style diet for 16 weeks. The macronutrient composition of the diets were covertly modified with drinks containing 2.1 MJ of predominantly carbohydrate (Hi-CHO), protein (Hi-PRO), or fat (Hi-FAT). Total energy expenditure was measured for seven days on two separate occasions (doubly labeled water and physical activity logs). Results Preprandial ghrelin concentrations were not affected by macronutrient intake, energy expenditure or energy intake (all P > 0.05). In turn, daily energy intake was significantly influenced by energy expenditure, but not ghrelin. Conclusion Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Similarly, ghrelin does not appear to affect acute or chronic energy intake under free-living conditions.

Paul, David R; Kramer, Matthew; Rhodes, Donna G; Rumpler, William V

2005-01-01

123

Calcium Intake in Middle and Upper-Income Pregnant Women Throughout the Course of Gestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average daily calcium intake from food and supplements was determined for a group of middle- and upper-income pregnant women throughout gestation. The daily calcium intake was compared to the newly developed Dietary Reference Intake - Adequate Intake (DRI–AI) of 1000mg calcium\\/day for women aged 19-50 years. Fifty-seven women were enrolled at their first prenatal visit, a 24-hour recall was

J. Moccia; B. Langkamp-Henken; M. J. Lukowski; R. E. Turner

1998-01-01

124

[Arterial hypertension and salt intake].  

PubMed

More than 25% of adult population worldwide and according to the EHUH study 37% of the adult population of Croatia have hypertension. In the last decades, a dramatic increase has been recorded in the prevalence of hypertension, and it is predicted that this trend will lead to an even higher prevalence in the near future. This could primarily be explained by strong influence of environmental factors. Many epidemiological and interventional studies have proved that high salt intake is one of the most important risk factors. High salt intake increases total peripheral vascular resistance, induces oxidative stress and inflammation, thus accelerating the atherosclerotic process. Independently of the effects on blood pressure, salt intake promotes left ventricular hypertrophy and microalbuminuria and increases the risk of stroke. Interventional studies have shown that salt intake reduction is associated with lower blood pressure and lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Reducing salt intake in daily meals should be the main measure in primary prevention of cardiovascular and renal diseases, and it should be repeatedly emphasized not only to hypertensive patients, but also to the population at large. PMID:20649075

Jelakovi?, Bojan; Vukovi?, Ivana; Reiner, Zeljko

2010-05-01

125

Contamination of food samples from Malaysia with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and estimation of human intake.  

PubMed

A total of 126 food samples, categorised into three groups (seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products) from Malaysia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The concentration of PCDD/Fs that ranged from 0.16 to 0.25 pg WHO05-TEQ g(-1) fw was found in these samples. According to the food consumption data from the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the dietary exposures to PCDD/F from seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products for the general population in Malaysia were 0.064, 0.183 and 0.736 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. However, the exposure was higher in seafood and seafood products (0.415 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and meat and meat products (0.317 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) when the data were estimated using the Malaysian food consumption statistics. The lower exposure was observed in dairy products with an estimation of 0.365 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1). Overall, these dietary exposure estimates were much lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) as recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that the dietary exposure to PCDD/F does not represent a risk for human health in Malaysia. PMID:24392728

Leong, Yin-Hui; Chiang, Pui-Nyuk; Jaafar, Hajjaj Juharullah; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

2014-04-01

126

Estimation of choline intake from 24 h dietary intake recalls and contribution of egg and milk consumption to intake among pregnant and lactating women in Alberta.  

PubMed

Despite recommendations for higher choline intakes during pregnancy and lactation, there is limited research regarding maternal intake during these important periods. In the present study, we estimated dietary choline intake during pregnancy and lactation in a population of Albertan women and the contribution of egg and milk consumption to intake. Dietary intake data were collected from the first 600 women enrolled in a prospective cohort study carried out in Alberta, Canada. During the first and/or second trimester, the third trimester and 3 months postpartum, 24 h dietary intake recall data were collected. A database was constructed including foods consumed by the cohort and used to estimate dietary choline intake. The mean total choline intake value during pregnancy was 347 (sd 149) mg/d, with 23 % of the participants meeting the adequate intake (AI) recommendation. During lactation, the mean total choline intake value was 346 (sd 151) mg/d, with 10 % of the participants meeting the AI recommendation. Phosphatidylcholine was the form of choline consumed in the highest proportion and the main dietary sources of choline were dairy products, eggs and meat. Women who consumed at least one egg in a 24 h period had higher (P< 0·001) total choline intake and were eight times more likely (95 % CI 5·2, 12·6) to meet choline intake recommendations compared with those who did not consume eggs during pregnancy. Women who reported consuming ? 500 ml of milk in a 24 h period were 2·8 times more likely (95 % CI 1·7, 4·8) to meet daily choline intake recommendations compared with those consuming < 250 ml of milk/d during pregnancy. Choline intake is below the recommendation levels in this population and the promotion of both egg and milk consumption may assist in meeting the daily choline intake recommendations. PMID:24708921

Lewis, Erin D; Subhan, Fatheema B; Bell, Rhonda C; McCargar, Linda J; Curtis, Jonathan M; Jacobs, René L; Field, Catherine J

2014-07-01

127

Prednisone as Initial Treatment of Analgesic-Induced Daily Headache  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the patients who seek medical care in tertiary headache centres present with transformed migraine, and convert to daily headache, as a result of excessive intake of symptomatic medications (SM). This study aimed to analyse the possibility of using a short course of oral prednisone for detoxifying patients with chronic daily headache due to medication overuse in an

A V Krymchantowski; J S Barbosa

2000-01-01

128

Current Trends in Food Habits and Dietary Intakes of Home Economics Students in Three Junior High Schools in Rhode Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten-day dietary records of 205 female and 73 male home economics students, 13 and 14 years of age, indicated that the males had a significantly higher intake of all nutrients except ascorbic acid. Snacks contributed more to the total daily intake of females than to that of males, and break fast contributed less than one-quarter of the daily intake for

Phyllis T. Brown; James G. Bergan; Caroline F. Murgo

1979-01-01

129

[Macronutrient and ethanol intake in Portuguese adults].  

PubMed

The evaluation of nutrient intake is essential for the definition of health policies and as guidance for the establishment of factors, which could be involved in the occurrence of disease. The study aims to describe energy, nutrients and ethanol intake and the prevalence of inadequate macronutrient intake of Portuguese adults, by gender, age and education. We collected information on 2389 adults (61.6% of women), living in Porto, Portugal, selected by random digit dialling. Dietary intake was estimated by a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, covering the previous year. Nutrient intake data was obtained using the software Food Processor Plus, adapted to Portuguese foods. The prevalence of nutrient inadequate intake was established by comparison with the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges of Dietary Reference Intakes: 10-35% (proteins), 45-65% (carbohydrates) and 20-35% (total fat). The average contribution of protein, carbohydrates, total fat and ethanol to the total daily energetic intake was 18.4%, 48.9%, 29.3% and 5.0%, respectively. The consumption of energy and macronutrients was inversely related with age and directly with education. The higher ethanol consumption was found among men with 50-64 years and less educated (= 4 years). More than 80% of the adult population of Porto reported an intake of protein, carbohydrates and total fat, according to the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges of Dietary Reference Intakes. Total fat was the macronutrient with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake (17.1% in women and 21.0% in men). PMID:18489834

Oliveira, Andreia; Lopes, Carla; Santos, Ana C; Ramos, Elisabete; Severo, Milton; Barros, Henrique

2008-01-01

130

Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population.  

PubMed

Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April 2003 to March 2004 were analysed during this study. Daily dietary intakes of 2.4 g Na and 1.2 g K were observed for Mumbai adults. Daily dietary intakes of Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Mg were 367, 1.0, 6.3, 6.7, 2.0 and 304 mg, respectively. Pb, Cd, Co and Ni intakes by Mumbai adults were 32.3, 2.2, 2.2 and 108 microg/day, respectively. From this study it has been observed that the intake of toxic metals such as Pb, Cd and Ni is much lower than the tolerable daily intake derived from PTWI given by FAO/WHO and could not be considered harmful in this group of subjects. Daily intake of the studied 12 metals was found to be higher in non-vegetarian diet compared to the vegetarian diet (P<0.02, 0.01). PMID:16054674

Raghunath, R; Tripathi, R M; Suseela, B; Bhalke, Sunil; Shukla, V K; Puranik, V D

2006-03-01

131

Near-room-temperature performance of an SWIR InGaAs/Si hybrid 96 elementx25 TDI high-performance FPA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance of a SWIR FPA targeting LANDSAT S/N levels in the near room temperature (> 220 K) is presented. The FPA consists of a 96 X 25 element InGaAs array with 48 (mu) X 48 (mu) photo-voltaic pixels bump-bonded to a Si multiplexer. Cutoff wavelength of an array is tailored from 1.68 (mu) to 2.4 (mu) . The longer cutoff is required for Band 7. The multiplexer design incorporates a CMOS CCD process and is a 96 channel X 25 TDI scanning array with pixel pitch of 48 (mu) cross track by 96 (mu) intrack. Each unit cell uses a Capacitive Trans-Impedance Amplifier) with Correlated Double Sampling. Other notable chip features include electrically selectable TDI modes (0, 1, 8, 16, and 25), forward and reverse scan, and 1 X 1 and 2 X 2 aggregation modes. Timing and biases are self generated by the multiplexer.

McKee, Richard C.; Lampe, Donald; Halvis, James; Henricks, Timothy F.; Wilson, Thomas E.; Kleinhans, William E.; Linga, Krishna R.; Lange, Michael J.

1996-06-01

132

Daily intake of trace metals through coffee consumption in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trace element contents of five varieties of instant coffee powder available in the Indian market have been analysed. Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sr, Zn and Pb, Cd, Cu have been determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, respectively. The metal levels in the coffee powders observed in this study are comparable with

B. Suseela; S. Bhalke; A. Vinod Kumar

2001-01-01

133

NEW APPROACHES IN THE DERIVATION OF ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE (ADI)  

EPA Science Inventory

Current methods for estimating human health risks from exposure to threshold-acting toxicants in water or food, such as those established by the U.S. EPA, the FDA, the NAS, the WHO and the FAO, consider only chronic or lifetime exposure to individual chemicals. These methods gene...

134

Exposure to phthalates in 5-6 years old primary school starters in Germany--a human biomonitoring study and a cumulative risk assessment.  

PubMed

We determined the internal exposure of 111 German primary school starters by analyzing urinary metabolites of six phthalates: butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-iso-decylphthalate (DiDP). From the urinary metabolite levels, we calculated daily intakes and related these values to Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values. By introducing the concept of a relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum)) value, we tried to account for the cumulative exposure to several of the above-mentioned phthalates. The TDI(cum) was derived as follows: the daily intake (DI) calculated from the metabolite level was divided by the TDI for each phthalate; this ratio was multiplied by 100% indicating the TDI percentage for which the DI accounted. Finally the % TDIs of the different phthalates were totalled to get the TDI(cum). A TDI(cum) above 100% is a potential cause for concern. We confirmed the ubiquitous exposure of the children to all phthalates investigated. Exposures were within range of levels previously reported for GerES, albeit slightly lower. Regarding daily intakes, two children exceeded the TDI for DnBP, whereas one child closely approached the TDI for DEHP. 24% of the children exceeded the TDI(cum) for the three most critical phthalates: DEHP, DnBP and DiBP. Furthermore, 54% of the children had total exposures that used up more than 50% the TDI(cum). Therefore, the overall exposure to a number of phthalates, and the knowledge that these phthalates (and other anti-androgens) act in a dose-additive manner, urgently warrants a cumulative risk assessment approach. PMID:21371937

Koch, Holger M; Wittassek, Matthias; Brüning, Thomas; Angerer, Jürgen; Heudorf, Ursel

2011-06-01

135

Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium  

PubMed Central

Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake???75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P?=?0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health consequences, interventions involving parents and school environment to promote water consumption seem pertinent.

2014-01-01

136

Daily Bladder Diary  

MedlinePLUS

... Bladder Control for Women : Daily Bladder Diary Daily Bladder Diary The following links are to pages that ... printer so that you have copies of the bladder diary. If you have Adobe's® Acrobat® Reader Software , ...

137

Daily exercise routines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

1990-01-01

138

Imaging chronic daily headache.  

PubMed

New imaging technology allows us to study neurologic disorders that have had no previous structural basis. There have been recent reports on the involvement of nociceptive pathways in daily headache. A systematic review was performed using key words "chronic daily headache" and "imaging." This paper reviews the literature on imaging studies performed on daily headache with emphasis on the new imaging technology. PMID:12720600

Aurora, Sheena K

2003-06-01

139

Food Insecurity Is not Associated With Lower Energy Intakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the association between food insecurity and total daily energy intakes in American men and women. We estimated the number of daily snacks and meals consumed by individuals in different food security categories. Also, we calculated the energy contribution, energy density, and food group sources of those snacks and meals. Using the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Claire A. Zizza; Patricia A. Duffy; Shirley A. Gerrior

2008-01-01

140

Regulation of Drug Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of drug intake refers to the maintenance of relatively constant levels of drug over a specified time period. An understanding of regulation of drug intake may be critical in determining how drugs function as reinforcers and how their reinforcing effects may be modified. However, little is known about regulation of drug intake, and the mechanisms underlying it are poorly

Wendy J. Lynch; Marilyn E. Carroll

2001-01-01

141

Assessment of Iodine in the Diet of People Living Around a Nuclear Reprocessing Plant: Dose-Related Consequences of an Intake of 129 I  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important that in radioiodine dosimetry for low levels of daily intake, allowance must be made for the normal daily intake of stable iodine. This intake varies from one region to another, and variations are observed from one person to the next within a region, depending on eating habits. Measuring iodine in the urine over 24 hours can indirectly

B. Le Guen; L. Exmelin; P. Berard; J. L. Malarbet; P. Royer

2000-01-01

142

Food intake patterns of marathon runners.  

PubMed

A group of marathon runners (290 males, 54 females, mean age 39.7 +/- 0.7 years) who participated in the Los Angeles Marathon recorded their food and fluid intake throughout a 3-day period, with the time of day denoted for each entry. Investigators coded each subject's food intake according to six time periods: 5:00-8:59 a.m., 9:00-10:59 a.m., 11:00 a.m.-1:59 p.m., 2:00-3:59 p.m., 4:00-7:59 p.m., and 8:00 p.m.-4:59 a.m. The average intake of the runners consisted of 314 +/- 6 g (52.3%) carbohydrates, 83.2 +/- 2.0 g (30.7%) fat, and 99.7 +/- 2.3 g (16.5%) protein. Time periods for breakfast (13.7%), lunch (23.8%), and supper (34.0%) accounted for 71.5% of total caloric intake, with snack time periods contributing 28.5%. Breakfast calories were 68.9 +/- 0.9% carbohydrate and 20.4 +/- 0.7% fat in contrast to supper calories, which were 47.7 +/- 0.8% and 31.8 +/- 0.6%, respectively. A sizable proportion of the daily caloric intake of recreational marathon runners is contributed by snacks and food intake after 4:00 p.m. PMID:8167651

Butterworth, D E; Nieman, D C; Butler, J V; Herring, J L

1994-03-01

143

REL2 SW DAILY  

... Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2 Shortwave Daily Data in Native Format News:  GEWEX ... Parameters:  Viewing Geometry Incoming Shortwave Radiation Radiative Flux Solar Irradiance Solar ...

2014-04-07

144

Your Health Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Your Health Daily offers daily updates on health and medical news in a well-organized and easy-to-use format. Provided by The New York Times Syndicate, Your Health Daily includes news, features, analysis and columns from a variety of news sources in the United States, Asia and Europe, including Medical Tribune News Service. Users can browse the latest news or choose from 15 "Common Topics" for articles of personal interest. A database of past medical and health articles is available and searchable by topic or keyword. The site provides links to other NYT Syndicate services such as Computer News Daily and TimesFax.

1997-01-01

145

Development of a respiratory sensitization/elicitation protocol of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in Brown Norway rats to derive an elicitation-based occupational exposure level.  

PubMed

Toluene diisocyanate (TDI), a known human asthmagen, was investigated in skin-sensitized Brown Norway rats for its concentration×time (C×t)-response relationship on elicitation-based endpoints. The major goal of study was to determine the elicitation inhalation threshold dose in sensitized, re-challenged Brown Norway rats, including the associated variables affecting the dosimetry of inhaled TDI-vapor in rats and as to how these differences can be translated to humans. Attempts were made to duplicate at least some traits of human asthma by using skin-sensitized rats which were subjected to single or multiple inhalation-escalation challenge exposures. Two types of dose-escalation protocols were used to determine the elicitation-threshold C×t; one used a variable C (Cvar) and constant t (tconst), the other a constant C (Cconst) and variable t (tvar). The selection of the "minimal irritant" C was based an ancillary pre-studies. Neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) were considered as the endpoint of choice to integrate the allergic pulmonary inflammation. These were supplemented by physiological measurements characterizing nocturnal asthma-like responses and increased nitric oxide in exhaled breath (eNO). The Cconst×tvar regimen yielded the most conclusive dose-response relationship as long C was high enough to overcome the scrubbing capacity of the upper airways. Based on ancillary pre-studies in naïve rats, the related human-equivalent respiratory tract irritant threshold concentration was estimated to be 0.09ppm. The respective 8-h time-adjusted asthma-related human-equivalent threshold C×t-product (dose), in 'asthmatic' rats, was estimated to be 0.003ppm. Both thresholds are in agreement of the current ACGIH TLV(®) of TDI and published human evidence. In summary, the findings from this animal model suggest that TDI-induced respiratory allergy is likely to be contingent on two interlinked, sequentially occurring mechanisms: first, dermal sensitizing encounters high enough to cause systemic sensitization. Second, when followed by inhalation exposure(s) high enough to initiate and amplify an allergic airway inflammation, then a progression into asthma may occur. This bioassay requires an in-depth knowledge on respiratory tract dosimetry and irritation of the involved test substance to clearly understand the dosimetry causing C- and/or C×t-dependent respiratory tract irritation and eventually asthma. PMID:24572447

Pauluhn, Jürgen

2014-05-01

146

Chronic daily headaches  

PubMed Central

Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

Ahmed, Fayyaz; Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Khalil, Modar

2012-01-01

147

[Intake of trans fats; situation in Spain].  

PubMed

Current nutritional recommendations include decreasing the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA), since there exists sufficient scientific evidence of its influence to cardiovascular disease. During the last decades, in many European countries the TFA intake has considerably decreased through the established legislation and changes in the technological processes developed by the food industry. In Spain, just 2.1 g/day, a 0.7% of the daily energy intake comes from TFA, a lower value than the recommended maximum (<1%), according to data from TRANSFAIR study. The TFA content of processed products such as margarines, factory-baked goods and etc, has declined over recent years and is less than 1% in more than 90% of all these products in Spain. However, it is necessary to develop and implement regulations, governing the TFA content in the products sold in our country, in which there should be the requirement to include this information in the label too. PMID:24679011

Riobó, Pilar; Breton, Irene

2014-04-01

148

Contribution of snacking to older adults' vitamin, carotenoid, and mineral intakes.  

PubMed

Decreased food and beverage consumption among older adults can lead to inadequate intakes of energy and numerous micronutrients. Although older adults are prone to having inadequate diets, little research attention has been directed at their dietary behaviors, such as snacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between snacking frequency and older adults' daily intakes of vitamins, carotenoids, and minerals. Cross-sectional data for 2,056 older adults (65 years and older) from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used for this study. Dietary data were collected through two 24-hour dietary recall interviews. Participants' snacking occasions and daily nutrient intakes were averaged during the two 24-hour recalls. Using linear regression models to adjust for multiple covariates, mean vitamin, carotenoid, and mineral intakes by snacking category were estimated. As snacking frequency increased, daily intakes of vitamins A, C, and E and beta carotene increased. Older adults' daily intakes of magnesium, copper, and potassium also increased as snacking frequency increased. As older adults' snacking frequency increased, their daily intake of selenium decreased, and their snacking frequency was not associated with their daily intakes of the B-complex vitamins, vitamin K, lycopene, phosphorus, iron, and zinc. Providing healthy snacks on a regular basis has practical implications for institutions, centers, or organizations that serve older adults; however, nutritional benefits obtained from snack food and beverages warrant their inclusion in older adults' diet. PMID:20430139

Zizza, Claire A; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Ellison, Kathy Jo

2010-05-01

149

[Salt intake in children].  

PubMed

Very early in life, sodium intake correlates with blood pressure level. This warrants limiting the consumption of sodium by children. However, evidence regarding exact sodium requirements in that age range is lacking. This article focuses on the desirable sodium intake according to age as suggested by various groups of experts, on the levels of sodium intake recorded in consumption surveys, and on the public health strategies implemented to reduce salt consumption in the pediatric population. Practical recommendations are given by the Committee on nutrition of the French Society of Pediatrics in order to limit salt intake in children. PMID:24686038

Girardet, J-P; Rieu, D; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Hankard, R; Goulet, O; Simeoni, U; Turck, D; Vidailhet, M

2014-05-01

150

Assessment of dietary intake of patients with irritable bowel syndrome.  

PubMed

The dietary intake of patients with irritable bowel syndrome was assessed using 24-h dietary recall. The energy value and nutrient contents in the daily food rations were calculated by Nutritionist IV computer program with the Polish database. Differentiations in the Polish RDA coverage for energy and nutrients were observed in the studied group. Fat, saturated fatty acid, phosphorus and also vitamin A, E and C contents were above the RDA in the patients' daily food ration. The majority of IBS individuals did not meet recommendations for carbohydrate intake. Calcium and cooper intake was below the Polish RDA. The insufficient vitamin B2 intake and excessive Fe supply have been shown in the male patients. PMID:19803452

Prescha, Anna; Pieczy?ska, Joanna; Ilow, Rafa?; Poreba, Joanna; Neubauer, Katarzyna; Smereka, Adam; Grajeta, Halina; Biernat, Jadwiga; Paradowski, Leszek

2009-01-01

151

Total energy intake, adolescent discretionary behaviors and the energy gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To estimate total energy intake and the energy gap—the daily imbalance between energy intake and expenditure—associated with discretionary behaviors of adolescents, namely their leisure active behaviors (playing or participating in sports and heavy chores), leisure sedentary behaviors (television (TV) viewing and playing video and computer games), productive sedentary behaviors (reading or doing homework).Design:Prospective observational study.Participants:A total of 538 students (mean

K R Sonneville; S L Gortmaker

2008-01-01

152

EFFECT OF CORN DENSITY ON GROWING STEER INTAKE AND PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low corn density resulting from insufficient growing degree days on the intake and performance of growing steers. Increasing inclusion of low-density corn did not affect dry-matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) or dietary net energy gain NEg, but the feed-to-gain ratio (F: G) was improved. Low-density corn is

D. M. Larson; M. L. Bauer; G. P. Lardy

153

Shaundra Bryant Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from Science City, Shaundra Bryant Daily, an electrical engineer, describes a software program she developed to help girls reflect on their emotions, and how her two passions—science and dance—are connected.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-09-18

154

Usual Intake of Yogurt  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Yogurt Table A35. Yogurt: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1 (0.01) 0.0 (0.00) 0.0

155

Usual Intake of Energy  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Energy Table A44. Energy: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1426.1 (17.93) 963.7 (18.47) 1052.5

156

Usual Intake of Cheese  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Cheese Table A36. Cheese: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.4 (0.03) 0.1 (0.02) 0.1

157

Usual Intake of Poultry  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Poultry Table A26. Poultry: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.9 (0.03) 0.3 (0.05) 0.4

158

Usual Intake of Tomatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Tomatoes Table A10. Tomatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1 (0.01) 0.1

159

Engine air intake valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses, in combination with an internal combustion engine, a system for regulating engine speed by regulating the air flow across a throttle valve in an air intake passage. It comprises an engine air intake valve and means of sensing an operating variable representative of engine speed and sending an electrical signal representative of the engine speed to the

1990-01-01

160

Absorption, excretion, and retention of selenium from a high selenium yeast in men with a high intake of selenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of selenium (Se) from yeast given to humans with a habitual long-term daily intake at a supra-nutritional level. Methods: Twelve healthy males with a daily supplemental intake of 300 mg Se as selenised yeast over 10 weeks were supplemented with a single dose of 327

Susanne Bügel; Erik H. Larsen; Jens J. Sloth; Knut Flytlie; Kim Overvad; Lars C. Steenberg; Sven Moesgaard

2008-01-01

161

Daily Food Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will find daily food recommendations based upon their age, weight, height, and activity level. Standard 2 Objective1: a,b,c It is helpful to have a guide that can give us directions on the type and quantity of foods we should eat daily. Lets first view the basics of our food groups. Click the Food Group Basics link below and see if you can answer the questions provided. Food Group Basics What is the ...

Peterson, Mr.

2011-09-18

162

Ad libitum water intake by neonatal calves and its relationship to calf starter intake, weight gain, feces score, and season.  

PubMed

Water intakes and other experimental data over 3 yr encompassing 335 calves raised under an early weaning program at the Purina Research Farm were summarized. Water intake closely paralleled calf starter intake particularly during the last 2 wk of the 4-wk feeding period. Calves with weight gains below the median daily gain of 272 g had reduced water and starter intake. Scouring, due apparently to rotavirus infection, peaked at the end of the 1st wk. Water intake did not change appreciably prior to or after peak scouring. Season of year had minor effect on both water and starter intake. In a feeding study with 41 calves, weight gain was reduced by 38% and starter intake by 31% for calves deprived of water. Extent and duration of scouring did not differ between treatments. Calf feeding and management systems should include ad libitum water to maximize starter intake and weight gain. There is no evidence that scouring will be affected negatively by water intake. PMID:6530492

Kertz, A F; Reutzel, L F; Mahoney, J H

1984-12-01

163

Calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium intakes in Japanese children aged 3 to 5 years.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate in preschool children the intakes of Ca, Mg that possibly affect health and tooth formation and the intakes of K and Na that may affect lifestyle-related diseases. Information on dietary intake was collected from 90 preschool children (15 boys and 15 girls each in the 3-, 4- and 5-year old groups) on 3 separate days in the school fiscal year 1999 (April 1999 to March 2000) by the duplicate-diet technique. The Ca, Mg, K, and Na concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry using wet-ashed samples. The medians of mean daily intakes of Ca, Mg, K and Na in 3- to 5-year-old children were 432 mg, 110 mg, 1.18 g and 1.60 g, respectively, and no significant differences with regard to gender were observed. Seasonal varia-tion of intake was seen for each mineral. Calcium intake in most preschool children did not meet adequate intake (AI), probably due to low intakes of milk and dairy products in Japan. Magnesium intake was below the estimated average requirement (EAR) in 13.3% of the subjects, while the K intake met the AI. Sodium intake in a quarter of preschool children exceeded the tentative dietary goal. We concluded that in Japanese children aged 3-5 years; Ca intake is low, Na intake is high, and K intake is adequate, but some children could be at risk for Mg deficiency. PMID:18818164

Shibata, Tomiko; Murakami, Taeko; Nakagaki, Haruo; Narita, Naoki; Goshima, Miho; Sugiyama, Tomoko; Nishimuta, Mamoru

2008-01-01

164

Access to food outlets and children's nutritional intake in urban China: a difference-in-difference analysis  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years supermarkets and fast food restaurants have been replacing those “wet markets” of independent vendors as the major food sources in urban China. Yet how these food outlets relate to children’s nutritional intake remains largely unexplored. Method Using a longitudinal survey of households and communities in China, this study examines the effect of the urban built food environment (density of wet markets, density of supermarkets, and density of fast food restaurants) on children’s nutritional intake (daily caloric intake, daily carbohydrate intake, daily protein intake, and daily fat intake). Children aged 6–18 (n?=?185) living in cities were followed from 2004 to 2006, and difference-in-difference models are used to address the potential issue of omitted variable bias. Results Results suggest that the density of wet markets, rather than that of supermarkets, positively predicts children’s four dimensions of nutritional intake. In the caloric intake model and the fat intake model, the positive effect of neighborhood wet market density on children’s nutritional intake is stronger with children from households of lower income. Conclusion With their cheaper prices and/or fresher food supply, wet markets are likely to contribute a substantial amount of nutritional intake for children living nearby, especially those in households with lower socioeconomic status. For health officials and urban planners, this study signals a sign of warning as wet markets are disappearing from urban China’s food environment.

2012-01-01

165

Diurnal Triglyceridemia in Relation to Alcohol Intake in Men  

PubMed Central

Fasting and postprandial triglyceride concentrations largely depend on dietary and lifestyle factors. Alcohol intake is associated with triglycerides, but the effect of alcohol on diurnal triglyceridemia in a free living situation is unknown. During three days, 139 men (range: 18–80 years) measured their own capillary triglyceride (cTG) concentrations daily on six fixed time-points before and after meals, and the total daily alcohol intake was recorded. The impact of daily alcohol intake (none; low, <10 g/day; moderate, 10–30 g/day; high, >30 g/day) on diurnal triglyceridemia was analyzed by the incremental area under the cTG curve (?cTG-AUC) reflecting the mean of the six different time-points. Fasting cTG were similar between the alcohol groups, but a trend of increased cTG was observed in men with moderate and high alcohol intake after dinner and at bedtime (p for trend <0.001) which persisted after adjustment for age, smoking and body mass index. The ?cTG-AUC was significantly lower in males with low alcohol intake (3.0 ± 1.9 mmol·h/L) (n = 27) compared to males with no (7.0 ± 1.8 mmol·h/L) (n = 34), moderate (6.5 ± 1.8 mmol·h/L) (n = 54) or high alcohol intake (7.2 ± 2.2 mmol·h/L) (n = 24), when adjusted for age, smoking and body mass index (adjusted p value < 0.05). In males, low alcohol intake was associated with decreased diurnal triglyceridemia, whereas moderate and high alcohol intake was associated with increased triglycerides after dinner and at bed time.

Torres do Rego, Ana; Klop, Boudewijn; Birnie, Erwin; Elte, Jan Willem F.; Cachofeiro Ramos, Victoria; Alvarez-Sala Walther, Luis A.; Castro Cabezas, Manuel

2013-01-01

166

Usual Intake of Milk  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Milk Table A34. Milk: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1.9 (0.05) 0.7 (0.07) 0.9 (0.05) 1.3

167

Usual Intake of Eggs  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Eggs Table A28. Eggs: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.4 (0.03) 0.1 (0.02) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2

168

Usual Intake of Meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Meat Table A24. Meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.5 (0.04) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2 (0.03) 0.3

169

Usual Intake of Oils  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Oils Table A37. Oils: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 grams Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 11.3 (0.36) 5.2 (0.40) 6.2 (0.38) 8.2

170

Capitol Watch Daily News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Capitol Watch On Line offers content on what's going on in the nations capital daily. A dozen or more headline stories plus a special interests section and links to the Federal News Service and other government sites. "Live chat with candidates and the leaders of our nation" is promised to be coming in 2 weeks.

1999-01-01

171

Single daily oral dose of gemfibrozil reduces postprandial hyperlipidemia in hyperlipidemic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed the effects of a single daily oral dose (900 mg) of gemfibrozil on fasting and postprandial lipids in hyperlipidemic patients. In 13 patients with hypercholesterolemia or mixed hyperlipidemia, the intake of a single daily dose (900mg) of gemfibrozil for 3 weeks reduced the plasma concentration of total cholesterol (15 ± 7%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (9 ± 18%),

Olivier Descamps; Jean-Claude Hondekijn; Thierry Godrie; Jean-Pierre Desager; Francis R. Heller

1998-01-01

172

Health outcomes following treatment for six months with once daily tiotropium compared with twice daily salmeterol in patients with COPD  

PubMed Central

Background: A study was undertaken to record exacerbations and health resource use in patients with COPD during 6 months of treatment with tiotropium, salmeterol, or matching placebos. Methods: Patients with COPD were enrolled in two 6-month randomised, placebo controlled, double blind, double dummy studies of tiotropium 18 µg once daily via HandiHaler or salmeterol 50 µg twice daily via a metered dose inhaler. The two trials were combined for analysis of heath outcomes consisting of exacerbations, health resource use, dyspnoea (assessed by the transitional dyspnoea index, TDI), health related quality of life (assessed by St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, SGRQ), and spirometry. Results: 1207 patients participated in the study (tiotropium 402, salmeterol 405, placebo 400). Compared with placebo, tiotropium but not salmeterol was associated with a significant delay in the time to onset of the first exacerbation. Fewer COPD exacerbations/patient year occurred in the tiotropium group (1.07) than in the placebo group (1.49, p<0.05); the salmeterol group (1.23 events/year) did not differ from placebo. The tiotropium group had 0.10 hospital admissions per patient year for COPD exacerbations compared with 0.17 for salmeterol and 0.15 for placebo (not statistically different). For all causes (respiratory and non-respiratory) tiotropium, but not salmeterol, was associated with fewer hospital admissions while both groups had fewer days in hospital than the placebo group. The number of days during which patients were unable to perform their usual daily activities was lowest in the tiotropium group (tiotropium 8.3 (0.8), salmeterol 11.1 (0.8), placebo 10.9 (0.8), p<0.05). SGRQ total score improved by 4.2 (0.7), 2.8 (0.7) and 1.5 (0.7) units during the 6 month trial for the tiotropium, salmeterol and placebo groups, respectively (p<0.01 tiotropium v placebo). Compared with placebo, TDI focal score improved in both the tiotropium group (1.1 (0.3) units, p<0.001) and the salmeterol group (0.7 (0.3) units, p<0.05). Evaluation of morning pre-dose FEV1, peak FEV1 and mean FEV1 (0–3 hours) showed that tiotropium was superior to salmeterol while both active drugs were more effective than placebo. Conclusions: Exacerbations of COPD and health resource usage were positively affected by daily treatment with tiotropium. With the exception of the number of hospital days associated with all causes, salmeterol twice daily resulted in no significant changes compared with placebo. Tiotropium also improved health related quality of life, dyspnoea, and lung function in patients with COPD.

Brusasco, V; Hodder, R; Miravitlles, M; Korducki, L; Towse, L; Kesten, S

2003-01-01

173

FAT EMULSION COMPOSITION ALTERS INTAKE AND THE EFFECTS OF BACLOFEN  

PubMed Central

Thickened oil-in-water emulsions are useful model foods in rat studies due to their high acceptance and similarity to foods consumed by humans. Previous work from this laboratory used oil-in-water emulsions thickened with a biopolymer blend containing starch. Intake and effects of baclofen, a GABA-B agonist that decreases fat intake and drug self-administration, were reported, but the contribution of starch was not assessed. In the present study, intake and effects of baclofen were assessed in rats using emulsions prepared with two fat types (32% vegetable shortening, 32% corn oil) and thickened with three biopolymer blends. One biopolymer blend contained starch and the other two did not. Daily 1-h intake of the vegetable shortening emulsion containing starch was significantly greater than the other emulsions. When starch was added to the emulsions originally containing no starch, intake significantly increased. Baclofen generally reduced intake of all emulsions regardless of starch content and stimulated intake of chow. However, effects were more often significant for vegetable shortening emulsions. This report: 1) demonstrates that products used to prepare thickened oil-in-water emulsions have significant effects on rat ingestive behavior, and 2) confirms the ability of baclofen to reduce consumption of fatty foods, while simultaneously stimulating intake of chow.

Wang, Y; Wilt, DC; Wojnicki, FHE; Babbs, RK; Coupland, JN; Corwin, RLC

2011-01-01

174

Ontogenetic changes in food intake and digestion rate of the herbivorous marine iguana ( Amblyrhynchus cristatus , Bell)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young reptiles have higher relative energy demands than adults, but the proposed ontogenetic changes in diet to fulfil these demands were not found in the algae-eating Galápagos marine iguanas on Santa Fé. Feeding and digestion rates were investigated to analyse how young achieve higher energy intake. Daily food intake of free ranging marine iguana hatchlings (6–11 months old) was about

M. Wikelski; B. Gall; F. Trillmich

1993-01-01

175

Physical activity, muscle strength, and calcium intake in fracture of the proximal femur in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular exercise and high calcium intake possibly help to preserve bone mass. Little is known, however, about their role in preventing hip fracture. The physical activity and calcium intake of 300 elderly men and women with hip fractures were compared with those of 600 controls matched for age and sex. In both sexes increased daily activity, including standing, walking, climbing

C. Cooper; D. J. Barker; C. Wickham

1988-01-01

176

Effects of Milk or Water on Lunch Intake in Preschool Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Sweden, milk and milk products are important sources of daily energy intake but the role of milk with preschool lunch meals has been debated frequently and water is often alternatively given today. We studied the effects of milk or water on lunch energy intake. Water or milk alternatively was served in a controlled, within-subject design on 12 occasions to

ANNA HÄGG; TOMMY JACOBSON; GERHARD NORDLUND; STEPHAN RÖSSNER

1998-01-01

177

Relationship between calculated dietary and crude fiber intakes of 200 college students?3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred college students recorded dietary intakes for 2 consecutive days. Records were analyzed for 12 nutrients, and crude (CF) and dietary fiber (DF). Means of the 2 days were calculated to represent the daily intake of each student. The crude and dietary fiber provided by cereals and legumes. vegetables, fruits, and miscellaneous sources were determined for a subpopulation of

Judith A. Marlett; Ronda L. Bokram

1981-01-01

178

Australian Food Sources and Intakes of Omega–6 and Omega–3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Both ?–6 and ?–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are recognised as essential nutrients in the human diet, yet we have little information on the extent to which different food sources contribute to their intake. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the daily intakes and food sources of ?–6 and ?–3 PUFAs in our local community. Methods:

Tennille E. Ollis; Barbara J. Meyer; Peter R. C. Howe

1999-01-01

179

Anabolic androgenic steroids affects alcohol intake, defensive behaviors and brain opioid peptides in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated whether a relationship exists between nandrolone decanoate and voluntary ethanol intake in laboratory rats. Animals were subjected to daily subcutaneous injections with nandrolone decanoate (15 mg\\/kg) during 2 weeks. One group of animals was tested for voluntary alcohol intake 1 week after the end of the 2-week treatment period and another group received alcohol 3 weeks

Pia Johansson; Ann-Sophie Lindqvist; Fred Nyberg; Claudia Fahlke

2000-01-01

180

Feed intake of sheep when allowed ad libitum access to feed in methane respiration chambers.  

PubMed

The patterns of feed intake when animals are allowed ad libitum access to feed in a respiration chamber is not known, nor are the potential effects of the artificial environment of chambers on voluntary feed intake. The objectives of the study were to describe the pattern of hourly feed intake of sheep when fed for ad libitum intake in respiration chambers and determine the repeatability of this pattern and the correlation between feed intake and methane production calculated at hourly intervals. Daily and hourly measurements of methane production and feed intake of 47 Merino wethers were measured in respiration chambers twice, 4 wk apart. We found that hourly feed intake of sheep with ad libitum access to feed in respiration chambers showed a repeatable pattern over the 2 measurement periods (r = 0.89, P < 0.001). During both measurements, sheep ate continuously throughout the 23 h period, but most of the eating occurred during the first 8 h in the respiration chambers. There was a significant linear correlation (r = 0.22) between hourly feed intake and hourly methane production (P < 0.001). An unexpected result from this study was that despite using an accepted and published acclimatization procedure to habituate the animals to the respiration chambers, sheep had 15 to 25% lower feed intake in the respiration chambers compared with their feed intake during the previous week in the animal house pens. In addition, daily feed intake in the respiration chamber was not correlated with feed intake in any of the 7 d before entering the chamber (P > 0.05). Future methane research may consider using feed intake and changes in intake levels as a quantitative indicator of habituation to the methane measurement procedure and environment, which, given the tight association between feed intake and methane production, will be crucial in providing accurate values for methane production. PMID:24663203

Bickell, S L; Revell, D K; Toovey, A F; Vercoe, P E

2014-05-01

181

Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April

R. Raghunath; R. M. Tripathi; B. Suseela; Sunil Bhalke; V. K. Shukla; V. D. Puranik

2006-01-01

182

NOAA Daily Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

Center, Hydrometeorological P.

2011-01-01

183

Daily Food Checklist  

Cancer.gov

The daily food checklist method is a form of food record. The tool is comprised of a list of foods; over the course of a day, a respondent makes a check beside a food each time she or he eats it. The checklist shares an advantage of other record methods in that it does not rely on memory. In addition, it avoids some disadvantages of complete quantitative food records in that it has relatively low respondent and investigator burden.

184

Annual feedback is an effective tool for a sustained increase in calcium intake among older women.  

PubMed

We aimed to optimize calcium intake among the 2,000+ older women taking part in the Vital D study. Calcium supplementation was not included in the study protocol. Our hypothesis was that annual feedback of calcium intake and informing women of strategies to improve calcium intake can lead to a sustained increase in the proportion of women who consume adequate levels of the mineral. Calcium intake was assessed on an annual basis using a validated short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Supplemental calcium intake was added to the dietary estimate. Participants and their nominated doctor were sent a letter that the participant's estimated daily calcium intake was adequate or inadequate based on a cutoff threshold of 800 mg/day. General brief statements outlining the importance of an adequate calcium intake and bone health were included in all letters. At baseline, the median daily consumption of calcium was 980 mg/day and 67 percent of 1,951 participants had calcium intake of at least 800 mg per day. Of the 644 older women advised of an inadequate calcium intake at baseline (<800 mg/day), 386 (60%) had increased their intake by at least 100 mg/day when re-assessed twelve months later. This desirable change was sustained at 24 months after baseline with almost half of these women (303/644) consuming over 800 mg calcium per day. This study devised an efficient method to provide feedback on calcium intake to over 2,000 older women. The improvements were modest but significant and most apparent in those with a low intake at baseline. The decreased proportion of these women with an inadequate intake of calcium 12- and 24-months later, suggests this might be a practical, low cost strategy to maintain an adequate calcium intake among older women. PMID:22254070

Sanders, Kerrie M; Stuart, Amanda L; Kotowicz, Mark A; Nicholson, Geoffrey C

2010-09-01

185

A review of the dietary intakes of chemical contaminants*  

PubMed Central

Data on the dietary intakes of certain contaminants have been received from eleven collaborating centres participating in the Joint FAO/WHO Food Contamination Monitoring Programme. The data cover the period from 1971 to 1983 and include information on the intakes of a series of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, cadmium, lead, and aflatoxins. When compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) or provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of the pesticides/contaminants in question, the data indicate that, in some countries, the exposure to certain organochlorine pesticides may constitute a significant portion ofthe ADI. Because of the concentration of these compounds in the fatty portions of food, a high animal fat intake will increase the dietary exposure to organochlorine compounds Dietary intakes of cadmium and lead constitute an appreciable percentage oft he PTWI for these two contaminants. As the intakes of cadmium and lead per kilogram of body weight are highest for infants and children, every effort should be made to reduce the levels of these two contaminants in the food supply.

Gorchev, H. Galal; Jelinek, Charles F.

1985-01-01

186

Dietary Macronutrient Intake and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Women  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine associations between macronutrient and total energy intakes with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in women. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 2,060 women aged 30–79 years in the population-based Boston Area Community Health Survey (2002–2005). Data were collected by validated food frequency questionnaire and in-person interviews. Outcomes for multivariate logistic regression were moderate-to-severe total LUTS, storage, voiding, and post-micturition symptoms. Results Greater total energy intake was positively associated with LUTS, specifically among women with lower waist circumferences (<76 cm, P=0.005, pinteraction=0.01). Increased saturated fat intake was associated with post-micturition symptoms (Quintile 5 vs. 1, OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.57, 9.89, ptrend =0.04). High protein intake was positively associated with storage symptoms (ptrend =0.03), particularly nocturia. No consistent associations were observed for carbohydrate, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat intakes. Conclusions Among women with low waist circumferences, high total daily calorie intake was associated with moderate-to-severe LUTS. While greater saturated fat intake was linked to post-micturition symptoms, the possibility that post-micturition symptoms in women represent more extensive or severe conditions should be explored in future research. These novel results indicate that dietary contributors to LUTS in women are distinct from those in men and may depend on symptom subtype and body size.

Maserejian, Nancy N.; McVary, Kevin T.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; McKinlay, John B.

2011-01-01

187

Seasonal Variation in the Voluntary Food Intake of Domesticated Cats (Felis Catus)  

PubMed Central

There are numerous reports about seasonal cycles on food intake in animals but information is limited in dogs and cats. A 4-year prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted to assess differences in food intake in 38 ad-libitum-fed adult colony cats, of various breeds, ages and genders. Individual food intake was recorded on a daily basis, and the mean daily intake for each calendar month was calculated. These data were compared with climatic data (temperature and daylight length) for the region in the South of France where the study was performed. Data were analysed using both conventional statistical methods and by modelling using artificial neural networks (ANN). Irrespective of year, an effect of month was evident on food intake (P<0.001), with three periods of broadly differing intake. Food intake was least in the summer months (e.g. June, to August), and greatest during the months of late autumn and winter (e.g. October to February), with intermediate intake in the spring (e.g. March to May) and early autumn (e.g. September). A seasonal effect on bodyweight was not recorded. Periods of peak and trough food intake coincided with peaks and troughs in both temperature and daylight length. In conclusion, average food intake in summer is approximately 15% less than food intake during the winter months, and is likely to be due to the effects of outside temperatures and differences in daylight length. This seasonal effect in food intake should be properly considered when estimating daily maintenance energy requirements in cats.

Serisier, Samuel; Feugier, Alexandre; Delmotte, Sebastien; Biourge, Vincent; German, Alexander James

2014-01-01

188

POROUS DIKE INTAKE EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of a porous dike intake. A small-scale test facility was constructed and continuously operated for 2 years under field conditions. Two stone dikes of gabion construction were tested: one consisted of 7.5 cm stones; and the other, 20 cm st...

189

Peptides and food intake.  

PubMed

The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

2014-01-01

190

Peptides and Food Intake  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei.

Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aranzazu; Puebla Jimenez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

2014-01-01

191

Effect on Blood Pressure of Daily Lemon Ingestion and Walking  

PubMed Central

Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon) has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (?%) of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure ?%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration ?% and the number of steps with blood pressure ?%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms.

Domoto, Tokio; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Katagiri, Takao; Sato, Kimiko; Miyake, Yukiko; Aoi, Satomi; Ishihara, Katsuhide; Ikeda, Hiromi; Umei, Namiko; Takigawa, Atsusi; Harada, Toshihide

2014-01-01

192

Effect on blood pressure of daily lemon ingestion and walking.  

PubMed

Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon) has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (?%) of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure ?%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration ?% and the number of steps with blood pressure ?%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms. PMID:24818015

Kato, Yoji; Domoto, Tokio; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Katagiri, Takao; Sato, Kimiko; Miyake, Yukiko; Aoi, Satomi; Ishihara, Katsuhide; Ikeda, Hiromi; Umei, Namiko; Takigawa, Atsusi; Harada, Toshihide

2014-01-01

193

School Lunch Contribution to Nutritional Intake of Low Income West Virginia Sixth Graders  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe compliance of consumed school lunches to nutrient goals and the strengths and weaknesses of lunch contributions to total daily intakes of 6th graders from low income areas of West Virginia.The purpose of this study was to assess compliance of the consumed school lunch (SL) to nutrient goals and to identify SL contributions to the daily nutritional

W. L. Stuhldreher

1996-01-01

194

Dietary intake of Senegalese adults  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.

2010-01-01

195

Art & Letters Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users wishing quick and easy access to some of the best writing online will want to examine this site. Art & Letters Daily, updated six days per week, offers links to articles, new book notices and reviews, and essays and opinion pieces in all fields of the humanities. The does not site provide original content, but rather mines a wide array of online newspapers, journals, and other publications and offers links with very brief introductions to the "precious nuggets of real content" on the Web. In addition, the site provides a linked list of the publications and columnists used to glean the reports as well as an archive of past features. Certainly few users will find all of the pieces interesting or pertinent, but the quantity and variety of content and the frequency with which it is updated guarantee that there will be something for almost anyone.

196

AstronomyDaily.Com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy Daily.Com offers real time astronomical data tailored to the viewer's location and time zone. The personalized front page presents a chart of tonight's sky. Diagrams allow users to view the planets in their orbits. Educators and students can find images of today's moon and its phase on the calendar, plus data dealing with its current position and its physical and orbital characteristics. Phil Harrington, a supervisor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, provides two monthly articles; the first assesses a phenomenon in the sky that can be observed with binoculars and the second discusses a phenomenon in the Deep Sky. Viewers can also participate in many discussion forums with other interested astronomers. Although users are required to register in order to view the customized site, no personal identification is requested. This site is also reviewed in the October 3, 2003 NSDL Physical Sciences Report.

197

Math in Daily Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are your odds of hitting it big at the casino? Should you buy or lease a car? How much will you have when you retire? All of these questions involve math, and this latest addition to the Annenberg Media Projects Learner Online site (described in the September 12, 1997 Scout Report) explores the use of basic mathematical concepts in daily decision-making. The exhibit is divided into several topical sections exploring probability and gambling, compound interest and credit cards, population growth, geometry in the home, and ratios and recipes. In addition to an overview of the topic, each section offers several links to selected related sites and online tools, and two feature interactive learning activities.

1998-01-01

198

Association between dietary intake and seasonal variations in postmenopausal women  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence supports that increasing number of postmenopausal women are suffering from one or more chronic diseases. Dietary patterns have a pivotal role in maintaining human health. The aim of this study was to characterize the nutrients and energy intake in postmenopausal women, with the special focus on seasonal variation effect in their food intake. Methods The study population consisted of 30 postmenopausal women referred to Dr. Shariati Hospital, Tehran (Iran). Socio-demographic characteristics and BMI were registered. Dietary assessment was performed by a 3 day food records in each season through one year, allowing the estimation of energy, protein, carbohydrate, total fat, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake. The mean of nutrient intake in each season was adjusted for energy intake. The effect of season on energy and nutrients intake was assessed based on the General linear model (GLM). Results The mean of daily intake of vitamin C, B, B2, B12, iron, zinc, phosphorus and chromium was significantly higher than Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDAs ) (p?intake was not different between seasons. However, the mean intake of fat, vitamin C, vitamin K and folate was significantly different between seasons. Conclusion These findings highlight some nutrients deficiency in postmenopausal women and therefore suggest nutritional education with emphasis on seasonal variation effect.

2014-01-01

199

Relation between calcium intake and fat oxidation in adult humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine if total calcium (Ca2+) intake and intake of Ca2+ from dairy sources are related to whole-body fat oxidation.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SUBJECTS: A total of 35 (21 m, 14 f) non-obese, healthy adults (mean±s.d., age: 31±6 y; weight: 71.2±12.3 kg; BMI: 23.7±2.9 kg m?2; body fat: 21.4±5.4%).MEASUREMENTS: Daily (24 h) energy expenditure (EE) and macronutrient oxidation using whole-room indirect

E L Melanson; T A Sharp; J Schneider; W T Donahoo; G K Grunwald; J O Hill

2003-01-01

200

Dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent female aesthetic athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent girls competing in 3 aesthetic sports (artistic and rhythmic gymnastics and ballet). Because physiological demands of ballet training are similar to those in other aesthetic sports, ballet dancers were, for the purpose of this study, regarded as athletes. The sample consisted of 39 athletes (median age, 11 years, range 9-13) and 15 controls (median age, 11 years, range 10-12). Dietary intake was assessed using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and body composition, by means of anthropometry. There was no significant difference in total energy intake between groups, but there was a significant difference in energy substrate distribution. Artistic gymnasts reported significantly higher carbohydrate and lower fat contribution to total energy (57% +/- 6% and 29% +/- 5%, respectively) than rhythmic gymnasts (48% +/- 6% and 36% +/- 5%), ballet dancers (51% +/- 4% and 34% +/- 3%), or controls (51% +/- 5% and 34% +/- 4%). Relative to body weight, artistic gymnasts reported higher intake of carbohydrates (9.1 +/- 4.2 g/kg) than rhythmic gymnasts (5.6 +/- 3.1 g/kg), ballet dancers (6.6 +/- 2.5 g/kg), or controls (5.4 +/- 1.9 g/kg). Artistic gymnasts also had the lowest body-fat percentage among the groups. In all the groups mean reported daily intakes of most nutrients were higher than the current daily recommended intakes. The exceptions were dietary fiber and calcium. The proportion of athletes with an inadequate reported intake was highest for phosphorus (33%), followed by vitamin A and niacin (18%) and zinc (13%). PMID:18562778

Soric, Maroje; Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Pedisic, Zeljko

2008-06-01

201

Skipping meals and alcohol consumption. The regulation of energy intake and expenditure among weight loss participants.  

PubMed

Research suggests that specific eating patterns (e.g., eating breakfast) may be related to favorable weight status. This investigation examined the relationship between eating patterns (i.e., skipping meals; consuming alcohol) and weight loss treatment outcomes (weight loss, energy intake, energy expenditure, and duration of exercise). Fifty-four overweight or obese adults (BMI> or =27 kg/m(2)) participated in a self-help or therapist-assisted weight loss program. Daily energy intake from breakfast, lunch, dinner, and alcoholic beverages, total daily energy intake, total daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weekly weight loss were assessed. On days that breakfast or dinner was skipped, or alcoholic beverages were not consumed, less total daily energy was consumed compared to days that breakfast, dinner, or alcoholic beverages were consumed. On days that breakfast or alcohol was consumed, daily energy expenditure (breakfast only) and duration of exercise were higher compared to days that breakfast or alcohol was not consumed. Individuals who skipped dinner or lunch more often had lower energy expenditure and exercise duration than individuals who skipped dinner or lunch less often. Individuals who consumed alcohol more often had high daily energy expenditure than individuals who consumed alcohol less often. Skipping meals or consuming alcoholic beverages was not associated with weekly weight loss. In this investigation, weight loss program participants may have compensated for excess energy intake from alcoholic beverages and meals with greater daily energy expenditure and longer exercise duration. PMID:18511146

Carels, Robert A; Young, Kathleen M; Coit, Carissa; Clayton, Anna Marie; Spencer, Alexis; Wagner, Marissa

2008-11-01

202

Lognormal distributions for total water intake and tap water intake by pregnant and lactating women in the United States.  

PubMed

Using probability plots and Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), we fit lognormal distributions to data compiled by Ershow et al. for daily intake of total water and tap water by three groups of women (controls, pregnant, and lactating; all between 15-49 years of age) in the United States. We also develop bivariate lognormal distributions for the joint distribution of water ingestion and body weight for these three groups. Overall, we recommend the marginal distributions for water intake as fit by MLE for use in human health risk assessments. PMID:9637077

Burmaster, D E

1998-04-01

203

[Impact of salt intake on health: beliefs of the Swiss population].  

PubMed

Excessive salt intake increases the risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Sodium intake remains high both in developed and emerging countries. The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health has ordered a national survey on the salt intake in Switzerland, realized in different centers. This article presents the results of the awareness of the Swiss population concerning the relationship between excessive salt intake and health. This survey reveals a lack of knowledge regarding the association between high salt intake and cardiovascular disease, the sodium content of usual food, and the recommended daily value of sodium intake. Strategies to reduce salt consumption need to be reinforced by collaborations between health authorities and health care professionals. PMID:24073471

Ditisheim, Agnès; Muradbegovic, Edin; Bochud, Murielle; Burnier, Michel; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette

2013-09-11

204

Dietary intake of linoleic acid in multiple sclerosis and other diseases  

PubMed Central

The linoleic acid intake of patients with multiple sclerosis is not significantly different from that of healthy control subjects. This is true both in absolute terms and when linoleic acid intake is expressed as a percentage of total fat intake. In the other categories of illness, included as control groups, linoleic acid intake was significantly decreased only in patients with acute non-neurological illness and in this case only when considered in absolute terms. In all groups studied the daily linoleic acid intake was in excess of 1·7% of the total calorie intake and in the case of multiple sclerosis was 2·7% of the total calories ingested. Since other workers have shown that linoleic acid absorption is not altered in multiple sclerosis and we have shown that the diet is not deficient, it seems that the decrease in linoleic acid content is due to some process occurring after the absorption of this essential fatty acid.

Callaghan, Noel; Kearney, Brid; Love, William Clayton

1973-01-01

205

Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake.  

PubMed

The objective was to examine the effect of consuming breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Participants who habitually ate breakfast and those who skipped breakfast were recruited for two studies. Using a randomized crossover design, the first study examined the effect of having participants consume either (a) no breakfast, (b) a high carbohydrate breakfast (335 kcals), or (c) a high fiber breakfast (360 kcals) on three occasions and measured ad libitum intake at lunch. The second study again used a randomized crossover design but with a larger, normal carbohydrate breakfast consumed ad libtum. Intake averaged 624 kcals and subsequent food intake was measured throughout the day. Participants ate only foods served from the Cornell Human Metabolic Research Unit where all foods were weighed before and after consumption. In the first study, neither eating breakfast nor the kind of breakfast consumed had an effect on the amount consumed at lunch despite a reduction in hunger ratings. In the second study, intake at lunch as well as hunger ratings were significantly increased after skipping breakfast (by 144 kcal), leaving a net caloric deficit of 408 kcal by the end of the day. These data are consistent with published literature demonstrating that skipping a meal does not result in accurate energy compensation at subsequent meals and suggests that skipping breakfast may be an effective means to reduce daily energy intake in some adults. PMID:23672851

Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly R

2013-07-01

206

Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years) (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665 ± 7.9?mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.045), whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P = 0.041), but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558 ± 6.2?mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r = 0.024, P = 0.049), but not with femur BMD (r = 0.021, P = 0.107). The currently recommended 1000–1500?mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients.

Szamosujvari, Pal; Dombai, Peter; Csore, Katalin; Mikofalvi, Kinga; Steindl, Timea; Streicher, Ildiko; Tarsoly, Julia; Zajzon, Gergely; Somogyi, Peter; Szamosujvari, Pal; Lakatos, Peter

2013-01-01

207

Dietary Fructose Intake and Severity of Liver Disease in HCV-infected Patients  

PubMed Central

Background & Goals Dietary fructose intake in the United States has been increasing, and fructose intake has been associated with the metabolic syndrome and hepatic steatosis. This study aimed to determine if dietary fructose intake is associated with advanced hepatic fibrosis and inflammation in a HCV-infected male population. Study We conducted a cross-sectional study of HCV-infected male veterans. The main exposure variable was daily dietary fructose calculated from the National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire and the main outcome variables were FibroSURE-ActiTest determined hepatic fibrosis (F0-F3=mild vs. F3/F4-F4=advanced) and inflammation (A0-A2=mild vs. A2/3-A3=advanced). We examined this association in logistic regression adjusting for demographic, clinical and other dietary variables. Results Among 313 HCV+ males, 103 (33%) had advanced fibrosis and 89 (28%) had advanced inflammation. Median daily fructose intake was 46.8 grams (interquartile range 30.4–81.0). Dietary fructose intake across quartiles among males with advanced vs. mild fibrosis was 21.4 vs. 25.2%, 32.0 vs. 24.8%, 24.3 vs. 25.2%, 22.3 vs. 24.8%, respectively, and among males with advanced vs. mild inflammation was 20.2 vs. 25.5%, 41.6 vs. 21.4%, 22.5 vs. 25.9%, 15.7 vs. 27.2%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, there were no significant associations between daily fructose intake and advanced fibrosis. There was a significant association only between the second quartile of daily fructose intake (30–48 grams) and advanced inflammation. Conclusions There were no significant associations between dietary fructose intake and hepatic fibrosis risk, as assessed by FibroSURE, in HCV-infected males. Additional research is needed to clarify the potential role of fructose intake and HCV-related hepatic inflammation.

Tyson, Gia L.; Richardson, Peter A.; White, Donna L.; Kuzniarek, Jill; Ramsey, David J.; Tavakoli-Tabasi, Shahriar; El-Serag, Hashem B.

2012-01-01

208

Food intake and live growth performance of pigs measured automatically and continuously from 25 to 115 kg live weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous automatic measurement and electronic recording provided data for individual pig live weight and food intake on a daily basis for a total of 74 pigs representing three commercially available crossbred types of mixed genetic origin, which were kept under commercial farming conditions to determine practical expectations for food intake and performance characteristics over the whole of the growth range

Darren M Green; Susan Brotherstone; C Paddy Schofield; Colin T Whittemore

2003-01-01

209

Evaluation of Nutrient Intake in Early Post Kidney Transplant Recipients  

PubMed Central

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the dietary intake of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and assess oral intake related nutrition problems. Fifty patients who had undergone kidney transplantation were included: 24 males, 26 females. The mean age was 46.8 ± 11.2 years, height was 161.3 ± 8.3 cm, and body weight was 60.5 ± 8.7 kg. We conducted nutrition education based on the diet guideline for KTRs (energy 32 kcal/kg of ideal body weight [IBW], protein 1.3 g/kg of IBW) and neutropenic diet guideline before discharge. Dietary intake of the patients at 1 month after transplantation was investigated by 3-day food records. Body weight and laboratory values for nutritional status and graft function were also collected. Body weight was significantly decreased from admission to discharge. Body weight from discharge to 1 month and 3 months after transplantation was increased but was not significant. Biochemical measurements were generally improved but the number of patients with hypophosphatemia increased. The daily dietary intake of energy and protein was adequate (33.1 kcal/kg, 1.5 g/kg, respectively). However, the dietary intake of calcium, folate, and vitamin C did not meet the Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake of vitamins and minerals (86.8%, 62.4%, and 88.0%, respectively). Patients with low intake of calcium, folate, and vitamin C presented low intake in milk and dairy products, vegetables, and fruits, and these foods were related to restricted food items in neutropenic diet. More attention should be paid on improving quality of diet, and reconsideration of present neutropenic diet guideline is necessary. These results can be used to establish evidence-based medical nutrition therapy guideline for KTRs.

Rho, Mi Ra; Lim, Jeong Hyun; Park, Jung Hwa; Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Young Hee

2013-01-01

210

Maternal protein intake is not associated with infant blood pressure  

PubMed Central

Background Animal data show that low protein intake in pregnancy programs higher offspring blood pressure, but similar data in humans are limited. We examined the associations of first and second trimester maternal protein intake with offspring blood pressure (BP) at the age of six months. Methods In a prospective US cohort study, called Project Viva, pregnant women completed validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaires (FFQ) to measure gestational protein intake. Among 947 mother-offspring pairs with first trimester dietary data and 910 pairs with second trimester data, we measured systolic blood pressure (SBP) up to five times with an automated device in the offspring at the age of six months. Controlling for blood pressure measurement conditions, maternal and infant characteristics, we examined the effect of energy-adjusted maternal protein intake on infant SBP using multivariable mixed effects models. Results Mean daily second trimester maternal protein intake was 17.6% of energy (mean 2111 kcal/day). First trimester nutrient intakes were similar. Mean SBP at age 6 months was 90.0 mm Hg (SD 12.9). Consistent with prior reports, adjusted SBP was 1.94 mm Hg lower [95% confidence interval (CI) ?3.45 to ?0.42] for each kg increase in birth weight. However, we did not find an association between maternal protein intake and infant SBP. After adjusting for covariates, the effect estimates were 0.14 mm Hg (95% CI ?0.12 to ?0.40) for a 1% increase in energy from protein during the second trimester, and ?0.01 mm Hg (95% CI ?0.24 to ?0.23) for a 1% increase in energy from protein in the first trimester. Conclusions Variation in maternal total protein intake during pregnancy does not appear to program offspring blood pressure.

Huh, Susanna Y; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kleinman, Ken P; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Lipshultz, Steven E; Gillman, Matthew W

2007-01-01

211

Iron intake of infants: the importance of infant cereals.  

PubMed Central

Since 1976 many baby foods have been reformulated and the iron used to fortify infant cereals has been changed to a more bioavailable form. Therefore, the dietary intake of iron by infants from 1 to 18 months of age was assessed in a longitudinal survey conducted in Toronto and Montreal between 1977 and 1979. Except in the 1st and 18th months the mean daily iron consumption of the infants was above that recommended in the Dietary Standard for Canada. The main source of this nutrient was infant cereals. Examination of the diets of the infants who did not have the recommended daily intake of iron showed that they did not consume sufficient amounts of infant cereals and other iron-rich foods. These results indicate that without such cereals it is difficult to provide infants with the amount of iron they need. Therefore, infants should receive these cereals during the first 2 years of life.

Yeung, D. L.; Pennell, M. D.; Leung, M.; Hall, J.; Anderson, G. H.

1981-01-01

212

High alcohol intake in female Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.  

PubMed

Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred for high alcohol preference and consumption. When exposed to the standard, home cage 2-bottle "alcohol (10%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen with continuous access, male sP rats consume daily approximately 6 g/kg alcohol. Conversely, when exposed to the intermittent (once every other day) access to 2 bottles containing alcohol (20%, v/v) and water, respectively, male sP rats display marked increases in daily alcohol intake and signs of alcohol intoxication and "behavioral" dependence. The present study was designed to assess alcohol intake in female sP rats exposed, under the 2-bottle choice regimen, to (a) 10% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA10%), (b) 10% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA10%), (c) 20% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA20%), and (d) 20% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA20%). Male sP rats (exposed to CA10% and IA20% conditions) were included for comparison. Over 20 daily drinking sessions, daily alcohol intake in female CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 7.0 and 9.6 g/kg, respectively. The rank of alcohol intake was IA20% > IA10% = CA20% > CA10%. Conversely, daily alcohol intake in male CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 6.0 and 8.2 g/kg, respectively. Comparison of female and male rats yielded the following rank of alcohol intake: female IA20% > male IA20% > female CA10% ? male CA10%. An additional experiment found that alcohol drinking during the first hour of the drinking session produced mean blood alcohol levels of 35-40 mg% and 85-100 mg% in the CA10% and IA20% rats, respectively. These results (a) extend to female sP rats previous data demonstrating the capacity of the IA20% condition to markedly escalate alcohol drinking, and (b) demonstrate that female sP rats consume more alcohol than male sP rats. This sex difference is more evident under the IA20% condition, suggesting that female sP rats are highly sensitive to the promoting effect of the IA20% condition on alcohol drinking. These data contribute to the characterization of sP rats as a model of excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:24555906

Loi, Barbara; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola; Carai, Mauro A M; Franconi, Flavia; Gessa, Gian Luigi

2014-06-01

213

Dietary Intake of Whole Grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to provide national estimates of whole-grain intake in the United States, identify major dietary sources of whole grains and compare food and nutrient intakes of whole-grain consumers and nonconsumers. Methods: Data were collected from 9,323 individuals age 20 years and older in USDA's 1994 -96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals through

Linda E. Cleveland; Alanna J. Moshfegh; Ann M. Albertson; Joseph D. Goldman

214

Predictors of fruit and vegetable intake in young adulthood  

PubMed Central

Few young adults meet national recommendations to consume at least two cups of fruit and two to three cups of vegetables daily. Effective strategies and messaging are needed to address this disparity, but research examining influences on fruit and vegetable intake during young adulthood has been limited and primarily cross-sectional. This study was conducted to identify five-year and 10-year longitudinal predictors of fruit and vegetable intake in young adulthood. The sample included 476 males and 654 females enrolled in a population-based cohort study (Projects EAT-I, II, and III). Participants completed surveys and food frequency questionnaires in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota high school classrooms in 1998–1999 (mean age=15.8, “adolescence”) and follow-up measures in 2003–2004 (mean age=20.4, “emerging adulthood”) and 2008–2009 (mean age=26.2, “young adulthood”). In young adulthood, average daily intake was 0.9 servings of fruit (excluding juice) and 1.8 servings of vegetables (excluding potatoes). Factors examined in adolescence and in emerging adulthood that were predictive of both fruit and vegetable intake in young adulthood included favorable taste preferences, fewer perceived time barriers to healthy eating, higher home availability of fruits and vegetables, and limited home availability of unhealthy foods. Analyses also identified additional factors that were specifically relevant to fruit (e.g., breakfast patterns) or vegetable intake (e.g., home food preparation) and of particular relevance during emerging adulthood (e.g., significant other’s healthy eating attitudes). Findings suggest individual and socio-environmental factors, particularly food preferences and home food availability, during adolescence and emerging adulthood may influence fruit and vegetable intake in young adulthood.

Laska, Melissa Nelson; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2012-01-01

215

Daily Aircraft Routing and Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the daily aircraft routing and scheduling problem (DARSP). It consists of determining daily schedules which maximize the anticipated profits derived from the aircraft of a heterogeneous fleet. This fleet must cover a set of operational flight legs with known departure time windows, durations and profits according to the aircraft type. We present two models for

Guy Desaulniers; Jacques Desrosiers; Yvan Dumas; Marius M. Solomon; François Soumis

1997-01-01

216

Effect of Chlorella vulgaris intake on cadmium detoxification in rats fed cadmium  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary Chlorella vulgaris (chlorella) intake would be effective on cadmium (Cd) detoxification in rats fed dietary Cd. Fourteen-week old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighing 415.0 ± 1.6 g were randomly divided into two groups and fed slightly modified American Institute of Nutrition-93 Growing (AIN-93G) diet without (n=10) or with (n=40) dietary Cd (200 ppm) for 8 weeks. To confirm alteration by dietary Cd intake, twenty rats fed AIN-93G diet without (n=10) and with (n=10) dietary Cd were sacrificed and compared. Other thirty rats were randomly blocked into three groups and fed slightly modified AIN-93G diets replacing 0 (n=10), 5 (n=10) or 10% (n=10) chlorella of total kg diet for 4 weeks. Daily food intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight (liver, spleen, and kidney), perirenal fat pad and epididymal fat pad weights were measured. To examine Cd detoxification, urinary Cd excretion and metallothonein (MT) concentrations in kidney and intestine were measured. Food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight and fat pad weights were decreased by dietary Cd intake. Urinary Cd excretion and MT concentrations in kidney and small intestine were increased by dietary Cd. After given Cd containing diet, food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weights and fat pad weights were not influenced by dietary chlorella intake. Renal MT synthesis tended to be higher in a dose-dependent manner, but not significantly. And chlorella intake did not significantly facilitate renal and intestinal MT synthesis and urinary Cd excretion. These findings suggest that, after stopping cadmium supply, chlorella supplementation, regardless of its percentage, might not improve cadmium detoxification from the body in growing rats.

Kim, You Jin; Kwon, Sanghee

2009-01-01

217

Usual Intake of Refined grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Refined grains Table A19. Refined grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 3.5 (0.10) 1.7

218

Usual Intake of Whole grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Whole grains Table A18. Whole grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.6 (0.03) 0.1

219

Usual Intake of Total grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total grains Table A17. Total grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 4.1 (0.10) 2.2

220

Usual Intake of Soy products  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Soy products Table A30. Soy products: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.0 (0.00) 0.0

221

Usual Intake of Added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

222

Usual Intake of Other fruits  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Other fruits Table A4. Other fruits: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.6 (0.04) 0.2

223

Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks Table A43. Alcoholic drinks: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 number of drinks Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 19-30 1113 0.9

224

Usual Intake of Total seafood  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total seafood Table A27. Total seafood: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1 (0.02) 0.0

225

Usual Intake of Fruit juice  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Fruit juice Table A5. Fruit juice: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.05) 0.1

226

Usual Intake of Total fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total fruit Table A1. Total fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1.5 (0.07) 0.6

227

Normative influences on food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hunger and satiety have conventionally provided the framework for understanding eating and overeating. We argue that hunger and satiety play a relatively small role in everyday eating. The normative control of food intake refers to the fact that our eating is largely governed by the motive to avoid eating excessively. Dieters impose a restrictive intake norm on themselves, but often

C. Peter Herman; Janet Polivy

2005-01-01

228

Usual Intake of White potatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of White potatoes Table A13. White potatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1

229

Usual Intake of Other vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Other vegetables Table A15. Other vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1

230

Usual Intake of Total dairy  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total dairy Table A33. Total dairy: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 2.5 (0.07) 1.0

231

Usual Intake of Solid fats  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Solid fats Table A38. Solid fats: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 grams Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 27.8 (0.73) 15.5 (1.06) 17.8

232

A novel approach for food intake detection using electroglottography.  

PubMed

Many methods for monitoring diet and food intake rely on subjects self-reporting their daily intake. These methods are subjective, potentially inaccurate and need to be replaced by more accurate and objective methods. This paper presents a novel approach that uses an electroglottograph (EGG) device for an objective and automatic detection of food intake. Thirty subjects participated in a four-visit experiment involving the consumption of meals with self-selected content. Variations in the electrical impedance across the larynx caused by the passage of food during swallowing were captured by the EGG device. To compare performance of the proposed method with a well-established acoustical method, a throat microphone was used for monitoring swallowing sounds. Both signals were segmented into non-overlapping epochs of 30 s and processed to extract wavelet features. Subject-independent classifiers were trained, using artificial neural networks, to identify periods of food intake from the wavelet features. Results from leave-one-out cross validation showed an average per-epoch classification accuracy of 90.1% for the EGG-based method and 83.1% for the acoustic-based method, demonstrating the feasibility of using an EGG for food intake detection. PMID:24671094

Farooq, Muhammad; Fontana, Juan M; Sazonov, Edward

2014-05-01

233

Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Calcium and Vitamin D Intake in Adolescent Girls with Anorexia Nervosa  

PubMed Central

Background Assessing calcium and vitamin D intake becomes important in conditions associated with low bone density such as anorexia nervosa (AN). Food records (FR) that assess intake over a representative time period are used in research and sometimes clinical settings. However, compliance in adolescents can be suboptimal. Objectives This study was undertaken to determine the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for assessing calcium and vitamin D intake in adolescent AN and healthy girls compared to a validated FR assessing intake over a four-day period, the hypothesis being that intake would be adequately predicted by the FFQ. Design Thirty-six girls with AN and 39 healthy girls 12–18 years old completed both the FR and the FFQ. An additional 31 subjects (20 AN, 11 controls) completed the FFQ, but not the FR, and one AN girl completed the FR, but not the FFQ. Results Subjects demonstrated greater compliance with the FFQ (99%) than the FR (71%). Daily calcium and vitamin D intake calculated using the FR and FFQ did not differ, although the FFQ tended to under-report vitamin D intake corrected for energy intake. Using quartile analysis, no gross misclassification was noted of calcium or vitamin D intake calculated using the FR or FFQ in AN. Strong correlations were observed of daily vitamin D intake derived from the FFQ versus the FR, particularly in AN (r=0.78, p<0.0001). Less robust correlations were observed for calcium intake (r=0.65, p<0.0001). Conclusion The FFQ used in this study can be effectively used to assess daily calcium and vitamin D intake in adolescent girls suffering from AN

Taylor, Catherine; Lamparello, Brooke; Kruczek, Kimberly; Anderson, Ellen J.; Hubbard, Jane; Misra, Madhusmita

2009-01-01

234

Daily Egyptian Diversity News Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed as part of the online collections at Southern Illinois University-Carbondale's Morris Library, the Daily Egyptian Diversity News Index provides historical insight into the campus climate at this unique school. In 2006, Dr. Seymour Bryson, the associate chancellor for diversity, teamed up with several other colleagues to identify articles in the Daily Egyptian (the University's student newspaper) related to the university's historic minority campus populations. The project entailed surveying microfilm and creating searchable transcripts for online access. Currently, the online archive contains over 1,400 items from the Daily Egyptian, and content includes pieces on African American members of the homecoming court, student activists, musical groups, and student government.

235

Dietary sources of sodium intake in Brazil in 2008-2009.  

PubMed

Information on the main dietary sources of sodium is essential for developing public health strategies to reduce sodium intake. This study aimed to describe sodium intake according to sex, age, and income and identify the main dietary sources of sodium in Brazil. In total, 34,003 subjects aged 10 years and older participated in the first Brazilian National Dietary Survey, conducted in 2008-2009. Food was classified according to the sodium profile into 31 groups based on a 1-day food record. The daily per capita intake of sodium (mg/day) and sodium density (mg/100 g) were estimated for each food group and stratified by sex, age, and per capita income quartile. The average daily intake of sodium was 3,190 mg/day. The sodium density of the diet increased with age and income (P<0.05). Food groups with the highest densities for both sexes and across all income quartiles included salty preserved meats (997 mg/100 g), processed meats (974 mg/100 g), cheeses (883 mg/100 g), crackers (832 mg/100 g), sandwiches (800 mg/100 g), pizza (729 mg/100 g), and breads (646 mg/100 g), as well as oils, spreads, sauces, and condiments (804 mg/100 g). Altogether, these food groups contributed to 811 mg/day of sodium, which is more than half of the recommended daily sodium intake. Mean sodium intake in Brazil exceeded the tolerable upper intake level of 2,300 mg/day. Processed food contributed to half of the recommended intake and should be targeted by future public health policies aiming at reducing total sodium intake. PMID:23830323

de Moura Souza, Amanda; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Peterson, Karen Eileen; Sichieri, Rosely

2013-10-01

236

Power plant intake entrainment analysis  

SciTech Connect

Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

2000-04-01

237

Analysis of water intake and dry matter intake using different lactation curve models.  

PubMed

The objective was to evaluate 6 different lactation curve models for daily water and dry matter intake. Data originated from the Futterkamp dairy research farm of the Chamber of Agriculture of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany. A data set of about 23,000 observations from 193 Holstein cows was used. Average daily water and dry matter intake were 82.3 and 19.8 kg, respectively. The basic linear mixed model included the fixed effects of parity and test-day within feeding group. Additionally, 6 different functions were tested for the fixed effect of lactation curve and the individual (random) effect of cow-lactation curve. Furthermore, the autocorrelation between repeated measures was modeled with the spatial (power) covariance structure. Model fit was evaluated by the likelihood ratio test, Akaike's and Bayesian information criteria, and the analysis of mean residual at different days in milk. The Ali and Schaeffer function was best suited for modeling the fixed lactation curve for both traits. A Legendre polynomial of order 4 delivered the best model fit for the random effect of cow-lactation. Applying the error covariance structure led to a significantly better model fit and indicated that repeated measures were autocorrelated. Generally, the best information criteria values were yielded by the most complex model using the Ali and Schaeffer function and Legendre polynomial of order 4 to model the average lactation and cow-specific lactation curves, respectively, with inclusion of the spatial (power) error covariance structure. This model is recommended for the analysis of water and dry matter intake including missing observations to obtain estimation of correct statistical inference and valid variance components. PMID:19620691

Kramer, E; Stamer, E; Spilke, J; Thaller, G; Krieter, J

2009-08-01

238

Lactation in the dog: milk composition and intake by puppies.  

PubMed

The composition and intake of milk by mother-reared puppies was studied to compare protein and energy intakes of puppies with estimated requirements. Milk samples were obtained from five beagle bitches over the period of 7-37 days postpartum. Dog milk contained on average 22.7% dry matter, 9.47% fat, 7.53% protein, 3.81% sugar and 146 kcal gross energy per 100 g. Protein comprised 31% of milk energy. Nonprotein nitrogen averaged 0.054%, equivalent to 4.4% of total nitrogen. Milk intakes of puppies in the five litters were estimated from water kinetics following administration of deuterium oxide (D2O). D2O dilution indicated that body water comprised 72-73% of puppy body weight, and fractional turnover rate of body water averaged 0.15-0.17% per day in weeks 3 and 4 postpartum. Milk intakes were calculated as 160 +/- 5.4 g (mean +/- SEM) at 19 days and 175 +/- 5.3 g at 26 days, equivalent to 17.0 and 14.6% of body weight, respectively. Daily milk yields of the bitches averaged 964 g at 19 days and 1054 g at 26 days. Dry matter intakes of the puppies were equivalent to 3.9 and 3.3% of body weight at 19 and 26 days, respectively. Gross energy intakes averaged 223-224 kcal/ kg0 .75 per day, and protein intakes averaged 0.33-0.36 g per gram body weight gain at these ages. Estimates of the energy requirements of young puppies by the National Research Council appear to be too high. PMID:6726450

Oftedal, O T

1984-05-01

239

Purine-rich foods intake and recurrent gout attacks  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine and quantify the relation between purine intake and the risk of recurrent gout attacks among gout patients. Methods The authors conducted a case-crossover study to examine associations of a set of putative risk factors with recurrent gout attacks. Individuals with gout were prospectively recruited and followed online for 1 year. Participants were asked about the following information when experiencing a gout attack: the onset date of the gout attack, clinical symptoms and signs, medications (including antigout medications), and presence of potential risk factors (including daily intake of various purine-containing food items) during the 2-day period prior to the gout attack. The same exposure information was also assessed over 2-day control periods. Results This study included 633 participants with gout. Compared with the lowest quintile of total purine intake over a 2-day period, OR of recurrent gout attacks were 1.17, 1.38, 2.21 and 4.76, respectively, with each increasing quintile (p for trend <0.001). The corresponding OR were 1.42, 1.34, 1.77 and 2.41 for increasing quintiles of purine intake from animal sources (p for trend <0.001), and 1.12, 0.99, 1.32 and 1.39 from plant sources (p=0.04), respectively. The effect of purine intake persisted across subgroups by sex, use of alcohol, diuretics, allopurinol, NSAIDs and colchicine. Conclusions The study findings suggest that acute purine intake increases the risk of recurrent gout attacks by almost fivefold among gout patients. Avoiding or reducing amount of purine-rich foods intake, especially of animal origin, may help reduce the risk of gout attacks.

Zhang, Yuqing; Chen, Clara; Choi, Hyon; Chaisson, Christine; Hunter, David; Niu, Jingbo; Neogi, Tuhina

2014-01-01

240

Reduced dietary intake of vitamin B12 and folate in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), commonly referred to as canker sores, is a very common and painful oral mucosal disease. Although the etiology of RAS is not well understood, a number of factors may play a role, including nutritional deficiencies. The objective of this study was to compare dietary vitamin intake in RAS patients to that of a control group. METHODS One hundred subjects, who had suffered at least three episodes of minor RAS in the previous 12 months, completed a detailed Diet History Questionnaire designed and validated by the US National Institutes of Health. DietCalc software was used to calculate daily dietary intakes of nine different vitamins in the study subjects. Daily intakes were energy-adjusted and compared to age- and gender-matched nutrient intake data on 9033 subjects from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. RESULTS The study subjects had significantly lower daily intake of vitamin B12 (P < 0.0002) and folate (P < 0.0001) as compared to the controls. CONCLUSIONS Our results demonstrate that patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis are more likely to have lower dietary intakes of vitamin B12 and folate than a control group. These results support and extend previous studies indicating a link between the etiology of RAS and hematological deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate. These findings suggest that consuming sufficient amounts of these vitamins may be a useful strategy to reduce the number and/or duration of RAS episodes.

Kozlak, Scott T.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Lalla, Rajesh V.

2011-01-01

241

Intakes of total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in Irish children, teenagers and adults.  

PubMed

Recommendations limiting the intake of total fat, SFA, MUFA and PUFA have been established in several countries with the aim of reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as CVD. Studies have shown that intakes of total fat and SFA are above desired recommended intake levels across a wide range of age and sex groups. In addition, intakes of PUFA and MUFA are often reported to be less than the desired recommended intake levels. The aims of the present paper are to provide the first data on estimates of current intakes and main food sources of SFA, MUFA and PUFA in Irish children (aged 5-12 years), teenagers (aged 13-17 years) and adults (aged 18-64 years) and to analyse compliance with current dietary recommendations. Data for this analysis were based on the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (n 1379, 18-64 years), the National Children's Food Survey (n 594, 5-12 years) and the National Teen Food Survey (n 441, 13-17 years). Results showed that SFA intakes in Irish children, teenagers and adults are high, with only 6 % of children, 11 % of teenagers and 21 % of adults in compliance with the recommended daily intake. The main food groups that contributed to SFA intakes were whole milk; fresh meat; meat products; biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries; and sugars, confectionery and preserves. PMID:19026091

Joyce, Triona; Wallace, Alison J; McCarthy, Sinead N; Gibney, Michael J

2009-02-01

242

Caffeine levels in beverages from Argentina's market: application to caffeine dietary intake assessment.  

PubMed

The caffeine content of different beverages from Argentina's market was measured. Several brands of coffees, teas, mates, chocolate milks, soft and energy drinks were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. The highest concentration level was found in short coffee (1.38 mg ml(-1)) and the highest amount per serving was found in instant coffee (95 mg per serving). A consumption study was also carried out among 471 people from 2 to 93 years of age to evaluate caffeine total dietary intake by age and to identify the sources of caffeine intake. The mean caffeine intake among adults was 288 mg day(-1) and mate was the main contributor to that intake. The mean caffeine intake among children of 10 years of age and under was 35 mg day(-1) and soft drinks were the major contributors to that intake. Children between 11 and 15 years old and teenagers (between 16 and 20 years) had caffeine mean intakes of 120 and 240 mg day(-1), respectively, and mate was the major contributor to those intakes. Drinking mate is a deep-rooted habit among Argentine people and it might be the reason for their elevated caffeine mean daily intake. PMID:19680899

Olmos, V; Bardoni, N; Ridolfi, A S; Villaamil Lepori, E C

2009-03-01

243

A simple method to estimate neutral detergent fiber content of typical daily menus13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to develop a simple method to estimate daily intakes ofthe insoluble fraction ofdietary fiber, that portion most effective in increasing stool weight and defecation frequency and decreasing gastrointestinal transit time. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents of 53 foods were determined by analysis and used to calculate the NDF content of typical institutional menus; mean

Elizabeth J Johnson; Judith A Marlett

244

Time of Daily Supplementation for Steers Grazing Dormant Intermediate Wheatgrass Pasture1t2  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the effects of time of daily protein supplementation on grazing behav- ior, forage intake, digesta kinetics, ruminal fer- mentation, and serum hormones and metabolites, 12 ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (449 and 378 kg average initial and final BW, respectively) were allotted to three groups. Treatments consis- ted of CON = no supplement, AM = cottonseed meal (.25% of

R. K. Bartons; L. J. Krysl; M. B. Judkins; D. W. Holcombe

2010-01-01

245

NY Times Daily Lesson Plan: Sizing Up Servings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the growing concern over unhealthy eating habits in the US, this lesson plan from the New York Times Learning Network offers a timely and interesting look at the concept of serving size. The lesson helps students understand "the definition of a suggested serving size and re-define their daily food intake in terms of these recommended amounts." A recent New York Times article on the topic plus an extensive set of classroom activities form the basis of the lesson, which requires about one hour to complete. The site also offers homework ideas, links to Web resources, useful vocabulary words, extension activities, and more.

246

Limits to sustained energy intake. XX. Body temperatures and physical activity of female mice during lactation.  

PubMed

Lactating animals consume greater amounts of food than non-reproductive animals, but energy intake appears to be limited in late lactation. The heat dissipation limit theory suggests that the food intake of lactating mice is limited by the capacity of the mother to dissipate heat. Lactating mice should therefore have high body temperatures (Tb), and changes in energy intake during lactation should be reflected by variation in Tb. To investigate these predictions, 26 mice (Mus musculus) were monitored daily throughout lactation for food intake, body mass, litter size and litter mass. After weaning, 21 days postpartum, maternal food intake and body mass were monitored for another 10 days. Maternal activity and Tb were recorded every minute for 23 h a day using implanted transmitters (vital view). Energy intake increased to a plateau in late lactation (days 13-17). Daily gain in pup mass declined during this same period, suggesting a limit on maternal energy intake. Litter size and litter mass were positively related to maternal energy intake and body mass. Activity levels were constantly low, and mice with the largest increase in energy intake at peak lactation had the lowest activity. Tb rose sharply after parturition and the circadian rhythm became compressed within a small range. Tb during the light period increased considerably (1.1 ° C higher than in baseline), and lactating mice faced chronic hyperthermia, despite their activity levels in lactation being approximately halved. Average Tb increased in relation to energy intake as lactation progressed, but there was no relationship between litter size or litter mass and the mean Tb at peak lactation. These data are consistent with the heat dissipation limit theory, which suggests performance in late lactation is constrained by the ability to dissipate body heat. PMID:23788704

Gamo, Y; Troup, C; Mitchell, S E; Hambly, C; Vaanholt, L M; Speakman, J R

2013-10-01

247

Baclofen, raclopride, and naltrexone differentially affect intake of fat/sucrose mixtures under limited access conditions.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effects of the opioid antagonist naltrexone, the dopamine 2-like (D2) antagonist raclopride, and the GABA(B) agonist baclofen on consumption of fat/sucrose mixtures (FSM) using a limited access protocol. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped according to two schedules of access (Daily [D] or Intermittent [I]) to an optional FSM. Each FSM was created by whipping 3.2% (L), 10% (M), or 32% (H) powdered sugar into 100% vegetable shortening in a w/w manner (n=10 per group). One-hour intakes of the IL and IM groups were significantly greater than intakes of the respective DL and DM groups, thus fulfilling our operational definition of binge-type eating in these groups. Baclofen reduced intakes of the L and M mixtures regardless of access schedule, but failed to reduce intake of the H mixture. Naltrexone reduced intake in all groups, but potency was greater in IL rats than in DL rats. Furthermore, potency was attenuated in Intermittent rats, but enhanced in Daily rats, at higher sucrose concentrations. Raclopride reduced intake in the DL and stimulated intake in the IL groups, reduced intake in both M groups, and was without effect in both H groups. These results indicate that fat/sucrose mixtures containing relatively low concentrations of sucrose allow distinctions to be made between: 1) intakes stimulated by different access schedules and 2) opioid and dopaminergic modulation of those intakes. These results also suggest that brief bouts of food consumption involving fatty, sugar-rich foods may prove to be particularly resistant to pharmacological intervention. PMID:19217918

Wong, K J; Wojnicki, F H W; Corwin, R L W

2009-05-01

248

Green and black tea intake in relation to prostate cancer risk among Singapore Chinese  

PubMed Central

Purpose Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages worldwide. To date, observational data from prospective cohort studies investigating the relationship between green and black tea intake and prostate cancer risk are sparse and equivocal. In a population-based, prospective cohort study of Chinese men in Singapore, we investigated the relationship between green and black tea intake and prostate cancer risk. Methods Tea consumption data for 27,293 men were collected at baseline (between 1993 and 1998) using a validated food frequency questionnaire. After an average of 11.2 years of follow-up, 298 men had developed prostate cancer. Proportional hazards regression methods were used to assess the associations between tea intake and prostate cancer risk. Results There was no association between daily green tea intake and prostate cancer risk, compared with no green tea intake [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.79, 1.47]. For black tea, a statistically significant positive association and trend were observed for daily intake compared with no black tea intake (HR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.03, 1.92; p for trend <0.01) Conclusions Few prospective data are available from populations that have both a high level and wide range of black and green tea intake; this study represents a unique opportunity to evaluate their individual effects on prostate cancer risk. Our findings support the notion that green tea intake does not protect against prostate cancer and that black tea intake may increase prostate cancer risk.

Montague, Julia A.; Wu, Anna H.; Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wong, Alvin S.; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.

2013-01-01

249

Green tea intake, MTHFR/TYMS genotype and breast cancer risk: the Singapore Chinese Health Study  

PubMed Central

The tea polyphenol (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been reported to act as a cancer preventive agent through folate pathway inhibition in experimental studies. We hypothesized that if folate pathway inhibition is the mechanism of cancer preventive activities of EGCG, then the protective effect against breast cancer would be stronger among women with low dietary folate intake and the high-activity methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) genotypes. In a nested case–control study of 380 women with incident breast cancer and 662 controls within the Singapore Chinese Health Study, we found no association between either green tea intake or gene polymorphisms of MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) and TYMS (1494 ins/del) and breast cancer risk. However, among women with low folate intake (<133.4 ?g/day), weekly/daily green tea intake was inversely associated with breast cancer risk compared with less green tea intake [odds ratio (OR) = 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.26–0.79, P for interaction = 0.02]. Among women with high folate intake (?133.4 ?g/day), green tea intake was not associated with breast cancer. Similarly, among women possessing the high-activity MTHFR/TYMS genotypes (0–1 variant allele), weekly/daily versus less frequent green tea intake was associated with lower breast cancer risk (OR?=?0.66, 95% CI?=?0.45–0.98), which was observed even more strongly among those who also had low folate intake (OR?=?0.44, 95% CI?=?0.22–0.89) than high folate intake (OR?=?0.92, 95% CI?=?0.55–1.54). This association was not observed among women possessing the low-activity genotypes (2–4 variant alleles). Our findings suggest that folate pathway inhibition may be one mechanism through which green tea protects against breast cancer in humans.

Inoue, Maki; Robien, Kim; Wang, Renwei; Van Den Berg, David J.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yu, Mimi C.

2008-01-01

250

Effects of life-long fluoride intake on bone measures of adolescents: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Controversy persists concerning the impact of community water fluoridation on bone health in adults, and few studies have assessed relationships with bone at younger ages. Ecological studies of fluoride's effects showed some increase in bone mineral density of adolescents and young adults in areas with fluoridated water compared with non-fluoridated areas. However, none had individual fluoride exposure measures. To avoid ecological fallacy and reduce bias, we assessed associations of average daily fluoride intake from birth to age 15 yr for Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members with age 15 yr dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone outcomes (whole body, lumbar spine, and hip), controlling for known determinants (including daily calcium intake, average daily time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, and physical maturity). Mean (SD) daily fluoride intake was 0.66 mg (0.24) for females and 0.78 mg (0.30) for males. We found no significant relationships between daily fluoride intake and adolescents' bone measures in adjusted models (for 183 females, all p values ? .10 and all partial R(2) ? 0.02; for 175 males, all p values ? .34 and all partial R(2) ? 0.01). The findings suggest that fluoride exposures at the typical levels for most US adolescents in fluoridated areas do not have significant effects on bone mineral measures. PMID:24470542

Levy, S M; Warren, J J; Phipps, K; Letuchy, E; Broffitt, B; Eichenberger-Gilmore, J; Burns, T L; Kavand, G; Janz, K F; Torner, J C; Pauley, C A

2014-04-01

251

Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda.

2014-01-01

252

Dietary salt intake and hypertension.  

PubMed

Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

Ha, Sung Kyu

2014-06-01

253

Hibernation and daily torpor minimize mammalian extinctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small mammals appear to be less vulnerable to extinction than large species, but the underlying reasons are poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that almost all (93.5%) of 61 recently extinct mammal species were homeothermic, maintaining a constant high body temperature and thus energy expenditure, which demands a high intake of food, long foraging times, and thus exposure to predators. In contrast, only 6.5% of extinct mammals were likely heterothermic and employed multi-day torpor (hibernation) or daily torpor, even though torpor is widespread within more than half of all mammalian orders. Torpor is characterized by substantial reductions of body temperature and energy expenditure and enhances survival during adverse conditions by minimizing food and water requirements, and consequently reduces foraging requirements and exposure to predators. Moreover, because life span is generally longer in heterothermic mammals than in related homeotherms, heterotherms can employ a ‘sit-and-wait’ strategy to withstand adverse periods and then repopulate when circumstances improve. Thus, torpor is a crucial but hitherto unappreciated attribute of small mammals for avoiding extinction. Many opportunistic heterothermic species, because of their plastic energetic requirements, may also stand a better chance of future survival than homeothermic species in the face of greater climatic extremes and changes in environmental conditions caused by global warming.

Geiser, Fritz; Turbill, Christopher

2009-10-01

254

Renal function associates with energy intake in elderly community-dwelling men.  

PubMed

Energy intake and renal function decrease with age. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), spontaneous food intake decreases in parallel with the loss of renal function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a possible relationship between renal dysfunction and energy intake in elderly community-dwelling men. A cross-sectional study including 1087 men aged 70 years from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) community-based cohort was carried out. Dietary intake was assessed using 7 d food records, and glomerular filtration rate was estimated from serum cystatin C concentrations. Energy intake was normalised by ideal body weight, and macronutrient intake was energy-adjusted. The median normalised daily energy intake was 105 (interquartile range 88-124) kJ, and directly correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as determined by univariate analysis. Across the decreasing quartiles of eGFR, a significant trend of decreasing normalised energy intake was observed (P =0·01). A multivariable regression model including lifestyle factors and co-morbidities was used for predicting total energy intake. In this model, regular physical activity (standardised ? = 0·160; P =0·008), smoking (standardised ? = - 0·081; P =0·008), hypertension (standardised ? = - 0·097; P =0·002), hyperlipidaemia (standardised ? = - 0·064; P =0·037) and eGFR (per sd increase, standardised ? = 0·064; P =0·04) were found to be independent predictors of energy intake. Individuals with manifest CKD (eGFR < 60 ml/min per 1·73 m2) were more likely to have lower energy intake than those without. In conclusion, there was a direct and independent correlation between renal function and energy intake in a population-based cohort of elderly men. We speculate on a possible link between renal dysfunction and malnutrition in the elderly. PMID:24636006

Luis, Desiree; Huang, Xiaoyan; Sjögren, Per; Risérus, Ulf; Arnlöv, Johan; Lindholm, Bengt; Cederholm, Tommy; Carrero, Juan Jesus

2014-06-01

255

11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE COFFER DAM, OCTOBER 10, 1900. ONE OF THE HUBBELL COMPANY DREDGES IS AT WORK IN THE CENTER OF THE ILLUSTRATION, THE TIMBER FLOATING AROUND WAS PROBABLY FOR USE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF SIDE WALL RETAINING CRIBS. ONE OF THESE IS BEING CONSTRUCTED JUST TO THE LEFT AND TOWARDS THE VIEWER FROM THE DREDGES. (87) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

256

Girls' Dairy Intake, Energy Intake, and Weight Status  

PubMed Central

We explored the relationships among girls’ weight status, dairy servings, and total energy intake. The hypothesis that consuming dairy could reduce risk for overweight was evaluated by comparing energy intake and weight status of girls who met or consumed less than the recommended three servings of dairy per day. Participants included 172 11-year-old non-Hispanic white girls, assessed cross-sectionally. Intakes of dairy, calcium, and energy were measured using three 24-hour recalls. Body mass index and body fat measures from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were obtained. Because preliminary analyses suggested systematic underreporting of energy intake, the relationships among dairy servings and measures of weight status were examined for the total sample and for subsamples of under-, plausible, and overreporters. Data for the total sample provided support for the hypothesized relationship among weight status, dairy servings, and energy intake. Thirty-nine percent of girls reported consuming the recommended ?3 servings of dairy per day; these girls also reported higher energy intake but had lower body mass index z scores and body fat than the girls who consumed fewer than three dairy servings each day. Among plausible reporters, no relationship between dairy intake and weight status was noted. This discrepancy may be attributable to a high percentage (45%) of overweight underreporters in the total sample. Our findings reveal that reporting bias, resulting from the presence of a substantial proportion of underreporters of higher weight status, can contribute to obtaining spurious associations between dairy intake and weight status. These findings underscore the need for randomly controlled trials to assess the role of dairy in weight management.

FIORITO, LAURA M.; VENTURA, ALISON K.; MITCHELL, DIANE C.; SMICIKLAS-WRIGHT, HELEN; BIRCH, LEANN L.

2008-01-01

257

Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, US Population, 2007-10  

Cancer.gov

We have applied the NCI Method for estimating distributions of usual intake to data from two recent cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative sample, to estimate means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake (Tables A1-44) and the percentage of persons meeting recommendations (Tables B1-17) for a range of sex-age groups in the US population.

258

Considerations regarding a permitted daily exposure calculation for ethyl methanesulfonate.  

PubMed

Specification of human exposure limits to compounds with toxicities based on modes of action that allow considerations of a threshold and the safe estimation of a no-observed-effect level (NOEL) is normally based on acceptable daily intake (ADI) or permitted daily exposure (PDE) calculations using appropriate safety factors to account for differences between species, populations, length of observation and severity of lesions. In view of the reliable experimental evidence for a thresholded dose response of the genotoxicity of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) as reported in this special issue of Toxicology Letters such an acceptable daily intake proposal is made using the approach for setting permitted daily exposure limits outlined in appendix 3 of the ICH Q3C consensus guideline on residual solvents in pharmaceuticals (ICH, 2005). Up to now the specification of EMS exposure limits was based on the generic threshold of toxicological concern (TTC)-derived limit of 1.5mug/person/day as advocated by the CHMP [CHMP, 2006. Guideline on the limits of genotoxic impurities. www.emea.europa.eu/pdfs/human/swp/519902en.pdf (June 28, 2006) with Q&A www.emea.europa.eu/pdfs/human/swp/43199407en.pdf (June 25, 2008)] or on as low as technically achievable criteria. Such limits have been based on conservative linear dose-effect extrapolations corresponding to an excess cancer risk of 1 in 100,000. We now present an EMS-specific PDE based on the reliable demonstration of a NOEL for induction of mutations in vivo of 25mg/kg/day. Using the most conservative safety factors described in ICH Q3C we derive a PDE of approximately 100 microg/person/day using product safety factors still amounting to 12,000. PMID:19857798

Müller, Lutz; Gocke, Elmar

2009-11-12

259

Intake and body burden of dioxin-like compounds in Germany: the INES study.  

PubMed

The human body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and the dietary intake of dl-PCB were investigated in Germany. In total, 50 adults (between 14 and 60 years old) were recruited, and duplicate diet samples were collected over seven consecutive days from each participant. Blood samples were acquired from 48 participants. Seventeen PCDD/Fs and 12 dl-PCBs (non- and mono-ortho congeners) were measured in the blood, and all dl-PCBs were measured in duplicate diet portions. Daily intake via food was calculated by multiplying the measured concentrations by the consumption data. Median (95th percentile) concentrations in the blood (expressed as WHO-TEQ) for PCDD/Fs, non-ortho PCBs and mono-ortho PCBs were 10.1 (25.0) pg g(-1) lipid, 4.2 (14.9) pg g(-1) lipid and 4.5 (14.2) pg g(-1) lipid, respectively. The contribution of mono-ortho PCBs and non-ortho PCBs to total TEQ was 25% and 24%, respectively. For each study subject, median intake levels for seven consecutive days were calculated. From these data, the median (95th percentile) daily intake via food was 0.12 (0.32) pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w. for non-ortho congeners and 0.06 (0.12) pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w. for the mono-ortho congeners. PCB 126, PCB 118 and PCB 156 accounted for about 93% of the total PCB intake. Our study indicates that dl-PCB exposure in adults consuming a normal mixed diet is quite low at present in Germany. The median and maximum daily intake contributed to 10% and 25% to the tolerable daily intake recommended for total PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. PMID:19665752

Fromme, Hermann; Albrecht, Michael; Boehmer, Sigrun; Büchner, Kerstin; Mayer, Richard; Liebl, Bernhard; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Bolte, Gabriele

2009-09-01

260

The effect of (?)-hydroxycitrate on energy intake and satiety in overweight humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Assessment of the effects of 2 weeks of daily administration of HCA on energy intake and satiety in overweight men and women.Design: A 6-week randomized placebo-controlled single-blinded cross-over trial. Subjects consumed three times daily for 2 weeks 100 ml tomato juice (placebo) and, separated by a 2 week wash-out period, 100 ml tomato juice with 300 mg HCA.Subjects: Twelve

Westerterp-Plantenga; EMR Kovacs

2002-01-01

261

Food control surveys of polychlorinated dibenzo?p?dioxins and dibenzofurans and intake estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several countries have congener?specific data on polychlorinated dibenzo?p?dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) in basic foods as well as calculations of the daily exposure to PCDD\\/F through food. In many countries the total daily intake is of the same level, close to 2 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ)\\/kg bw\\/day. The highest concentrations of chlorinated dioxins and furans have been measured in fish

A. Hallikainen; T. Vartiainen

1997-01-01

262

Usual Dietary Intakes: Further Information  

Cancer.gov

Freedman LS, Midthune D, Carroll RJ, Krebs-Smith S, Subar AF, Troiano RP, Dodd K, Schatzkin A, Bingham SA, Ferrari P, Kipnis V. Adjustments to improve the estimation of usual dietary intake distributions in the population.

263

Dietary calcium intake and obesity.  

PubMed

Obesity is increasing in the United States in epidemic proportions. Epidemiologic data suggest that people with high calcium intake have a lower prevalence of overweight, obesity, and insulin resistance syndrome. Studies in transgenic mice have demonstrated that calcium influences adipocyte metabolism. High calcium intake depresses levels of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-hydroxy vitamin D. These decreased hormone levels cause decreases in intracellular calcium, thereby inhibiting lipogenesis and stimulating lipolysis. High dietary calcium intakes also increases excretion of fecal fat and may increase core body temperature. Calcium from dairy products seems to have more of an impact than calcium from dietary supplements. Primary care providers should include recommendations about adequate calcium intake in standard dietary counseling about weight management. PMID:15879568

Schrager, Sarina

2005-01-01

264

Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

1980-01-01

265

Methods to increase fruit and vegetable intake with and without a decrease in fat intake: compliance and effects on body weight in the nutrition and breast health study.  

PubMed

Dietary patterns that involve a decrease in fat and an increase in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake have been suggested to decrease cancer risks. In this study, intervention methods to selectively modify dietary fat and/or FV intakes were developed. Compliance to the diets and the effects on body weight are shown, because both of these dietary changes can impact on and be confounded by changes in energy intake. A total of 122 women with a family history of breast cancer were randomized onto one of four diets for 12 mo. Counseling methods were devised to increase amount and variety of FV consumed with or without a decrease in fat intake using modified exchange list diets. Women on the low-fat and combination low-fat/high-FV diet arms decreased their fat intakes to approximately 16% of energy. Women on the high-FV and the combination low-fat/high-FV diet arms increased FV intakes to approximately 11 servings/day. Despite counseling efforts to maintain baseline energy intakes, mean body weight increased significantly by 6 pounds in women in the high-FV diet arm and decreased significantly by 5 pounds in women in the low-fat diet arm. Percent body fat also was increased in the high-FV diet arm and decreased in the low-fat diet arm. Body weight and percent body fat in the combination diet arm did not change significantly. Control of energy intake, therefore, appears to have been achieved only when the addition of FV to the diet was balanced by a decrease in fat intake and both dietary components were enumerated daily. Maintenance of energy intake, therefore, did not appear to be attained intrinsically when individuals were counseled to make changes in the composition of their diets. PMID:12588694

Djuric, Zora; Poore, Kathleen M; Depper, Janice B; Uhley, Virginia E; Lababidi, Samir; Covington, Chandice; Klurfeld, David M; Simon, Michael S; Kucuk, Omer; Heilbrun, Lance K

2002-01-01

266

Usual Intake of Cured meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Cured meat Table A25. Cured meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.04) 0.2 (0.04) 0.3

267

Protein leverage and energy intake.  

PubMed

Increased energy intakes are contributing to overweight and obesity. Growing evidence supports the role of protein appetite in driving excess intake when dietary protein is diluted (the protein leverage hypothesis). Understanding the interactions between dietary macronutrient balance and nutrient-specific appetite systems will be required for designing dietary interventions that work with, rather than against, basic regulatory physiology. Data were collected from 38 published experimental trials measuring ad libitum intake in subjects confined to menus differing in macronutrient composition. Collectively, these trials encompassed considerable variation in percent protein (spanning 8-54% of total energy), carbohydrate (1.6-72%) and fat (11-66%). The data provide an opportunity to describe the individual and interactive effects of dietary protein, carbohydrate and fat on the control of total energy intake. Percent dietary protein was negatively associated with total energy intake (F?=?6.9, P?intake will inform the design of effective and health-promoting weight loss diets, food labelling policies, food production systems and regulatory frameworks. PMID:24588967

Gosby, A K; Conigrave, A D; Raubenheimer, D; Simpson, S J

2014-03-01

268

Science Daily: Physics of Sailing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video podcast from Science Daily magazine explores the physics principles that enable modern sailboats to move faster than the wind. Physicist Bryon Anderson, Kent State University, explains the secret that many novice sailors do not know: a sailboat goes fastest when the wind blows from the side, not from directly behind the craft. Dr. Anderson discusses the physics involved, while the video provides illustrations of the interacting forces. Science Daily is a web-based magazine that delivers timely news about discoveries in science and technology, appropriate for all audiences. The web site archives contain more than 40,000 resources that cover all strands of the sciences.

2011-10-01

269

Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice. PMID:24095933

Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

2014-01-17

270

Limits to sustained energy intake. XVI. Body temperature and physical activity of female mice during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of mammalian reproduction, and lactation performance may be affected by events during pregnancy. For example, food intake may be limited in late pregnancy by competition for space in the abdomen between the alimentary tract and fetuses. Hence, females may need to compensate their energy budgets during pregnancy by reducing activity and lowering body temperature. We explored the relationships between energy intake, body mass, body temperature and physical activity throughout pregnancy in the MF1 mouse. Food intake and body mass of 26 females were recorded daily throughout pregnancy. Body temperature and physical activity were monitored every minute for 23 h a day by implanted transmitters. Body temperature and physical activity declined as pregnancy advanced, while energy intake and body mass increased. Compared with a pre-mating baseline period, mice increased energy intake by 56% in late pregnancy. Although body temperature declined as pregnancy progressed, this served mostly to reverse an increase between baseline and early pregnancy. Reduced physical activity may compensate the energy budget of pregnant mice but body temperature changes do not. Over the last 3 days of pregnancy, food intake declined. Individual variation in energy intake in the last phase of pregnancy was positively related to litter size at birth. As there was no association between the increase in body mass and the decline in intake, we suggest the decline was not caused by competition for abdominal space. These data suggest overall reproductive performance is probably not constrained by events during pregnancy. PMID:23720802

Gamo, Yuko; Bernard, Amelie; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hambly, Catherine; Al Jothery, Aqeel; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

2013-06-15

271

The relationship between water intake and foetal growth and preterm delivery in a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Interpretation of previous associations between water intake and adverse birth outcomes is challenging given that amount and type of water consumed can be non-specific markers of exposure or underlying behavioural characteristics. We examined the relationship between water intake measures and adverse birth outcomes in participants from three study sites in the United States. Methods Using a prospective cohort study, we examined daily intake of bottled, cold tap, total tap, and total water in relation to birth weight and risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) among term births and risk of preterm delivery. Results Based on water consumption data collected between 20-24 weeks of gestation, the adjusted mean birth weight was 27 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -34, 87), 39 (95% CI: -22, 99), and 50 (95% CI: -11, 110) grams higher for the upper three total water intake quartiles (> 51-78, > 78-114, and > 114 ounces/day) compared to the lowest quartile (? 51 ounces/day). Adjusted birth weight results were similar for bottled water, cold tap water, and total tap water intake. An exposure-response gradient was not detected for either preterm delivery or SGA with increasing total water intake and total tap water intake, but adjusted relative risks for all three upper quartiles were below 1.0 (range: 0.6-0.9) for SGA. Conclusion These data suggest that high water intake may be associated with higher mean birth weight following adjustment for confounding.

2010-01-01

272

BACLOFEN-INDUCED REDUCTIONS IN OPTIONAL FOOD INTAKE DEPEND UPON FOOD COMPOSITION  

PubMed Central

Baclofen reduces intake of some foods but stimulates intake or has no effect on others. The reasons for these differences are not known. The present study examined effects of baclofen when composition, energy density, preference, presentation and intake of optional foods varied. Semi-solid fat emulsions and sucrose products were presented for brief periods to non-food-deprived rats. In Experiment 1, fat and sucrose composition were varied while controlling energy density. In Experiment 2A, schedule of access and the number of optional foods were varied. In Experiment 2B, the biopolymer (thickener) was examined. Baclofen reduced intake of fat and/or sugar options with different energy densities (1.28-9 kcal/g), when presented daily or intermittently, and when intakes were relatively high or low. However, the efficacy of baclofen was affected by the biopolymer used to thicken the options: baclofen had no effect when options were thickened with one biopolymer (3173), but reduced intake when options were thickened with another biopolymer (515). Baclofen failed to reduce intake of a concentrated sugar option (64% sucrose), regardless of biopolymer. Based upon these results, caution is urged when interpreting results obtained with products using different thickening agents. Systematic research is needed when designing products used in rat models of food intake.

Wojnicki, F.H.E.; Charny, G.; Corwin, R.L.W

2013-01-01

273

Dietary intake of vitamin D during adolescence and risk of multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Adolescence may be an important etiological period in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS), and studies suggest that adequate vitamin D nutrition is protective. Here, the authors examined whether dietary intake of vitamin D during adolescence decreases the risk of MS in adulthood. In 1986 in the Nurses' Health Study and in 1998 in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII), women completed a food frequency questionnaire regarding their dietary intake during adolescence. From this, daily intake of vitamin D was calculated. Adolescent diet was available for 379 incident MS cases confirmed over the combined 44 years of follow-up in both cohorts, and for 67 prevalent cases in the NHSII who had MS at baseline (1989). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals. Total vitamin D intake during adolescence was not associated with MS risk. Intake of ? 400 IU/day of vitamin D from multivitamins was associated with a non-statistically significant reduced risk (RR compared to no intake = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.50-1.07, P = 0.11), whereas intake of whole milk, an important source of dietary vitamin D, was associated with an increased risk. The possibility of opposite effects of vitamin D and milk intake on MS risk should be considered in future studies. PMID:20945071

Munger, Kassandra L; Chitnis, Tanuja; Frazier, A Lindsay; Giovannucci, Edward; Spiegelman, Donna; Ascherio, Alberto

2011-03-01

274

Lactation in the horse: milk composition and intake by foals.  

PubMed

Milk samples averaging 500 ml were collected weekly from 10 to 54 days postpartum from five lactating mares. Samples were obtained by hand milking after oxytocin administration and while the foal nursed. Dry matter, protein and gross energy were higher in samples obtained at 10 and 17 days postpartum than those obtained during the midlactation period of 24-54 days. Midlactation samples averaged 10.5% dry matter, 1.29% fat, 1.93% protein, 6.91% sugar and 50.6 kcal/100 g. Protein comprised 22% of milk energy. Milk intake was estimated in five foals from deuterium oxide (D2O) turnover to be 16, 15 and 18 kg/day at 11, 25 and 39 days postpartum. Milk intake differed significantly among foals and at the various postpartum ages, whether intake was expressed as a daily amount, as a percent of foal body weight, per kilogram0.75 or per gram of foal body weight gain. Milk production was equivalent to 3.1% of the mare's body weight at 11 days postpartum, 2.9% at 25 days and 3.4% at 39 days. On the basis of metabolic body size milk output by the mare was 149 g/kg0.75, 139 g/kg0.75 and 163 g/kg0.75 at 11, 25 and 39 days postpartum, respectively. Nutrient intakes by foals were calculated from milk composition and intake data. At 11, 25 and 39 days postpartum, respectively, dry matter intake equaled 3.1, 2.1 and 2.0% of foal body weight, and daily gross energy intake was 9380, 7590 and 8910 kcal. For each gram of body weight gain, foals ingested 0.37 g protein and 8.3 kcal at 11 days, 0.26 g protein and 6.7 kcal at 25 days, and 0.30 g protein and 7.8 kcal at 39 days of age. PMID:6619986

Oftedal, O T; Hintz, H F; Schryver, H F

1983-10-01

275

Estimation of boron intake and its relation with bone mineral density in free-living Korean female subjects.  

PubMed

In this study, the status of boron intake was evaluated and its relation with bone mineral density was examined among free-living female subjects in Korea. Boron intake was estimated through the use of the database of boron content in frequently consumed foods by Korean people as well as measuring bone mineral density, taking anthropometric measurements, and surveying dietary intake of 134 adult females in order to relatively evaluate the intake of boron as a nutrient to supplement the low level of calcium intake and to verify its relationship with bone mineral density. Average age, height, and weight of the subjects were respectively 40.84 years, 157.62 cm and 59.70 kg. Also, average bone mineral density of lumbar spine L1-L4 and average bone mineral density of the femoral neck were 0.92 g/cm(2) and 0.80 g/cm(2), respectively. Their average intakes of energy and boron per day were 6,538.53 kJ and 926.94 microg. Intake of boron through vegetables, fruits, and cereals accounted for 61.72% of the overall boron intake. The food item that contributed most to their daily boron intake was rice. Also, 65.41% of overall boron intake was from 30 varieties of other food items, such as soybean paste, soybeans, red beans, watermelons, oriental melons, pears, Chinese cabbage Kimchi, soybean sprouts and soybean milk, etc. Boron intake did not show significant relation to bone mineral density in lumbar vertebra and femoral region. In summary, the average daily intake of boron was 926.94 microg and did not display significant relation to bone mineral density in 134 free-living female subjects. The continuous evaluation of boron consumption by more diverse targets will need to be conducted in the future. PMID:18575817

Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung; Lee, Yoon-Shin; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

2008-12-01

276

Variable Iodine Intake Persists in the Context of Universal Salt Iodization in China123  

PubMed Central

Iodine deficiency disorders were prevalent in China until the introduction of universal salt iodization in 1995. Concerns have recently arisen about possible excess iodine intake in this context. To document iodine intake and the contribution from iodized salt in China, we surveyed dietary iodine intake during China’s nationally representative 2007 total diet study (TDS) and during an additional TDS in 4 coastal provinces and Beijing in 2009. Iodine intake was broken down by age and sex in 2009. Mean daily iodine and salt intake and the contribution from different food and beverage groups (and in 2009, individual items) was measured. The iodine in food cooked with iodized and noniodized salt was also assessed. The mean calculated iodine intake of a standard male in China was 425 ?g/d in 2007 and 325 ?g/d in coastal areas in 2009, well below the upper limit (UL) in all provinces. In 2009, iodine intake was above the UL in only 1–7% of age-sex groups, except among children (18–19%). A concerning number of individuals consumed less than the WHO-recommended daily allowance, including 31.5% of adult women. Salt contributed 63.5% of food iodine, and 24.6% of salt iodine was lost in cooking. Overall salt consumption declined between the surveys. Salt iodization assures iodine nutrition in China where environmental iodine is widely lacking. The risk of iodine excess is low, but planned decreases in salt iodization levels may increase the existing risk of inadequate intake. Regular monitoring of urinary iodine and more research on the impact of excess iodine intake is recommended.

Wu, Yongning; Li, Xiaowei; Chang, Suying; Liu, Liping; Zou, Shurong; Hipgrave, David Barry

2012-01-01

277

Intakes of Vegetables and Fruits are Negatively Correlated with Risk of Stroke in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Stroke is a leading cause of death. Current therapeutic strategies have been unsuccessful. Several studies have reported benefits on reducing stroke risk and improving the poststroke associated functional declines in patients who ate foods rich in fruits and vegetables. Their potential protective effects may be due to their antioxidants, calcium, potassium, riboflavine, peridoxin, riboflavin contents. Folic acid, peridoxin, and riboflavin are all cofactors in hyperhomocysteinemia as a stroke risk factor.Studies suggest that oxidative stress plays important roles in pathogenesis of ischemic cerebral injury and higher intake of antioxidants has been associated with a lower stroke risk. The aim of this study was to examine if the dietary intake of vegetables and fruits in patients with stroke were comparatively worse than those in patients without stroke. Methods: In this case control study, 93 stroke patients admitted to Alzahra hospital were matched for age and sex with 60 patients who were not affected with acute cerebrovascular diseases and did not have a history of stroke. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire.Food intakes were compared between two groups and with recommended value. Results: Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits was more in male with stroke than male without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was higher in male with stroke.Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits were lower in women with stroke than women without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was lower in women with stroke Conclusions: Our findings suggest that increased vegetable and fruits intake may be associated with decreased risk of stroke

Hariri, Mitra; Darvishi, Leila; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Khorvash, Fariborz; Aghaei, Mahmud; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

2013-01-01

278

The effectiveness of a short food frequency questionnaire in determining vitamin D intake in children  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children, yet few validated dietary vitamin D assessment tools are available for use in children. Our objective was to determine whether a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) can effectively assess vitamin D intake in children. Vitamin D intake ascertained by a SFFQ was compared with assessments by a previously validated long food frequency questionnaire (LFFQ) in a population of 296 healthy 6- to 14-y-old children (54% male, 60% African American) from Pittsburgh, PA. The questionnaires were completed at two points 6 mo apart. Median reported daily vitamin D intake from the SFFQ (baseline: 380 IU, follow-up: 363 IU) was higher than the LFFQ (255 IU and 254 IU, respectively). Reported median dairy intake, including milk, cheese, and yogurt, was 3.7 cups/day, which meets the USDA recommendation for children. Vitamin D intake reported by the 2 questionnaires was modestly correlated at baseline and follow-up (r = 0.35 and r = 0.37, respectively; p < 0.001). These associations were stronger in Caucasians (r = 0.48 and r = 0.49, p < 0.001) than in African Americans (r = 0.27 and r = 0.31; p = 0.001). The sensitivity of the SFFQ for predicting daily vitamin D intake, defined as intake of ? 400 IU on both the SFFQ and LFFQ, was 65%. Specificity, defined as intake of < 400 IU on both questionnaires, was 42%. Vitamin D requirements may not be met despite adequate consumption of dairy products. The SFFQ was found to be a modestly valid and sensitive tool for dietary assessment of vitamin D intake in children.

Nucci, Anita M.; Russell, Caitlin Sundby; Luo, Ruiyan; Ganji, Vijay; Olabopo, Flora; Hopkins, Barbara; Holick, Michael F.; Rajakumar, Kumaravel

2013-01-01

279

The effectiveness of a short food frequency questionnaire in determining vitamin D intake in children.  

PubMed

Previous studies have found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children, yet few validated dietary vitamin D assessment tools are available for use in children. Our objective was to determine whether a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) can effectively assess vitamin D intake in children. Vitamin D intake ascertained by a SFFQ was compared with assessments by a previously validated long food frequency questionnaire (LFFQ) in a population of 296 healthy 6- to 14-y-old children (54% male, 60% African American) from Pittsburgh, PA. The questionnaires were completed at two points 6 mo apart. Median reported daily vitamin D intake from the SFFQ (baseline: 380 IU, follow-up: 363 IU) was higher than the LFFQ (255 IU and 254 IU, respectively). Reported median dairy intake, including milk, cheese, and yogurt, was 3.7 cups/day, which meets the USDA recommendation for children. Vitamin D intake reported by the 2 questionnaires was modestly correlated at baseline and follow-up (r = 0.35 and r = 0.37, respectively; p < 0.001). These associations were stronger in Caucasians (r = 0.48 and r = 0.49, p < 0.001) than in African Americans (r = 0.27 and r = 0.31; p = 0.001). The sensitivity of the SFFQ for predicting daily vitamin D intake, defined as intake of ? 400 IU on both the SFFQ and LFFQ, was 65%. Specificity, defined as intake of < 400 IU on both questionnaires, was 42%. Vitamin D requirements may not be met despite adequate consumption of dairy products. The SFFQ was found to be a modestly valid and sensitive tool for dietary assessment of vitamin D intake in children. PMID:24494056

Nucci, Anita M; Russell, Caitlin Sundby; Luo, Ruiyan; Ganji, Vijay; Olabopo, Flora; Hopkins, Barbara; Holick, Michael F; Rajakumar, Kumaravel

2013-01-01

280

Variable iodine intake persists in the context of universal salt iodization in China.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency disorders were prevalent in China until the introduction of universal salt iodization in 1995. Concerns have recently arisen about possible excess iodine intake in this context. To document iodine intake and the contribution from iodized salt in China, we surveyed dietary iodine intake during China's nationally representative 2007 total diet study (TDS) and during an additional TDS in 4 coastal provinces and Beijing in 2009. Iodine intake was broken down by age and sex in 2009. Mean daily iodine and salt intake and the contribution from different food and beverage groups (and in 2009, individual items) was measured. The iodine in food cooked with iodized and noniodized salt was also assessed. The mean calculated iodine intake of a standard male in China was 425 ?g/d in 2007 and 325 ?g/d in coastal areas in 2009, well below the upper limit (UL) in all provinces. In 2009, iodine intake was above the UL in only 1-7% of age-sex groups, except among children (18-19%). A concerning number of individuals consumed less than the WHO-recommended daily allowance, including 31.5% of adult women. Salt contributed 63.5% of food iodine, and 24.6% of salt iodine was lost in cooking. Overall salt consumption declined between the surveys. Salt iodization assures iodine nutrition in China where environmental iodine is widely lacking. The risk of iodine excess is low, but planned decreases in salt iodization levels may increase the existing risk of inadequate intake. Regular monitoring of urinary iodine and more research on the impact of excess iodine intake is recommended. PMID:22810983

Wu, Yongning; Li, Xiaowei; Chang, Suying; Liu, Liping; Zou, Shurong; Hipgrave, David Barry

2012-09-01

281

First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study)  

PubMed Central

Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ? 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M. M.; van den Bergh, Joop P. W.; Niesten, Dieu Donne; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H.

2014-01-01

282

Dietary intake of essential minor and trace elements from Asian diets.  

PubMed

In view of the limited data available from the Asian region on the daily intake of nutritionally essential trace elements, a study was taken up, as part of a coordinated research project of the International Atomic Energy Agency, to estimate the daily dietary intake and organ content of some selected trace elements of importance in radiation protection, and also in nutrition. Nine Asian countries--Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Vietnam--which represented more than 50% of the world's population, participated in this study. Analysis of about 700 diet samples was carried out for four minor (calcium, potassium, magnesium, and sodium) and eight trace (chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, iodine, manganese, selenium, and zinc) elements using nuclear and other sensitive analytical methods employing neutron activation analysis (NAA), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) techniques. These samples consisted of the total cooked diet, market basket, duplicate diets, and 225 staple foods. Emphasis was placed on the quality assurance and harmonization of the sampling techniques to ensure quality data. Significant inter- and intra-country variations in daily dietary intake of various trace elements were observed. The maximum inter-country variation was observed for iodine intake (factor of more than 45), being highest for Japan and lowest for Pakistan. For iron, an important trace element, the variation between the intakes was by a factor of four being lowest for Vietnam and highest for Pakistan. PMID:12362779

Iyengar, G Venkatesh; Kawamura, Hisao; Parr, Robert M; Miah, Farin K; Wang, Ji-xian; Dang, Harminder S; Djojosubroto, Harjojoto; Cho, Seung-Yeon; Akher, Perveen; Natera, Erlinda S; Nguyen, Mong Sinh; Nguy, Mong Sinh

2002-09-01

283

HABITUAL FLAVONOID INTAKE AND ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION IN HEALTHY HUMANS  

PubMed Central

Objective Endothelial function, as measured by non-invasive techniques, is known to vary widely within populations. Our study was designed to test the hypothesis that this variation is determined in large part by a person’s habitual dietary intake of flavonoids. Methods This was an analytical study examining the relationship between endothelial function and dietary flavonoids in 19 healthy older adults (mean age 72 years). The study took place in the inpatient Clinical Research Center of the Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Habitual flavonoid intake was assessed via a focused food frequency questionnaire. Endothelial function, measured as the reactive hyperemia response to one dose of flavonoid-rich cocoa, was recorded with a plethysmograpic device via peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT). Results Background flavonoid intake and the reactive hyperemia (RH)-PAT response were significantly correlated (r=0.7, p=0.001); subjects with higher habitual flavonoid intake showed a significantly greater RH-PAT response than did lower consumers. PAT response to cocoa was also significantly correlated with simultaneous flavanol concentration in the blood (r=0.5, p=0.03). Conclusion Individual variation in endothelial function among healthy older people, measured as PAT response to flavonoid-rich cocoa, is highly dependent upon usual daily flavonoid consumption. These data raise the possibility that the consumption of fruits and vegetables dictates basal endothelial function, likely related to their flavonoid content and influence on nitric oxide.

Fisher, Naomi DL; Hurwitz, Shelley; Hollenberg, Norman K

2013-01-01

284

Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans.  

PubMed

Nine male research volunteers, in three groups of three subjects each, resided in a residential laboratory for up to 25 days. All contact with the experimenter was through a networked computer system and subjects' behaviors including food intake were continuously recorded. Subjects brought their own activities such as model-making, and these in combination with those provided by the laboratory resulted in rich behavior repertoires. During the first part of the day, subjects remained in their private rooms doing planned work activities, and during the remainder of the day, they were allowed to socialize. Cigarettes containing active marijuana (1.84% THC) or placebo were smoked prior to the private work period and during the social access period. A single active marijuana cigarette prior to the private work period had no effect on food intake. The administration of two or three active marijuana cigarettes during the social access period increased average daily caloric intake. The increased intake was due to an augmentation of calories consumed as between-meal snack items rather than an increase in meal size per se. PMID:3774823

Foltin, R W; Brady, J V; Fischman, M W

1986-09-01

285

Web searching for daily living  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new concept proposed in this paper is a query free web search that automatically retrieves a web page including information re- lated to the daily activity that we are currently engaged in for auto- matically displaying the page on Internet-connected domestic ap- pliances around us such as televisions. When we are washing a coffee maker, for example, a web

Takuya Maekawa; Yutaka Yanagisawa; Yasushi Sakurai; Yasue Kishino; Koji Kamei; Takeshi Okadome

2009-01-01

286

Analysis of daily temperature fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study daily temperature fluctuations over more than 50 yr in two places on the globe that are separated by more than 3000 km. We analyze the temperature fluctuations ?Ti with respect to the mean noon temperature ?Ti? averaged, for each day of the year, over the whole year, ?Ti = Ti ? ?Ti?. We find that the ?Ti are

Eva Koscielny-Bunde; Armin Bunde; Shlomo Havlin; Yair Goldreich

1996-01-01

287

Daily Feeding of Fructooligosaccharide or Glucomannan Delays Onset of Senescence in SAMP8 Mice  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that daily intake of nondigestible saccharides delays senescence onset through the improvement of intestinal microflora. Here, we raised senescence accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) on the AIN93 diet (CONT), with sucrose being substituted for 5% of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) or 5% of glucomannan (GM), 15 mice per group. Ten SAMR1 were raised as reference of normal aging with control diet. Grading of senescence was conducted using the method developed by Hosokawa, and body weight, dietary intake, and drinking water intake were measured on alternate days. Following 38 weeks of these diets we evaluated learning and memory abilities using a passive avoidance apparatus and investigated effects on the intestinal microflora, measured oxidative stress markers, and inflammatory cytokines. Continuous intake of FOS and GM significantly enhanced learning and memory ability and decelerated senescence development when compared with the CONT group. Bifidobacterium levels were significantly increased in FOS and GM-fed mice. Urinary 8OHdG, 15-isoprostane, serum TNF-?, and IL-6 were also lower in FOS-fed mice, while IL-10 in FOS and GM groups was higher than in CONT group. These findings suggest that daily intake of nondigestible saccharides delays the onset of senescence via improvement of intestinal microflora.

Kondo, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshitake; Tanabe, Kenichi; Kawahashi-Tokuhisa, Miho; Yui, Katsuyuki; Miyakoda, Mana; Oku, Tsuneyuki

2014-01-01

288

Daily Feeding of Fructooligosaccharide or Glucomannan Delays Onset of Senescence in SAMP8 Mice.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that daily intake of nondigestible saccharides delays senescence onset through the improvement of intestinal microflora. Here, we raised senescence accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) on the AIN93 diet (CONT), with sucrose being substituted for 5% of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) or 5% of glucomannan (GM), 15 mice per group. Ten SAMR1 were raised as reference of normal aging with control diet. Grading of senescence was conducted using the method developed by Hosokawa, and body weight, dietary intake, and drinking water intake were measured on alternate days. Following 38 weeks of these diets we evaluated learning and memory abilities using a passive avoidance apparatus and investigated effects on the intestinal microflora, measured oxidative stress markers, and inflammatory cytokines. Continuous intake of FOS and GM significantly enhanced learning and memory ability and decelerated senescence development when compared with the CONT group. Bifidobacterium levels were significantly increased in FOS and GM-fed mice. Urinary 8OHdG, 15-isoprostane, serum TNF- ? , and IL-6 were also lower in FOS-fed mice, while IL-10 in FOS and GM groups was higher than in CONT group. These findings suggest that daily intake of nondigestible saccharides delays the onset of senescence via improvement of intestinal microflora. PMID:24987410

Nakamura, Sadako; Kondo, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshitake; Hashiguchi, Michiru; Tanabe, Kenichi; Ushiroda, Chihiro; Kawahashi-Tokuhisa, Miho; Yui, Katsuyuki; Miyakoda, Mana; Oku, Tsuneyuki

2014-01-01

289

Caloric Intake and Eating Behavior in Infants and Toddlers With Cystic Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Infants and toddlers with cys- tic fibrosis (CF) are at risk for poor growth. Controlled behavioral assessment studies have not focused on this population. This study compared calorie intake, percent- age of Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) per day and per kilogram, and percentage of calories from fat, protein, and carbohydrates between infants and toddlers with CF and healthy peers.

Scott W. Powers; Susana R. Patton; Kelly C. Byars; Monica J. Mitchell; Elissa Jelalian; Mary M. Mulvihill; Melbourne F. Hovell; Lori J. Stark

2009-01-01

290

CAFFEINE INTAKE AND URINE CAFFEINE CONCENTRATIONS AMONG THAI VOLUNTEERS LIVING IN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine is a psychoactive substance that is not legally regulated. Moreover, it is found in various forms of foodstuff. This study aimed to investigate caffeine intake and knowledge concerning caffeine health effects in a community of Thailand, Nakhonnayok province. A questionnaire was used to survey how people consumed caffeine-containing foodstuff daily. Urine caffeine concentrations analyzed by GC\\/NPD method were used

291

Dietary Iron Intake and Iron Status of German Female Vegans: Results of the German Vegan Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: As shown in previous studies vegetarians and especially vegans are at risk for iron deficiency. Our study evaluated the iron status of German female vegans. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the dietary intakes of 75 vegan women were assessed by two 9-day food frequency questionnaires. The iron status was analyzed on the basis of blood parameters. Results: Mean daily

Annika Waldmann; Jochen W. Koschizke; Claus Leitzmann; Andreas Hahn

2004-01-01

292

Effects of different types of isocaloric parenteral nutrients on food intake and metabolic concomitants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether spontaneous food intake (SFI) is controlled by infused nutrient type or its caloric content, irrespective of nutrient type, was investigated. Rats were infused for 4 days with isocaloric solutions of different nutrient type but sharing the same intermediary metabolic oxidative pathway, providing 25% of daily caloric needs. One parenteral solution was a glucose, fat and amino acid mix (TPN-25%);

Gyorgy Bodoky; Michael M. Meguid; Zhong-Jin Yang; Alessandro Laviano

1995-01-01

293

Effect of varying water intake on renal function in healthy preterm babies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal control of water and electrolyte homeostasis was studied in 10 healthy babies (gestation 29 to 34 weeks; birthweight 1.19 to 2.19 kg) while water intake was varied. Glomerular filtration rate and urine flow were estimated daily from spot plasma and urine samples for six days using a constant inulin infusion, and simultaneous sodium, potassium, osmolar, and free water clearances

M G Coulthard; E N Hey

1985-01-01

294

30 Days in the Life: Daily Nutrient Balancing in a Wild Chacma Baboon  

PubMed Central

For most animals, the ability to regulate intake of specific nutrients is vital to fitness. Recent studies have demonstrated nutrient regulation in nonhuman primates over periods of one observation day, though studies of humans indicate that such regulation extends to longer time frames. Little is known about longer-term regulation in nonhuman primates, however, due to the challenges of multiple-day focal follows. Here we present the first detailed study of nutrient intake across multiple days in a wild nonhuman primate. We conducted 30 consecutive all day follows on one female chacma baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa. We documented dietary composition, compared the nutritional contribution of natural and human-derived foods to the diet, and quantified nutrient intake using the geometric framework of nutrition. Our focus on a single subject over consecutive days allowed us to examine daily dietary regulation within an individual over time. While the amounts varied daily, our subject maintained a strikingly consistent balance of protein to non-protein (fat and carbohydrate) energy across the month. Human-derived foods, while contributing a minority of the diet, were higher in fat and lower in fiber than naturally-derived foods. Our results demonstrate nutrient regulation on a daily basis in our subject, and demonstrate that she was able to maintain a diet with a constant proportional protein content despite wide variation in the composition of component foods. From a methodological perspective, the results of this study suggest that nutrient intake is best estimated over at least an entire day, with longer-term regulatory patterns (e.g., during development and reproduction) possibly requiring even longer sampling. From a management and conservation perspective, it is notable that nearly half the subject’s daily energy intake derived from exotic foods, including those currently being eradicated from the study area for replacement by indigenous vegetation.

Johnson, Caley A.; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M.; Clarke, David; Swedell, Larissa

2013-01-01

295

Exposure to phthalates in 5–6 years old primary school starters in Germany—A human biomonitoring study and a cumulative risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the internal exposure of 111 German primary school starters by analyzing urinary metabolites of six phthalates: butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-iso-decylphthalate (DiDP). From the urinary metabolite levels, we calculated daily intakes and related these values to Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values. By introducing the

Holger M. Koch; Matthias Wittassek; Thomas Brüning; Jürgen Angerer; Ursel Heudorf

2011-01-01

296

Electronic aids for daily living.  

PubMed

Electronic aids to daily living (EADLs) are devices that facilitate the operation of electrical appliances in a given environment for a person with a severe physical disability. These specialized devices can provide tremendous psychological and functional benefits to someone with a severe disability, their family members and caregivers. This article provides an overview of the utility, functionality, access, acquisition, and evaluation of EADLs. It also highlights challenges in obtaining and measuring the benefits of these devices. PMID:19951776

Little, Roger

2010-02-01

297

Gender in Spanish Daily Newspapers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the portrayal of women and men in a Spanish daily newspaper and to find whether there\\u000a were gender differences among the authors of the articles in said newspaper. A content analysis was conducted of 4,060 articles\\u000a and advertisements from 24 issues of a randomly selected, large-circulation, Spanish newspaper. Men were found to

M. Pilar Matud; Carmen Rodríguez; Inmaculada Espinosa

2011-01-01

298

Nutrient Intake From Habitual Oral Diet in Patients With Severe Short Bowel Syndrome Living in the Southeastern United States  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Little data are published on habitual home oral diet of short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients living in the United States. Methods We assessed habitual macro-and micronutrient intake from oral food and beverages in 19 stable patients with severe SBS who live in the Southeastern United States. Intestinal absorption of energy, fat, nitrogen (N) and carbohydrate (CHO) was determined in a metabolic ward setting. Results We studied 12 women and 7 men, age 48±3 years (mean±SE) receiving chronic PN for 31±8 months following massive small bowel resection (118±25 cm residual small bowel). Patients had intact (N=5), partial (N=9), or no residual colon (N=5). The subjects demonstrated severe malabsorption of energy (59±3% of oral intake), fat (41±5%), N (42±5%) and CHO (76±3%). Average oral energy intake was 2656±242 kcal/day (39±3 kcal/kg/day) and oral protein intake was 1.4 ±0.1 g/kg/d. Oral food/beverage intake constituted 49±4% of total (enteral + parenteral) daily fluid intake, 66±4% of total daily kcal and 58±5% of total daily N intake. Oral fat intake averaged 92±11g/day (? 35% of total oral energy). Oral fluid intake averaged 2712±240 ml/d, primarily from water, soft drinks, sweet tea and coffee. Simple sugars comprised 42±3% of oral CHO intake. Usual dietary intake of multiple micronutrients were below the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in a large percentage of patients: vitamin A (47%), vitamin D (79%), vitamin E (79%), vitamin K (63%), thiamine (42%), vitamin B6 (68%), vitamin B12 (11%), vitamin C (58%), folate (37%), iron (37%), calcium (63%), magnesium (79%) and zinc (68%). Only 7 patients (37%) were taking oral multivitamin-mineral supplements and only 6 subjects (37%) were taking oral iron and calcium supplements, respectively. Conclusions In these SBS patients living in the Southeastern United States, oral diet provides a significant proportion of daily nutrient intake. However, the types of foods and fluids consumed are likely to worsen malabsorption and increase PN requirements. Oral intake of essential micronutrients was very low in a significant proportion of this cohort of SBS patients.

Fernandez-Estivariz, Concepcion; Luo, Menghua; Umeakunne, Kay; Bazargan, Niloofar; Galloway, John R.; Leader, Lorraine M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

2008-01-01

299

Baclofen has opposite effects on escalation of cocaine self-administration: increased intake in rats selectively bred for high (HiS) saccharin intake and decreased intake in those selected for low (LoS) saccharin intake  

PubMed Central

Rats selectively bred for high saccharin intake (HiS) self-administer more cocaine, escalate their cocaine intake during long access, and reinstate cocaine seeking at higher levels than those bred for low saccharin intake (LoS). The present study was conducted to determine if baclofen, an agonist at the GABAb receptor, has differential effects on the escalation of i.v. cocaine intake and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in HiS and LoS rats. HiS and LoS rats self-administered cocaine during a 2-h daily short-access (ShA) phase for 3 days and then long-access (LgA) sessions for 21 days followed by a second ShA phase. One group of HiS and LoS rats received i.p. injections of 2.5 mg/kg baclofen (HiS+B and LoS+B, respectively), and other groups of HiS and LoS rats received saline (HiS+Sal and LoS+Sal) before each daily session. In a second experiment, HiS and LoS rats self-administered i.v. cocaine during 2-h sessions for 14 days followed by a 21-day extinction period. Baclofen (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline was administered before saline- or cocaine-primed reinstatement sessions. The HiS+B group escalated their cocaine self-administration and had increased cocaine infusions in the post-LgA ShA phase. The LoS+B group self-administered less cocaine throughout the entire LgA period compared to the LoS+Sal or HiS groups. Baclofen attenuated reinstatement of cocaine seeking in both the HiS and LoS rats with no phenotype differences. Baclofen had opposite effects on cocaine intake in HiS and LoS rats during escalation; HiS increased and LoS decreased intake. These results suggest that treatment effects might vary with individual differences (HiS vs. LoS) and the phase of drug-motivated behavior that is modeled.

Holtz, Nathan A.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

2011-01-01

300

Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, US Population, 2001-04  

Cancer.gov

The NCI Method provides the capability, for the first time, to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the US population. This greatly enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

301

Water partitioning and intake prediction in dry and lactating Holstein cows.  

PubMed

Data from four energy and N balance trials with lactating Holstein cows (n = 329) and one trial with dry cows (n = 60) were used to predict free water intake and water-related traits. Lactating cows were between 36 and 159 DIM and, individually, were allowed ad libitum water and forage (corn silage without or with wilted haycrop silage) plus concentrates; dry cows accessed ad libitum water and single forages (grass, clover, or alfalfa, as hays or as wilted silages, or corn silage) varying in maturity. Intake of DM per day and dietary DM percentage were significant and positively related predictors of free water intake in dry and lactating cows. Daily milk yield (range 16 to 52 kg/d) was related linearly to water consumption (.60 L/kg of milk), and season effect in lactating cows was curvilinear; peak water intake was in late June and nadir in late December. Ration CP percentage (DM basis) affected free water intake only in dry cows; 1 unit of increase resulted in an increase of about 1 kg/d in water intake between 12 and 13% CP. As ration moisture dropped from 70 to 40%, free water intake increased about 7 L/d in dry cows, but this was accompanied by a drop of 15 L/d in total water intake (free plus feed water). Free water intakes were predicted with R2 of .64 and .69 in dry and lactating Holstein cows, respectively. Fecal water and urine outputs also were predicted. We found no significant relationship between DM content of the diet and the resulting ad libitum intake in either dry or lactating cows. PMID:1500553

Holter, J B; Urban, W E

1992-06-01

302

Food items contributing most to variation in antioxidant intake; a cross-sectional study among Norwegian women  

PubMed Central

Background Fruit and vegetable intake has been found to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer and diabetes mellitus. It is possible that antioxidants play a large part in this protective effect. However, which foods account for the variation in antioxidant intake in a population is not very clear. We used food frequency data from a population-based sample of women to identify the food items that contributed most to the variation in antioxidant intake in Norwegian diet. Methods We used data from a study conducted among participants in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP), the national program which invites women aged 50–69 years to mammographic screening every 2 years. A subset of 6514 women who attended the screening in 2006/2007 completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Daily intake of energy, nutrients and antioxidant intake were estimated. We used multiple linear regression analysis to capture the variation in antioxidant intake. Results The mean (SD) antioxidant intake was 23.0 (8.5) mmol/day. Coffee consumption explained 54% of the variation in antioxidant intake, while fruits and vegetables explained 22%. The twenty food items that contributed most to the total variation in antioxidant intake explained 98% of the variation in intake. These included different types of coffee, tea, red wine, blueberries, walnuts, oranges, cinnamon and broccoli. Conclusions In this study we identified a list of food items which capture the variation in antioxidant intake among these women. The major contributors to dietary total antioxidant intake were coffee, tea, red wine, blueberries, walnuts, oranges, cinnamon and broccoli. These items should be assessed in as much detail as possible in studies that wish to capture the variation in antioxidant intake.

2014-01-01

303

DAILY INTAKE ESTIMATES OF PBDES ASSOCIATED WITH CONSUMPTION OF CATFISH IN THE U.S.  

EPA Science Inventory

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in a wide variety of consumer products. Concerns surrounding these compounds are primarily due do their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as in human tissue, such as milk, coupled with evidence indi...

304

Amounts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in German foods and evaluation of daily intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantities of the biologically active isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) – C18:2 c9t11 – in 139 German foods were\\u000a analysed by capillary gas chromatography (results are given as a % of all identified fatty acid methyl esters). The CLA content\\u000a ranged from 0.40% (Gouda) to 1.70% (Jurassic cheese, Old Emmentaler) in dairy products, from 0.11% (rabbit) to 1.20%

Jan Fritsche; Hans Steinhart

1998-01-01

305

Concentrations of Trace Elements in Extensively Hydrolysed Infant Formulae and Their Estimated Daily Intakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 18 trace elements Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Cu, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Tl, and Zn were determined in three extensively hydrolysed formulae by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Two formulae were whey hydrolysates, whereas one was based on soy-bovine collagen hydrolysate. Two skim milk powder reference materials, analyzed to ensure the analytical

M. Krachler; E. Rossipal; G. Chan; J. Kerner; S. Kharb; R. Kakkar

2000-01-01

306

Cadmium content in rice and its daily intake in Ghaemshahr region of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation surveyed Cadmium (Cd) content of Iranian rice (oryza saliva) which is predominant rice culture in north of Iran. A total of 60 samples were collected from Ghaemshahr region in Mazandaran province (North of Iran). The samples were collected in during harvesting of rice in field. The first step, grains of raw rice were digested by acid digestion method

Mohammad Ali Zazouli; Mohammad Shokrzadeh; Hassan Izanloo; Somayeh Fathi

307

Daily physical activity patterns of children with delayed eating behaviors.  

PubMed

Night eating syndrome (NES) is a delayed pattern of energy intake. It is unknown if symptoms associated with this syndrome are accompanied by a delayed pattern of physical activity. This study examines the relationship between physical activity patterns and delayed eating behaviors in children. Children from the QUALITY cohort (n = 269, 45% female, aged 8-11 y) completed the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), which measures NES symptoms on a continuous scale and identifies single NES symptoms. Daily accelerometer data were transformed into mean counts per wear-time minute for each hour of the day. Children with high NEQ scores had higher levels of daily (p < 0.001) and evening physical activity (p = 0.05) and reached 75% of their total daily physical activity 20 minutes later than children with low NEQ scores (p < 0.05). Excessive evening snacking and a strong urge to eat in the evening or at night were the symptoms most related to these physical activity patterns. Children with delayed eating behaviors had higher levels of physical activity in the late morning and evening and a delayed physical activity pattern compared to children with no or fewer symptoms. Future research is needed to determine if physical activity plays a role in the onset or maintenance of night eating. PMID:24132059

Gallant, Annette R; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Lundgren, Jennifer D; Allison, Kelly; Tremblay, Angelo; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Drapeau, Vicky

2013-10-01

308

Fluid intake and risk of stress, urgency, and mixed urinary incontinence  

PubMed Central

Objective We investigated the relation between total fluid intake and incident urinary incontinence in the Nurses’ Health Study cohorts. Study Design We measured daily fluid intake using food frequency questionnaires among 65,167 women, aged 37–79 years, without urinary incontinence at study baseline (2000–2001). Women reported incontinence incidence on questionnaires during 4 years of follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results We found no association between total fluid intake and risk of incident incontinence (hazard ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.98–1.10 comparing top versus bottom quintile of fluid intake). In analyses of incontinence type, total fluid intake was not associated with risks of incident stress, urgency, or mixed incontinence. Conclusion No significant risk of incident urinary incontinence was found with higher fluid intake in women. These findings suggest that women should not restrict their fluid intake to prevent incontinence development.

TOWNSEND, Mary K.; JURA, Ying H.; CURHAN, Gary C.; RESNICK, Neil M.; GRODSTEIN, Francine

2011-01-01

309

Water Consumption Reduces Energy Intake at a Breakfast Meal in Obese Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Water consumed before a meal has been found to reduce energy intake among nonobese older adults. However, it is unknown whether this effect is evident among overweight and obese older adults, a population who would benefit from strategies to improve energy intake regulation. Our purpose was to determine whether premeal water consumption reduces meal energy intake in overweight and obese older adults. Twenty-four overweight and obese adults (body mass index=34.3±1.2), mean age 61.3±1.1 years, were given an ad libitum standardized breakfast meal on two randomly assigned occasions. Thirty minutes before the meal, subjects were given either a 500-mL water preload or no preload. Energy intake at each meal was covertly measured. Meal energy intake was significantly less in the water preload condition as compared with the no-preload condition (500±32 vs 574±38, respectively; P=0.004), representing an approximate 13% reduction in meal energy intake. The percentage reduction in meal energy intake following the water preload was not related to sex, age, body mass index, or habitual daily water consumption (all P>0.05). Given the high prevalence of overweight and obesity among older adults, future studies should determine whether premeal water consumption is an effective long-term weight control strategy for older adults.

DAVY, BRENDA M.; DENNIS, ELIZABETH A.; DENGO, A. LAURA; WILSON, KELLY L.; DAVY, KEVIN P.

2009-01-01

310

Associations between whole grain intake, psychosocial variables, and home availability among elementary school children  

PubMed Central

Objective Develop/refine and test psychosocial scales for associations with whole grain intake. Design Cross sectional survey Setting Minneapolis/St. Paul suburban elementary school Participants Children in 4th-6th grades (n=98) and parents (n=76) Variables of Interest Child whole grain intake, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, preferences, knowledge regarding whole grain foods, whole grain availability at home. Analysis Correlation analysis, one-way ANOVA. Findings Internal consistency and test-retest correlation coefficients for child psychosocial scales were modest or acceptable (? = .55-.70). Parents reported a mean of 15 ± 7 whole grain products available at home. Child mean daily intake of total grain was about 8 servings and intake of products containing whole grain was slightly over 2 servings. Reported home availability and refined grain intake were significantly related to whole grain intake while psychosocial variables were not. Conclusions and Implications Home availability may be a more important variable associated with whole grain intake than psychosocial variables.

Rosen, Renee A.; Burgess-Champoux, Teri L.; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla M.

2011-01-01

311

Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

Amschler, Denise H.

1985-01-01

312

Protein intake and ovulatory infertility  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate whether intake of protein from animal and vegetable origin is associated with ovulatory infertility. Study Design 18,555 married women without a history of infertility were followed as they attempted a pregnancy or became pregnant during an eight year period. Dietary assessments were related to the incidence of ovulatory infertility. Results During follow-up, 438 women reported ovulatory infertility. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk [RR] (95% CI; P, trend) of ovulatory infertility comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of animal protein intake was 1.39 (1.01 – 1.90; 0.03). The corresponding RR (95% CI; P, trend) for vegetable protein intake was 0.78 (0.54 – 1.12; 0.07). Further, consuming 5% of total energy intake as vegetable protein rather than as animal protein was associated with a more than 50% lower risk of ovulatory infertility (P = 0.007). Conclusions Replacing animal sources of protein with vegetable sources of protein may reduce ovulatory infertility risk.

Chavarro, Jorge E.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Willett, Walter C.

2011-01-01

313

Food intake, metabolism and homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This tribute to Bart Hoebel briefly reviews the following topics. Metabolic processes are intimately intertwined with food intake as well as drug taking. Changes in any of these processes can be adequately adjusted to the environment to preclude major perturbations in homeostatically-regulated systems, but only if the environment is predictable. Learning plays a critical role in adapting these processes to

Stephen C. Woods; Douglas S. Ramsay

2011-01-01

314

Estimated fluoride intake of 6-month-old infants in four dietary regions of the United States.  

PubMed

Eleven composite food groups comprising the infant "market basket" food collections for 1977 or 1978 from each of four dietary regions of the United States were analyzed for their fluoride content. Based upon the determined fluoride content of each composite and Food and Drug Administration estimates of food consumption the daily fluoride intake of an average 6-month-old infant residing in each of the dietary regions was calculated. The daily fluoride intake varied from 0.207 mg/day in Grand Rapids, Mich. (north central dietary region) to 0.541 mg/day in Orlando, Fla. (south dietary region). Flouride intakes of 0.272 and 0.354 mg/day were calculated for Philadelphia, Pa. (northeast dietary region) and Los Angeles, Calif. (west dietary region), respectively. The fluoride content of the water supplies ranged from 0.37 ppm (Los Angeles) to 1.04 ppm (Grand Rapids). Drinking water, dairy products and substitutes (other than milk), and grain and cereal products contributed 44 to 80% of the daily fluoride intake. In three of the four dietary regions the daily fluoride intake was less than the optimum level of 0.05 mg/kg body weight. PMID:7355802

Ophaug, R H; Singer, L; Harland, B F

1980-02-01

315

Nonlinear optics in daily life.  

PubMed

An overview is presented of the impact of NLO on today's daily life. While NLO researchers have promised many applications, only a few have changed our lives so far. This paper categorizes applications of NLO into three areas: improving lasers, interaction with materials, and information technology. NLO provides: coherent light of different wavelengths; multi-photon absorption for plasma-materials interaction; advanced spectroscopy and materials analysis; and applications to communications and sensors. Applications in information processing and storage seem less mature. PMID:24514630

Garmire, Elsa

2013-12-16

316

Heavy metal and metalloids intake risk assessment in the diet of a rural population living near a gold mine in the Peruvian Andes (Cajamarca).  

PubMed

This study evaluates the diet composition of a rural population near a gold mine in the Cajamarca district of Peru. The main consumed items by this population were tubers and cereals, and the mean energy intake (1990kcal) was shown not to cover the recommended intake values for the male population. The concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Zn, Al, Cr and, Cu in drinking water and food samples of items contributing to 91% of this diet (145 samples, 24 different items) were determined and used to calculate their daily intakes for risk assessment. The As, Cd and Pb daily intakes exceeded the limit values established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), entailing serious concerns for the population's health. Moreover, the intake values of As and Pb were shown to be higher, the closer to the gold mine the studied population was. PMID:24994564

Barenys, Marta; Boix, Nuria; Farran-Codina, Andreu; Palma-Linares, Imma; Montserrat, Roser; Curto, Ariadna; Gomez-Catalan, Jesus; Ortiz, Pedro; Deza, Nilton; Llobet, Juan M

2014-09-01

317

Daily cycles in coastal dunes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

Hunter, R. E.; Richmond, B. M.

1988-01-01

318

Biomonitoring Equivalents for 2,2?,4,4?,5-pentabromodiphenylether (PBDE-99)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration or range of concentrations of a chemical or its metabolite in a biological medium (blood, urine, or other medium) that is consistent with an existing health-based exposure guideline such as a reference dose (RfD) or tolerable daily intake (TDI). BE values can be used as a screening tool for the evaluation of

Kannan Krishnan; Therese Adamou; Lesa L. Aylward; Sean M. Hays; Christopher R. Kirman; Andy Nong

2011-01-01

319

Organotin Levels in Seafood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolerable average residue levels (TARL) for tributylin (TBT) in seafood products were calculated based on the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of TBT and the seafood consumption of the average consumer in various countries. Data from the literature show that these TARLs in seafood are exceeded in one or more samples in nine of the 22 countries for which data were

A. C. Belfroid; M. Purperhart; F. Ariese

2000-01-01

320

[Results of a dietary survey in adults in Erfurt 1991/92: food and supplement intake].  

PubMed

A dietary survey using 3-day weighed records was carried out in the sample of the third MONICA risk-factor-survey in the Thuringian city of Erfurt (former East Germany) in 1991/92 consisting of 1,118 men and 1,179 women aged 20-65 years. Mean daily food intake, the contribution of food groups to nutrient intake and the percentage of participants using supplements are shown here. For instance, men have a mean daily intake of meat and meat products of 199 g, delivering 20.7% of energy, 31.8% of fat and 42.7% of cholesterol. In women 18.6% of energy, 26.8% of fat and 37.2% of cholesterol origin from their mean daily intake of 130 g meat and meat products. Women in older age groups consume distinctly more meat than women in younger age groups. 0.4% of men and 2.6% of women use supplements during their three recording days. PMID:9312947

Winkler, G; Brasche, S; Heinrich, J

1997-06-01

321

Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe.  

PubMed

Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative dietary survey data from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Dietary intake information was evaluated for intakes of Ca, Cu, I, Fe, Mg, K, Se, Zn and the vitamins A, B?, B?, B?, B??, C, D, E and folate. The mean and 5th percentile of the intake distributions were estimated for these countries, for a number of defined sex and age groups. The percentages of those with intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake and the estimated average requirement were calculated. Reference intakes were derived from the UK and Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The impact of dietary supplement intake as well as inclusion of apparently low energy reporters on the estimates was evaluated. Except for vitamin D, the present study suggests that the current intakes of vitamins from foods lead to low risk of low intakes in all age and sex groups. For current minerals, the study suggests that the risk of low intakes is likely to appear more often in specific age groups. In spite of the limitations of the data, the present study provides valuable new information about micronutrient intakes across Europe and the likelihood of inadequacy country by country. PMID:23312136

Mensink, G B M; Fletcher, R; Gurinovic, M; Huybrechts, I; Lafay, L; Serra-Majem, L; Szponar, L; Tetens, I; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Baka, A; Stephen, A M

2013-08-01

322

Current Electrolyte Intakes of Infants and  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine how sodium, chloride, and potas- sium intakes of today's infants and toddlers compare with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) of these nutrients established recently by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Study design Population estimates of usual intake distri- butions of sodium, chloride (assumed to be equamolar to sodium), and potassium of 4-

Toddlers WILLIAM C. HEIRD; PAULA ZIEGLER; KATHLEEN REIDY; RONETTE BRIEFEL

323

Intake Procedures in College Counseling Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intake procedures is the common subject of four papers presented in this booklet. James P. Pappas discusses trends, a decision theory model, information and issues in his article "Intake Procedures in Counseling Centers--Trends and Theory." In the second article "The Utilization of Standardized Tests in Intake Procedures or 'Where's the Post…

Pappas, James P.; And Others

324

[Food intake during the month of Ramadan in Moroccan patients with type 2 diabetes].  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the daily dietary intake of type 2 diabetes patients attending Mohamed VI hospital in Marrakech during Ramadan 2010. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected by interview, and qualitative and quantitative food intake, based on French nutritional tables, was assessed by a dietician. Of the 71 patients recruited, 55% were fasting. The average age of participants was 56.3 (SD 11,2) years. There were no statistically significant clinical differences between the fasting and nonfasting groups except for overweight/obesity and insulin dependence, which were more prevalent in the nonfasting group. The mean total daily caloric intake was significantly lower in the fasting than nonfasting group [1447.5 (SD 756.3) versus 1919.0 (SD 823.4) Kcal/d], as was the carbohydrate, lipid and protein intake. Carbohydrate intake was 57% and 56% of total calories. Overall during Ramadan the diet of the fasting group was calorie deficient and inadequate while for non-fasters it was excessive, which put them at risk of complications. Nutritional education may be needed for diabetic patients for Ramadan. PMID:23879080

Sebbani, M; El Ansari, N; El Mghari, G; Amine, M

2013-03-01

325

Assessment and significance of 24-h energy intake patterns among young and aged non-affluent southern US women.  

PubMed

Energy intake patterns that may impact health status among non-affluent southern U.S. women from small urban communities have not been evaluated extensively. Usual intake estimates are confounded by factors such as validity of intake methods and socioeconomic status. Typical 24-h energy intakes were reported by Caucasian (CA, n=149) and African-American (AA, n=110) women; at 43% of this sub-population, AA women are appropriately and proportionately represented. Daily energy intake was examined for these non-pregnant females, 24 to 93 y of age, to define typical energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake. Study groups were: 24-29 y, 30-39 y, 40-49 y, 50-59 y, 60-69 y, 70-79 y, and 80-93 y. Statistical comparisons of nutrient variables by age were made by least squares means between groups. Body mass index (BMI) calculations accounted for differences in height and relative body mass. Both races reported similar energy intakes and significant (P<0.05) decreases with age were noted. Energy intakes were 15-40% below recommended levels, similar to reported values; senior lunch programs ameliorated declines among some women >60 y. More daily calories (52-62%) were provided by carbohydrates, followed by fat (26-35%) and protein (14-17%) findings in close agreement with health recommendations. Time-of-day intake patterns suggest women >59 y consume larger noon meals. BMI for AA women was greater (P<0.05) than that of CA women between 30-59 y. At 24-29 y, AA women had lowest BMI values; BMI decreases occurred in CA women after 80 y. These factors may impact the health of non-affluent southern AA and CA women, particularly the elderly who may require guidance for diet planning and intake intervention programs. PMID:12679826

Lewis, S M; Mayhugh, M A; Freni, S C; Cardoso, S S; Buffington, C; Jairaj, K; Turturro, A; Feuers, R J

2003-01-01

326

Folate Intake and the Risk of Breast Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Previous observational studies regarding the existence of an association between folate intake and the risk of breast cancer have been inconsistent. This study aimed to summarize the evidence regarding this relationship using a dose-response meta-analytic approach. Methodology and Principal Findings We performed electronic searches of the PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Library databases to identify studies published through June 2013. Only prospective observational studies that reported breast cancer effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for more than 2 folate intake categories were included. We excluded traditional case-control studies because of possible bias from various confounding factors. Overall, we included 14 prospective studies that reported data on 677,858 individuals. Folate intake had little effect on the breast cancer risk (relative risk (RR) for highest versus lowest category?=?0.97; 95% CI, 0.90–1.05; P?=?0.451). Dose-response meta-analysis also suggested that a 100 µg/day increase in folate intake had no significant effect on the risk of breast cancer (RR?=?0.99; 95% CI, 0.98–1.01; P?=?0.361). Furthermore, we used restricted cubic splines to evaluate the nonlinear relationship between folate intake and the risk of breast cancer, and discovered a potential J-shaped correlation between folate intake and breast cancer risk (P?=?0.007) and revealed that a daily folate intake of 200–320 µg was associated with a lower breast cancer risk; however, the breast cancer risk increased significantly with a daily folate intake >400 µg. Conclusion/Significance Our study revealed that folate intake had little or no effect on the risk of breast cancer; moreover, a dose-response meta-analysis suggested a J-shaped association between folate intake and breast cancer.

Hou, An-Ji; Zhou, Yu-Hao

2014-01-01

327

Relationship between dietary vitamin K intake and the stability of anticoagulation effect in patients taking long-term warfarin.  

PubMed

Little study has been performed on the effect of vitamin K intake on the variability of warfarin's anticoagulant effects over long period of time. We estimated average vitamin K intake in the patients taking warfarin and evaluated its relation with the stability of anticoagulation effect. We estimated average daily vitamin K intake based on a three-day food diary in 66 patients taking warfarin regularly for ? one year and divided them into three groups of equal number according to vitamin K intake. Stability of anticoagulant effect was compared in these groups using the coefficient of variation (CV) of the prothrombin time expressed in international normalised ratio (INR) and the CV of warfarin doses. Median daily vitamin K intake was 161.3 ?g/day (31.3 ?g/day - 616.6 ?g/day). CVs of both INR and warfarin doses were negatively and independently correlated with dietary vitamin K intake (r=-0.293, p=0.017 and r= -0.350, p=0.004, respectively). CV of INR was significantly different among three groups of vitamin K intake (p<0.05 in ANOVA). High vitamin K intake (>195.7 ?g/day) group had lower CV of INR than the low intake (<126.5 ?g/day) group (19.2 ± 8.96 % vs. 25.5 ± 8.61 %, p<0.05). CV of warfarin doses was also significantly different among the groups (p<0.05 in Jonckheere-Terpstra test). However, the significance of difference between high and low vitamin intake groups was marginal (p=0.046 in Mann-Whitney test). In conclusion, long-term anticoagulation effect of warfarin is more stable in the patients who take greater than a certain amount of dietary vitamin K. PMID:20664899

Kim, Kyun Hee; Choi, Won Suk; Lee, Jang Hoon; Lee, Hyejin; Yang, Dong Heon; Chae, Shung Chull

2010-10-01

328

Effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance, nutrient intake, and digestibility in hair-breed sheep.  

PubMed

Twelve Dorper × Pelibuey wether lambs (26.8 ± 1.6 kg initial BW, 5 mo of age) were used to evaluate effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance, and effects of ZH and ZH supplementation period (15 and 30 d) on nutrient intake and digestibility. Lambs were blocked by initial BW, and assigned randomly within BW blocks to 1 of 2 treatments: i) control (no ZH), and ii) supplemented with ZH (10 mg ZH/wether lamb daily). Measurements of intake and digestibility were performed on d 9 to 15 and 24 to 30. Feedlot performance data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design, and nutrient intake and digestibility data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Final BW, ADG, total BW gain, and G:F were greater (P ? 0.04) for ZH than for control lambs. No treatment × feeding duration interaction for nutrient intake and apparent total tract digestibility were observed (P > 0.05). Intake of DM, OM, CP, and GE were less (P ? 0.03) for ZH than for control. Lambs fed for 30 d had greater (P ? 0.04) NDF and GE intake compared with those fed for 15 d. Total tract digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, and ADF (P ? 0.03) was less for ZH than control. Furthermore, calculated DE, ME, and TDN intake decreased (P < 0.01) with ZH supplementation. Also, DM, CP, and ether extract(EE) digestibility were greater (P < 0.01) for 30 d than for 15 d. Additionally, greater (P ? 0.01) DE, ME, and TDN intake was observed for 30 d compared with 15 d. In conclusion, ZH supplementation of wether lambs consuming feedlot diets resulted in improved feedlot performance and reduced the intake and digestibility of some nutrients. PMID:23345549

Macías-Cruz, U; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F D; Soto-Navarro, S A; Aguila-Tepato, E; Avendaño-Reyes, L

2013-04-01

329

49 CFR 230.13 - Daily inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Daily inspection. 230.13 Section 230.13 Transportation...OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General General Inspection Requirements § 230.13 Daily...

2010-10-01

330

Daily Medicine Record for Your Child  

MedlinePLUS

... Acetaminophen and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Safely Daily Medicine Record for Your Child (English) (PDF version - 97KB) ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...

331

Effect of ghrelin on feed intake and metabolites in lambs.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine the effect of ghrelin on feed intake (FI) and energy metabolites in lambs. Sixteen lambs were randomly assigned to either a treatment (n=8) or a control group (n=8). Lambs in the treated group received ghrelin intramuscularly (5 ?g/kg of body weight [BW]) and the control group received an equivalent volume of saline 3h after the morning feeding. Treatments were administered for 4 days. Feed intake was measured daily. Serum samples were collected on days 1, 3, 4, and 5 of the protocol, and levels of ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), insulin, and glucose were determined. Lambs treated with ghrelin showed a tendency for lower concentrations of serum insulin on day 5 and showed a tendency for increased FI on day 3. Concentrations of serum BHB and glucose were not different between treated and control lambs. It was concluded that ghrelin did barely affect FI and energy metabolites of lambs treated daily over a period of 4 days. PMID:22280977

Krueger, Traci; Melendez, Pedro

2012-04-01

332

The Effect of Daily Stress, Personality, and Age on Daily Negative Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined whether stress reactivity becomes stronger or weaker with age. Daily stress and daily negative affect were modeled using 1,012 subjects from the National Study of Daily Events (NSDE), an 8-day daily diary study. Age ranged from 25 to 74. Data were modeled using within-person HLM techniques. Daily stress and neuroticism interacted in their effect on daily

Daniel K. Mroczek; David M. Almeida

2004-01-01

333

Baclofen has opposite effects on escalation of cocaine self-administration: increased intake in rats selectively bred for high (HiS) saccharin intake and decreased intake in those selected for low (LoS) saccharin intake.  

PubMed

Rats selectively bred for high saccharin intake (HiS) self-administer more cocaine, escalate their cocaine intake during long access, and reinstate cocaine seeking at higher levels than those bred for low saccharin intake (LoS). The present study was conducted to determine if baclofen, an agonist at the GABA(b) receptor, has differential effects on the escalation of i.v. cocaine intake and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in HiS and LoS rats. HiS and LoS rats self-administered cocaine during a 2-h daily short-access (ShA) phase for 3 days and then long-access (LgA) sessions for 21 days followed by a second ShA phase. One group of HiS and LoS rats received i.p. injections of 2.5 mg/kg baclofen (HiS+B and LoS+B, respectively), and other groups of HiS and LoS rats received saline (HiS+Sal and LoS+Sal) before each daily session. In a second experiment, HiS and LoS rats self-administered i.v. cocaine during 2-h sessions for 14 days followed by a 21-day extinction period. Baclofen (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline was administered before saline- or cocaine-primed reinstatement sessions. The HiS+B group escalated their cocaine self-administration and had increased cocaine infusions in the post-LgA ShA phase. The LoS+B group self-administered less cocaine throughout the entire LgA period compared to the LoS+Sal or HiS groups. Baclofen attenuated reinstatement of cocaine seeking in both the HiS and LoS rats with no phenotype differences. Thus, baclofen had opposite effects on cocaine intake in HiS and LoS rats during escalation; but similar effects during reinstatement. These results suggest that treatment effects might vary with individual differences (HiS vs. LoS) and the phase of drug-motivated behavior that is modeled. PMID:21924281

Holtz, Nathan A; Carroll, Marilyn E

2011-12-01

334

SciTech Daily Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users wishing quick and easy access to some of the best writing online will want to examine this site. Scitech Daily Review, updated four days per week offers links to articles, new book notices and reviews, and essays and opinion pieces for the fields of science and technology. The site does not provide original content, but rather mines a wide array of online newspapers, journals, and other publications and offer links with very brief introductions to the "precious nuggets of real content" on the Web. In addition, the site provides a linked list of the publications and columnists used to glean the reports as well as an archive of past features. Certainly few users will find all of the pieces interesting or pertinent, but the quantity and variety of content and the frequency with which it is updated guarantee that there will be something for almost anyone.

1998-01-01

335

Contrails reduce daily temperature range.  

PubMed

The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period. PMID:12167846

Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

2002-08-01

336

The Daily Palette Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every day, the staff members at the Daily Palette Digital Collection at the University of Iowa Libraries put up a new artwork by a different Iowa artist. Since the project was launched in 2004, the collection has profiled over 1,000 artists working in the fine arts, literature, video, and the performing arts. Visitors can scroll through the Highlights of Collection section near the bottom of the page for a taste of the very intriguing offerings here. The Subcollections area includes areas like Iowa Writes, Iowa on Stage, and Iowa at 30 Frames per second. This last area has 11 rather intriguing short films, including "Body Beasts," "Back of the Mike," and "Alternative Forms of Energy." Also, Iowa Writes includes over 700 poems, including "Ode to Thresher" and "16th Avenue, Cedar Rapids."

2012-08-10

337

Brown Daily Herald Digital Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1891, the Brown Daily Herald has chronicled "political protest, athletic wins and losses, curricular changes, and students' initiative." Recently, Brown University's Center for Digital Initiatives and the Herald began working together to create this digital archive of the paper. On the site, visitors can learn more about the digitization project, sign up to be part of their LinkedIn group, and also take a look at their online store. Using the archive is quite simple, and visitors are encouraged to view specific issues by year or month, and they can also use a search engine to look for news coverage of particular interest. One rather compelling feature of the site is that returned search results include the page or story in question, along with thumbnails of the other pages in the issues on the bottom of the screen.

338

The Daily Practices of Successful Principals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in daily practice. "The Daily Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of daily practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…

Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.

2011-01-01

339

Patterns of nutrients' intake at six months in the northeast of Italy: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Adequate complementary feeding is recognized as an important predictor of health later in life. The objective of this study was to describe the feeding practices and nutrients’ intake, and their association with breastfeeding at six months of age, in a cohort of infants enrolled at birth in the maternity hospital of Trieste, Italy. Methods Out of 400 infants enrolled at birth, 268 (67%) had complete data gathered through a 24-hour feeding diary on three separate days at six months, and two questionnaires administered at birth and at six months. Data from feeding diaries were used to estimate nutrients’ intakes using the Italian food composition database included in the software. To estimate the quantity of breastmilk, information was gathered on the frequency and length of breastfeeds. Results At six months, 70% of infants were breastfed and 94% were given complementary foods. The average daily caloric intake was higher in non-breastfed (723 Kcal) than in breastfed infants (547 Kcal, p?intakes of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. The mean intake of macronutrients was within recommended ranges in both groups, except for the higher protein intake in non-breastfed infants. These consumed significantly higher quantities of commercial baby foods than breastfed infants. Conclusions Contrary to what is recommended, 94% of infants were not exclusively breastfed and were given complementary foods at six months. The proportion of daily energy intake from complementary foods was around 50% higher than recommended and with significant differences between breastfed and non-breastfed infants, with possible consequences for future nutrition and health.

2014-01-01

340

Saturated fats: what dietary intake?  

PubMed

Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was replaced principally with carbohydrates. Subsequently, high-carbohydrate diets were recognized as contributing to the lipoprotein pattern that characterizes atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia. The rising incidences of metabolic syndrome and obesity are becoming common themes in the literature. Current recommendations are to keep saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. In the face of such recommendations, the agricultural industry is shifting food composition toward lower proportions of all saturated fatty acids. To date, no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified. This review summarizes research findings and observations on the disparate functions of saturated fatty acids and seeks to bring a more quantitative balance to the debate on dietary saturated fat. Whether a finite quantity of specific dietary saturated fatty acids actually benefits health is not yet known. Because agricultural practices to reduce saturated fat will require a prolonged and concerted effort, and because the world is moving toward more individualized dietary recommendations, should the steps to decrease saturated fatty acids to as low as agriculturally possible not wait until evidence clearly indicates which amounts and types of saturated fatty acids are optimal? PMID:15321792

German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J

2004-09-01

341

Sodium Intake, ACE Inhibition, and Progression to ESRD  

PubMed Central

High sodium intake limits the antihypertensive and antiproteinuric effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in patients with CKD; however, whether dietary sodium also associates with progression to ESRD is unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of the first and second Ramipril Efficacy in Nephropathy trials to evaluate the association of sodium intake with proteinuria and progression to ESRD among 500 CKD patients without diabetes who were treated with ramipril (5 mg/d) and monitored with serial 24-hour urinary sodium and creatinine measurements. Urinary sodium/creatinine excretion defined low (<100 mEq/g), medium (100 to <200 mEq/g), and high (?200 mEq/g) sodium intake. During a follow-up of >4.25 years, 92 individuals (18.4%) developed ESRD. Among those with low, medium, and high sodium intakes, the incidence of ESRD was 6.1 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.8–9.7), 7.9 (95% CI, 6.1–10.2), and 18.2 (95% CI, 11.3–29.3) per 100 patient-years, respectively (P<0.001). Patients with high dietary sodium exhibited a blunted antiproteinuric effect of ACE inhibition despite similar BP among groups. Each 100-mEq/g increase in urinary sodium/creatinine excretion associated with a 1.61-fold (95% CI, 1.15–2.24) higher risk for ESRD; adjusting for baseline proteinuria attenuated this association to 1.38-fold (95% CI, 0.95–2.00). This association was independent from BP but was lost after adjusting for changes in proteinuria. In summary, among patients with CKD but without diabetes, high dietary salt (>14 g daily) seems to blunt the antiproteinuric effect of ACE inhibitor therapy and increase the risk for ESRD, independent of BP control.

Vegter, Stefan; Perna, Annalisa; Postma, Maarten J.; Navis, Gerjan; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

342

A systematic review of behavioral interventions to promote intake of fruit and vegetables.  

PubMed

Fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake in the United States remains below recommended levels despite evidence of the health benefits of regular consumption. Efforts to increase F/V intake include behavior-based interventions. A systematic review of MEDLINE PubMed and PsycINFO databases (2005-2010) was conducted to identify behavior-based intervention trials designed to promote F/V intake. Using predetermined limits and selection criteria, 34 studies were identified for inclusion. Behavior-based interventions resulted in an average increase in F/V intake of +1.13 and +0.39 servings per day in adults and children, respectively. Interventions involving minority adults or low-income participants demonstrated average increases in daily F/V consumption of +0.97 servings/day, whereas worksite interventions averaged +0.8 servings/day. Achieving and sustaining F/V intake at recommended levels of intake across the population cannot be achieved through behavior-based interventions alone. Thus, efforts to combine these interventions with other approaches including social marketing, behavioral economics approaches, and technology-based behavior change models should be tested to ensure goals are met and sustained. PMID:21963019

Thomson, Cynthia A; Ravia, Jennifer

2011-10-01

343

Headache and mechanical sensitization of human pericranial muscles after repeated intake of monosodium glutamate (MSG)  

PubMed Central

Background A single intake of monosodium glutamate (MSG) may cause headache and increased muscle sensitivity. We conducted a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study to examine the effect of repeated MSG intake on spontaneous pain, mechanical sensitivity of masticatory muscles, side effects, and blood pressure. Methods Fourteen healthy subjects participated in 5 daily sessions for one week of MSG intake (150?mg/kg) or placebo (24?mg/kg NaCl) (randomized, double-blinded). Spontaneous pain, pressure pain thresholds and tolerance levels for the masseter and temporalis muscles, side effects, and blood pressure were evaluated before and 15, 30, and 50?min after MSG intake. Whole saliva samples were taken before and 30?min after MSG intake to assess glutamate concentrations. Results Headache occurred in 8/14 subjects during MSG and 2/14 during placebo (P = 0.041). Salivary glutamate concentrations on Day 5 were elevated significantly (P < 0.05). Pressure pain thresholds in masseter muscle were reduced by MSG on Day 2 and 5 (P < 0.05). Blood pressure was significantly elevated after MSG (P < 0.040). Conclusion In conclusion, MSG induced mechanical sensitization in masseter muscle and adverse effects such as headache and short-lasting blood pressure elevation for which tolerance did not develop over 5?days of MSG intake.

2013-01-01

344

Branched Chain Fatty Acid Content of United States Retail Cow's Milk and Implications for Dietary Intake  

PubMed Central

Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) have recently been shown to be a major component of the normal human newborn gastrointestinal tract and have long been known to be a component of human milk. Ruminant food products are major sources of fat in the American diet, but there are no studies of milkfat BCFA content in retail milk. We report here the profile and concentrations of BCFA in a representative sampling of retail milk in the 48 contiguous United States (US), and their estimated intake in the American diet. Conventionally produced whole fluid milk samples were obtained from 56 processing plants across the contiguous 48 states. Retail milk samples contain exclusively iso- and anteiso-BCFA with 14–18 carbons. BCFA were 2.05 ± 0.14%, w/w of milkfat fatty acids (mean ± SD), and anteiso-BCFA comprised more than half this total. Based on these data and USDA food availability data, the average per capita BCFA intake of Americans is estimated to be about 220 mg/d from dairy; if current dietary recommendations were followed, BCFA intake would be about 400 mg/d. Adding intake from beef consumption, these estimates rise to approximately 400 and 575 mg/d, respectively. These results indicate that BCFA intake is a substantial fraction of daily fat intake, in amounts exceeding those of many bioactive fatty acids.

Ran-Ressler, R. R.; Sim, D.; Brenna, J. T.; O'Donnell-Megaro, A. M.; Bauman, D. E.; Barbano, D. M.

2011-01-01

345

Dietary intake of nutrients and its correlation with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients  

PubMed Central

Background The role of nutrition in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) and related complications such as fatigue has been reported by several studies. The aim of this study is the assessment of nutritional status and its relationship with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, in which 101 relapsing-remitting MS patients were enrolled. The fatigue status was determined using the validated Persian version of of the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS). Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record questionnaire and compared to dietary reference intake (DRI) values. Association between variables was determined using Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Results In the preset study, 25 men and 76 women (total = 101) were enrolled. Analysis of dietary intake showed that daily intake of vitamin D, folate, calcium, and magnesium were significantly lower than DRI in all of patients. In men, zinc intake was significantly lower than DRI; while, in women, iron was significantly below the DRI level. After adjusting for energy, MFIS and its physical subscale were highly correlated with intake of folate and magnesium. Conclusion Our findings support that lower magnesium and folate diets are correlated with higher fatigue scores in MS patients.

Bitarafan, Sama; Harirchian, Mohammad-Hossein; Nafissi, Shahriar; Sahraian, Mohammad-Ali; Togha, Mansoureh; Siassi, Fereydoun; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Alipour, Elham; Mohammadpour, Nakisa; Chamary, Maryam; Honarvar, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh

2014-01-01

346

Relations between dairy food intake and arterial stiffness: pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure.  

PubMed

Modifiable risk factors, such as diet, are becomingly increasingly important in the management of cardiovascular disease, one of the greatest major causes of death and disease burden. Few studies have examined the role of diet as a possible means of reducing arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity, an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with measures of arterial stiffness, including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. A cross-sectional analysis of a subset of the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study sample was performed. A linear decrease in pulse wave velocity was observed across increasing intakes of dairy food consumption (ranging from never/rarely to daily dairy food intake). The negative linear relationship between pulse wave velocity and intake of dairy food was independent of demographic variables, other cardiovascular disease risk factors, and nutrition variables. The pattern of results was very similar for pulse pressure, whereas no association between dairy food intake and lipid levels was found. Further intervention studies are needed to ascertain whether dairy food intake may be an appropriate dietary intervention for the attenuation of age-related arterial stiffening and reduction of cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:22431583

Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrrill F; Dore, Gregory A; Abhayaratna, Walter P; Robbins, Michael A

2012-05-01

347

A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535

Shahril, Mohd Razif; Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

2013-01-01

348

A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students.

Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

2013-01-01

349

Effects of Growth Hormone-Releasing Factor and Feed Intake on Energy Metabolism in Growing Beef Steers: Net Hormone Metabolism by Portal-Drained Viscera and Liver 'r2r3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of growth hormone-releas- ing factor (GRF) and intake on arterial concentra- tions and net visceral metabolism of hormones were measured in six growing Hereford x Angus steers using a split-plot design with 4-wk injection periods within 8-wk intake periods. Steers were fed a 75% concentrate diet at two intakes and were injected S.C. twice daily with saline or GRF

H. Lapierred; T. H. Elsasser

350

Fruit and vegetable intake and knowledge increased following a community-based intervention in older adults in Georgia senior centers.  

PubMed

Our purpose was to evaluate a community-based fruit and vegetable intervention conducted in rural and urban areas of Georgia. Participants were a convenience sample from Georgia senior centers that completed a pre-test, the intervention, and a post-test (N = 558, mean age = 75, 83% female, 47% white, 53% black). The 4-month intervention had eight sessions focused on practical ways to increase intake of fruits and vegetables at meals and snacks and included physical activity. Pre- and post-tests examined self-reported intakes of fruits and vegetables at breakfast, lunch, the evening meal, and snacks, knowledge of recommended intakes, and barriers to intake. Following the intervention, the number of participants reporting consumption of at least 7 servings of fruits and vegetables daily increased by 21-percentage points (P < or = 0.001), knowledge that 7 to 10 servings of fruits and vegetables are recommended daily (for 1,600 to 2,200 calories) increased from 7% to 57% (P < or = 0.001), and three barriers to fruit and vegetable intake decreased (P < or = 0.05): "difficulties with digestion," "too many are recommended," and "too much trouble." Regression analyses indicated that increased intake following the intervention was independently associated with living in more urban rather than rural areas, improved knowledge of intake recommendations, decrease in perception of cost as a barrier, and increase in digestive problems as a barrier (P < or = 0.05). These results provide an evidence base for the effectiveness of this community intervention for improving knowledge and intake and decreasing barriers to fruit and vegetable intake in older adults. PMID:18928195

Hendrix, Sara J; Fischer, Joan G; Reddy, R D Sudha; Lommel, Tiffany Sellers; Speer, Elizabeth M; Stephens, Heather; Park, Sohyun; Johnson, Mary Ann

2008-01-01

351

Energy expenditure and dietary intake during high-volume and low-volume training periods among male endurance athletes.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of this study was to examine dietary intake in endurance-trained athletes during a week of high-volume and a week of low-volume training while measuring exercise energy expenditure (EEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). In addition, compliance with current American College of Sports Medicine/American Dietetic Association nutrition and performance recommendations for macronutrients was evaluated. Energy expenditure and dietary intake were measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 nonconsecutive weeks resembling a high-volume and a low-volume training period. Anthropometric measurements were taken and percentage body fat was determined at the beginning and end of each week of training. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was calculated by summing RMR, NEAT, and EEE. Dietary intake was assessed with an online food-frequency questionnaire completed at the end of each week of data collection. Despite significant differences between TDEE and energy intake, no difference in body composition between the beginning and end of either week of training was observed, suggesting underreporting of caloric intake. Further, no changes in total caloric intake or macronutrient intake occurred even though TDEE increased significantly during the high-volume training. Reported carbohydrate intake (4.5 g·kg(-1)) and fiber intake (25 g·day(-1)) were below recommendations, whereas fat intake (1.3 g·kg(-1)) was slightly above recommendations. In summary, no short-term dietary adjustments occurred in response to differences in training regimen. Because these athletes were generally consuming a Western diet, they may have required some support to achieve desirable intakes for health and performance. PMID:22360344

Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Pivarnik, James M

2012-04-01

352

Assessing arsenic intake from groundwater and rice by residents in Prey Veng province, Cambodia.  

PubMed

We investigated total daily intake of As by residents in Prey Veng province in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Groundwater (n = 11), rice (n = 11) and fingernail (n = 23) samples were randomly collected from the households and analyzed for total As by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Calculation indicated that daily dose of inorganic As was greater than the lower limits on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5 equals to 3.0 ?g d(-1) kg(-1)body wt.). Moreover, positive correlation between As in fingernail and daily dose of As from groundwater and rice and total daily dose of As were found. These results suggest that the Prey Veng residents are exposed to As in groundwater. As in rice is an additional source which is attributable to high As accumulation in human bodies in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. PMID:24231403

Phan, Kongkea; Phan, Samrach; Heng, Savoeun; Huoy, Laingshun; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

2014-02-01

353

Cokriging estimation of daily suspended sediment loads  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with daily river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated daily loads were compared with the daily measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated daily sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured daily values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating daily sediment loads with CK when daily discharge data is available. The estimated daily loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the daily S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Li, Z.; Zhang, Y. -K.; Schilling, K.; Skopec, M.

2006-01-01

354

Salt intake of children and adolescents in South london: consumption levels and dietary sources.  

PubMed

Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods. PMID:24614217

Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A

2014-05-01

355

Impacts of a National Strategy to Reduce Population Salt Intake in England: Serial Cross Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background The UK introduced an ambitious national strategy to reduce population levels of salt intake in 2003. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strategy on salt intake in England, including potential effects on health inequalities. Methods Secondary analysis of data from the Health Survey for England. Our main outcome measure was trends in estimated daily salt intake from 2003–2007, as measured by spot urine. Secondary outcome measures were knowledge of government guidance and voluntary use of salt in food preparation over this time period. Results There were significant reductions in salt intake between 2003 and 2007 (?0.175grams per day per year, p<0.001). Intake decreased uniformly across all other groups but remained significantly higher in younger persons, men, ethnic minorities and lower social class groups and those without hypertension in 2007. Awareness of government guidance on salt use was lowest in those groups with the highest intake (semi-skilled manual v professional; 64.9% v 71.0% AOR 0.76 95% CI 0.58–0.99). Self reported use of salt added at the table reduced significantly during the study period (56.5% to 40.2% p<0.001). Respondents from ethnic minority groups remained significantly more likely to add salt during cooking (white 42.8%, black 74.1%, south Asian 88.3%) and those from lower social class groups (unskilled manual 46.6%, professional 35.2%) were more likely to add salt at the table. Conclusions The introduction a national salt reduction strategy was associated with uniform but modest reductions in salt intake in England, although it is not clear precisely which aspects of the strategy contributed to this. Knowledge of government guidance was lower and voluntary salt use and total salt intake was higher among occupational and ethnic groups at greatest risk of cardiovascular disease.

Millett, Christopher; Laverty, Anthony A.; Stylianou, Neophytos; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Pape, Utz J.

2012-01-01

356

Intake and metabolism of fluoride.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the major factors that determine the body burden of inorganic fluoride. Fluoride intake 25 or more years ago was determined mainly by measurement of the concentration of the ion in the drinking water supply. This is not necessarily true today because of ingestion from fluoride-containing dental products, the "halo effect", the consumption of bottled water, and the use of water purification systems in the home. Therefore, the concentration of fluoride in drinking water may not be a reliable indicator of previous intake. Under most conditions, fluoride is rapidly and extensively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The rate of gastric absorption is inversely related to the pH of the gastric contents. Overall absorption is reduced by calcium and certain other cations and by elevated plasma fluoride levels. Fluoride removal from plasma occurs by calcified tissue uptake and urinary excretion. About 99% of the body burden of fluoride is associated with calcified tissues, and most of it is not exchangeable. In general, the clearance of fluoride from plasma by the skeleton is inversely related to the stage of skeletal development. Skeletal uptake, however, can be positive or negative, depending on the level of fluoride intake, hormonal status, and other factors. Dentin fluoride concentrations tend to increase throughout life and appear to be similar to those in bone. Research to determine whether dentin is a reliable biomarker for the body burden of fluoride is recommended. The renal clearance of fluoride is high compared with other halogens. It is directly related to urinary pH. Factors that acidify the urine increase the retention of fluoride and vice versa. The renal clearance of fluoride decreases and tissue levels increase when the glomerular filtration rate is depressed on a chronic basis. PMID:7993560

Whitford, G M

1994-06-01

357

Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

1975-01-01

358

Maternal Intake of Natto, a Japan's Traditional Fermented Soybean Food, during Pregnancy and the Risk of Eczema in Japanese Babies.  

PubMed

Background: There are reports that the maternal diet during pregnancy may affect development of babies' eczema. We sought to investigate the association between the maternal diet during pregnancy and the risk of eczema in infancy in Japan. Methods: A birth cohort was set up at 2 hospitals in Chiba city. Dietary habits concerning fish, butter, margarine, yogurt and natto during pregnancy was obtained from mothers just after delivery. The intake frequencies of these foods were classified into four groups: 1) daily, 2) 2-3 times a week, 3) once a week and 4) once a month or less. Diagnosis of eczema at 6 months of age was made by the presence of an itchy rash that persisted more than two months. Results: Valid data on 650 mother-baby pairs were obtained. No relationship between frequencies of the maternal intake of fish, margarine and yogurt during pregnancy and the onset rate of the babies' eczema were observed. For butter consumption, the incidence of babies' eczema was significantly higher in the group with daily intake than in those with an intake 2-3 times a week or less (p = 0.044). For natto, incidence of babies' eczema was significantly lower in the group with everyday intake than those eating it 2-3 times a week or less (p = 0.020). Conclusions: High frequency intake of natto during pregnancy possibly reduces the incidence of eczema in children at 6 months of age. PMID:24759553

Ozawa, Naoko; Shimojo, Naoki; Suzuki, Yoichi; Ochiai, Shingo; Nakano, Taiji; Morita, Yoshinori; Inoue, Yuzaburo; Arima, Takayasu; Suzuki, Shuichi; Kohno, Yoichi

2014-06-01

359

A Novel Paradigm to Investigate Regulation of Drug Intake in Rats Self-Administering Cocaine or Heroin Intravenously  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the regulation of drug intake in rats (n = 20) self-administering heroin or cocaine during daily 5-hr sessions. Operant chambers were equipped with 2 levers and associated stimulus lights. A response on the lever with stimuli signaling an increase in dose size increased the infusion duration by 3 s, and a response

Wendy J. Lynch; Lynda P. LaBounty; Marilyn E. Carroll

1998-01-01

360

Sodium and potassium intake of urban dwellers: nothing changed in Yazd, Iran.  

PubMed

To assess the daily salt intake of people aged 20-74 years based on the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion in urban population of Yazd, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted. This is a substudy of Yazd Healthy Heart Project in Iran. From 2004 to 2005, two thousand people of the urban population of Yazd city, aged 20-74 years, were enrolled in the main study. Overall, 219 volunteer participants of 20-70 years were enrolled in this substudy. Sample frame was the household numbers according to the database of Yazd City Health Services. Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and creatinine were measured in the urine samples collected from the participants over a 24-hour period. Sodium content in urine over 24 hours was 171.7 +/- 82.9 mmol/day in males and 127.8 +/- 56.1 mmol/day in females (p < 0.0001) while potassium content was 49.4 +/- 23.2 mmol/day in males and 41.5 +/- 25.1 mmol/day in females (p = 0.2). Estimated average daily salt (NaCl) intake was 10.0 +/- 4.8 g/day in males and 7.5 +/- 3.3 g/day in females (p < 0.0001). Only one participant had the ideal Na/K ratio of less than one. Na/K ratios greater than one and less than two were seen in 11.3% (n = 24), and a ratio equal to or greater than 2 was observed in 82.3% (n = 118) of the participants. The average Na/K ratio was 3.69 +/- 1.58. Unlike many developed countries where sodium intake declined over the past few decades, the daily sodium intake in Yazd is high, and daily potassium intake is low. This is similar to what was observed four decades ago in an area not far from Yazd. Efforts must be directed towards health promotion interventions to increase public awareness to reduce sodium intake and increase potassium intake. PMID:24847600

Mirzaei, Masoud; Soltaniz, Mohammadhossien; Namayandeh, Mahdieh; GharahiGhehi, Neda

2014-03-01

361

Association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes among adult men and women in India  

PubMed Central

Background It is postulated that a diet high in legumes may be beneficial in preventing diabetes. However, little empirical evidence on this association exists in developing countries. We aimed to examine the association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes status in adult men and women in India. Methods The analysis is based on a population-based cross sectional study of 99,574 women and 56,742 men aged 20–49 years included in India’s third National Family Health Survey conducted in 2005–06. Association of legume intake, determined by the frequency of consumption of pulses and beans (daily, weekly and occasionally or never), with the reported prevalence of diabetes were estimated using multiple logistic regression after adjusting for frequency of consumption of other food items, BMI status, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, watching television, age, education, living standard of the household, residence and geographic regions. Results Daily (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59–0.87; p=0.001) and weekly (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.54–0.80; p<0.001) legumes intake were associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of diabetes among adult Indian women even after controlling for the effects of potentially confounding factors, whereas non-significant inverse associations were observed in men. Conclusion Daily or weekly intake of legumes was inversely associated with presence of diabetes in the Indian population. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. More epidemiological research with better measures of legumes intake and clinical measures of diabetes is needed to clarify this relationship.

2013-01-01

362

Milk Intake and Total Dairy Consumption: Associations with Early Menarche in NHANES 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Background Several components of dairy products have been linked to earlier menarche. Methods/Findings This study assessed whether positive associations exist between childhood milk consumption and age at menarche or the likelihood of early menarche (<12 yrs) in a U.S sample. Data derive from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Two samples were utilized: 2657 women age 20–49 yrs and 1008 girls age 9–12 yrs. In regression analysis, a weak negative relationship was found between frequency of milk consumption at 5–12 yrs and age at menarche (daily milk intake ??=??0.32, P<0.10; “sometimes/variable milk intake” ??=??0.38, P<0.06, each compared to intake rarely/never). Cox regression yielded no greater risk of early menarche among those who drank milk “sometimes/varied” or daily vs. never/rarely (HR: 1.20, P<0.42, HR: 1.25, P<0.23, respectively). Among the 9–12 yr olds, Cox regression indicated that neither total dairy kcal, calcium and protein, nor daily milk intake in the past 30 days contributed to early menarche. Girls in the middle tertile of milk intake had a marginally lower risk of early menarche than those in the highest tertile (HR: 0.6, P<0.06). Those in the lowest tertiles of dairy fat intake had a greater risk of early menarche than those in the highest (HR: 1.5, P<0.05, HR: 1.6, P<0.07, lowest and middle tertile, respectively), while those with the lowest calcium intake had a lower risk of early menarche (HR: 0.6, P<0.05) than those in the highest tertile. These relationships remained after adjusting for overweight or overweight and height percentile; both increased the risk of earlier menarche. Blacks were more likely than Whites to reach menarche early (HR: 1.7, P<0.03), but not after controlling for overweight. Conclusions There is some evidence that greater milk intake is associated with an increased risk of early menarche, or a lower age at menarche.

Wiley, Andrea S.

2011-01-01

363

Fruit and vegetable intake and associated factors in older adults in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background and objective Numerous studies support the protective effect of high fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption on chronic disease risk, mainly against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Compared with younger adults, older people experience additional health, social, and environmental conditions that affect dietary intake. To identify those additional dimensions and examine them in association with FV intake, data on 3,840 participants in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) in South Africa were analyzed. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study in 2008 with a sample of 3,840 participants, aged 50 years or older, in South Africa. The questionnaire included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometry, and blood pressure measurements. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between socio-demographic factors, health variables, and inadequate FV consumption. Results Overall prevalence rates of insufficient FV intake were 68.5%, 64.8% among men and 71.4% among women, with a mean intake of 4.0 servings of FV among older adults (50 years and older). In multivariable analysis, coming from the Black African or Colored population group, lower educational level and daily tobacco use were associated with inadequate FV intake. Conclusions The amount of fruit and vegetables (FVs) consumed by older South African participants was considerably lower than current recommendations (daily intake of at least five servings; 400 g). Public education and campaigns on adequate consumption of FVs should be promoted targeting lower educated and Black African and Colored population groups.

Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

2012-01-01

364

Genetic variation in the hTAS2R38 taste receptor and brassica vegetable intake.  

PubMed

The human TAS2R38 receptor is believed to be partly responsible for the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), a bitter compound very similar to the bitter glucosinolates found in brassica vegetables. These vegetables and their active compounds have chemo-protective properties. This study investigated the relationship between genetic variation in the hTAS2R38 receptor and the actual consumption of brassica vegetables with the hypothesis that taster status was associated with intake of these vegetables. Furthermore, secondary intake information on alcohol, chocolate, coffee, smoking, BMI and waist-circumference was analysed for association with the hTAS2R38 receptor polymorphisms. The subjects were selected from the Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) study, which is an ongoing prospective Danish cohort study. Two groups, each consisting of 250 healthy subjects were selected based on their brassica vegetables intake from the upper quartile (?23 g/day) and the lower quartile (?7 g/day) daily intake of brassicas from a randomly selected sub-cohort of DCH. DNA was analysed for three functional SNPs in the hTAS2R38 gene. The hTAS2R38 bitter taste receptor haplotypes were not associated with the daily intake of brassica vegetables in our study, and no association between the haplotypes and any of the other variables tested was found. We have demonstrated that the hTAS2R38 haplotypes are not associated with brassica vegetable intake and that results from experimental setups cannot be applied directly to the everyday situation. This indicates that non-genetic factors may have more influence on dietary choice than genetics. PMID:21338274

Gorovic, Nela; Afzal, Shoaib; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Vogel, Ulla; Albrechtsen, Christina; Poulsen, Henrik E

2011-07-01

365

Etonitazene as a reinforcer: Oral intake of etonitazene by rhesus monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking of etonitazene HCl was studied in three rhesus monkeys during daily 3-h sessions. As the drug concentration was increased, the number of liquid deliveries decreased, and etonitazene intake (µg\\/kg body weight) increased. As fixed-ratio (FR) requirements were increased, rate of responding increased, and liquid deliveries slightly decreased. When water was substituted for the drug, there was a large increase

Marilyn E. Carroll; Richard A. Meisch

1978-01-01

366

Intake of Plant Foods and Associated Nutrients in Prostate Cancer Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant foods and associated nutrients may impact prostate cancer (PC) risk and survival. Therefore, we compared dietary intake, mainly plant food groups among 382 controls and 478 PC cases (373 incident and 105 prevalent cases). Caucasian controls had significantly higher daily servings of vegetables (3.4 vs. 2.5, P= 0.002) and fruits and\\/or fruit juices (1.6 vs. 1.3, P = 0.02)

John E. Lewis; Hosanna Soler-Vilá; Peter E. Clark; Laura A. Kresty; Glenn O. Allen; Jennifer J. Hu

2009-01-01

367

Intraventricular neuropeptide Y does not stimulate food intake in the baboon.  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined the ability of the orexigenic peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY) to stimulate feeding when administered into the lateral ventricle of baboons. No increase of either meal size or total daily food intake was observed over the dose range tested (1-30 micrograms). These results suggest that, in the baboon, NPY may not be an orexigen as it is in other species. PMID:8873242

Sipols, A J; Figlewicz, D P; Seeley, R J; Chavez, M; Woods, S C; Porte, D

1996-09-01

368

Effect of supplementation of dietary protected lipids on intake and nutrient utilization in Deccani lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four complete isonitrogenous (crude protein 13%) rations with 0 (T1), 5 (T2), 10 (T3) and 15 (T4) per cent calcium soap from red palm oil (protected fat) were formulated and evaluated using four Deccani lambs (19.32 ±\\u000a 0.82 kg) in a completely randomized design at the end of a growth trial. The average daily dry matter intake (% body weight

R. Kumar; K. Sivaiah; Y. Ramana Reddy; B. Ekambram; T. J. Reddy; G. V. N. Reddy

2006-01-01

369

REL2.81 SW DAILY  

... Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2.81 Shortwave Daily Data in Native Format News:  GEWEX ... Parameters:  Viewing Geometry Incoming Shortwave Radiation Radiative Flux Solar Irradiance Solar ...

2014-04-07

370

Association of physical exercise and calcium intake with bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Background Interventions other than medications in the management of osteoporosis are often overlooked. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of physical activity and calcium intake with bone parameters. Methods We measured the heel T-score and stiffness index (SI) in 1890 pre- and postmenopausal women by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and assessed physical activity and dietary calcium intake by questionnaire. Participants were divided according to their weekly physical activity (sedentary, moderately active, systematically active) and daily calcium consumption (greater than or less than 800 mg/day). Results SI values were significantly different among premenopausal groups (p = 0.016) and between sedentary and systematically active postmenopausal women (p = 0.039). QUS T-scores in systematically active premenopausal women with daily calcium intake > 800 mg/day were significantly higher than those in all other activity groups (p < 0.05) independent of calcium consumption. Conclusions Systematic physical activity and adequate dietary calcium intake are indicated for women as a means to maximize bone status benefits.

2010-01-01

371

Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (dioxins) are contaminants with long biological half-lives. The most toxic dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), has a half-life in humans of 9 years. A tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 10 pg\\/kg body wt\\/day has been recommended, which was derived from steady-state concentrations of TCDD at the no-observed-adverse-effect level in animal studies. Intakes of dioxins by breast-fed babies

Frances Pollitt

1999-01-01

372

Relative validity of an FFQ for assessing dietary fluoride intakes of infants and young children living in Iowa  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the relative validity of a quantitative FFQ in assessing dietary fluoride intakes using 3 d food and beverage diaries for reference. Design Parents were asked to complete questionnaires for the preceding week and diaries for 3 d for their children. Fluoride intakes were estimated from ‘selected’ foods and beverages for questionnaires and from ‘all foods and beverages’ for diaries. Data collected at 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months were analysed cross-sectionally. Setting A 3 d food and beverage diary and an FFQ collected through mail from children living in the state of Iowa. Subjects Children from the Iowa Fluoride Study whose parents completed both an FFQ and a 3 d food and beverage diary at each analysed time point. Results Correlations between daily mean dietary fluoride intake estimated from questionnaires and diaries range from 0·90 to 0·65. Conclusions A quantitative FFQ can provide relative estimates of dietary fluoride intake.

Rankin, Scott J; Levy, Steven M; Warren, John J; Gilmore, Julie E; Broffitt, Barbara

2013-01-01

373

Evaluation of the energize your life! Social marketing campaign pilot study to increase fruit intake among community college students.  

PubMed

In this study, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of the Energize Your Life! social-marketing campaign pilot study to improve knowledge, attitudes, and fruit intake among community college students. The authors used a cross-sectional, quasi-experimental, pre- and posttest design. They randomly selected community college students (N = 1,367) and exposed the intervention campus to fruit fairs to distribute fresh fruit, 100% fruit juice, and fruit smoothie samples and information about fruit to students. The authors also addressed policy change to increase the accessibility of fruit on campus. There was a significant increase in fruit intake between pre- and posttest at the intervention campus. Although students had positive attitudes toward intake, most did not achieve the minimum recommended daily 2 servings of fruit. Approximately 25% of the students had insufficient funds, which affected their food intake. Longer-term social marketing interventions may be an effective means of improving the dietary quality of community college students. PMID:16889313

Shive, Steven E; Morris, Michelle Neyman

2006-01-01

374

The content of soyasaponin and soyasapogenol in soy foods and their estimated intake in the Japanese  

PubMed Central

Soyasaponins have been reported to promote various health functions. However, the total soyasaponin and soyasapogenol content in soy products and the daily intake remain to be fully elucidated. We developed a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC–MS/MS) method to evaluate the content of group A and B soyasaponins and soyasapogenols. The total soyasaponin content was measured after pretreatment converted soyasaponins to soyasapogenols. The total soyasaponin content in soy foods was 200–1800 nmol g?1, although that of soy sauce was 2–7 nmol g?1. The soyasapogenol to total soyasaponin ratio was 30–50% in long-term matured miso. The majority of the soyasapogenol detected was soyasapogenol B rather than soyasapogenol A, resulting in speculation that further steps are required to liberate aglycones from glycoside-conjugated soyasaponins in soyasapogenol A. We estimated the daily intake of total soyasaponins and soyasapogenols by the Japanese, which was 50.3 and 0.59 ?mol, respectively. The soyasapogenol content and the soyasapogenol to total soyasaponin ratio was considerably low in most soy products, except for long-term maturated miso. The major source of the daily intake of soyasaponins and soyasapogenols were tofu and miso, respectively.

Kamo, Shuichi; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Sato, Toshiro

2014-01-01

375

Tomato juice intake suppressed serum concentration of 8-oxodG after extensive physical activity  

PubMed Central

Background DNA is constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS), spontaneously arising during the normal oxygen metabolism. ROS may result in temporary as well as permanent modifications in various cellular components such as lipids, proteins and DNA, which may have deleterious consequences. Demonstrating that a dietary supplementation of antioxidants can reduce oxidative DNA damage may provide evidence for the value of such supplementation in prevention of cancer and age related diseases. Findings The present study was conducted to address whether tomato juice protects against ROS induced by extensive physical exercise in untrained individuals. As a marker of oxidative stress, serum levels of 8-oxodG were monitored using a modified ELISA. An intervention was performed involving 15 untrained healthy subjects who performed a 20?min physical exercise at 80% of maximum pulse using an ergometer bicycle. Blood samples were taken before and one hour after the exercise. The procedure was repeated after 5?weeks with a daily intake of 150?ml tomato juice and followed by a 5?weeks wash-out period and another 5?weeks with a daily intake of tomato juice. The results indicated that a daily intake of tomato juice, equal to 15?mg lycopene per day, for 5?weeks significantly reduced the serum levels of 8-oxodG after an extensive physical exercise. Conclusion These data strongly suggest that tomato juice has a potential antioxidant effect and may reduce the elevated level of ROS induced by oxidative stress.

2012-01-01

376

Feeding Behaviour, Swimming Activity and Boldness Explain Variation in Feed Intake and Growth of Sole (Solea solea) Reared in Captivity  

PubMed Central

The major economic constraint for culturing sole (Solea solea) is its slow and variable growth. The objective was to study the relationship between feed intake/efficiency, growth, and (non-) feeding behaviour of sole. Sixteen juveniles with an average (SD) growth of 2.7 (1.9) g/kg0.8/d were selected on their growth during a 4-week period in which they were housed communally with 84 other fish. Selected fish were housed individually during a second 4-week period to measure individual feed intake, growth, and behaviour. Fish were hand-fed three times a day during the dark phase of the day until apparent satiation. During six different days, behaviour was recorded twice daily during 3 minutes by direct observations. Total swimming activity, frequency of burying and of escapes were recorded. At the beginning and end of the growth period, two sequential behavioural tests were performed: “Novel Environment” and “Light Avoidance”. Fish housed individually still exhibited pronounced variation in feed intake (CV?=?23%), growth (CV?=?25%) and behavior (CV?=?100%). Differences in feed intake account for 79% of the observed individual differences in growth of sole. Fish with higher variation in feed intake between days and between meals within days had significantly a lower total feed intake (r?=??0.65 and r?=??0.77) and growth. Active fish showed significantly higher feed intake (r?=?0.66) and growth (r?=?0.58). Boldness during both challenge tests was related to fast growth: (1) fish which reacted with a lower latency time to swim in a novel environment had significantly higher feed intake (r?=??0.55) and growth (r?=??0.66); (2) fish escaping during the light avoidance test tended to show higher feed intake (P<0.1) and had higher growth (P<0.05). In conclusion, feeding consistency, swimming activity in the tank, and boldness during behavioral tests are related to feed intake and growth of sole in captivity.

Mas-Munoz, Julia; Komen, Hans; Schneider, Oliver; Visch, Sander W.; Schrama, Johan W.

2011-01-01

377

Slow Food: Sustained Impact of Harder Foods on the Reduction in Energy Intake over the Course of the Day  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research has shown that oral processing characteristics like bite size and oral residence duration are related to the satiating efficiency of foods. Oral processing characteristics are influenced by food texture. Very little research has been done on the effect of food texture within solid foods on energy intake. Objectives The first objective was to investigate the effect of hardness of food on energy intake at lunch, and to link this effect to differences in food oral processing characteristics. The second objective was to investigate whether the reduction in energy intake at lunch will be compensated for in the subsequent dinner. Design Fifty subjects (11 male, BMI: 21±2 kg/m2, age: 24±2 y) participated in a cross-over study in which they consumed ad libitum from a lunch with soft foods or hard foods on two separate days. Oral processing characteristics at lunch were assessed by coding video records. Later on the same days, subjects consumed dinner ad libitum. Results Hard foods led to a ?13% lower energy intake at lunch compared to soft foods (P<0.001). Hard foods were consumed with smaller bites, longer oral duration per gram food, and more chewing per gram food compared to the soft foods (P<0.05). Energy intake at dinner did not differ after both lunches (P?=?0.16). Conclusions Hard foods led to reduced energy intake compared to soft foods, and this reduction in energy intake was sustained over the next meal. We argue that the differences in oral processing characteristics produced by the hardness of the foods explain the effect on intake. The sustained reduction in energy intake suggests that changes in food texture can be a helpful tool in reducing the overall daily energy intake.

Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P.; Forde, Ciaran G.; Cheng, Yuejiao; Xu, Haohuan; Martin, Nathalie; de Graaf, Cees

2014-01-01

378

Effects of intake of pickles containing Lactobacillus brevis on immune activity and bowel symptoms in female students.  

PubMed

Forty-four female students with a tendency for constipation (mean age, 20.2±3.3 y) were asked to consume 30 g test pickles daily for 2 wk and were divided into 3 groups: viable-cell intake subjects (n=14, 3.0×10(5) colony-forming units of viable LAB (lactic acid bacteria) cells per sample), dead-cells intake subjects (n=15, viable cells were heat sterilized), and placebo-intake subjects (n=15, LAB removed from the pickles). ?-Aminobutyric acid content of 75.1±3.2 mg per sample was noted, with no marked difference between samples containing viable and dead cells. Natural killer (NK)-cell activity (% specific lysis) in serum from dead-cell intake subjects was 37.5±17.0% before the start of the test-food intake and 47.7±20.1% after intake, indicating statistically significant effects (p<0.01). However, viable-cell intake and placebo intake subjects showed no statistically significant difference. The number of days with bowel movements significantly increased from 3.8±1.5 to 4.9±1.8 d in the dead-cell intake group, whereas a slight change from 4.6±1.5 to 5.1±1.7 d was observed in the viable-cell intake group. Additionally, the feeling of incomplete evacuation fell and a refreshed feeling increased among the subjects with constipation. Thus, marked enhancement of NK-cell activity and improved bowel symptoms were observed in subjects consuming pickles containing dead LAB cells. PMID:24418874

Takii, Yukio; Nishimura, Sayaka; Yoshida-Yamamoto, Syumi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Nagayoshi, Emi

2013-01-01

379

Is there a relationship between the playing position of soccer players and their food and macronutrient intake?  

PubMed

Many authors have proposed the necessity of the design and implementation of dietary and nutrition education programs for soccer players, although little information is available about the determinants of food selection and nutrient intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional intake and eating patterns of soccer players according to their playing position in the team. Eighty-seven young male soccer players (aged 16-21 years) were recruited from the junior teams of a Spanish First Division Soccer League Club and divided into 6 positional categories (goalkeepers, full-backs, centre-backs, midfielders, wingers, and forwards). Body composition (height, weight, and body fat), performance in soccer-specific tests (jumping, sprinting, and intermittent endurance), and dietary intake (weighed food intake method) were assessed. A spontaneous higher carbohydrate intake was observed for full-backs, midfielders, and wingers (g·kg(-1) body mass: 4.9 ± 1.0, 4.9 ± 1.3, 4.9 ± 0.8; % of energy intake: 47 ± 5, 46 ± 6, 46 ± 4), compared with goalkeepers and centre-backs (g·kg(-1) of body mass: 3.9 ± 1.0, 4.3 ± 1.1; % of energy intake: 44 ± 3, 42 ± 4). These differences were related to food selection patterns, and a higher contribution to daily energy intake of cereals, derivatives, and potatoes was observed between full-backs compared with goalkeepers and centre-backs (33% vs. 27% and 25%). The magnitude of these differences is limited considering the whole diet, and an inadequate nutrient intake were observed in most individuals of every group. The design and implementation of nutrition intervention programs, taking into consideration positional differences in nutritional intake, would be useful for these players. PMID:22380725

Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; García, Angela; García-Zapico, Pedro; Pérez-Landaluce, Javier; Patterson, Angeles M; García-Rovés, Pablo Miguel

2012-04-01

380

Fast-Food and Full-service Restaurant Consumption among Children and Adolescents: Impact on Energy, Beverage and Nutrient Intake  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the impact of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on total energy intake, dietary indicators and beverage consumption. Design Individual-level fixed effects estimation based on two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Setting Nationally representative data from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, and 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants Children aged 2 to 11 (N=4717) and adolescents aged 12 to 19 (N=4699) Main Outcome Measures Daily total energy intake in kilocalories, intakes of grams of sugar, fat, saturated fat and protein and milligrams of sodium and total grams of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), regular soda and milk consumed. Results Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, was associated with a net increase in daily total energy intake of 126 kcal and 160 kcal for children and 310 kcal and 267 kcal for adolescents and higher intakes of regular soda (+74g and +88g for children and +163g and +107g for adolescents) and SSBs generally. Fast-food consumption increased intakes of total fat (+7–8g), saturated fat (+2–5g) and sugar (+6–16g) for both age groups and sodium (+396mg) and protein (+8g) for adolescents. Full-service restaurant consumption was associated with increases in all nutrients examined. Additional key findings were 1) adverse impacts on diet were larger for lower-income children and adolescents; and, 2) among adolescents, increased soda intake was twice as large when fast food was consumed away from home than at home. Conclusions Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption is associated with higher net total energy intake and poorer diet quality.

Powell, Lisa M.; Nguyen, Binh T.

2013-01-01

381

Daily Oral Language: Is It Effective?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the Daily Oral Language (DOL) program aimed at helping students learn mechanics of writing through daily editing exercises. This nine-month study sought to determine if DOL improved editing skills and actual writing skills of seventy fourth-grade students. While the results of this study did not statistically demonstrate the…

Whittingham, Jeff L.

2007-01-01

382

Influence of CYP11B2 Gene Polymorphism on the Prevalence of Hypertension and the Blood Pressure in Japanese Men: Interaction with Dietary Salt Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: CYP11B2 gene encodes a key enzyme for the production of aldosterone. Our aim is to investigate the association of –344T\\/C polymorphism with hypertension in Japanese men. The interaction between genotypes and dietary salt intake was also considered. Methods: Three hundred and ten Japanese male workers participated in this study. Daily salt intake was calculated from a food frequency questionnaire.

Yixuan Song; Koichi Miyaki; Jungo Araki; Ling Zhang; Yoshimitsu Takahashi; Takeo Nakayama; Masaaki Muramatsu

2008-01-01

383

The effect of fat intake and antihypertensive drug therapy on serum lipid profile: a cross-sectional survey of serum lipids in male and female hypertensives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of betablocker with diuretics therapy on serum cholesterol and high density\\u000a lipoprotein (HDL-C) lipids in cross-sectional data (age, sex, weight, and body mass index (BMI), smoking\\/alcoholic consumption)\\u000a and supplemented vegetarian low-fat diet with daily low fat energy intake, salt intake, duration of drug therapy, and serum\\u000a protein as effective measures of lowering

Rakesh SharmaT; T. C. Raghuram; U. Brahmoji Rao; Robert J. Moffatt; Kamla Krishnaswamy

2010-01-01

384

Reexamination of Total Fluid Intake and Bladder Cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study Cohort  

PubMed Central

It has been hypothesized that high fluid intake may reduce contact time between carcinogens and bladder epithelium and consequently reduce carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies examining fluid intake and bladder cancer have been extremely inconsistent, ranging from strong inverse to strong positive associations. The authors reevaluated the association between fluid intake and bladder cancer among 47,909 participants in the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study over a period of 22 years. During follow-up (1986–2008), 823 incident bladder cancer cases were diagnosed. Information on fluid intake was collected by using the food frequency questionnaire at baseline and every 4 years thereafter. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to adjust for risk factors for bladder cancer. Total fluid intake was inversely associated with bladder cancer when the analysis was based on the baseline diet (relative risk = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.60, 0.97), comparing the highest total daily fluid intake quintile (>2,531 mL/day) with the lowest quintile (<1,290 mL/day) (Ptrend = 0.01). However, no association was detected when the analysis was based on recent diet or cumulative updated diet. The updated analysis for total fluid intake and bladder cancer was attenuated compared with the original findings from the first 10-year follow-up period.

Zhou, Jiachen; Smith, Scott; Giovannucci, Edward; Michaud, Dominique S.

2012-01-01

385

REPEATED ETHANOL ADMINISTRATION MODIFIES THE TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF SUCROSE INTAKE PATTERNS IN MICE: EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH BEHAVIORAL SENSITIZATION  

PubMed Central

Neuroadaptations supporting behavioral sensitization to abused drugs are suggested to underlie pathological, excessive motivation toward drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Drug-induced sensitization has also been linked to increased appetitive responses for non-drug, natural reinforcers. The present research investigated whether ethanol (EtOH)-induced neural changes, inferred from psychomotor sensitization, can modify consumption and intake dynamics for the natural reinforcer, sucrose. The effects of EtOH-induced sensitization in mice on the temporal structure of sucrose intake patterns were measured using a lickometer system. Sucrose intake dynamics were measured after sensitization for 1 h daily for 7 days and indicated more rapid initial approach and consumption of sucrose in EtOH-sensitized groups; animals showed a shorter latency to the first intake bout and an increased number of sucrose bottle licks during the initial 15 min of the 1-h sessions. This effect was associated with increased frequency and size of bouts. For the total 1-h session, sucrose intake and bout dynamics were not different between groups, indicating a change in patterns of sucrose intake but not total consumption. When sensitization was prevented by the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen, the increased rate of approach and consumption of sucrose were also prevented. Thus, EtOH-induced sensitization, and not the mere exposure to EtOH, was associated with changes in sucrose intake patterns. These data are consistent with current literature suggesting an enhancing effect of drug-induced sensitization on motivational processes involved in reinforcement.

Pastor, Raul; Kamens, Helen M.; McKinnon, Carrie S.; Ford, Matthew M.; Phillips, Tamara J.

2010-01-01

386

Cytokeratin inclusions in alcoholic liver disease and their relation to the amount of alcohol intake.  

PubMed

In the present study, the frequency and the distribution pattern of immunoreactive hepatocytic cytokeratin (CK) inclusions was investigated using the monoclonal antibody (MAb) CAM 5.2 detecting CKs 8, 18 and 19. The CK antigenicity of the inclusions was confirmed on frozen sections with MAbs for the CKs 7, 8, 17, 18 and 19. The frequency of hepatocytic CK aggregates was compared to the presence of non-alcoholic and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) as well as to the average all-year daily ethanol intake of 195 consecutive males subjected to medico-legal autopsy. Hepatocytic CK inclusions were infrequent in patients with normal liver histology, portal fibrosis and/or portal inflammation. In ALD, however, inclusions were observed in 35.6% of patients with fatty liver, in 63.2% of patients with alcoholic hepatitis, in 30.8% of patients with bridging fibrosis and in 60.0% of patients with liver cirrhosis. In all specimens studied, the inclusions were reactive only for CKs 8 and 18, CKs 7, 17, and 19 being unreactive. The frequency of inclusion bodies increased, paralleling increasing average all-year daily alcohol consumption. Compared to non-drinkers, a daily intake of between 40 and 80 g of absolute alcohol was associated with a statistically significantly (relative risk, RR = 6.6) increased risk of formation of aggregates. Similarly, daily consumption exceeding 80 g was related to increased (RR = 6.0) frequency of CK aggregates. The frequency of full-blown "classical" Mallory bodies (MBs) was, however, increased (RR = 8.9) only in patients with a daily intake exceeding 160 g.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7533231

Savolainen, V T; Lalu, K; Penttilä, A; Virtanen, I; Karhunen, P J

1994-12-01

387

IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. The report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that have been in satisfa...

388

IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. he report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that ave been in satisfact...

389

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit Table A2. Total whole fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.8

390

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars Table A41. Energy from added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 150.2

391

Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats Table A39. Energy from solid fats: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 250.1

392

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:9 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:5/15/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106A Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

393

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:8 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:5/12/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Damian Kovalovsky Building: 10 Room: 4B17 Telephone: 301-435-6451 E-Mail: kovalovskyd@mail.nih.gov Center Number:

394

Usual Intake of Total starchy vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total starchy vegetables Table A12. Total starchy vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2

395

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:6 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:3/18/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Nicholas Restifo Building: 10-CRC Room: 3-5762 Telephone: 301-496-4904 E-Mail: restifo@nih.gov Center Number: N/A Shipping

396

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:7 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:3/18/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Nicholas Restifo Building: 10-CRC Room: 3-5762 Telephone: 301-496-4904 E-Mail: restifo@nih.gov Center Number: N/A Shipping

397

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:5 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:11/13/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Alfred Singer Building: 10 Room: 3N113 Telephone: 301-496-5461 E-Mail: singera@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

398

Usual Intake of Dark-green vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Dark-green vegetables Table A8. Dark-green vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.0

399

Usual Intake of Beans and peas (legumes)  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Beans and peas (legumes) Table A16. Beans and peas (legumes): Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1

400

Sediment, erosion and water intake in furrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations and studies were conducted on the origin and destination of sediment in irrigation water, and the effects of sediment adsorbed on the wetted perimeter of furrows on water intake and erosion. Fine sediment adsorbed on the perimeter reduced intake and increased soil water tension which was the primary mechanism holding the sediment on the perimeter. This self enhancing effect

M. J. Brown; W. D. Kemper; T. J. Trout; A. S. Humpherys

1988-01-01

401

Usual Intake of Nuts and seeds  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Nuts and seeds Table A31. Nuts and seeds: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.3 (0.04) 0.0

402

Sleep and energy intake in early childhood  

PubMed Central

Background And Objectives: Shorter sleep is associated with higher weight in children, but little is known about the mechanisms. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that shorter sleep was associated with higher energy intake in early childhood. Methods: Participants were 1303 families from the Gemini twin birth cohort. Sleep duration was measured using the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire when the children were 16 months old. Total energy intake (kcal per day) and grams per day of fat, carbohydrate and protein were derived from 3-day diet diaries completed by parents when children were 21 months old. Results: Shorter nighttime sleep was associated with higher total energy intake (P for linear trend=0.005). Children sleeping <10?h consumed around 50?kcal per day more than those sleeping 11–<12?h a night (the optimal sleep duration for children of this age). Differences in energy intake were maintained after adjustment for confounders. As a percentage of total energy intake, there were no significant differences in macronutrient intake by sleep duration. The association between sleep and weight was not significant at this age (P=0.13). Conclusions: This study provides the first evidence that shorter nighttime sleep duration has a linear association with higher energy intake early in life. That the effect is observed before emergence of associations between sleep and weight indicates that differences in energy intake may be a mechanism through which sleep influences weight gain.

Fisher, A; McDonald, L; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Llewellyn, C; Fildes, A; Schrempft, S; Wardle, J

2014-01-01

403

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:2 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:8/20/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

404

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:3 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:8/20/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

405

Relation of caffeine intake during pregnancy to intrauterine growth retardation and preterm birth.  

PubMed

Whether caffeine intake during pregnancy is related to intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and preterm birth remains unclear. The purpose of this population-based study is to assess these associations and to evaluate the interaction between caffeine intake and smoking. The study participants (n = 7,025) were women who lived in Quebec City, Canada, and the surrounding area who gave birth between January 1989 and October 1989 to a singleton liveborn neonate. Information on gestational age at delivery, caffeine intake (coffee, tea, chocolate, and colas) during pregnancy, and several potential confounders was obtained by telephone a few weeks after delivery. Birth weight was abstracted from the birth certificate. Caffeine consumption was associated with an increased risk of intrauterine growth retardation (birth weight less than the 10th percentile for sex and gestational age). For women whose average daily caffeine consumption was 0-10, 11-150, 151-300, or > 300 mg, the adjusted odds ratios for delivering a newborn with growth retardation were 1.00, 1.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.59), 1.42 (95% CI 1.07-1.87), and 1.57 (95% CI 1.05-2.33), respectively. Caffeine intake, however, was not related to preterm delivery or low birth weight. We conclude that caffeine intake during pregnancy is a risk factor for intrauterine growth retardation. PMID:8317450

Fortier, I; Marcoux, S; Beaulac-Baillargeon, L

1993-05-01

406

Total fluoride intake and urinary excretion in German children aged 3-6 years.  

PubMed

There have only been few investigations comparing total fluoride intake and the fluoride proportion excreted in urine in pre-school children. In addition, the results of available studies are conflicting. Total fluoride intake was assessed in 11 healthy children aged 3-6 years on 2 consecutive days and urinary fluoride excretion was determined. The duplicate-diet approach was used for the assessment of fluoride intake from solid and liquid foods. Fluoride intake from toothbrushing was calculated as the difference between the amount of fluoride in the paste put on the toothbrush and the drinking water (fluoride concentration 0.25 mg/l) used for rinsing vs. the fluoride amounts recovered in the toothpaste spat out and in the rinsing water. Use of fluoridated domestic salt and/or fluoride tablets was recorded. The children's intake of fluoride from food averaged 202.5+/-116.2 microg F/day. They swallowed an average amount of 273.9+/-175.6 microg F/day when brushing their teeth. Daily fluoride ingestion from all sources totalled 930.7+/-391.5 microg or 53.0+/-21.4 microg/kg body weight. On average 51.5% of the fluoride ingested was excreted in urine. The wide interindividual variation makes it necessary to evaluate the urinary excretion rate for fluoride in larger study populations with varied fluoride exposure. PMID:11799286

Haftenberger, M; Viergutz, G; Neumeister, V; Hetzer, G

2001-01-01

407

Urinary isoflavonoid excretion as a biomarker of dietary soy intake during two randomized soy trials.  

PubMed

We evaluated urinary isoflavonoid excretion as a biomarker of dietary isoflavone intake during two randomized soy trials (13-24 months) among 256 premenopausal women with a total of 1,385 repeated urine samples. Participants consumed a high-soy diet (2 servings/day) and a low-soy diet (<3 servings/week), completed 7 unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls, and donated repeated urine samples, which were analyzed for isoflavonoid excretion by liquid chromatography methods. We computed Spearman correlation coefficients and applied logistic regression to estimate the area under the curve. Median overall daily dietary isoflavone intakes at baseline, during low- and high-soy diet were 2.3, 0.2, and 60.4 mg aglycone equivalents, respectively. The corresponding urinary isoflavonoid excretion values were 0.4, 1.0, and 32.4 nmol/mg creatinine. Across diets, urinary isoflavonoid excretion was significantly associated with dietary isoflavone intake (rs=0.51, AUC=0.85; p<0.0001) but not within diet periods (rs=0.05-0.06, AUC=0.565-0.573). Urinary isoflavonoid excretion is an excellent biomarker to discriminate between low- and high-soy diets across populations, but the association with dietary isoflavone intake is weak when the range of soy intake is small. PMID:24901088

Morimoto, Yukiko; Beckford, Fanchon; Franke, Adrian A; Maskarinec, Gertraud

2014-06-01

408

Affect and Self-Based Models of Relationships between Daily Events and Daily Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined affect- and self-based explanatory models of relationships between daily events and daily well- being. Twice a week for up to 10 weeks, participants described the events that occurred each day and provided measures of their daily affect, self-esteem, and depressogenic thinking. Partici- pants also provided trait-level measures of affect, depression, and self-esteem. Measures of daily well-being

John B. Nezlek; Rebecca M. Plesko

2003-01-01

409

Choline intake in a large cohort of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease123  

PubMed Central

Background: There is significant histologic and biochemical overlap between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis associated with choline deficiency. Objective: We sought to determine whether subjects with biopsy-proven NAFLD and evidence of an inadequate intake of choline had more severe histologic features. Design: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 664 subjects enrolled in the multicenter, prospective Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN) with baseline data on diet composition (from a recall-based food-frequency questionnaire) within 6 mo of a liver biopsy. Food questionnaires were analyzed with proprietary software to estimate daily intakes of choline. Liver biopsies were centrally read, and consensus was scored with the NASH CRN–developed scoring system. Because choline needs vary by age, sex, and menopausal status, participants were segregated into corresponding categories (children 9–13 y old, males ?14 y old, premenopausal women ?19 y old, and postmenopausal women) on the basis of the Institute of Medicine's definition of adequate intake (AI) for choline. Deficient intake was defined as <50% AI. Results: Postmenopausal women with deficient choline intake had worse fibrosis (P = 0.002) once factors associated with NAFLD (age, race-ethnicity, obesity, elevated triglycerides, diabetes, alcohol use, and steroid use) were considered in multiple ordinal logistic regression models. Choline intake was not identified as a contributor to disease severity in children, men, or premenopausal women. Conclusion: Decreased choline intake is significantly associated with increased fibrosis in postmenopausal women with NAFLD. The Pioglitazone vs Vitamin E vs Placebo for Treatment of Non-Diabetic Patients With Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00063622, and the Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00063635.

Guerrerio, Anthony L; Colvin, Ryan M; Schwartz, Amy K; Molleston, Jean P; Murray, Karen F; Diehl, AnnaMae; Mohan, Parvathi; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B; Lavine, Joel E; Torbenson, Michael S

2012-01-01

410

Secular trends in fruit intake among Danish schoolchildren, 1988 to 2006: Changing habits or methodological artefacts?  

PubMed Central

Background Intermittent monitoring of fruit and vegetable intake at the population level is essential for the evaluation and planning of national dietary interventions. Yet, only a limited number of studies on time trends in fruit and vegetable intake among children and adolescents have been published internationally. In Denmark, national comprehensive campaigns to enhance fruit and vegetable consumption were initiated in 2001. This paper describes secular trends in fruit intake among Danish adolescents by six comparable school surveys from 1988 to 2006. The paper demonstrates and discusses the consequences of measurement changes introduced in long-term trend analyses. Methods We used Danish data from the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study collected in 1988, 1991, 1994, 1998, 2002 and 2006. Analyses were conducted on comparable questionnaire-based data from students aged 11, 13 and 15 total (n = 23,871) from a random sample of schools. Data on fruit intake were measured by a food frequency questionnaire. Due to changes in number of response categories beween surveys, different cut-points were analysed. Results The prevalence of students eating fruit at least once daily ranged from 78.3% among 13-year-old girls in 1988 to 17.3% among 15-year-old boys in 2002. Based on the six data collections, analyses of trends showed a significant decrease in prevalence of students eating fruit at least once daily from 1988 to 2002 (all p-values < 0.0001). In all age and gender groups, a significant increase in intake occurred between 2002 and 2006 (all p-values < 0.0065). Analyses of alternative cut-points revealed similar results. Conclusion Fruit consumption among Danish schoolchildren decreased from 1988 to 2002 with an increase since 2002. We suggest that the increase may be attributable to a nation-wide initiative conducted in Denmark since 2001 to increase the intake of fruit and vegetables in the population. Still, the results imply that a substantial proportion of Danish schoolchildren do not meet the nationally recommended daily intake of fruit. Our analyses indicate that the observed trends are not solely caused by methodological biases related to changes in measurements.

Rasmussen, Mette; Kr?lner, Rikke; Svastisalee, Chalida Mae; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bj?rn Evald

2008-01-01

411