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1

Estimated daily intake of phthalates in occupationally exposed groups.  

PubMed

Improved analytical methods for measuring urinary phthalate metabolites have resulted in biomarker-based estimates of phthalate daily intake for the general population, but not for occupationally exposed groups. In 2003-2005, we recruited 156 workers from eight industries where materials containing diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and/or di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were used as part of the worker's regular job duties. Phthalate metabolite concentrations measured in the workers' end-shift urine samples were used in a simple pharmacokinetic model to estimate phthalate daily intake. DEHP intake estimates based on three DEHP metabolites combined were 0.6-850??g/kg/day, with the two highest geometric mean (GM) intakes in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film manufacturing (17??g/kg/day) and PVC compounding (12??g/kg/day). All industries, except phthalate manufacturing, had some workers whose DEHP exposure exceeded the U.S. reference dose (RfD) of 20??g/kg/day. A few workers also exceeded the DEHP European tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 50??g/kg/day. DEP intake estimates were 0.5-170??g/kg/day, with the highest GM in phthalate manufacturing (27??g/kg/day). DBP intake estimates were 0.1-76??g/kg/day, with the highest GMs in rubber gasket and in phthalate manufacturing (17??g/kg/day, each). No DEP or DBP intake estimates exceeded their respective RfDs. The DBP TDI (10??g/kg/day) was exceeded in three rubber industries and in phthalate manufacturing. These intake estimates are subject to several uncertainties; however, an occupational contribution to phthalate daily intake is clearly indicated in some industries. PMID:20010977

Hines, Cynthia J; Hopf, Nancy B N; Deddens, James A; Silva, Manori J; Calafat, Antonia M

2011-01-01

2

Heavy metals in common foodstuff: Daily intake  

SciTech Connect

Lately, toxic effects of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) as well as desirable ones of some others (Ni, Mn, Zn) have been a field of thorough investigation. The main way of human body fortification in metals is through foodchain depending on the kind and quantity of the consumed food, according to dietary habits. The purpose of this study is the calculation of metals daily intake through common foodstuff of Greek inhabitants. The calculation is based on results from quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn in common foodstuff from the market of the city of Thessaloniki. The daily food consumption data is derived from three sources: (a) answers to a questionnaire distributed to families of the city of Thessaloniki, (b) nutrition data provided by the Agricultural Bank of Greece and (c) nutrition data according to international bibliography.

Tsoumbaris, P.; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H. (Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

1994-07-01

3

Determination of several elements in duplicate meals from catering establishments using closed vessel microwave digestion with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection: estimation of daily dietary intake.  

PubMed

An estimation of the dietary exposure of French consumers to 21 essential and non-essential mineral elements using duplicate meals (breakfast and lunch) purchased from catering establishments was investigated after digestion by a closed vessel microwave procedure and quantification by ICP-MS. Daily dietary exposure estimates for metals and minerals were compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intakes (PTWI), the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) or the Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADI), as established by the FAO/WHO to estimate the risk of toxicity, and the US Recommended Daily Allowances (US RDA) or the Estimate Safe & Adequate Daily Dietary Intakes (ESADDI). Moreover, comparisons were made with those from previous French studies as well as those from other countries. The estimated mean daily intakes were 11 microgram for lithium, 3.42 g for sodium, 192 mg for magnesium, 2.03 mg for aluminium, 3.64 g for potassium, 642 mg for calcium, 154 microgram for chromium, 12.3 mg for iron, 2.15 mg for manganese, 4 microgram for cobalt, 74 microgram for nickel, 925 microgram for copper, 10.2 mg for zinc, 147 microgram for arsenic, 66 microgram for selenium, 112 microgram for molybdenum, 3.6 microgram for cadmium, 2.32 mg for tin, 3 microgram for antimony, 9 microgram for mercury and 34 microgram for lead. For the non-essential (toxic) elements, aluminium, tin, antimony, cadmium, arsenic, mercury and lead, the daily intake estimates were far below tolerable limits; and similar or somewhat lower than their respective PTWI, ADI, TDI, ESADDI and US RDA for individual minerals and essential trace elements, with good agreement with other country studies. The performance of the multi-elemental ICP-MS technique was also evaluated. PMID:12519718

Noël, L; Leblanc, J C; Guérin, T

2003-01-01

4

Daily intake of metals by females in Osaka, Japan  

SciTech Connect

Recent remarkable progress in analytical chemistry has made it possible to quantitatively determine trace elements which could not be analyzed by conventional means. Under these circumstances, relationships between trace elements and living organisms have intensely attracted public attention. It is known that the incorporation of dietary metals in food for human consumption would be affected by the chemical form of each element, substances present together with them, and interactions among inorganic elements. It should be noted that a trace amount of selenium taken from foods would form an inactive complex together with a toxic heavy metal compound so as to suppress the expression of the toxicity of said heavy metal. To evaluate the safety and to compare recommended daily intake of food of humans, it is important to know the amounts of metals taken in from their daily diet. Thus, we examined the diets of 25 female adults living in Osaka, Japan thrice, namely, 75 samples in total, by the duplicate portion method, and determined daily dietary intake of 22 metal elements contained in these samples. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

Ikebe, Katsuhiko [Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health (Japan)

1992-10-01

5

Long-term daily intake estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers from food in Finnish children: risk assessment implications.  

PubMed

Food is contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) worldwide. Previous data show elevated intakes in children. We determined intakes of POPs in Finnish children. Because no children-specific safe limit values exist, we used tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) set for adults by international expert bodies to examine the proportion of the study population that exceed those limits. We utilised dietary monitoring data with food consumption of Finnish boys and girls aged 1-6 years, measured the contaminant concentrations in all the main food items and calculated age-specific contaminant sum and congener-specific long-term daily intake levels. Our food intake and contaminant data correspond to years 2002-2005. The long-term upper-bound dioxin intakes ranged between 0.1 and 12.8 pg WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ/kg bw/d (min and max). An immediate TDI for WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQs of 4.0 pg/kg bw/d were exceeded by 2.5%-7.5% of the children. PBDE long-term upper-bound intake was between 0.1 and 5.8 ng/kg bw/d (min and max). Congener-specific analyses indicated a typical Finnish adult exposure pattern of the children to PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs. The highest POP intakes were observed in children aged 3 years. Long-term daily PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE intakes among Finnish children varied greatly between individuals and ages. In each age group of the study population, there was a proportion of children with their WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ intake exceeding considered safe limits set for adults. Based on the exposure profile reported herein, children should be clearly considered as a specific sub-population in food-mediated contaminant risk assessment. PMID:22765049

Karjalainen, Anna K; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Sinkko, Harri; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Virtanen, Suvi M; Hallikainen, Anja; Leino, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Tuomisto, Jouni T

2012-01-01

6

Daily nutrient intake represents a modifiable determinant of nutritional status in chronic haemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. In maintenance haemodialysis patients, daily food intake is changeable; however, its relation- ship with nutritional status is unexplored. This study aimed to evaluate the isolated, long-term effect of daily nutrient intake on nutritional status in haemodialysis patients. Methods. We performed a prospective 1-year con- trolled study in 27 chronic haemodialysis patients, without recognized risk factors for malnutrition. Each day

Vincenzo Bellizzi; Biagio R. Di Iorio; Vincenzo Terracciano; Roberto Minutolo; Carmela Iodice; Luca De Nicola; Giuseppe Conte

2003-01-01

7

Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

2011-01-01

8

Estimation of Daily Salt Intake through a 24-Hour Urine Collection in Pohang, Korea  

PubMed Central

There is an established relationship between a high salt diet and public health problems, especially hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We estimated daily salt intake in a group of adults and assessed its association with related variables in Pohang, Korea. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2013 with 242 adults. Urine was collected for 24 hr to estimate daily salt intake, and questionnaires about salt preference were administered. The mean daily salt intake was 9.9±4.6 g. There was no difference in salt intake between high systolic blood pressure (SBP) participants and normal SBP participants (10.5±4.7 g/d vs. 9.6±4.3 g/d, P=0.339), but high diastolic blood pressure (DBP) participants reported more salt intake than normal DBP participants (10.4±4.9 g/d vs. 9.7±4.1 g/d, P=0.049). Salt intake and body mass index demonstrated a positive correlation (P=0.001). A preference for Korean soup or stew was associated with high salt intake (P=0.038). Dietary salt intake in Korean adults is still higher than the recommendation from the World Health Organization. More efforts should be made to reduce the salt consumption of Korean adults. PMID:25317022

2014-01-01

9

Average daily nitrate and nitrite intake in the Belgian population older than 15 years.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite in Belgium. The nitrate content of processed vegetables, cheeses and meat products was analysed. These data were completed by data from non-targeted official control and from the literature. In addition, the nitrite content of meat products was measured. Concentration data for nitrate and nitrite were linked to food consumption data of the Belgian Food Consumption Survey. This study included 3245 respondents, aged 15 years and older. Food intakes were estimated by a repeated 24-h recall using EPIC-SOFT. Only respondents with two completed 24-h recalls (n=3083) were included in the analysis. For the intake assessment, average concentration data and individual consumption data were combined. Usual intake of nitrate/nitrite was calculated using the Nusser method. The mean usual daily intake of nitrate was 1.38 mg kg(-1) bodyweight (bw) day(-1) and the usual daily intake at the 97.5 percentile was 2.76 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1). Exposure of the Belgian population to nitrate at a mean intake corresponded to 38% of the ADI (while 76% at the 97.5 percentile). For the average consumer, half of the intake was derived from vegetables (especially lettuce) and 20% from water and water-based drinks. The average daily intake of nitrate and nitrite from cheese and meat products was low (0.2% and 6% of the ADI at average intake, respectively). Scenario analyses with a higher consumption of vegetables or a higher nitrate concentration in tap water showed a significant higher intake of nitrate. Whether this is beneficial or harmful must be further assessed. PMID:21728895

Temme, E H M; Vandevijvere, S; Vinkx, C; Huybrechts, I; Goeyens, L; Van Oyen, H

2011-09-01

10

HEAVY METALS IN SELECTED EDIBLE VEGETABLES AND ESTIMATION OF THEIR DAILY INTAKE IN SANANDAJ, IRAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of four different heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu)) were determined in various vegetables (leek (Allium ampeloprasum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), garden cress (Lepidium sativum) and tar- ragon (Artemisia dracunculus)) cultivated around Sanandaj City. The contributions of the veg- etables to the daily intake of heavy metals from vegetables were

Afshin Maleki; Masoud Alasvand Zarasvand

11

Comparison of three methods to reduce energy density: effects on daily energy intake  

PubMed Central

Reductions in food energy density can decrease energy intake, but it is not known if the effects depend on the way that energy density is reduced. We investigated whether three methods of reducing energy density (decreasing fat, increasing fruit and vegetables, and adding water) differed in their effects on energy intake across the day. In a crossover design, 59 adults ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for four weeks. Across conditions, the entrées were either standard in energy density or were reduced in energy density by 20% using one of the three methods. Each meal included a manipulated entrée along with unmanipulated side dishes, and all foods were consumed ad libitum. Reducing the energy density of entrées significantly decreased daily energy intake compared to standard entrées (mean intake 2667±77 kcal/day; 11,166±322 kJ/day). The mean decrease was 396±44 kcal/day (1658±184 kJ/day) when fat was reduced, 308±41 kcal/day (1290±172 kJ/day) when fruit and vegetables were increased, and 230±35 kcal/day (963±147 kJ/day) when water was added. Daily energy intake was lower when fat was decreased compared to the other methods. These findings indicate that a variety of diet compositions can be recommended to reduce overall dietary energy density in order to moderate energy intake. PMID:23523752

Williams, Rachel A.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

2013-01-01

12

Assessment of daily intake of organochlorine pesticides from milk in different regions of Poland.  

PubMed

The common occurrence of organochlorine compounds in the environment, food and human tissues may constitute a serious threat to human health. The method of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was used to determine the content of pesticides in 15 samples of raw cow's milk from different regions of Poland. The results revealed high levels of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, heptachlor and aldrin. The studied milk contained lindane in average concentrations within the maximum limits. Although in 20% of all samples tested, the concentration of lindane exceeded permissible limits, while in 15% of samples the content of ? DDT was too high. But the average daily consumption of milk containing organochlorine pesticides poses no direct threat to human health, because daily intake (DI) for all compounds were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Attention should be paid to the exposure of consumers to pesticide residues from other dairy foods. PMID:23305275

Witczak, Agata; Mituniewicz-Ma?ek, Anna; Dmytrów, Izabela

2013-01-01

13

Validation of the deuterium oxide method for measuring average daily milk intake in infants  

SciTech Connect

The deuterium oxide elimination method for measuring average daily milk intake was validated against measured formula intake in 16 studies of 11 infants in a metabolic ward. Deuterium oxide (approximately 0.10 g/kg body wt) was given orally. Deuterium enrichment was measured in urine samples collected predose, as available for 6-h postdose for TBW determination, and at 24 h and 5-10 d postdose for HDO elimination calculated according to the two-point method. Urine samples were vacuum distilled, water was reduced to hydrogen gas, and deuterium enrichment was measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Milk intake was measured throughout the elimination period from prefeeding and postfeeding bottle weights (n = 12) or volumes (n = 4). Without corrections for atmospheric water influx, milk intake was overestimated by 76 g/d (6%). With corrections for estimated metabolic water production, isotopic fractionation, and atmospheric water influx, deuterium measured 98% +/- 3% or 1300 g milk intake/d compared with actual milk intake of 1329 +/- 206 g/d.

Fjeld, C.R.; Brown, K.H.; Schoeller, D.A.

1988-09-01

14

Estimated daily intake of Fe, Cu, Ca and Zn through common cereals in Tehran, Iran.  

PubMed

This paper presents the findings of study undertaken to estimate the dietary intake of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) through common cereals in Tehran, Iran. 100 samples of rice, wheat and barley were collected from various brands between August and October 2013. The samples were analyzed performing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The dietary intake for adults was estimated by a total cereal study. Calculations were carried out on the basis of the reported adults' average food consumption rate data. The total daily intake estimated in mgd(-1) for Tehran population were 3.6 (Fe), 10.2 (Zn), 0.3 (Cu) and 234.5 (Ca). Wheat showed the highest contribution to Zn, Cu and Ca intakes. Furthermore, intakes were compared with recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Zn total intake (10.2mgd(-1)) was comparable with RDA values for males (11mgd(-1)) and was higher than recommended value for females (8mgd(-1)). The intakes of other studied elements were below the respective RDAs. PMID:25624223

Kashian, S; Fathivand, A A

2015-06-01

15

Estimated daily intake and cumulative risk assessment of phthalate diesters in a Belgian general population.  

PubMed

The daily intakes (DI) were estimated in a Belgian general population for 5 phthalates, namely diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), based on the urinary measurements of their corresponding metabolites. DI values ranged between daily intakes) to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQ), which highlight an intake above the dose considered as safe for values greater than 1. If very few of our Belgian participants exceeded this threshold for phthalates considered individually, 6.2% of the adults and 25% of the children showed an excessive hazard index (HI) which took into account the cumulative risk of adverse anti-androgenic effects. These results are of concern since these HI were based on only 3 phthalates (DEHP, DiBP and DnBP), and showed a median of 0.55 and 0.29 for children and adults respectively. The comparison with previously determined dietary intakes demonstrated that for DEHP, food intake was nearly the only route of exposure while other pathways occurred mainly for the other studied phthalates. PMID:24968065

Dewalque, Lucas; Charlier, Corinne; Pirard, Catherine

2014-12-01

16

Duplicate portion sampling combined with spectrophotometric analysis affords the most accurate results when assessing daily dietary phosphorus intake.  

PubMed

The assessment of daily dietary phosphorus (P) intake is a major concern in human nutrition because of its relationship with Ca and Mg metabolism and osteoporosis. Within this context, we hypothesized that several of the methods available for the assessment of daily dietary intake of P are equally accurate and reliable, although few studies have been conducted to confirm this. The aim of this study then was to evaluate daily dietary P intake, which we did by 3 methods: duplicate portion sampling of 108 hospital meals, combined either with spectrophotometric analysis or the use of food composition tables, and 24-hour dietary recall for 3 consecutive days plus the use of food composition tables. The mean P daily dietary intakes found were 1106 ± 221, 1480 ± 221, and 1515 ± 223 mg/d, respectively. Daily dietary intake of P determined by spectrophotometric analysis was significantly lower (P < .001) and closer to dietary reference intakes for adolescents aged from 14 to 18 years (88.5%) and adult subjects (158.1%) compared with the other 2 methods. Duplicate portion sampling with P analysis takes into account the influence of technological and cooking processes on the P content of foods and meals and therefore afforded the most accurate and reliable P daily dietary intakes. The use of referred food composition tables overestimated daily dietary P intake. No adverse effects in relation to P nutrition (deficiencies or toxic effects) were encountered. PMID:22935340

Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; Zambrano, Esmeralda; Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Agil, Ahmad; Olalla, Manuel

2012-08-01

17

[Pollution of fish and shellfish with organotin compounds and estimation of daily intake].  

PubMed

Tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) compounds have been widely used as antifouling paint for ship bottoms and fishery firm nets, and they are known to be aquatic environmental contaminants. A survey of the pollution with organotin compounds in fish and shellfish has been carried out for samples (180 samples from 43 kinds) which were collected in the Hokkaido prefecture during the period from February, 1989 to September, 1992. On the other hand, daily intakes of organotin compounds have been investigated using the Market Basket Method. Relatively high concentrations of TBT and TPT were detected from flat fish and shellfish such as Hirame (bastard halibut), Kurogarei (black plaice), Asari (Japanese littleneck), Hokkigai (Japanese surf clam) and Kaki (oyster). The maximum value of TBT in samples was 0.38 microgram/g (for both Asari and Kaki), and TPT was 0.47 microgram/g (Kurogarei). Estimated daily intakes of DBT, TBT and TPT were 0.45 microgram, 2.40 micrograms and 4.11 micrograms, respectively. The values presented in this study were lower in comparison with the acceptable daily intake. It was revealed that the values of the organotin compounds in this study were not so high as to have any efect on human health at the present. PMID:8157252

Yamamoto, I

1994-03-01

18

Revising the daily values may affect food fortification and in turn nutrient intake adequacy.  

PubMed

The Nutrition Facts panel on food labels in the United States currently displays Daily Values (DVs) that are based on outdated RDAs. The FDA has indicated that it plans to update the DVs based on the newer Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), but there is controversy regarding the best method for calculating new DVs from the DRIs. To better understand the implications of DV revisions, assuming that manufacturers choose to maintain current label claims for micronutrients from voluntarily fortified foods, we modeled intake of 8 micronutrients using NHANES 2007-2008 data and 2 potential methods for calculating DVs: the population-weighted Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and the population-coverage RDA. In each scenario, levels of fortified nutrients were adjusted to maintain the current %DV. Usual nutrient intakes and percentages with usual intakes less than the EAR were estimated for the U.S. population and subpopulations aged ? 4 y (n = 7976). For most nutrients, estimates of the percentage of the U.S. population with intakes below the EAR were similar regardless of whether the DV corresponded to the population-weighted EAR or the population-coverage RDA. Potential decreases were observed in adequacy of nutrients of concern for women of childbearing age, namely iron and folate (up to 9% and 3%, respectively), adequacy of calcium among children (up to 6%), and adequacy of vitamin A intakes in the total population (5%) assuming use of the population-weighted EAR compared with the population-coverage RDA for setting the DV. Results of this modeling exercise will help to inform decisions in revising the DVs. PMID:24132571

Murphy, Mary M; Spungen, Judith H; Barraj, Leila M; Bailey, Regan L; Dwyer, Johanna T

2013-12-01

19

Self-monitoring of home blood pressure with estimation of daily salt intake using a new electrical device  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated a simple device to monitor daily salt intake at home and examined the relationship between salt excretion and morning blood pressure in order to enable patients to better manage daily salt intake and hypertension. The correlation between 24-h urinary salt excretion and measured value with salt monitor from overnight urine was significant (n=224, r=0.72, P0.4, P21), indicating sodium

K Yamasue; O Tochikubo; E Kono; H Maeda

2006-01-01

20

International project on human daily dietary intake of minor and trace elements  

SciTech Connect

A coordinate research program on dietary intake of nutrient and other elements initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is currently under way. The purpose of the core program of this project is to obtain reliable data on the average daily intakes of several important minor and trace elements in diets consumed in a number of developed and developing countries such as Brazil, Canada, China, Iran, Italy, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Thailand, and Turkey. In the core program which will be collected for determination of the nutrient elements such as calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, iodine, selenium, and zinc, among others. The project also provides for the measurement of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in view of the biological significance of these elements as toxicants in the diet and includes estimation of the energy, phytate, and fiber components of the diet.

Iyengar, V.

1986-01-01

21

Multiple trait model combining random regressions for daily feed intake with single measured performance traits of growing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A random regression model for daily feed intake and a conventional multiple trait animal model for the four traits average daily gain on test (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass lean content and meat quality index were combined to analyse data from 1 449 castrated male Large White pigs performance tested in two French central testing stations in 1997. Group

Urs Schnyder; Andreas Hofer; Florence Labroue; Niklaus Künzi

2002-01-01

22

Daily Rice Intake Strongly Influences the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Japanese Men Aged 40–59 Years  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The first objective of this study was to classify men aged 40–74 yrs with metabolic syndrome (MetS) according to daily rice intake, and the second was to investigate physical measurements, physiological examinations, blood biochemical assays, intake of food other than rice and lifestyle and environmental factors in the study group. Methods: We analyzed data from 6095 men aged 40–74 yrs who had undergone full medical examinations. The men were classified into 3 age groups: (1) 40–49 yrs, (2) 50–59 yrs, and (3) 60–74 yrs. The men were classified further into 3 groups according to daily rice intake: group 1 (?300 g), group 2 (300–450 g), and group 3 (?450 g). The relationship between daily rice intake and the following factors was analyzed in the three age brackets: (1) physical measurements including waist circumference, (2) physiological measurements, (3) serum biochemical indices, (4) whether or not the person was taking medication for hypertension, diabetes mellitus or serum lipid abnormalities, (5) lifestyle, and (6) consumption of foods other than rice. Results: Daily rice intake was related strongly to the occurrence of MetS in all three age brackets. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed (1) a significant increase in the odds ratio for MetS (1.461 times) for group 3 compared with group 1 in men aged 40–49 yrs and (2) a significant increase in the odds ratio for MetS (1.501 times) for group 3 compared with group 1 in men aged 50–59 yrs. However, there was no significant difference in the odds ratio for MetS among rice intake groups in the 60–74 age bracket. Conclusion: In men aged 40–59 yrs, daily rice intake strongly influenced the incidence of MetS, whereas in men aged 60–74 yrs, there was no relationship between daily rice intake and MetS.

Watanabe, Yoko; Saito, Isao; Asada, Yasuhiko; Kishida, Taro; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Yamaizumi, Masamitsu; Kato, Tadahiro

2013-01-01

23

Energy intake, expenditure and pattern of daily activity of Nigerian male students.  

PubMed

1. Twenty apparently healthy and normal Nigerian male students, resident at the University of Ibadan campus, were studied for seven consecutive days to assess their food energy intake and expenditure and pattern of their daily activities. 2. The mean age (years) of the group was 24.0 (SD 3.23, range 20-30), mean height (m) 1.71 (SD 0.06, range 1.61-1.84) and body-weight (kg) was 61.1 (SD 5.01, range 51.0-69.5). 3. The food intake of each subject was obtained by direct weighing and its energy value determined using a ballistic bomb calorimeter. Patterns of daily activities were recorded and the energy costs of representative activities were determined by indirect calorimetry. 4. Activities mainly involved sitting, mean 580 (SD 167, range 394-732) min/d. Sleeping and standing activities took a mean of 445 (SD 112) and 115 (SD 75) min/d respectively. Personal domestic activities took a mean of 94 (SD 40) min/d. 5. The mean energy intake of the group was 11,182 (SD 1970) kJ/d or 183 (SD 32) kJ/kg body-weight per d. This value is lower than the 12.5 MJ/d recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) (1973) as the energy requirement for an adult man engaged in moderate activities, but it is higher than the FAO/WHO/United Nations University (UNU) (1985) recommended value of 10.8 MJ/d for a male office clerk (light activity). It is also lower than the recommended energy requirement of 11.6 MJ/d for a subsistence farmer (moderately active work) (FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985). 6. The mean energy expenditure of the male subjects was 9876 (SD 1064, range 7159-12,259) kJ/d and was lower than mean intake. 7. The energy intake and expenditure values indicated that the groups participating in the present study were not physically very active. It is an indication that the Nigerian male students expended less but probably consumed more energy than required. It is suggested for health reasons and for mental fitness that the Nigerian male students might undertake more physical exercise. PMID:3689743

Cole, A H; Ogbe, J O

1987-11-01

24

Evaluation of estimated daily intake (EDI) of cadmium and lead for rice (Oryza sativa L.) in calcareous soils  

PubMed Central

The excessive amounts of cadmium and lead in food chain can cause health problems for humans and ecosystem. Rice is an important food in human diet. Therefore this study was conducted in order to investigate cadmium and Lead concentrations in seed rice (Oryza saliva) of paddy fields in southwest of Iran. A total of 70 rice seed samples were collected from paddy fields in five regions of Khuzestan province, Southwest Iran, during harvesting time. In the samples cadmium and Lead concentrations were measured. To assess the daily intake of Cadmium and Lead by rice, daily consumption of rice was calculated. The results showed that average concentrations of Cadmium and Lead in rice seeds were 273.6 and 121.8??g/kg, respectively. Less than 72% of rice seed samples had Cadmium concentrations above 200??g/kg (i.e. Guide value for cadmium); and less than 3% had Lead concentrations above 150??g/kg (i.e. Guide value for Lead). The estimated daily intakes of cadmium by the local population was calculated to 0.59??g/day?kg bw, which corresponds to 59% of the tolerable daily intakes (i.e. 1??g/day?kg bw). Eleven out of 70 samples (15.71%) exceed the tolerable daily intakes. The dietary intakes for Lead in the local population ranged from 0.22 to 0.47??g/day?kg bw. Tolerable daily intakes for Lead is 3.6??g/day?kg bw. As a whole, long term consumption of the local rice may bear high risk of heavy metal exposure to the consumer in the study region. PMID:23566692

2013-01-01

25

Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate ingested may be an important risk factor in the development of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Reliable food tables listing the oxalate content of foods are currently not available. The aim of this research was to develop an accurate and reliable method to measure the food content of oxalate. METHODS: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) were compared as direct techniques for the estimation of the oxalate content of foods. Foods were thoroughly homogenized in acid, heat extracted, and clarified by centrifugation and filtration before dilution in water for analysis. Five individuals consuming self-selected diets maintained food records for three days to determine their mean daily oxalate intakes. RESULTS: Both techniques were capable of adequately measuring the oxalate in foods with a significant oxalate content. With foods of very low oxalate content (<1.8 mg/100 g), IC was more reliable than CE. The mean daily intake of oxalate by the five individuals tested was 152 +/- 83 mg, ranging from 44 to 352 mg/day. CONCLUSIONS: CE appears to be the method of choice over IC for estimating the oxalate content of foods with a medium (>10 mg/100 g) to high oxalate content due to a faster analysis time and lower running costs, whereas IC may be better suited for the analysis of foods with a low oxalate content. Accurate estimates of the oxalate content of foods should permit the role of dietary oxalate in urinary oxalate excretion and stone formation to be clarified. Other factors, apart from the amount of oxalate ingested, appear to exert a major influence over the amount of oxalate excreted in the urine.

Holmes, R. P.; Kennedy, M.

2000-01-01

26

Heavy metals in selected edible vegetables and estimation of their daily intake in Sanandaj, Iran.  

PubMed

The levels of four different heavy metals [cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu)] were determined in various vegetables [leek (Allium ampeloprasum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), garden cress (Lepidium sativum) and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus)] cultivated around Sanandaj City. The contributions of the vegetables to the daily intake of heavy metals from vegetables were investigated. One hundred samples (20 samples per month) were collected for five months. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of these metals in the vegetables. The average concentrations of each heavy metal regardless of the kind of vegetable for Pb, Cu, Cr and Cd were 13.60 +/- 2.27, 11.50 +/- 2.16, 7.90 +/- 1.05 and 0.31 +/- 0.17 mg/kg, respectively. Based on the above concentrations and the information of National Nutrition and Food Research Institute of Iran, the dietary intake of Pb, Cu, Cr and Cd through vegetable consumption was estimated at 2.96, 2.50, 1.72 and 0.07 mg/day, respectively. It is concluded that the vegetables grown in this region are a health hazard for human consumption. PMID:18564723

Maleki, Afshin; Zarasvand, Masoud Alasvand

2008-03-01

27

Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes  

PubMed Central

Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation. PMID:23803740

Kobayashi, Yukiko; Hattori, Mikako; Wada, Sayori; Iwase, Hiroya; Kadono, Mayuko; Tatsumi, Hina; Kuwahata, Masashi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Kido, Yasuhiro

2013-01-01

28

The daily rhythm of milk synthesis is dependent on the timing of feed intake in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Regulation of the daily rhythm of milk synthesis is important to production animals and breastfeeding, but is difficult to observe in nursing animals. The rate of food intake varies over the day and is expected to create a daily rhythm of nutrient absorption. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of food intake entrains a daily pattern of milk synthesis. Seventeen Holstein cows were used in a crossover design. Treatments were ad libitum feeding of a total mixed ration once daily (1× fed) or fed in four equal meals every 6 h (4× fed). Cows were milked every 6 h the last 7 days of each period. There was a treatment by time of day interaction for milk and milk component yield and concentration. Milk fat and protein concentration and yield exhibited a daily rhythm and the amplitude of the rhythm was reduced in 4× fed. In addition, milk fat percent was higher in 4× fed than 1× fed at three of the four milking intervals (0.22-0.45% higher) and 4× fed increased daily milk fat yield. Treatment by time of day interactions were detected for plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen. These variables also fit a cosine function with a 24 h period and the amplitudes of plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen rhythms were decreased by 4× feeding. In conclusion, there is a circadian pattern of milk synthesis in the dairy cow that is responsive to the timing of food intake. PMID:24963033

Rottman, L Whitney; Ying, Yun; Zhou, Kan; Bartell, Paul A; Harvatine, Kevin J

2014-06-01

29

Self-reported taste preference can be a proxy for daily sodium intake in middle-aged Japanese adults.  

PubMed

Reducing dietary salt intake remains a challenging issue in the management of chronic disease. Taste preference is suspected to be an important proxy index of daily sodium consumption. This study examined the difference in daily sodium intake according to self-reported taste preference for miso soup as representative of homemade cooking in middle-aged urban Japanese adults. Among 896 candidates randomly selected from examinees of cancer screening provided by the National Cancer Center, Japan, 143 men and women participated in this cross-sectional study. During the period from May 2007 through April 2008, participants provided a food frequency questionnaire, which included information on taste preference and dietary behaviors, a weighed food record over 4 consecutive days, a simultaneous 24-hour urine collection, and a sample of miso soup as it is usually prepared in the home. Mean 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and daily sodium intake were compared according to the self-reported taste preference for miso soup. Taste preference was significantly associated with both 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (trend P<0.01) and daily sodium intake (trend P=0.01), with a corresponding regression coefficient per 1 rank preference increment of 403 mg and 315 mg/day, respectively. The observed association between preference and urinary excretion was attenuated by further adjustment for discretionary salt-related behaviors. These findings suggest that self-reported taste preference for homemade cooking is a defining feature of daily sodium intake through discretionary salt-related dietary behaviors. A reduction in daily sodium consumption per 1 rank light preference was estimated to equate to approximately 1 g salt/day. PMID:24144991

Takachi, Ribeka; Ishihara, Junko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Ishii, Yuri; Tsugane, Shoichiro

2014-05-01

30

Daily intake assessment of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame from various processed foods in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to estimate the daily intakes (EDIs) of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame in order to evaluate the safety of the artificial sweeteners in Korea. A total of 274 food samples were selected from the foods considered to be representative sources of artificial sweeteners in the Korean diet and analysed by using

M.-S. Chung; H.-J. Suh; W. Yoo; S.-H. Choi; Y.-J. Cho; Y.-H. Cho; C.-J. Kim

2005-01-01

31

Urinary excretion of arsenicals following daily intake of various seafoods during a two weeks intervention.  

PubMed

The excretion pattern of arsenic (As) species after seafood intake varies widely depending on species ingested and individual handling. We have previously reported the 72 h urinary excretion of arsenicals following a single dose of seafood. Here, we report the excretion patterns in the same 37 subjects following 15 days daily consumption of either 150 g cod, salmon, blue mussels or potato (control), followed by a 72 h period with a low-As diet. In all seafood groups, total As (tAs) in plasma and urinary excretion of tAs, arsenobetaine (AB) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) increased significantly after the intervention. Confirming the single dose study AB and DMA excreted were apparently endogenously formed from other arsenicals ingested. Total tAs excretion was 1386, 763 and 303 ?g in the cod, blue mussel and salmon groups, respectively; about twice the amounts after the single dose study indicating accumulation of arsenicals. In the cod group, rapid excretion after the single dose was associated with lower total As in blood and less accumulation after two weeks with seafood indicating lower accumulation. In the blue mussels group only, inorganic As (iAs) excretion increased significantly, whilst methylarsonate (MA) strongly increased, indicating a possible toxicological concern of repeated mussel consumption. PMID:24468672

Molin, M; Ulven, S M; Dahl, L; Goessler, W; Fliegel, D; Holck, M; Sloth, J J; Oshaug, A; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Ydersbond, T A

2014-04-01

32

Multiple trait model combining random regressions for daily feed intake with single measured performance traits of growing pigs  

PubMed Central

A random regression model for daily feed intake and a conventional multiple trait animal model for the four traits average daily gain on test (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass lean content and meat quality index were combined to analyse data from 1 449 castrated male Large White pigs performance tested in two French central testing stations in 1997. Group housed pigs fed ad libitum with electronic feed dispensers were tested from 35 to 100 kg live body weight. A quadratic polynomial in days on test was used as a regression function for weekly means of daily feed intake and to escribe its residual variance. The same fixed (batch) and random (additive genetic, pen and individual permanent environmental) effects were used for regression coefficients of feed intake and single measured traits. Variance components were estimated by means of a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Four Gibbs chains were run for 550 000 rounds each, from which 50 000 rounds were discarded from the burn-in period. Estimates of posterior means of covariance matrices were calculated from the remaining two million samples. Low heritabilities of linear and quadratic regression coefficients and their unfavourable genetic correlations with other performance traits reveal that altering the shape of the feed intake curve by direct or indirect selection is difficult. PMID:11929625

Schnyder, Urs; Hofer, Andreas; Labroue, Florence; Künzi, Niklaus

2002-01-01

33

Effects of daily consumption of one or varied peanut flavors on acceptance and intake.  

PubMed

To realize the health benefits associated with peanut consumption, it is important that they remain acceptable with regular intake. Peanuts are marketed with various flavorings so that consumers will not become fatigued by frequent consumption of any single flavor. This study sought to determine whether liking of peanuts or compliance to a peanut feeding intervention would differ based on receiving an individual flavor or a variety of flavors. Participants (n=151) were directed to consume 42 g peanuts/d for 12 weeks as 14-g servings of 3 different flavors (n=50) or a single flavor (n=25-26/group). The trial was randomized, with a parallel-group design. Neither the peanut flavor consumed nor the presence of variety had an impact on liking of the peanuts or compliance with the study protocol (p>0.05). Men had significantly greater compliance and liking ratings than women (p<0.05), but liking declines did not differ based on sex. Eating attitudes and dietary restraint did not correlate with liking or compliance. Peanuts were generally well-liked in the study, with a mean liking of 69 on a 100-mm visual analogue scale and a decrease of less than 15% over 12 weeks. Overall compliance to the protocol was 96.9%, suggesting participants were able to incorporate peanuts into their diet on a daily basis. These findings suggest a recommendation to regularly consume peanuts would be well-tolerated, facilitating their contribution to a healthy diet. The study was conducted between February 2010 and May 2012 at Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01886326. PMID:25064672

Jones, Joshua B; Provost, Marion; Keaver, Laura; Breen, Claire; Ludy, Mary-Jon; Mattes, Richard D

2014-11-01

34

Daily intake of antioxidants in relation to survival among adult patients diagnosed with malignant glioma  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant glioma is a rare cancer with poor survival. The influence of diet and antioxidant intake on glioma survival is not well understood. The current study examines the association between antioxidant intake and survival after glioma diagnosis. Methods Adult patients diagnosed with malignant glioma during 1991-1994 and 1997-2001 were enrolled in a population-based study. Diagnosis was confirmed by review of pathology specimens. A modified food-frequency questionnaire interview was completed by each glioma patient or a designated proxy. Intake of each food item was converted to grams consumed/day. From this nutrient database, 16 antioxidants, calcium, a total antioxidant index and 3 macronutrients were available for survival analysis. Cox regression estimated mortality hazard ratios associated with each nutrient and the antioxidant index adjusting for potential confounders. Nutrient values were categorized into tertiles. Models were stratified by histology (Grades II, III, and IV) and conducted for all (including proxy) subjects and for a subset of self-reported subjects. Results Geometric mean values for 11 fat-soluble and 6 water-soluble individual antioxidants, antioxidant index and 3 macronutrients were virtually the same when comparing all cases (n = 748) to self-reported cases only (n = 450). For patients diagnosed with Grade II and Grade III histology, moderate (915.8-2118.3 mcg) intake of fat-soluble lycopene was associated with poorer survival when compared to low intake (0.0-914.8 mcg), for self-reported cases only. High intake of vitamin E and moderate/high intake of secoisolariciresinol among Grade III patients indicated greater survival for all cases. In Grade IV patients, moderate/high intake of cryptoxanthin and high intake of secoisolariciresinol were associated with poorer survival among all cases. Among Grade II patients, moderate intake of water-soluble folate was associated with greater survival for all cases; high intake of vitamin C and genistein and the highest level of the antioxidant index were associated with poorer survival for all cases. Conclusions The associations observed in our study suggest that the influence of some antioxidants on survival following a diagnosis of malignant glioma are inconsistent and vary by histology group. Further research in a large sample of glioma patients is needed to confirm/refute our results. PMID:20482871

2010-01-01

35

Copper in foods, beverages and waters from South East Spain: influencing factors and daily dietary intake by the Andalusian population.  

PubMed

The copper content of 225 food, 49 beverage and twelve potable water samples were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Analyses of NIST and BCR reference materials demonstrated the accuracy of this technique. The highest copper levels were found in dried fruit and legumes, followed by organ meats, molluscs and crustaceans, cephalopods, cereals and sausages, respectively. In cereals, legumes and fruit, copper levels increased significantly with increasing levels of protein and decreasing carbohydrate content (p < 0.001). In meat and meat by-products, copper concentrations found in organ meats were significantly higher (p < 0.01). In fresh fish products, copper levels in shellfish were significantly higher than those measured in fish (p < 0.001). In vegetables, the copper concentrations found in mushrooms were significantly higher (p < 0.005). Mean copper concentrations analysed in cheese were statistically higher than those determined in other dairy products (p < 0.01). In beverages, copper levels determined in rum and juices were significantly higher (p < 0.001). Beverages for which a vegetable component was directly used in their manufacturing process (juices, wines and beers) had statistically higher copper levels when compared with fresh drinks. The daily dietary intake (DDI) of copper in the Andalusian diet was 1979 mug day(-1) per person. Cereals, meat, meat by-products and vegetables are the food categories that are the main source of copper in the daily diet. Taking into account the dietary reference intakes and upper levels (900 and 10, 000 mug Cu day(-1) for healthy adults, respectively), the mean copper DDI found indicate that for most of healthy adult individuals from the area, no adverse effects occur in relation to copper nutrition (deficiency or toxicity). Potable waters supplied 53 mug day(-1), which constitutes on average 0.025% of the maximum tolerable daily intake of this element set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee. PMID:18608494

Velasco-Reynold, C; Navarro-Alarcon, M; López-Ga De La Serrana, H; Lopez-Martinez, M C

2008-08-01

36

Daily intake of heavy metals and nitrate through greenhouse cucumber and bell pepper consumption and potential health risks for human.  

PubMed

Limited information is available on the health quality of greenhouse vegetables. Lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and their dietary intakes were determined. The non-cancer risk for NO3- was determined using the non-cancer hazard quotient. Lead non-cancer risk in children was calculated using the Integrated Exposure-Uptake Biokinetic model. Higher concentrations of cadmium, lead, and chromium were found in bell pepper than cucumber. The mean NO3- concentration in the greenhouse cucumber was about 2.7 times higher than the World Health Organization standard limit. Cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium daily intake for different populations groups through consumption of the vegetables were < 0.01-0.04, 0.35-1.00, 0.03-0.24, and 0.05-0.27 microg/g, respectively. The dietary intake of NO3- for adult was greater than children. Elevated lead and NO3- concentrations in the greenhouse vegetables are important concerns for consumers. Potential health quality problems in greenhouse products have to be considered. PMID:19330637

Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Aghili, Forough; Sanaeiostovar, Azadeh

2009-01-01

37

Daily intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers via dust and diet from an e-waste recycling area in China.  

PubMed

This study was designed to estimate the human risk to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure via two main exposure routes (dust and diet) in an e-waste recycling area in southern China. A total of 134 dust samples and 129 food samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The mean concentration of ?PBDE in in-house dust (38,685ng/g dw) was higher than that in out-house dust (24,595ng/g). For food samples, the highest concentration of ?PBDE was found in fish and shellfish (2755ng/kg ww), followed in descending order by eggs (2423ng/kg), cereals (2239ng/kg) and meat (1799ng/kg). The estimated total daily dietary intake of PBDEs was 1671ng/day for adults and 952ng/day for children. The present study indicated that dust intake was the dominant PBDE exposure route for children, and the dietary intake was the dominant PBDE exposure route for adults. Our findings revealed high PBDE concentrations in dust and food samples collected at the center of e-waste recycling area, raising significant health concerns for residents in this particular region, especially for children. PMID:24858050

Jiang, Hong; Lin, Zhenkun; Wu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xiangping; Hu, Yabing; Li, Yanyan; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

2014-07-15

38

Phthalate metabolites in obese individuals undergoing weight loss: Urinary levels and estimation of the phthalates daily intake.  

PubMed

Human exposure to chemicals commonly encountered in our environment, like phthalates, is routinely assessed through urinary measurement of their metabolites. A particular attention is given to the specific population groups, such as obese, for which the dietary intake of environmental chemicals is higher. To evaluate the exposure to phthalates, nine phthalate metabolites (PMs) were analyzed in urine collected from obese individuals and a control population. Obese individuals lost weight through either bariatric surgery or a conservative weight loss program with dietary and lifestyle counseling. Urine samples were also collected from the obese individuals after 3, 6 and 12months of weight loss. Individual daily intakes of the corresponding phthalate diesters were estimated based on the urinary PM concentrations. A high variability was recorded for the levels of each PM in both obese and control urine samples showing the exposure to high levels of PMs in specific subgroups. The most important PM metabolite as percentage contribution to the total PM levels was mono-ethyl phthalate followed by the metabolites of di-butyl phthalate and di 2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP). No differences in the PM levels and profiles between obese entering the program and controls were observed. Although paralleled by a significant decrease of their weight, an increase in the urinary PM levels after 3 to 6months loss was seen. Constant figures for the estimated phthalates daily intake were observed over the studied period, suggesting that besides food consumption, other human exposure sources to phthalates (e.g. air, dust) might be also important. The weight loss treatment method followed by obese individuals influenced the correlations between PM levels, suggesting a change of the intake sources with time. Except for few gender differences recorded between the urinary DEHP metabolites correlations, no other differences were observed for the urinary PM levels as a function of age, body mass index or waist circumference. Linear regression analysis showed almost no significance of the relationship between measured urinary PMs and serum free thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) for all obese individuals participating to the study, while for the control samples, several PMs were significantly associated with the serum TSH levels. PMID:23892227

Dirtu, Alin C; Geens, Tinne; Dirinck, Eveline; Malarvannan, Govindan; Neels, Hugo; Van Gaal, Luc; Jorens, Philippe G; Covaci, Adrian

2013-09-01

39

Daily intake assessment of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame from various processed foods in Korea.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to estimate the daily intakes (EDIs) of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame in order to evaluate the safety of the artificial sweeteners in Korea. A total of 274 food samples were selected from the foods considered to be representative sources of artificial sweeteners in the Korean diet and analysed by using HPLC with evaporative light scattering and ultraviolet detectors. In case of aspartame, the reference values were used without instrumental analysis. The EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame for average consumers were 0.028, 0.008, 4.9 and 0.14 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) were not higher than 1% of ADI of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). For 90th percentile consumers, the EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame were 2.0, 0.20, 141 and 4.6 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the ADI, the EDIs of saccharin and aspartame were 40.7% and 11.4% of the ADI set by the JECFA, respectively. Because JECFA did not assign ADIs for stevioside and D-sorbitol, the values for these sweeteners were not compared. According to these results, the EDIs of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin and aspartame in Korea are significantly lower than ADI set by the JECFA. PMID:16332631

Chung, M-S; Suh, H-J; Yoo, W; Choi, S-H; Cho, Y-J; Cho, Y-H; Kim, C-J

2005-11-01

40

Selenium content in wheat and estimation of the selenium daily intake in different regions of Algeria.  

PubMed

In this work, we have measured the selenium content in wheat produced locally in eight different regions of Algeria from east to west, and we have established the annual consumption of selenium for five socio-professional categories. Instrumental neutron activation analysis is used. The selenium levels in wheat samples varied from 21 (Tiaret) to 153 ?g/kg (Khroub), with a mean value about 52 ?g/kg. The mean of selenium daily consumption from ingestion of wheat per person in the eight regions varied from 32 to 52 ?g/day which is close to the minimal FAO recommendation. PMID:23079485

Beladel, B; Nedjimi, B; Mansouri, A; Tahtat, D; Belamri, M; Tchanchane, A; Khelfaoui, F; Benamar, M E A

2013-01-01

41

Personal, social and environmental predictors of daily fruit and vegetable intake in 11-year-old children in nine European countries. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

De Bourdeaudhuij I, te Velde S, Brug J, Due P, Wind M, Sandvik C, Maes L, Wolf A, Perez Rodrigo C, Yngve A, Thorsdottir I, Rasmussen M, Elmadfa I, Franchini B, Klepp KI. Personal, social and environmental predictors of daily fruit and vegetable intake in 11-year-old children in nine European countries.

42

Risk assessment for consumer exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) derived from polyurethane flexible foam.  

PubMed

Polyurethanes (PU) are polymers made from diisocyanates and polyols for a variety of consumer products. It has been suggested that PU foam may contain trace amounts of residual toluene diisocyanate (TDI) monomers and present a health risk. To address this concern, the exposure scenario and health risks posed by sleeping on a PU foam mattress were evaluated. Toxicity benchmarks for key non-cancer endpoints (i.e., irritation, sensitization, respiratory tract effects) were determined by dividing points of departure by uncertainty factors. The cancer benchmark was derived using the USEPA Benchmark Dose Software. Results of previous migration and emission data of TDI from PU foam were combined with conservative exposure factors to calculate upper-bound dermal and inhalation exposures to TDI as well as a lifetime average daily dose to TDI from dermal exposure. For each non-cancer endpoint, the toxicity benchmark was divided by the calculated exposure to determine the margin of safety (MOS), which ranged from 200 (respiratory tract) to 3×10(6) (irritation). Although available data indicate TDI is not carcinogenic, a theoretical excess cancer risk (1×10(-7)) was calculated. We conclude from this assessment that sleeping on a PU foam mattress does not pose TDI-related health risks to consumers. PMID:22871374

Arnold, Scott M; Collins, Michael A; Graham, Cynthia; Jolly, Athena T; Parod, Ralph J; Poole, Alan; Schupp, Thomas; Shiotsuka, Ronald N; Woolhiser, Michael R

2012-12-01

43

Estimating daily salt intake based on 24?h urinary sodium excretion in adults aged 18–69?years in Shandong, China  

PubMed Central

Objective 24 h urinary sodium extretion was used to estimate the daily salt intake of shandong residents aged from 18 to 69 years in China. Setting 20 selected counties/districts in Shandong stratified by geographic region (Eastern, Central Southern and North Western) and residence type (urban vs rural). Participants Among 2184 randomly selected adults, 2061 provided usable 24?h urine samples. Urine volume <500 mL or male creatinine <3.81 (female creatinine <4.57) are not included in the analysis. Results The mean sodium level excreted over 24?h was 237.61?mmol (95% CI 224.77 to 250.44) mmol. Overall, the estimated mean salt intake was 13.90?g/day (95% CI 13.15 to 14.65). The mean salt intake among rural residents was higher than that among urban residents (14.00 vs 13.68?g; p<0.01). Salt intake in men was higher than that in women (14.40 vs 13.37?g; p<0.01). Approximately 96% of the survey participants had a dietary salt intake of ?6?g/day. Conclusions The salt intake in Shandong is alarmingly higher than the current recommended amount (6?g/day). Thus, effective interventions to reduce salt intake levels to combat the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases need to be developed and implemented. PMID:25037642

Zhang, Ji-yu; Yan, Liu-xia; Tang, Jun-li; Ma, Ji-xiang; Guo, Xiao-lei; Zhao, Wen-hua; Zhang, Xiao-fei; Li, Jian-hong; Chu, Jie; Bi, Zhen-qiang

2014-01-01

44

Estimated daily intake of plasticizers in 1-week duplicate diet samples following regulation of DEHP-containing PVC gloves in Japan.  

PubMed

Duplicate hospital diet samples obtained over 1 week in 2001 were analysed to estimate the daily intake of plasticizers and the results were compared with those obtained in 1999. The plasticizers quantified in this study were: dibutyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), diisononyl adipate (DINA) and O-acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC). Dipropyl, dipentyl, dihexyl and dicyclohexyl phthalate were also analysed but not detected. The analytical procedure for this follow-up study was essentially the same as in the previous one. Detection limits were 0.1-15.6 ng g(-1) for each plasticizer. One-week duplicate diet samples provided by three hospitals in three remote prefectures of Japan were analysed as individual meals. DEHP was detected at 6-675 ng g(-1) in 62 of 63 meals, significantly lower levels compared with those detected in 1999. Levels of DEHA and DINP also decreased. The mean intake of plasticizers estimated from all samples was 160 microg DEHP day(-1), 12.5 microg DEHA day(-1), 4.7 microg DINP day(-1) and 3.4 microg BBP day(-1). Levels of DINA were relatively high in meals from one hospital: in those meals, the average daily intake was 1338 microg day(-1). Those of ATBC were also higher in meals from another hospital: the average daily intake was 1228 microg day(-1). The sources of DINA and ATBC can be cling-film or sausage packaging. PMID:12775472

Tsumura, Y; Ishimitsu, S; Saito, I; Sakai, H; Tsuchida, Y; Tonogai, Y

2003-04-01

45

Iron absorption is more closely related to iron status than to daily iron intake in 12- to 48-mo-old children.  

PubMed

Few studies have evaluated iron absorption in small children after the first year of life. Our objectives were to examine the relations among iron intake, iron absorption, and iron status in a group of healthy children. We studied 28 children, ages 12 to 48 mo, after a 7-d home adaptation to a diet representative of their usual daily mineral intake. A multi-tracer stable isotope study was performed to assess iron absorption both from a meal ((58)Fe) and from a reference iron dose ((57)Fe) given with ascorbic acid without a meal. Iron intake was 6.9 +/- 2.4 mg, approximately the 35th percentile of typical U.S. intakes. Absorption of (58)Fe was related to serum ferritin (r(2) = 0.319, P = 0.0018) and more so to reference dose iron absorption (r(2) = 0.653, P < 0.0001). Iron absorption was negatively correlated with zinc intake (r(2) = 0.090, P = 0.0049) but was not correlated with iron intake (P = 0.20). However, zinc intake was not correlated with measures of iron status, including reference dose iron absorption and serum ferritin (r(2) < 0.1, P > 0.25). Total absorbed iron was similar to needs estimated by the Institute of Medicine. We conclude that iron absorption in young children is more closely related to iron status than to iron intake. Reference dose iron absorption may be superior to serum ferritin as a surrogate measure for iron status in this age group. Although zinc intake may affect iron absorption from a meal, it does not appear to have a detectable effect on overall iron status in otherwise well-nourished children. PMID:17182806

Lynch, Mary Frances; Griffin, Ian J; Hawthorne, Keli M; Chen, Zhensheng; Hamzo, Maria G; Abrams, Steven A

2007-01-01

46

Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland  

SciTech Connect

Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)] [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)] [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

2010-08-15

47

Usual Dietary Intakes: Background  

Cancer.gov

Usual dietary intake is the long-run average daily intake of a nutrient or food. The concept of long-term average daily intake, or "usual intake," is important because dietary recommendations are intended to be met over time and diet-health hypotheses are based on dietary intakes over the long term.

48

Human health risks from metals and metalloid via consumption of food animals near gold mines in Tarkwa, Ghana: Estimation of the daily intakes and target hazard quotients (THQs).  

PubMed

Heavy metal and metalloid contamination in food resulting from mining is of major concern due to the potential risk involved. Food consumption is the most likely route of human exposure to metals. This study was therefore to assess metals in different organs and different animal species near gold mines used for human consumption (free-range chicken, goat and sheep) in Tarkwa, Ghana, and to estimate the daily intake and health risk. The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were measured with an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and Hg analysis was done using the mercury analyzer. Principal component analysis of the results showed a clear separation between chicken, grouped on one side, and the ruminants clustered on another side in both offal and muscle. Interestingly, As, Cd, Hg, Mn and Pb made one cluster in the offal of chicken. Chicken muscle also showed similar distribution with As, Hg and Pb clustered together. The daily intake of metals (?g/kg body weight/day) were in the following ranges; As [0.002 (kidneys of goat and sheep)-0.19 (chicken gizzard)], Cd [0.003 (chicken muscle)-0.55 (chicken liver)], Hg [0.002 (goat muscle)-0.29 (chicken liver)], Pb [0.01 (muscles and kidneys of goat and sheep)-0.96 (chicken gizzard)] and Mn [0.13 (goat kidney)-8.92 (sheep liver)]. From the results, daily intakes of As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Mn in these food animals were low compared to the provisional tolerable daily intake guidelines. The THQs although less than one, indicated that contributions of chicken gizzard and liver to toxic metal exposure in adults and especially children could be significant. PMID:25450929

Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Akoto, Osei; Baidoo, Elvis; Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

2015-01-01

49

The common polymorphism Val109Asp in the omentin gene is associated with daily energy intake in the Central-European population.  

PubMed

Background Omentin is an adipokine expressed predominantly in visceral adipose tissue, with adipose tissue stromal cells being the main source. Very little is known about the relationship between the genetic variability of the omentin gene and pathophysiology of obesity, although omentin is believed to play an important role in visceral obesity development. The aim of the study was to investigate two common polymorphisms in the omentin gene (rs2274908 and rs2274907) and dietary composition and anthropometric parameters of obesity in the Central European population. Material and methods A total of 495 subjects were included into the study, they were further dividend into the non-obese, obese, and morbidly obese cohorts. Dietary habits were established using the 7-day food records and selected anthropometric parameters were measured. Results There were significant differences in genotype distributions of rs2274907 between the obese and morbidly obese cohorts (P = 0.01). In the multivariate modelling, the rs2274907 polymorphism expressed independent prediction role for the daily energy intake, independently on the age and gender (P = 0.03); the TT genotype associated with the lowest (7877 ± 2780 J/day) and the AA genotype with the highest (8764 ± 2467 J/day) average energy intake. The rs2274907 also significantly associated with the daily consumption of fat and proteins. Conclusion This is, so far, the first study to investigate the polymorphisms in the omentin gene in a large population cohort of obese and non-obese individuals. Based on our results, the rs2274907 polymorphism is associated with the daily energy intake as well as daily intake of fat and protein. PMID:24552613

Splichal, Zbynek; Bienertova-Vasku, Julie; Novak, Jan; Zlamal, Filip; Tomandl, Josef; Tomandlova, Marie; Forejt, Martin; Havlenova, Sona; Jackowska, Aneta; Vasku, Anna

2015-01-01

50

Daily calcium intake and physical activity status in urban women living on low incomes in Davao, Philippines: a primary study for osteoporosis prevention.  

PubMed

Low calcium intake and physical inactivity are modifiable risk factors of osteoporosis; however, little information is available about the prevalence of these risk factors among urban Filipino women living on low-incomes. The present study, therefore, investigated daily calcium intake, main calcium sources, and physical activity status in this population. The study group comprised healthy women aged in their 30 s who had participated in our previous survey using heel speed of sound (SOS) measurement in Davao, Philippines. The women were stratified into three groups based on SOS score and 20 were randomly selected from each, giving 60 in total. Calcium intake was measured by direct analysis of the food samples collected from 3-days 24 hour-food duplicate method. Physical activity was estimated based on pedometer determined walking steps over 5 days. The median [25%, 75%] calcium intake per day was 289 [225, 434] mg. Traditional foods derived from local small fish and plants were the main calcium sources. The median walking steps per day was 8750 [6920, 10836]. Although three groups did not show significantly different calcium intakes and walking steps, consumption of low-cost small fish and plant foods could be encouraged along with walking in urban Filipino women living on low-incomes. PMID:19763025

Miura, Shoko; Nakamori, Masayo; Yagi, Masumi; Saavedra, Ophelia L; Ikemoto, Shinji; Yamamoto, Shigeru

2009-08-01

51

Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n?=?17), 69% of acute (n?=?40), 50% of short-term (n?=?10), 92% of non-randomized (n?=?12) and 75% of randomized trials (n?=?24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure, or employed adequate assessment methods for energy and macronutrient intake. Conclusions We found no consistent evidence that increased physical activity or exercise effects energy or macronutrient intake. PMID:24454704

Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

2014-01-01

52

Functional Status and Nutrient Intake from the Council on Aging Meal and Total Daily Intake of Congregate, Adult Day Care and Homebound Program Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional status and nutrient intake among 52 congregate, 30 day care and 31 homebound Council on Aging (COA) participants were evaluated by data from three 24-hour dietary recalls, ADLs and IADLs along with demographic variables and analyzed by analysis of variance. Congregate subjects had fewer functional status limitations. The COA meals provided one-third of the RDA for most nutrients; however,

M. Sue Hoogenboom; Alice A. Spangler; Royda Crose

1998-01-01

53

Perchlorate in indoor dust and human urine in china: contribution of indoor dust to total daily intake.  

PubMed

Perchlorate is used in fireworks and China is the largest fireworks producer and consumer in the world. Information regarding human exposure to perchlorate is scarce in China, and exposure via indoor dust ingestion (EDIindoor dust) has rarely been evaluated. In this study, perchlorate was found in indoor dust (detection rate: 100%, median: 47.4 ?g/g), human urine (99%, 26.2 ng/mL), drinking water (100%, 3.99 ng/mL), and dairy milk (100%, 12.3 ng/mL) collected from cities that have fireworks manufacturing areas (Yueyang and Nanchang) and in cities that do not have fireworks manufacturing industries (Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Yuxi and Guilin) in China. In comparison with perchlorate levels reported for other countries, perchlorate levels in urine samples from fireworks sites and nonfireworks sites in China were higher. Median indoor dust perchlorate concentrations were positively correlated (r = 0.964, p < 0.001) with outdoor dust perchlorate levels reported previously. The total daily intake (EDItoal) of perchlorate, estimated based on urinary levels, ranged from 0.090 to 27.72 ?g/kg body weight (bw)/day for all studied participants; the percentage of donors who had EDItotal exceeding the reference dose (RfD) recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) was 79%, 48%, and 25% for toddlers (median: 1.829 ?g/kg bw/day), adults (0.669 ?g/kg bw/day), and children (median: 0.373 ?g/kg bw/day), respectively. Toddlers (0.258 ?g/kg bw/day) had the highest median EDIindoor dust, which was 2 to 5 times greater than the EDIindoor dust calculated for other age groups (the range of median values: 0.044 to 0.127 ?g/kg bw/day). Contribution of indoor dust to EDItotal was 26%, 28%, and 7% for toddlers, children, and adults, respectively. Indoor dust contributed higher percentage to EDItotal than that by dairy milk (0.5-5%). PMID:25587720

Zhang, Tao; Chen, Xiaojia; Wang, Dou; Li, Rudan; Ma, Yufang; Mo, Weiwen; Sun, Hongwen; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2015-02-17

54

Quantification of total and hexavalent chromium in lager beers: variability between styles and estimation of daily intake of chromium from beer.  

PubMed

A survey of the presence of total and hexavalent chromium in lager beers was conducted to understand the variability between different styles of lager beer packaged in glass or cans and to estimate daily intake of total Cr and hexavalent chromium from beer. Graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy using validated methodologies was applied. Selective extraction of hexavalent chromium was performed using a Chromabond NH2/500 mg column and elution with nitric acid. The detection limits were 0.26 and 0.68 ?g L(-1) for total Cr and Cr(VI), respectively. The mean content of total Cr ranged between 1.13 ?g L(-1) in canned pale lager and 4.32 ?g L(-1) in low-alcohol beers, whereas the mean content of Cr(VI) was <2.51 ?g L(-1). Considering an intake of 500 mL of beer, beer consumption can contribute approximately 2.28-8.64 and 1.6-6.17% of the recommended daily intake of chromium for women and men, respectively. PMID:25175906

Vieira, Elsa; Soares, M Elisa; Kozior, Marta; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Bastos, M Lourdes

2014-09-17

55

Relationships of feeding behaviors with average daily gain, dry matter intake, and residual feed intake in Red Angus-sired cattle.  

PubMed

Feeding behavior has the potential to enhance prediction of feed intake and to improve understanding of the relationships between behavior, DMI, ADG, and residual feed intake (RFI) in beef cattle. Two cohorts, born in 2009 and 2010, the progeny of Red Angus bulls (n = 58 heifers and n = 53 steers), were evaluated during the growing phase, and the latter group of steers was also evaluated during the finishing phase. All behavior analyses were based on 7 feeding behavior traits (bunk visit frequency, bunk visit duration [BVDUR], feed bout frequency, feed bout duration, meal frequency, meal duration, and average meal intake) and their relationships with ADG, DMI, and RFI. During the growing phase, feeding duration traits were most indicative of DMI with positive correlations between BVDUR and DMI for cohort 1 steers, growing phase (n = 28, r = 0.52, P = 0.00); cohort 2 steers, growing phase (n = 25, r = 0.44, P = 0.01); and cohort 2 heifers, growing phase (n = 29, r = 0.28 P = 0.05). There were similar trends toward correlation of BVDUR and RFI for both steer groups and cohort 1 heifers, growing phase (C1HG; n = 29; r = 0.27, P = 0.06; r = 0.30, P = 0.07; and r = 0.26, P = 0.08, respectively). Feed bout frequency was correlated with ADG in C1HG and in cohort 2 steers, finishing phase (r = -0.31, P = 0.04, and r = 0.43, P = 0.01, respectively). Feed bout duration was correlated with ADG in heifer groups (r = 0.29 and r = 0.28, P = 0.05 for both groups) and DMI for all growing phase animals (r = 0.29 to 0.55, P ? 0.05 for all groups). Evaluation of growing vs. finishing phase steer groups suggests that all behaviors, RFI, and DMI, but not ADG, are correlated through the growing and finishing phases (P ? 0.01 for all variables excluding ADG), implying that feeding behaviors determined during the growing phase are strong predictors of DMI in either life stage. Sire maintenance energy EPD effects (measured as high or low groups) on progeny feeding behaviors revealed a difference in meal duration with a tendency to differ in average meal intake (P = 0.01 and P = 0.07, respectively). Feeding behavior duration traits may be useful predictors of DMI in Red Angus cattle. PMID:25349363

McGee, M; Welch, C M; Ramirez, J A; Carstens, G E; Price, W J; Hall, J B; Hill, R A

2014-11-01

56

Daily calcium intake and its relation to blood pressure, blood lipids, and oxidative stress biomarkers in hypertensive and normotensive subjects  

PubMed Central

Several studies revealed that low calcium intake is related to high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is high in Koreans along with their low dietary calcium consumption. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the status of calcium intake between the hypertension and normotension groups and to investigate the correlation between dietary calcium intake and blood pressure, blood lipid parameters, and blood/urine oxidative stress indices. A total of 166 adult subjects participated in this study and were assigned to one of two study groups: a hypertension group (n = 83) who had 140 mmHg or higher in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or 90 mmHg or higher in diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and an age- and sex-matched normotension group (n = 83, 120 mmHg or less SBP and 80 mmHg or less DBP). The hypertension group consumed 360.5 mg calcium per day, which was lower than that of the normotension group (429.9 mg) but not showing significant difference. In the hypertension group, DBP had a significant negative correlation with plant calcium (P < 0.01) after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and energy intake. In the normotension group, total calcium and animal calcium intake were significantly and positively correlated with serum triglycerides. No significant relationship was found between calcium intake and blood/urine oxidative stress indices in both groups. Overall, these data suggest reconsideration of food sources for calcium consumption in management of the blood pressure or blood lipid profiles in both hypertensive and normotensive subjects. PMID:23198021

Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bu, So Young

2012-01-01

57

Daily calcium intake and its relation to blood pressure, blood lipids, and oxidative stress biomarkers in hypertensive and normotensive subjects.  

PubMed

Several studies revealed that low calcium intake is related to high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is high in Koreans along with their low dietary calcium consumption. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the status of calcium intake between the hypertension and normotension groups and to investigate the correlation between dietary calcium intake and blood pressure, blood lipid parameters, and blood/urine oxidative stress indices. A total of 166 adult subjects participated in this study and were assigned to one of two study groups: a hypertension group (n = 83) who had 140 mmHg or higher in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or 90 mmHg or higher in diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and an age- and sex-matched normotension group (n = 83, 120 mmHg or less SBP and 80 mmHg or less DBP). The hypertension group consumed 360.5 mg calcium per day, which was lower than that of the normotension group (429.9 mg) but not showing significant difference. In the hypertension group, DBP had a significant negative correlation with plant calcium (P < 0.01) after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and energy intake. In the normotension group, total calcium and animal calcium intake were significantly and positively correlated with serum triglycerides. No significant relationship was found between calcium intake and blood/urine oxidative stress indices in both groups. Overall, these data suggest reconsideration of food sources for calcium consumption in management of the blood pressure or blood lipid profiles in both hypertensive and normotensive subjects. PMID:23198021

Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bu, So Young; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

2012-10-01

58

Daily dietary intake of copper, zinc, and selenium of exclusively breast-fed infants of middle-class women in Burundi, Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in human milk of middle-class Burundian women during the first 10 mo of lactation\\u000a have been determined. Wet acid digestion, using nitric and perchloric acids, and atomic absorption spectrometric analysis\\u000a have been used. Daily intakes have been calculated and proven to decrease from 0.39±0.05 (colostrum) to 0.16±0.02 (mature\\u000a milk), 2.3±0.3 (colostrum), to 1.2±0.2

H. Robberecht; H. Benemariya; H. Deelstra

1995-01-01

59

Ready To Eat Cereal (RTEC) Consumption Positively Affects Total Daily Nutrient Intakes in Hispanic Children and Adolescents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To examine the impact of breakfast meal pattern on nutrient intake status of Hispanic children and adolescents (N=3220), we compared breakfast skippers (S), RTEC, and other breakfast consumers using 24-hour recall data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our data ind...

60

Reasons for raising the maximum acceptable daily intake of EDTA and the benefits for iron fortification of foods for children 6–24 months of age  

PubMed Central

The current maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of 1.9?mg?day?1 per kilogram bodyweight (mg?day?1?kgbw?1) limits the daily intake of iron as iron EDTA [ferric sodium EDTA; sodium iron(III) EDTA] to approximately 2–2.5?mg?day?1 for children 6–24 months of age. This limit was defined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1973 based on data from an animal-feed study published in 1963. Other animal studies indicate that this limit can be raised to 4.4 or possibly up to 21.7?mg?day?1?kgbw?1, which is 2.3–11.4 times higher than the current value. For nearly 50 years, iron EDTA has been used in France in medicinal syrup for infants 1–6 months of age. The maximum recommended dosage of this drug is 37 times higher than the maximum ADI of EDTA. No adverse health effects have been reported as a result of this medicinal consumption of iron EDTA. Raising the maximum ADI of EDTA to only 4.4?mg?day?1?kgbw?1 would enable iron EDTA, an iron fortificant with proven bioavailability in phytate-rich meals, to be added in adequate amounts to cereal-based meals for children 6–24 months of age, who are at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:24521261

Wreesmann, Carel Theo Jozef

2014-01-01

61

Genome-wide association and systems genetic analyses of residual feed intake, daily feed consumption, backfat and weight gain in pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Feed efficiency is one of the major components determining costs of animal production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed and the expected feed intake given a certain production. Residual feed intake 1 (RFI1) was calculated based on regression of individual daily feed intake (DFI) on initial test weight and average daily gain. Residual feed intake 2 (RFI2) was as RFI1 except it was also regressed with respect to backfat (BF). It has been shown to be a sensitive and accurate measure for feed efficiency in livestock but knowledge of the genomic regions and mechanisms affecting RFI in pigs is lacking. The study aimed to identify genetic markers and candidate genes for RFI and its component traits as well as pathways associated with RFI in Danish Duroc boars by genome-wide associations and systems genetic analyses. Results Phenotypic and genotypic records (using the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip) were available on 1,272 boars. Fifteen and 12 loci were significantly associated (p?

2014-01-01

62

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the air and comparison of the daily intake and uptake through inhalation by Shanghai residents with those through other matrices and routes.  

PubMed

To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the main source and route of human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), the daily intake and uptakes through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact for Shanghai residents were estimated on the basis of the PBDE concentrations in the air obtained in the present study and previous data reported in the literature. The PBDE concentrations in the gas and particle phases collected in Shanghai were 0.99-57.5 and 0.1-234 pg/m(3), respectively. The contamination levels of PBDEs in the air in Shanghai were similar to or slightly lower than the data from other regions. The estimated total daily intakes of PBDEs through the three routes were 607 and 1,636 ng/day for children and adults, respectively, while they decreased to 63.0 and 93.1 ng/day when the uptake efficiency (which is the fraction of contaminants that reaches the systemic circulation) of PBDEs was added to calculation. The results showed that dust is the main source of human exposure to PBDEs when PBDE uptake efficiency was not considered. It accounted for 66.2-79.2 % of the total PBDE intake. However, food is the main source, which accounted for 66.6-75.1 %, when the uptake efficiency was added to calculation. Among the three routes, dermal contact (53.1-76.6 %) is the main pathway, whereas ingestion (84.7-92.9 %) is the main one when the uptake efficiency was considered. Furthermore, risk assessment showed that the PBDE exposure amount would not cause obvious non-cancer and cancer risks to local residents. PMID:25009095

Li, Chunlei; Zhao, Zhishen; Lei, Bingli; An, Jing; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Yingxin

2015-02-01

63

Children’s Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers  

PubMed Central

Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child’s home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw) and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw). For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDIcum), which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDIcum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child’s total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values. PMID:23626820

Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.; Langer, Sarka; Callesen, Michael; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

2013-01-01

64

[Peripuberal development of genetic obesity in beta rats. Daily changes in food intake, body weight, deep body temperature, triglyceridemia and glycemia].  

PubMed

The moderate quality of beta obesity and its relatively slow evolution make it potentially useful for defining the sequence of events that lead to the overt syndrome. Estimates of food intake, live body weight, deep body temperature, triglyceridemia and glycemia were obtained at several times during the day in beta genetically obese and alpha (alpha) control male rats at peripuberal age, in order to characterize the dynamic phase of this obesity and to attempt the definition of some previous proceedings that eventually produce the full obesity syndrome. Beta higher food intake in the light cycle preceded its whole day hyperphagia. Both genotypes showed the normal pattern of predominantly nocturnal feeding. A lower light phase's weight loss in beta preceded the overweight. Thus, beta rats were not significantly heavier than alpha until the end of the last period studied, when they were 75 days old. A defect in adaptive thermogenesis in beta genotype is suggested, as values on deep body temperature in relation to alpha were significantly lower at all times of day tested. Correlation coefficient value between daily net weight gain versus deep body temperature was: r = -0.601 (p less than 0.01), suggesting a diminished lipolytic stimulation in beta brown adipose tissue. A sustained hypertriglyceridemia in beta at every time of the day studied suggested its endogenous source. Differences in glycemia values were not statistically significant between genotypes, though apparently wider variations in beta could reflect a certain glycemic regulation lability in the obese genotype. PMID:2101545

Calderari, S; Gayol, M C; Elliff, M I; Labourdette, V; Troiano, M F; Romano, G

1990-01-01

65

Evaluation of content and estimation of daily intake of cadmium and lead in several varieties of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain).  

PubMed

Monitoring the metal content in foods such as potatoes is an important aspect of food safety and regulation. Samples of nine varieties of potatoes (73 samples of local potatoes and 77 samples of imported potatoes) were randomly obtained from supermarkets, farmers markets, and farmer plots in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis because Spaniards traditionally eat only peeled potatoes. Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd concentrations ranged from 0.006 mg/kg in the Cara and Negra varieties to 0.019 mg/kg in the Bonita variety, and Pb concentrations ranged from 0.007 mg/kg in the Up-to-date variety to 0.023 mg/kg in the Recara variety. The mean concentrations of Cd (0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.014 mg/kg) were below the limits established by European regulations for potatoes (0.1 mg/kg of wet weight for each metal). Based on a mean consumption of 143.2 g of potato per person per day for the Canary Islands population, the mean daily intakes of Cd (0.015 mg/day) and Pb (0.023 mg/day) were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes. Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat with regard to the metal concentrations found. PMID:24680081

Luis, G; Rubio, C; González-Weller, D; Gutiérrez, A J; Revert, C; Hardisson, A

2014-04-01

66

Daily intake of Jeju groundwater improves the skin condition of the model mouse for human atopic dermatitis.  

PubMed

Drinking water is an important nutrient for human health. The mineral ingredients included in drinking water may affect the physical condition of people. Various kinds of natural water are in circulation as bottled water in developed countries; however, its influence on clinical conditions of patients with certain diseases has not been fully evaluated. In this study, effects of the natural groundwater from Jeju Island on clinical symptoms and skin barrier function in atopic dermatitis (AD) were evaluated. NC/Tnd mice, a model for human AD, with moderate to severe dermatitis were used. Mice were given different natural groundwater or tap water for 8 weeks from 4 weeks of age. Clinical skin severity scores were recorded every week. Scratching analysis and measurement of transepidermal water loss were performed every other week. The pathological condition of the dorsal skin was evaluated histologically. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed for cytokine expression in the affected skin. The epidermal hyperplasia and allergic inflammation were reduced in atopic mice supplied with Jeju groundwater when compared to those supplied with tap water or other kinds of natural groundwater. The increase in scratching behavior with the aggravation of clinical severity of dermatitis was favorably controlled. Moreover, transepidermal water loss that reflects skin barrier function was recovered. The early inflammation and hypersensitivity in the atopic skin was alleviated in mice supplied with Jeju groundwater, suggesting its profitable potential on the daily care of patients with skin troubles including AD. PMID:23294459

Tanaka, Akane; Jung, Kyungsook; Matsuda, Akira; Jang, Hyosun; Kajiwara, Naoki; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Ahn, Ginnae; Ohmori, Keitaro; Kang, Kyung-goo; Matsuda, Hiroshi

2013-03-01

67

The daily fluorine and arsenic intake for residents with different dietaries and fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area, Yunnan, Southwest China.  

PubMed

The daily fluorine (F)/arsenic (As) intake (DFI/DAsI) for residents at different ages with different dietaries and dietary changes was investigated to analyze the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area in Yunnan, Southwest China. The DFI for residents with a dietary of roasted corn and roasted chili was 5.06, 9.60, and 14.38 mg for age groups 3-7, 8-15, and over 15 years, respectively. Over 90 % of DFI was from roasted foodstuffs. The DFI for residents of the same age group living on rice and roasted chili was 1.94, 3.50, and 4.95 mg, respectively, which were less than that for the former dietary type, and 65 % of DFI was from roasted chili. The main sources for their DFI are roasted foodstuffs. Both were higher than the dietaries with non-roasted foodstuffs and the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for USA and China at different levels. The DAsI for all residents ranged from 25 to 135 ?g, and at this level of DAsI, it would not influence human health. However, As pollution of roasted foodstuffs might have an important influence for the fluorosis. Residents are changing their staple food from roasted corn to rice, and especially, younger people are more focused on quality life. However, even if residents change their staple food, the habit of eating chili will not change, which also may cause them getting fluorosis. Developing economy, changing dietary types, and changing the habit of drying and keeping chili will help to reduce the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area of Southwest China. PMID:25167821

Li, Ling; Luo, Kun-Li; Tang, Yue-Gang; Liu, Yong-Lin

2015-02-01

68

No evidence of dehydration with moderate daily coffee intake: a counterbalanced cross-over study in a free-living population.  

PubMed

It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3-6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na(+) excretion was higher in C than W (p?=?0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

Killer, Sophie C; Blannin, Andrew K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

2014-01-01

69

No Evidence of Dehydration with Moderate Daily Coffee Intake: A Counterbalanced Cross-Over Study in a Free-Living Population  

PubMed Central

It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3–6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na+ excretion was higher in C than W (p?=?0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

Killer, Sophie C.; Blannin, Andrew K.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

2014-01-01

70

Lithium cation conducting TDI anion-based ionic liquids.  

PubMed

In this paper we present the synthesis route and electrochemical properties of new class of ionic liquids (ILs) obtained from lithium derivate TDI (4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl)imidazolium) anion. ILs synthesized by us were EMImTDI, PMImTDI and BMImTDI, i.e. TDI anion with 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations, where alkyl meant ethyl, propyl and butyl groups. TDI anion contains fewer fluorine atoms than LiPF6 and thanks to C-F instead of P-F bond, they are less prone to emit fluorine or hydrogen fluoride due to the rise in temperature. Use of IL results in non-flammability, which is making such electrolyte even safer for both application and environment. The thermal stability of synthesized compounds was tested by DSC and TGA and no signal of decomposition was observed up to 250 °C. The LiTDI salt was added to ILs to form complete electrolytes. The structures of tailored ILs with lithium salt were confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. The electrolytes showed excellent properties regarding their ionic conductivity (over 3 mS cm(-1) at room temperature after lithium salt addition), lithium cation transference number (over 0.1), low viscosity and broad electrochemical stability window. The ionic conductivity and viscosity measurements of pure ILs are reported for reference. PMID:24803282

Niedzicki, Leszek; Karpierz, Ewelina; Zawadzki, Maciej; Dranka, Maciej; Kasprzyk, Marta; Zalewska, Aldona; Marcinek, Marek; Zachara, Janusz; Doma?ska, Urszula; Wieczorek, W?adys?aw

2014-06-21

71

Effects of daily intake of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components on chronic stress responses: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Chronic stress has a negative influence on health. The aim was to determine stress reducing effects of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components as compared to normal yoghurt. High-trait anxiety individuals (n?=?67) aged 18-63 years participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention with parallel groups. They received either yoghurt enriched with alpha-lactalbumin, casein tripeptides and B vitamins (active) or isoenergetic standard yoghurt (control). To detect changes in psychological and physiological stress, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, salivary cortisol, inflammatory markers, blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV) and actigraphy were monitored. We observed higher ratings of vigor (p?=?0.047) and reduced feeling of inefficiency (p?=?0.048) in the active group. HRV (baseline adjusted mean 49.1?±?2.3?ms) and recovery index (106.6?±?33.4) were higher in the active group than in controls (42.5?±?2.2?ms and 80.0?±?29.3) (p?=?0.046 and p?=?0.02, respectively). In conclusion, daily intake of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components may aid in stress coping. PMID:24490888

Jaatinen, Nora; Korpela, Riitta; Poussa, Tuija; Turpeinen, Anu; Mustonen, Sari; Merilahti, Juho; Peuhkuri, Katri

2014-06-01

72

Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011  

PubMed Central

Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95% CI [0.14, 0.83]). Conclusion Interventions aimed at improving fruit and vegetable intake need to consider where individuals’ purchase food and the availability within stores as a behavioral and environmental strategy. PMID:23360547

2013-01-01

73

Associations of Youth and Parent Weight Status with Reported versus Predicted Daily Energy Intake and Hemoglobin A1c in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemic of overweight/obesity affects youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and their families. In youth with T1DM and their parents, we examined weight status with reported and expected energy intake and with youth hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Methods In 243 youth (48% female, 13 ± 3 years) and their parents (84% female, 45 ± 6 years), we assessed body mass index (BMI), prevalence of overweight/obesity, reported energy intake (REI), and youth glycemic control (HbA1c). The REI was compared with predicted daily energy requirements (DER; based on age, weight, sex, and physical activity). Results Youth had diabetes duration of 6.3 ± 3.4 years and HbA1c of 8.5% ± 1.3%; 69% used insulin pump therapy. Overweight and obesity affected 23% and 11% of youth and 30% and 24% of parents, respectively. Youth and parent BMI (r = 0.38; p < .001) and weight status (overweight/obese; p < .001) were significantly associated. The ratio of REI:DER was significantly lower in overweight/obese compared with underweight/normal weight parents (1.0 ± 0.4 versus 1.2 ± 0.5; p = .001) but did not differ among youth by weight status. Both youth and parent BMI were positively correlated with youth HbA1c (r = 0.14, p = .02; r = 0.16, p = .01, respectively). Hemoglobin A1c tended to be higher in obese than in overweight and normal weight youth (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 8.4 ± 1.4, 8.4 ± 1.3, and 8.8 ± 1.0, respectively; p = .06) and was significantly higher in youth whose parents were obese versus overweight or underweight/normal weight (mean ± SD 8.2 ± 1.2, 8.5 ± 1.4, and 8.9 ± 1.5, respectively; p < .001). Conclusions Similar to the general population, overweight and obesity are prevalent among families of youth with T1DM. Weight status appears to influence self-REI in parents and glycemic control in youth with T1DM, suggesting the need for family-based dietary interventions. PMID:23439184

Sands, Amanda L. P.; Higgins, Laurie A.; Mehta, Sanjeev N.; Nansel, Tonja R.; Lipsky, Leah M.; Laffel, Lori M. B.

2013-01-01

74

75 FR 63184 - Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide...guidance to employees of agencies subject to the FTR to enhance travel cost savings and reduce...will improve management of agency travel programs, save money...

2010-10-14

75

Modeling and simulation of TDI CMOS image sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a mathematical model of TDI CMOS image sensors was established in behavioral level through MATLAB based on the principle of a TDI CMOS image sensor using temporal oversampling rolling shutter in the along-track direction. The geometric perspective and light energy transmission relationships between the scene and the image on the sensor are included in the proposed model. A graphical user interface (GUI) of the model was also established. A high resolution satellitic picture was used to model the virtual scene being photographed. The effectiveness of the proposed model was verified by computer simulations based on the satellitic picture. In order to guide the design of TDI CMOS image sensors, the impacts of some parameters of TDI CMOS image sensors including pixel pitch, pixel photosensitive size, and integration time on the performance of the sensors were researched through the proposed model. The impacts of the above parameters on the sensors were quantified by sensor's modulation transfer function (MTF) of the along-track direction, which was calculated by slanted-edge method. The simulation results indicated that the TDI CMOS image sensor can get a better performance with smaller pixel photosensitive size and shorter integration time. The proposed model is useful in the process of researching and developing a TDI CMOS image sensor.

Nie, Kai-ming; Yao, Su-ying; Xu, Jiang-tao; Gao, Jing

2013-09-01

76

Capabilities of different liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry systems in determining pesticide residues in food. Application to estimate their daily intake.  

PubMed

Three different liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) instruments equipped with triple quadrupole (QqQ), quadrupole ion trap (QIT) and quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqTOF), suitable to carry out tandem mass spectrometry, were examined to determine pesticide residues in food. Twelve pesticides (acrinathrin, bupirimate, buprofezin, cyproconazole, lambda-cyhalothrin, fluvalinate, hexaflumuron, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, pyrifenox, pyriproxyfen and tebufenpyrad) and six matrices (oranges, strawberries, cherries, peaches, apricots and pears) were taken as model. The comparison was focused on two aspects: the quantitative, covering sensitivity, precision and accuracy as well as the qualitative, checking the possibility to identify any metabolite present in the samples, which were not targeted in the methods. The extraction was carried out using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with ethyl acetate and acid alumina. Recoveries were over 70 % for all the analytes. Repeatabilities were better for the QqQ (5-12%) than for QIT (6-15%) and for QqTOF (14-19%). QqQ offered a linear dynamic range of at least three orders of magnitude, whereas those of QIT and QqTOF were two and one orders of magnitude, respectively. QqQ reached at least 20-fold higher sensitivity than QIT and QqTOF. However, the QqQ failed to identify non-target compounds. QIT and QqTOF were able to successfully identify the metabolite of bupirimate, ethirimol. Application to monitor the content in fruits, taken from agricultural cooperatives, and to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) to establish if there is any difference of toxicological interest is also reported. PMID:17466998

Soler, Carla; James, K J; Picó, Yolanda

2007-07-20

77

High performance multispectral TDI CCD image sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a Time Delay Integration (TDI) CCD image sensor that consists of four multispectral bands (B1-B4 zone) and one panchromatic band (P zone) in an integrated, compact package. The B zones have a horizontal resolution of 3k columns, with a pixel size of 28 ?m x 28 ?m. The P zone has a horizontal resolution of 12k columns, with a pixel size of 7 ?m x 7 ?m. The large pixel size of B zones provides excellent colour differentiation even under extremely low light intensity, while the small pixel size and the large pixel number of broad band zone (P zone) provides high resolution images within a wide spectrum range. By utilizing a particularly designed hybrid optical filter, the sensor is able to collect blue, green, red, and near infrared images with only negligible optical crosstalk. The sensor uses selectable outputs and data rate: 2 or 1 outputs running at 16.5 MHz (B1-B4 Zone) per output, and 8 or 4 outputs running at 33 MHz (P Zone) per output. Special design features minimize optical crosstalk between the image zones, and achieve a low signal noise: ? 85 e- in B zone, and ? 35 e- in P zone. To acquire spectral reflectance signatures with good fidelity, the image sensor must be very sensitive to weak light in some spectral bands and cannot be over exposed to light in other spectral bands. To fulfil this requirement, the sensor is designed to show a balanced responsivity in all the image zones. Over all, the sensor demonstrates outstanding performance, providing exceptional images that are crucial for remote sensing applications.

Luo, Yichun; Smith, Charles; O, Nixon; Ledgerwood, Melanie; Kullar, Sukhbir

2013-10-01

78

Measurements of daily urinary uranium excretion in German peacekeeping personnel and residents of the Kosovo region to assess potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU).  

PubMed

Following the end of the Kosovo conflict, in June 1999, a study was instigated to evaluate whether there was a cause for concern of health risk from depleted uranium (DU) to German peacekeeping personnel serving in the Balkans. In addition, the investigations were extended to residents of Kosovo and southern Serbia, who lived in areas where DU ammunitions were deployed. In order to assess a possible DU intake, both the urinary uranium excretion of volunteer residents and water samples were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). More than 1300 urine samples from peacekeeping personnel and unexposed controls of different genders and age were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. The urine measurements for 113 unexposed subjects revealed a daily uranium excretion rate with a geometric mean of 13.9 ng/d (geometric standard deviation (GSD)=2.17). The analysis of 1228 urine samples from the peacekeeping personnel resulted in a geometric mean of 12.8 ng/d (GSD=2.60). It follows that both unexposed controls and peacekeeping personnel excreted similar amounts of uranium. Inter-subject variation in uranium excretion was high and no significant age-specific differences were found. The second part of the study monitored 24 h urine samples provided by selected residents of Kosovo and adjacent regions of Serbia compared to controls from Munich, Germany. Total uranium and isotope ratios were measured in order to determine DU content. (235)U/(238)U ratios were within +/-0.3% of the natural value, and (236)U/(238)U was less than 2 x 10(-7), indicating no significant DU in any of the urine samples provided, despite total uranium excretion being relatively high in some cases. Measurements of ground and tap water samples from regions where DU munitions were deployed did not show any contamination with DU, except in one sample. It is concluded that both peacekeeping personnel and residents serving or living in the Balkans, respectively, were not exposed to significant amounts of DU. PMID:17459457

Oeh, U; Priest, N D; Roth, P; Ragnarsdottir, K V; Li, W B; Höllriegl, V; Thirlwall, M F; Michalke, B; Giussani, A; Schramel, P; Paretzke, H G

2007-08-01

79

Information-Efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor With Tdi  

DOEpatents

A programmable optical filter for use in multispectral and hyperspectral imaging employing variable gain time delay and integrate arrays. A telescope focuses an image of a scene onto at least one TDI array that is covered by a multispectral filter that passes separate bandwidths of light onto the rows in the TDI array. The variable gain feature of the TDI array allows individual rows of pixels to be attenuated individually. The attenuations are functions of the magnitudes of the positive and negative components of a spectral basis vector. The spectral basis vector is constructed so that its positive elements emphasize the presence of a target and its negative elements emphasize the presence of the constituents of the background of the imaged scene. This system provides for a very efficient determination of the presence of the target, as opposed to the very data intensive data manipulations that are required in conventional hyperspectral imaging systems.

Rienstra, Jeffrey L. (Albuquerque, NM); Gentry, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM); Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2004-01-13

80

Experiment and research on the TDI CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, CCD is widely applied in many fields. Here, we introduce you a special linear area CCD camera which uses Time-Delay-Integration (TDI) technique to provide high sensitivity, high speed, high spatial resolution and wide dynamic range performance under low light conditions. TDI is a method of scanning which provides greater sensitivity than other video scanning methods, and the interface that it needs is quite different from conventional ones. In the paper, the principle and the features are presented. In order to apply the TDI method and verify the effect, we do an experiment of grabbing moving image through using CT-E1 and CL-E2 2048X96 TDI Line Scan CCD camera produced by DALSA INC.. We design a grabber and make a complete system by ourselves. The system includes: camera, camera control, frame grabber, revolving stage, PC. The result indicates that when the line-shift-rate of the CCD camera is not synchronized with the rate of moving object, the image that we obtain is not clear. But when we use phase-shift- compensation technique and make the line-shift-rate of the camera match the rate of the image, we can get very distinct image.

Wang, Haining; Wei, Zhonghui

1996-09-01

81

Feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and real-time ultrasound traits in Duroc pigs: I. Genetic parameter estimation and accuracy of genomic prediction.  

PubMed

The efficiency of producing salable products in the pork industry is largely determined by costs associated with feed and by the amount and quality of lean meat produced. The objectives of this paper were 1) to explore heritability and genetic correlations for growth, feed efficiency, and real-time ultrasound traits using both pedigree and marker information and 2) to assess accuracy of genomic prediction for those traits using Bayes A prediction models in a Duroc terminal sire population. Body weight at birth (BW at birth) and weaning (BW at weaning) and real-time ultrasound traits, including back fat thickness (BF), muscle depth (MD), and intramuscular fat content (IMF), were collected on the basis of farm protocol. Individual feed intake and serial BW records of 1,563 boars obtained from feed intake recording equipment (FIRE; Osborne Industries Inc., Osborne, KS) were edited to obtain growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency traits, including ADG, ADFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI). Correspondingly, 1,047 boars were genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. The remaining 516 boars, as an independent sample, were genotyped with a low-density GGP-Porcine BeadChip and imputed to 60K. Magnitudes of heritability from pedigree analysis were moderate for growth, feed intake, and ultrasound traits (ranging from 0.44 ± 0.11 for ADG to 0.58 ± 0.09 for BF); heritability estimates were 0.32 ± 0.09 for FCR but only 0.10 ± 0.05 for RFI. Comparatively, heritability estimates using marker information by Bayes A models were about half of those from pedigree analysis, suggesting "missing heritability." Moderate positive genetic correlations between growth and feed intake (0.32 ± 0.05) and back fat (0.22 ± 0.04), as well as negative genetic correlations between growth and feed efficiency traits (-0.21 ± 0.08, -0.05 ± 0.07), indicate selection solely on growth traits may lead to an undesirable increase in feed intake, back fat, and reduced feed efficiency. Genetic correlations among growth, feed intake, and FCR assessed by a multiple-trait Bayes A model resulted in increased genetic correlation between ADG and ADFI, a negative correlation between ADFI and FCR, and a positive correlation between ADG and FCR. Accuracies of genomic prediction for the traits investigated, ranging from 9.4% for RFI to 36.5% for BF, were reported that might provide new insight into pig breeding and future selection programs using genomic information. PMID:24671579

Jiao, S; Maltecca, C; Gray, K A; Cassady, J P

2014-06-01

82

Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

2012-01-01

83

Iron absorption is more closely related to iron status than to daily iron intake in 12- to 48-mo-old children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Few studies have evaluated iron absorption in small children after the first year of life. Our objective was to examine the relations among iron intake, iron absorption, and iron status in a group of healthy children. We studied 28 children, ages 12 to 48 mo, after a 7-d home adaptation to a diet re...

84

Validity and Reproducibility of a Self-Administered Semi-Quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Usual Daily Fat, Fibre, Alcohol, Caffeine and Theobromine Intakes among Belgian Post-Menopausal Women  

PubMed Central

A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d) estimated diet records (EDR, n 64) and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79). Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47–0.94; weighted ? 0.25–0.66) and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71–0.87) with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted ? 0.33–0.80). In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population. PMID:19440274

Bolca, Selin; Huybrechts, Inge; Verschraegen, Mia; De Henauw, Stefaan; Van de Wiele, Tom

2009-01-01

85

Monitoring programme on nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain: levels and estimated daily intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to determine the current levels of nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods (a total of 1150 samples) marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain, over the period 2000–2008, and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. Average (median) levels of nitrate in lettuce, iceberg-type lettuce and spinach (1156, 798 and 1410 mg

O. Pardo-Marín; V. Yusà-Pelechà; P. Villalba-Martín; J. A. Perez-Dasí

2010-01-01

86

The high CA diet had no effect upon phosphorus utilization. Daily amounts of excreted, absorbed and retained calcium were increased whereas Ca absorption relative to intake was not  

E-print Network

The high CA diet had no effect upon phosphorus utilization. Daily amounts of excreted, absorbed- phaturia and hypercalciura appeared with both high and normal Ca diets though some of them, especially hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia, were aggravated by the high Ca diet. Pigs fed this diet also exhibited

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review  

E-print Network

weekend day) EI was significantly higher in group 3 compared to the 2 other groups. Duvigneaud et al. (2007) [42] 362 women: Age = 51.4 (12.9); BMI = 24.1(3.5); 485 men: Age = 50.2 (13.3); BMI = 25.4 (3.1) Flemish PA Computerized Questionnaire. 3 groups...-hrs/wk equivalent to ,150 min/wk of moderate- intensity PA); 2) 7.5 to ,21 MET-hrs./wk.; 3) $21 MET-hrs/wk. (equivalent to $420 min/wk moderate- intensity activity. Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire. No significant between group differences for EI, fat intake...

Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

2014-01-15

88

Tumor promoting and co-carcinogenic effects in medium-term rat hepatocarcinogenesis are not modified by co-administration of 12 pesticides in mixture at acceptable daily intake.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the possible influence of a mixture of pesticides on medium-term carcinogenesis using improved hepatocarcinogenesis protocols. We performed a 12 commercially available pesticides combination with alachlor, atrazine, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dicofol, endosulfan, iprodione, mancozeb, maneb, procymidone and rotenone. The mixture was given at 1-fold and 10-fold the acceptable daily intake (ADI) level in a set of Solt-Farber-derived protocols involving diethylnitrosamine, 2-acetylaminofluorene treatments and a partial hepatectomy. Co-carcinogenic effect and promoting activity were evaluated using gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) positive altered hepatocyte foci, as well, protein and mRNA levels of glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP) in liver extracts as molecular biomarkers of carcinogenic effects. The pesticide treatments when compared to vehicle treatments always produced the same number of hepatocyte lesions and an equal GSTP expression on liver extracts independently of carcinogenic-protocol utilized. On this base, we concluded that the pesticide mixture evaluated in this report does not have tumor promoting activity or co-carcinogenic effect in the rat medium-term liver carcinogenesis. Altogether these data contribute to the confidence that the ADI represents a safe intake level to mixture of pesticides at dietary exposure. PMID:19126423

Perez-Carreon, Julio Isael; Dargent, Celine; Merhi, Maysaloun; Fattel-Fazenda, Samia; Arce-Popoca, Evelia; Villa-Treviño, Saul; Rouimi, Patrick

2009-03-01

89

Sucrose intake in Germany.  

PubMed

The present investigation reevaluated the German National Food Consumption Survey in order to obtain data on sucrose intake and food sources of sucrose intake in Germany. Moreover, it focused on the effect of sucrose intake on nutrient intake. By means of the food composition data base Bundeslebensmittelschlüssel, version II.2, 7-days dietary records of a representative sample of 15,838 persons aged 4 years and older were analyzed. The relation between sucrose and nutrients intake was investigated by variance and regression analyses. Low, moderate, and high sucrose intake categories were defined by means of sucrose density quartiles and comparisons were made for the percentages of persons meeting the German nutrient intake recommendations. Mean daily sucrose intake ranges between 43.2 g/d (f, 51-64 years) and 82.3 g/d (m, 13-14 years). The mean contribution of sucrose to total energy intake is highest with 14% in young age (4-6 years) and decreases to 9% and 7% in 51-64 year old women and men, respectively. The food groups "table sugar", "confectionery and ice cream", "biscuits, cake and pastries", "preserves", "dairy products", and "non-alcoholic beverages" are the main sucrose sources with varying importance in different age groups. The average amount of naturally occurring sucrose in the Germans' diet is estimated to 15-25% of total sucrose intake. Sucrose contributes 80-90% to total disaccharides intake in Germany. With each gram of sucrose the intake of energy rises on the average by 12.5 kcal (52.4 kJ), of protein by 0.3 g (9% of the energy increase), of fat by 0.5 g (34%), and of carbohydrates by 1.8 g (57%). Consequently, the higher the sucrose content of a diet, the lower is the contribution of fat to total energy intake. In contrast, the energy-adjusted effect of sucrose was found to be negative for energy-providing nutrients (except mono- and disaccharides) as well as for all the selected micronutrients, except calcium, vitamin E, vitamin C, and dietary fiber. Accordingly, the comparison between moderate and high sucrose consumers revealed a lower percentage of persons meeting nutrient intake recommendations in the high sucrose category under the condition of a comparable energy intake. This unfavorable effect of high sucrose intake is most prominent in 4-6 year old boys and girls as the groups with the highest sucrose intake. Since from the present data no exact figure for a sucrose or sugars intake recommendation can be deduced, it is suggested to keep on the WHO recommendation for a moderate sugar intake of 10% of energy intake. PMID:9894678

Linseisen, J; Gedrich, K; Karg, G; Wolfram, G

1998-12-01

90

New considerations regarding the risk assessment on Tartrazine An update toxicological assessment, intolerance reactions and maximum theoretical daily intake in France.  

PubMed

Tartrazine is an artificial azo dye commonly used in human food and pharmaceutical products. Since the last assessment carried out by the JECFA in 1964, many new studies have been conducted, some of which have incriminated tartrazine in food intolerance reactions. The aims of this work are to update the hazard characterization and to revaluate the safety of tartrazine. Our bibliographical review of animal studies confirms the initial hazard assessment conducted by the JECFA, and accordingly the ADI established at 7.5mg/kg bw. From our data, in France, the estimated maximum theoretical intake of tartrazine in children is 37.2% of the ADI at the 97.5th percentile. It may therefore be concluded that from a toxicological point of view, tartrazine does not represent a risk for the consumer. It appears more difficult to show a clear relationship between ingestion of tartrazine and the development of intolerance reactions in patients. These reactions primarily occur in patients who also suffer from recurrent urticaria or asthma. The link between tartrazine consumption and these reactions is often overestimated, and the pathogenic mechanisms remain poorly understood. The prevalence of tartrazine intolerance is estimated to be less than 0.12% in the general population. Generally, the population at risk is aware of the importance of food labelling, with the view of avoiding consumption of tartrazine. However, it has to be mentioned that products such as ice creams, desserts, cakes and fine bakery are often sold loose without any labelling. PMID:17218045

Elhkim, Mostafa Ould; Héraud, Fanny; Bemrah, Nawel; Gauchard, Françoise; Lorino, Tristan; Lambré, Claude; Frémy, Jean Marc; Poul, Jean-Michel

2007-04-01

91

Daily intake of bisphenol A and triclosan and their association with anthropometric data, thyroid hormones and weight loss in overweight and obese individuals.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) were determined in urine of Belgian overweight and obese (n=151) and lean (n=43) individuals. After the first urine collection (0M), obese patients started a diet program or have undergone bariatric surgery. Hereafter, three additional urine samples from obese patients were collected after 3 (3M), 6 (6M) and 12 (12M) months. Both compounds were detected in >99% of the samples. BPA had median concentrations of 1.7 and 1.2ng/mL in obese and lean groups, respectively, while TCS had median concentrations of 1.5 and 0.9ng/mL in the obese and lean groups, respectively. The obese group had higher urinary concentrations (ng/mL) of BPA (p<0.5), while no significant differences were found for TCS between the obese and lean groups. No time trends between the different collection moments were observed. The BPA concentrations in the obese group were negatively associated with age, while no gender difference or relationship with body mass index was observed. For TCS, no relationships with gender, BMI, or age were found. The temporal variability of BPA and TCS was assessed with calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient, Spearman rank correlation coefficients, and surrogate category analysis. We observed evidence that single spot urine samples might be predictive of exposure over a longer period of time. Dietary intakes of BPA and TCS did not differ significantly among the time points considered after obese individuals started losing weight (6 and 12months). Multiple linear regression analyses after adjusting for age and weight loss revealed negative associations between urinary TCS and serum FT4 in the 0M and 3M female obese individuals and positive associations between urinary BPA and serum TSH in the lean group. PMID:25575039

Geens, Tinne; Dirtu, Alin C; Dirinck, Eveline; Malarvannan, Govindan; Van Gaal, Luc; Jorens, Philippe G; Covaci, Adrian

2015-03-01

92

CMOS-TDI detector technology for reconnaissance application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute of Optical Sensor Systems (OS) at the Robotics and Mechatronics Center of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has more than 30 years of experience with high-resolution imaging technology. This paper shows the institute's scientific results of the leading-edge detector design CMOS in a TDI (Time Delay and Integration) architecture. This project includes the technological design of future high or multi-spectral resolution spaceborne instruments and the possibility of higher integration. DLR OS and the Fraunhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems (IMS) in Duisburg were driving the technology of new detectors and the FPA design for future projects, new manufacturing accuracy and on-chip processing capability in order to keep pace with the ambitious scientific and user requirements. In combination with the engineering research, the current generation of space borne sensor systems is focusing on VIS/NIR high spectral resolution to meet the requirements on earth and planetary observation systems. The combination of large-swath and high-spectral resolution with intelligent synchronization control, fast-readout ADC (analog digital converter) chains and new focal-plane concepts opens the door to new remote-sensing and smart deep-space instruments. The paper gives an overview of the detector development status and verification program at DLR, as well as of new control possibilities for CMOS-TDI detectors in synchronization control mode.

Eckardt, Andreas; Reulke, Ralf; Jung, Melanie; Sengebusch, Karsten

2014-10-01

93

The research on statistical properties of TDI-CCD imaging noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TDI-CCD can improve the sensitivity of space camera without any degradation of spatial resolution which is widely used in aerospace imaging devices. The article describes the basic working principle and application characteristics of TDI-CCD devices, analyses the composition of TDI-CCD imaging noise, and propose a new method to analyze TDI-CCD imaging noise with statistical probability distribution. In order to estimate the distribution of gray values affect by noise we introduced the concept of skewness and kurtosis. We design an experiment using constant illumination light source, take image with TDI-CCD working at different stage such as stage 16, stage 32, stage 48, stage 64 and stage 96, analyse the characteristics of image noise with the method we proposed, experimental results show that the gray values approximately meet normal distribution in large sample cases.

Gu, Ying-ying; Shen, Xiang-heng; He, Geng-xian

2011-08-01

94

Estimation of risks of pesticide exposure, by food intake, to Koreans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) and estimated daily intake (EDI) for Korean by using maximum residue levels (MRLs), food intake, residue data and correction factors, and compare with acceptable daily intake (ADI) in order to estimate the health risk based on the pesticide exposure. Then, the oncogenic risks of the pesticides were

Ock Kyoung Chun; Hee Gon Kang

2003-01-01

95

Persistent asthma due to isocyanates. A follow-up study of subjects with occupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate (TDI)  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-five subjects with occupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposure were examined. All the subjects were studied with inhalation challenges with TDI and with methacholine. TDI asthma was documented by a positive inhalation challenge to low levels of TDI. Airway responsiveness to methacholine was in the range of asthmatic patients at the time of diagnosis. After an average follow-up interval of 10 months, all the subjects were re-examined. Of the 35 subjects examined, 30 subjects (85.7%) left the workplace, and 5 remained in the same job. Twenty-seven subjects (77.1%) continued to have asthmatic attacks requiring medication for relief of symptoms. At follow-up examination, TDI asthma was documented by a positive inhalation challenge to TDI in 27 subjects. Of these 27 TDI reactors, 22 subjects were removed from occupational exposure to TDI. The TDI reactors had persistent respiratory symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. At follow-up visit, 8 subjects (22.9%) lost sensitization to TDI; 5 subjects (62.5%) in this group had also normal airway responsiveness to methacholine after removal from exposure. Only 1 subject among the TDI nonreactors complained of mild respiratory symptoms. At diagnosis, there were no significant differences between subjects who recovered and those who did not with regard to age, smoking habits, atopy, duration of exposure to isocyanates, duration of symptoms, baseline FEV1 (% pred), and baseline airway responsiveness to methacholine.

Mapp, C.E.; Corona, P.C.; De Marzo, N.; Fabbri, L.

1988-06-01

96

Derivation Of Daily Values Used For Nutrition Labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily Values (DVs) are the daily dietary intake standards used for nutrition labeling. Information on the derivation of DVs is important for dietetics professionals and nutrition educators who use DVs to educate and instruct patients and students about diet planning and evaluation and about adherence to modified diets. The first daily intake standards for nutrition labeling were established in 1973

JEAN A. T. PENNINGTON; VANS. HUBBARD

1997-01-01

97

76 FR 46216 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. 2011-0002; Sequence 5] Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting; Correction...general public in an effort to streamline travel policies, incorporated travel...

2011-08-02

98

76 FR 43236 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...streamline travel policies, increase travel efficiency and effectiveness...pertain to Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances that include special...industry and the public will be time limited. Each registered presenter...Dobbs, Director, Office of Travel, Transportation & Asset...

2011-07-20

99

Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of MDI and TDI polyurethane polymers  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivity of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) to differences in key chemical components of polyurethane polymers is presented. Carbon is NEXAFS spectra of polyurethane polymers made from 4,4{prime}-methylene di-p-phenylene isocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) isocyanate monomers illustrate that there is an unambiguous spectroscopic fingerprint for distinguishing between MDI-based and TDI-based polyurethane polymers. NEXAFS spectra of MDI and TDI polyurea and polyurethane models show that the urea and carbamate (urethane) linkages in these polymers can be distinguished. The NEXAFS spectroscopy of the polyether component of these polymers is discussed, and the differences between the spectra of MDI and TDI polyurethanes synthesized with polyether polyols of different molecular composition and different molecular weight are presented. These polymer spectra reported herein provide appropriate model spectra to represent the pure components for quantitative microanalysis.

Urquhart, S.G.; Smith, A.P.; Ade, H.W. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics] [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hitchcock, A.P. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Brockhouse Inst. for Materials Research] [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Brockhouse Inst. for Materials Research; Rightor, E.G. [Dow Chemical USA, Midland, MI (United States)] [Dow Chemical USA, Midland, MI (United States); Lidy, W. [Dow Chemical USA, Freeport, TX (United States)] [Dow Chemical USA, Freeport, TX (United States)

1999-06-03

100

The research of TDI-CCDs imagery stitching using information mending algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-collinear TDI-CCDs sensor was introduced and its imaging characteristics were analyzed. An information mending algorithm was adopted to stitch TDI-CCDs imagery. Key points of the algorithm are image matching and modeling of coordinate transformation between two images. Particularly, piecewise polynomial transformation model was adopted to describe the shift, rotation and the zoom factor of TDI-CCDs imagery after extracting tie points using SIFT algorithm. Coefficients of polynomial transformation were obtained through the solution of error equation constructed by large numbers of tie points and finally TDI-CCDs imagery was geometrically stitched. A certain high resolution satellite remotely sensed imagery were adopted to verify this algorithm. The experiments show that total precision of this information mending stitching algorithm reaches sub-pixel level.

Meng, Weican; Zhu, Shulong; Zhu, Baoshan; Bian, Shaojun

2013-08-01

101

INPE-12145-TDI/969 ANLISE DE EPISDIOS DE TORNADO EM SANTA CATARINA  

E-print Network

INPE-12145-TDI/969 ANÁLISE DE EPIS�DIOS DE TORNADO EM SANTA CATARINA: CARACTERIZA��O SIN�TICA E. Análise de episódios de tornados em Santa Catarina: caracterização sinótica e mineração de dados / I. P. O. Marcelino. ­ São José dos Campos: INPE, 2003. 223p. ­ (INPE-12145-TDI/969). 1.Tornados. 2.Tempestades

102

Automatic focus algorithms for TDI X-Ray image reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In food industry, most products are checked by X-rays for contaminations. These X-ray machines continuously scan the product passing through. To minimize the required X-ray power, a Time, Delay and Integration (TDI) CCD-sensor is used to capture the image. While the product moves across the sensor area, the X-ray angle changes during the pass. As a countermeasure, adjusting the sensor shift speed on a single focal plane of the product can be selected. However, the changing angle result in a blurred image in dependance to the thickness of the product. This so-called ''laminographic effect'' can be compensated individually for one plane by inverse filtering. As the plane of contamination is unknown, the blurred image will be inversely filtered for different planes, but only one of these images shows the correctly focussed object. If the correct image can be found, the plane containing the contamination is identified. In this contribution we demonstrate how the correctly focussed images can be found by analyzing the images of all planes. Different characteristics for correctly and incorrectly focussed planes like sharpness, number of objects and edges are investigated by using image processing algorithms.

Dörr, J.; Rosenbaum, M.; Sauer-Greff, W.; Urbansky, R.

2012-09-01

103

Characterization of polyurethane systems which contain low levels of free TDI  

SciTech Connect

EN-7, EN-8, and EN-9 are polyurethane systems that are used in numerous applications in the Department of Energy complex. These systems contain high levels of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Currently, TDI is being treated as a suspect human carcinogen within the Department of Energy complex. This report documents the results of a material characterization study of three polyurethane systems that contain low levels of free (potentially airborne) TDI. The characterization has been accomplished by performing a set of statistically designed experiments. The purpose of these experiments is to explore the effects of formulation and cure schedule on various material properties. In general, the material properties (pot life, glass transition temperature, hardness, and tear strength) were relatively insensitive to variation in the cure schedule. On the other hand, variation in curative level had measurable effects on material properties for the polyurethane systems studied. Furthermore, the material properties of the three low-free-TDI polyurethane systems were found to be comparable or superior (for certain curative levels) to commonly-used polyurethane systems. Thus, these low-free-TDI systems appear to be viable candidates for applications where a polyurethane is needed.

Myers, R.L.; Thomas, E.V.

1995-04-01

104

TDI and clock noise removal for the split interferometry configuration of LISA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser phase noise is the dominant noise source in the on-board measurements of the space-based gravitational wave detector LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna). A well-known data analysis technique, the so-called time-delay interferometry (TDI), provides synthesized data streams free of laser phase noise. At the same time, TDI also removes the next largest noise source: phase fluctuations of the on-board clocks which distort the sampling process. TDI needs precise information about the spacecraft separations, sampling times and differential clock noise between the three spacecrafts. These are measured using auxiliary modulations on the laser light. Hence, there is a need for algorithms that account for clock noise removal schemes combined with TDI while preserving the gravitational wave signal. In this paper, we will present the mathematical formulation of the LISA-like data streams and discuss a compliant algorithm that corrects for both clock and laser noise in the case of a rotating, non-breathing LISA constellation. In contrast to previous papers, we consider the current optical bench design (split interferometry configuration), i.e. the test mass readout is done by the local oscillators only, instead of reflecting the weak inter-spacecraft light off the test mass. Furthermore, the absolute order of laser frequencies is taken into account and it can be shown that the TDI equations remain invariant. This is a crucial issue and was, up to now, completely neglected in the analysis.

Otto, Markus; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

2012-10-01

105

The characteristic analysis and optimization design for HgCdTe TDI infrared detector array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time Delay Integration (TDI) is an effective approach for high sensitive infrared detectors. According to the principle of the TDI, the central distance of pixel along the time delay integral direction is closely linked with the specific application requirements. So the optimization design, such as the area of pixels and their distance, plays an important role to improve the performance of TDI detectors. The crosstalk between pixels is a crucial factor that results in the decline of detector Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), and then affects the imaging quality. In this paper the optimization design rule for the arrangement of pixel has been investigated. The results show that the main method to appreciate it is reducing the crosstalk between pixels and enhancing detectivity. Chips of which pixel areas and edge intervals are different but with same distance were designed for the experiments. The optical and electrical measurements were carried out for these chips and the optimized structure was obtained. In addition, relationships between the crosstalk and parameters of material, pixel structure were analyzed based on the experiment data. According to the comprehensive analysis of the measurement data, we obtained the optimum design for specific HgCdTe TDI infrared detector. Meanwhile it is also a well reference for other HgCdTe TDI detector structure design.

Dong, Mei-feng; Chen, Xing; Qiu, Guang-yin; Xie, Xiao-hui

2011-08-01

106

On-orbit calibration performance of MODIS TDI bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bands 13 (667 nm) and 14 (678 nm) of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites are built with a time delay and integration (TDI) circuit and a high-low dual-gain setting intended for the monitoring of the ocean environment. An important on-orbit performance issue for the high-gain output of Terra Band 14 and Aqua Band 13 and 14 is that these three bands saturate during standard on-orbit calibrations using the onboard solar diffuser (SD). Consequently, their calibration procedure requires a derivation different from other reflective solar bands (RSB). A high-low scaling-ratio approach is employed for these bands to obtain the high-gain coefficients via the low-gain output 13L and 14L through a calculated constant ratio derived from other sources. Currently, earth view (EV) scenes over the North Atlantic Ocean are used as the primary sources. As it also has been observed that the response versus scan-angle (RVS) exhibits noticeable changes with time for RSB, a time-dependent RVS calibration algorithm has been implemented based on the SD and lunar calibration results. This paper reviews the electronic design and operation of Band 13 and 14, discusses the SD calibration and the saturation issue of the high-gain output, and the time-dependent RVS algorithms. Long-term performance of the calibration coefficient and RVS are presented. The long-term trend shows that the gain-change for Terra MODIS Band 13 and 14, for both high- and lowgain bands, is significant at 6% and 23%, but is more modest for Aqua MODIS Band 13 and 14 at 6% and 2%. The gain ratios 13H/13L and 14H/14L are very stable at the level of 0.01% for both MODIS instruments. The long-term gain difference due to RVS effect is up to 3% for Terra MODIS and about 2% and below for Aqua MODIS.

Chu, Mike; Sun, Junqiang; Angal, Amit; Chen, Hongda; Geng, Xu; Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaoxiang (Jack)

2013-09-01

107

Dazzling effect of repetitive short pulse laser on TDI CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dazzling experiment was performed on a 64-stage TDI CCD camera using a 20 Hz repetition frequency picoseconds pulse laser, during which we found a new dazzling effect in which the fringes appeared in the video of the camera beside the saturation spot induced by the laser. We considered it to be the scattered light of the repetition frequency laser pulse to have induced the phenomenon. Width and visibility of the fringes recorded the information of the scattered light, such as repetitive frequency, pulse width and intensity distribution. With the assumption that the laser pulse width is less than one stage integral time of TDI CCD, width expressions for the fringes and space between the fringes were given using the repetitive frequency of laser pulse, row output frequency and integral stage number of the TDI CCD camera.

Zhang, Zhen; Cheng, Xiang-ai; Wang, Rui; Jiang, Tian; Qiu, Dong-dong; Jiang, Zong-fu

2011-02-01

108

A fine image motion compensation method for the panoramic TDI CCD camera in remote sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The image motion caused by camera housing rotation is the natural component in panoramic TDI CCD camera, and it cannot be eliminated thoroughly by traditional motion compensation schemes. After researching on the operation of a typical panoramic TDI CCD imaging system, we present a fine rolling rate independent motion compensation method. Employing the correction factor k, a TDI CCD line transfer synchronization signal is generated by the high resolution optical encoder as long as the ground scene moves one pixel with respect to the detector. Then, the effect of the motion compensation method is evaluated using the Monte Carlo method. The simulation results indicate that the magnitude of the modulation transfer function at the Nyquist frequency increases more than three times by increasing the subdivision steps from 100 to 500, and also of the imaging experimental results show that the image quality improvement can be achieved.

Wang, Dejiang; Li, Wenming; Yao, Yuan; Huang, Houtian; Wang, Yutang

2013-07-01

109

The research of the accurate measure of static transfer function for the TDI CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the test course of static transfer function of TDI CCD camera, because of the influence that gets environmental and artificial etc. factor, the value of static transfer function measured at any time is between unceasing fluctuation, so, make accuracy reduce. To solve this problem, a kind of accurate measurement technique of static transfer function is put forward. First, before carrying out the measure of static quiet of transfer function, the best test point of transfer function of the TDI CCD camera must be determined, it is parallel to guarantee the rectangle target surface of parallel optical pipe and camera focal plane maintenance parallel, and again guarantee target strip in rectangle target and TDI CCD in camera focal plane maintenance vertical. TDI CCD catches rectangle target image, per 1000 lines of target mark image as a measures sample of static transfer function, exclude because of atmosphere tremble twisted, vague rectangle target mark image, retain 500 distinct and steady target mark image as measure sample set. Then, calculate the static transfer function of each measure sample respectively, take the average of all static quiet transfer function in measure sample set as the static transfer function of camera. Finally, the measure of the static transfer function for TDI CCD camera makes error analysis. Experimental results indicate that the value of the static transfer function of TDI CCD camera measured with this kind of method is 0.2923, with before measurement technique comparison, the value of static transfer function has raised 0.02, makes the accuracy of the measure of static transfer function have gotten raising.

Li, Guo-Ning; Wang, Wen-Hua; Han, Shuang-Li; Jin, Long-Xu; Liu, Yan-Yan

2011-11-01

110

The research of the accurate measure of static transfer function for the TDI CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the test course of static transfer function of TDI CCD camera, because of the influence that gets environmental and artificial etc. factor, the value of static transfer function measured at any time is between unceasing fluctuation, so, make accuracy reduce. To solve this problem, a kind of accurate measurement technique of static transfer function is put forward. First, before carrying out the measure of static quiet of transfer function, the best test point of transfer function of the TDI CCD camera must be determined, it is parallel to guarantee the rectangle target surface of parallel optical pipe and camera focal plane maintenance parallel, and again guarantee target strip in rectangle target and TDI CCD in camera focal plane maintenance vertical. TDI CCD catches rectangle target image, per 1000 lines of target mark image as a measures sample of static transfer function, exclude because of atmosphere tremble twisted, vague rectangle target mark image, retain 500 distinct and steady target mark image as measure sample set. Then, calculate the static transfer function of each measure sample respectively, take the average of all static quiet transfer function in measure sample set as the static transfer function of camera. Finally, the measure of the static transfer function for TDI CCD camera makes error analysis. Experimental results indicate that the value of the static transfer function of TDI CCD camera measured with this kind of method is 0.2923, with before measurement technique comparison, the value of static transfer function has raised 0.02, makes the accuracy of the measure of static transfer function have gotten raising.

Li, Guo-ning; Wang, Wen-hua; Han, Shuang-li; Jin, Long-xu; Liu, Yan-Yan

2012-01-01

111

The research of the accurate measure of static transfer function for the TDI CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the test course of static transfer function of TDI CCD camera, because of the influence that gets environmental and artificial etc. factor, the value of static transfer function measured at any time is between unceasing fluctuation, so, make accuracy reduce. To solve this problem, a kind of accurate measurement technique of static transfer function is put forward. First, before carrying out the measure of static quiet of transfer function, the best test point of transfer function of the TDI CCD camera must be determined, it is parallel to guarantee the rectangle target surface of parallel optical pipe and camera focal plane maintenance parallel, and again guarantee target strip in rectangle target and TDI CCD in camera focal plane maintenance vertical. TDI CCD catches rectangle target image, per 1000 lines of target mark image as a measures sample of static transfer function, exclude because of atmosphere tremble twisted, vague rectangle target mark image, retain 500 distinct and steady target mark image as measure sample set. Then, calculate the static transfer function of each measure sample respectively, take the average of all static quiet transfer function in measure sample set as the static transfer function of camera. Finally, the measure of the static transfer function for TDI CCD camera makes error analysis. Experimental results indicate that the value of the static transfer function of TDI CCD camera measured with this kind of method is 0.2923, with before measurement technique comparison, the value of static transfer function has raised 0.02, makes the accuracy of the measure of static transfer function have gotten raising.

Guo-ning, Li; Long-xu, Jin; Jian-yue, Ren; Wen-hua, Wang; Shuang-li, Han

2011-02-01

112

41 CFR 301-11.8 - What is the maximum per diem rate I will receive if lodging is not available at my TDY location?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...lodging is not available at my TDY location? 301-11.8 Section 301-11.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules §...

2010-07-01

113

Asthma Symptoms and Specific IgE Levels among Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI) Exposed Workers in Tehran, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is an imperative chemical substance used in the production of polyurethane foams, elastomers, paints and coatings that cause a variety of health problems in workers who are exposed in work places. This study aimed to determine the asthma symptoms and serum specific IgE levels in TDI exposed workers and comparing the results with healthy control group. Methods: All the plants that use TDI in the manufacturing of paint and glue in the west of Tehran Province entered to the study and all the workers (550) completed modified initial questionnaire of the NIOSH, the questions were consisted of asthma symptoms. For each symptomatic exposed worker one healthy, sex and age matched control selected. Total IgE and Specific TDI IgE tests were done for each case and control groups. Results: Among 550 TDI exposed workers, 26(4.7%) had asthma symptoms. Nine (34.6%) of symptomatic workers who were exposed to TDI were active cigarette consumer versus 3(11.5%) unexposed workers, P=0.049(CI= 0.953–17.29) OR=4.059. Nine (34.6%) workers had positive family history of atopy versus 1(3.8%) unexposed workers, P=0.0138 (CI= 1.45–305.41) OR=13.24. TDI specific IgE was found in 2 TDI exposed workers and 1 unexposed worker (P=0.5). Mean of total IgE was 339.05 in exposed workers (P=0.201). Conclusion: This study provides clinical and paraclinical data of workers exposed to TDI and points to a relation between atopy and smoking habit with asthma symptoms that offer preventing recommendations for TDI exposed workers and their heath administrators. PMID:23785679

SHARIFI, Laleh; KARIMI, Akram; SHOKOUHI SHOORMASTI, Raheleh; MIRI, Sara; HEYDAR NAZHAD, Hassan; BOKAIE, Saied; FAZLOLLAHI, Mohammad Reza; SADEGHNIIAT HAGHIGHI, Khosro; POURPAK, Zahra; MOIN, Mostafa

2013-01-01

114

Training, Development, and Improvement (TDI): A New Approach for Reforming Bilingual Teacher Preparation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the need for better prepared bilingual/English-as-a-Second-Language teachers in the United States and presents preliminary data and participant feedback from the University of Colorado BUENO TDI Project. Three teacher training models are critiqued. The BUENO Project is presented as an innovative approach to moving beyond the limitations…

Baca, Leonard; And Others

1994-01-01

115

Realization of the FPGA based TDI algorithm in digital domain for CMOS cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to make the CMOS image sensors suitable for space high resolution imaging applications, a new method realizing TDI in digital domain by FPGA is proposed in this paper, which improves the imaging mode for area array CMOS sensors. The TDI algorithm accumulates the corresponding pixels of adjoining frames in digital domain, so the gray values increase by M times, where M is for the integration number, and the image's quality in signal-to-noise ratio can be improved. In addition, the TDI optimization algorithm is discussed. Firstly, the signal storage is optimized by 2 slices of external RAM, where memory depth expanding and the table tennis operation mechanism are used. Secondly, the FIFO operation mechanism reduces the reading and writing operation on memory by M×(M-1) times, It saves so much signal transfer time as is proportional to the square of integration number M2, that the frame frequency is able to increase greatly. At last, the CMOS camera based on TDI in digital domain is developed, and the algorithm is validated by experiments on it.

Tao, Shuping; Jin, Guang; Zhang, Xuyan; Qu, Hongsong

2012-10-01

116

Nicotine intake by snuff users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured in 27 volunteers before and after taking snuff. Within 10 minutes after snuffing blood nicotine concentrations were comparable to those obtained after the 10 minutes or so that it takes to smoke a cigarette. Nicotine intake from snuffing was related to the experience of the snuffer. In daily and occasional snuffers increases in

M A Russell; M J Jarvis; G Devitt; C Feyerabend

1981-01-01

117

Constitution Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyone could use a bit of the Constitution added to their daily lives, and this website more than delivers on its promise to deliver "smart conversation about the Constitution". Constitution Daily is an experimental blog edited by the National Constitution Center (NCC) in Philadelphia, and commentary here can include conversations about student privacy rights, the Second Amendment, and the activities of Congress. Visitors can click on the "Issues" section to dive into topic areas that include civility and privacy. After looking at each topic area, visitors can look at an interactive timeline that arranges comments, posts, and discussion on the subject. The site also contains some nice polls, and information about upcoming events at the NCC.

118

Science Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Daily is a web-based magazine that delivers timely news about discoveries in science and technology, appropriate for all audiences. Articles are often accompanied by streaming video or podcasts; all are written in language a non-scientist can understand. The web site archives contain more than 40,000 resources on topics that include medicine, the brain, plants and animals, earth science, climate, space, matter and energy, computers, mathematics, and paleontology. The web site has been the recipient of numerous awards since its inception in 1995.

2008-03-08

119

Contribution of cod liver oil related nutrients –vitamins A, D, E and eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid- to daily nutrient intake and their associations with plasma concentrations in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort  

E-print Network

40 stronger and provide better insight in the diet-biomarker-disease association. And thirdly, 41 associations of nutrient exposure and biomarkers are not linear, e.g. vitamin E (Lebold et al., 2012; 42 White et al., 2001). The association... of cigarette 69 smoking and quantification of nutrient intake (Block et al., 1994): one would not calculate the 70 average amount of cigarettes smoked for the population as a whole, but only for smokers. Hence, 71 rather than comparing all SU vs. NSU, we...

Lentjes, Marleen A. H.; Mulligan, Angela A.; Welch, Ailsa A.; Bhaniani, Amit; Luben, Robert N.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

2014-09-16

120

A new design of signal processing system for TDI infrared focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, according to the characteristics of TDI infrared focal plane array output signal, a novel signal processing system based on AC coupling technology is proposed. Firstly, the output signal characteristics of TDI infrared focal plane array are analyzed. Secondly, the signal processing system based on AC-coupled technology is introduced. The designed system is consist of high pass filter circuit, signal conditioning circuit, differential input analog to digital converting circuit and digital data processing circuit. Thirdly, the designed system is simulated and tested. Simulation and test results show that the novel design idea of signal processing circuit is reasonable and feasible. Compared with the traditional design, the system has the characteristics of high common mode noise rejection, low temperature drift and low power consumption.

Wang, Hua; Wei, Zhiyong; Lei, Ning; Wang, Xu; Zhang, WenYu; Li, Tao

2012-12-01

121

A parameter identification method of high frequency vibration model on TDI image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To accurately discern the parameters of high frequency vibration blur model on a single TDI image, the research analyzes the imaging function when high frequency vibration occurs in TDI mode. The method of simplifying the vibration model is offered and verified, which promises the MTF will be only related with motion angle and vibration amplitude. Three algorithms for motion direction discerning are compared with one another, which are Radon transform, autocorrelation analysis and cepstral method. The conclusion reveals that cepstral method can measure the most accurate motion angle. Four algorithms for vibration amplitude discerning are compared, which are the quadratic Radon transform, cepstral analysis, autocorrelation analysis and direct analysis on frequency spectrum. It reveals that direct analysis on Log frequency spectrum is the most accurate for vibration amplitude. The research suggests that composition of cesptral method and direct analysis on log frequency spectrum could obtain the highly accurate parameters in high frequency vibration model.

Liang, Jiong; Xu, Ting fa; Shi, Ming zhu; Feng, Liang; Ni, Guo qiang

2013-12-01

122

A dynamic range extension scheme applied to a TDI CMOS image sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamic range extension scheme applied to a time delay integration (TDI) CMOS image sensor (CIS) is presented. Two types of pixels with higher and lower conversion gain are adopted in the pixel array, which are suitable for capturing images in low and high illumination respectively. By fusing the two kinds of pixels' output signals in the process of TDI accumulation, a high dynamic range image can be achieved. Compared with the traditional multiple integration technique, no photoelectrons generated during the exposure time are discarded by the reset operation, and thus a higher level of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be retained. A prototype chip with an 8 × 8 pixel array is implemented in a 0.18 ?m CIS process, and the pixel size is 15 × 15 ?m2. Test results show that a 76 dB dynamic range can be achieved in 8-stage TDI mode, when the SNR boost can reach 7.26 dB at 90.8 lux.

Chao, Xu; Suying, Yao; Jiangtao, Xu; Zhiyuan, Gao; Liqiang, Han

2014-02-01

123

Large time-delay-and-integration /TDI/ arrays and focal plane structures with intrinsic silicon response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and capabilities of two large time delay and integration (TDI) image sensor arrays based on buried-channel, silicon gate CCD technology are discussed. The first focal plane, designed for the LOREORS (Long-Range Electro-Optical Reconnaissance System) aerial camera consists of six 1024 x 64 element TDI image sensor chips mounted on a beam-sharing prism. The second focal plane, designed for the LOPATCH (Low Light Level Panoramic TDI Charge-Coupled Image Sensor) camera consists of a single 1024 x 128 element image sensor chip with performance capabilities extending down to starlight scene illumination levels. Both sensors have the same unit cell design, a 20-micron square stage of a four-phase CCD register which provides a saturation charge level of 10 to the 6th electrons/pixel, leading to a shot-noise-limited SNR approaching 60 dB. The silicon gate sensing area is designed for maximum transmittance over the spectral band 500 to 900 nm, where an average quantum efficiency of 50% has been obtained.

Dyck, R. H.; Sadowski, H.

1981-01-01

124

Examining the Relationship Between Plasma Choline Status and Dietary Intake of Choline in Pregnant Women  

E-print Network

of significant relationships between choline intake and plasma choline, phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Results: Women in this study consumed a median of 44.5 mg of choline from eggs daily. No significant correlation was found between choline intake from...

Mortimer, Deanna Vaughn

2012-05-31

125

Implementation of pixel level digital TDI for scanning type LWIR FPAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implementation of a CMOS digital readout integrated circuit (DROIC) based on pixel level digital time delay integration (TDI) for scanning type LWIR focal plane arrays (FPAs) is presented. TDI is implemented on 8 pixels with over sampling rate of 3. Analog signal integrated on integration capacitor is converted to digital domain in pixel, and digital data is transferred to TDI summation counters, where contributions of 8 pixels are added. Output data is 16 bit, where 8 bits are allocated for most significant bits and 8 bits for least significant bits. Control block of the ROIC, which is responsible of generating timing diagram for switches controlling the pixels and summation counters, is realized with VerilogHDL. Summation counters and parallel-to-serial converter to convert 16 bit parallel output data to single bit output are also realized with Verilog HDL. Synthesized verilog netlists are placed&routed and combined with analog under-pixel part of the design. Quantization noise of analog-to-digital conversion is less than 500e-. Since analog signal is converted to digital domain in-pixel, inaccuracies due to analog signal routing over large chip area is eliminated. ROIC is fabricated with 0.18?m CMOS process and chip area is 10mm2. Post-layout simulation results of the implemented design are presented. ROIC is programmable through serial or parallel interface. Input referred noise of ROIC is less than 750 rms electron, while power consumption is less than 30mW. ROIC is designed to perform in cryogenic temperatures.

Ceylan, Omer; Kayahan, Huseyin; Yazici, Melik; Afridi, Sohaib; Shafique, Atia; Gurbuz, Yasar

2014-07-01

126

High Speed 3D Surface Profile Measurement System Using TDI Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Online 3D profile measurement is required for various production lines. Light section method is well-known and easy to apply for getting surface profile. But the light section method does not meet speed requirement for online measurement in steel industry. We developed high speed 3D surface profile measurement system based on light section method. By using Time Delay Integration (TDI) camera and modulated light source, profile information is coded as phase shift of fringe. Phase of fringe image is recovered by quadrature demodulation and phase unwrapping. We apply this method to measure steel strip shape and successfully build online measurement system.

Konno, Yusuke; Hashiguchi, Shohei; Naito, Syuji

127

Design of 90×8 ROIC with pixel level digital TDI implementation for scanning type LWIR FPAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design of a 90×8 CMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) based on pixel level digital time delay integration (TDI) for scanning type LWIR focal plane arrays (FPAs) is presented. TDI is implemented on 8 pixels which improves the SNR of the system with a factor of ?8. Oversampling rate of 3 improves the spatial resolution of the system. TDI operation is realized with a novel under-pixel analog-to-digital converter, which improves the noise performance of ROIC with a lower quantization noise. Since analog signal is converted to digital domain in-pixel, non-uniformities and inaccuracies due to analog signal routing over large chip area is eliminated. Contributions of each pixel for proper TDI operation are added in summation counters, no op-amps are used for summation, hence power consumption of ROIC is lower than its analog counterparts. Due to lack of multiple capacitors or summation amplifiers, ROIC occupies smaller chip area compared to its analog counterparts. ROIC is also superior to its digital counterparts due to novel digital TDI implementation in terms of power consumption, noise and chip area. ROIC supports bi-directional scan, multiple gain settings, bypass operation, automatic gain adjustment, pixel select/deselect, and is programmable through serial or parallel interface. Input referred noise of ROIC is less than 750 rms electrons, while power consumption is less than 20mW. ROIC is designed to perform both in room and cryogenic temperatures.

Ceylan, Omer; Kayahan, Huseyin; Yazici, Melik; Gurbuz, Yasar

2013-06-01

128

Comparison of the dietary cobalt intake in three different Australian diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in the dietary intake of cobalt were assessed for vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian Australians using food intake logs, and daily or average trend recall over three months. A significant decrease in cobalt intake was observed for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian population compared with the intake in vegans and omnivores. There is no RDI for cobalt, however, the cobalt intake of Australians

Bevan Hokin; Michelle Adams; John Ashton; Honway Louie

129

Design of ROIC based on switched capacitor TDI for MCT LWIR focal plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design and measurement of a silicon readout integrated circuit (ROIC) based on switched capacitor time delay integration (TDI) technique for LWIR HgCdTe Focal Plane is presented. ROIC incorporates time delay integration (TDI) functionality for scanning type of detector by using switched capacitor technique with a supersampling rate of three, increasing SNR and the spatial resolution. ROIC, in terms of functionality, is capable of bidirectional scan, programmable integration time, 5 gain settings at the input and auto gain adjustment with pixel deselection capability. Programming can be done parallel or serially with test mode functionality. ROIC can handle up to 3.75V dynamic range with the load being 25pF capacitive, output settling time is less than 80 nsec. This low power ROIC consumes less than 100mW. Moreover, input referred noise is less than 750 rms electrons. Simulations and measurements are done in both room temperature and cryogenic (77 °K) temperatures. In order to measure and simulate chip without a detector, process and temperature invariant current source block that imitate detector currents are designed as well. The manufacturing technology is 0.35?m, double poly-Si, four-metal (3 metals and 1 top metal) 5V CMOS process.

Kayahan, Huseyin; Yazici, Melik; Ceylan, Omer; Baran, Muhammet B.; Gurbuz, Yasar

2011-06-01

130

Inadequate dietary magnesium intake increases atherosclerotic plaque development in rabbits  

E-print Network

-HDL, triglycerides (TG), C-reactive protein, serum Mg, and erythrocyte Mg. Aortas from -Mg had significantly more daily allowance; TG, triglycerides. 1. Introduction The mean dietary intake of magnesium (Mg

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

131

Dietary iron intake of pregnant Nigerian women with anemia.  

PubMed

The daily dietary iron intake of nine pregnant Nigerian women with confirmed iron deficiency anemia was determined. The daily dietary iron intake from hospital meals served to ten other pregnant women was also assessed to serve as a control. The mean daily iron intake of the group of anemic patients on home diet was 14.6 mg (range of individual means = 8.37-25.28 mg), whereas the group of patients served hospital meals had a mean daily dietary iron intake of 36.92 mg (range of individual means = 25.09-46.47 mg). It is, therefore, clear that the etiology of iron deficiency in the patients studied was mainly dietary. Thus, our pregnant patients, many of whom are on diets similar to those of the group studied, should receive iron supplements during pregnancy. PMID:42589

Ogunbode, O; Akinyele, I O; Hussain, M A

1979-01-01

132

Internal combustion engine intake passage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an air intake device for an internal combustion engine comprising: a cylinder head having an intake port; an intake manifold having an intake passage; and a spacer formed with an intake bore and interposed between the cylinder head and the intake manifold in such a manner that the intake port and the intake passage are communicated with

Y. Yamamoto; H. Yuzawa; T. N. Nishihara

1988-01-01

133

Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy of MDI and TDI Polyurethane Stephen G. Urquhart,*, Archie P. Smith, Harald W. Ade, Adam P. Hitchcock,  

E-print Network

Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy of MDI and TDI Polyurethane Polymers Stephen) to differences in key chemical components of polyurethane polymers is presented. Carbon 1s NEXAFS spectra of polyurethane polymers made from 4,4-methylene di-p-phenylene isocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI

134

Arguments at Mealtime and Child Energy Intake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine how arguments at mealtimes relate to children's daily energy intake. Design: A cross-sectional study using data obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 (QLSCD), a representative sample of children born in 1998, in the province of Quebec, Canada. Setting: Face-to-face interviews,…

Burnier, Daniel; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

2011-01-01

135

Nicotine intake by snuff users.  

PubMed Central

Blood nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured in 27 volunteers before and after taking snuff. Within 10 minutes after snuffing blood nicotine concentrations were comparable to those obtained after the 10 minutes or so that it takes to smoke a cigarette. Nicotine intake from snuffing was related to the experience of the snuffer. In daily and occasional snuffers increases in plasma nicotine concentrations averaged 77.7 and 12.3 nmol/l (12.6 and 2.0 ng/ml) respectively, while the novices showed no appreciable increase. The increase shown by thea daily snuffers was comparable to the average increase of 62.3 nmol/l (10.1 ng/ml) obtained from a single cigarette by a group of heavy smokers. The peak nicotine concentrations in the daily snuffers were also similar to the peak values in 136 heavy smokers--222.6 and 226-3 nmol/l (36.1 and 36.7 ng/ml), respectively. Unusual multiple-dose snuffing produced massive increases in plasma nicotine to concentrations that have never been recorded in smokers. The similarity of the concentrations produced by regular daily snuffing and regular daily smoking suggests that the plasma nicotine concentration has some controlling influence over the self-regulation of these two quite different forms of tobacco use. The rapid absorption of nicotine from snuff confirms its potential as an acceptable and relatively harmless substitute for smoking. PMID:6794710

Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Devitt, G; Feyerabend, C

1981-01-01

136

A fast auto-focusing technique for the long focal lens TDI CCD camera in remote sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The key issue in automatic focus adjustment for long focal lens TDI CCD camera in remote sensing applications is to achieve the optimum focus position as fast as possible. Existing auto-focusing techniques consume too much time as the mechanical focusing parts of the camera move in steps during the searching procedure. In this paper, we demonstrate a fast auto-focusing technique, which employs the internal optical elements and the TDI CCD itself to directly sense the deviations in back focal distance of the lens and restore the imaging system to a best-available focus. It is particularly advantageous for determination of the focus, due to that the relative motion between the TDI CCD and the focusing element can proceed without interruption. Moreover, the theoretical formulas describing the effect of imaging motion on the focusing precision and the effective focusing range are also developed. Finally, an experimental setup is constructed to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique. The results of the experiment show a ±5 ?m precision of auto-focusing in a range of ±500 ?mdefocus, and the searching procedure could be accomplished within 0.125 s, which leads to remarkable improvement on the real-time imaging capability for high resolution TDI CCD camera in remote sensing applications.

Wang, Dejiang; Ding, Xu; Zhang, Tao; Kuang, Haipeng

2013-02-01

137

REQUEST AND AUTH FOR TDY TRAVEL OF INT'L MILITARY STUDENT (Reference: DSCA SAMM) (Read Privacy Act Statement on  

E-print Network

or preclude timely authorization of travel request. 16. REMARKS (Continued) (Use this space for specialREQUEST AND AUTH FOR TDY TRAVEL OF INT'L MILITARY STUDENT (Reference: DSCA SAMM) (Read Privacy Act Statement on back before completing form.) 1. DATE OF REQUEST (YYYYMMDD) REQUEST FOR OFFICIAL TRAVEL 2. NAME

138

Time delay and integration array (TDI) using charge transfer device technology. Phase 2, volume 1: Technical  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 20x9 TDI array was developed to meet the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper Requirements. This array is based upon a self-aligned, transparent gate, buried channel process. The process features: (1) buried channel, four phase, overlapping gate CCD's for high transfer efficiency without fat zero; (2) self-aligned transistors to minimize clock feedthrough and parasitic capacitance; and (3) transparent tin oxide electrode for high quantum efficiency with front surface irradiation. The requirements placed on the array and the performance achieved are summarized. This data is the result of flat field measurements only, no imaging or dynamic target measurements were made during this program. Measurements were performed with two different test stands. The bench test equipment fabricated for this program operated at the 8 micro sec line time and employed simple sampling of the gated MOSFET output video signal. The second stand employed Correlated Doubled Sampling (CDS) and operated at 79.2 micro sec line time.

1977-01-01

139

A large area TDI image sensor for low light level imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1030 x 128 element time delay and integration (TDI) CCD image sensor has been developed for low-light-level (LLL) imaging applications. For LLL imaging, output is derived from a high-gain low-noise floating-gate amplifier (FGA). For larger input signal levels, a second, resettable floating-gate amplifier (RFGA) with lower gain and wider dynamic range provides output in parallel to the FGA. The device features four-phase buried-channel construction and a polysilicon gate design tailored to produce optimum broad-band responsivity. Input signal levels of 500 electrons have been successfully imaged and amplifier noise levels of approximately 20 electrons have been observed.

Farrier, M. G.; Dyck, R. H.

1980-08-01

140

Temporal and Spatial Comparison of Gridded TMY, TDY, and TGY Data Sets  

SciTech Connect

Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) data sets provide industry standard resource information for building designers and are commonly used by the solar industry to estimate photovoltaic and concentrating solar power system performance. Historically, TMY data sets were only available for certain station locations, but current TMY data sets are available on the same grid as the National Solar Radiation Database data and are referred to as the gridded TMY. In this report, a comparison of TMY, typical direct (normal irradiance) year (TDY), and typical global (horizontal irradiance) year (TGY) data sets were performed to better understand the impact of ancillary weather variables upon them. These analyses identified geographical areas of high and low temporal and spatial variability, thereby providing insight into the representativeness of a particular TMY data set for use in renewable energy as well as other applications.

Habte, A.; Lopez, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

2014-02-01

141

Nutrient intakes and impact of fortified breakfast cereals in schoolchildren.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To report micronutrient intakes in Northern Ireland schoolchildren, and to establish the contribution of fortified breakfast cereal to overall nutrient intakes and achievement of current dietary recommendations. DESIGN: Analysis of dietary intakes and physical characteristics of participants in a randomly selected 2% population sample of 1015 schoolchildren aged 12 and 15 years in Northern Ireland during the 1990/1 school year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dietary intakes, physical characteristics, and their association with consumption of fortified breakfast cereal. RESULTS: Mean micronutrient intakes were generally adequate with the exception of low intakes of folate (boys and girls) and iron (girls). Fortified breakfast cereals, consumed by a high proportion (94% boys; 83% girls) of the sample, were associated with higher daily intakes of most micronutrients and fibre and with a macronutrient profile consistent with current nutritional recommendations. Appreciable proportions of subjects who did not consume fortified breakfast cereals had daily intakes that fell below the lower reference nutrient intake for riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin B-12, and iron (girls). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the potential of fortification in contributing to micronutrient intakes of schoolchildren, particularly where requirements are high, or for those on marginal diets of low nutritional quality. PMID:9014598

McNulty, H; Eaton-Evans, J; Cran, G; Woulahan, G; Boreham, C; Savage, J M; Fletcher, R; Strain, J J

1996-01-01

142

Design and realization of 144 x 7 TDI ROIC with hybrid integrated test structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design and realization of a 144x7 silicon readout integrated circuit (ROIC) based on switched capacitor TDI for MCT LWIR scanning type focal plane arrays (FPAs) and its corresponding hybrid integrated test circuits are presented. TDI operation with 7 detectors improves the SNR of the system by a factor of ?7, while oversampling rate of 3 improves the spatial resolution of the system. ROIC supports bidirectional scan, 5 adjustable gain settings, bypass operation, automatic gain adjustment in case of mulfunctioning pixels and pixel select/deselect properties. Integration time of the system can be determined by the help of an external clock. Programming of ROIC can be done in parallel or serial mode according to the needs of the system. All properties except pixel select/deselect property can be performed in parallel mode, while pixel select/deselect property can be performed only in serial mode. ROIC can handle up to 3.75V dynamic range with a load of 25pF and output settling time of 80ns. Input referred noise of the ROIC is less than 750 rms electrons, while the power consumption is less than 100mW. To test ROIC in absence of detector array, a process and temperature compensated current reference array, which supplies uniform input current in range of 1-50nA to ROIC, is designed and measured both in room and cryogenic (77ºK) temperatures. Standard deviations of current reference arrays are measured 3.26% for 1nA and 0.99% for 50nA. ROIC and current reference array are fabricated seperately, and then flip-chip bonded for the test of the system. Flip-chip bonded system including ROIC and current reference test array is successfully measured both in room and cryogenic temperatures, and measurement results are presented. The manufacturing technology is 0.35?m, double poly-Si, four metal, 5V CMOS process.

Ceylan, Omer; Kayahan, Huseyin; Yazici, Melik; Baran, Muhammet Burak; Gurbuz, Yasar

2012-06-01

143

Sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children - United States, 2009-2010  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A national health objective is to reduce average U.S. sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily to help prevent high blood pressure, a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Identifying common contributors to sodium intake among children can help reduction efforts. Average sodium intake, sodium consumed p...

144

Dietary Energy Density Is Associated with Increased Intake in Free-Living Humans1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary energy density markedly influences the daily dietary intake of humans. The present study examined the relation of energy density to dietary intake and body size in 371 male and 581 female adults. The subjects were free-living and provided a detailed record of their everyday food and drink intake in 7-d food diaries. The reported diets were analyzed for the

John M. de Castro

145

Assessment of Intakes of Artificial Sweeteners in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the mean and maximum intake levels of the artificial sweeteners acesul- fame potassium, aspartame, cyclamate and sucralose in chil- dren with type 1 diabetes mellitus and to compare each intake level to respective acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels. Quantitative and qualitative estimates of foods consumed by 56 children (age: 2 years to

Lisa Devitt; Denis Daneman; Jennifer Buccino

2004-01-01

146

Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium  

PubMed Central

Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake???75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P?=?0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health consequences, interventions involving parents and school environment to promote water consumption seem pertinent. PMID:24964803

2014-01-01

147

The effect of supplement use on vitamin C intake.  

PubMed

According to results from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition, Canadians get an average of 132 milligrams of vitamin C a day from food. About one adult in five has inadequate dietary intake of vitamin C. A third of Canadians take vitamin C supplements, which add 100 milligrams to total average daily intake. Supplement use lowers the overall percentage of adults with inadequate intake by 5 percentage points to 17%. Smokers, people who eat fruit and vegetables infrequently, and members of households with low income and low educational attainment tend to have relatively low vitamin C intake. PMID:20426227

Garriguet, Didier

2010-03-01

148

Natural radionuclides in Syrian diet and their daily intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than one hundred different food stuffs (meat, vegetables cereals, seafood,..) have been collected during 1998, 1999 and\\u000a 2000 and analyzed for radioactivity as part of the National Food Monitoring Program in Syria. Results have shown that most\\u000a of the observed concentrations were within the range of the worldwide values with the exception of relatively high levels\\u000a of 210Po being

M. S. Al-Masri; H. Mukallati; A. Al-Hamwi; H. Khalili; M. Hassan; H. Assaf; Y. Amin; A. Nashawati

2004-01-01

149

Sucrose intake in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   The present investigation reevaluated the German National Food Consumption Survey in order to obtain data on sucrose intake\\u000a and food sources of sucrose intake in Germany. Moreover, it focused on the effect of sucrose intake on nutrient intake.\\u000a \\u000a By means of the food composition data base Bundeslebensmittelschlüssel, version II.2, 7-days dietary records of a representative\\u000a sample of 15838 persons

J. Linseisen; K. Gedrich; G. Karg; G. Wolfram

1998-01-01

150

Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients  

PubMed Central

Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

2009-01-01

151

41 CFR 301-70.507 - May we authorize per diem if an employee discontinues a TDY assignment because of a personal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...assignment because of a personal emergency situation? 301-70.507 Section 301-70.507 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 70-INTERNAL POLICY AND PROCEDURE REQUIREMENTS...

2010-07-01

152

Track-density imaging (TDI): super-resolution white matter imaging using whole-brain track-density mapping.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging advances have given rise to major progress in neurosciences and neurology, as ever more subtle and specific imaging methods reveal new aspects of the brain. One major limitation of current methods is the spatial scale of the information available. We present an approach to gain spatial resolution using post-processing methods based on diffusion MRI fiber-tracking, to reveal structures beyond the resolution of the acquired imaging voxel; we term such a method as super-resolution track-density imaging (TDI). A major unmet challenge in imaging is the identification of abnormalities in white matter as a cause of illness; super-resolution TDI is shown to produce high-quality white matter images, with high spatial resolution and outstanding anatomical contrast. A unique property of these maps is demonstrated: their spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio can be tailored depending on the chosen image resolution and total number of fiber-tracks generated. Super-resolution TDI should greatly enhance the study of white matter in disorders of the brain and mind. PMID:20643215

Calamante, Fernando; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Jackson, Graeme D; Connelly, Alan

2010-12-01

153

Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements. PMID:24424459

Gallagher, Caroline M.; Black, Lucinda J.; Oddy, Wendy H.

2014-01-01

154

Nutrient intake and food consumption among pregnant women from an agricultural region of Morocco.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess dietary intake and nutrient adequacy in pregnant women selected from an agricultural region of Morocco. On a sample of 172 pregnant women from rural and urban area, data on socio-demographic characteristics and dietary habits by a quantified food frequency were collected using questionnaires. Mean daily intakes of energy and nutrients were estimated and compared to reference nutrient intakes (RNI). The results show that the mean daily intakes of energy (3110.9 kcal in urban; 2707.5 kcal in rural) and some nutrients were adequate. However, iron, folate, zinc and calcium intakes were inadequate for the majority of women and more markedly in rural area. Education level appeared to affect nutrient intakes while no differences were registered across pregnancy stages or according to household size. The study suggests that an education program should be conducted to improve dietary intakes in order to prevent risks for pregnancy outcome in this population. PMID:16849111

Belgnaoui, Salwa; Belahsen, Rekia

2006-01-01

155

Protein supplements: do they alter dietary intakes?  

PubMed

Effects of protein versus mixed macronutrient supplementation on total energy intake (TEI) and protein intake during an ad libitum diet were examined. Trained males undertook two, 2-week dietary interventions which were randomized, double blinded, and separated by 2 weeks. These were high-protein supplementation (HP: 1034.5 kJ energy, 29.6 g protein, 8.7 g fat and 12.3 g CHO) and standard meal supplementation (SM: 1039 kJ energy, 9.9 g protein, 9.5 g fat, and 29.4 g CHO) consumed daily following a week of baseline measures. Eighteen participants finished both interventions and one only completed HP. TEI (mean ± SD) was not different between baseline (11148 ± 3347 kJ) and HP (10705 ± 3143 kJ) nor between baseline and SM (12381 ± 3877 kJ), however, TEI was greater with SM than HP (923 ± 4015 kJ p = .043). Protein intake (%TEI) was greater with HP (22.4 ± 6.2%) than baseline (19.4 ± 5.4%; p = .008) but not SM (20.0 ± 5.0%). No differences in absolute daily protein intake were found. Absolute CHO intake was greater with SM than HP (52.0 ± 89.5 g, p = .006). No differences in fat intake were found. Body mass did not change between baseline (82.7 ± 11.2 kg) and either HP (83.1 ± 11.7 kg) or SM (82.9 ± 11.0 kg). Protein supplementation increases the relative proportion of protein in the diet, but doesn't increase the absolute amount of total protein or energy consumed. Thus some compensation by a reduction in other foods occurs. This is in contrast to a mixed nutrient supplement, which does not alter the proportion of protein consumed but does increase TEI. PMID:24458212

Mallard, Alistair R; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Rehrer, Nancy J

2014-06-01

156

Absorption, excretion, and retention of selenium from a high selenium yeast in men with a high intake of selenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of selenium (Se) from yeast given to humans with a habitual long-term daily intake at a supra-nutritional level. Methods: Twelve healthy males with a daily supplemental intake of 300 mg Se as selenised yeast over 10 weeks were supplemented with a single dose of 327

Susanne Bügel; Erik H. Larsen; Jens J. Sloth; Knut Flytlie; Kim Overvad; Lars C. Steenberg; Sven Moesgaard

2008-01-01

157

Dietary intake estimate for perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluorocompounds (PFCs) in UK retail foods following determination using standard addition LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

The analysis of 252 food samples (UK-produced and imported) purchased from a variety of retail outlets in the UK was undertaken for the presence of perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and nine other perfluorocompounds (PFCs). A limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1 microg/kg was achieved for all target analytes, in all samples. Standard addition was used for quantification of PFC levels. All 11 of the targeted PFCs were detected in 75 individual food items. In 70% of the samples, including all meat other than offal, none of the analytes were present above the LOD. The highest levels found were 59 microg/kg perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) and 63 microg/kg total PFCs (SigmaPFCs) in an eel sample, and 40 microg/kg PFOS (62 microg/kg SigmaPFCs) in a whitebait sample. The highest level in an offal sample was 10 microg/kg, in a wild roe deer liver. There were six samples with SigmaPFCs >15 microg/kg (fish, shellfish, crustaceans), a further seven samples with SigmaPFCs ranging 11-15 microg/kg (including a liver), nine with SigmaPFCs ranging 6-10 microg/kg (fish and livers), 31 with SigmaPFCs in the range 2-5 microg/kg (including kidneys, popcorn and processed peas) and a further 22 with SigmaPFCs close to the LOD of 1 microg/kg (including eggs and potatoes). These concentrations indicate that UK consumers are being exposed to a low level of PFC contamination from food. The estimated upper bound dietary intake of 10 ng/kg bodyweight (bw)/day of PFOS for average adult consumers is well below the 0.15 microg (150 ng)/kg bw tolerable daily intake (TDI) set by the European Food Safety Authority. The lower bound adult dietary intake estimate of 1 ng/kg bw/day is similar to estimates undertaken and reported in countries such as Canada, Germany and Spain. PMID:20198525

Clarke, D B; Bailey, V A; Routledge, A; Lloyd, A S; Hird, S; Mortimer, D N; Gem, M

2010-04-01

158

Columbia Journalism Review Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The journalism school at Columbia University is held in high-regard by many for their commitment to training journalists that will hold a high standard of quality investigative reporting that will inspire future generations of like-minded individuals. As with many journalism schools, they have made great headway into offering both critique and comment on the changing world of journalism, and the Columbia Journalism Review Daily is a fine example of such efforts. The Daily was born in 2004 with a mandate to monitor coverage of the presidential election campaign, and has continued over the past several years by offering daily (and, at times, hourly) critiques of political journalism and analyses of the broader forces affecting press performance. Visitors to the homepage can read their commentaries and analyses, and also search the entire contents of the Daily via a handy search feature. Additionally, visitors can make their way through the Daily's archives, if they so wish.

159

Chronic daily headaches  

PubMed Central

Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches. PMID:23024563

Ahmed, Fayyaz; Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Khalil, Modar

2012-01-01

160

Lead dietary intake in a Spanish population (Canary Islands).  

PubMed

For most people diet is the main route of exposure to trace metals, so information about dietary intake is also important to assess risks to human health for these elements. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of Pb in the foods and drinks of highest consumption in the authors' our community to estimate daily intakes of Pb for each of the seven Canary Islands. Four hundred and twenty samples were analyzed using GFAAS. The total Pb intake of the Canarian population is 72.8 microg/day, 29.12% (for a person of 70 kg body weight) of the provisional tolerable weekly intake limit of 25 microg/kg fixed by the FAO/WHO. The island that presents the highest lead intake is La Gomera, followed by Lanzarote, Tenerife, and Gran Canaria islands. These four islands present a lead dietary intake over the mean Pb intake for the whole archipelago. The islands with lower Pb intakes are La Palma and Fuerteventura, with intakes under 70 microg/day. These results have also been compared with the values found for other national and international communities. PMID:16076147

Rubio, Carmen; González-Iglesias, Tomás; Revert, Consuelo; Reguera, Juan I; Gutiérrez, Angel J; Hardisson, Arturo

2005-08-10

161

Usual Intake of Tomatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Tomatoes Table A10. Tomatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1 (0.01) 0.1

162

Usual Intake of Energy  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Energy Table A44. Energy: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1426.1 (17.93) 963.7 (18.47) 1052.5

163

Usual Intake of Cheese  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Cheese Table A36. Cheese: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.4 (0.03) 0.1 (0.02) 0.1

164

Engine air intake valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses, in combination with an internal combustion engine, a system for regulating engine speed by regulating the air flow across a throttle valve in an air intake passage. It comprises an engine air intake valve and means of sensing an operating variable representative of engine speed and sending an electrical signal representative of the engine speed to the

1990-01-01

165

Usual Intake of Poultry  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Poultry Table A26. Poultry: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.9 (0.03) 0.3 (0.05) 0.4

166

Contribution of daily and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and daily rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and daily rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal daily rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.

Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz

2014-07-01

167

Efficacy and safety of twice-daily aclidinium bromide in COPD patients: the ATTAIN study.  

PubMed

The efficacy and safety of two doses of aclidinium bromide were evaluated in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this 24-week, double-blind trial, patients were randomised to twice-daily aclidinium (200 ?g or 400 ?g) or placebo. The primary efficacy end-point was change in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) at week 24. Other end-points included peak FEV(1), health status (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire; SGRQ) and dyspnoea (Transitional Dyspnoea Index; TDI). Overall, 828 patients were randomised. At week 24, significant improvements from baseline were observed with aclidinium 200 ?g and 400 ?g versus placebo for trough FEV(1) (99 and 128 mL; both p<0.0001) and peak FEV(1) (185 and 209 mL; both p<0.0001). Peak FEV(1) improvements on day 1 were comparable with week 24. Aclidinium 200 ?g and 400 ?g produced significant improvements over placebo in baseline-adjusted mean SGRQ total score (-3.8 and -4.6 units; p<0.001 and p<0.0001) and TDI focal score (0.6 and 1.0 units; p<0.05 and p<0.001) at week 24. With both aclidinium doses, the incidence of anticholinergic adverse events was low, and similar to placebo. Twice-daily aclidinium significantly improved bronchodilation, health status and dyspnoea, and was well tolerated in patients with COPD. PMID:22441743

Jones, Paul W; Singh, Dave; Bateman, Eric D; Agusti, Alvar; Lamarca, Rosa; de Miquel, Gonzalo; Segarra, Rosa; Caracta, Cynthia; Garcia Gil, Esther

2012-10-01

168

Daily Spiritual Experiences and Adolescent Treatment Response  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to explore changes in belief orientation during treatment and the impact of increased daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on adolescent treatment response. One-hundred ninety-five adolescents court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment program were assessed at intake and discharge. Forty percent of youth who entered treatment as agnostic or atheist identified themselves as spiritual or religious at discharge. Increased DSE was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence, increased prosocial behaviors, and reduced narcissistic behaviors. Results indicate a shift in DSE that improves youth self-care and care for others that may inform intervention approaches for adolescents with addiction.

LEE, MATTHEW T.; VETA, PAIGE S.; JOHNSON, BYRON R.; PAGANO, MARIA E.

2014-01-01

169

Access to food outlets and children's nutritional intake in urban China: a difference-in-difference analysis  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years supermarkets and fast food restaurants have been replacing those “wet markets” of independent vendors as the major food sources in urban China. Yet how these food outlets relate to children’s nutritional intake remains largely unexplored. Method Using a longitudinal survey of households and communities in China, this study examines the effect of the urban built food environment (density of wet markets, density of supermarkets, and density of fast food restaurants) on children’s nutritional intake (daily caloric intake, daily carbohydrate intake, daily protein intake, and daily fat intake). Children aged 6–18 (n?=?185) living in cities were followed from 2004 to 2006, and difference-in-difference models are used to address the potential issue of omitted variable bias. Results Results suggest that the density of wet markets, rather than that of supermarkets, positively predicts children’s four dimensions of nutritional intake. In the caloric intake model and the fat intake model, the positive effect of neighborhood wet market density on children’s nutritional intake is stronger with children from households of lower income. Conclusion With their cheaper prices and/or fresher food supply, wet markets are likely to contribute a substantial amount of nutritional intake for children living nearby, especially those in households with lower socioeconomic status. For health officials and urban planners, this study signals a sign of warning as wet markets are disappearing from urban China’s food environment. PMID:22748026

2012-01-01

170

Exposure to phthalates in 5-6 years old primary school starters in Germany--a human biomonitoring study and a cumulative risk assessment.  

PubMed

We determined the internal exposure of 111 German primary school starters by analyzing urinary metabolites of six phthalates: butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-iso-decylphthalate (DiDP). From the urinary metabolite levels, we calculated daily intakes and related these values to Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values. By introducing the concept of a relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum)) value, we tried to account for the cumulative exposure to several of the above-mentioned phthalates. The TDI(cum) was derived as follows: the daily intake (DI) calculated from the metabolite level was divided by the TDI for each phthalate; this ratio was multiplied by 100% indicating the TDI percentage for which the DI accounted. Finally the % TDIs of the different phthalates were totalled to get the TDI(cum). A TDI(cum) above 100% is a potential cause for concern. We confirmed the ubiquitous exposure of the children to all phthalates investigated. Exposures were within range of levels previously reported for GerES, albeit slightly lower. Regarding daily intakes, two children exceeded the TDI for DnBP, whereas one child closely approached the TDI for DEHP. 24% of the children exceeded the TDI(cum) for the three most critical phthalates: DEHP, DnBP and DiBP. Furthermore, 54% of the children had total exposures that used up more than 50% the TDI(cum). Therefore, the overall exposure to a number of phthalates, and the knowledge that these phthalates (and other anti-androgens) act in a dose-additive manner, urgently warrants a cumulative risk assessment approach. PMID:21371937

Koch, Holger M; Wittassek, Matthias; Brüning, Thomas; Angerer, Jürgen; Heudorf, Ursel

2011-06-01

171

Daily Life with Glaucoma  

MedlinePLUS

Daily Life with Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: ... and comforting. Don't let glaucoma limit your life Don’t let glaucoma limit your life. You ...

172

Managing Daily Life  

MedlinePLUS

Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts to have more problems moving around, consider making changes in ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

173

Tips for Daily Life  

MedlinePLUS

... chapter Join our online community Tips for Daily Life Coping skills will help you handle day-to- ... challenges, maximize your independence and live a meaningful life with your diagnosis. Accepting changes Creating a coping ...

174

Daily Life: At Home  

MedlinePLUS

... living with sma > daily life > at home At Home Many families affected by SMA choose to make ... many cases, modifications address both safety and accessibility. Home Modification Considerations Before making a decision on home ...

175

Daily Food Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will find daily food recommendations based upon their age, weight, height, and activity level. Standard 2 Objective1: a,b,c It is helpful to have a guide that can give us directions on the type and quantity of foods we should eat daily. Lets first view the basics of our food groups. Click the Food Group Basics link below and see if you can answer the questions provided. Food Group Basics What is the ...

Mr. Peterson

2011-09-18

176

Low-dietary fiber intake as a risk factor for recurrent abdominal pain in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To evaluate dietary fiber intake in children with recurrent abdominal pain.Design:Cross-sectional study with control group.Setting:Outpatients of the Pediatric Gastroenterology public health clinic of the Darcy Vargas Children's Hospital, Brazil.Subjects:Forty-one patients with recurrent abdominal pain were evaluated and 41 children, as a control group.Interventions:Macronutrients and fiber intake evaluation by the Daily Food Intake method. Two tables of fiber composition in foods

A Z Paulo; O M S Amancio; M B de Morais; K M M D Tabacow

2006-01-01

177

FAT EMULSION COMPOSITION ALTERS INTAKE AND THE EFFECTS OF BACLOFEN  

PubMed Central

Thickened oil-in-water emulsions are useful model foods in rat studies due to their high acceptance and similarity to foods consumed by humans. Previous work from this laboratory used oil-in-water emulsions thickened with a biopolymer blend containing starch. Intake and effects of baclofen, a GABA-B agonist that decreases fat intake and drug self-administration, were reported, but the contribution of starch was not assessed. In the present study, intake and effects of baclofen were assessed in rats using emulsions prepared with two fat types (32% vegetable shortening, 32% corn oil) and thickened with three biopolymer blends. One biopolymer blend contained starch and the other two did not. Daily 1-h intake of the vegetable shortening emulsion containing starch was significantly greater than the other emulsions. When starch was added to the emulsions originally containing no starch, intake significantly increased. Baclofen generally reduced intake of all emulsions regardless of starch content and stimulated intake of chow. However, effects were more often significant for vegetable shortening emulsions. This report: 1) demonstrates that products used to prepare thickened oil-in-water emulsions have significant effects on rat ingestive behavior, and 2) confirms the ability of baclofen to reduce consumption of fatty foods, while simultaneously stimulating intake of chow. PMID:21855586

Wang, Y; Wilt, DC; Wojnicki, FHE; Babbs, RK; Coupland, JN; Corwin, RLC

2011-01-01

178

Beverage caffeine intakes in the U.S.  

PubMed

Caffeine is one of the most researched food components, with the vast majority of dietary contributions coming from beverage consumption; however, there is little population-level data on caffeine intakes in the U.S. This study estimated the caffeine intakes of the U.S. population using a comprehensive beverage survey, the Kantar Worldpanel Beverage Consumption Panel. A nationally representative sample of 37,602 consumers (aged ? 2 years) of caffeinated beverages completed 7-day diaries which facilitated the development of a detailed database of caffeine values to assess intakes. Results showed that 85% of the U.S. population consumes at least one caffeinated beverage per day. The mean (±SE) daily caffeine intake from all beverages was 165±1 mg for all ages combined. Caffeine intake was highest in consumers aged 50-64 years (226±2 mg/day). The 90th percentile intake was 380 mg/day for all ages combined. Coffee was the primary contributor to caffeine intakes in all age groups. Carbonated soft drinks and tea provided a greater percentage of caffeine in the younger (<18 years) age groups. The percentage of energy drink consumers across all age groups was low (?10%). These data provide a current perspective on caffeinated beverage consumption patterns and caffeine intakes in the U.S. population. PMID:24189158

Mitchell, Diane C; Knight, Carol A; Hockenberry, Jon; Teplansky, Robyn; Hartman, Terryl J

2014-01-01

179

Influence of Fluctuating Feed Intake on Feedlot Cattle Growth-Performance and Digestive Function  

E-print Network

Influence of Fluctuating Feed Intake on Feedlot Cattle Growth-Performance and Digestive Function R. A. Zinn Department of Animal Science, Imperial Valley Agricultural Center, University of California the influence of a 20% fluctuation in daily feed intake on performance and digestive function in Holstein steers

Delany, Mary E.

180

Physical activity, muscle strength, and calcium intake in fracture of the proximal femur in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular exercise and high calcium intake possibly help to preserve bone mass. Little is known, however, about their role in preventing hip fracture. The physical activity and calcium intake of 300 elderly men and women with hip fractures were compared with those of 600 controls matched for age and sex. In both sexes increased daily activity, including standing, walking, climbing

C. Cooper; D. J. Barker; C. Wickham

1988-01-01

181

Estimating Salivary Flow and Ruminal Water Balance of Intake, Diet, Feeding Pattern, and Slaframine1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments with ruminally fistulated cattle fed 12 times daily were conducted to study the role of saliva secretion in ruminal water balance when intake, diet, and feeding pattern were altered. Water balance data were deter- mined from continuously infused Co- EDTA and pulse-dosed Cr-EDTA with saliva flow estimated by difference between water intake and ruminal out- flow. Any net

K. Jacques; D. L. Harmon; W. J. Croom Jr.; W. M. Hagler Jr.

1989-01-01

182

Trace element intake and status of Italian subjects living in the Gubbio area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily intakes of certain trace elements (Pb, Cd, Ni, Hg, and Cr) were assessed using dietary history and weighed record methods and concurrent chemical analysis (CA) of duplicate portions, along with blood levels, in a group (21 M, 23 F) of inhabitants of the Gubbio area (Belvedere, Biscina, Scritto). The evaluation of only intake of trace elements was accomplished in

A. Alberti-Fidanza; G Burini; G Perriello; F Fidanza

2003-01-01

183

Australian Food Sources and Intakes of Omega–6 and Omega–3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Both ?–6 and ?–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are recognised as essential nutrients in the human diet, yet we have little information on the extent to which different food sources contribute to their intake. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the daily intakes and food sources of ?–6 and ?–3 PUFAs in our local community. Methods:

Tennille E. Ollis; Barbara J. Meyer; Peter R. C. Howe

1999-01-01

184

Use of nutritional supplements by elite adult Portuguese athletes is not associated with nutritional intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to characterise the nutritional intake according the use of nutritional supplements (NS) by elite adult Portuguese athletes. Two hundred and two adult (23±4 years) athletes (78% males), representatives of Portugal in 13 sports, voluntarily filled a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire about the use of NS. The total nutritional daily intake did not consider the nutrients

M Sousa; M J Fernandes; P Moreira; V H Teixeira

2010-01-01

185

Hoover Dam Intake Towers  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

186

Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle  

SciTech Connect

Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

Clarke, D.L.

1985-05-01

187

Usual Intake of Eggs  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Eggs Table A28. Eggs: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.4 (0.03) 0.1 (0.02) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2

188

Usual Intake of Milk  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Milk Table A34. Milk: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1.9 (0.05) 0.7 (0.07) 0.9 (0.05) 1.3

189

Usual Intake of Oils  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Oils Table A37. Oils: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 grams Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 11.3 (0.36) 5.2 (0.40) 6.2 (0.38) 8.2

190

Usual Intake of Meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Meat Table A24. Meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.5 (0.04) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2 (0.03) 0.3

191

Evidence That Intermittent, Excessive Sugar Intake Causes Endogenous Opioid Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal was to determine whether withdrawal from sugar can cause signs of opioid dependence. Because palatable food stimulates neural systems that are implicated in drug addiction, it was hypothesized that intermittent, excessive sugar intake might create dependency, as indicated by withdrawal signs.Research Methods and Procedures: Male rats were food-deprived for 12 hours daily, including 4 hours in the

Carlo Colantuoni; Pedro Rada; Joseph McCarthy; Caroline Patten; Nicole M. Avena; Andrew Chadeayne; Bartley G. Hoebel

2002-01-01

192

Misclassification of Exposure: Coffee as a Surrogate for Caffeine Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to assess the effect of exposure misclassification when coffee is used as a surrogate measure of caffeine exposure. Subjects were randomly selected from the telephone directories of four regional municipalities in southern Ontario, Canada. Data on daily caffeine intake from foods, beverages, and medications were collected from June to November 1995 through self-administered, mailed questionnaires from

Janet Brown; Nancy Kreiger; Gerarda A. Darlington; Margaret Sloan

193

Hoover Daily Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hoover Institution at Stanford University is known for its many research projects, conferences, working papers, and distinguished fellows. Over the past several years, they have been tweaking various sections of their website, and the Daily Report provides ample evidence of this transformation. The Daily Report offers a "one-stop" online destination for interested parties to look at op-ed and commentary pieces by Hoover Fellows, blog posts, interviews, and related articles and quotes about the Hoover Institution and their associates. Users can browse the materials here by date, topic, or author, and they may also sign up here to receive the Daily Report by email. The site also is quite rich in social media and Web 2.0 features.

194

[Food calcium intake in teenager women in Panama].  

PubMed

The adequacy of calcium intake from food and carbonated drinks consumption levels in a Panama City's female adolescents group was studied. We evaluated 180 teenage girls (12-17 years) in two public schools using food frequency questionnaires and a 24-hour food recall. According to the results, milk and cheese were this population's main calcium source. Milk was a food source in 60.5%, while 56.7% indicated that they eat cheese. On average, a once-a-day intake of one of these dairy products was observed in 1/4 of the group. Ice cream and pulses were secondary calcium sources. Yogurt, milk-made meals and beverages, green vegetables, fortified food and sardines were not components of these girls' food habits. The average calcium intake was 440 mg/d +/- 423 according to the food frequency questionnaire and 314 mg/d +/- 255 according to their 24-hour food recall. Calcium's low level intakes are less than 50% of the recommended daily intake for this age group. Carbonated drinks were consumed by 72% of the group and 30% drank one unit daily. Dairy products are the main calcium source for the studied group. However, because of insufficient calcium intake and high consumption of carbonated drinks, the future bone health of these teenage girls is at risk. PMID:19137992

Fernández-Ortega, Myriam

2008-09-01

195

Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

Texas Child Care, 1993

1993-01-01

196

Calcium intake and its relationship with risk of overweight and obesity in adolescents.  

PubMed

Adolescents' eating habits are determined by social, psychological, economic, political, and educational influences. They tend to prefer foods with inadequate nutritional value and high fat and carbohydrate content which leads to excessive weight gain and for many, calcium intake is restricted. According to some authors, low calcium intake is linked to increased adiposity. The objective was to evaluate adolescent calcium intake and investigate a possible relationship between calcium intake and nutritional state. As part of their first consultation at Botucatu Adolescent Outpatient Clinic-UNESP, 107 adolescents were nutritionally classified by BMI, according to age, gender, and bands proposed by CDC and AAP. Diet was evaluated by a 3 day 24h food recall, adopting 1300 mg/day calcium intake as recommended by Dietary Reference Intakes. Median calcium intake for the whole sample was 546.6 mg/day, with 91.30% female and 86.84% male presenting lower than adequate daily recommended ingestion levels (DRI). There was significant difference between calcium densities (Ca mg/1000 kcal) in eutrophic and overweight/obesity in males. Male adolescents showed an inverse relationship between calcium intake and adiposity (r = -0.488 and p = 0.0173), which corroborates the hypothesis that low calcium intake is linked to fatty tissue gain. Only 8.70% of female and 13.16% of male adolescents reached their daily recommended calcium intake levels. It must therefore be stressed that nutritional education is an important protection factor for children and adolescents in later life. PMID:19480339

Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Peres, Luciana Natal Lopes; Berbel, Marina Nogueira; Heigasi, Máircia Braz; Ribeiro, Josy Maria Cabral; Suzuki, Karina; Josué, Liene Mílcia Aparecida; Dalmas, José Carlos

2009-03-01

197

NOAA Daily Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

Hydrometeorological Prediction Center

2011-01-01

198

Daily Food Checklist  

Cancer.gov

The daily food checklist method is a form of food record. The tool is comprised of a list of foods; over the course of a day, a respondent makes a check beside a food each time she or he eats it. The checklist shares an advantage of other record methods in that it does not rely on memory. In addition, it avoids some disadvantages of complete quantitative food records in that it has relatively low respondent and investigator burden.

199

Dietary intake of Senegalese adults  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

2010-01-01

200

Peptides and Food Intake  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

2014-01-01

201

Beverage intake in low-income parent-child dyads.  

PubMed

Beverage consumption adds to daily energy intake and often exceeds the recommended amount for discretionary energy. Previous research has shown that children are consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in greater frequency and the relationship between parent-child dyads in beverage consumption is meaningful due to the parental influence on the development of beverage consumption behaviors. In particular, low-income families are at greater risk for obesity and higher levels of SSB consumption. The current investigation assessed habitual beverage intake among low-income parent-child dyads (N=95) with children between the ages of 9-17 years. The sample (46% African American; 45% Caucasian) had a mean body mass index (BMI) for the parents of 31.8±8.9 kg/m(2), while the mean BMI percentile for age and gender for the children was 70.3±31.3. Both parents and children consumed fewer nutrient-dense beverages and more energy-dense beverages than the recommended amount. The mean daily energy intake from beverages was 451±236 kcal for the parents and 457±237 kcal for the children. Correlations between parent-child dyad intake was also evident, identifying parents as potential role models and gatekeepers of the home food environment. Future interventions to prevent childhood obesity in low-income populations should address beverage intake, particularly SSB consumption, and determine the degree to which this behavior is learned behavior in the home. PMID:22051366

Pinard, Courtney A; Davy, Brenda M; Estabrooks, Paul A

2011-12-01

202

Effect on Blood Pressure of Daily Lemon Ingestion and Walking  

PubMed Central

Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon) has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (?%) of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure ?%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration ?% and the number of steps with blood pressure ?%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms. PMID:24818015

Domoto, Tokio; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Katagiri, Takao; Sato, Kimiko; Miyake, Yukiko; Aoi, Satomi; Ishihara, Katsuhide; Ikeda, Hiromi; Umei, Namiko; Takigawa, Atsusi; Harada, Toshihide

2014-01-01

203

Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.  

PubMed

Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20% of calories from fat) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain. PMID:24321742

Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

2014-03-01

204

HEPROC Daily Gazette  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The HEPROC Daily Gazette Web page offers features stories about technology adaptations, assessment, faculty development, quality, and announcements of interest to the Higher Education community. Current items include: new ways to keep alumni together, increased sharing across the Internet, collaborative publication resources, an online help center, career center online, and recommendations for interactive learning. Additional features address collaboration and electronic tools in the humanities, adopting radical change in the "classroom", the Iowa State University Center for Teaching Excellence, tenure and change, collaboration with primary and secondary education, and undergraduate scholarship.

205

Estimate of intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population.  

PubMed

An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the usual daily intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population. Food consumption data were retrieved from the national food consumption survey. In a first step, individual food consumption data were multiplied with the maximum permitted use levels for sulfites, expressed as sulphur dioxide, per food group (Tier 2). In a second step, on the basis of a literature review of the occurrence of sulfites in different foods, the results of the Tier 2 exposure assessment and available occurrence data from the control programme of the competent authority, a refined list of foods was drafted for the quantification of sulphite. Quantification of sulphite was performed by a high-performance ion chromatography method with eluent conductivity detector in beers and potato products. Individual food consumption data were then multiplied with the actual average concentrations of sulfite per food group, or the maximum permitted levels in case actual levels were not available (partial Tier 3). Usual intakes were calculated using the Nusser method. The mean intake of sulfites was 0.34 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) (Tier 2), corresponding to 49% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and 0.19 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), corresponding to 27% of the ADI (partial Tier 3). The food group contributing most to the intake of sulfites was wines. The results showed that the intake of sulfites is likely to be below the ADI in Belgium. However, there are indications that high consumers of wine have an intake around the ADI. PMID:20503127

Vandevijvere, S; Temme, E; Andjelkovic, M; De Wil, M; Vinkx, C; Goeyens, L; Van Loco, J

2010-08-01

206

Oral intake of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, nickel, manganese and zinc in the university student's diet.  

PubMed

A duplicate diet meal study was carried out with a group of university students living in a hostel, in order to estimate the intake of Zn, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb. Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and Cd, Co and Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry after a nitric acid wet digestion procedure. The estimated intake values from the contents of breakfast, lunch, dinner and drinks were compared with the values of the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) in the case of Cd and Pb, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) of Co, Fe and Zn and Estimated Safe and Adequate Dietetic Daily Intake (ESADDI) of Cu and Mn. Neither excessive intake of Pb and Cd nor deficiencies in Zn, Co, Fe, Mn or Ni were observed, but Cu intake was lower than the ESADDI. PMID:8361527

Barberá, R; Farré, R; Mesado, D

1993-01-01

207

Frequency of Fish Intake and Diabetes among Adult Indians  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Recent studies have shown that the choice of foods plays a role in diabetes prevention. However, little empirical evidence on this association exists in developing countries. We aimed to examine the association between frequency of fish intake and self-reported diabetes status among adult men and women in India. Methods: Analysis of cross-sectional data from participants in India's third National Family Health Survey conducted during 2005–2006 was performed. Associations between fish intake, determined by frequency of consumption (daily, weekly, occasionally, and never), and self-reported diabetes were estimated using multivariable-adjusted models in 99,574 women, 56,742 men, and 39,257 couples aged 20–49 years after adjusting for frequency of consumption of other food items, body mass index (BMI) status, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, watching television, age, education, living standard of the household, and place of residence. Results: After adjustment for other dietary, lifestyle, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, odds of diabetes were 2 times higher (odds ratio [OR]: 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59–2.57; p < 0.0001) among those who reported consuming fish daily compared to those who never consumed fish. Weekly fish intake was also associated with a higher odds of having diabetes (OR: 1.55; 95% CI, 1.25–1.93; p < 0.0001). The adjusted effect of daily fish intake on diabetes was greater among men (OR: 2.46; 95% CI, 1.66–3.65) than among women (OR: 1.72; 95% CI, 1.26–2.33). In cross-spousal sensitivity analysis, the odds of a husband having diabetes was also associated with wife's daily/weekly consumption of fish (OR: 1.36; 95% CI, 0.92–2.01) and the odds of a wife having diabetes was also associated with husband's daily/weekly consumption of fish (OR: 1.21; 95% CI, 0.87–1.68). Conclusions: In a large nationally representative sample of adult men and women in India, daily or weekly fish intake was positively associated with the presence of diabetes. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. More epidemiological research with better measures of food intake and clinical measures of diabetes is needed in a developing country setting to validate the findings. PMID:24870294

Agrawal, Sutapa; Millett, Christopher; Subramanian, S. V.; Ebrahim, Shah

2014-01-01

208

Magnesium intake is associated with strength performance in elite basketball, handball and volleyball players.  

PubMed

Magnesium plays significant roles in promoting strength. Surveys of athletes reveal that intake of magnesium is often below recommended levels. We aimed to understand the impact of magnesium intake on strength in elite male basketball, handball, and volleyball players. Energy and nutrient intake were assessed from seven-day diet record. Strength tests included maximal isometric trunk flexion, extension, and rotation, handgrip, squat and countermovement Abalakov jump, and maximal isokinetic knee extension and flexion peak torques. Linear regression models were performed with significance at p<0.1. Mean magnesium intake was significantly lower than the recommended daily allowance. Regression analysis indicated that magnesium was directly associated with maximal isometric trunk flexion, rotation, and handgrip, with jumping performance tests, and with all isokinetic strength variables, independent of total energy intake. The observed associations between magnesium intake and muscle strength performance may result from the important role of magnesium in energetic metabolism, transmembrane transport and muscle contraction and relaxation. PMID:21983266

Santos, Diana Aguiar; Matias, Catarina Nunes; Monteiro, Cristina Paula; Silva, Analiza Mónica; Rocha, Paulo Manuel; Minderico, Cláudia Sofia; Bettencourt Sardinha, Luís; Laires, Maria José

2011-12-01

209

A study of inter- and intrasubject variability in seven-day weighed dietary intakes with particular emphasis on trace elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study of inter- and intrasubject variance of trace element (TE) dietary intake data, 14 female university students\\u000a recorded weighed, self-selected food intakes for seven consecutive days, starting on a randomly selected day of the week.\\u000a Daily intakes of energy, dietary fiber, macronutrients, 7 vitamins, and Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se were calculated using food\\u000a composition tables and

Rosalind S. Gibson; Ian L. Gibson; Judy Kitching

1985-01-01

210

Sodium and potassium intake among U.S. adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2008  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommend Americans reduce sodium intake and choose foods that contain potassium to decrease the risk of hypertension and subsequent heart disease and stroke. We estimated the distributions of usual daily sodium and potassium intakes by sociodemographic and health charact...

211

Stomach filling may mediate the influence of dietary energy density on the food intake of free-living humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy density of the diet has been demonstrated to be a significant influence on the daily intakes of humans which has led to the hypothesis that intake control is based upon the weight and volume of food and not its energy content. The study explored the roles of the components used in the calculation of energy density and stomach

John M. de Castro

2005-01-01

212

Food intake and circadian rhythms in shift workers with a high workload.  

PubMed

Shift work is associated with nutritional and health problems. In the present study, the food intake of garbage collectors of the city of Florianopolis (Brazil) was investigated using a dietary survey method based on meal recording during 24 h and adapted for the Brazilian food context. Three different shifts (morning, afternoon, and night) were compared (n=22 per shift). Age, body weight and body mass index (BMI) were similar for all groups. Daily energy expenditure was high in all three shifts, especially in morning shift workers. No difference in daily energy intake was found, in spite of differences in food choices and circadian ingestion rhythms. Energy intake was high and close to levels previously reported in athletes. Several factors not associated with shifts had significant impact on ingestion: hour of the day, time since the last meal, age, and BMI. Ingested foods were analyzed in groups based on nutrient content. Shifts significantly influenced intake of starches, alcoholic drinks, and sweets. In different periods of the day, food and nutrient intake were considerably affected by shifts. The analysis of circadian distribution of food choices and nutrient intake is important in shift workers, because total daily intake may not reveal shift-associated differences. PMID:12781167

de Assis, Maria Alice Altenburg; Kupek, Emil; Nahas, Markus Vinícius; Bellisle, France

2003-04-01

213

Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years) (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665 ± 7.9?mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.045), whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P = 0.041), but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558 ± 6.2?mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r = 0.024, P = 0.049), but not with femur BMD (r = 0.021, P = 0.107). The currently recommended 1000–1500?mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients. PMID:23737777

Szamosujvári, Pál; Dombai, Péter; Csóré, Katalin; Mikófalvi, Kinga; Steindl, Tímea; Streicher, Ildikó; Tarsoly, Júlia; Zajzon, Gergely; Somogyi, Péter; Szamosújvári, Pál; Lakatos, Péter

2013-01-01

214

Math in Daily Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Math in the "real world" happens all the time, and it can involve everything from buying a car to following a simple (or complex) recipe. The "Math in Daily Life" site offers up a series of interesting ways to get students thinking about how math works in everyday life. Created by Annenberg Media, this set of interactive exercises looks at the manifestation of mathematical principles in areas of life such as home decorating, finances, and of course, cooking. In each section, users will find hands-on exercises that complement well-written essays that help introduce visitors to seven different topical areas. Finally, the site includes a list of relevant websites, including links to The Math Forum, the U.S. Census Bureau, and The Metric Conversion Card.

2008-01-24

215

The Cornell Daily Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cornell University Library and the Cornell Daily Sun have teamed up to offer access to the complete run of this student newspaper. The paper was first published in September 1880, and over the intervening years it has served as a repository for the hopes, dreams, activities, and general milieu of the members of the Cornell community. Currently, visitors may browse issues dating back to 1880 in their entirety, and the project will eventually allow users to search the entire Sun archives for articles by subject, writer, or date. Visitors can use the "Search" section to type in sample searches like "Ithaca," "sports," or "library." It's an ambitious project, and one that could serve as an ideal model for other student newspapers and related publications hoping to take on a similar challenge.

216

New daily persistent headache  

PubMed Central

New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. PMID:23024565

Tyagi, Alok

2012-01-01

217

ArchDaily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Billed as the "world's most visited architecture website,â ArchDaily is a treasure trove of materials on new building projects, architectural trends, design matters, and competitions. Along the top of its homepage, visitors can delve into areas that include News, Articles, Materials, Software, and Interviews. This last area is a great place to start as it includes fabulous conversations with notables such as Jeanne Gang, Jean-Louis Cohen, and Andreas G. Gjertsen. Moving along, the Materials section offers specific technical information on equipment, finishes, installation techniques, and structural work. The Projects area contains information on new and compelling works, such as the Soundcloud Headquarters in Berlin and the Bagnoli Futura in Italy.

218

Effect of varying water intake on renal function in healthy preterm babies.  

PubMed Central

Renal control of water and electrolyte homeostasis was studied in 10 healthy babies (gestation 29 to 34 weeks; birthweight 1.19 to 2.19 kg) while water intake was varied. Glomerular filtration rate and urine flow were estimated daily from spot plasma and urine samples for six days using a constant inulin infusion, and simultaneous sodium, potassium, osmolar, and free water clearances were calculated. The infusion was started at an average age of 14 hours. Each baby received a total fluid intake of 96 ml/kg daily on study days 1, 2, and 5, and about 200 ml/kg on study days 3, 4, and 6. Daily sodium intake was kept constant at 3 mmol/kg. At the end of the first study day the babies were undergoing a diuresis, but thereafter their estimated daily water balances remained stable regardless of intake. Glomerular filtration remained stable; alterations in urine flow reflected a change in the percentage of filtrate excreted. Plasma electrolytes and osmolality were stable throughout, and on study days 2 to 6 the urinary excretion rates of sodium, potassium, and other osmoles remained the same regardless of urine flow. The delivery of sodium to the distal tubule was estimated to be between 17 and 20% of the filtered load. Well preterm babies can cope with daily water intakes between 96 and 200 ml/kg from the third day of life. PMID:4026356

Coulthard, M G; Hey, E N

1985-01-01

219

Nutrient intakes of infants with atopic dermatitis and relationship with feeding type  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in infants is increasing worldwide. However, the nutrient intake status of infants with atopic dermatitis has not been studied properly. This study was conducted to compare the nutrient intake status of infants in the weaning period with atopic dermatitis by feeding type. MATERIALS/METHODS Feeding types, nutrient intake status and growth status of 98 infants with atopic dermatitis from age 6 to 12 months were investigated. Feeding types were surveyed using questionnaires, and daily intakes were recorded by mothers using the 24-hour recall method. Growth and iron status were also measured. RESULTS The result showed that breastfed infants consumed less energy and 13 nutrients compared to formula-fed or mixed-fed infants (p < 0.001). The breastfed group showed a significantly lower intake rate to the Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans than the other two groups (p < 0.001). In addition, they consumed less than 75% of the recommended intakes in all nutrients, except for protein and vitamin A, and in particular, iron intake was very low, showing just 18.7% of the recommended intake. There was no significant difference in growth by feeding type, but breastfed infants showed a significantly higher rate of iron deficiency anemia (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Continuous management programs should be prepared for breastfed infants with atopic dermatitis, who are in a period when rapid growth takes place and proper nutrient intake is essential.

Han, Youngshin; Lee, Youngmi; Park, Haeryun; Park, Sunyoung

2015-01-01

220

The calcium and phosphorus intakes of rural Gambian women during pregnancy and lactation.  

PubMed

The Ca and P intakes of 148 pregnant and lactating women in a rural village in The Gambia, West Africa, have been estimated by direct weighing of food on a total of 4188 d. The Ca and P contents of local foods were determined by analysis of raw ingredients, snack foods and prepared dishes. Information about the contribution of mineral-rich seasonings was obtained. Efforts were made to discover unusual sources of Ca that might not be perceived as food by subject or observer. The main contributors to daily Ca intake were shown to be leaves, fish, cereals, groundnuts and local salt. Cow's milk accounted for only 5% of Ca intake. Unusual sources of Ca were discovered, namely baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit and selected earths, but these were consumed infrequently and their contributions to Ca intakes were small. Cereals and groundnuts were the main sources of P. Ca and P intakes (mg/d) were shown to average 404 (SD 110) and 887 (SD 219) respectively. Seasonal changes in the availability of leaves, cereals and groundnuts resulted in variations in Ca and P intakes. The rainy season was associated with increased Ca intakes (by 16%) but decreased P consumption (by 15%). No difference was observed in Ca intake between pregnant and lactating women but P intake in lactation was 11% higher than that in pregnancy during the post-harvest season. The implications of these low Ca intakes require investigation. PMID:8329362

Prentice, A; Laskey, M A; Shaw, J; Hudson, G J; Day, K C; Jarjou, L M; Dibba, B; Paul, A A

1993-05-01

221

Development of asymmetric BTDA-TDI\\/MDI (P84) copolyimide flat sheet and hollow fiber membranes for ultrafiltration: Morphology transition and membrane performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the effects of ?-butyrolactone (GBL) weight ratio (wGBL) and membrane thickness on the formation of asymmetric flat sheet membranes prepared with P84 (BTDA-TDI\\/MDI co-polyimide)\\/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)\\/GBL casting solutions are investigated. With the increase of membrane thickness, the transition of membrane morphology from sponge-like to finger-like structure occurs at critical structure-transition thickness Lc. Lc and the general sponge-like structure

Jizhong Ren; Zhansheng Li

222

Estimation of dietary folic acid intake in three generations of females in Southern Spain.  

PubMed

An adequate folic acid intake has been related to female fertility. The recommended intake of this vitamin was recently increased to 400?g/day, with an additional 200?g/day during pregnancy. The Mediterranean Diet includes sources of folate such as pulses, green-leaf vegetables, fruit, cereals, and dried fruits; other foods of interest are liver and blue fish. The objectives were to determine the foods that contribute most to folate intake and analyze the factors that influence their consumption by three generations in a female population (n=898; age, 10-75yrs) from Southern Spain: 230 adolescents (10-16yrs), 296 healthy pregnant women (19-45yrs), and 372 menopausal women (>45yrs). Participants completed a previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Over 90% of their folate intake was supplied by cereals, fruit, natural juice, pulses, and cooked and raw vegetables. The mean (SD) daily intake of folate was 288.27(63.64) ?g. A higher Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was significantly related to a greater folate intake. The daily folate intake was not significantly influenced by educational level, number of children, or place of residence (rural vs. urban). In logistic regression analysis, the factors related to an adequate folate intake (>2/3 of recommendations) were higher age, higher MDS, and lower BMI. PMID:23587520

Monteagudo, C; Mariscal-Arcas, M; Palacin, A; Lopez, M; Lorenzo, M L; Olea-Serrano, F

2013-08-01

223

Surveillance for anaemia: risk factors in patterns of milk intake.  

PubMed Central

The association between patterns of milk intake and anaemia was studied during a surveillance programme for iron deficiency anaemia. Children aged 8-24 months were examined when they attended a routine immunisation clinic. Haemoglobin was measured on finger prick blood samples using a portable haemoglobinometer, and a dietary questionnaire was completed, with special emphasis on the type and volume of milk intake and the age at which whole cows' milk was introduced. Anaemia (defined as a haemoglobin concentration of less than 110 g/l) was diagnosed in 33 children (22%) and was more common among children who were not white. Continued feeding with breast milk and the early introduction of whole cows' milk were associated with a significantly higher prevalence of anaemia. No child taking formula milk was anaemic. Asian children drank significantly more milk a day than other groups, but there was no correlation between daily milk intake and haemoglobin concentration. PMID:2078206

Mills, A F

1990-01-01

224

Voluntary sodium intake during effort in hot environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors that influence the amount of salt that a person adds to his food at mealtime, and the part played by the general requirement for salt in the daily diet stemming from the coluntary input of salt are studied. Careful measurements of salt intake and outflow were performed on ten marchers in a high temperature environment who were given individual salt shakers that were weighed before and after each meal. Some marchers were told to add salt to their meals on specific days. No parallelity was found between the voluntary sodium intake and the general sodium intake, the excretion of sodium in the urine or the environmental heat stress. Individual food habit was found to be the most important factor.

Sohar, E.; Adar, R.; Hershco, A.

1982-01-01

225

Activation of a Nuclear Cdc2-Related Kinase within a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Like TDY Motif by Autophosphorylation and Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase-Activating Kinase  

PubMed Central

Male germ cell-associated kinase (MAK) and intestinal cell kinase (ICK) are nuclear Cdc2-related kinases with nearly identical N-terminal catalytic domains and more divergent C-terminal noncatalytic domains. The catalytic domain is also related to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and contains a corresponding TDY motif. Nuclear localization of ICK requires subdomain XI and interactions of the conserved Arg-272, but not kinase activity or, surprisingly, any of the noncatalytic domain. Further, nuclear localization of ICK is required for its activation. ICK is activated by dual phosphorylation of the TDY motif. Phosphorylation of Tyr-159 in the TDY motif requires ICK autokinase activity but confers only basal kinase activity. Full activation requires additional phosphorylation of Thr-157 in the TDY motif. Coexpression of ICK with constitutively active MEK1 or MEK5 fails to increase ICK phosphorylation or activity, suggesting that MEKs are not involved. ICK and MAK are related to Ime2p in budding yeast, and cyclin-dependent protein kinase-activating kinase Cak1p has been placed genetically upstream of Ime2p. Recombinant Cak1p phosphorylates Thr-157 in the TDY motif of recombinant ICK and activates its activity in vitro. Coexpression of ICK with wild-type CAK1 but not kinase-inactive CAK1 in cells also increases ICK phosphorylation and activity. Our studies establish ICK as the prototype for a new group of MAPK-like kinases requiring dual phosphorylation at TDY motifs. PMID:15988018

Fu, Zheng; Schroeder, Melanie J.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Kaldis, Philipp; Togawa, Kasumi; Rustgi, Anil K.; Hunt, Donald F.; Sturgill, Thomas W.

2005-01-01

226

Effect of Chlorella vulgaris intake on cadmium detoxification in rats fed cadmium  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary Chlorella vulgaris (chlorella) intake would be effective on cadmium (Cd) detoxification in rats fed dietary Cd. Fourteen-week old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighing 415.0 ± 1.6 g were randomly divided into two groups and fed slightly modified American Institute of Nutrition-93 Growing (AIN-93G) diet without (n=10) or with (n=40) dietary Cd (200 ppm) for 8 weeks. To confirm alteration by dietary Cd intake, twenty rats fed AIN-93G diet without (n=10) and with (n=10) dietary Cd were sacrificed and compared. Other thirty rats were randomly blocked into three groups and fed slightly modified AIN-93G diets replacing 0 (n=10), 5 (n=10) or 10% (n=10) chlorella of total kg diet for 4 weeks. Daily food intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight (liver, spleen, and kidney), perirenal fat pad and epididymal fat pad weights were measured. To examine Cd detoxification, urinary Cd excretion and metallothonein (MT) concentrations in kidney and intestine were measured. Food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight and fat pad weights were decreased by dietary Cd intake. Urinary Cd excretion and MT concentrations in kidney and small intestine were increased by dietary Cd. After given Cd containing diet, food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weights and fat pad weights were not influenced by dietary chlorella intake. Renal MT synthesis tended to be higher in a dose-dependent manner, but not significantly. And chlorella intake did not significantly facilitate renal and intestinal MT synthesis and urinary Cd excretion. These findings suggest that, after stopping cadmium supply, chlorella supplementation, regardless of its percentage, might not improve cadmium detoxification from the body in growing rats. PMID:20016707

Kim, You Jin; Kwon, Sanghee

2009-01-01

227

Quantification of Daily Physical Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

1994-01-01

228

Dietary intake and body composition of football players during the holy month of Ramadan.  

PubMed

Healthy young male football players who were either fasting (n = 59) or not fasting (n = 36) during the month of Ramadan were studied. Body mass, body composition, and dietary intake were assessed at each time point. Energy intake was relatively stable in the fasting participants, but there was a small decrease of approximately 0.7 kg in body mass during Ramadan. Mean daily energy intake increased from 14.8 MJ (s = 2.9) to 18.1 MJ (s = 3.2) during Ramadan in non-fasting participants, with concomitant increases in body mass and body fat content of about 1.4 kg and 1% respectively over the month. The fractional intake of protein increased and the fractional contribution of carbohydrate decreased for both groups in Ramadan. Estimated mean daily water intake was high (about 3.8 litres) throughout the study period. Water intake increased on average by 1.3 litres . day(-1) in line with the greater energy intake in the non-fasting group in Ramadan. Daily sodium intake fell during Ramadan in the fasting participants from 5.4 g (s = 1.1) before Ramadan to 4.3 g (s = 1.0) during Ramadan, but increased slightly by about 0.7 g . day(-1) in the non-fasting group. Dietary iron decreased in the fasting group and increased in the non-fasting group, reflecting the difference in energy intake in both groups during Ramadan. These data suggest that Ramadan fasting had some effects on diet composition, but the effects were generally small even though the pattern of eating was very different. After Ramadan, the dietary variables reverted to the pre-Ramadan values. PMID:19085450

Maughan, Ronald J; Bartagi, Zakia; Dvorak, Jiri; Zerguini, Yacine

2008-12-01

229

Is Caffeine Intake Associated With Urinary Incontinence in Japanese Adults?  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate whether caffeine intake is associated with urinary incontinence (UI) among Japanese adults. Methods A total of 683 men and 298 women aged 40 to 75 years were recruited from the community in middle and southern Japan. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered face-to-face to obtain information on dietary intake and habitual beverage consumption. Urinary incontinence status was ascertained using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form. Results Mean daily caffeine intake was found to be similar between incontinent subjects (men 120 mg, women 94 mg) and others without the condition (men 106 mg, women 103 mg), p=0.33 for men and p=0.44 for women. The slight increases in risk of UI at the highest level of caffeine intake were not significant after adjusting for confounding factors. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 1.36 (0.65 to 2.88) and 1.12 (0.57 to 2.22) for men and women, respectively. Conclusions No association was evident between caffeine intake and UI in middle-aged and older Japanese adults. Further studies are required to confirm the effect of caffeine in the prevention of UI. PMID:22712048

Hirayama, Fumi

2012-01-01

230

Baclofen, raclopride, and naltrexone differentially reduce solid fat emulsion intake under limited access conditions.  

PubMed

Previous work in rats has demonstrated that an Intermittent (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) schedule of access promotes binge-type consumption of 100% vegetable shortening during a 1-h period of availability. The present study used novel shortening-derived stable solid emulsions of various fat concentrations. These emulsions were the consistency of pudding and did not demonstrate oil and water phase separation previously reported with oil-based liquid emulsions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped according to schedule of access (Daily or Intermittent) to one of three concentrations (18%, 32%, 56%) of solid fat emulsion. There were no significant Intermittent vs. Daily differences in amount consumed, due to high intakes in all groups. This indicated the acceptability of the emulsions. Baclofen (GABA(B) agonist) and raclopride (D2-like antagonist) both significantly reduced emulsion intake in all Daily groups, but only in the 56% fat Intermittent group. Naltrexone (opioid antagonist), in contrast, significantly reduced 32% and 56% fat emulsion intake in the Intermittent, as well as the Daily groups. These results indicate that the fat intake-reducing effects of GABA(B) activation and D(2) blockade depend upon fat concentration and schedule of fat access, while the fat intake-reducing effects of opioid blockade depend upon fat concentration but not schedule of access. PMID:18353432

Rao, R E; Wojnicki, F H E; Coupland, J; Ghosh, S; Corwin, R L W

2008-06-01

231

Caffeine levels in beverages from Argentina's market: application to caffeine dietary intake assessment.  

PubMed

The caffeine content of different beverages from Argentina's market was measured. Several brands of coffees, teas, mates, chocolate milks, soft and energy drinks were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. The highest concentration level was found in short coffee (1.38 mg ml(-1)) and the highest amount per serving was found in instant coffee (95 mg per serving). A consumption study was also carried out among 471 people from 2 to 93 years of age to evaluate caffeine total dietary intake by age and to identify the sources of caffeine intake. The mean caffeine intake among adults was 288 mg day(-1) and mate was the main contributor to that intake. The mean caffeine intake among children of 10 years of age and under was 35 mg day(-1) and soft drinks were the major contributors to that intake. Children between 11 and 15 years old and teenagers (between 16 and 20 years) had caffeine mean intakes of 120 and 240 mg day(-1), respectively, and mate was the major contributor to those intakes. Drinking mate is a deep-rooted habit among Argentine people and it might be the reason for their elevated caffeine mean daily intake. PMID:19680899

Olmos, V; Bardoni, N; Ridolfi, A S; Villaamil Lepori, E C

2009-03-01

232

[Food intake, and anthropometrical and biological parameters in adult Tunisians during fasting at Ramadan].  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of fasting during Ramadan on nutritional intake and plasma lipoproteins in 20 healthy adults of normal weight. A 5-day food questionnaire was completed for every participant. Clinical investigations, anthropometrical measurements and laboratory analysis were also undertaken. Body weight, blood pressure and blood glucose were not influenced by fasting but there were non-significant modifications in the plasma lipid fractions. The total cholesterol remained unchanged. Total daily energy intake was comparable before, during and after Ramadan despite the decrease in meal frequency during fasting. Thus fasting in Ramadan did not affect dietary intake, clinical, anthropometrical and most biological parameters. PMID:15603043

Beltaifa, L; Bouguerra, R; Ben Slama, C; Jabrane, H; El-Khadhi, A; Ben Rayana, M C; Doghri, T

2002-01-01

233

Usual Intake of Fruit juice  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Fruit juice Table A5. Fruit juice: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.05) 0.1

234

Usual Intake of Refined grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Refined grains Table A19. Refined grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 3.5 (0.10) 1.7

235

Usual Intake of Added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

236

Usual Intake of Total grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total grains Table A17. Total grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 4.1 (0.10) 2.2

237

Usual Intake of Solid fats  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Solid fats Table A38. Solid fats: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 grams Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 27.8 (0.73) 15.5 (1.06) 17.8

238

Usual Intake of Soy products  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Soy products Table A30. Soy products: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.0 (0.00) 0.0

239

Usual Intake of Whole grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Whole grains Table A18. Whole grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.6 (0.03) 0.1

240

Usual Intake of Other vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Other vegetables Table A15. Other vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1

241

Usual Intake of White potatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of White potatoes Table A13. White potatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1

242

Calcium intake, calcium bioavailability and bone health.  

PubMed

Calcium accounts for 1-2 % of adult human body weight. Over 99 % of total body Ca is found in the teeth and bones. Therefore, in addition to the obvious structural role of the skeleton, it also serves as a reservoir for Ca. Dietary Ca intake has an important impact on bone metabolism and bone health. Chronic Ca deficiency resulting from inadequate intake or poor intestinal absorption is one of several important causes of reduced bone mass and osteoporosis. It is vital, therefore, that adequate dietary Ca is consumed at all stages of life - in early life so that the genetically programmed peak bone mass can be reached and in later adulthood so that the skeletal mass can be maintained and age-related bone loss minimised. Unfortunately, there is wide variation in the estimates of daily Ca requirements made by different expert authorities. Furthermore, there is evidence that many individuals are not consuming these recommended levels. The consequence of this for bone health will be discussed in the present review. Besides the amount of Ca in the diet, the absorption of dietary Ca in foods is also a critical factor in determining the availability of Ca for bone development and maintenance. Thus, there is a need to identify food components and/or functional food ingredients that may positively influence Ca absorption in order to ensure that Ca bioavailability from foods can be optimised. This approach may be of particular value in individuals who fail to achieve the dietary recommended level of Ca. PMID:12088515

Cashman, K D

2002-05-01

243

Evaluation of the probabilistic distribution of dietary biotin intake in Japan using Monte Carlo simulation.  

PubMed

Biotin is a widely distributed water soluble vitamin. Adequate intake of biotin was set at 50 µg/d in Japan 2010. Recently, the importance of the application of probabilistic techniques to estimate the share of the population at risk of deficient and excessive nutrient intake has been increasingly emphasized for assessing nutrient adequacy. Monte Carlo simulation, a computer-based method of analysis that uses statistical sampling techniques yielding a probabilistic approximation to the solution of a mathematical model, has been used to estimate the probabilistic distribution of the dietary intake of food chemicals. For this study, we used two preliminary models to estimate the dietary biotin intake with food consumption data based on the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan. One is evaluated by biotin concentration data from the total diet study; the other is a dataset of biotin concentration in individual foods. After removing outliers from the individual foods dataset, probability density distributions from two models showed analogous mean, median, 5th percentile, and 95th percentile values. The daily biotin intakes from these probabilistic methods showed that more than 80% of the Japanese population had higher than the adequate intake of biotin. However, the contribution of each food group to the total daily biotin intake was somewhat different. Improvement of these methods necessitates the collection of more actual data associated with sample compositional variability and evaluation of uncertainty associated with the food group classification of biotin. PMID:21422716

Murakami, Taro; Takakura, Kouichi; Yamano, Tetsuo

2010-01-01

244

Power plant intake entrainment analysis  

SciTech Connect

Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

2000-04-01

245

The publics' understanding of daily caloric recommendations and their perceptions of calorie posting in chain restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Calorie posting in chain restaurants has received increasing attention as a policy lever to reduce energy intake. Little research has assessed consumer understanding of overall daily energy requirements or perceived effectiveness of calorie posting. METHODS: A phone survey was conducted from May 1 through 17, 2009 with 663 randomly selected, nationally-representative adults aged 18 and older, including an oversample

Sara N Bleich; Keshia M Pollack

2010-01-01

246

Adequacy of oral intake in critically ill patients 1 week after extubation.  

PubMed

Hospital malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, particularly among patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). The purpose of this observational study (August to November 2007) was to examine the adequacy of oral intake and to identify predictors of oral intake after ICU patients were removed from invasive mechanical ventilation. Patients aged > or = 18 years who required mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours, advanced to an oral diet postextubation, and did not require supplemental enteral or parenteral nutrition were included. The first 7 days of oral intake after extubation were assessed via modified multiple-pass 24-hour recall and the numbers of days on therapeutic diets and reasons for decreased intake were collected. Oral intake <75% of daily requirements was considered inadequate. Descriptive statistics, chi2, Student t tests, and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Of the 64 patients who met eligibility criteria, 50 were included. Of these 50 patients, 54% were women and intubated for 5.2 days, with a mean age of 59.1 years, body mass index of 28.7, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 21.9. Subjective Global Assessment determined 44% were malnourished upon admission to the ICU. The average daily energy and protein intake failed to exceed 50% of daily requirements on all 7 days for the entire population. The majority of patients who consumed <75% of daily requirements were prescribed a therapeutic diet and/or identified "no appetite" and nausea/vomiting as the barriers to eating. Although more research is needed, these data call into question the use of restrictive oral diets and suggest that alternative medical nutrition therapies are needed to optimize nutrient intake in this unique patient population. PMID:20184993

Peterson, Sarah J; Tsai, Annalisa A; Scala, Celina M; Sowa, Diane C; Sheean, Patricia M; Braunschweig, Carol L

2010-03-01

247

Daily Egyptian Diversity News Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed as part of the online collections at Southern Illinois University-Carbondale's Morris Library, the Daily Egyptian Diversity News Index provides historical insight into the campus climate at this unique school. In 2006, Dr. Seymour Bryson, the associate chancellor for diversity, teamed up with several other colleagues to identify articles in the Daily Egyptian (the University's student newspaper) related to the university's historic minority campus populations. The project entailed surveying microfilm and creating searchable transcripts for online access. Currently, the online archive contains over 1,400 items from the Daily Egyptian, and content includes pieces on African American members of the homecoming court, student activists, musical groups, and student government.

248

Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

2014-01-01

249

Low Sodium and High Potassium Intake for Cardiovascular Prevention: Evidence Revisited With Emphasis on Challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

PubMed

Reduction in dietary salt intake and increase in potassium intake can make a major contribution to the prevention and control of hypertension and consequential cardiovascular disease, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where prevalence rates are highest. African populations are going through a westernization of their traditional eating patterns, with a shift towards a US/Western-style diet, which contains an excessive amount of salt. Currently, the mean sodium intake in SSA populations is far above the recommended daily allowance. Besides, potassium intake is low, and, particularly, the supply of fruits and vegetables that are important sources of potassium is insufficient to meet current and growing population needs in SSA countries. Context-relevant strategies are needed for population-wide sodium intake reduction and increase in potassium intake. PMID:25382734

Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Bigna, Jean Joel R; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N

2014-11-10

250

Salt Intake Is Associated with Inflammation in Chronic Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) is highly prevalent and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. It has been well established that excessive intake of sodium chloride (salt) induced hypertension in some populations. Although salt seems to induce cardiovascular diseases through elevation of blood pressure, it has also been indicated that salt can induce cardiovascular diseases independently from blood pressure elevation. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the association between salt consumption and inflammation in CHF patients. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 86 patients between 18 and 65 years old who were diagnosed with New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class I and II heart failure. Salt intake was calculated by using 24 hour urine sodium excretion. Besides, the association between inflammation and daily salt intake was evaluated regarding C - reactive protein (CPR), High sensitive CRP (HsCPR), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), and ferritin and fibrinogen levels using Pearson correlation analysis. Results: Our results showed a statistically significant difference between the low (n = 41) and high (n = 45) salt intake groups in terms of serum HsCRP levels (5.21 ± 2.62 vs. 6.36 ± 2.64) (P < 0.048). Additionally, a significant correlation was observed between the amount of salt consumption and HsCRP levels. In this study, daily salt consumption of the enrolled patients was 8.53 gram/day. The medications and even the blood pressures were similar in the two groups, but daily pill count, prevalence of hypertension, and coronary heart disease were higher in the high salt intake group; however, the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.065). Also, no significant difference was observed between the groups concerning the inflammation markers, such as CRP, ESR, ferritin, and fibrinogen. Conclusions: Neurohumoral and inflammatory factors are thought to contribute to high mortality and morbidity rates in CHF. Yet, inflammatory markers may early diagnose CHF and predict the prognosis. Excessive salt intake also worsens the inflammation as well as volume control. PMID:25177670

Azak, Alper; Huddam, Bulent; Gonen, Namik; Yilmaz, Seref Rahmi; Kocak, Gulay; Duranay, Murat

2014-01-01

251

Hibernation and daily torpor minimize mammalian extinctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small mammals appear to be less vulnerable to extinction than large species, but the underlying reasons are poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that almost all (93.5%) of 61 recently extinct mammal species were homeothermic, maintaining a constant high body temperature and thus energy expenditure, which demands a high intake of food, long foraging times, and thus exposure to predators. In contrast, only 6.5% of extinct mammals were likely heterothermic and employed multi-day torpor (hibernation) or daily torpor, even though torpor is widespread within more than half of all mammalian orders. Torpor is characterized by substantial reductions of body temperature and energy expenditure and enhances survival during adverse conditions by minimizing food and water requirements, and consequently reduces foraging requirements and exposure to predators. Moreover, because life span is generally longer in heterothermic mammals than in related homeotherms, heterotherms can employ a ‘sit-and-wait’ strategy to withstand adverse periods and then repopulate when circumstances improve. Thus, torpor is a crucial but hitherto unappreciated attribute of small mammals for avoiding extinction. Many opportunistic heterothermic species, because of their plastic energetic requirements, may also stand a better chance of future survival than homeothermic species in the face of greater climatic extremes and changes in environmental conditions caused by global warming.

Geiser, Fritz; Turbill, Christopher

2009-10-01

252

BACLOFEN-INDUCED REDUCTIONS IN OPTIONAL FOOD INTAKE DEPEND UPON FOOD COMPOSITION  

PubMed Central

Baclofen reduces intake of some foods but stimulates intake or has no effect on others. The reasons for these differences are not known. The present study examined effects of baclofen when composition, energy density, preference, presentation and intake of optional foods varied. Semi-solid fat emulsions and sucrose products were presented for brief periods to non-food-deprived rats. In Experiment 1, fat and sucrose composition were varied while controlling energy density. In Experiment 2A, schedule of access and the number of optional foods were varied. In Experiment 2B, the biopolymer (thickener) was examined. Baclofen reduced intake of fat and/or sugar options with different energy densities (1.28-9 kcal/g), when presented daily or intermittently, and when intakes were relatively high or low. However, the efficacy of baclofen was affected by the biopolymer used to thicken the options: baclofen had no effect when options were thickened with one biopolymer (3173), but reduced intake when options were thickened with another biopolymer (515). Baclofen failed to reduce intake of a concentrated sugar option (64% sucrose), regardless of biopolymer. Based upon these results, caution is urged when interpreting results obtained with products using different thickening agents. Systematic research is needed when designing products used in rat models of food intake. PMID:23321345

Wojnicki, F.H.E.; Charny, G.; Corwin, R.L.W

2013-01-01

253

Health risk assessment of ochratoxin A for all age-sex strata in a market economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to manage risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) in foods, we re-evaluated the tolerable daily intake (TDI), derived the negligible cancer risk intake (NCRI), and conducted a probabilistic risk assessment. A new approach was developed to derive ‘usual’ probabilistic exposure in the presence of highly variable occurrence data, such as encountered with low levels of OTA. Canadian occurrence data

T. Kuiper-Goodman; C. Hilts; S. M. Billiard; Y. Kiparissis; I. D. K. Richard; S. Hayward

2010-01-01

254

First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study)  

PubMed Central

Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ? 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition. PMID:24959951

van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M. M.; van den Bergh, Joop P. W.; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H.

2014-01-01

255

Usual Dietary Intakes: Further Information  

Cancer.gov

Freedman LS, Midthune D, Carroll RJ, Krebs-Smith S, Subar AF, Troiano RP, Dodd K, Schatzkin A, Bingham SA, Ferrari P, Kipnis V. Adjustments to improve the estimation of usual dietary intake distributions in the population.

256

Hoover Dam Intake Towers Panorama  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

257

Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

Brender, Jean D.; And Others

1985-01-01

258

Intakes of Vegetables and Fruits are Negatively Correlated with Risk of Stroke in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Stroke is a leading cause of death. Current therapeutic strategies have been unsuccessful. Several studies have reported benefits on reducing stroke risk and improving the poststroke associated functional declines in patients who ate foods rich in fruits and vegetables. Their potential protective effects may be due to their antioxidants, calcium, potassium, riboflavine, peridoxin, riboflavin contents. Folic acid, peridoxin, and riboflavin are all cofactors in hyperhomocysteinemia as a stroke risk factor.Studies suggest that oxidative stress plays important roles in pathogenesis of ischemic cerebral injury and higher intake of antioxidants has been associated with a lower stroke risk. The aim of this study was to examine if the dietary intake of vegetables and fruits in patients with stroke were comparatively worse than those in patients without stroke. Methods: In this case control study, 93 stroke patients admitted to Alzahra hospital were matched for age and sex with 60 patients who were not affected with acute cerebrovascular diseases and did not have a history of stroke. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire.Food intakes were compared between two groups and with recommended value. Results: Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits was more in male with stroke than male without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was higher in male with stroke.Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits were lower in women with stroke than women without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was lower in women with stroke Conclusions: Our findings suggest that increased vegetable and fruits intake may be associated with decreased risk of stroke PMID:23776742

Hariri, Mitra; Darvishi, Leila; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Khorvash, Fariborz; Aghaei, Mahmud; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

2013-01-01

259

Patterns of vitamin C intake from food and supplements: survey of an adult population in Alameda County, California.  

PubMed Central

Use of vitamin C in food and pills and its association with health habits and health status were investigated in a random sample of 3,119 adults in Alameda County, California. Vitamin C intakes of nearly 80 per cent of respondents met or exceeded Recommended Daily Dietary Allowances. Fourteen per cent or fewer appeared to have inadequate vitamin C intake. Vitamin C supplements were taken daily by 29 per cent, occasionally by 21 per cent. Most respondents obtained 100 mg or less of vitamin C daily; 2 per cent had more than 2000 mg. Proportionately, more women than men took vitamin C pills daily. Men aged 16 to 44 were the most likely to have neither vitamin C foods nor pills. Persons 45 years and older tended to take vitamin C pills daily, younger persons to take them occasionally. Respondents who did not eat breakfast or who smoked cigarettes had lower vitamin C intakes. People in poor health took more vitamin C than those in good health. Health status may have influenced vitamin C intake rather than vitamin C intake influencing health status. PMID:6859362

Shapiro, L R; Samuels, S; Breslow, L; Camacho, T

1983-01-01

260

Dietary intake of essential minor and trace elements from Asian diets.  

PubMed

In view of the limited data available from the Asian region on the daily intake of nutritionally essential trace elements, a study was taken up, as part of a coordinated research project of the International Atomic Energy Agency, to estimate the daily dietary intake and organ content of some selected trace elements of importance in radiation protection, and also in nutrition. Nine Asian countries--Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Vietnam--which represented more than 50% of the world's population, participated in this study. Analysis of about 700 diet samples was carried out for four minor (calcium, potassium, magnesium, and sodium) and eight trace (chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, iodine, manganese, selenium, and zinc) elements using nuclear and other sensitive analytical methods employing neutron activation analysis (NAA), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) techniques. These samples consisted of the total cooked diet, market basket, duplicate diets, and 225 staple foods. Emphasis was placed on the quality assurance and harmonization of the sampling techniques to ensure quality data. Significant inter- and intra-country variations in daily dietary intake of various trace elements were observed. The maximum inter-country variation was observed for iodine intake (factor of more than 45), being highest for Japan and lowest for Pakistan. For iron, an important trace element, the variation between the intakes was by a factor of four being lowest for Vietnam and highest for Pakistan. PMID:12362779

Iyengar, G Venkatesh; Kawamura, Hisao; Parr, Robert M; Miah, Farin K; Wang, Ji-xian; Dang, Harminder S; Djojosubroto, Harjojoto; Cho, Seung-Yeon; Akher, Perveen; Natera, Erlinda S; Nguyen, Mong Sinh; Nguy, Mong Sinh

2002-09-01

261

Usual Intake of Cured meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Cured meat Table A25. Cured meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.04) 0.2 (0.04) 0.3

262

Daily rhythm of salivary and serum urea concentration in sheep  

PubMed Central

Background In domestic animals many biochemical and physiological processes exhibit daily rhythmicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rhythmic pattern of salivary and serum urea concentrations in sheep. Methods Six 3-year-old female sheep kept in the same environmental conditions were used. Sheep were sampled at 4 hour intervals for 48 consecutive hours starting at 08:00 of the first day and finishing at 04:00 of the second day. Blood samples were collected via intravenous cannulae inserted into the jugular vein; saliva samples were collected through a specific tube, the "Salivette". Salivary and serum urea concentrations were assayed by means of UV spectrophotometer. ANOVA was used to determine significant differences. The single Cosinor procedure was applied to the results showing significant differences over time. Results ANOVA showed a significant effect of time on salivary and serum urea concentrations. Serum and salivary urea peaked during the light phase. In the dark phase serum and salivary urea concentrations decreased, and the diurnal trough occurred at midnight. Cosinor analysis showed diurnal acrophases for salivary and serum urea concentrations. Daily mean levels were significantly higher in the serum than in the saliva. Conclusion In sheep both salivary and serum urea concentrations showed daily fluctuations. Urea is synthesized in the liver and its production is strongly influenced by food intake. Future investigation should clarify whether daily urea rhythms in sheep are endogenous or are simply the result of the temporal administration of food. PMID:17123442

Piccione, Giuseppe; Foà, Augusto; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Caola, Giovanni

2006-01-01

263

Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake  

PubMed Central

Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors. PMID:18514747

Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

2008-01-01

264

The effect of water availability on feed intake and digestion in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six castrated male Karagouniko sheep, offered three levels of water, were used in a 3×3 Latin Square design to study the effects of mild water restriction on roughage intake and digestion. The three treatments were offered water ad libitum throughout the day (A), made available to the animals for 1h daily (B) or 65% of the water consumed ad libitum

I Hadjigeorgiou; K Dardamani; C Goulas; G Zervas

2000-01-01

265

Effect of prebiotic supplementation and calcium intake on body mass index  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to assess the effects of a prebiotic supplement and usual calcium intake on body composition changes during pubertal growth. We measured anthropometry and body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptionmetry in 97 young adolescents who were randomized to receive either a daily prebiotic...

266

Effects of different types of isocaloric parenteral nutrients on food intake and metabolic concomitants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether spontaneous food intake (SFI) is controlled by infused nutrient type or its caloric content, irrespective of nutrient type, was investigated. Rats were infused for 4 days with isocaloric solutions of different nutrient type but sharing the same intermediary metabolic oxidative pathway, providing 25% of daily caloric needs. One parenteral solution was a glucose, fat and amino acid mix (TPN-25%);

Gyorgy Bodoky; Michael M. Meguid; Zhong-Jin Yang; Alessandro Laviano

1995-01-01

267

A simulation model of forage yield, quality and intake and growth of growing cattle grazing cornstalks.  

PubMed

A simulation model was developed to predict corn crop residue yield and quality and intake and performance of growing cattle grazing cornstalks. The model is wholly deterministic and integrates the effects of weather, residue supply and animal components. Low temperatures increase animal energy requirements, whereas snow cover decreases residue available. Residual grain and leaf are calculated from grain yield. Residue quantity and quality are reduced daily by environmental losses and animal consumption. Daily performance is predicted based on the nutrients obtained from residue and supplemental feed. Under unlimited roughage supply, leaf, husk and grain are primary diet components. Grain consumption decreases as the supply diminishes and forage quality decreases with time. Intake is calculated based on digestibility and fecal output = .0365 W.75. Forage availability affects intake in a curvilinear fashion. Energy gain is predicted by NRC equations and protein gain from metabolizable protein supply. The model underestimated intake of calves measured with chromic oxide and in vitro DM disappearance. Simulated daily gain (y, kg) of calves grazing at several stocking rates was related to observed daily gain (x, kg) by the equation y = .012 + .853 x (R2 = .71, Sy.x = .077). The model overestimated response to protein supplementation. Severe cold weather was predicted to reduce gains or cause weight loss due to increased energy requirements for maintenance. The model can be used as an aid in both research planning and cattle management. PMID:2703452

Fernandez-Rivera, S; Lewis, M; Klopfenstein, T J; Thompson, T L

1989-02-01

268

Relationships between Performance, Intake, Diet Nutritive Quality and Fecal Nutritive Quality of Cattle on Mountain Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlations were developed between average daily gain (ADC), forage organic matter intake (INT), fiitula sample ln vitro organic matter digestibility (DID), futula sample nitrogen (DN), fecal sample in vitro digestibility (FID), and fecal sample nitrogen (FN) of cattle on forest and grassland range in northeastern Oregon. FN and FID were more closely associated with ADG and INT than DN or

J. L. HOLECHEK; M. VAVRA; D. ARTHIJN

269

Sodium consumption among hypertensive adults advised to reduce their intake: national health and nutrition examination survey, 1999-2004.  

PubMed

The authors estimated the prevalence of taking action to reduce intake related to actual sodium consumption among 2970 nonpregnant US adults 18?years and older with self-reported hypertension by using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Adjusted multiple linear regression assessed differences in mean sodium intake by action status. A total of 60.5% of hypertensive adults received advice to reduce sodium intake. Of this group, 83.7% took action to reduce sodium. Action to reduce sodium intake differed significantly by age, race/ethnicity, and use of an antihypertensive. The mean (±standard error) sodium intake among hypertensive adults was 3341±37?mg and differed by sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and body mass index (P<.05), with the lowest intake among adults aged 65?years and older (2780±48?mg). Mean intake did not differ significantly by action status either overall or by subgroup except for one age category: among patients 65?years and older, mean intake was significantly lower among those who took action (2715±63?mg) than among those who did not (3401±206?mg; P=.0124). Regardless of action, mean intake was well above 1999-2004 recommendations for daily sodium intake and about twice as high as the current recommendation for hypertensive adults (1500?mg). PMID:22747617

Ayala, Carma; Gillespie, Cathleen; Cogswell, Molly; Keenan, Nora L; Merritt, Robert

2012-07-01

270

[Restriction of salt intake in the whole population promises great long-term benefits].  

PubMed

Restricting salt intake not only leads to a decrease of blood pressure and a reduction in the incidence of arterial hypertension but also to a fall in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. But high sodium intake is not only a risk factor for hypertension but also for cardiovascular diseases. Moderate reduction of daily salt intake in the entire population of Germany from the present level of 8-10 mg to 5-6 mg is of great benefit for disease load and to the economy. Any possible risk for a few groups of persons is predictable and can be coped with. General sodium reduction cannot be achieved only by individual advice, instruction or information campaigns but requires a reduction in the sodium content of industrially processed foods, in fast-food chains, restaurants and canteens because they supply 80% of total daily sodium intake. To achieve the target of restricting the sodium intake of the whole population it is recommended that an interdisciplinary and interprofessional task force, "Less salt for all" be established. This is to bring together the expertise of scientific societies and institutions that see their main task in the reduction of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity by primary prevention. Individual prevention in patients at risk can be very significantly improved by population-related preventive measures. These include, in addition to general limitation of sodium intake, continuing change in lifestyle. PMID:19418415

Klaus, D; Böhm, M; Halle, M; Kolloch, R; Middeke, M; Pavenstädt, H; Hoyer, J

2009-05-01

271

Growth rates and energy intake of hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.  

PubMed

Growth rate is an important factor in neonatal survival. The aim of this study was to determine growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs in South Africa fed a prescribed energy intake, calculated for growth in the domestic cat. Growth was then compared with previously published data from hand-reared cubs in North America and the relationship between growth and energy intake explored. Daily body weight (BW) gain, feed and energy intake data was collected from 18 hand-reared cheetah cubs up to 120 days of age. The average pre-weaning growth rate was 32 g/day, which is lower than reported in mother-reared cubs and hand-reared cubs in North American facilities. However, post-weaning growth increased to an average of 55 g/day. Growth was approximately linear prior to weaning, but over the entire age range it exhibited a sigmoidal shape with an asymptotic plateau averaging 57 kg. Energy intake associated with pre-weaning growth was 481 kJ ME/kg BW(0.75). Regression analysis described the relationship between metabolic BW, metabolisable energy (ME) intake, and hence daily weight gain. This relationship may be useful in predicting energy intake required to achieve growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs similar to those observed for their mother-reared counterparts. PMID:21429043

Bell, K M; Rutherfurd, S M; Morton, R H

2012-04-01

272

Fluid intake patterns: an epidemiological study among children and adolescents in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Energy from liquids is one of the most important factors that could impact on the high prevalence of children and adolescents obesity around the world. There are few data on the liquid consumption in Brazil. The aim of this study is to evaluate the volume and quality of liquids consumed by Brazilian children and adolescents and to determine the proportion of their daily energy intake composed of liquids. Methods A multicenter study was conducted in five Brazilian cities; the study included 831 participants between 3 and 17 years of age. A four-day dietary record specific to fluids was completed for each individual, and the volume of and Kcal from liquid intake were evaluated. The average number of Kcal in each beverage was determined based on label information, and the daily energy intake data from liquids were compared with the recommendations of the National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária– ANVISA), the Brazilian food regulation authority, according to each subject’s age. Results As the children aged, the volume of carbonated beverages that they consumed increased significantly, and their milk intake decreased significantly. For children between the ages of 3 and 10, milk and dairy products contributed the greatest daily number of Kcal from liquids. Sugar sweetened beverages which included carbonated beverages, nectars and artificial beverages, accounted for 37% and 45% of the total Kcal from liquid intake in the 3- to 6-year-old and 7- to 10- year-old groups, respectively. Among adolescents (participants 11- to 17- years old), most of the energy intake from liquids came from carbonated beverages, which accounted for an average of 207 kcal/day in this group (42% of their total energy intake from liquids). Health professionals should be attentive to the excessive consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in children and adolescents. The movement toward healthier dietary patterns at the individual and population levels may help to improve programs for preventing overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Conclusion From childhood to adolescence the daily volume of liquid ingested increased reaching a total of 2.0 liters on average. Of this volume, the daily volume of milk ingested decreased while the carbonated drinks, sweetened, nectars and artificial beverages increased significantly. The proportion of water remained constant in about 1/3 of the total volume. From 3 to 17 years of age the energy intake from carbonated beverages increased by about 20%. The carbonated drinks on average corresponded to a tenth of the daily requirements of energy of adolescents. PMID:23167254

2012-01-01

273

Daily Feeding of Fructooligosaccharide or Glucomannan Delays Onset of Senescence in SAMP8 Mice  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that daily intake of nondigestible saccharides delays senescence onset through the improvement of intestinal microflora. Here, we raised senescence accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) on the AIN93 diet (CONT), with sucrose being substituted for 5% of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) or 5% of glucomannan (GM), 15 mice per group. Ten SAMR1 were raised as reference of normal aging with control diet. Grading of senescence was conducted using the method developed by Hosokawa, and body weight, dietary intake, and drinking water intake were measured on alternate days. Following 38 weeks of these diets we evaluated learning and memory abilities using a passive avoidance apparatus and investigated effects on the intestinal microflora, measured oxidative stress markers, and inflammatory cytokines. Continuous intake of FOS and GM significantly enhanced learning and memory ability and decelerated senescence development when compared with the CONT group. Bifidobacterium levels were significantly increased in FOS and GM-fed mice. Urinary 8OHdG, 15-isoprostane, serum TNF-?, and IL-6 were also lower in FOS-fed mice, while IL-10 in FOS and GM groups was higher than in CONT group. These findings suggest that daily intake of nondigestible saccharides delays the onset of senescence via improvement of intestinal microflora. PMID:24987410

Kondo, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshitake; Tanabe, Kenichi; Kawahashi-Tokuhisa, Miho; Yui, Katsuyuki; Miyakoda, Mana; Oku, Tsuneyuki

2014-01-01

274

Total-diet study: dietary intakes of macro elements and trace elements in Italy.  

PubMed

The present study provides the dietary intakes of macro elements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P) and trace elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Se) from the Italian total diet. The contribution of the most representative food groups of the total diet (cereals and cereal products, vegetables, fruit, milk and dairy products, meat and meat products, fish) to the daily intakes of these nutrients was also evaluated. The Italian total diet was formulated following the 'market-basket' approach. Cereals represented the primary sources of Cu (35 %), Fe (30 %) and Mg (27 %). About 89 % of the total daily intake of Fe was derived from plant foods. The vegetables food group was the main source of dietary K (27 %). Most of the Ca (59 %) and P (27 %) was derived from the milk-and-dairy food group. Of the dietary Zn, 41 % was provided by meat, which, together with the fish food group, was the primary source of Se (20 %). The adequacy of the Italian total diet with respect to nutritional elements was assessed by comparing the daily intakes with the average requirement values of the Italian recommended dietary allowances. The present findings indicated that the dietary patterns of the Italian total diet were generally consistent with current Italian dietary recommendations for both macro and trace elements. The major concern was for Ca, for which daily intake was 76 % of the average recommendation for the Italian population. It should not be ruled out that there could be a potential risk of inadequate Fe intake in some segments of the population. PMID:14641971

Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Aguzzi, Altero; Cappelloni, Marsilio; Di Lullo, Giuseppe; Lucarini, Massimo

2003-12-01

275

Nutrient Intake From Habitual Oral Diet in Patients With Severe Short Bowel Syndrome Living in the Southeastern United States  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Little data are published on habitual home oral diet of short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients living in the United States. Methods We assessed habitual macro-and micronutrient intake from oral food and beverages in 19 stable patients with severe SBS who live in the Southeastern United States. Intestinal absorption of energy, fat, nitrogen (N) and carbohydrate (CHO) was determined in a metabolic ward setting. Results We studied 12 women and 7 men, age 48±3 years (mean±SE) receiving chronic PN for 31±8 months following massive small bowel resection (118±25 cm residual small bowel). Patients had intact (N=5), partial (N=9), or no residual colon (N=5). The subjects demonstrated severe malabsorption of energy (59±3% of oral intake), fat (41±5%), N (42±5%) and CHO (76±3%). Average oral energy intake was 2656±242 kcal/day (39±3 kcal/kg/day) and oral protein intake was 1.4 ±0.1 g/kg/d. Oral food/beverage intake constituted 49±4% of total (enteral + parenteral) daily fluid intake, 66±4% of total daily kcal and 58±5% of total daily N intake. Oral fat intake averaged 92±11g/day (? 35% of total oral energy). Oral fluid intake averaged 2712±240 ml/d, primarily from water, soft drinks, sweet tea and coffee. Simple sugars comprised 42±3% of oral CHO intake. Usual dietary intake of multiple micronutrients were below the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in a large percentage of patients: vitamin A (47%), vitamin D (79%), vitamin E (79%), vitamin K (63%), thiamine (42%), vitamin B6 (68%), vitamin B12 (11%), vitamin C (58%), folate (37%), iron (37%), calcium (63%), magnesium (79%) and zinc (68%). Only 7 patients (37%) were taking oral multivitamin-mineral supplements and only 6 subjects (37%) were taking oral iron and calcium supplements, respectively. Conclusions In these SBS patients living in the Southeastern United States, oral diet provides a significant proportion of daily nutrient intake. However, the types of foods and fluids consumed are likely to worsen malabsorption and increase PN requirements. Oral intake of essential micronutrients was very low in a significant proportion of this cohort of SBS patients. PMID:18328409

Fernández-Estívariz, Concepción; Luo, Menghua; Umeakunne, Kay; Bazargan, Niloofar; Galloway, John R.; Leader, Lorraine M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

2008-01-01

276

Food items contributing most to variation in antioxidant intake; a cross-sectional study among Norwegian women  

PubMed Central

Background Fruit and vegetable intake has been found to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer and diabetes mellitus. It is possible that antioxidants play a large part in this protective effect. However, which foods account for the variation in antioxidant intake in a population is not very clear. We used food frequency data from a population-based sample of women to identify the food items that contributed most to the variation in antioxidant intake in Norwegian diet. Methods We used data from a study conducted among participants in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP), the national program which invites women aged 50–69 years to mammographic screening every 2 years. A subset of 6514 women who attended the screening in 2006/2007 completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Daily intake of energy, nutrients and antioxidant intake were estimated. We used multiple linear regression analysis to capture the variation in antioxidant intake. Results The mean (SD) antioxidant intake was 23.0 (8.5) mmol/day. Coffee consumption explained 54% of the variation in antioxidant intake, while fruits and vegetables explained 22%. The twenty food items that contributed most to the total variation in antioxidant intake explained 98% of the variation in intake. These included different types of coffee, tea, red wine, blueberries, walnuts, oranges, cinnamon and broccoli. Conclusions In this study we identified a list of food items which capture the variation in antioxidant intake among these women. The major contributors to dietary total antioxidant intake were coffee, tea, red wine, blueberries, walnuts, oranges, cinnamon and broccoli. These items should be assessed in as much detail as possible in studies that wish to capture the variation in antioxidant intake. PMID:24433390

2014-01-01

277

Tractor Operation and Daily Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for the tractor operator, the manual describes, with the aid of colored illustrations and diagrams, the tasks involved in the proper operation and daily maintenance of tractors. It offers explanations for the desirability of the various servicing and adjustment operations, as well as guidelines for tractor operation and safety. The…

Fore, J. M.; And Others

278

Daily Log 2009 September 2009  

E-print Network

Location: Parking Lot I Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Two vehicle accident; no injuries. #12;Daily Location: Lot E Disposition: Report--Open Comments: Student parking permit taken from unlocked vehicle to hospital by ambulance. Report #: 2009-00486 Reported: 09/29/09 2116 Occurred: Same Incident: Traffic Crash

Boyce, Richard L.

279

2011 Daily Log February 2011  

E-print Network

: 02/28/2011 1349 Incident: Traffic Crash Location: Lot D Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Two: 02/26/2011 Incident: Hit and Skip Location: Lot P Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Unknown vehicle struck parked vehicle and left the scene. #12;2011 Daily Log Report #: 2011-00110 Reported: 02

Boyce, Richard L.

280

Web searching for daily living  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new concept proposed in this paper is a query free web search that automatically retrieves a web page including information re- lated to the daily activity that we are currently engaged in for auto- matically displaying the page on Internet-connected domestic ap- pliances around us such as televisions. When we are washing a coffee maker, for example, a web

Takuya Maekawa; Yutaka Yanagisawa; Yasushi Sakurai; Yasue Kishino; Koji Kamei; Takeshi Okadome

2009-01-01

281

2010 Daily Log January 2010  

E-print Network

off the road and into a ditch; no injuries. #12;2010 Daily Log Report #: 2010-00042 Reported: 01: 01/31/10 1852 Occurred: Same Incident: Traffic Stop Location: Johns Hill Road Disposition: Citation vehicle accident with injuries; vehicle towed. Report #: 2010-00047 Reported: 01/28/10 2113 Occurred: Same

Boyce, Richard L.

282

Estimate of intake of benzoic acid in the Belgian adult population.  

PubMed

An exposure assessment was performed to estimate average daily benzoic acid intake for Belgian adults. Food consumption data were retrieved from the national food-consumption survey. As a first step, individual food-consumption data were multiplied with the maximum permitted use levels for benzoic acid per food group (Tier 2). As a second step, a label survey to identify the foods where benzoic acid is effectively used as an additive and a literature review of the possible occurrence of benzoic acid as a natural substance were performed. With this information, a refined list of foods was drafted for the quantification of benzoic acid, which was performed by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, optimized and validated for this purpose. Individual food-consumption data were then multiplied with the actual average concentrations of benzoic acid per food group (Tier 3). Usual intakes were calculated using the Nusser method. The mean benzoic acid intake was 1.58 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) (Tier 2) and 1.25 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) (Tier 3). In Tier 2, men exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 5 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) at the 99th percentile. The greatest contributors to the benzoic acid intake were soft drinks. Benzoic acid as a natural substance represents only a small percentage of the total intake. The results show that actual benzoic acid intake is very likely to be below the ADI. However, there is a need to collect national food-consumption data for children as they might be more vulnerable to an excessive intake. PMID:19680971

Vandevijvere, S; Andjelkovic, M; De Wil, M; Vinkx, C; Huybrechts, I; Van Loco, J; Van Oyen, H; Goeyens, L

2009-07-01

283

Current dietary salt intake of Japanese individuals assessed during health check-up.  

PubMed

Excess salt intake is a risk factor for increased blood pressure (BP) and hypertension. To prevent hypertension, the reduction of salt intake is promoted in many countries. For people with hypertension or cardiovascular disease (CVD), a more severe restriction of salt intake is indispensable. Japanese individuals consume high quantities of salt, and it is thus important to determine the degree to which the salt intake of these individuals has been restricted. Here, we investigated the current level of salt consumption of Japanese individuals using data obtained during annual health check-ups. A total of 10?762 individuals were assessed who underwent annual health check-ups at our institution in 2011. The estimated daily salt intake (EDSI) was calculated using spot urine samples. The average EDSI was 7.83±2.02?g per day. BP increased in proportion to the EDSI, and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the EDSI was a significant and independent risk factor for hypertension. The average EDSI of the subjects with hypertension or a history of CVD was higher than that of the subjects without these diseases. The subjects who drank more heavily showed higher EDSIs. This study demonstrated that the average EDSI of the subjects needing to restrict their salt intake because of past or present illnesses was high. To achieve adherence to the recommended reduction of salt intake, more efforts are required. PMID:25354779

Toda, Akiko; Ishizaka, Yuko; Tani, Mizuki; Yamakado, Minoru

2015-02-01

284

Predictors of dietary heterocyclic amine intake in three prospective cohorts.  

PubMed

Cooking meat creates heterocyclic amines (HCAs) through pyrolysis of amino acids and creatinine. Although recognized as mutagenic, the etiological role of HCA in human cancer is unclear, due to the lack of information on the effect of typical food cooking methods on HCA concentrations and on variation in HCA exposure in populations. We estimated overall daily dietary HCA intake and variation in intake between individuals, using recent data on HCA concentrations in various meats prepared by cooking methods, temperatures, and times common in United States in the 1990s. Random samples of 250 participants from each of three large prospective cohorts were mailed a questionnaire to assess frequency of consumption, cooking method, and typical outside appearance of pan-fried, broiled, and grilled or barbecued chicken, fish, hamburger, and steak; fried, microwaved, and broiled bacon; fried sausage; roast beef; and homemade gravy. The 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5,f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) concentrations, measured in composite samples by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography, were assigned to each food, cooking method, and doneness level. The dietary reports showed approximately 30-fold relative variation in 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline intake, 20-fold for 2-amino- -methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, and over 110-fold for 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5,f]quinoxaline, when the 10th and 90th percentiles of HCA intake were compared (90th/10th percentile value). These reported variations in HCA exposure among participants in these three large cohorts indicates that estimation of HCA intake and determination of association with disease risk are feasible, if additional information on meat cooking methods is obtained. PMID:9641497

Byrne, C; Sinha, R; Platz, E A; Giovannucci, E; Colditz, G A; Hunter, D J; Speizer, F E; Willett, W C

1998-06-01

285

The effect of milk intake on forage intake and growth of nursing calves.  

PubMed

Thirty-nine Holstein steer calves were assigned to one of five treatments at birth and individually fed for 200 d with milk replacer reconstituted to equal the fat and protein concentration of beef cow milk. Treatment levels were the quantities of reconstituted milk fed per day based on lactation curves, which were based on peak milk levels (PML) of 2.72, 5.44, 8.16, 10.88, and 13.6 kg/d, respectively. In addition to reconstituted milk, chopped alfalfa hay was offered ad libitum to allow for maximal voluntary forage consumption. All calves were fed a high-energy diet postweaning until they reached a similar degree of fatness in the 12th rib (4 to 5% chemical fat) as determined by ultrasound. There were differences (P < 0.05) among groups in weaning weight, preweaning ADG, age, and weight at slaughter. During the preweaning phase, there was a linear relationship (P < 0.01) for daily milk and forage DE intake; however, DE intake per unit of BW did not differ across treatments (P = 0.06). Increasing PML resulted in a linear (P < 0.01) decrease in alfalfa hay intake in the preweaning phase, and G:F increased quadratically (P < 0.01). During the postweaning phase, preweaning milk intake had no meaningful effect on postweaning ADG, but overall ADG had a linear relationship (P < 0.01) with preweaning milk level. There was no effect of PML on the 12th-rib lipid percent, marbling score, or quality grade, but protein and fat concentration in the carcass and empty BW increased linearly (P < 0.01) with PML. The group fed at 2.72 kg/d PML was 58 kg lighter (P = 0.03) and required 34 d more (P < 0.01) to reach the predetermined degree of fatness at slaughter than the group fed at 13.6 kg/d PML, suggesting that increased milk production by the dam can decrease the number of days to the slaughter weight at which a similar rib lipid concentration is reached. PMID:15753351

Abdelsamei, A H; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Thonney, M L; Ketchen, D J; Stouffer, J R

2005-04-01

286

The effects of feeding time on milk production, total-tract digestibility, and daily rhythms of feeding behavior and plasma metabolites and hormones in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The timing of feed intake entrains circadian rhythms regulated by internal clocks in many mammals. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of feeding entrains daily rhythms in dairy cows. Nine Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. An automated system recorded the timing of feed intake over the last 7 d of each period. Treatments were feeding 1×/d at 0830 h (AM) or 2030 h (PM) and feeding 2×/d in equal amounts at 0830 and 2030 h. All treatments were fed at 110% of daily intake. Cows were milked 2×/d at 0500 and 1700 h. Milk yield and composition were not changed by treatment. Daily intake did not differ, but twice-daily feeding tended to decrease total-tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). A treatment by time of day interaction was observed for feeding behavior. The amount of feed consumed in the first 2h after feeding was 70% greater for PM compared with AM feeding. A low rate of intake overnight (2400 to 0500 h; 2.2 ± 0.74% daily intake/h, mean ± SD) and a moderate rate of intake in the afternoon (1200 to 1700 h; 4.8 ± 1.1% daily intake/h) was noted for all treatments, although PM slightly reduced the rate during the afternoon period compared with AM. A treatment by time of day interaction was seen for fecal NDF and indigestible NDF (iNDF) concentration, blood urea nitrogen, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, body temperature, and lying behavior. Specifically, insulin increased and glucose decreased more after evening feeding than after morning feeding. A cosine function within a 24-h period was used to characterize daily rhythms using a random regression. Rate of feed intake during spontaneous feeding, fecal NDF and iNDF concentration, plasma glucose, insulin, NEFA, body temperature, and lying behavior fit a cosine function within a 24-h period that was modified by treatment. In conclusion, feeding time can reset the daily rhythms of feeding and lying behavior, core body temperature, fecal NDF and iNDF concentration, and plasma blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and insulin concentration of dairy cows, but has no effect on daily DMI and milk production. PMID:25306274

Niu, M; Ying, Y; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

2014-12-01

287

UVIS CCD Daily Monitor A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program obtains full-frame, four-amp readout bias and dark frames as part of a daily monitor of the behavior of the WFC3/UVIS CCD. All images are post-flashed at a level of 12 e-; a separate program {13559} will be used to obtain un-flashed UVIS darks to monitor non-postflashed behavior. The frames from this proposal, in addition to those that are obtained as part of the WFC3/UVIS anneal program {13554}, will be used to create superbias and superdark calibration reference files for the Calibration Database System {CDBS}.This is the first of three daily monitoring programs of Cycle 21 {the others are 13557 and 13558}. It covers November 2, 2013 through February 24, 2014. The combination of the three programs provides full coverage of Cycle 21.

Bourque, Matthew

2013-10-01

288

UVIS CCD Daily Monitor C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program obtains full-frame, four-amp readout bias and dark frames as part of a daily monitor of the behavior of the WFC3/UVIS CCD. All images are post-flashed at a level of 12 e-; a separate program {13559} will be used to obtain un-flashed UVIS darks to monitor non-postflashed behavior. The frames from this program, in addition to those that are obtained as part of the WFC3/UVIS anneal program {13554}, will be used to create superbias and superdark calibration reference files for the Calibration Database System {CDBS}.This program is the second of three daily monitoring programs of Cycle 21 {the others being 13556 and 13557}. This program spans June 18, 2013 through November 4, 2014. The combination of this and the other programs span the entirety of Cycle 21.

Bourque, Matthew

2013-10-01

289

UVIS CCD Daily Monitor B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program obtains full-frame, four-amp readout bias and dark frames as part of a daily monitor of the behavior of the WFC3/UVIS CCD. All images are post-flashed at a level of 12 e-; a separate program {13559} will be used to obtain un-flashed UVIS darks to monitor non-postflashed behavior. The frames from this program, in addition to those that are obtained as part of the WFC3/UVIS anneal program {13554}, will be used to create superbias and superdark calibration reference files for the Calibration Database System {CDBS}.This program is the second of three daily monitoring programs of Cycle 21 {the others being 13556 and 13558}. This program spans February 24, 2013 through June 18, 2014. The combination of this and the other programs span the entirety of Cycle 21.

Bourque, Matthew

2013-10-01

290

Fat intake and cardiovascular response  

Microsoft Academic Search

High dietary fat intake is a major risk factor for the development of obesity, which is frequently associated with diseases such as hypertension and diabetes and thus accelerated atherosclerosis. Angiotensin II and endothelin-1 are powerful growth factors and vasoconstrictors implicated in regulating vascular tone, vascular structure, and inflammation. Reduced bioactivity of nitric oxide and increased formation of reactive oxygen species

Matthias Barton

2008-01-01

291

Sugar intake, obesity, and diabetes in India.  

PubMed

Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing "epidemic" of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

2014-12-01

292

Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India  

PubMed Central

Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

2014-01-01

293

Gastrointestinal Side Effects and Adequacy of Enteral Intake in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patients.  

PubMed

Background: Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) can experience gastrointestinal (GI) side effects as a complication of the treatment. Limited research exists describing how the duration and severity of GI side effects influence the consumption of adequate calorie intake in this population. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in GI side effects between patients who consumed adequate calories compared with those who did not. Methods: The MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Gastrointestinal (MDASI-GI) tool was used to record daily GI side effects of 72 HSCT patients. Daily calorie intake was determined via calorie counts. Data were collected from day of transplant until engraftment. Results: Median percentage of caloric needs consumed for all patients was 49.2% (interquartile range, 35.1-66.6). Calorie intake decreased from baseline to transplant day 8 as severity of GI symptoms increased. An inverse relationship between percentage of caloric needs met and MDASI-GI component score, MDASI-GI symptom score, and lack of appetite score was observed. The only significant difference in MDASI-GI symptom scores between those who consumed adequate calories and those who consumed inadequate calories was for diarrhea; subjects who consumed >60% of caloric needs had significantly lower median diarrhea scores. Conclusion: Most patients consumed <60% of their caloric needs from time of transplant to time of engraftment. More research is needed to provide insight into strategies to increase intake and to describe the implications of prolonged inadequate intake in HSCT patients. PMID:25227122

Walrath, Maegan; Bacon, Cheryl; Foley, Sharon; Fung, Henry C

2014-09-16

294

The effect of dietary carbohydrate:fat ratio on energy intake by adult women.  

PubMed

The effect of the dietary carbohydrate:fat (C:F) ratio on the spontaneous energy intake by healthy adults was investigated by comparing a high-carbohydrate diet (fat 24%, carbohydrate 58%, protein 18% of energy) and a high-fat diet (fat 47%, carbohydrate 35%, protein 18% of energy) in a 2 X 2 week cross-over design. Subjects were 22 healthy nuns in a Trappist convent with very regular activities. The diets consisted of combinations of liquid formula (75%) and standardized snacks (25%). The difference in C:F ratio was concealed: energy density, taste and appearance were similar. Energy consumption was recorded continuously. The mean daily energy intakes remained constant: 8276 kJ (1978 kcal). The difference in mean daily energy intake between diets was 73 kJ +/- 180 (SEM). Small changes in body weight were observed, but these are argued not to indicate definitive effects. It is concluded that changing the C:F ratio within commonly occurring ranges does not influence the spontaneous energy intake of healthy adults. The composition of the dietary fat was kept constant. Under practical conditions a change in the C:F ratio will also induce a change in the fatty acid composition of the diet, which might affect the energy intake regulation. Other experiments are required to see whether the C:F ratio can affect body composition or other physiological parameters in the long run. PMID:623041

van Stratum, P; Lussenburg, R N; van Wezel, L A; Vergroesen, A J; Cremer, H D

1978-02-01

295

[Food intake during the month of Ramadan in Moroccan patients with type 2 diabetes].  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the daily dietary intake of type 2 diabetes patients attending Mohamed VI hospital in Marrakech during Ramadan 2010. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected by interview, and qualitative and quantitative food intake, based on French nutritional tables, was assessed by a dietician. Of the 71 patients recruited, 55% were fasting. The average age of participants was 56.3 (SD 11,2) years. There were no statistically significant clinical differences between the fasting and nonfasting groups except for overweight/obesity and insulin dependence, which were more prevalent in the nonfasting group. The mean total daily caloric intake was significantly lower in the fasting than nonfasting group [1447.5 (SD 756.3) versus 1919.0 (SD 823.4) Kcal/d], as was the carbohydrate, lipid and protein intake. Carbohydrate intake was 57% and 56% of total calories. Overall during Ramadan the diet of the fasting group was calorie deficient and inadequate while for non-fasters it was excessive, which put them at risk of complications. Nutritional education may be needed for diabetic patients for Ramadan. PMID:23879080

Sebbani, M; El Ansari, N; El Mghari, G; Amine, M

2013-03-01

296

Skeletal benefits from calcium supplementation are limited in children with calcium intakes near 800 mg daily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and Hypothesis  Calcium supplementation enhances bone mass accrual during administration, with a sustained benefit observed using milk-based calcium but not calcium salts. We tested the hypothesis that calcium from milk minerals but not calcium carbonate will be sustained after supplementation was discontinued.Methods  Ninety-nine pre-pubertal boys and girls aged 5–11 years were followed for 12 months after being randomized to receive 800 mg\\/day of calcium

S. Iuliano-Burns; X.-F. Wang; A. Evans; J.-P. Bonjour; E. Seeman

2006-01-01

297

Amounts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in German foods and evaluation of daily intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantities of the biologically active isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) – C18:2 c9t11 – in 139 German foods were\\u000a analysed by capillary gas chromatography (results are given as a % of all identified fatty acid methyl esters). The CLA content\\u000a ranged from 0.40% (Gouda) to 1.70% (Jurassic cheese, Old Emmentaler) in dairy products, from 0.11% (rabbit) to 1.20%

Jan Fritsche; Hans Steinhart

1998-01-01

298

DAILY INTAKE ESTIMATES OF PBDES ASSOCIATED WITH CONSUMPTION OF CATFISH IN THE U.S.  

EPA Science Inventory

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in a wide variety of consumer products. Concerns surrounding these compounds are primarily due do their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as in human tissue, such as milk, coupled with evidence indi...

299

Dietary fibers reduce food intake by satiation without conditioned taste aversion in mice.  

PubMed

It is well known that intake of dietary fiber (DF) potently decreases food intake and feelings of hunger and/or promotes satiety ratings. However, the mechanisms explaining these effects are not well characterized. This work was performed to determine which of satiation and/or satiety mechanisms provoke the decrease of food intake induced by DF in mice. We tested in an intra-group protocol a low-viscosity (LV, fructo-oligosaccharide), a viscous (VP, guar gum) and a high-viscosity (HV, mixture of guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharide) preload. These were given to mice by intra-gastric gavage. It appeared that viscous preloads such as VP and HV reduced the daily energy intake by 14% and 21% respectively. The strong effect of HV was mainly due to a large decrease of meal size (by 57%) and meal duration (by 65%) with no effect on ingestion rate during the first 30 min after administration. Therefore, the DF-induced decrease of energy intake was due to a satiation mechanism. This is further supported by a 3-fold increased sensitization of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract as observed by c-Fos protein immunolabelling. No compensation of food intake was observed during the rest of the day, a phenomenon that may be explained by the fact that metabolic rate remained high despite the lower food intake. We have also shown that the DF-induced inhibition of food intake was not paired with a conditioned taste aversion. To conclude, this work demonstrates that DF inhibits food intake by increasing satiation during ~1h after administration. PMID:23268328

Rasoamanana, Rojo; Even, Patrick C; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

2013-02-17

300

Effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance, nutrient intake, and digestibility in hair-breed sheep.  

PubMed

Twelve Dorper × Pelibuey wether lambs (26.8 ± 1.6 kg initial BW, 5 mo of age) were used to evaluate effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance, and effects of ZH and ZH supplementation period (15 and 30 d) on nutrient intake and digestibility. Lambs were blocked by initial BW, and assigned randomly within BW blocks to 1 of 2 treatments: i) control (no ZH), and ii) supplemented with ZH (10 mg ZH/wether lamb daily). Measurements of intake and digestibility were performed on d 9 to 15 and 24 to 30. Feedlot performance data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design, and nutrient intake and digestibility data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Final BW, ADG, total BW gain, and G:F were greater (P ? 0.04) for ZH than for control lambs. No treatment × feeding duration interaction for nutrient intake and apparent total tract digestibility were observed (P > 0.05). Intake of DM, OM, CP, and GE were less (P ? 0.03) for ZH than for control. Lambs fed for 30 d had greater (P ? 0.04) NDF and GE intake compared with those fed for 15 d. Total tract digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, and ADF (P ? 0.03) was less for ZH than control. Furthermore, calculated DE, ME, and TDN intake decreased (P < 0.01) with ZH supplementation. Also, DM, CP, and ether extract(EE) digestibility were greater (P < 0.01) for 30 d than for 15 d. Additionally, greater (P ? 0.01) DE, ME, and TDN intake was observed for 30 d compared with 15 d. In conclusion, ZH supplementation of wether lambs consuming feedlot diets resulted in improved feedlot performance and reduced the intake and digestibility of some nutrients. PMID:23345549

Macías-Cruz, U; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F D; Soto-Navarro, S A; Aguila-Tepato, E; Avendaño-Reyes, L

2013-04-01

301

Control of Food Intake in the Obese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food intake (eating) is a form of behavior that is subject to conscious control. In practice, many obese and weight-gaining individuals claim that their eating is out of (their) control. Mechanistic models describe the interplay of biological and environmental forces that control food intake. However, because human food intake is characterized by individuals intervening to adjust their own patterns of

John E. Blundell; Angela Gillett

2001-01-01

302

Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe.  

PubMed

Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative dietary survey data from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Dietary intake information was evaluated for intakes of Ca, Cu, I, Fe, Mg, K, Se, Zn and the vitamins A, B?, B?, B?, B??, C, D, E and folate. The mean and 5th percentile of the intake distributions were estimated for these countries, for a number of defined sex and age groups. The percentages of those with intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake and the estimated average requirement were calculated. Reference intakes were derived from the UK and Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The impact of dietary supplement intake as well as inclusion of apparently low energy reporters on the estimates was evaluated. Except for vitamin D, the present study suggests that the current intakes of vitamins from foods lead to low risk of low intakes in all age and sex groups. For current minerals, the study suggests that the risk of low intakes is likely to appear more often in specific age groups. In spite of the limitations of the data, the present study provides valuable new information about micronutrient intakes across Europe and the likelihood of inadequacy country by country. PMID:23312136

Mensink, G B M; Fletcher, R; Gurinovic, M; Huybrechts, I; Lafay, L; Serra-Majem, L; Szponar, L; Tetens, I; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Baka, A; Stephen, A M

2013-08-01

303

Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

2013-01-01

304

Individual and familial factors associated with fruit and vegetable intake among 11- to 14-year-old Romanian school children.  

PubMed

The healthy nutrition guidelines proposed by international research institutes and the World Health Organization recommend a daily intake of fruit and vegetables of at least 400 g, representing five servings a day (each serving contains around 80 g). Moreover, the recommendations stress the importance of consuming both fruit and vegetables daily, preferably at least two portions of fruit and three portions of vegetables per day. To efficiently develop interventions for promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among children, it is essential to identify and understand the factors that influence these behaviours. The present study aims at identifying the individual and familial factors which influence fruit and vegetable consumption among Romanian children. A cross-sectional survey by means of anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 361 school children, aged 11-14, from Cluj-Napoca, Romania (April-May 2011). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake. The results show that 44.6% of the children met the recommendations regarding fruit intake, while 9.1% of the children declared eating the daily recommended portions of vegetables. Knowledge regarding the recommended number of daily servings and higher self-efficacy concerning the intake of fruit and vegetables every day were positively associated with higher consumption of fruit and vegetables. Fruit preference also influenced positively the consumption of fruit. The familial factor associated with vegetable intake was the perceived behaviour of the mother, while fruit intake was higher among children who declared higher fruit availability at home. Hence, it is necessary to develop in Romania nutrition interventions addressing the determinants of fruit and vegetable intake as identified by this study; these interventions should target both children and parents. PMID:25323566

Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Tutui, Iulia

2014-10-17

305

A STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORT ON INTAKE TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents an updated evaluation of mechanisms and intake designs for reducing the number of fish entrained and impinged at water intake facilities. These mechanisms consist of intake configurations, behavioral barriers for guiding fish past intake entrances, physical sc...

306

Patterns of nutrients’ intake at six months in the northeast of Italy: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Adequate complementary feeding is recognized as an important predictor of health later in life. The objective of this study was to describe the feeding practices and nutrients’ intake, and their association with breastfeeding at six months of age, in a cohort of infants enrolled at birth in the maternity hospital of Trieste, Italy. Methods Out of 400 infants enrolled at birth, 268 (67%) had complete data gathered through a 24-hour feeding diary on three separate days at six months, and two questionnaires administered at birth and at six months. Data from feeding diaries were used to estimate nutrients’ intakes using the Italian food composition database included in the software. To estimate the quantity of breastmilk, information was gathered on the frequency and length of breastfeeds. Results At six months, 70% of infants were breastfed and 94% were given complementary foods. The average daily caloric intake was higher in non-breastfed (723 Kcal) than in breastfed infants (547 Kcal, p?intakes of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. The mean intake of macronutrients was within recommended ranges in both groups, except for the higher protein intake in non-breastfed infants. These consumed significantly higher quantities of commercial baby foods than breastfed infants. Conclusions Contrary to what is recommended, 94% of infants were not exclusively breastfed and were given complementary foods at six months. The proportion of daily energy intake from complementary foods was around 50% higher than recommended and with significant differences between breastfed and non-breastfed infants, with possible consequences for future nutrition and health. PMID:24884789

2014-01-01

307

Headache and mechanical sensitization of human pericranial muscles after repeated intake of monosodium glutamate (MSG)  

PubMed Central

Background A single intake of monosodium glutamate (MSG) may cause headache and increased muscle sensitivity. We conducted a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study to examine the effect of repeated MSG intake on spontaneous pain, mechanical sensitivity of masticatory muscles, side effects, and blood pressure. Methods Fourteen healthy subjects participated in 5 daily sessions for one week of MSG intake (150?mg/kg) or placebo (24?mg/kg NaCl) (randomized, double-blinded). Spontaneous pain, pressure pain thresholds and tolerance levels for the masseter and temporalis muscles, side effects, and blood pressure were evaluated before and 15, 30, and 50?min after MSG intake. Whole saliva samples were taken before and 30?min after MSG intake to assess glutamate concentrations. Results Headache occurred in 8/14 subjects during MSG and 2/14 during placebo (P = 0.041). Salivary glutamate concentrations on Day 5 were elevated significantly (P < 0.05). Pressure pain thresholds in masseter muscle were reduced by MSG on Day 2 and 5 (P < 0.05). Blood pressure was significantly elevated after MSG (P < 0.040). Conclusion In conclusion, MSG induced mechanical sensitization in masseter muscle and adverse effects such as headache and short-lasting blood pressure elevation for which tolerance did not develop over 5?days of MSG intake. PMID:23565943

2013-01-01

308

Oxytocin knockout mice demonstrate enhanced intake of sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions.  

PubMed

Oxytocin knockout (OT KO) mice display enhanced intake of nutritive and nonnutritive sweet solutions (i.e., sucrose and saccharin) compared with wild-type (WT) mice of the same C57BL/6 background strain. The present study further investigated the differential behavioral response of OT KO and WT mice to sucrose solutions and also examined intake preferences of OT KO and WT mice for palatable but nonsweet isocaloric solutions of carbohydrate and fat. A progressive ratio operant licking procedure demonstrated that OT KO and WT mice display a similar motivational drive to consume 10% sucrose. A series of two-bottle intake tests revealed that OT KO mice consume significantly larger amounts of both sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions (i.e., sucrose, Polycose, and cornstarch) compared with WT cohorts. Intake pattern analyses revealed that OT KO mice overconsume carbohydrate solutions by initiating more drinking bouts compared with WT mice; bout sizes did not differ between the genotypes. In contrast, OT KO and WT mice did not differ in their intake of Intralipid, a palatable soybean oil emulsion. These findings indicate that the absence of OT in mice does not affect their appetitive drive to consume palatable sucrose solutions. Instead, the absence of OT may increase daily intake of palatable sweet and nonsweet solutions of carbohydrate (but not fat) by selectively blunting or masking processes that contribute to postingestive satiety. PMID:17272659

Sclafani, Anthony; Rinaman, Linda; Vollmer, Regis R; Amico, Janet A

2007-05-01

309

Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

2014-01-01

310

Daily cycles in coastal dunes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.

1988-01-01

311

Once-daily aminoglycoside therapy.  

PubMed Central

The once-daily administration of aminoglycosides is an attractive concept. In animal experiments and clinical trials, there is either a reduction in or no influence on the risk of toxicity. Less frequent dosing reduces the contact time between host tissue binding sites and drug. Thanks to the PAE and perhaps other as-yet-unrecognized factors, the fall in the level in serum below the MIC does not appear to impair antibacterial efficacy; in fact, the higher peak level in serum may enhance drug efficacy early in a dosage interval. In neutropenic patients, the in vivo PAE may be lost or small-colony variants with a shorter PAE may be selected unless a concomitant beta-lactam is administered. Because it will be some time before data from clinical trials in the United States are available, because the results from the international trials are encouraging, and because there is potential benefit to patients, it seems reasonable for infectious diseases consultants to cautiously initiate the educational process necessary to implement once-daily aminoglycoside therapy in their institutions. PMID:2039189

Gilbert, D N

1991-01-01

312

Daily Medicine Record for Your Child  

MedlinePLUS

... and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Safely Daily Medicine Record for Your Child (English) (PDF version - 97KB) Why ... 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) Time ...

313

27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records...accurate and complete daily records of production operations. It is not...

2014-04-01

314

27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records...accurate and complete daily records of production operations. It is not...

2013-04-01

315

27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records...accurate and complete daily records of production operations. It is not...

2011-04-01

316

27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records...accurate and complete daily records of production operations. It is not...

2012-04-01

317

Food intake and energy expenditure of Nigerian female students.  

PubMed

Twenty apparently healthy and normal Nigerian female students, resident at the University of Ibadan campus, were studied for seven consecutive days to assess their food energy intake and energy expenditure during sedentary and physical activities. The mean age (years) of the group was 20.05 (SD 3.44, range 16-29), mean height (m) 1.62 (SD 0.07, range 1.47-1.74) and body-weight (kg) 51.28 (SD 3.21, range 46-58). The food intake of each subject was obtained by direct weighing, and the energy value determined using a ballistic bomb calorimeter. Daily activities were recorded and the energy cost of representative activities was determined by indirect calorimetry. Activities mainly involved sitting, mean (min/d) 354 (SD 84, range 253-475). Personal domestic activities took a mean of 162 (SD 73) min/d. Sleeping took a mean of 451 (SD 62) min/d. The mean energy intake of the group was 8480 (SD 1316) kJ/d or 167 (SD 30.6) kJ/kg body-weight per d. This value is lower than that recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) (1973) as the energy requirement for adult women engaged in light activities (9205 kJ/d), but it is higher than the FAO/WHO/United Nations University (UNU) (1985) recommended value of 8326 kJ (1990 kcal)/d for a housewife in an affluent society. It is lower than the recommended intake of 9350 kJ/d for rural women in developing countries (FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985). The mean energy expenditure (kJ/d) of the female subjects was 6865 (SD 214, range 6519-7222). Mean energy expenditure was lower than mean energy intake. The energy intake and expenditure values indicated that the subjects participating in the present study were not physically very active. It is suggested, for health reasons, that they might undertake more physical activity. PMID:3593664

Cole, A H; Ogungbe, R F

1987-05-01

318

2, 11471183, 2005 A daily salt balance  

E-print Network

HESSD 2, 1147­1183, 2005 A daily salt balance model for streamflow generation M. A. Bari and K. R Sciences A daily salt balance model for representing stream salinity generation process following land use­1183, 2005 A daily salt balance model for streamflow generation M. A. Bari and K. R. J. Smettem Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

319

Daily enteral feeding practice on the ICU: attainment of goals and interfering factors  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the daily feeding practice of enterally fed patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) and to study the impact of preset factors in reaching predefined optimal nutritional goals. Methods The feeding practice of all ICU patients receiving enteral nutrition for at least 48 hours was recorded during a 1-year period. Actual intake was expressed as the percentage of the prescribed volume of formula (a success is defined as 90% or more). Prescribed volume (optimal intake) was guided by protocol but adjusted to individual patient conditions by the intensivist. The potential barriers to the success of feeding were assessed by multivariate analysis. Results Four-hundred-and-three eligible patients had a total of 3,526 records of feeding days. The desired intake was successful in 52% (1,842 of 3,526) of feeding days. The percentage of successful feeding days increased from 39% (124 of 316) on day 1 to 51% (112 of 218) on day 5. Average ideal protein intake was 54% (95% confidence interval (CI) 52 to 55), energy intake was 66% (95% CI 65 to 68) and volume 75% (95% CI 74 to 76). Factors impeding successful nutrition were the use of the feeding tube to deliver contrast, the need for prokinetic drugs, a high Therapeutic Intervention Score System category and elective admissions. Conclusion The records revealed an unsatisfactory feeding process. A better use of relative successful volume intake, namely increasing the energy and protein density, could enhance the nutritional yield. Factors such as an improper use of tubes and feeding intolerance were related to failure. Meticulous recording of intake and interfering factors helps to uncover inadequacies in ICU feeding practice. PMID:15987393

Binnekade, JM; Tepaske, R; Bruynzeel, P; Mathus-Vliegen, EMH; de Hann, RJ

2005-01-01

320

Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners: different effects on ad libitum food intake and body weight after 10 wk of supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The role of artificial sweeteners in body-weight reg- ulation is still unclear. Objective: We investigated the effect of long-term supplementa- tion with drinks and foods containing either sucrose or artificial sweeteners on ad libitum food intake and body weight in over- weight subjects. Design: For 10 wk, overweight men and women consumed daily supplements of either sucrose (n =

Anne Raben; Tatjana H Vasilaras; A Christina Møller; Arne Astrup

321

Geographic Distribution of Liver and Stomach Cancers in Thailand in Relation to Estimated Dietary Intake of Nitrate, Nitrite, and Nitrosodimethylamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is our working hypothesis that the high rate of the liver and gastric cancers in North and Northeast Thailand is associated with increased daily dietary intake of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Samples of fresh and preserved Thai foods were systematically collected and analyzed from 1988 to 1996 and from 1998 to 2005. Consumption frequencies of various food items

Eugene J. Mitacek; Klaus D. Brunnemann; Maitree Suttajit; Lee S. Caplan; Claude E. Gagna; Kris Bhothisuwan; Sirithon Siriamornpun; Charles F. Hummel; Hiroshi Ohshima; Ranja Roy; Nimit Martin

2008-01-01

322

Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions.  

PubMed

In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light-dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light-dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high-amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light-dark cycle. PMID:25263204

Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

2014-09-01

323

Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light–dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light–dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high?amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light–dark cycle. PMID:25263204

Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R.; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

2014-01-01

324

Sleep and chronic daily headache.  

PubMed

Sleep and headache have a complex and extensive interrelationship. This review focuses on the relationship between sleep and chronic daily headache, examining recent advances in the epidemiology and insights into possible mechanisms of this relationship as well as reviewing advances in treatment. There is a clear relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and snoring and morning headache, but the relationship between OSA and snoring and other primary headaches requires clarification. OSA and chronic migraine share both obesity and patent foramen ovale (PFO) as possible co-morbidities. Hypoxia does not clearly predispose to morning headache. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an established treatment for OSA, and mixed results have been reported with regards to headache improvement with this treatment. PMID:25416461

Stark, Catherine Diana; Stark, Richard James

2015-01-01

325

Total Maximum Daily Load Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides this informative resource on Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL). A term used to discuss water quality, TMDL refers to "a calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and still meet water quality standards." The TMDL Program Website offers background information on TMDLs (including FAQs), a National Overview of Impaired Waters in the US, and two standard presentations on TMDLs (HTML and Power Point). The heart of the site, however, is the interactive map of the US, which allows users access to each state's TMDL Program. Within each state, watershed names and maps, as well as source information (Water body, Parameter of Concern, Priority for TMDL Development), are provided.

326

Sodium and Potassium Intake of Urban Dwellers: Nothing Changed in Yazd, Iran  

PubMed Central

To assess the daily salt intake of people aged 20-74 years based on the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion in urban population of Yazd, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted. This is a substudy of Yazd Healthy Heart Project in Iran. From 2004 to 2005, two thousand people of the urban population of Yazd city, aged 20-74 years, were enrolled in the main study. Overall, 219 volunteer participants of 20-70 years were enrolled in this substudy. Sample frame was the household numbers according to the database of Yazd City Health Services. Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and creatinine were measured in the urine samples collected from the participants over a 24-hour period. Sodium content in urine over 24 hours was 171.7±82.9 mmol/day in males and 127.8±56.1 mmol/day in females (p<0.0001) while potassium content was 49.4±23.2 mmol/day in males and 41.5±25.1 mmol/day in females (p=0.2). Estimated average daily salt (NaCl) intake was 10.0±4.8 g/day in males and 7.5±3.3 g/day in females (p<0.0001). Only one participant had the ideal Na/K ratio of less than one. Na/K ratios greater than one and less than two were seen in 11.3% (n=24), and a ratio equal to or greater than 2 was observed in 82.3% (n=118) of the participants. The average Na/K ratio was 3.69±1.58. Unlike many developed countries where sodium intake declined over the past few decades, the daily sodium intake in Yazd is high, and daily potassium intake is low. This is similar to what was observed four decades ago in an area not far from Yazd. Efforts must be directed towards health promotion interventions to increase public awareness to reduce sodium intake and increase potassium intake. PMID:24847600

Mirzaei, Masoud; Namayandeh, Mahdieh; GharahiGhehi, Neda

2014-01-01

327

Association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes among adult men and women in India  

PubMed Central

Background It is postulated that a diet high in legumes may be beneficial in preventing diabetes. However, little empirical evidence on this association exists in developing countries. We aimed to examine the association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes status in adult men and women in India. Methods The analysis is based on a population-based cross sectional study of 99,574 women and 56,742 men aged 20–49 years included in India’s third National Family Health Survey conducted in 2005–06. Association of legume intake, determined by the frequency of consumption of pulses and beans (daily, weekly and occasionally or never), with the reported prevalence of diabetes were estimated using multiple logistic regression after adjusting for frequency of consumption of other food items, BMI status, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, watching television, age, education, living standard of the household, residence and geographic regions. Results Daily (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59–0.87; p=0.001) and weekly (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.54–0.80; p<0.001) legumes intake were associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of diabetes among adult Indian women even after controlling for the effects of potentially confounding factors, whereas non-significant inverse associations were observed in men. Conclusion Daily or weekly intake of legumes was inversely associated with presence of diabetes in the Indian population. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. More epidemiological research with better measures of legumes intake and clinical measures of diabetes is needed to clarify this relationship. PMID:23915141

2013-01-01

328

Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.  

PubMed

Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134)?=?6.09, p?<0.01), central pulse pressure (F (2, 134)?=?4.16, p?<0.05), central augmentation pressure (F (2, 134)?=?5.98, p?<0.01) and central augmentation index (F (2, 134)?=?3.29, p?<0.05) as well as lower pulse pressure amplification (F (2, 134)?=?4.36, p?<0.05). There were no differences in brachial BP. Central systolic BP was 3-4?mmHg higher for those who consumed fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. PMID:25278432

Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

2015-01-01

329

Corticosteroid replacement therapy: twice or thrice daily?  

PubMed Central

Although glucocorticoid replacement is conventionally administered twice daily, the pharmacokinetics of hydrocortisone would predict very low levels of plasma cortisol by mid-afternoon. This study compared plasma cortisol day profiles in 7 hypoadrenal patients while on twice daily and thrice daily hydrocortisone replacement. The twice daily regimen was associated with very low levels of cortisol at 16.00 and 18.00 h. This was eliminated by administering the same total dose in a thrice daily regimen. Furthermore, estimates of 'well-being' by visual analogue scale correlated significantly with simultaneous plasma cortisol levels and 5 of the patients expressed a preference for the thrice daily regimen. The findings suggest that thrice daily glucocorticoid replacement therapy should be adopted routinely. PMID:3184107

Groves, R W; Toms, G C; Houghton, B J; Monson, J P

1988-01-01

330

Corticosteroid replacement therapy: twice or thrice daily?  

PubMed

Although glucocorticoid replacement is conventionally administered twice daily, the pharmacokinetics of hydrocortisone would predict very low levels of plasma cortisol by mid-afternoon. This study compared plasma cortisol day profiles in 7 hypoadrenal patients while on twice daily and thrice daily hydrocortisone replacement. The twice daily regimen was associated with very low levels of cortisol at 16.00 and 18.00 h. This was eliminated by administering the same total dose in a thrice daily regimen. Furthermore, estimates of 'well-being' by visual analogue scale correlated significantly with simultaneous plasma cortisol levels and 5 of the patients expressed a preference for the thrice daily regimen. The findings suggest that thrice daily glucocorticoid replacement therapy should be adopted routinely. PMID:3184107

Groves, R W; Toms, G C; Houghton, B J; Monson, J P

1988-09-01

331

Dietary sources and correlates of sodium and potassium intakes in the French general population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/objectives:To investigate the dietary sources of sodium and potassium and to explore the biological, behavioural and socio-demographic factors associated with a high sodium and low potassium diet in a general population.Subjects\\/methods:Cross-sectional dietary survey carried out in 1998 and 1999 in nationally representative samples of adults (n=1474) and children (n=1018). Daily sodium and potassium intakes were estimated using a 7-day food

P Meneton; L Lafay; A Tard; A Dufour; J Ireland; J Ménard; J L Volatier

2009-01-01

332

Surfeit calories during parenteral nutrition influences food intake and carcass adiposity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between surfeit caloric consumption during intravenous infusion of a parenteral nutrition solution providing 100% daily caloric needs (PN-100; glucose:fat:amino acid = 50:30:20), carcass adiposity, and postinfusion food intake was evaluated. Rats received saline (control) or PN-100 for 4 days via jugular vein. PN-100 rats were either allowed or denied access to chow during the infusion period. When food

Robert A. Meguid; J. Lee Beverly; Michael M. Meguid

1995-01-01

333

Estimation of Dietary Pb and Cd Intake from Pb and Cd in Blood or Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful trials were made to estimate the dietary daily intake of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) via foods from the levels of\\u000a the metals in blood or urine. In practice, 14 and 15 reports were available for Pb and Cd in blood (Pb-B and Cd-B), urine\\u000a (Pb-U and Cd-U) and 24-h diet duplicates (Pb-D and Cd-D), respectively, from which 68

Masayuki Ikeda; Shinichiro Shimbo; Takao Watanabe; Fumiko Ohashi; Yoshinari Fukui; Sonoko Sakuragi; Jiro Moriguchi

2011-01-01

334

Influence of repeated consumption of beverages containing sucrose or intense sweeteners on food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the influence of ingestion of beverages with sucrose or with intense sweeteners on food intake (FI) and on hunger ratings in before and after a month of daily consumption of beverages.Design: Experimental study.Setting: Department of Physiology, University Hospital, Dijon, France.Subjects: In all, 12 men and 12 women, aged 20–25 y.Interventions: Four beverages contained either sucrose (E+:100 g\\/l,

V Van Wymelbeke; M-E Béridot-Thérond; V de La Guéronnière; M Fantino

2004-01-01

335

Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

1975-01-01

336

Development of asymmetric BTDA-TDI\\/MDI (P84) co-polyimide hollow fiber membranes for ultrafiltration: the influence of shear rate and approaching ratio on membrane morphology and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the effects of dope composition (especially approaching ratio ?), rheology and spinning conditions on the morphology and performance of asymmetric BTDA-TDI\\/MDI co-polyimide (P84, CAS#: 58698-66-1) hollow fiber membranes spun from P84\\/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP, CAS#: 872-50-4)\\/H2O dope solutions were studied. The velocity distribution and rheology of the dope solution within the spinneret were analyzed. The experimental results indicated that

Jizhong Ren; Zhansheng Li; Fook-Sin Wong; Dongfei Li

2005-01-01

337

Efficacy and safety of coadministration of once-daily indacaterol and glycopyrronium versus indacaterol alone in COPD patients: the GLOW6 study  

PubMed Central

Background Addition of a second bronchodilator from a different pharmacological class may benefit patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) whose symptoms are insufficiently controlled by bronchodilator monotherapy. GLOW6 evaluated the efficacy and safety of once-daily coadministration of the long-acting ?2-agonist indacaterol (IND) and the long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrronium (GLY) versus IND alone in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Materials and methods In this randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, 12-week study, patients were randomized 1:1 to IND 150 ?g and GLY 50 ?g daily (IND + GLY) or IND 150 ?g daily and placebo (IND + PBO) (all delivered via separate Breezhaler® devices). The primary objective was to demonstrate the superiority of IND + GLY versus IND + PBO for trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at week 12. Other end points included trough FEV1 at day 1, FEV1 area under the curve from 30 minutes to 4 hours (AUC30min–4h), peak FEV1, inspiratory capacity and trough forced vital capacity (FVC) at day 1 and week 12, and transition dyspnea index (TDI) focal score, COPD symptoms, and rescue medication use over 12 weeks. Results A total of 449 patients were randomized (IND + GLY, 226; IND + PBO, 223); 94% completed the study. On day 1 and at week 12, IND + GLY significantly improved trough FEV1 versus IND + PBO, with treatment differences of 74 mL (95% CI 46–101 mL) and 64 mL (95% CI 28–99 mL), respectively (both P<0.001). IND + GLY significantly improved postdose peak FEV1, FEV1 AUC30min–4h, and trough FVC at day 1 and week 12 versus IND + PBO (all P<0.01). TDI focal score and COPD symptoms (percentage of days able to perform usual daily activities and change from baseline in mean daytime respiratory score) were significantly improved with IND + GLY versus IND + PBO (P<0.05). The incidence of adverse events was similar for the two treatment groups. Conclusion In patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, once-daily coadministration of IND and GLY provides significant and sustained improvement in bronchodilation versus IND alone from day 1, with significant improvements in patient-centered outcomes. PMID:24596459

Vincken, Walter; Aumann, Joseph; Chen, Hungta; Henley, Michelle; McBryan, Danny; Goyal, Pankaj

2014-01-01

338

Anthelmintics residues in raw milk. Assessing intake by a children population.  

PubMed

Anthelmintics, such as benzimidazoles and probenzimidazoles, are veterinary drugs used against endoparasites in food producing animals. A number of these drugs are considered responsible for embryotoxicity and teratogenicity. The residue levels of Albendazole, Febantel, Fenbendazole, Mebendazole and some of their metabolites (Albendazole sulphoxide, Albendazole sulphone, Fenbendazole sulfone) were assessed in 123 (42 goat, 69 sheep, 12 bovine) raw milk samples collected from all farms throughout Southern Greece. Sample analysis was performed by HPLC with Diode Array Detector. A high percentage (27.6%) of the samples examined was found to be positive for the investigated compounds. In 14 samples (11.4%), the residues' concentration exceeded the established Maximum Residue Limits. Estimated Daily Intakes were calculated for a population of 723 children aged 10-12 years. Data on milk consumption were obtained by personal interview through a 7-day food frequency questionnaire. The maximum Estimated Daily Intakes for the anthelmintic residues, concerning raw milk, did not exceed the current Acceptable Daily Intake. PMID:23691580

Tsiboukis, D; Sazakli, E; Jelastopulu, E; Leotsinidis, M

2013-01-01

339

Cokriging estimation of daily suspended sediment loads  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with daily river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated daily loads were compared with the daily measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated daily sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured daily values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating daily sediment loads with CK when daily discharge data is available. The estimated daily loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the daily S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.-K.; Schilling, K.; Skopec, M.

2006-01-01

340

Reductions in portion size and energy density of foods are additive and lead to sustained decreases in energy intake1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: When the portion size and energy density (in kcal\\/g) ofafoodarevariedsimultaneouslyinasinglemeal,eachinfluences energy intake independently. Objective: We aimed to determine how the effects of portion size and energy density combine to influence energy intake and satiety over multiple meals for 2 d. Design:Inacrossoverdesign,24youngwomenwereprovidedwith mealsandsnacksfor2consecutivedaysperweekfor4wk;allfoods were consumed ad libitum. Across the 4 sessions, the subjects were served the same 2 daily menus,

Barbara J Rolls; Liane S Roe; Jennifer S Meengs

341

Sedoanalgesia in pediatric daily surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The present report was focused on clinical advantages of sedoanalgesia in the pediatric outpatient surgical cases. Method: Sedoanalgesia has been used to sedate patients for a variety of pediatric procedures in our department between 2007 and 2010. This is a retrospective review of 2720 pediatric patients given ketamine for sedation with midazolam premedication. Ketamine was given intravenously (1-2 mg/kg) together with atropine (0.02 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.1 mg/kg) + a local infiltration anesthetic 2 mg/kg 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride. Result: Median age of the patients included in the study was 5.76 ± 2.12 (0-16 years). The main indications for ketamine include circumcision (69%), inguinal pathologies (inguinal hernia (17%), orchidopexy (2.68%), hydrocele (3.38%), hypospadias (1.94%), urethral fistula repair (0.33%), urethral dilatation (0.25%), and other conditions. All of our patients were discharged home well. In this regard, we have the largest group of patients ever given ketamine. Conclusion: Sedoanalgesia might be used as a quite effective method for daily surgical procedures in children. PMID:23936597

Ozkan, Aybars; Okur, Mesut; Kaya, Murat; Kaya, Ertugrul; Kucuk, Adem; Erbas, Mesut; Kutlucan, Leyla; Sahan, Leyla

2013-01-01

342

Chronic daily headaches in children.  

PubMed

Chronic daily headache (CDH) or highly frequent headaches are being recognised as an increasing problem. In adults it is estimated that up to 4% of the population has CDH, however, this number appears to be lower in children. The actual prevalence of CDH in children, however, has not been determined. The simplest definition of CDH is > 15 headache days per month. In the international headache society (IHS) criteria, only chronic tension-type headaches and chronic cluster headaches are recognised as CDH. Criteria for CDH have been suggested for adults that mirror the IHS criteria. In children, the majority of CDH appear to be migraine related. The next revision of the IHS criteria has been proposed to include chronic migraine as one of the CDH. Evaluation of CDH needs to include a complete history and physical examination to identify any possibility of the headache representing secondary headaches. Treatment and management involves a multi-tiered approach, which includes abortive therapy when the headache becomes more severe. With the precaution of avoiding overuse of analgesic medication, prophylactic therapy is used to help reduce the characteristics of the headache as well as the frequency and mild behavioural therapy. PMID:12667111

Hershey, Andrew D

2003-04-01

343

Floating intake reduces pump damage  

SciTech Connect

The solution to a costly sand erosion problem at the Grande Dixence hydroelectric project in Switzerland turned out to be as simple as a floating pump. The 726-MW Grande Dixence project drains a 350-square-kilometer reach of the Zermatt and Herens valleys in the southwestern Swiss Alps. About half of the drainage area is covered by active glaciers. Because the glaciers in Zermatt Valley are so low in altitude, their water is collected in Z`mutt Reservoir at the base of the Matterhorn, then pumped up 500 meters for transport to the main Grande Disence Reservoir near Sion. The glacier water is heavily laden with sand. In spite of a gravel pass and a desilter, the 700,000-acubic-meter Z`mutt Reservoir receives large quantities of sand. The sand tends to remain in solution because of the low water temperatures (1 to 2 degrees Centigrade). In the original intake system, the sand would be sucked into the pump intakes, causing extensive erosion to the pump wheels and an expensive yearly program of repair. (Pump damage averaged 200,000 Swiss Francs ($284,000 U.S.) per year between 1980 and 1985.)

Kronig, A.

1993-12-31

344

Reexamination of Total Fluid Intake and Bladder Cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study Cohort  

PubMed Central

It has been hypothesized that high fluid intake may reduce contact time between carcinogens and bladder epithelium and consequently reduce carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies examining fluid intake and bladder cancer have been extremely inconsistent, ranging from strong inverse to strong positive associations. The authors reevaluated the association between fluid intake and bladder cancer among 47,909 participants in the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study over a period of 22 years. During follow-up (1986–2008), 823 incident bladder cancer cases were diagnosed. Information on fluid intake was collected by using the food frequency questionnaire at baseline and every 4 years thereafter. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to adjust for risk factors for bladder cancer. Total fluid intake was inversely associated with bladder cancer when the analysis was based on the baseline diet (relative risk = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.60, 0.97), comparing the highest total daily fluid intake quintile (>2,531 mL/day) with the lowest quintile (<1,290 mL/day) (Ptrend = 0.01). However, no association was detected when the analysis was based on recent diet or cumulative updated diet. The updated analysis for total fluid intake and bladder cancer was attenuated compared with the original findings from the first 10-year follow-up period. PMID:22355034

Zhou, Jiachen; Smith, Scott; Giovannucci, Edward; Michaud, Dominique S.

2012-01-01

345

Associations of food preferences and household food availability with dietary intake and quality in youth with type 1 diabetes  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine associations of food preferences and availability with dietary intake in youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom dietary intake and quality are essential to disease management. Youth (n=252, age 13.2±2.8y, diabetes duration 6.3±3.4y) reported preferences and parents reported household availability for 61 food items categorized as fruit, vegetables, whole grains, refined grains and fats/sweets. Youth energy-adjusted daily servings of food groups, Healthy Eating Index-2005 and Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 scores were calculated from 3-day diet records. Associations of dietary intake and quality variables with preference and availability of all food groups were evaluated by linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Fruit and whole grain intake were positively related to corresponding preference and availability; whole grain intake and refined grain availability were inversely related. Vegetable, refined grain and fats/sweets intake were unrelated to preference and availability. Diet quality measures were related positively to fruit preference and whole grain availability and inversely to refined grains availability. Findings indicate associations of dietary intake with food preference and availability vary by food group in youth with type 1 diabetes. Measures of overall dietary quality were more consistently associated with food group availability than preferences. PMID:22595289

Lipsky, LM; Nansel, TR; Haynie, DL; Mehta, SN; Laffel, LMB

2012-01-01

346

Associations of food preferences and household food availability with dietary intake and quality in youth with type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine associations of food preferences and availability with dietary intake in youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom dietary intake and quality are essential to disease management. Youth (n=252, age 13.2±2.8 y, diabetes duration 6.3±3.4 y) reported preferences and parents reported household availability for 61 food items categorized as fruit, vegetables, whole grains, refined grains and fats/sweets. Youth energy-adjusted daily servings of food groups, Healthy Eating Index-2005 and Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 scores were calculated from 3-day diet records. Associations of dietary intake and quality variables with preference and availability of all food groups were evaluated by linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Fruit and whole grain intake were positively related to corresponding preference and availability; whole grain intake and refined grain availability were inversely related. Vegetable, refined grain and fats/sweets intake were unrelated to preference and availability. Diet quality measures were related positively to fruit preference and whole grain availability and inversely to refined grains availability. Findings indicate associations of dietary intake with food preference and availability vary by food group in youth with type 1 diabetes. Measures of overall dietary quality were more consistently associated with food group availability than preferences. PMID:22595289

Lipsky, L M; Nansel, T R; Haynie, D L; Mehta, S N; Laffel, L M B

2012-10-01

347

More distinct food intake patterns among women than men in northern Sweden: a population-based survey  

PubMed Central

Background The need to promote a healthy diet to curb the current obesity epidemic has today been recognized by most countries. A prerequisite for planning and evaluating interventions on dietary intake is the existence of valid information on long-term average dietary intake in a population. Few large, population-based studies of dietary intake have been carried out in Sweden. The largest to date is the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP), which was initiated in 1985, with data collection still ongoing. This paper reports on the first comprehensive analyses of the dietary data and presents dietary intake patterns among over 60,000 women and men in northern Sweden during 1992–2005. Methods Between 1992 and 2005, 71,367 inhabitants in Västerbotten county aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years visited their local health care center as part of the VIP. Participants of VIP filled in an 84- or 64-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and provided sociodemographic information. Complete and realistic information on consumption frequency was provided by 62,531 individuals. Food intake patterns were analyzed using K-means cluster analyses. Results The mean daily energy intake was 6,83 (± 1,77) MJ among women and 8,71 (± 2,26) MJ among men. More than half of both women and men were classified as Low Energy Reporters (defined as individuals reporting a food intake level below the lower 95% confidence interval limit of the physical activity level). Larger variation in frequency of daily intake was seen among women than among men for most food groups. Among women, four dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", "Coffee and sandwich", and "Tea and ice cream". Among men, three dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", and "Tea, soda and cookies". Conclusion More distinct food intake patterns were seen among women than men in this study in northern Sweden. Due to large proportions of Low Energy Reporters, our results on dietary intake may not be suitable for comparisons with recommended intake levels. However, the results on food intake patterns should still be valid and useful as a basis for targeting interventions to groups most in need. PMID:19228378

Winkvist, Anna; Hörnell, Agneta; Hallmans, Göran; Lindahl, Bernt; Weinehall, Lars; Johansson, Ingegerd

2009-01-01

348

Branched-chain fatty acid content of foods and estimated intake in the USA.  

PubMed

Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2 % of fatty acids in cows' milk fat. There are few systematic data available on the BCFA content of other foods to estimate dietary intakes. In the present study, we report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods in the American diet and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant food products, and are absent from chicken, pork and salmon. The mean BCFA intake of 500 mg/d was delivered primarily from dairy and beef food products; by comparison, average intake of the widely studied long-chain PUFA EPA and DHA has been estimated to be 100 mg/d. Common adjustments in the diet could double the daily intake of BCFA. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA, but, overall, they are low-fat foods providing very small amounts of BCFA in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from the influence of microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef food products and highlight the need for research into their effects on health. PMID:24830474

Ran-Ressler, Rinat Rivka; Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao; Brenna, J Thomas

2014-08-28

349

The impact of voluntary fortification of foods on micronutrient intakes in Irish adults.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to quantify the impact of the voluntary fortification of foods on dietary intakes of vitamins and minerals of Irish adults. Foods that were voluntarily fortified were identified and pre- and post-fortification levels of micronutrients were determined from data supplied by manufacturers and food composition tables. Using food consumption data in 1379 adults aged 18-64 years, estimated using a 7-d food diary during the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey, intakes of micronutrients were determined, both including and excluding the fortification component in foods. Of approximately 3000 foods recorded as consumed, 1.9 % were fortified, mainly breakfast cereals and beverages. Median micronutrient content of fortified foods (FF) ranged from 18-33 % EC RDA per typical serving. Among consumers (65 % of men, 68 % of women), FF contributed, on average, 3.9 % (men) and 5.0 % (women) to mean daily intake (MDI) of energy. Relative to their contribution to MDI of energy, FF contribute a greater % MDI for Fe (men 16, women 19), folate (men 18, women 21), vitamins B1 (men 14, women 16), B2 (men 16, women 18), B6 (men 12, women 15), D (men 5, women 11), B12 (men 5, women 7) and niacin (men 10, women 12). Fortification significantly improved the adequacy of intake of some micronutrients, particularly of riboflavin, folate, vitamin D and Fe in women and did not contribute to an increased risk of adverse effects from excessive intake of any micronutrient. PMID:17381981

Hannon, Evelyn M; Kiely, Mairead; Flynn, Albert

2007-06-01

350

Modelling potential ?-carotene intake and cyanide exposure from consumption of biofortified cassava.  

PubMed

Vitamin A (VA) deficiency causes disability and mortality. Cassava can be crossbred to improve its ?-carotene (BC) content; typical white cassava contains negligible amounts of BC. However, cassava contains cyanide and its continued consumption may lead to chronic disability. Our objective was to estimate the risk-benefit of consuming BC-enhanced cassava to increase VA intake. A total of ten American women were fed white and BC-enhanced cassava. BC and cyanide data from the feeding study were combined with African cassava consumption data to model the potential daily BC, VA and cyanide intakes of African women. If BC-enhanced cassava replaced white cassava in the diets, it could theoretically meet recommended VA intakes for the following percentages of individuals from six African countries that consume cassava as a staple crop: Angola (95 %), Central African Republic (95 %), Congo (about 100 %), Ghana (99 %), Mozambique (99 %) and Nigeria (92 %). Cyanide intake after minimal preparation of cassava could be thirteen to thirty-two times the reference dose (RfD), a toxicological exposure reference, but could be completely removed by extensive soaking. This study demonstrates that consumption of BC-enhanced cassava, processed to maintain BC and remove cyanide, theoretically increases VA intakes for African populations and other areas of the world where cassava is a staple crop. PMID:25191592

Katz, Josh M; La Frano, Michael R; Winter, Carl K; Burri, Betty J

2013-01-01

351

Triggers of daily life ischaemia  

PubMed Central

Objective—To determine the usual triggers of silent and symptomatic ischaemia.?Design—Patients wore an ambulatory recorder for 48 hours. The device emitted a tone on detection of ischaemia and patients noted activities, feelings, and symptoms so that ischaemia could be attributed to one of four triggers: physical stress, mental stress, combined physical/mental stress, or no stressor.?Setting—Home environment.?Patients—Patients (n = 38) with stable coronary disease, positive exercise electrocardiography, and ischaemic episodes on ambulatory electrocardiography.?Main outcome measure—Matching ischaemic episodes with perceived triggers.?Results—Altogether 257 ischaemic episodes (53% silent) were documented. Triggers were: physical stress, 56%; mental stress, 5%; combined physical/mental stress, 8%; no identifiable trigger, 31%. Episodes associated with mental or no stress were more often silent (69% and 75%, respectively) than those associated with physical stress (45%, p < 0.01), while combined physical/mental stress episodes were usually symptomatic (10% silent, p < 0.01 v other stressors). Although physical stress was less commonly a trigger of silent ischaemia than angina (47% v 65%, p < 0.01), it was still the predominant trigger of silent ischaemia. There was no identifiable trigger in 45% of silent and only 17% of anginal episodes (p < 0.01). Only nine silent episodes involved mental stress alone as a trigger.?Conclusions—Daily life ischaemia is usually triggered by physical activity. Mental stress alone is an uncommon trigger of either silent or symptomatic ischaemia, while combined physical/mental stress is a significant but minor trigger of angina. Patients can identify a trigger in 83% of anginal episodes, compared with only half of silent ischaemic episodes.?? Keywords: silent ischaemia;  ambulatory electrocardiography PMID:9930050

Freedman, S; Wong, C

1998-01-01

352

Intake of dioxins and related compounds from food in the U.S. population.  

PubMed

The first U.S. nationwide food sampling with measurement of dioxins, dibenzofurans, and coplanar, mono-ortho and di-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is reported in this study. Twelve separate analyses were conducted on 110 food samples divided into pooled lots by category. The samples were purchased in 1995 in supermarkets in Atlanta, GA, Binghamton, NY, Chicago, IL, Louisville, KY, and San Diego, CA. Human milk also was collected to estimate nursing infants' consumption. The food category with highest World Health Organization (WHO) dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration was farm-grown freshwater fish fillet with 1.7 pg/g, or parts per trillion (ppt), wet, or whole, weight. The category with the lowest TEQ level was a simulated vegandiet, with 0.09 ppt. TEQ concentrations in ocean fish, beef, chicken, pork, sandwich meat, eggs, cheese, and ice cream, as well as human milk, were in the range O.33 to 0.51 ppt, wet weight. In whole dairy milk TEQ was 0.16 ppt, and in butter 1.1 ppt. Mean daily intake of TEQ for U.S. breast-fed infants during the first year of life was estimated at 42 pg/kg body weight. For children aged 1-11 yr the estimated daily TEQ intake was 6.2 pg/kg body weight. For males and females aged 12-19 yr, the estimated TEQ intake was 3.5 and 2.7 pg/kg body weight, respectively. For adult men and women aged 20-79 yr, estimated mean daily TEQ intakes were 2.4 and 2.2 pg/kg body weight, respectively. Estimated mean daily intake of TEQ declined with age to a low of 1.9 pg/kg body weight at age 80 yr and older. For all ages except 80 yr and over, estimates were higher for males than females. For adults, dioxins, dibenzofurans, and PCBs contributed 42%, 30%, and 28% of dietary TEQ intake, respectively. DDE was also analyzed in the pooled food samples. PMID:11346131

Schecter, A; Cramer, P; Boggess, K; Stanley, J; Päpke, O; Olson, J; Silver, A; Schmitz, M

2001-05-11

353

DAILY / OVERNIGHT REQUEST FORM PROJECTORS: AUDIO  

E-print Network

DAILY / OVERNIGHT REQUEST FORM PROJECTORS: AUDIO: HUNTER COLLEGE Today's Date: ___ Overhead Projector ___ Public Address Unit ___ Ensign PA Audio-Visual Services ___ Slide Projector ___ Audio Cassette

Qiu, Weigang

354

Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure to low-levels of organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), induces oxidative stress and could be related to neurological disorders. Hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. We explore whether intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) can protect Wistar rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were gavaged daily with 6.75mg/kg body weight (1/20 LD50) of CPF and given HRW by oral intake. Nissl staining and electron microscopy results indicated that HRW intake had protective effects on the CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons and neuronal mitochondria. Immunostaining results showed that the increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes induced by CPF exposure can be ameliorated by HRW intake. Moreover, HRW intake also attenuated CPF-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by enhanced level of MDA, accompanied by an increase in GSH level and SOD and CAT activity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity tests showed significant decrease in brain AChE activity after CPF exposure, and this effect can be ameliorated by HRW intake. An in vitro study demonstrated that AChE activity was more intense in HRW than in normal water with or without chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), the metabolically-activated form of CPF. These observations suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity, and the protective effects of hydrogen may be mediated by regulating the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats. Furthermore, this work defines a novel mechanism of biological activity of hydrogen by directly increasing the AChE activity. PMID:24967689

Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Mengyu; Xie, Fei; Ma, Xuemei; Zhao, Pengxiang; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Jiala; Wang, Minglian; Yang, Zhaona; Zhang, Yutong

2014-10-01

355

Intake of fat and fiber-rich foods according to socioeconomic status: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study  

PubMed Central

This study describes the food intake of adolescents participating in the 1993 birth cohort from Pelotas, Southern Brazil, according to socioeconomic position. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the 2004-2005 follow-up visit. Food intake in the previous year was evaluated using the Block questionnaire. Socioeconomic status was evaluated based on an assets index, divided into quintiles. Foods with the highest frequency of daily intake were white bread (83%), butter or margarine (74.6%), beans (66.4%) and milk (48.5%). Intake of butter or margarine, bread, and beans was more frequent among poorer adolescents, and the inverse was true for milk. Intake of fruits and vegetables was low in all socioeconomic strata, but particularly low among the poor. In early adolescence, all socioeconomic groups showed high consumption of foods rich in fat and low consumption of foods rich in fiber. PMID:20963287

Neutzling, Marilda B.; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Vieira, Maria de Fátima A.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Victora, Cesar G.

2013-01-01

356

Usual Intake of Citrus, melon, berries  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Citrus, melon, berries Table A3. Citrus, melon, berries: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2

357

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit Table A2. Total whole fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.8

358

MOLYBDENUM INTAKE INFLUENCES MOLYBDENUM KINETICS IN HUMANS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Molybdenum is an essential mineral in the human diet and is toxic when intake is excessive. Data on which to base dietary recommendations, especially for excessive intake for humans, is limited. The objective of this study was to determine physiologic adaptations that occur when humans are exposed t...

359

SEXUAL HARASSMENT AWARENESS & INTAKE COMMITTEE CENTRAL OFFICE  

E-print Network

1 SEXUAL HARASSMENT AWARENESS & INTAKE COMMITTEE CENTRAL OFFICE The Sexual Harassment Awareness and Intake Awareness Committee (SHAIC) is responsible for educating employees about sexual harassment and its potential consequences to the University community, and for overseeing sexual harassment training. The SHAIC

Brinkmann, Peter

360

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:4 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:10/22/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: andre nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 304-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

361

Usual Intake of Beans and peas (legumes)  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Beans and peas (legumes) Table A16. Beans and peas (legumes): Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1

362

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars Table A41. Energy from added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 150.2

363

Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats Table A39. Energy from solid fats: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 250.1

364

Usual Intake of Dark-green vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Dark-green vegetables Table A8. Dark-green vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.0

365

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:2 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:8/20/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

366

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:6 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:3/18/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Nicholas Restifo Building: 10-CRC Room: 3-5762 Telephone: 301-496-4904 E-Mail: restifo@nih.gov Center Number: N/A Shipping

367

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:1 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:6/26/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Jonathan Keller Building: 560 Room: 12-03 Telephone: 1461 E-Mail: kellerjo@mail.nih.gov Center Number: N/A Shipping

368

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:7 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:3/18/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Nicholas Restifo Building: 10-CRC Room: 3-5762 Telephone: 301-496-4904 E-Mail: restifo@nih.gov Center Number: N/A Shipping

369

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:3 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:8/20/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

370

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:8 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:5/12/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Damian Kovalovsky Building: 10 Room: 4B17 Telephone: 301-435-6451 E-Mail: kovalovskyd@mail.nih.gov Center Number:

371

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:5 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:11/13/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Alfred Singer Building: 10 Room: 3N113 Telephone: 301-496-5461 E-Mail: singera@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

372

IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. he report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that ave been in satisfact...

373

IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. The report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that have been in satisfa...

374

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:9 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:5/15/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106A Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

375

A hierarchical Bayesian approach for risk assessment of melamine in infant formula based on cases of related nephrolithiasis in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the 2008 outbreak of nephrolithiasis in children due to melamine-contaminated infant formula has subsided, it remains uncertain whether the present tolerable daily intake (TDI) of melamine provides sufficient protection for young children. To conduct a safety assessment for melamine in infant formula, we established a dose–response relationship based on 13 nephrolithiasis cases selected from 932 children, all of whom

I.-J. Wang; C.-C. Chen; C.-C. Chan; P.-C. Chen; G. Leonardi; K.-Y. Wu

2011-01-01

376

Public Health Risks from Heavy Metals and Metalloids Present in Traditional Chinese Medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of 247 traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) investigated, a proportion were contaminated with arsenic (5–15%), lead (?5%), and mercury (?65%). Some preparations exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for males and females for arsenic (4 and 5 products, respectively), lead (1 and 2 products), and mercury (5 and 7 products). These exceedances were as high as 2760-fold, which posed a

Kelli Cooper; Barry Noller; Des Connell; Jimmy Yu; Ross Sadler; Henry Olszowy; Gary Golding; Ujang Tinggi; Michael R. Moore; Stephen Myers

2007-01-01

377

Biomonitoring Equivalents for 2,2?,4,4?,5-pentabromodiphenylether (PBDE-99)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration or range of concentrations of a chemical or its metabolite in a biological medium (blood, urine, or other medium) that is consistent with an existing health-based exposure guideline such as a reference dose (RfD) or tolerable daily intake (TDI). BE values can be used as a screening tool for the evaluation of

Kannan Krishnan; Therese Adamou; Lesa L. Aylward; Sean M. Hays; Christopher R. Kirman; Andy Nong

2011-01-01

378

Towards the Fecal Metabolome Derived from Moderate Red Wine Intake  

PubMed Central

Dietary polyphenols, including red wine phenolic compounds, are extensively metabolized during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract; and their biological effects at the gut level (i.e., anti-inflammatory activity, microbiota modulation, interaction with cells, among others) seem to be due more to their microbial-derived metabolites rather than to the original forms found in food. In an effort to improve our understanding of the biological effects that phenolic compounds exert at the gut level, this paper summarizes the changes observed in the human fecal metabolome after an intervention study consisting of a daily consumption of 250 mL of wine during four weeks by healthy volunteers (n = 33). It assembles data from two analytical approaches: (1) UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of phenolic metabolites in fecal solutions (targeted analysis); and (2) UHPLC-TOF MS analysis of the fecal solutions (non-targeted analysis). Both approaches revealed statistically-significant changes in the concentration of several metabolites as a consequence of the wine intake. Similarity and complementarity between targeted and non-targeted approaches in the analysis of the fecal metabolome are discussed. Both strategies allowed the definition of a complex metabolic profile derived from wine intake. Likewise, the identification of endogenous markers could lead to new hypotheses to unravel the relationship between moderate wine consumption and the metabolic functionality of gut microbiota. PMID:25532710

Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Muñoz-González, Irene; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J.; Moreno-Arribas, María Victoria; Bartolomé, Begoña

2014-01-01

379

Jet engine air intake system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An axisymmetric air intake system for a jet aircraft engine comprising a fixed cowl extending outwardly from the face of the engine, a centerbody coaxially disposed within the cowl, and an actuator for axially displacing the centerbody within the cowl was developed. The cowl and centerbody define a main airflow passageway therebetween, the configuration of which is changed by displacement of the centerbody. The centerbody includes a forwardly-located closeable air inlet which communicates with a centerbody auxiliary airflow passageway to provide auxiliary airflow to the engine. In one embodiment, a system for opening and closing the centerbody air inlet is provided by a dual-member centerbody, the forward member of which may be displaced axially with respect to the aft member.

Sorensen, N. E.; Latham, E. A. (inventors)

1977-01-01

380

Estimates of genetic parameters associated with lactation feed intake and growth and composition traits measured during a performance test.  

PubMed

Days to reach 113.4 kg, adjusted backfat depth and adjusted loin muscle area to 113.4 kg were evaluated on pure-bred Landrace (n = 15 660) and Yorkshire (n = 14 808) boars and gilts. Daily lactation feed intake (LFI) was recorded within parity records from pure-bred Yorkshire (n = 1587) and Landrace (n = 2197) females during day 1-22 of lactation, and LFI curves were predicted using a mixed model. Evaluation of feed intake differences between 2 consecutive days of lactation resulted in the following periods: day 1-6 (PB1), day 7-10 (PB2) and day 11-18 (PB3). Average rate of change in intake (ARC), average daily intake (ADI) and variation from predicted daily LFI values (VAR) metrics were computed for each period of lactation. Gibbs sampling was used to estimate the genetic covariance between LFI metrics and grow-finish traits. Genetic correlations were strongest between grow-finish traits, and LFI metrics in first parity sows and were generally favourable, but correlations with LFI metrics during parity 2 or greater were low and not different from 0 (p > 0.05). Genetic correlations between LFI metrics in parity 1 sows with growth and composition traits varied greatly in strength and direction. Selection for leaner, heavier muscled gilts had a limited effect on LFI metrics. However, selection for increased growth rate was associated with higher ARC and ADI and smaller VAR values. PMID:25303637

Yoder, C L; Duttlinger, V M; Baas, T J

2014-10-10

381

Effects of NUTRIOSE® dietary fiber supplementation on body weight, body composition, energy intake, and hunger in overweight men.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a soluble dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE(®), on body weight, body composition, energy intake and hunger in overweight Chinese men. The volunteers were randomized in double-blind fashion to 250 ml fruit juice supplemented with NUTRIOSE(®) (Test, n = 60) or a maltodextrin (Control, n = 60) at a dosage of 17 g twice daily for 12 weeks. Body weight, body composition were performed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks while daily energy intake and hunger were assessed every 3 days. Test subjects had reductions in body weight (1.5 kg, P < 0.001), body mass index (0.5 kg/m(2), P < 0.001) and body fat percentage (0.3%, P < 0.001) versus Controls. NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation resulted in a lower daily energy intake (3,079 kJ/day, P < 0.001) with group differences noted as early as 3 days. Test subjects reported less hunger across the study period versus Controls (P < 0.01). NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation for 12 weeks results in body composition improvements and reduces body weight, energy intake and hunger in overweight men. PMID:21591985

Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Li, Shuguang; Pochat, Marine; Wils, Daniel; Mubasher, Mohamed; Reifer, Cheryl; Miller, Larry E

2011-09-01

382

Effects of purified puerarin on voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol withdrawal symptoms in P rats receiving free access to water and alcohol.  

PubMed

Alcohol preferring (P) rats, given "free choice" of water, exhibited daily intake of 60-75 g of water/kg of body weight. When given "free choice" of water and 15% ethanol, P rats consumed 7-13 g of alcohol/kg. Their water intake decreased proportionally to the alcohol intake, but total fluid intake did not differ significantly. Alcohol withdrawal after 50 days of alcohol drinking caused withdrawal symptoms such as hypersensitivity, poor coordination, and tremors. A daily 50 mg/kg dose of puerarin (PU) caused approximately 50% suppression in alcohol intake, but did not affect body weight and food and total fluid intake in P rats receiving "free choice" of water and 15% ethanol. Alcohol ingestion gradually returned to the control level despite consistent PU intake. However, alcohol intake following alcohol withdrawal was suppressed in PU-fed P rats. PU suppressed the severity of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Thus, withdrawal symptoms do not occur in PU-fed rats even though their alcohol ingestion is comparable to that in control P rats. Brain, plasma, and liver samples were analyzed for the presence of kudzu root isoflavones, which are mostly PU (>90% of total isoflavones) and a trace amount of daidzin. Liver samples obtained from PU-fed P rats contained 20-30 microg/g of PU. An important observation was that plasma or brain samples obtained from PU-fed or alcohol + PU-fed rats did not contain PU. This study indicated that PU feeding transiently suppressed alcohol intake and abolished withdrawal symptoms at a time when alcohol intake had returned to the control level. The absence of PU in plasma and brain indicates the possibility that some nonspecific mechanism may be involved in the anti-alcoholism effects of PU in P rats. PMID:15298765

Benlhabib, Elhabib; Baker, John I; Keyler, Daniel E; Singh, Ashok K

2004-01-01

383

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2013-07-01

384

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2014-07-01

385

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2010-07-01

386

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2011-07-01

387

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2012-07-01

388

30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56.13012... Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure...

2010-07-01

389

30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57.13012... Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure...

2010-07-01

390

40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooling water intake structures. 401.14...GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location...construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of...

2012-07-01

391

40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14...GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location...construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of...

2014-07-01

392

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2013-07-01

393

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2010-07-01

394

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2012-07-01

395

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2014-07-01

396

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2011-07-01

397

Estimates of genetic parameters associated with lactation feed intake and reproductive performance in purebred and F1 sows.  

PubMed

Daily feed intake during lactation was recorded in parity records from purebred Yorkshire (n = 1587), Landrace (n = 2197) and reciprocal cross F1 (n = 6932) females, and lactation feed intake (LFI) curves were predicted using a mixed model. Evaluation of the difference in feed intake between two consecutive days of lactation resulted in the following classifications: three periods for purebreds, days 1-6, days 7-10 and days 11-18, and two periods for F1 sows, days 1-5 and days 6-18. Average rate of change in intake (ARC), average daily intake (ADI) and variation from predicted LFI values (VAR) were computed for each period of lactation. Gibbs sampling was used to estimate genetic (co)variance components for LFI metrics and reproductive performance traits. Genetic variance estimates for each LFI metric were obtained with univariate animal models, and covariance estimates were estimated with bivariate models. Heritability estimates for ADI, ARC and VAR metrics computed over the duration of lactation were 0.37, 0.24, and 0.16, respectively. Heritability estimates were highly variable across periods of lactation for ARC (0.03-0.17), ADI (0.09-0.36) and VAR (0.04-0.18) metrics in purebred and F1 populations. Genetic correlations between LFI metrics and reproductive traits were relatively low, although LFI metrics later in lactation were more highly correlated with reproductive performance. PMID:24823629

Yoder, C L; Duttlinger, V M; Baas, T J

2014-08-01

398

Dairy Food at the First Occasion of Eating Is Important for Total Dairy Food Intake for Australian Children  

PubMed Central

The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%–138%) greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%–37%). Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children’s intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent. PMID:25251295

Riley, Malcolm D.; Baird, Danielle L.; Hendrie, Gilly A.

2014-01-01

399

Dietary intake of metals by the population of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain): results from a duplicate diet study.  

PubMed

The daily intakes of arsenic (As), beryllium, cadmium (Cd), cobalt, chromium, copper, mercury (Hg), manganese, nickel, lead (Pb), antimony, tin, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc by an adult population living in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain) were determined by the duplicate diet method with a 10-day sampling period. Duplicate diet samples, prepared as per consumption, were collected during September 2010 in 20 restaurants offering a variety of daily menus (breakfast, lunch, and dinner). A total of 200 composite samples, corresponding to 600 individual samples, were prepared for trace elements analyses, which were carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results were compared with data from previous total diet studies (TDS) recently performed in the same geographical area. Notable differences in the intake of the toxic elements As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were found depending on the method used. It is concluded that both the duplicate diet method and the TDS may provide important and useful information to estimate human exposure to metals through the diet and their derived health risks. However, for comparison between surveys or for establishing temporal trends in the intake of metals, it seems to be recommendable to use always the same method. Notwithstanding, if the interest is only to know whether the intake of a certain element is below the tolerable intake, both methods are useful. PMID:22124862

Domingo, José L; Perelló, Gemma; Giné Bordonaba, Jordi

2012-06-01

400

Ingestion of nutrition bars high in protein or carbohydrate does not impact 24-h energy intakes in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

Sales of nutrition bars increased almost 10-fold to $1.7billion over the past decade yet few studies have examined the impact of bar ingestion on dietary parameters. In this crossover trial, 24-h energy intakes were assessed in free-living college students ingesting a high-protein (HP, 280kcal) or a high-carbohydrate (HC, 260kcal) nutrition bar upon waking. Fifty-four students entered the trial, and 37 participants completed the three test days. Daily energy intakes ranged from 1752±99kcal for the non-intervention day to 1846±75 and 1891±110kcal for the days the HP and HC bars were consumed respectively (p=0.591). However, for individuals who reported high levels of physically activity (n=11), daily energy intakes increased significantly compared to the control day for the HC bar day (+45%; p=0.030) and HP bar day (+22%; p=0.038). Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes differed significantly across test days in the total sample mirroring the nutrient profile of the specific bars. These data suggest that young adults adjust caloric intakes appropriately following the ingestion of energy-dense nutrition bars over a 24-h period. Moreover, nutrition bars may represent a unique opportunity to favorably influence nutrient status of young adults. PMID:22918177

Trier, Catherine M; Johnston, Carol S

2012-12-01

401

Association of Mammographic Breast Density with Dairy Product Consumption, Sun Exposure, and Daily Activity  

PubMed Central

Background. Mammographic density is a risk factor, for breast cancer and its association with various factors is under investigation; we carried out a study to assess its relationship with daily dairy intake, sun exposure, and physical activities. Patients and Methods. Women ?40 years of age were interviewed about habits of dairy product consumption, daily sun exposure and physical activity. Exclusion criteria consisted of history of breast cancer, consumption of calcium and vitamin D supplements, hormone replacement therapy, or renal disease. Mammographic densities were classified according to the classification system of the American College of Radiologists into 4 classes. Results. Overall 703 cases were entered in the study. The mean age was 48.2 ± 6.2 years. The most common and least frequent classes of mammographic density were classes 2 and 4, respectively. There was no significant association between mammographic density and rate of dairy consumption, amount of sunlight exposure, and daily physical activity. Conclusion. Relation of sunlight exposure and intake of milk products with mammographic density need further study, while the subject of physical activity can be evaluated by a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing literature. PMID:24729894

Saberi, Azin; Alikhassi, Afsaneh; Bayani, Leila; Hosseini, Ladan

2014-01-01

402

The relationship between daily and vacation activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to build upon existing literature in recreation involvement and loyalty to investigate the relationship between vacation and daily activities. The results support the hypothesis that the more that individuals are involved in an activity in a daily setting, the more they tend to participate in the same activity while on vacation. The segmentation tree

Xinran Y. Lehto

2007-01-01

403

Obtaining daily precipitation parameters from meteorological yearbooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the performance of two different methods, one based on the method of moments and the other based on maximum likelihood, in their assessment of the main statistical features of daily precipitation using censored information found in meteorological yearbooks. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to generate series of daily rainfall and summarize them in the same format

Francisco J. Meza

2006-01-01

404

Effects of daily stress on negative mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the influence of daily stressors on mental health in a community sample. Ss were 166 married couples who completed diaries each day for 6 weeks. In pooled within-person analyses, daily stressors explained up to 20% of the variance in mood. Interpersonal conflicts were by far the most distressing events. Furthermore, when stressors occurred on a series of

Niall Bolger; Anita DeLongis; Ronald C. Kessler; Elizabeth A. Schilling

1989-01-01

405

New daily persistent headache and panic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a primary chronic daily headache that is generally considered to be difficult to treat. Migraine has been linked to comorbid psychiatric conditions, mainly mood and anxiety disorders, but NDPH has never been linked to psychiatric conditions, and never studied extensively for such an association. Case: We report nine cases (six women and three

Mario FP Peres; Giancarlo Lucchetti; Juliane PP Mercante; William B Young

2011-01-01

406

Daily Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.…

Einolf, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

407

Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations between dietary fiber intake and various cardiovascular risk factors were investigated cross-sectionally. Results Body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein negatively associated with dietary fiber intake after adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, total energy intake, fat intake, saturated fatty acid intake, leisure-time physical activity and use of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. The homeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity and HDL cholesterol positively associated with dietary fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome after multivariate adjustments including obesity. Furthermore, dietary fiber intake was associated with lower prevalence of albuminuria, low estimated glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease after multivariate adjustments including protein intake. Additional adjustments for obesity, hypertension or metabolic syndrome did not change these associations. Conclusion We demonstrated that increased dietary fiber intake was associated with better glycemic control and more favorable cardiovascular disease risk factors including chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients should be encouraged to consume more dietary fiber in daily life. PMID:24330576

2013-01-01

408

Assessment of water contribution on total fluoride intake of various age groups of people in fluoride endemic and non-endemic areas of Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, South India.  

PubMed

The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through water. It is necessary to determine the contribution of water used for drinking and food processing and other diet sources on daily fluoride intake for finding the ways to reduce the excess fluoride intake than the minimum safe level intake of 0.05 mg/kg/day. The main objectives of this study are to determine the quantitative impact of water through drinking and cooking of food and beverages on total fluoride intake as well as to estimate the contribution of commonly consumed diet sources on total fluoride intake. Contribution of water on daily fluoride intake and estimation of total fluoride intake through the diet sources were accomplished through analysis of fluoride in drinking water, solid and liquid food items, Infant formulae, tea and coffee infusions using fluoride ion selective electrode. Determination of incidence of fluorosis in different fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India is achieved through clinical survey. The percentage of daily fluoride intake through water is significantly higher for infants than children, adults and old age groups of people. The percentile scores of fluoride intake through water from drinking and cooking increases with increase of water fluoride level. The rate of prevalence of fluorosis is higher in adolescent girls and females than adolescent boys and males residing in high fluoride endemic areas. More than 60% of the total fluoride intake per day derived from water used for drinking and food processing. Hence the people residing in the fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India are advised to take serious concern about the fluoride level of water used for drinking and cooking to avoid further fluorosis risks. PMID:20728198

Viswanathan, Gopalan; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva Ilango, S

2010-12-01

409

Adolescent Daily and General Maladjustment: Is There Reactivity to Daily Repeated Measures Methodologies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined whether repeated exposure to daily surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' daily and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 daily reports tapping experienced or…

Nishina, Adrienne

2012-01-01

410

Deriving Daily Purpose through Daily Events and Role Fulfillment among Asian American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Establishing life purpose is a key developmental task; however, how it is linked to adolescents' everyday family, school, extracurricular, and leisure experiences remains unclear. Using daily diary data from 180 Asian American ninth and tenth graders (50% ninth; 58% female; 25% first generation), daily purpose was positively related to daily…

Kiang, Lisa

2012-01-01

411

Living with rheumatoid arthritis: The role of daily spirituality and daily religious and spiritual coping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate more fully the role of daily spiritual experiences and daily religious\\/spiritual coping in the experience of individuals with pain due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Thirty-five individuals with RA were asked to keep a structured daily diary for 30 consecutive days. The diary included standardized measures designed to assess spiritual experiences, religious

Francis J. Keefe; Glenn Affleck; John Lefebvre; Lynn Underwood; David S. Caldwell; Jana Drew; Jennifer Egert; Jessica Gibson; Kenneth Pargament

2001-01-01

412

Influence of feed intake fluctuation and frequency of feeding on nutrient digestion, digesta kinetics, and ruminal fermentation profiles in limit-fed steers.  

PubMed

Nine crossbred beef steers (344 +/- 26 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of feeding frequency and feed intake fluctuation on total tract digestion, digesta kinetics, and ruminal fermentation profiles in limit-fed steers. In Period 1, steers were allotted randomly to one of four dietary treatments: 1) feed offered once daily at 0800; 2) feed offered once daily at 0800 with a 10% fluctuation in day-to-day feed intake; 3) feed offered twice daily at 0800 and 1700; and 4) feed offered twice daily at 0800 and 1700 with a 10% fluctuation in a day-to-day feed intake. In Period 2, steers were reallocated across treatments. The 90% concentrate diet was fed at 90% of the ad-libitum consumption by each steer. Chromium-EDTA and Yb-labeled steam-flaked corn were intraruminally infused at 0800 on d 1 and 3 and Co-EDTA and Er-labeled steam-flaked corn were infused on d 2 and 4 of the 4-d collection period. Ruminal samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 24 h after the 0800 feeding, and total feces were collected for 4 d. Total tract digestibilities of OM, N, and starch were lowest (fluctuation x frequency, P < .05) when feed was offered twice daily with a 10% fluctuation in intake. Ruminal fluid volume and passage rate were not affected (P > .10) by feeding frequency or intake fluctuation. A frequency x fluctuation x sampling time interaction occurred (P < .01) for ruminal pH. Steers fed a constant amount of feed once daily had higher (P < .05) ruminal pH at 0, 3, 18, and 24 h than steers fed once daily with a 10% fluctuation in feed intake. Total VFA concentration was greater (P < .01) at 9 h after the 0800 feeding when feed was offered once vs twice daily. Feeding twice daily increased (P < .05) the molar proportion of acetate and decreased (P < .05) the molar proportion of propionate. Increasing feeding frequency resulted in a more stable ruminal environment; however, the increased acetate:propionate ratio with twice-daily feeding might result in lower efficiency of energy utilization by limit-fed steers. PMID:10947111

Soto-Navarro, S A; Krehbiel, C R; Duff, G C; Galyean, M L; Brown, M S; Steiner, R L

2000-08-01

413

The acoustics of racing engine intake systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally aspirated racing engines have tuned intake systems and can now achieve volumetric efficiencies in excess of 125% and peak engine speeds in excess of 18,000 rev/min. Engines designed for single seater racing commonly dispense with the intake manifold and its convoluted and restricting flow path preferring single lengths of pipe feeding each cylinder separately. An investigation into the intake process on a single cylinder racing engine has shown that inertial ram effects make a strong contribution to the intake process at high engine speeds whereas acoustic resonance effects are more important to the rather weak wave action that occurs at low engine speeds. An acoustic model of the resonant wave action has proved useful in distinguishing between these two effects. The attributes of the acoustic model have been compared to those of more traditional time-marching gas-dynamics calculation methods. A decoupled hybrid method has been shown to yield calculations of the wave dynamics in the intake system of a single cylinder racing engine that show fair agreement with measured results up to the 10th harmonic of the engine cycle frequency. In a case study, the intake characteristics of a single cylinder racing engine have been shown to differ only slightly from those expected from the V10 engine on which it is based, although this will only be the case when the dimensions of the intake system are chosen appropriately.

Harrison, M. F.; Dunkley, A.

2004-04-01

414

Effects of water temperature and dissolved oxygen on daily feed consumption, feed utilization and growth of channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feed intake (FI), feed efficiency (FE), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and weight gain (WG) of juvenile channel catfish initially weighing 15.0±0.23 g (10–12 cm initial total length) were evaluated under three regimes of time-varying water temperature (mean daily water temperature for Stoneville, MS, USA; mean +3; and, mean ?3°C) and three of dissolved oxygen (DO; 100, 70 and 30% air

J. Alejandro Buentello; Delbert M Gatlin; William H Neill

2000-01-01

415

Relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake.  

PubMed

The present systematic review examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake in adults (mean age ? 18 years). Relevant databases were searched from the earliest record until November 2012. Search terms included: nutrition; diet or food knowledge and energy intake; feeding behaviour; diet; eating; nutrient or food intake or consumption. Included studies were original research articles that used instruments providing quantitative assessment of both nutrition knowledge and dietary intake and their statistical association. The initial search netted 1,193,393 potentially relevant articles, of which twenty-nine were eligible for inclusion. Most of them were conducted in community populations (n 22) with fewer (n 7) in athletic populations. Due to the heterogeneity of methods used to assess nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, a meta-analysis was not possible. The majority of the studies (65·5%: community 63·6%; athletic 71·4%) reported significant, positive, but weak (r< 0·5) associations between higher nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, most often a higher intake of fruit and vegetables. However, study quality ranged widely and participant representation from lower socio-economic status was limited, with most participants being tertiary educated and female. Well-designed studies using validated methodologies are needed to clarify the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Diet quality scores or indices that aim to evaluate compliance to dietary guidelines may be particularly valuable for assessing the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Nutrition knowledge is an integral component of health literacy and as low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes, contemporary, high-quality research is needed to inform community nutrition education and public health policy. PMID:24621991

Spronk, Inge; Kullen, Charina; Burdon, Catriona; O'Connor, Helen

2014-05-28

416

Flunitrazepam intake in male offenders.  

PubMed

The abuse of flunitrazepam (FZ) compounds is worldwide, and several studies have reflected on the consequences with regard to violence, aggression and criminal lifestyle of FZ users. Criminals take high doses of FZ or some other benzodiazepines to "calm down" before the planned crime. There is support from earlier studies that most likely, all benzodiazepines may increase aggression in vulnerable males. Chronic intake of high doses of FZ increases aggression in male rats. Because psychopathy involves aggression, we have examined whether psychopathy as well as any of the four facets of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle and Antisocial) are related to different substance use disorders, with the focus on FZ. We have also examined the relationship between each PCL-R item and FZ use. Participants were 114 male offenders aged 14-35 years, all of whom were convicted for severe, predominantly violent, offences. Substance use, including FZ, was not more common in those who scored high in psychopathy. Use of FZ was more common in offenders who scored high in Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL-R (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% CI 1.86-9.94). Only one of the PCL-R items, "Criminal versatility", was significantly associated with FZ use (odds ratio = 3.7). It may be concluded that intake of FZ has a specific relationship to only one of the facets and not to psychopathy per se. The findings have also important theoretical implications because Facet 4 is not a key factor of the construct of psychopathy. Clinical implications of the article: We have used the new two-factor and four-facet theoretical model of psychopathy in the young offender population, many of them with one or more substance use disorders. The present results suggest that antisocial behavior defined by Facet 4 (poor behavioral control, early behavior problems, juvenile delinquency, revocation of conditional release and criminal versatility) in the studied subjects is more typical for FZ users than it is for non-FZ users. This may have implications for assessment and treatment. Clinicians should be aware that criminals with high scores on Facet 4 have a more than fourfold odds of being a FZ user. This conclusion has an important clinical implication because FZ abuse is very common and is not always the focus of a forensic psychiatric assessment. PMID:20887237

Dåderman, Anna M; Edman, Gunnar; Meurling, Ann Wirsén; Levander, Sten; Kristiansson, Marianne

2012-04-01

417

Nutrient intakes among children and adolescents eating usual pizza products in school lunch compared with pizza meeting HealthierUS School Challenge criteria.  

PubMed

Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (P<0.01). Protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, and potassium intakes were higher in the post-modeled intake condition compared with the pre-modeled condition (P<0.01). Substituting the healthier pizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs. PMID:24119532

Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

2014-05-01

418

Nutritional status and dietary intake of urban residents in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background There is paucity of data on the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban Ethiopians which necessitates comprehensive nutritional assessments. Therefore, the present study was aimed at evaluating the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban residents in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods This cross-sectional community based nutrition survey was conducted by involving 356 participants (71.3% female and 28.7% male with mean age of 37.3?years). Subjects were selected by random sampling. Socio demographic data was collected by questionnaire. Height, weight, hip circumference and waist circumference were measured following standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h dietary recall. The recommended dietary allowance was taken as the cut-off point for the assessment of the adequacy of individual nutrient intake. Results Undernourished, overweight and obese subjects composed 12.9%, 21.3% and 5.9% of the participants, respectively. Men were taller, heavier and had higher waist to hip ratio compared to women (P?daily by most of the participants. Mean energy intakes fell below the estimated energy requirements in women (1929 vs 2031?kcal/day, P?=?0.05) while it was significantly higher in men participants (3001 vs 2510?kcal/day, P?=?0.007). Protein intake was inadequate (<0.8?g/kg/day) in 11.2% of the participants whereas only 2.8% reported carbohydrate intake below the recommended dietary allowances (130?g/day). Inadequate intakes of calcium, retinol, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid were seen in 90.4%, 100%, 73%, 92.4%, 86.2% and 95.5% of the participants. Conclusions The overall risk of nutritional inadequacy among the study participants was high along with their poor dietary intake. Hence, more stress should be made on planning and implementing nutritional programmes in urban settings aimed at preventing or correcting micronutrient and some macronutrient deficiencies which may be useful in preventing nutrition related diseases in life. PMID:22958394

2012-01-01

419

Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Modelling as a Tool to Support Risk Assessment: Three Case Studies  

PubMed Central

In this contribution we present three case studies of physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) modelling in regulatory risk assessment. (1) Age-dependent lower enzyme expression in the newborn leads to bisphenol A (BPA) blood levels which are near the levels of the tolerated daily intake (TDI) at the oral exposure as calculated by EFSA. (2) Dermal exposure of BPA by receipts, car park tickets, and so forth, contribute to the exposure towards BPA. However, at the present levels of dermal exposure there is no risk for the adult. (3) Dermal exposure towards coumarin via cosmetic products leads to external exposures of two-fold the TDI. PBTK modeling helped to identify liver peak concentration as the metric for liver toxicity. After dermal exposure of twice the TDI, the liver peak concentration was lower than that present after oral exposure with the TDI dose. In the presented cases, PBTK modeling was useful to reach scientifically sound regulatory decisions. PMID:22649449

Mielke, Hans; Gundert-Remy, Ursula

2012-01-01

420

Intake estimates of phthalate esters for South Delhi population based on exposure media assessment.  

PubMed

An indirect estimation method was followed to derive exposure levels of fifteen phthalate congeners in urban population of Delhi, India. The exposure media samples were collected from Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) campus and Okhla industrial area. GC-MS analysis of the samples indicated di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) to be the most abundant congener and its estimated total daily intake level reached upto 70 ?g kg(-1) d(-1). Out of the studied congeners, intake doses for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and DEHP, reached levels near or above the established exposure limit. In JNU, DEHP, dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) had 69% share in combined daily intake of ?15 phthalates (CDI15); whereas, in Okhla, DEHP, diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), DnBP and DMP shared 64% of the CDI15. Food was found to be the major source of exposure contributing 67% and 74% of the estimated CDI15 at JNU and Okhla respectively. PMID:24657605

Das, Mihir Tanay; Ghosh, Pooja; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

2014-06-01

421

The impact of folic acid intake on the association between diabetes, obesity, and spina bifida  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the relationship between spina bifida and two established risk factors, pregestational diabetes and obesity, in both the presence and absence of the recommended daily folic acid intake in the periconceptional period. Study Design Cases of spina bifida (n=1154) and controls (n=9439) from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study (1976–2011) were included. Information on preexisting diabetes (collected 1976+) and obesity (collected 1993+), defined as BMI ?30 kg/m2, were collected through interviews conducted within six months of delivery. Periconceptional folic acid intake was calculated using both dietary and supplement information. Mothers were classified as consuming more or less than 400µg/day of folic acid, with food folate included at a 30% discount for its lower bioavailability. Logistic regression models, adjusted for maternal race, education, and study site, were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the joint effects of low folic acid intake coupled with diabetes or obesity. Results Mothers of cases were more likely to have diabetes or be obese (0.7% and 19.0%, respectively) than control mothers (0.4% and 10.8%, respectively). The joint effect of diabetes and lower folic acid intake on spina bifida was larger (aOR:3.95; CI: 1.56, 10.00) than that of diabetes and higher folic acid intake (aOR:1.31; CI: 0.17, 10.30). Folic acid intake made little difference on the association between obesity and spina bifida. Conclusion Our findings suggest that folic acid further attenuates, though does not eliminate, the risk of spina bifida associated with diabetes, than that with obesity. PMID:23711668

Parker, Samantha E; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Tinker, Sarah C; Mitchell, Allen A; Werler, Martha M

2013-01-01

422

Potential intakes of total polyols based on UK usage survey data  

PubMed Central

Polyols are approved for use as sweeteners in specific foods but they may be used for other technological purposes in a wider range of foods, all on a quantum satis basis. The European Polyols Association (EPA) has identified 24 categories of food where polyols are used and it has been able to establish the levels at which the polyols are used in each type of food and whether for sweetening or non-sweetening purposes. The UK National Dietary and Nutrition survey database was used to estimate potential exposures to total polyols based on reported use levels. It was possible to express potential polyol intake on the basis of exposure relating to a single eating occasion, a meal period, 1 day and the average over 4 days of the survey. Potential intakes of polyols were approximately twice that found on a per-item or a meal-period basis when estimated on a daily basis. Apparent intakes were lower when averaged over the 4 days of the survey. It was felt that intake expressed on a per-meal occasion basis was most relevant to the development of digestive discomfort. On the basis of maximum use levels of polyols in all food categories, adults had the highest intake of total polyols up to 5.6 g per meal period at the 95th percentile. However, when expressed on a bodyweight basis, children had higher intakes, up to 0.15 g kg?1 bw per meal period. Distributions of potential polyol exposures were highly skewed towards lower values with higher levels of exposure relating to sweetener uses occurring relatively infrequently. PMID:24447207

Tennant, David R.

2014-01-01

423

Implications for cancer epidemiology of differences in dietary intake associated with alcohol consumption.  

PubMed

Several dietary factors are thought to modify risk for cancers that are known to be associated with alcohol intake. In this study, we sought to identify and describe alcohol-related differences in dietary and nutritional factors that are potential independent predictors of cancer risk or effect modifiers or confounders of alcohol-cancer relationships. Data were obtained from a large hospital-based case-control study that was designed to estimate the cancer risk from various tobacco products. Study subjects consisted of 465 male and 300 female incident lung cancer cases and 870 male and 556 female hospitalized patient controls matched on age (+/- 5 yrs). Nutritional data were analyzed as log-transformed frequencies of 30 food items, 9 factor scores generated to describe overall patterns of dietary intake, and nutrient scores estimating daily intake of fat, vitamin A, fiber, and cholesterol. We observed many more significant differences in nutritional exposures by alcoholic beverage intake than would be expected merely by chance. For males, the most striking relationships included increased meat and egg consumption with increasing alcohol consumption and higher intake of cantaloupe and cold cereal among lighter drinkers. For females, we observed strong inverse relationships between alcohol consumption and reported intake of fruit, cold cereal, and ice cream. We also observed a direct association between alcohol and meat consumption, though it was weaker than that found among men. Findings based on factors and nutrients followed the pattern observed for the individual food items, with highest fat scores and lowest fruit scores among the heaviest drinkers. Implications for nutrient-alcohol interactions and statistical considerations are discussed. PMID:2038565

Hebert, J R; Kabat, G C

1991-01-01

424

Effects of acute exercise on appetite hormones and ad libitum energy intake in men and women.  

PubMed

Acute exercise suppresses relative energy intake; however, it remains unclear whether this occurs in both men and women exposed to the same relative exercise treatment. Eleven healthy men (22 ± 2 years; 16% ± 6% body fat (BF); 26 ± 4 body mass index (BMI); 42.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O(2peak))) and 10 healthy women (21 ± 2 years; 24 ± 2 BMI; 23% ± 3% BF; 39.9 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) [Formula: see text]O(2peak)) rested for 60 min or exercised on a cycle ergometer at 70% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended (men, expenditure = 975 ± 195 kcal in 82 ± 13 min; women, expenditure = 713 ± 86 kcal in 84 ± 17 min) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. Appetite hormones and appetite ratings were assessed in response to each condition. Forty minutes after both conditions, ad libitum total and relative energy intake (energy intake minus energy cost of exercise) were assessed at a buffet meal. There was no significant sex or condition effect in appetite hormones (PYY(3-36), acylated ghrelin, insulin) and appetite ratings (hunger, satisfaction, fullness). Total energy intake in men was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in exercise and rest conditions (1648 ± 950, 1216 ± 633 kcal, respectively) compared with women (591 ± 183, 590 ± 231 kcal, respectively). Relative energy intake was significantly lower (P < 0.05) after exercise compared with rest in men (672 ± 827, 1133 ± 619 kcal, respectively) and women (-121 ± 243, 530 ± 233 kcal, respectively). These data highlight the effectiveness of acute exercise to suppress relative energy intake regardless of sex. PMID:23368830

Hagobian, Todd Alan; Yamashiro, Megan; Hinkel-Lipsker, Jake; Streder, Katherine; Evero, Nero; Hackney, Terry

2013-01-01

425

Poor food and nutrient intake among Indigenous and non-Indigenous rural Australian children  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04) years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys) completed three 24-hour food recalls (including 1 weekend day), over an average of two weeks in the Australian summer of late 2005. Results A high proportion of children consumed less than the Australian Nutrient Reference Values for fibre (74-84% less than Adequate Intake (AI)), calcium (54-86% less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)), folate and magnesium (36% and 28% respectively less than EAR among girls), and the majority of children exceeded the upper limit for sodium (68-76% greater than Upper Limit (UL)). Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) food consumption contributed between 45% and 49% to energy. Hot chips, sugary drinks, high-fat processed meats, salty snacks and white bread were the highest contributors to key nutrients and sugary drinks were the greatest per capita contributor to daily food intake for all. Per capita intake differences were apparent by Indigenous status. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was low for all children. Indigenous boys had a higher intake of energy, macronutrients and sodium than non-Indigenous boys. Conclusions The nutrient intake and excessive EDNP food consumption levels of Australian rural children from disadvantaged areas are cause for concern regarding their future health and wellbeing, particularly for Indigenous boys. Targeted intervention strategies should address the high consumption of these foods. PMID:22304829

2012-01-01

426

Associations between dairy intake and metabolic risk parameters in a healthy French-Canadian population.  

PubMed

Observational studies support that dairy product intake is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes; however, several clinical studies report conflicting results on the association between dairy product consumption and metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine associations between dairy product consumption and metabolic profile. Dietary data, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and fasting blood samples were collected from 233 French Canadians. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FA) concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. Subjects consumed 2.5 ± 1.4 portions of dairy products daily, including 1.6 ± 1.3 portions of low-fat (LF) and 0.90 ± 0.70 portions of high-fat (HF) dairy products. Trans-palmitoleic acid level in plasma PL was related to HF dairy consumption (r = 0.15; p = 0.04). Total (r = -0.21; p = 0.001) and LF dairy (r = -0.20; p = 0.003) intakes were inversely correlated with fasting plasma glucose level. Total dairy intake was inversely associated to systolic blood pressure (r = -0.17; p = 0.008) and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.14; p = 0.03). LF dairy intake was also inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.17; p = 0.009). Total dairy intake was correlated with plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.15; p = 0.03). No association was found between HF dairy consumption and the risk factors studied. In conclusion, dairy intake is inversely associated with glycaemia and blood pressure; yet, it may modify CRP levels. Moreover, trans-palmitoleic FA levels in plasma PL may be potentially used to assess full-fat dairy consumption. PMID:25224707

Da Silva, Marine S; Julien, Pierre; Couture, Patrick; Lemieux, Simone; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Rudkowska, Iwona

2014-12-01

427

INFORMATION SOURCE ON COOLING WATER INTAKE  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Supports the technical and financial analysis for the cooling water intake structure rule under Section 316(b) of the CWA. Legislation/Enabling Authority: Section 308 Supported Program: Water permits - implementation of Section 316(b) of ...

428

Selected Intakes as Ratios of Energy Intake, US Population, 2001-04  

Cancer.gov

The NCI method provides the capability, for the first time, to estimate the distribution of usual intake of a nutrient expressed as a ratio of usual energy intake in the US population. This greatly enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to those recommendations that are expressed as ratios of energy intake and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses in these cases.

429

27 CFR 19.829 - Daily records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Records ...shall keep accurate and complete daily records of production operations that include— (a) The kind...

2010-04-01

430

Dietary intake and bioavailability of trace elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the nutritional importance of trace elements, it is relevant to consider the factors regulating their metabolism.\\u000a One of the most important factors is the true intake level. Conventional techniques such as diet history and interview studies\\u000a in conjunction with standard food tables do not provide the true intake levels from prepared meals. Employing the duplicate\\u000a portion

Mohamed Abdulla; Abdulla Behbehani; Hussein Dashti

1989-01-01

431

Obtaining an unbiased estimate of intake in routine monitoring when the time of intake is unknown.  

PubMed

A common problem in internal dosimetry occurs in routine monitoring, when it is required to estimate an intake from a measurement made at the end of a monitoring interval, and the time of intake is unknown. ICRP suggests that, in these cases, it should be assumed that the intake occurred in the middle of the monitoring period. However, it has been shown that this will, in the long term, lead to biased estimates of a worker's intake and dose. In order to overcome this biasing, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) recommends a different method based on calculating the intakes for all possible intake-times in the interval, and then taking an arithmetic average. In this paper, it is shown that both the ICRP and USDOE methods are biased. An alternative method is suggested, which assumes a constant chronic intake throughout the monitoring interval. Monte Carlo simulations are used to estimate the magnitude of bias for two realistic monitoring programmes using all three methods. It is shown that the proposed method is unbiased and also yields estimates of intake that are generally closer to the actual intake, than the other two. The Monte Carlo conclusions are backed up by a theoretical analysis of bias. Finally, the source of bias in the apparently intuitive approach of the USDOE method is revealed by viewing the problem from a Bayesian perspective. PMID:16410294

Puncher, M; Marsh, J W; Birchall, A

2006-01-01

432

Inconsistencies in the assessment of food intake.  

PubMed

Many peptides and other compounds that influence metabolism also influence food intake, and numerous hypotheses explaining the observed effects in terms of energy homeostasis have been suggested over the years. For example, cholecystokinin (CCK), a duodenal peptide secreted during meals that aids in digestion, also reduces ongoing food intake, thereby contributing to satiation; and insulin and leptin, hormones secreted in direct proportion to body fat, act in the brain to help control adiposity by reducing energy intake. These behavioral actions are often considered to be hard-wired, such that negative experiments, in which an administered compound fails to have its purported effect, are generally disregarded. In point of fact, failures to replicate the effects of compounds on food intake are commonplace, and this occurs both between and within laboratories. Failures to replicate have historically fueled heated debate about the efficacy and/or normal function of one or another compound, leading to confusion and ambiguity in the literature. We review these phenomena and their implications and argue that, rather than eliciting hard-wired behavioral responses in the maintenance of homeostasis, compounds that alter food intake are subjected to numerous influences that can render them completely ineffective at times and that a major reason for this variance is that food intake is not under stringent homeostatic control. PMID:23074241

Woods, Stephen C; Langhans, Wolfgang

2012-12-15

433

Measuring food intake with digital photography  

PubMed Central

The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, imags of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared to images of “standard” portions of food using a computer application. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. Herein, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on Smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a Smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and