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Sample records for daily intake tdi

  1. Daily boron intake from the American diet.

    PubMed

    Rainey, C J; Nyquist, L A; Christensen, R E; Strong, P L; Culver, B D; Coughlin, J R

    1999-03-01

    Interest in boron as a naturally occurring trace element nutrient from the food supply is increasing. Mounting evidence suggests that boron is essential to human beings. This study explores the major food and beverage contributors of boron and estimates of daily boron intake from the American diet. Previous estimates in the literature of dietary boron consumption are based on limited foods and population segments. In this study we provide a more comprehensive assessment of boron consumption by the US population. A boron nutrient database of 1,944 individual foods was developed. These foods represent 95.3% by weight of all foods consumed in the US Department of Agriculture 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1989-1991 CSFII). The Boron Nutrient Database (version 1.0) was then linked to the 3-day food records of 11,009 respondents to the 1989-1991 CSFII to generate the average daily boron intake for each person. The weighted 5th percentile, median, mean, and 95th percentile boron intakes, respectively, are 0.43, 1.02, 1.17 and 2.42 mg/day for men; 0.33, 0.83, 0.96 and 1.94 mg/day for women; and 0.40, 0.86, 1.01 and 2.18 mg/day for pregnant women. For vegetarian adults, these intakes are 0.46, 1.30, 1.47 and 2.74 mg/day for men and 0.33, 1.00, 1.29 and 4.18 mg/day for women. The top 2 boron contributors, coffee and milk, are low in boron, yet they make up 12% of the total boron intake by virtue of the volume consumed. Among the top 50 boron contributors, peanut butter, wine, raisins, peanuts, and other nuts are high in boron. As more data become available on daily boron requirements, the results of this study may be used to assess whether Americans' daily intake of boron is adequate. PMID:10076586

  2. Dietary intake of PCDDs/PCDFs and coplanar PCBs among the Japanese population estimated by duplicate portion analysis: a low proportion of adults exceed the tolerable daily intake.

    PubMed

    Arisawa, Kokichi; Uemura, Hirokazu; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Satoh, Hiroshi; Sumiyoshi, Yoshio; Morinaga, Kenji; Kodama, Kazunori; Suzuki, Taka-ichiro; Nagai, Masaki; Suzuki, Tsuguyoshi

    2008-10-01

    Dietary intake of dioxins was estimated by duplicate portion analysis of consecutive 3-day food samples among 86 men and 288 women (aged 17-72 years), who were living in 75 different areas of 25 prefectures in Japan. The mean (median) intake of PCDDs+PCDFs, coplanar PCBs (co-PCBs), and total dioxins, expressed on the basis of toxicity equivalents (TEQ), was 0.46 (0.34), 0.59 (0.39), and 1.06 (0.79)pg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Dietary intake was highest in fishing areas, followed by farming and urban areas. In multiple regression analysis, TEQs of PCDDs+PCDFs, co-PCBs, and total dioxins were positively associated with age and intake amount of fish and shellfish, and milk and dairy products, and negatively associated with survey year. There were significant positive correlations between dietary intake and blood levels for TEQs of PCDDs+PCDFs, co-PCBs, and total dioxins (Pearson r=0.35-0.36). The proportion of those whose dietary intake exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI), set by the World Health Organization (4pg TEQ/kg/day) and European Union (2pg TEQ/kg/day), was estimated at 2.1% and 10.4%, respectively. However, these proportions were considered to be overestimated because of the effect of day-to-day within-person variation. Therefore, the ratio of within- and between-person variance was estimated by applying random effects one-way analysis of variance to repeated measurements for another group of 35 persons. When the effect of within-person variation of dietary intake was accounted for, the proportion of subjects whose long-term intake exceeded the TDI of WHO and EU decreased to 0.06% and 2.9%, respectively. PMID:18692182

  3. Establishment of the korean tolerable daily intake of bisphenol a based on risk assessments by an expert committee.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chan-Woong; Jeong, Ji-Yoon; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Jung, Ki-Kyung; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Hyo-Min

    2010-12-01

    Recently, reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of bisphenol A (BPA) have been documented, and thus a review was requested for BPA management direction by the government. Therefore, this study was performed to establish a Korean tolerable daily intake (TDI) for BPA. An expert committee, consisting of specialists in fields such as toxicology, medicine, pharmacology, and statistics, was asked to evaluate BPA health based guidance values (HbGVs) . Although many toxicological studies were reviewed to select a point of departure (POD) for TDI, rat and mouse reproductive studies by Tyl et al. (2002, 2006) , which were performed according to GLP standards and OECD guidelines, were selected. This POD was the lowest value determined from the most sensitive toxicological test. The POD, a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/day, was selected based on its systemic toxicity as critical effects. An uncertainty factor of 100 including interspecies and intraspecies differences was applied to calculate the TDI. According to the evaluation results, a TDI of BPA for Korean was suggested at 0.05 mg/kg bw/day. In addition, the BPA exposure level based on food consumption by the Korean population was estimated as 1.509 μg/kg bw/day, and the HI was evaluated at 0.03 when the TDI of 0.05 mg/kg bw/day was applied. This HI value of 0.03 indicated that hazardous effects would not be expected from BPA oral exposures. Although highly uncertain, further studies on low dose neurobehavioral effects of BPA should be performed. In addition, it is recommended that the 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) principle be applied for BPA exposure from food packaging materials in newborn infants and children. PMID:24278536

  4. Establishment of the Korean Tolerable Daily Intake of Bisphenol A Based on Risk Assessments by an Expert Committee

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chan-Woong; Jeong, Ji-Yoon; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Jung, Ki-Kyung; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Recently, reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of bisphenol A (BPA) have been documented, and thus a review was requested for BPA management direction by the government. Therefore, this study was performed to establish a Korean tolerable daily intake (TDI) for BPA. An expert committee, consisting of specialists in fields such as toxicology, medicine, pharmacology, and statistics, was asked to evaluate BPA health based guidance values (HbGVs) . Although many toxicological studies were reviewed to select a point of departure (POD) for TDI, rat and mouse reproductive studies by Tyl et al. (2002, 2006) , which were performed according to GLP standards and OECD guidelines, were selected. This POD was the lowest value determined from the most sensitive toxicological test. The POD, a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/day, was selected based on its systemic toxicity as critical effects. An uncertainty factor of 100 including interspecies and intraspecies differences was applied to calculate the TDI. According to the evaluation results, a TDI of BPA for Korean was suggested at 0.05 mg/kg bw/day. In addition, the BPA exposure level based on food consumption by the Korean population was estimated as 1.509 μg/kg bw/day, and the HI was evaluated at 0.03 when the TDI of 0.05 mg/kg bw/day was applied. This HI value of 0.03 indicated that hazardous effects would not be expected from BPA oral exposures. Although highly uncertain, further studies on low dose neurobehavioral effects of BPA should be performed. In addition, it is recommended that the ‘as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) principle be applied for BPA exposure from food packaging materials in newborn infants and children. PMID:24278536

  5. Assessment of the daily intake of 62 polychlorinated biphenyls from dietary exposure in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Min-Hui; Kim, Jun-Tae; Park, Hyokeun; Kim, Meehye; Paek, Ock-Jin; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2012-11-01

    The dietary intake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was estimated using the sum of 62 PCB congeners (∑(62)PCBs), including seven indicator PCBs and 12 dioxin-like PCBs, in the South Korea. In this study, 200 individual food samples belonging to 40 different foodstuffs were investigated to estimate the distribution of PCB congeners in five sampling cities. PCB exposure was estimated using Korean dietary habits as established by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The PCB concentrations in rice, the most frequently consumed food in Korea, was relatively low in whole food samples. The mean PCB levels measured in fish were the highest in this study, but each fish is consumed in relatively small amounts by the general population. Therefore, the daily dietary intake should also be considered with regard to human exposure to PCBs, especially with the consumption of contaminated foods. Dioxin-like PCB levels were also calculated using TEF values that were established in 2005. The average levels (pg TEQ/g) were 0.0002 for rice and 0.0098 for fish. The dioxin-like PCBs accounted for a relatively small percentage of the total PCBs, compared to previous studies. According to our research, the health risks associated with exposure to PCBs could be estimated using the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of the general population. PMID:22874429

  6. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake.

    PubMed

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel; Clementini, Chiara; Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra; Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania; Guerranti, Cristiana; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2016-02-15

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). PMID:26674688

  7. Avicenna’s View on Optimal Daily Water Intake

    PubMed Central

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Daneshfard, Babak; Tafazoli, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fluid intake is an essential factor in having a normal homeostasis. However, proper amount of daily water intake in a healthy individual is controversial. There is a prevalent thought that we all have to drink eight glasses of water daily, however, it lacks enough supportive evidence at least for healthy individuals. Here, we try to clarify this topic from the perspective of Avicenna and traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Methods: The most important traditional Persian medical encyclopedia, Al-Qanun fil-Tibb (Canon of Medicine), was reviewed. Furthermore, Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, IranMedex, and Science Iranian Database (SID) focusing on the keywords “traditional medicine”, “water intake”, “fluid‘’, and “complementary and alternative medicine” were reviewed to find relevant information. Results: Avicenna believed that the demand for daily water is not the same in different individuals. The determinant variables mentioned in his book, The Canon of Medicine, comprises mizaj (temperament), health status, age, sex, season, place, habits, occupation, etc. He believed that water in extra amount quenches the hararat-e-ghariezi, which is the basal internal heat to convey normal homeostasis and metabolism in the body. Conclusion: Several factors determine the actual need of any person to drink water. Consequently, recommending a specific amount of daily water intake for all is illogical. Moreover, important recommendations of TPM sages on an appropriate amount of water intake should be considered to prevent associated disorders.

  8. Optimal fluid intake in daily diet: Avicenna's view.

    PubMed

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Tafazoli, Vahid; Daneshfard, Babak; Zare, Manijhe

    2016-07-01

    Adequate daily water consumption is an important factor of keeping regular homeostasis. However, the best quantity of daily water consumption for a healthy individual is not virtually stated in the literature. Despite the dearth of evidence-based recommendations, it is commonly thought that ingesting eight glasses of water a day is good for a healthy person. Avicenna had a unique viewpoint. He believed that daily water intake depended on numerous elements together with age, intercourse, body temperament, season, occupation and various internal and external elements. He also cited a few essential and useful measures regarding proper water consumption, which have additionally been emphasized in Islamic hadiths. PMID:27417170

  9. Meal timing influences daily caloric intake in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Kathryn J.; Baron, Kelly G.; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2016-01-01

    The role that meal pattern plays in weight regulation is a popular topic of scientific and common debate. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between meal timing with caloric intake and body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that latemeal timing and eating closer to sleep onset time would be associated with greater energy intake and higher BMI. Participants included 59 individuals recruited from the community. Rest/activity patterns were assessed using seven days of wrist actigraphy, and caloric intake was evaluated using seven days of diet logs. Results demonstrated that the timing of meals was associated with overall energy intake but not with BMI. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, gender, sleep duration, and timing; eating more frequently, later timing of the last meal, and a shorter duration between last meal and sleep onset predicted higher total caloric intake. In a mediational model, eating frequency explained the relationship between eating closer to sleep onset and total caloric intake. Results suggest that later relative timing of meals, particularly eating close to sleep, could lead to weight gain due to a greater number of eating occasions and higher total daily caloric intake. These findings have important implications for the development of novel, time-based interventions for weight management. PMID:25439026

  10. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece.

    PubMed

    Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake. PMID:24779693

  11. New approaches in the derivation of acceptable daily intake (ADI)

    SciTech Connect

    Dourson, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Current methods for estimating human health risks from exposure to threshold-acting toxicants in water or food, such as those established by the U.S. EPA, the FDA, the NAS, the WHO and the FAO, consider only chronic or lifetime exposure to individual chemicals. These methods generally estimate a single, constant daily intake rate which is low enough to be considered safe or acceptable. The intake rate is termed the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Two problems with the approach have been recognized. The first problem is that the method does not readily account for the number of animals used to determine the appropriate 'no-observed-effect-level' (NOEL). The second problem with the current approach is that the slope of the dose-response curve of the critical toxic effect is generally ignored in estimating the ADI. The report illustrates both a revised approach to estimate ADIs with all toxicity data which includes methods for partial lifetime assessment, and novel methods for ADI estimation with quantal or continuous toxicity data. The latter method addresses to a degree the common problems with the current approach.

  12. Long-term daily intake estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers from food in Finnish children: risk assessment implications.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Anna K; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Sinkko, Harri; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Virtanen, Suvi M; Hallikainen, Anja; Leino, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2012-01-01

    Food is contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) worldwide. Previous data show elevated intakes in children. We determined intakes of POPs in Finnish children. Because no children-specific safe limit values exist, we used tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) set for adults by international expert bodies to examine the proportion of the study population that exceed those limits. We utilised dietary monitoring data with food consumption of Finnish boys and girls aged 1-6 years, measured the contaminant concentrations in all the main food items and calculated age-specific contaminant sum and congener-specific long-term daily intake levels. Our food intake and contaminant data correspond to years 2002-2005. The long-term upper-bound dioxin intakes ranged between 0.1 and 12.8 pg WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ/kg bw/d (min and max). An immediate TDI for WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQs of 4.0 pg/kg bw/d were exceeded by 2.5%-7.5% of the children. PBDE long-term upper-bound intake was between 0.1 and 5.8 ng/kg bw/d (min and max). Congener-specific analyses indicated a typical Finnish adult exposure pattern of the children to PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs. The highest POP intakes were observed in children aged 3 years. Long-term daily PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE intakes among Finnish children varied greatly between individuals and ages. In each age group of the study population, there was a proportion of children with their WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ intake exceeding considered safe limits set for adults. Based on the exposure profile reported herein, children should be clearly considered as a specific sub-population in food-mediated contaminant risk assessment. PMID:22765049

  13. Daily intake of trace metals through coffee consumption in India.

    PubMed

    Suseela, B; Bhalke, S; Kumar, A V; Tripathi, R M; Sastry, V N

    2001-02-01

    The trace element contents of five varieties of instant coffee powder available in the Indian market have been analysed. Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sr, Zn and Pb, Cd, Cu have been determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, respectively. The metal levels in the coffee powders observed in this study are comparable with those reported for green coffe beans (Arabica and Robusta variety) reported worldwide with the exception of Sr and Zn, which were on the lower side of the reported values. Concentrations of these metals have been converted into intake figures based on coffee consumption. The daily intakes of the above metals through ingestion of coffee are 1.4 mg, 1.58 microg, 124 microg, 41.5 mg, 4.9 mg, 17.9 microg, 2.9 microg, 3.8 microg, 12.5 microg, 0.2 microg, 0.03 microg and 15.5 microg, respectively. The values, which were compared with the total dietary, intake of metals through ingestion by the Mumbai population, indicate that the contribution from coffee is less than or around 1% for most of the elements except for Cr and Ni which are around 3%. PMID:11288908

  14. Zeaxanthin: Review of Toxicological Data and Acceptable Daily Intake

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Zeaxanthin is a nutritional carotenoid with a considerable amount of safety data based on regulatory studies, which form the basis of its safety evaluation. Subchronic OECD guideline studies with mice and rats receiving beadlet formulations of high purity synthetic zeaxanthin in the diet at dosages up to 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, and in dogs at over 400 mg/kg bw/day, produced no adverse effects or histopathological changes. In developmental toxicity studies, there was no evidence of fetal toxicity or teratogenicity in rats or rabbits at dosages up to 1000 or 400 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Formulated zeaxanthin was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a series of in vitro and in vivo tests for genotoxicity. A 52-week chronic oral study in Cynomolgus monkeys at doses of 0.2 and 20 mg/kg bw/day, mainly designed to assess accumulation and effects in primate eyes, showed no adverse effects. In a rat two-generation study, the NOAEL was 150 mg/kg bw/day. In 2012, this dosage was used by EFSA (NDA Panel), in association with a 200-fold safety factor, to propose an Acceptable Daily Intake equivalent to 53 mg/day for a 70 kg adult. The requested use level of 2 mg/day was ratified by the EU Commission. PMID:26885380

  15. Zeaxanthin: Review of Toxicological Data and Acceptable Daily Intake.

    PubMed

    Edwards, James A

    2016-01-01

    Zeaxanthin is a nutritional carotenoid with a considerable amount of safety data based on regulatory studies, which form the basis of its safety evaluation. Subchronic OECD guideline studies with mice and rats receiving beadlet formulations of high purity synthetic zeaxanthin in the diet at dosages up to 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, and in dogs at over 400 mg/kg bw/day, produced no adverse effects or histopathological changes. In developmental toxicity studies, there was no evidence of fetal toxicity or teratogenicity in rats or rabbits at dosages up to 1000 or 400 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Formulated zeaxanthin was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a series of in vitro and in vivo tests for genotoxicity. A 52-week chronic oral study in Cynomolgus monkeys at doses of 0.2 and 20 mg/kg bw/day, mainly designed to assess accumulation and effects in primate eyes, showed no adverse effects. In a rat two-generation study, the NOAEL was 150 mg/kg bw/day. In 2012, this dosage was used by EFSA (NDA Panel), in association with a 200-fold safety factor, to propose an Acceptable Daily Intake equivalent to 53 mg/day for a 70 kg adult. The requested use level of 2 mg/day was ratified by the EU Commission. PMID:26885380

  16. Risk assessment of coumarin using the bench mark dose (BMD) approach: children in Norway which regularly eat oatmeal porridge with cinnamon may exceed the TDI for coumarin with several folds.

    PubMed

    Fotland, T Ø; Paulsen, J E; Sanner, T; Alexander, J; Husøy, T

    2012-03-01

    Coumarin is a naturally occurring flavouring substance in cinnamon and many other plants. It is known that coumarin can cause liver toxicity in several species, and it is considered a non-genotoxic carcinogen in rodents. By using the bench mark dose approach we re-assessed coumarin toxicity and established a new TDI for coumarin of 0.07 mg/kg bw/day. Oral intake of coumarin is related to consumption of cinnamon-containing foods and food supplements. Cinnamon is a widely used spice in Norway, and can be used as topping on oatmeal porridge. Based on analyses of coumarin in Norwegian foods, intake calculations for children and adults were conducted, and a risk assessment of coumarin in the Norwegian population was performed. Intake estimates of coumarin show that small children eating oatmeal porridge several times a week sprinkled with cinnamon could have a coumarin intake of 1.63 mg/kg bw/day and may exceeding the TDI with several folds. Adults drinking cinnamon-based tea and consuming cinnamon supplements also can exceed TDI. The coumarin intake could exceed the TDI by 7- to 20-fold in some intake scenarios. Such large daily exceedances of TDI, even for a limited time period of 1-2 weeks, cause concern of adverse health effects. PMID:22178604

  17. Urinary excretion and daily intake rates of diethyl phthalate in the general Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Saravanabhavan, Gurusankar; Walker, Mike; Guay, Mireille; Aylward, Lesa

    2014-12-01

    We have analyzed the trends in the body-weight-adjusted urinary monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations and the diethyl ethyl phthalate (DEP) daily intake estimates in the general Canadian population (aged 6-49 years) using the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007-2009 dataset. The creatinine correction approach, as well as the urine volume approach in a simple one compartment model were used to calculate the daily urinary MEP excretion rates and DEP intake rates in individual survey participants. Using multiple regression models, we have estimated least square geometric means (LSGMs) of body-weight-adjusted MEP concentration, daily excretion and intake rates among different age groups and sex. We observed that body weight affects the trends in the MEP concentrations significantly among children (aged 6-11 years), adolescents (aged 12-19 years) and adults (aged 20-49 years). The body-weight-adjusted MEP concentrations in children were significantly higher than those in adults. On the other hand the DEP daily intakes in children were significantly lower than those in adults. We did not observe any differences in the DEP daily intake rates between males and females. Although the urinary MEP concentrations are correlated well with DEP daily intake estimates in the overall population, one should be cautious when directly using the urinary concentrations to compare the intake trends in the sub-populations (e.g. children vs. adults) as these trends are governed by additional physiological factors. The DEP daily intake calculated using the creatinine approach and that using the urine volume approach were similar to each other. The estimated geometric mean and 95th percentile of DEP daily intake in the general Canadian population are 2 and 20 μg/kg-bw/day, respectively. These daily intake estimates are significantly lower than the US Environmental Protection Agency's oral reference dose of 800 μg/kg-bw/day. PMID:25217994

  18. Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

  19. Cadmium content in rice and its daily intake in various countries

    SciTech Connect

    Rivai, Ida Farida; Koyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Shosuke )

    1990-06-01

    Man ingests cadmium daily from foods and beverages. The major source of cadmium intake is rice for rice eating countries. Cadmium in rice comes from soil via rice plant roots. Rice may thus be the best indicator for the environmental monitoring of cadmium especially in rice eating countries. It is also easy to sample, transport and conserve. Several recent surveys on cadmium content in rice and daily cadmium intake have been reported. However, little data are available on geographical differences in daily cadmium intake from rice. The tolerable weekly intake for cadmium as proposed by FAO/WHO is 400-500 micrograms/person or 57-71 micrograms/day/person weighing 70 kg. Ninety two percent of world rice production is from the Asia-Pacific region, from which samples were obtained for the present study. The following countries were included: India, China, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Japan, and Korea. This study was conducted to determine cadmium content in rice from the above countries and based on the data obtained, daily cadmium intake from rice and the total daily cadmium intake were calculated.

  20. Daily salt intake estimated by overnight urine collections indicates a high cardiovascular disease risk in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Nedsuwan, Supalert; Moolphate, Saiyud; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Tsutomu; Minematsu, Kazuo; Tanimura, Susumu; Marui, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study (February 2012 to March 2013) was conducted to estimate daily salt intake and basic characteristics among 793 community-dwelling participants at high risk of cardiovascular disease (Framingham risk score >15%), who had visited diabetes or hypertension clinics at health centres in the Muang district, Chiang Rai, Thailand. We performed descriptive analysis of baseline data and used an automated analyser to estimate the average of 24-hour salt intake estimated from 3 days overnight urine collection. Participants were divided into two groups based on median estimated daily salt intake. Mean age and proportion of males were 65.2 years and 37.6% in the higher salt intake group (>=10.0 g/day, n=362), and 67.5 years and 42.7% in the lower salt intake group (<10.0 g/day, n=431), respectively (p=0.01, p<0.01). The higher salt intake group comprised more patients with a family history of hypertension, antihypertensive drug use, less ideal body mass index (18.5-24.9), higher exercise frequency (>=2 times weekly) and lower awareness of high salt intake. Among higher salt intake participants, those with lower awareness of high salt intake were younger and more often had a family history of hypertension, relative to those with more awareness. Our data indicated that families often share lifestyles involving high salt intake, and discrepancies between actual salt intake and awareness of high salt intake may represent a need for salt reduction intervention aiming at family level. Awareness of actual salt intake should be improved for each family. PMID:26965760

  1. Daily intake of Lactobacillus casei Shirota increases natural killer cell activity in smokers.

    PubMed

    Reale, Marcella; Boscolo, Paolo; Bellante, Veronica; Tarantelli, Chiara; Di Nicola, Marta; Forcella, Laura; Li, Qing; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Muraro, Raffaella

    2012-07-01

    Dietary probiotics supplementation exerts beneficial health effects. Since cigarette smoking reduces natural killer (NK) activity, we evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) intake on NK cytotoxic activity in male smokers. The double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study was conducted on seventy-two healthy Italian blue-collar male smokers randomly divided for daily intake of LcS powder or placebo. Before and after 3 weeks of intake, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and NK activity and CD16⁺ cells' number were assessed. Daily LcS intake for 3 weeks significantly increased NK activity (P < 0.001). The increase in NK activity was paralleled by an increase in CD16⁺ cells (P < 0.001). Before intake, NK cytotoxic activity inversely correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked (R - 0.064). LcS intake prevented the smoke-dependent expected NK activity reduction. The analysis of the distribution of changes in smoke-adjusted NK activity demonstrated that the positive variations were significantly associated with LcS intake, while the negative variations were associated with placebo intake (median value of distributions of differences, 20.98 lytic unit (LU)/10⁷ cells for LcS v. - 4.38 LU/10⁷ cells for placebo, P = 0.039). In conclusion, 3 weeks of daily LcS intake in Italian male smokers was associated with a higher increase in cytotoxic activity and CD16⁺ cells' number in comparison to the placebo intake group. PMID:22142891

  2. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Angela M.; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003–2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19–39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL. PMID:27043623

  3. Estimated daily intake of phenolics and antioxidants from green tea consumption in the Korean diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bong Han; Nam, Tae Gyu; Park, Na Young; Chun, Ock K; Koo, Sung I; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2016-01-01

    To estimate daily intake of total phenolics and flavonoids from green tea and the contribution of green tea to the antioxidant intake from the Korean diet, 24 commercial brands of green tea were selected and analyzed. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 and 2011 indicate that the green tea consumption in these 2 years was 2.8 g/tea drinker/day and 2.9 g/tea drinker/day, respectively. Based on data derived from direct measurements of green tea phenolics and the dataset of the 2008 KNHANES, we estimated the daily per tea drinker phenolics intake to be 172 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE), the total flavonoids to be 43 mg catechin equivalents (CE) and the total antioxidants to be 267 mg vitamin C equivalents (VCE; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and 401 mg VCE (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay). In 2011, we estimated the daily per tea drinker total phenolics intake to be 246 mg GAE, the total flavonoids to be 60 mg CE and the antioxidants to be 448 mg VCE (DPPH assay) and 630 mg VCE (ABTS assay). The daily intake of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidants from green tea consumption increased from 2008 to 2011. PMID:26940374

  4. Exposure assessment of metal intakes from drinking water relative to those from total diet in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Koichi; Ishikawa, Kohei; Kurosawa, Yuki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2010-01-01

    Daily intakes of 17 metals (boron, aluminium, chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, lead, uranium, magnesium, calcium, and iron) via drinking water and total diet were investigated in six cities in Japan. The daily metal intakes were estimated and compared with tolerable daily intake (TDI) values proposed by the WHO or Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for toxic metals and with recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate intake (AI) values proposed for essential metals by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Among the 13 toxic metals, mean dietary intakes of 10 (except arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum) were less than 50% of TDI, suggesting that for these 10 metals the allocation of intake to drinking water in establishing guidelines or standards could possibly be increased from the normal allocation of 10-20% of TDI. For the 13 toxic metals, the contribution of drinking water to TDI was 2% or less in all six cities. Mean dietary intakes of the essential elements magnesium, calcium, and iron were less than the RDA or AI values. Drinking water did not contribute much to essential metal intake, accounting for less than 10% of RDA or AI. PMID:21099058

  5. Daily Copper and Manganese Intakes and Their Relation to Blood Pressure in Normotensive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeon-Kyung; Lyu, Eun-Soon; Oh, Se-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Ro, Hee-Kyong; Heo, Young-Ran; Hyun, Taisun

    2015-01-01

    Although it has been proposed that trace minerals have anti-oxidative functions and are related to the control of blood pressure, only a limited number of studies directly address the issue. Thus, the purpose of our study was to assess the intake of copper and manganese, which are trace minerals, and to clarify their relation to blood pressure. In a cross-sectional study, the blood pressure of 640 normotensive adults, from 19 to 69 year-old (320 males and 320 females), was measured, and its correlation with the intake of copper and manganese was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall method. The average value of the blood pressure was 126.4/80.2 mmHg for the males and 117.8/75.8 mmHg for the females. The daily copper intake was 1.3 mg/day for the males and 1.2 mg/day for the females. For manganese, the daily intake was 4.2 mg/day for the males and 4.1 mg/day for the females. Although the copper intake of all subjects showed a positive correlation with the systolic and diastolic blood pressures, there was no significant correlation when the potential confounding factors were adjusted. The manganese intake of the male subjects had a significantly negative correlation with the systolic blood pressure after adjusting for gender, age, body mass index, and energy intake. In conclusion, the daily manganese intake of the normotensitve adults showed a significantly negative correlation with the systolic blood pressure indicating a possibility of a positive effect of manganese on blood pressure. PMID:26566521

  6. Daily selenium intake in a moderate selenium deficiency area of Suzhou China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daily dietary selenium (Se) intake in Suzhou China was investigated to determine whether residents were susceptible to Se deficiency. Food samples were purchased from local supermarkets, including vegetables, fruits, meats and seafood. Hair samples were collected from 285 people ranging from 20 to ...

  7. Daily intakes of 232Th and 238U in Japanese males.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, K; Igarashi, Y; Takaku, Y; Masuda, K; Yoshimizu, K; Nishimura, Y; Hongo, S; Yamaguchi, H

    1992-08-01

    Diet samples were collected by a duplicate portion method from 31 locations in Japan and were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Average daily intakes per adult male were estimated at 1.7 mBq for 232Th and 8.8 mBq for 238U. PMID:1399617

  8. Estimated Daily Intake and Seasonal Food Sources of Quercetin in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishimuro, Haruno; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Sato, Midori; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Matsunaga, Izumi; Naito, Shigehiro; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Oike, Hideaki; Nagata, Tadahiro; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Kobori, Masuko

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin is a promising food component, which can prevent lifestyle related diseases. To understand the dietary intake of quercetin in the subjects of a population-based cohort study and in the Japanese population, we first determined the quercetin content in foods available in the market during June and July in or near a town in Hokkaido, Japan. Red leaf lettuce, asparagus, and onions contained high amounts of quercetin derivatives. We then estimated the daily quercetin intake by 570 residents aged 20–92 years old in the town using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The average and median quercetin intakes were 16.2 and 15.5 mg day−1, respectively. The quercetin intakes by men were lower than those by women; the quercetin intakes showed a low correlation with age in both men and women. The estimated quercetin intake was similar during summer and winter. Quercetin was mainly ingested from onions and green tea, both in summer and in winter. Vegetables, such as asparagus, green pepper, tomatoes, and red leaf lettuce, were good sources of quercetin in summer. Our results will help to elucidate the association between quercetin intake and risks of lifestyle-related diseases by further prospective cohort study and establish healthy dietary requirements with the consumption of more physiologically useful components from foods. PMID:25849945

  9. Estimated daily intake of Fe, Cu, Ca and Zn through common cereals in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Kashian, S; Fathivand, A A

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of study undertaken to estimate the dietary intake of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) through common cereals in Tehran, Iran. 100 samples of rice, wheat and barley were collected from various brands between August and October 2013. The samples were analyzed performing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The dietary intake for adults was estimated by a total cereal study. Calculations were carried out on the basis of the reported adults' average food consumption rate data. The total daily intake estimated in mgd(-1) for Tehran population were 3.6 (Fe), 10.2 (Zn), 0.3 (Cu) and 234.5 (Ca). Wheat showed the highest contribution to Zn, Cu and Ca intakes. Furthermore, intakes were compared with recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Zn total intake (10.2mgd(-1)) was comparable with RDA values for males (11mgd(-1)) and was higher than recommended value for females (8mgd(-1)). The intakes of other studied elements were below the respective RDAs. PMID:25624223

  10. Estimated daily intake and seasonal food sources of quercetin in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishimuro, Haruno; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Sato, Midori; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Matsunaga, Izumi; Naito, Shigehiro; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Oike, Hideaki; Nagata, Tadahiro; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Kobori, Masuko

    2015-04-01

    Quercetin is a promising food component, which can prevent lifestyle related diseases. To understand the dietary intake of quercetin in the subjects of a population-based cohort study and in the Japanese population, we first determined the quercetin content in foods available in the market during June and July in or near a town in Hokkaido, Japan. Red leaf lettuce, asparagus, and onions contained high amounts of quercetin derivatives. We then estimated the daily quercetin intake by 570 residents aged 20-92 years old in the town using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The average and median quercetin intakes were 16.2 and 15.5 mg day(-1), respectively. The quercetin intakes by men were lower than those by women; the quercetin intakes showed a low correlation with age in both men and women. The estimated quercetin intake was similar during summer and winter. Quercetin was mainly ingested from onions and green tea, both in summer and in winter. Vegetables, such as asparagus, green pepper, tomatoes, and red leaf lettuce, were good sources of quercetin in summer. Our results will help to elucidate the association between quercetin intake and risks of lifestyle-related diseases by further prospective cohort study and establish healthy dietary requirements with the consumption of more physiologically useful components from foods. PMID:25849945

  11. Estimated daily intake and cumulative risk assessment of phthalate diesters in a Belgian general population.

    PubMed

    Dewalque, Lucas; Charlier, Corinne; Pirard, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    The daily intakes (DI) were estimated in a Belgian general population for 5 phthalates, namely diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), based on the urinary measurements of their corresponding metabolites. DI values ranged between daily intakes) to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQ), which highlight an intake above the dose considered as safe for values greater than 1. If very few of our Belgian participants exceeded this threshold for phthalates considered individually, 6.2% of the adults and 25% of the children showed an excessive hazard index (HI) which took into account the cumulative risk of adverse anti-androgenic effects. These results are of concern since these HI were based on only 3 phthalates (DEHP, DiBP and DnBP), and showed a median of 0.55 and 0.29 for children and adults respectively. The comparison with previously determined dietary intakes demonstrated that for DEHP, food intake was nearly the only route of exposure while other pathways occurred mainly for the other studied phthalates. PMID:24968065

  12. The Effect of Breakfast Type on Total Daily Energy Intake and Body Mass Index Among Thai School Children.

    PubMed

    Purttiponthanee, Sasiumphai; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Senaprom, Sayamon; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The study investigated the association between breakfast types consumed, daily energy intake, and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ). Cross-sectional data from 1258 children aged 7 to 12.9 years were analyzed for breakfast type, nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight or obesity. Analysis of covariance was used to compare energy and nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight/obese children between breakfast groups. Only 19% of children had adequate energy intake from breakfast. Those consuming snacks had a significantly lower BAZ (Z = -0.73), with 5% of them being overweight/obese. Those consuming beverages and desserts had the lowest total daily energy intake (1314 kcal) and lowest protein intake (8.4 g). The results suggest that breakfast type is associated with daily energy intake and BAZ. Most breakfasts are not adequate. School-based nutrition education programs involving families, teachers, and health professionals can contribute to improve this situation. PMID:27183975

  13. Impacts of daily intakes on the isomeric profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guoqiang; Wang, Zhi; Zhou, Lianqiu; Du, Pin; Luo, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Qiannian; Zhu, Lingyan

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been well studied in human daily intake for assessment of potential health risks. However, little is known about the isomeric compositions of PFASs in daily intake and their impacts on isomeric profiles in humans. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of PFASs with isomeric analysis in various human exposure matrices including foodstuffs, tap water and indoor dust. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and/or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were predominant in these exposure matrices collected in Tianjin, China. In fish and meat, linear (n-) PFOA was enriched with a percentage of 92.2% and 99.6%, respectively. Although n-PFOS was higher in fish (84.8%) than in technical PFOS (ca. 70%), it was much lower in meat (63.1%) and vegetables (58.5%). Dietary intake contributed >99% of the estimated daily intake (EDI) for the general population. The isomeric profiles of PFOA and PFOS in human serum were predicted based on the EDI and a one-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model. The isomeric percentage of n-PFOA in the EDI (98.6%) was similar to that in human serum (predicted: 98.2%, previously measured: 99.7%) of Tianjin residents. The results suggest direct PFOA intake plays an important role in its isomeric compositions in humans. For PFOS, the predicted n-PFOS (69.3%) was much higher than the previously measured values (59.2%) in human serum. This implies that other factors, such as indirect exposure to PFOS precursors and multiple excretion pathways, may contribute to the lower percentage of n-PFOS in humans than of technical PFOS. PMID:26826363

  14. Pyrethroids in human breast milk: occurrence and nursing daily intake estimation.

    PubMed

    Corcellas, Cayo; Feo, Maria Luisa; Torres, Joao Paulo; Malm, Olaf; Ocampo-Duque, William; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2012-10-15

    There is an assumption that pyrethroid pesticides are converted to non-toxic metabolites by hydrolysis in mammals. However, some recent works have shown their bioaccumulation in human breast milk collected in areas where pyrethroids have been widely used for agriculture or malaria control. In this work, thirteen pyrethroids have been studied in human breast milk samples coming from areas without pyrethroid use for malaria control, such as Brazil, Colombia and Spain. The concentrations of pyrethroids ranged from 1.45 to 24.2 ng g⁻¹ lw. Cypermethrin, λ-cyhalothrin, permethrin and esfenvalerate/fenvalerate were present in all the studied samples. The composition of pyrethroid mixture depended on the country of origin of the samples, bifenthrin being the most abundant in Brazilian samples, λ-cyhalothrin in Colombian and permethrin in Spanish ones. When the pyrethroid concentrations were confronted against the number of gestations, an exponential decay was observed. Moreover, a time trend study was carried out in Brazil, where additional archived pool samples were analyzed, corresponding to years when pyrethroids were applied for dengue epidemic control. In these cases, total pyrethroid levels reached up to 128 ng g⁻¹ lw, and concentrations decreased when massive use was not allowed. Finally, daily intake estimation of nursing infants was calculated in each country and compared to acceptable WHO levels. The estimated daily intakes for nursing infants were always below the acceptable daily intake levels, nevertheless in certain samples the detected concentrations were very close to the maximum acceptable levels. PMID:22717642

  15. Estimated daily intake of benzoic acid through food additives in adult population of South East Serbia.

    PubMed

    Lazarević, Konstansa; Stojanović, Dusica; Rancić, Natasa

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate dietary intake of benzoic acid and its salts through food additives in adult population of South East Serbia. Information on dietary intake among 620 adults (aged 18-65) was collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and 748 food samples were analyzed. The mean estimated intake of benzoic acid -0.32 mg/kg of body weight (bw) per day was below acceptable daily intake (ADI). Dietary exposure to benzoic acid (0.36 mg/kg of bw/day; 7.2% ADI) (consumer only), also did not exceed ADI. The main contributors of benzoic acid to dietary intake were non alcoholic beverages (43.1%), ketchup and tomato products (36.1%), and domestic pickled vegetables (19.4%). The results of this study indicate that dietary exposure to benzoic acid and its salts through food preservatives does not represent a public health risk for the adult population of South East Serbia. PMID:22432399

  16. International project on human daily dietary intake of minor and trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, V.

    1986-01-01

    A coordinate research program on dietary intake of nutrient and other elements initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is currently under way. The purpose of the core program of this project is to obtain reliable data on the average daily intakes of several important minor and trace elements in diets consumed in a number of developed and developing countries such as Brazil, Canada, China, Iran, Italy, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Thailand, and Turkey. In the core program which will be collected for determination of the nutrient elements such as calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, iodine, selenium, and zinc, among others. The project also provides for the measurement of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in view of the biological significance of these elements as toxicants in the diet and includes estimation of the energy, phytate, and fiber components of the diet.

  17. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China. PMID:26727195

  18. Daily menus can result in suboptimal nutrient intakes, especially calcium, of adolescents living in dormitories.

    PubMed

    Kresić, Greta; Simundić, Borislav; Mandić, Milena L; Kendel, Gordana; Zezelj, Sandra Pavicić

    2008-03-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate daily menus in Croatian dormitories and to assess the overall intake of dairy products among resident adolescents. For this purpose, 168 daily menus were chosen for nutritional evaluation by random sampling. In addition, 227 adolescents (133 girls and 94 boys) participated in a questionnaire focused on food intake in addition to the meals supplied in dormitories with the aim to assess the amount and the type of dairy products consumed. The results showed that only 35% of the daily menus were nutritionally balanced. Most of the menus provided an excess of energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated fat, phosphorus, riboflavin, and vitamin A. The levels of calcium and magnesium in the menus were suboptimal. The menus offered to adolescents provided approximately 2 servings of dairy products per day. Milk was the most often supplied dairy product (1.1 servings per day), whereas yogurt had the lowest frequency of serving (0.2 servings per day). The most preferred dairy-based snack for both sexes was milk. Dairy-based snacks provided about 1 serving per day for both sexes and contributed to about 30% of the recommended dietary allowances for calcium. Adolescents who regularly consumed dairy-based snacks meet the recommendations (3.2 servings of dairy products per day and about 98% recommended dietary allowances for calcium). We conclude that the institutional menu planning should be improved because the intake of dairy snacks will continue to be a problem for achieving a healthy diet in adolescences. PMID:19083403

  19. Estimation of daily dietary fluoride intake: 3-d food diary v. 2-d duplicate plate.

    PubMed

    Omid, N; Maguire, A; O'Hare, W T; Zohoori, F V

    2015-12-28

    The 3-d food diary method (3-d FD) or the 2-d duplicate plate (2-d DP) method have been used to measure dietary fluoride (F) intake by many studies. This study aimed to compare daily dietary F intake (DDFI) estimated by the 3-d FD and 2-d DP methods at group and individual levels. Dietary data for sixty-one healthy children aged 4-6 years were collected using 3-d FD and 2-d DP methods with a 1-week gap between each collection. Food diary data were analysed for F using the Weighed Intake Analysis Software Package, whereas duplicate diets were analysed by an acid diffusion method using an F ion-selective electrode. Paired t test and linear regression were used to compare dietary data at the group and individual levels, respectively. At the group level, mean DDFI was 0·025 (sd 0·016) and 0·028 (sd 0·013) mg/kg body weight (bw) per d estimated by 3-d FD and 2-d DP, respectively. No statistically significant difference (P=0·10) was observed in estimated DDFI by each method at the group level. At an individual level, the agreement in estimating F intake (mg/kg bw per d) using the 3-d FD method compared with the 2-d DP method was within ±0·011 (95 % CI 0·009, 0·013) mg/kg bw per d. At the group level, DDFI data obtained by either the 2-d DP method or the 3-d FD method can be replaced. At an individual level, the typical error and the narrow margin between optimal and excessive F intake suggested that the DDFI data obtained by one method cannot replace the dietary data estimated from the other method. PMID:26568435

  20. Estimation of daily intake of organohalogenated contaminants from food consumption and indoor dust ingestion in Romania.

    PubMed

    Dirtu, Alin C; Covaci, Adrian

    2010-08-15

    other European studies. The contribution of dust ingestion to the daily intake of PBDEs is increased in comparison to intake of other chlorinated contaminants, while food consumption seems to be more important than dust for the HBCD intake. However, neither BDE 209 nor HBCD were measured at levels above method LOQ in any food samples and their dietary intake is probably overestimated because nondetects were replaced by (1)/(2) LOQ. The estimated intakes obtained in the present study are in good agreement with the higher concentrations of OCPs and the low levels of PBDEs reported recently in Romanian human samples. PMID:20704229

  1. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093

  2. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093

  3. Daily intake of bisphenol A and potential sources of exposure: 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    LaKind, Judy S; Naiman, Daniel Q

    2011-01-01

    Nationally representative data on urinary levels of bisphenol A (BPA) and its metabolites in the United States from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to estimate daily BPA intakes. In addition, NHANES data on potential sources of BPA exposure and personal characteristics were explored for their association with urinary BPA levels. On the basis of 2005–2006 NHANES urinary BPA data and assumptions described in this paper, median daily intake for the overall population is approximately 34 ng/kg-day. Median daily BPA intakes for men are statistically significantly higher than for women; there is a significant decrease in daily BPA intake with increasing age. Gender- and age-specific median intakes differ from the overall population by less than a factor of 2. Although estimates of daily BPA intake have decreased compared with those from the 2003–2004 NHANES, it is premature to draw conclusions regarding trends at this time, as there is no indication that BPA use declined from 2003 to 2006. On the basis of an assessment of urinary BPA and questionnaire data from the 2005–2006 NHANES, consumption of soda, school lunches, and meals prepared outside the home — but not bottled water or canned tuna — was statistically significantly associated with higher urinary BPA. PMID:20237498

  4. Human metabolic, mineral, and microbiota fluctuations across daily nutritional intake visualized by a data-driven approach.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Takuma; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Daily intake information is important for an understanding of the metabolic fluctuation of humans exposed to environmental stimuli. However, little investigation has been performed on the variations in dietary intake as an input and the relationship with human fecal, urinary, and salivary metabolic fluctuations as output information triggered by daily dietary intake. In the present study, we describe a data-driven approach for visualizing the daily intake information on a nutritional scale and for evaluating input-output responses under uncontrolled diets in a human study. For the input evaluation of nutritional intake, we collected information about daily dietary intake and converted this information to numeric data of nutritional elements. Furthermore, for the evaluation of output metabolic, mineral, and microbiota responses, we characterized the metabolic, mineral, and microbiota variations of noninvasive human samples of feces, urine, and saliva. The data-driven approach captured significant differences in the fluctuation of intestinal microbiota and some metabolites caused by a high-protein and a high-fat diet in daily life. This approach should contribute to the metabolic assessment of humans affected by environmental and nutritional factors under unlimited and uncontrolled diets. PMID:25626911

  5. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Markwald, Rachel R.; Melanson, Edward L.; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to −0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity. PMID:23479616

  6. Effects of learned flavor cues on single meal and daily food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, S E; Tepper, B J

    1994-06-01

    This study examined the effects of learned flavor cues on lunch-meal and daily food intake in 39, normal-weight, free-living adults. Subjects were fed distinctly flavored high-calorie (HC) and low-calorie (LC) milkshake preloads. Following the repeated flavor-calorie pairings, the flavors of the milkshakes were covertly switched. Twenty-three percent of the participants were classified as sensory responders. That is, their lunch intake reflected the anticipated caloric content of the preloads based on the sensory properties rather than the true energy value. Short-term sensory learning did not reliably alter 24-h energy intake in these subjects. The remaining subjects (i.e., sensory nonresponders) ignored the flavor cues and consumed the same size lunches across all phases of the study. Compensation for the preloads was examined during the training period (i.e., before the flavors were switched). Sensory responders accurately adjusted lunch intakes on the first day of exposure to both preloads, demonstrating unlearned compensation for energy density. Compensation continued to be accurate across training days for the HC (85%) but not the LC preload (65%). Sensory nonresponders did not compensate accurately for either of the preloads. Thus, sensory responders were initially more responsive to the caloric density of the preloads and continued to make accurate adjustments when the flavor cue matched the caloric load (i.e., during training) but were misled by the flavor cue when it did not match the caloric consequence (i.e., when the flavors were switched). Sensory nonresponders ignored the sensory cues and ate the same size lunches regardless of the caloric value of the preload.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8047588

  7. Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake stability in rabbit males reduce sperm abnormalities and improve fertility.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J J; Marco-Jiménez, F; Martínez-Paredes, E; Ródenas, L; Fabre, C; Juvero, M A; Cano, J L

    2016-08-01

    Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake (DFI) stability in rabbit males could be useful to ensure successful coverage of their nutritional requirements and for continued production of quality semen. To evaluate two feeding systems designed to reduce DFI variability, 115 rabbit males at age 1.2 years were randomly assigned to three different treatments for 294 days: CS, animals fed ad libitum with a control diet (127-g starch and 281-g total soluble fiber [hemicellulose + soluble fiber] kg(-1) dry matter); SF, males fed ad libitum with diet enriched in soluble fiber (86-g starch and 330-g total soluble fiber kg(-1) dry matter); and R, animals fed with CS diet but daily restricted to maintenance requirements. Feed intake, body weight, body condition, and variability of DFI were controlled every 42 days, and individual semen volume and sperm motility, concentration, acrosome status, and abnormalities every 15 days. In six commercial farms, the number of females inseminated, pregnant and kindling, as well as the number of kits born alive, was registered for 15,893 inseminations with pooled semen from each treatment. DFI was significantly lower for R males than for the other treatments (on average, -12 ± 4 g/day; P < 0.001). Daily weight gain of R males was close to zero and significantly lower than in the other groups (-1.42 g/day; P < 0.001). Variability of DFI was significantly (P < 0.01) lower for R males (7%) than for males of dietary treatments CS (13%), with SF males showing intermediate values (11%). Semen from R males presented lower sperm abnormalities (-5.9%; P < 0.05) and higher percentages of normal and motile spermatozoa (-3.4% than SF males; P < 0.05). Dietary treatments formulated to reduce DFI variability (SF and R) led to an improvement of kindling to pregnant and kindling to insemination ratio (+0.039 and + 0.060 ± 0.015, respectively; P < 0.05) compared with CS treatment. In conclusion, a moderate restriction of rabbit

  8. Phytoestrogens in soy-based infant foods: concentrations, daily intake, and possible biological effects.

    PubMed

    Irvine, C H; Fitzpatrick, M G; Alexander, S L

    1998-03-01

    Exposure to estrogenic compounds may pose a developmental hazard to infants. Soy products, which contain the phytoestrogens, genistein and daidzein, are becoming increasingly popular as infant foods. To begin to evaluate the potential of the phytoestrogens in these products to affect infants, we measured total genistein and daidzein contents of commercially available soy-based infant formulas, infant cereals, dinners, and rusks. We also assayed phytoestrogens in dairy-based formulas and in breast milk from omnivorous or vegetarian mothers. In most cases, the glucoside forms of the phytoestrogens were hydrolyzed before separation by HPLC. Mean (+/-SEM) total genistein and daidzein contents in four soy infant formulas were 87+/-3 and 49+/-2 microg/g, respectively. The phytoestrogen content of cereals varied with brand, with genistein ranging from 3-287 microg/g and daidzein from 2-276 microg/g. By contrast, no phytoestrogens were detected in dairy-based infant formulas or in human breast milk, irrespective of the mother's diet (detection limit = 0.05 microg/ml). When fed according to the manufacturer's instruction, soy formulas provide the infant with a daily dose rate of total isoflavones (i.e., genistein + daidzein) of approximately 3 mg/kg body weight, which is maintained at a fairly constant level between 0-4 months of age. Supplementing the diet of 4-month-old infants with a single daily serving of cereal can increase their isoflavone intake by over 25%, depending on the brand chosen. This rate of isoflavone intake is much greater than that shown in adult humans to alter reproductive hormones. Since the available evidence suggests that infants can digest and absorb dietary phytoestrogens in active forms and since neonates are generally more susceptible than adults to perturbations of the sex steroid milieu, we suggest that it would be highly desirable to study the effects of soy isoflavones on steroid-dependent developmental processes in human babies. PMID

  9. Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. P.; Kennedy, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate ingested may be an important risk factor in the development of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Reliable food tables listing the oxalate content of foods are currently not available. The aim of this research was to develop an accurate and reliable method to measure the food content of oxalate. METHODS: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) were compared as direct techniques for the estimation of the oxalate content of foods. Foods were thoroughly homogenized in acid, heat extracted, and clarified by centrifugation and filtration before dilution in water for analysis. Five individuals consuming self-selected diets maintained food records for three days to determine their mean daily oxalate intakes. RESULTS: Both techniques were capable of adequately measuring the oxalate in foods with a significant oxalate content. With foods of very low oxalate content (<1.8 mg/100 g), IC was more reliable than CE. The mean daily intake of oxalate by the five individuals tested was 152 +/- 83 mg, ranging from 44 to 352 mg/day. CONCLUSIONS: CE appears to be the method of choice over IC for estimating the oxalate content of foods with a medium (>10 mg/100 g) to high oxalate content due to a faster analysis time and lower running costs, whereas IC may be better suited for the analysis of foods with a low oxalate content. Accurate estimates of the oxalate content of foods should permit the role of dietary oxalate in urinary oxalate excretion and stone formation to be clarified. Other factors, apart from the amount of oxalate ingested, appear to exert a major influence over the amount of oxalate excreted in the urine.

  10. Heavy metal content in various types of candies and their daily dietary intake by children.

    PubMed

    Devi, Parmila; Bajala, Vandana; Garg, V K; Mor, Suman; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-02-01

    Children are vulnerable to heavy metal contamination through consumption of candies and chocolates. Considering this representative samples (69) of candies and chocolates based on cocoa, milk and sugar were analyzed for selected heavy metals by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The average concentration of Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd was found to be 2.52 ± 2.49, 2.0 ± 1.20, 0.84 ± 1.35, and 0.17 ± 0.22 μg/g respectively. Results indicate that cocoa-based candies have higher metal content than milk- or sugar-based candies. The daily dietary intake of metals for children eating candies and chocolates was also calculated, and results indicated highest intake of Pb and Zn followed by Ni, Cd, and Cu. Comparison of the current study results with other studies around the globe shows that the heavy metal content in candies and chocolates is lower in India than reported elsewhere. However, to reduce the further dietary exposure of heavy metals through candies and chocolates, their content should be monitored regularly and particularly for Pb as children are highly susceptible to its toxicity. PMID:26759032

  11. Heavy metals in selected edible vegetables and estimation of their daily intake in Sanandaj, Iran.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Afshin; Zarasvand, Masoud Alasvand

    2008-03-01

    The levels of four different heavy metals [cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu)] were determined in various vegetables [leek (Allium ampeloprasum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), garden cress (Lepidium sativum) and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus)] cultivated around Sanandaj City. The contributions of the vegetables to the daily intake of heavy metals from vegetables were investigated. One hundred samples (20 samples per month) were collected for five months. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of these metals in the vegetables. The average concentrations of each heavy metal regardless of the kind of vegetable for Pb, Cu, Cr and Cd were 13.60 +/- 2.27, 11.50 +/- 2.16, 7.90 +/- 1.05 and 0.31 +/- 0.17 mg/kg, respectively. Based on the above concentrations and the information of National Nutrition and Food Research Institute of Iran, the dietary intake of Pb, Cu, Cr and Cd through vegetable consumption was estimated at 2.96, 2.50, 1.72 and 0.07 mg/day, respectively. It is concluded that the vegetables grown in this region are a health hazard for human consumption. PMID:18564723

  12. Antidepressant treatment decreases daily salt intake and prevents heart dysfunction following subchronic aortic regurgitation in rats.

    PubMed

    De Gobbi, Juliana Irani Fratucci; Omoto, Ana Carolina Mieko; Siqueira, Tamires Ferreira; Matsubara, Luiz Shigueto; Roscani, Meliza Goi; Matsubara, Beatriz Bojikian

    2015-05-15

    Depression is a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with heart failure. Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may improve these outcomes. Left ventricular volume overload induced hypertrophy that is associated with aortic regurgitation (AR) leads to ventricular dysfunction and heart failure. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the SSRI paroxetine on cardiac function, as well as on fluid intake and excretion, in subchronic AR. Male Wistar rats (260 to 280g) received sham (SH) surgery or AR induced by retrograde puncture of the aortic valve leaflets. The presence of AR was confirmed by echocardiography (ECHO) exams. Four weeks after AR surgery, subcutaneous injections of paroxetine (PAR: 10mg/kg 3 times in a week) or saline were administered. The rats were randomly divided into the following 4 groups and treated for 4 weeks: AR-PAR, ARsaline, SH-PAR and SH-saline. At the end of the treatment period, fractional shortening was preserved in AR-PAR, compared to AR-saline (46.6±2.7% vs 38.3±2.2%, respectively). Daily 0.3 M NaCl intake was reduced in PAR-treated rats. Natriuresis was increased in weeks 2-3 after PAR treatment. Our results suggest that augmentation of central 5-HT neurotransmission has a beneficial effect on cardiovascular remodeling following volume overload. The mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. PMID:25747768

  13. Effect of daily concentrate intake at weaning on performance of Belgian Blue double-muscled rearing calves.

    PubMed

    Fiems, Leo; De Boever, Johan; De Campeneere, Sam; Vanacker, José; De Brabander, Daniël

    2005-12-01

    Weaning at a different daily concentrate intake was investigated during a 140-d experimental period, using 54 male and 68 female newborn Belgian Blue double-muscled animals. They were divided into three comparable groups and received milk at 10% of their birth weight up to weaning. Concentrate was levelled off at a maximum daily intake of 3 kg, while grass hay was freely available. Weaning occurred at a daily concentrate intake level (CL) of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 kg, respectively. Weaning at an increased CL prolonged the milk-feeding period by 13.1 and 14.6 days, and resulted in a higher pre- and post-weaning growth rate (p < 0.05). Daily gain during the entire experimental period averaged 0.84, 0.85 and 0.88 kg for the respective groups (p = 0.065). Daily concentrate intake was not different among groups, with only a small effect of CL on intake around weaning. Early weaning resulted in a significant reduction of hay intake (p = 0.032). Total daily net energy intake increased slightly with a higher CL at weaning, so that energy conversion was slightly improved, amounting to 17.7, 17.6 and 17.4 MJ/kg gain, respectively. Energy balance during the first week after weaning was negative for CL 0.5 kg (-22%), while it was close to 0 for CL 0.75 kg (-2%) or positive for CL 1.0 kg. Most effects of CL at weaning were similar for males and females, but male calves tended to have a higher intake and a faster growth rate than females. It can be concluded that weaning should be delayed until Belgian Blue double-muscled calves consume at least 0.75 kg per day or more for reasons of welfare, although performance was hardly improved by weaning at a daily concentrate intake of more than 0.5 kg per day. PMID:16429825

  14. Selenium content in selected foods from the Greek market and estimation of the daily intake.

    PubMed

    Pappa, Eleni C; Pappas, Athanasios C; Surai, Peter F

    2006-12-15

    The total selenium content of foods purchased from the North West part of Greece was determined using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. The results of this study were within the range from other countries. The overall mean average of selenium concentration of the foods examined, in decreasing order, was found in sesame seeds (783.1 ng g(-1)), fish (246 ng g(-1)), legumes (162.5 ng g(-1)), eggs (123 ng g(-1)), bread (91.9 ng g(-1)), meat (71.7 ng g(-1)), cheese (69.8 ng g(-1)), yoghurt (23.6 ng g(-1)), nuts (19.6 ng g(-1)), milk (15.4 ng g(-1)), vegetables (6.5 ng g(-1)) and fruits (3.4 ng g(-1)). Considering the average daily individual consumption of these foods by Greeks, the average daily dietary intake of selenium supplied by this source is 39.3 microg per capita. PMID:16959300

  15. Bone quality associated with daily intake of coffee: a biochemical, radiographic and histometric study.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Suzie Aparecida; Matuoka, Renata Inahara; Macedo, Rander Moreira; Petenusci, Sergio Olavo; Campos, Alessandra Aparecida; Brentegani, Luiz Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine induces loss of calcium and influences the normal development of bone. This study investigated the effects of coffee on bone metabolism in rats by biochemical measurement of calcium, bone densitometry and histometry. Male rats, born of female treated daily with coffee and with coffee intake since born, were anesthetized, subjected to extraction of the upper right incisor, and sacrificed 7, 21 and 42 days after surgery. Blood and urine samples were taken, and their maxilla radiographed and processed to obtain 5-µm-thick semi-serial sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The volume and bone quality were estimated using an image-analysis software. The results showed significantly greater amount of calcium in the plasma (9.40 ± 1.73 versus 9.80 ± 2.05 mg%) and urine (1.00 ± 0.50 versus 1.25 ± 0.70 mg/24 h) and significantly less amount in bone (90.0 ± 1.94 versus 86.0 ± 2.12 mg/mg bone), reduced bone mineral density (1.05 ± 0.11 versus 0.65 ± 0.15 mmAL), and lower amount of bone (76.19 ± 1.6 versus 53.41 ± 2.1 %) (ANOVA; p≤0.01) in animals treated with coffee sacrificed after 42 days. It may be concluded that coffee/caffeine intake caused serious adverse effects on calcium metabolism in rats, including increased levels of calcium in the urine and plasma, decreased bone mineral density and lower volume of bone, thus delaying the bone repair process. PMID:21203700

  16. Daily milk intake improves vitamin B-12 status in young vegetarian Indians: an intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic Indian lacto vegetarians, who make up more than half of the Indian population in different geographic regions, have distinctly low vitamin B-12 concentrations than non- vegetarians. Vegetarians consume milk but it seems that the amount is not enough to improve vitamin B-12 status or vitamin B-12 concentration in milk itself may be low. The aim of this study was to determine if daily milk consumption can improve vitamin B-12 status. Methods Fifteen male and 36 female, young healthy post-graduate volunteers participated. Blood from ten participants (4 males and 6 females) was collected (day-1). They continued their regular diet for next fourteen days and on day-15, blood of all 51 participants was collected, plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was measured and were divided into two groups; Normal (vitamin B-12 >148 pmol/L, n = 22) and Vitamin B-12 deficient (<148 pmol/L, n = 29), the remaining plasma was stored. All participants consumed 600 ml. of non-enriched buffalo milk (200 × 3) during the day along with their usual diet. Next day blood was collected for plasma holotranscobalamin II measurement. Subjects from deficient group continued to drink 400 ml of milk daily for next 14 days and blood was collected on day-30. Plasma holotranscoabalamin II (day-1, 15, 16, 30), vitamin B-12, folate, total homocysteine, creatinine and hematoloical parameters (day-1, 15, 30), and milk vitamin B-12 concentrations (day-15, 16, 30) were measured. Results Fifty seven per cent of the participants were vitamin B-12 deficient and 65% were hyperhomocysteinemic. No significant difference in biomarkers was observed when there was no intervention. Plasma holotranscobalamin II concentration increased from 19.6 to 22.27 pmol/L (p < 0.0001) 24 hrs after milk load in the whole group. Plasma vitamin B-12 increased from 92.5 to 122 pmol/L and tHcy concentrations decreased from 31.9 to 24.9 μ mol/L (p < 0.0001 for both) 14 days after regular milk

  17. Daily intake of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum L-137 augments acquired immunity in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Yoshitaka; Murosaki, Shinji; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Yoshikai, Yasunobu; Tsuru, Tomomi

    2006-12-01

    Heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum strain L-137 (HK-LP) is a potent inducer of IL-12 in vitro as well as in vivo in mice. HK-LP has been shown to suppress IgE production against food allergens, as well as tumor growth in mice, through IL-12 production, which induces the T helper (Th) 1 type immune response. To determine whether the intake of HK-LP influences immune function and the quality of life (QOL), a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study was conducted in healthy subjects. Sixty subjects (30 men and 30 women, mean age 56.3 y) were randomly assigned to receive a capsule containing 10 mg of HK-LP daily or a matching capsule for 12 wk. Biomarkers for innate immunity such as the natural killer activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, neutrophil phagocytosis, and cell surface expression of CD64 on monocytes were measured every 4 wk. Biomarkers for acquired immunity such as concanavalin A (Con A)-induced proliferation, percentages of INF-gamma and IL-4-producing cluster of differentiation (CD)4(+) T cells (Th1:Th2 ratio), and the serum IgG4:IgG ratio were measured every 4 wk or at wk 0 and wk 12. Health-related QOL was assessed using a self-rating questionnaire with 26 items. Among the measured biomarkers, the percent change in Con A-induced proliferation and the Th1:Th2 ratio in the HK-LP group was greater than those in the control group (P = 0.036 and P = 0.002, respectively). The degree of improvement in QOL was higher in the HK-LP group than in the control group at wk 8 (P = 0.049) and tended to be higher at wk 12 (P = 0.092). These results suggest that a daily intake of HK-LP augments acquired immunity, especially Th1-related immune functions in healthy subjects, thereby improving the health-related QOL. PMID:17116721

  18. Effects of metabolizable energy intake on tympanic temperature and average daily gain of steers finished in southern Chile during wintertime

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 24 Angus x Hereford steers (BW = 479.8 ± 4.48) were used to assess the effect of Metabolizable Energy Intake (MEI) on Average Daily Gain (ADG) and Tympanic Temperature (TT) during the wintertime in southern Chile. The study was conducted at the experimental field of the Catholic Universit...

  19. Energy supplementation and herbage allowance effects on daily intake in lactating mares.

    PubMed

    Collas, C; Dumont, B; Delagarde, R; Martin-Rosset, W; Fleurance, G

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about how to manage grazing horses, including the thresholds under which energy supplementation is required. Here we investigated the effects of daily herbage allowance (DHA) and energy supplementation (ES) on daily herbage intake in lactating mares of light breeds grazing high-quality regrowth during summer. Three contrasting DHA, low (LOW), medium (MED), and high (HIGH), that is, 35.0, 52.5, and 70.0 g DM∙kg BW(-1)∙d(-1), respectively, were obtained by adjusting pasture strip width. Eighteen Anglo-Arab and French Saddle lactating mares were either supplemented with 2.6 kg DM barley/d (SUP group; n= 9) or left nonsupplemented (NSUP group; n = 9) throughout the experiment. For 3 successive 2-wk periods, 3 groups of SUP mares (n = 3) and 3 groups of NSUP mares (n = 3) grazed each DHA according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Pregrazing sward surface height (SSH) was similar between treatments (26.6 cm), but postgrazing SSH differed significantly between each DHA (2.9, 4.4, and 5.7 cm for LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively; P < 0.001). Herbage DMI (HDMI) increased linearly from 18.5 to 23.4 g DM∙kg BW(-1)∙d(-1) with increasing DHA (i.e., 0.13 kg DM eaten/kg DM of herbage offered; P < 0.001) independently of ES and with no significant ES × DHA interaction. This increase in HDMI resulted from an increase in grazing time between LOW (961 min/d) and MED and HIGH (1,021 min/d; P < 0.01) and from an increase in intake rate between LOW and MED (11.8 g DM/min) and HIGH (13.6 g DM/min; P < 0.01). Total digestible DMI (TDDMI) and NE intake (NEI) increased linearly from 12.3 to 15.2 g DM∙kg BW∙(-1)d(-1) and from 136.6 to 165.8 kJ∙kg BW(-1)∙d (-1)with increasing DHA (P < 0.001), respectively. Total digestible DMI and NEI were significantly lower for NSUP than for SUP mares: 12.5 vs. 14.9 g DM∙kg BW(-1)∙d(-1) (P < 0.01) and 134.6 vs. 166.5 kJ∙kg BW(-1)∙d(-1) (P < 0.001), respectively. Whereas SUP mares always met their energy requirements

  20. Temporal trends in daily dietary intakes of DDTs and HCHs in urban populations from Beijing and Shenyang, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanxin; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Cao, Jun; Wong, Minghong; Tao, Shu

    2013-06-01

    The temporal trends in daily dietary exposure of the populations in Beijing and Shenyang, China to DDTs and HCHs through consumption of various food categories and the associated health risks were investigated in this work. The estimated dietary intakes of DDTs and HCHs in 2005/2007 were almost one and two orders of magnitude lower than those in 1992 and in the 1970s, respectively, revealing the historical decrease of DDT and HCH in Chinese foods after their applications were banned. The relative contributions of different foodstuffs to the overall intakes of DDTs and HCHs in the 1970s and in 1992 were very different from those in 2005/2007, mainly due to the remarkable concentration variance in foodstuffs and changes in diet habit of population. According to the hazard guidelines, it is concluded that intakes of these two pesticides in 2005/2007 may not exert adverse effects on human health. PMID:23427859

  1. Breakfast skipping and breakfast type are associated with daily nutrient intakes and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Seokhwa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Emerging evidence shows that eating breakfast and breakfast types may be associated with health outcomes and dietary intakes in various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between breakfast types in Korean adults with their daily nutrient intakes and health outcomes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 11,801 20- to 64-year-old adults (age 42.9 ± 11.8 yrs [mean ± standard error of the mean]; male 41.1%, female 58.9%) in 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data were divided into 5 groups based on breakfast types in a 24-hr dietary recall: rice with 3 or more side dishes (Rice3+, 35.3%), rice with 0-2 side dishes (Rice0-2, 34.73%), noodles (1.56%), bread and cereal (6.56%), and breakfast skipping (21.63%). Daily nutrient intakes and the risk of metabolic syndrome were compared among five groups. RESULTS Compared with Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake levels, the breakfast-skipping group showed the lowest intake level in most nutrients, whereas the Rice3+ group showed the highest. Fat intake was higher in the bread and noodle groups than in the other groups. When compared with the Rice3+ group, the odds ratios for the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome were increased in the breakfast skipping, Rice0-2, and noodle groups after controlling for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS The rice-based breakfast group showed better nutritional status and health outcomes when eating with 3 or more side dishes. Nutrition education is needed to emphasize both the potential advantage of the rice-based, traditional Korean diet in terms of nutritional content and the importance of food diversity. PMID:26060541

  2. Consuming More of Daily Caloric Intake at Dinner Predisposes to Obesity. A 6-Year Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Simona; Musso, Giovanni; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Fadda, Maurizio; Fedele, Debora; Gambino, Roberto; Gentile, Luigi; Durazzo, Marilena; Ghigo, Ezio; Cassader, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives It has been hypothesized that assuming most of the caloric intake later in the day leads to metabolic disadvantages, but few studies are available on this topic. Aim of our study was to prospectively examine whether eating more of the daily caloric intake at dinner leads to an increased risk of obesity, hyperglycemia, metabolic syndrome, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Subjects/Methods 1245 non-obese, non-diabetic middle-aged adults from a population-based cohort underwent a 3-day food record questionnaire at enrollment. Anthropometric values, blood pressure, blood metabolic variables, and estimated liver fat were measured at baseline and at 6-year follow-up. Design Prospective cohort study. Results Subjects were divided according to tertiles of percent daily caloric intake at dinner. A significant increase in the incidence rate of obesity (from 4.7 to 11.4%), metabolic syndrome (from 11.1 to 16.1%), and estimated NAFLD (from 16.5 to 23.8%) was observed from the lower to higher tertile. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for multiple covariates, subjects in the highest tertile showed an increased risk of developing obesity (OR = 2.33; 95% CI 1.17–4.65; p = 0.02), metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.52; 95% CI 1.01–2.30; p = 0.04), and NAFLD (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.10–2.22; p = 0.01). Conclusions Consuming more of the daily energy intake at dinner is associated with an increased risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD. PMID:25250617

  3. Differential effects of daily snack food intake on the reinforcing value of food in obese and nonobese women123

    PubMed Central

    Bulkley, Alison M; Badawy, Rebecca L; Krause, Nicole; McCann, Sarah; Epstein, Leonard H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Food reinforcement, ie, motivation to obtain food, is associated with energy intake and obesity. Finding ways to decrease the reinforcing value of unhealthy foods may help with adherence to diets and maintenance of weight loss. Our previous study in nonobese adults showed that daily consumption of the same snack food (food consumed apart from meals) for 14 d significantly decreased its reinforcing value. Objectives: The aims of this study were to replicate and extend these findings to obese individuals and to examine the effects of different portion sizes of snack foods on food reinforcement. Design: Food reinforcement and liking were tested in 31 obese and 27 nonobese women at baseline and after 2 wk of daily consumption of 0, 100, or 300 kcal/d of the same snack food. Results: We found a significant interaction of phase, portion size, and body mass index on the pattern of operant responding for food. Obese women had a significant increase in food reinforcement after consuming the 300-kcal portion of food for 2 wk, whereas nonobese women had the opposite response. No significant differences were found on the reinforcing value with the 0- and 100-kcal portion-size conditions. Women in the 300-kcal group (obese and nonobese) reported a significant decrease in snack food liking from baseline to after daily intake. Conclusions: These findings suggest that obese and nonobese women respond differently to the daily intake of a snack food and that this may not be a viable mechanism for reducing food reinforcement in obese women. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00837694. PMID:19458018

  4. Naltrexone treatment produces dose-related effects on food and water intake but daily alcohol consumption is not affected.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Jorge; Barrios De Tomasi, Eliana

    2008-08-01

    There is evidence that naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, affects alcohol and food consumption. Though food intake is inherently involved when naltrexone effects on alcohol consumption have been studied, the differential effect of this opioid antagonist on both food and alcohol intake has not yet been reported. The present study analyzed the effect of a single daily dose of naltrexone on alcohol, food and water intake when these substances were available on a continuous basis. Wistar male rats were treated with s.c. injections of either naltrexone (2 or 10 mg/kg/day/rat) or a saline solution, 0.2 ml/day/rat for 7 days. This period was followed by a lapse of 7 days with no treatment (PT period), and this sequence of naltrexone or saline treatment followed by a period without treatment was repeated four times. Neither 2 mg/kg nor 10 mg/kg of naltrexone affected alcohol consumption, though the higher dose of naltrexone (10 mg/kg) increased food intake with respect to both the PT periods and the saline group and decreased water consumption with respect to the corresponding PT periods. Naltrexone at 2 mg/kg produced a decrease in food intake but only with respect to the PT periods. These results suggest that the effects of a single dose of naltrexone on alcohol consumption may not be evident when 24-h access to alcohol is assessed; however, naltrexone may produce different dose-related effects on food and water intake, suggesting that they may be mediated by distinct opioid system mechanisms. PMID:18681987

  5. Betel quid chewing as a source of manganese exposure: total daily intake of manganese in a Bangladeshi population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Methods Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Results Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 μg L-1) compared to non-chewers (0.62 μg L-1). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg-1 (range 26 -518 mg kg-1). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg-1 (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. Conclusion We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity. PMID:21299859

  6. Daily dry matter intake to sustain body weight of mature, nonlactating, nonpregnant cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To quantify the relationship between DM consumption, the ability to sustain weight per unit of DMI and days to reach weight equilibrium among diverse cattle breeds, weight and DM intake data were recorded for mature, non-pregnant and non-lactating cows sampled from Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Heref...

  7. Daily intake and urinary excretion of genistein and daidzein by infants fed soy- or dairy-based infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Irvine, C H; Shand, N; Fitzpatrick, M G; Alexander, S L

    1998-12-01

    Our aims were to measure isoflavone intake from soy- and dairy-based infant formulas and breast milk and to assess the ability of infants to digest and absorb soy isoflavones by measuring daily urinary excretion rates. We recruited 29 infants: 4 received soy-based formula and 25 received dairy-based formula. We collected pooled urine samples from 3-5 disposable diapers worn during a 24-h period and developed and validated methods for extracting isoflavones from the diapers. Infants were studied every 1 or 2 wk, starting at 2-6 wk of age and continuing until 16 wk. Only soy-based formulas contained isoflavones in concentrations detectable by HPLC (limits: 0.05 mg/L for liquids and 0.1 mg/kg for solids). Soy-based formulas provided a mean (+/-SEM) daily dose of isoflavones (genistein plus daidzein) of 3.2 +/- 0.2 mg/kg body wt, which remained fairly constant (CV: 12%) regardless of age < or = 16 wk. Isoflavones were measurable in all samples from soy-fed infants, but not in urine from dairy-fed infants. Daily isoflavone excretion rates varied little among infants [range of mean individual values (mg x kg(-1) d(-1)): daidzein, 0.37 +/- 0.03 to 0.58 +/- 0.06; genistein, 0.15 +/- 0.03 to 0.32 +/- 0.04] and did not change with age < or = 16 wk. The mean percentage of the daily intake recovered in the urine of soy-fed infants was 38 +/- 4% for daidzein and 13 +/- 3% for genistein, and remained constant with age. These values are similar to those for adults and indicate that young infants are able to digest, absorb, and excrete genistein and daidzein from soy-based formulas as efficiently as do adults consuming soy products. PMID:9848517

  8. Daily fluid intake and outcomes in kidney recipients: post hoc analysis from the randomized ABCAN trial.

    PubMed

    Weber, M; Berglund, D; Reule, S; Jackson, S; Matas, A J; Ibrahim, H N

    2015-03-01

    Generous and even excessive fluid intake is routinely recommended to kidney transplant recipients despite minimal evidence to support this practice. We hypothesized that increased fluid intake, ascertained by 24-h urine volume output, may adversely affect graft outcomes as it would impose an extra workload on a limited number of nephrons. Kidney transplant recipients who were randomized to losartan vs. placebo in the Angiotensin II Blockade for Chronic Allograft Nephropathy (ABCAN) trial (n = 153) underwent baseline, five-yr biopsies, and annual iothalamate glomerular filtration rate assessment. Recipients with higher urine volume at randomization had higher urinary sodium and also higher urinary protein. The proportion using diuretics or CNI based regimens were similar across urinary volume tertiles. The highest urinary volume tertile (>2.56 L/d) did not predict the development of interstitial volume doubling or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (OR = 3.52, 95% CI 0.4, 31.24, p = 0.26), interstitial volume doubling or all-cause ESRD (OR = 7.04, 95% CI 0.66, 74.87, p = 0.11), and was not associated with the conventional endpoint of doubling serum creatinine, all-cause ESRD, or death (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.21, 3.71, p = 0.87). These results suggest that the current practice of liberal fluid intake may not be beneficial in low risk and mostly Caucasian transplant recipients. PMID:25619874

  9. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I–VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496

  10. Prediction of daily food intake as a function of measurement modality and restriction status

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Nicole R.; Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci; Berkman, Elliot T.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Eating research relies on several kinds of indices (e.g., stable, momentary, neural) to accurately reflect food-related reactivity (e.g., disinhibition) and regulation (e.g., restraint) outside the laboratory. However, the degree to which the most commonly used indices predict real-world food consumption, and whether they do so differentially, is largely unknown. Additionally, the predictive validity of these indices might vary depending on whether or not an individual is actively restricting intake. METHODS We assessed food reactivity and food craving regulation in 46 healthy participants (30 female, age 18–30) using standard measurements in three modalities: (1) self-reported (stable) traits using surveys that are popular in the eating literature, and (2) momentary craving ratings and (3) neural activation using aggregated fMRI data gathered during a food reactivity-and-regulation task. We then used these data to predict variance in real-world consumption of craved energy-dense “target” foods across two weeks among normal-weight participants randomly assigned to restrict or monitor their target food intake. RESULTS The predictive validity of 4 of the 6 indices varied significantly by restriction status. When participants were not restricting intake, momentary (B = 0.21, SE = 0.05) and neural (B = 0.08, SE = 0.04) reactivity positively predicted consumption, and stable (B = −0.22, SE = 0.05) and momentary (B = −0.24, SE = 0.05) regulation negatively predicted consumption. When restricting, stable (B = 0.36, SE = 0.12) and neural (B = 0.51, SE = 0.12) regulation positively predicted consumption. CONCLUSIONS Commonly used indices of regulation and reactivity differentially relate to an ecologically-valid eating measurement depending on the presence of restriction goals, and thus have strong implications for predicting real-world behaviors. PMID:25984820

  11. Recommendations for fluoride limits in drinking water based on estimated daily fluoride intake in the Upper East Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Craig, Laura; Lutz, Alexandra; Berry, Kate A; Yang, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Both dental and skeletal fluorosis caused by high fluoride intake are serious public health concerns around the world. Fluorosis is particularly pronounced in developing countries where elevated concentrations of naturally occurring fluoride are present in the drinking water, which is the primary route of exposure. The World Health Organization recommended limit of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1), which is also the upper limit for fluoride in drinking water for several other countries such as Canada, China, India, Australia, and the European Union. In the United States the enforceable limit is much higher at 4 mg F(-) L(-1), which is intended to prevent severe skeletal fluorosis but does not protect against dental fluorosis. Many countries, including the United States, also have notably lower unenforced recommended limits to protect against dental fluorosis. One consideration in determining the optimum fluoride concentration in drinking water is daily water intake, which can be high in hot climates such as in northern Ghana. The results of this study show that average water intake is about two times higher in Ghana than in more temperate climates and, as a result, the fluoride intake is higher. The results also indicate that to protect the Ghanaian population against dental fluorosis, the maximum concentration of fluoride in drinking water for children under 6-8 years should be 0.6 mg F(-) L(-1) (and lower in the first two years of life), and the limit for older children and adults should be 1.0 mg F(-) L(-1). However, when considering that water treatment is not cost-free, the most widely recommended limit of 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1) - which is currently the limit in Ghana--may be appropriate for older children and adults since they are not vulnerable to dental fluorosis once the tooth enamel is formed. PMID:26058000

  12. Higher stimulus control is associated with less cigarette intake in daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Stuart G; Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael; Schüz, Natalie

    2016-03-01

    It is well established that environmental stimuli influence smoking in light, and to a lesser degree, heavy smokers. A 2-factor model of dependence suggests that the influence of stimulus control is masked among heavier smokers who primarily smoke for nicotine maintenance. The current study aimed to assess the influence of stimulus control across a range of moderate to heavy daily smokers. Furthermore, as local tobacco control policies may change the role of stimulus control, the study aimed to replicate previous U.S. findings on stimulus control in an Australian setting marked by strong tobacco control policies. In 2 Ecological Momentary Assessment studies, 420 participants monitored antecedents of smoking and nonsmoking situations. In a set of idiographic logistic regression analyses, situational antecedents were used to predict smoking occasions within each individual's data. Linear regression analysis was used to test for the association between stimulus control and smoking rate, and to test for differences between the 2 samples. Daily smokers' smoking was under considerable stimulus control, which was weaker at higher smoking rates. Overall, there was greater stimulus control in the Australian sample. Daily smokers also experience a degree of stimulus control, which is less influential in heavier smokers. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26766542

  13. Selenium content in wheat and estimation of the selenium daily intake in different regions of Algeria.

    PubMed

    Beladel, B; Nedjimi, B; Mansouri, A; Tahtat, D; Belamri, M; Tchanchane, A; Khelfaoui, F; Benamar, M E A

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we have measured the selenium content in wheat produced locally in eight different regions of Algeria from east to west, and we have established the annual consumption of selenium for five socio-professional categories. Instrumental neutron activation analysis is used. The selenium levels in wheat samples varied from 21 (Tiaret) to 153 μg/kg (Khroub), with a mean value about 52 μg/kg. The mean of selenium daily consumption from ingestion of wheat per person in the eight regions varied from 32 to 52 μg/day which is close to the minimal FAO recommendation. PMID:23079485

  14. Diel feeding patterns and daily food intake of juvenile stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Takeshi; Katayama, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shoji, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pleuronectid flatfish are considered visual day feeders, but their ability to feed at night has not been examined in the field. Juvenile (age-0) stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus were collected, and their stomach contents were investigated in situ every 4 h over a 24-h period in an estuarine habitat to elucidate diel feeding periodicity. The weight of juvenile stomach contents was usually the highest around dusk and the main prey was bivalve siphons. To reveal whether juveniles feed only at particular times during the day or throughout a 24-h period, we conducted 24-h cage experiments in which 10 juveniles with empty stomachs were held in a cage for approximately 4 h (six trials). This experiment was carried out three times during different moon phases. Juveniles primarily ingested prey during the day, but 30% of fish that were caged at night also ingested prey. The number of successful captures by the caged fish was much greater during the day than that at night. These results indicate that stone flounder generally feed during the day and they may only feed at night under unusual situations, although they have the ability to capture prey at night. The mean daily ration estimated by diel changes in stomach content weight varied from 3.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.8%) to 13.2% (11.0-15.6%) of body weight between survey dates, indicating that daily food consumption by fish estimated from a single survey may be strongly biased.

  15. Effect of differential gastric evacuation and multispecies prey items on estimates of daily energy intake in juvenile Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolak, A.S.; Rondorf, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The caloric density of stomach contents in juvenile chinook salmon,Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, was not affected by gastric evacuation, suggesting a constant caloric density of stomach contents during evacuation. Differences in the caloric density of prey consumed did affect caloric density of stomach contents over a 24-h period. Consumption of the amphipodCorophium sp. was associated with reduced caloric densities of stomach contents. During periods whenCorophium contributed more than 4% of the stomach contents, average caloric density declined from 5.56 to 5.33 kcal g−1. Despite this difference, estimates of daily energy intake of juvenile chinook salmon were only 3%, greater when developed from the mean caloric density of stomach contents excludingCorophium.

  16. Endocrine disrupting nonyl- and octylphenol in infant food in Germany: considerable daily intake of nonylphenol for babies.

    PubMed

    Raecker, Torsten; Thiele, Bjoern; Boehme, Roswitha M; Guenther, Klaus

    2011-03-01

    Nonylphenol and octylphenol are persistent endocrine disrupters that are priority substances of the European Union Water Framework Directive. Their presence in the environment has caused increasing concern about their impact to human health. Infants are more sensitive to hormonal impacts of environmental chemicals than adults. The results of the present study indicate that nonylphenol is ubiquitous in foodstuffs for babies and toddlers commercially available in Germany, while octylphenol could only be determined in 80% of all food samples. The daily intakes based on consumption studies in μg nonylphenol kg⁻¹ body weight per day for high consumers in the baby category (0.23-0.65 μg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹) were relatively high. This could lead to a higher risk especially for babies. PMID:21185059

  17. Daily intake assessment of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame from various processed foods in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, M-S; Suh, H-J; Yoo, W; Choi, S-H; Cho, Y-J; Cho, Y-H; Kim, C-J

    2005-11-01

    This study was carried out to estimate the daily intakes (EDIs) of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame in order to evaluate the safety of the artificial sweeteners in Korea. A total of 274 food samples were selected from the foods considered to be representative sources of artificial sweeteners in the Korean diet and analysed by using HPLC with evaporative light scattering and ultraviolet detectors. In case of aspartame, the reference values were used without instrumental analysis. The EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame for average consumers were 0.028, 0.008, 4.9 and 0.14 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) were not higher than 1% of ADI of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). For 90th percentile consumers, the EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame were 2.0, 0.20, 141 and 4.6 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the ADI, the EDIs of saccharin and aspartame were 40.7% and 11.4% of the ADI set by the JECFA, respectively. Because JECFA did not assign ADIs for stevioside and D-sorbitol, the values for these sweeteners were not compared. According to these results, the EDIs of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin and aspartame in Korea are significantly lower than ADI set by the JECFA. PMID:16332631

  18. Daily energy intake of broiler chickens is altered by proximate nutrient content and form of the diet.

    PubMed

    Latshaw, J D

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was designed to test the ability of broiler chickens to equalize daily energy intake when proximate components of the diet were changed. A factorial arrangement was used to test effects of protein, fat, and fiber content in the diet. The simplest diet contained only corn and soybean meal to provide energy and protein. Protein contents were calculated to be 16.4, 18.2, and 20.0%, with added protein from a combination of corn gluten meal, fish meal, and peanut meal. Hydrolyzed fat was added at 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% of the diets. A combination of alfalfa meal, oats, and wheat middlings was used to increase the fiber of the corn soy diet by approximately 2 and 4%. The 36 combinations were fed as mash. In addition, 8 of the diets were fed as pellets. All diets were fed for 12 d from the time broilers reached approximately 1.2 kg. A total excreta collection was used to determine ME, and carcass analysis provided fat and energy content. When fed mash, only sex had a significant effect on grams of feed eaten per day. Sex and dietary fat content affected gain per day. Sex, fat, and fiber altered the kcal of ME eaten per day. Broilers fed 5% added fat ate approximately 10% more energy per day than those fed no added fat, and broilers fed 4% added fiber ate approximately 20% less ME than those fed no added fiber. A comparison of results from mash and pellets showed that only sex and form affected gain per day, feed per day, and kilocalories of ME eaten per day. For the mash and pellets, protein, fat, fiber, and several interactions affected the ME per gram; however, the ME per gram was similar for pellets and mash. The results suggest that the diet composition and form have a significant effect on the energy intake of broiler chickens. PMID:18079455

  19. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in the corn-milling process and corn-based products, and evaluation of estimated daily intake.

    PubMed

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Marchi, Djeini; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2) in the corn-milling process and in corn-based products, as well as daily intake estimates for the Brazilian population were evaluated. Among corn fractions samples, corn meal had the highest mean concentration of FB1 (1305 µg kg(-1)) and FB2 (651 µg kg(-1)) and a distribution factors of 452% and 256% in relation to corn grain, respectively. On the other hand, the distribution factor of FB1 and FB2 in corn flour was found to be 144% and 88% respectively, which demonstrates that fumonisins in this fraction were reduced compared with corn grain. As a result, almost half the corn meal samples (47%) would be non-compliant with future Brazilian regulation (2017) for fumonisins. However, corn-based products, such as corn flakes and popcorn, were in compliance with the regulation. The average probable daily intake and maximum probable daily intake of fumonisins estimated for the Santa Catarina state (Brazil) population were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for all corn samples. Despite this, the adoption of practices to control the occurrence of fumonisins should be applied to the corn-milling fractions that may contain a higher concentration of this toxin, such as corn meal, often used for animal feed in Brazil. PMID:26605670

  20. Polybrominated biphenyl ethers in breast milk and infant formula from Shanghai, China: temporal trends, daily intake, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Kaiqiong; Yang, Dan; Ma, Li; Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhou, Jing; Fang, Xiangming; Yu, Yingxin

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the temporal trend of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk and assess the risks to breast- and formula-fed infants, breast milk and infant formula samples were collected from Shanghai, China. The PBDE concentrations decreased from 14.8 to 4.85 pmol/g lipid weight during 2006-2012, with a rate of decrease by half approximately every four years. Although there were no significant correlations between the total PBDEs in breast milk and age, parity, and pre-pregnant BMI of mothers, there were significant differences between primiparous and multiparous mothers for tri- to hepta-BDEs. PBDEs in breast milk were much higher than those in infant formula (equivalent to 91.9 vs. 5.25 pg/mL). Among the different brand infant formulas, there were no significant differences in their PBDE concentrations. The estimated daily intake of PBDEs by breast- and formula-fed infants suggested that breast-fed infants are exposed to much more PBDEs than formula-fed ones (12.9 vs. 0.72 ng/kg-bw/day). However, the hazard quotient values were much smaller than one, indicating that the ingested PBDEs did not exert obvious adverse effects on both breast- and formula-fed infants considering non-carcinogenic effect endpoint. This is the first report on temporal trend of PBDEs in breast milk from China. PMID:25155891

  1. Total and dialyzable levels of manganese from duplicate meals and influence of other nutrients: Estimation of daily dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Ryenold, Carlos; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Lopez-Ga De La Serrana, Herminia; Perez-Valero, Vidal; Lopez-Martinez, Maria C

    2008-07-01

    Both total and dialyzable Mn levels were determined in 108 duplicate meals during 36 consecutive days. Both mineral fractions were measured by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) method previously optimized. A total mean Mn fraction of 1.03±0.49mg was found in the meals. The Mn supplied by the meals is directly and significantly (p<0.001) correlated with macronutrient content (carbohydrates, fibre and protein). The mean Mn fraction dialyzed through the dialysis membrane was 0.23±0.17mg (22.0±8.93% as bioaccessible fraction). The total and dialyzable Mn fractions found for breakfasts were significantly lower (p<0.001). Nevertheless, the Mn bioavailabilities expressed as the percentage of dialyzable element, were not significantly different among the three primary meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner). A significant correlation between the total and the dialyzable fraction of Mn in meals was found (p<0.001, r=0.78, r(2)=0.61). The dialyzed element fractions present in meals were significantly correlated mainly with carbohydrates, protein and several amino acid levels (p <0.01). Foods with higher carbohydrate and therefore energy contents, e.g. cereals, legumes, vegetables and fruits, would be primary sources of bioaccessible Mn in the diet. The bioaccessibility of Mn was only significant influenced by energy, carbohydrates and Se levels present in meals. The mean Mn daily dietary intake (DDI) was 3.05±0.61mgday(-1). PMID:26054271

  2. The estrogenicity of methylparaben and ethylparaben at doses close to the acceptable daily intake in immature Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Libei; Yu, Tong; Guo, Jilong; Zhang, Zhaobin; Hu, Ying; Xiao, Xuan; Sun, Yingli; Xiao, Han; Li, Junyu; Zhu, Desheng; Sai, Linlin; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The estrogenicity of parabens at human exposure levels has become a focus of concern due to the debate over whether the estrogenicity of parabens is strong enough to play a role in the increased incidence of breast cancer. In this study, the uterotrophic activities of methylparaben (MP) and ethylparaben (EP) at doses close to the acceptable daily intake as allocated by JECFA were demonstrated in immature Sprague-Dawley rats by intragastric administration, and up-regulations of estrogen-responsive biomarker genes were found in uteri of the rats by quantitative real-time RT–PCR (Q-RT-PCR). At the same time, the urinary concentrations of MP and EP, as measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in rats that received the same doses of MP and EP, were found to be near the high urinary levels reported in human populations in recent years. These results show the in vivo estrogenicity of MP and EP at human exposure levels, and indicate that populations exposed to large amounts of MP and EP may have a high burden of estrogenicity-related diseases. In addition, a molecular docking simulation showed interaction between the parabens and the agonist-binding pocket of human estrogen receptor α (hERα). PMID:27121550

  3. The estrogenicity of methylparaben and ethylparaben at doses close to the acceptable daily intake in immature Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Libei; Yu, Tong; Guo, Jilong; Zhang, Zhaobin; Hu, Ying; Xiao, Xuan; Sun, Yingli; Xiao, Han; Li, Junyu; Zhu, Desheng; Sai, Linlin; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The estrogenicity of parabens at human exposure levels has become a focus of concern due to the debate over whether the estrogenicity of parabens is strong enough to play a role in the increased incidence of breast cancer. In this study, the uterotrophic activities of methylparaben (MP) and ethylparaben (EP) at doses close to the acceptable daily intake as allocated by JECFA were demonstrated in immature Sprague-Dawley rats by intragastric administration, and up-regulations of estrogen-responsive biomarker genes were found in uteri of the rats by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR). At the same time, the urinary concentrations of MP and EP, as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in rats that received the same doses of MP and EP, were found to be near the high urinary levels reported in human populations in recent years. These results show the in vivo estrogenicity of MP and EP at human exposure levels, and indicate that populations exposed to large amounts of MP and EP may have a high burden of estrogenicity-related diseases. In addition, a molecular docking simulation showed interaction between the parabens and the agonist-binding pocket of human estrogen receptor α (hERα). PMID:27121550

  4. Technical Data Interoperability (TDI) Pathfinder Via Emerging Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, Mike; Gill, Paul; Hill, Bradley; Ibach, Brandon; Jones, Corey; Ungar, David; Barch, Jeffrey; Ingalls, John; Jacoby, Joseph; Manning, Josh; Bengtsson, Kjell; Falls, Mark; Kent, Peter; Heath, Shaun; Kennedy, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The TDI project (TDI) investigates trending technical data standards for applicability to NASA vehicles, space stations, payloads, facilities, and equipment. TDI tested COTS software compatible with a certain suite of related industry standards for capabilities of individual benefits and interoperability. These standards not only esnable Information Technology (IT) efficiencies, but also address efficient structures and standard content for business processes. We used source data from generic industry samples as well as NASA and European Space Agency (ESA) data from space systems.

  5. Estimating daily salt intake based on 24 h urinary sodium excretion in adults aged 18–69 years in Shandong, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji-yu; Yan, Liu-xia; Tang, Jun-li; Ma, Ji-xiang; Guo, Xiao-lei; Zhao, Wen-hua; Zhang, Xiao-fei; Li, Jian-hong; Chu, Jie; Bi, Zhen-qiang

    2014-01-01

    Objective 24 h urinary sodium extretion was used to estimate the daily salt intake of shandong residents aged from 18 to 69 years in China. Setting 20 selected counties/districts in Shandong stratified by geographic region (Eastern, Central Southern and North Western) and residence type (urban vs rural). Participants Among 2184 randomly selected adults, 2061 provided usable 24 h urine samples. Urine volume <500 mL or male creatinine <3.81 (female creatinine <4.57) are not included in the analysis. Results The mean sodium level excreted over 24 h was 237.61 mmol (95% CI 224.77 to 250.44) mmol. Overall, the estimated mean salt intake was 13.90 g/day (95% CI 13.15 to 14.65). The mean salt intake among rural residents was higher than that among urban residents (14.00 vs 13.68 g; p<0.01). Salt intake in men was higher than that in women (14.40 vs 13.37 g; p<0.01). Approximately 96% of the survey participants had a dietary salt intake of ≥6 g/day. Conclusions The salt intake in Shandong is alarmingly higher than the current recommended amount (6 g/day). Thus, effective interventions to reduce salt intake levels to combat the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases need to be developed and implemented. PMID:25037642

  6. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  7. Beneficial effects of citrus juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on atopic dermatitis: results of daily intake by adult patients in two open trials

    PubMed Central

    HARIMA-MIZUSAWA, Naomi; KAMACHI, Keiko; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; NOZAKI, Daisuke; UETAKE, Tatsuo; YOKOMIZO, Yuji; NAGINO, Takayuki; TANAKA, Akira; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; NAKAMURA, Shinichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether daily intake of citrus juice containing heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132-fermented juice) alleviates symptoms of atopic dermatitis. This was a natural extension of our previous study in which LP0132 was shown to enhance IL-10 production in vitro and LP0132-fermented juice was found to alleviate symptoms and enhance quality of life (QOL) in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In two open trials, Trial 1 and Trial 2, 32 and 18 adult patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis consumed LP0132-fermented juice for 8 weeks. Skin conditions and QOL were subjectively evaluated using Skindex-16 before intake of the juice (Pre-treatment), 8 weeks after starting intake (Treatment) and 8 weeks after termination of intake (Post-treatment). Blood parameters were also analyzed. Comparison of the Treatment and Post-treatment time points with the Pre-treatment time point revealed significant reductions in the Skindex-16 overall score and the 3 domain subscores (symptoms, emotions, and functioning domains) in both trials. Moreover, blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgEs for Japanese cedar and cypress pollen were significantly attenuated in Trial 2. The findings suggest that daily intake of citrus fermented juice containing heat-killed LP0132 has beneficial effects on symptoms and QOL in patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis due to an immunomodulatory effect via attenuation of IgE and ECP. PMID:26858928

  8. Beneficial effects of citrus juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on atopic dermatitis: results of daily intake by adult patients in two open trials.

    PubMed

    Harima-Mizusawa, Naomi; Kamachi, Keiko; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Nozaki, Daisuke; Uetake, Tatsuo; Yokomizo, Yuji; Nagino, Takayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Miyazaki, Kouji; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether daily intake of citrus juice containing heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132-fermented juice) alleviates symptoms of atopic dermatitis. This was a natural extension of our previous study in which LP0132 was shown to enhance IL-10 production in vitro and LP0132-fermented juice was found to alleviate symptoms and enhance quality of life (QOL) in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In two open trials, Trial 1 and Trial 2, 32 and 18 adult patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis consumed LP0132-fermented juice for 8 weeks. Skin conditions and QOL were subjectively evaluated using Skindex-16 before intake of the juice (Pre-treatment), 8 weeks after starting intake (Treatment) and 8 weeks after termination of intake (Post-treatment). Blood parameters were also analyzed. Comparison of the Treatment and Post-treatment time points with the Pre-treatment time point revealed significant reductions in the Skindex-16 overall score and the 3 domain subscores (symptoms, emotions, and functioning domains) in both trials. Moreover, blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgEs for Japanese cedar and cypress pollen were significantly attenuated in Trial 2. The findings suggest that daily intake of citrus fermented juice containing heat-killed LP0132 has beneficial effects on symptoms and QOL in patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis due to an immunomodulatory effect via attenuation of IgE and ECP. PMID:26858928

  9. The Relation between Hepatotoxicity and the Total Coumarin Intake from Traditional Japanese Medicines Containing Cinnamon Bark.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Naohiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Sugawara, Naoko; Uchida, Aiko; Ozono, Sahoko; Yamamuro, Yuki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ueda, Koso; Tahara, Eiichi; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon bark is commonly used in traditional Japanese herbal medicines (Kampo medicines). The coumarin contained in cinnamon is known to be hepatotoxic, and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.1 mg/kg/day, has been quantified and used in Europe to insure safety. Risk assessments for hepatotoxicity by the cinnamon contained in foods have been reported. However, no such assessment of cinnamon bark has been reported and the coumarin content of Kampo medicines derived from cinnamon bark is not yet known. To assess the risk for hepatotoxicity by Kampo medicines, we evaluated the daily coumarin intake of patients who were prescribed Kampo medicines and investigated the relation between hepatotoxicity and the coumarin intake. The clinical data of 129 outpatients (18 male and 111 female, median age 58 years) who had been prescribed keishibukuryogankayokuinin (TJ-125) between April 2008 and March 2013 was retrospectively investigated. Concurrent Kampo medicines and liver function were also surveyed. In addition to TJ-125, the patients took some of the other 32 Kampo preparations and 22 decoctions that include cinnamon bark. The coumarin content of these Kampo medicines was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). TJ-125 had the highest daily content of coumarin (5.63 mg/day), calculated from the daily cinnamon bark dosage reported in the information leaflet inserted in each package of Kampo medicine. The coumarin content in 1g cinnamon bark decoction was 3.0 mg. The daily coumarin intake of the patients was 0.113 (0.049-0.541) mg/kg/day, with 98 patients (76.0%) exceeding the TDI. Twenty-three patients had an abnormal change in liver function test value, but no significant difference was found in the incidence of abnormal change between the group consuming less than the TDI value (6/31, 19.4%) and the group consuming equal to or greater than the TDI value (17/98, 17.3%). In addition, no abnormal change related to cinnamon bark was found for individual

  10. The Relation between Hepatotoxicity and the Total Coumarin Intake from Traditional Japanese Medicines Containing Cinnamon Bark

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Naohiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Sugawara, Naoko; Uchida, Aiko; Ozono, Sahoko; Yamamuro, Yuki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ueda, Koso; Tahara, Eiichi; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon bark is commonly used in traditional Japanese herbal medicines (Kampo medicines). The coumarin contained in cinnamon is known to be hepatotoxic, and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.1 mg/kg/day, has been quantified and used in Europe to insure safety. Risk assessments for hepatotoxicity by the cinnamon contained in foods have been reported. However, no such assessment of cinnamon bark has been reported and the coumarin content of Kampo medicines derived from cinnamon bark is not yet known. To assess the risk for hepatotoxicity by Kampo medicines, we evaluated the daily coumarin intake of patients who were prescribed Kampo medicines and investigated the relation between hepatotoxicity and the coumarin intake. The clinical data of 129 outpatients (18 male and 111 female, median age 58 years) who had been prescribed keishibukuryogankayokuinin (TJ-125) between April 2008 and March 2013 was retrospectively investigated. Concurrent Kampo medicines and liver function were also surveyed. In addition to TJ-125, the patients took some of the other 32 Kampo preparations and 22 decoctions that include cinnamon bark. The coumarin content of these Kampo medicines was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). TJ-125 had the highest daily content of coumarin (5.63 mg/day), calculated from the daily cinnamon bark dosage reported in the information leaflet inserted in each package of Kampo medicine. The coumarin content in 1g cinnamon bark decoction was 3.0 mg. The daily coumarin intake of the patients was 0.113 (0.049–0.541) mg/kg/day, with 98 patients (76.0%) exceeding the TDI. Twenty-three patients had an abnormal change in liver function test value, but no significant difference was found in the incidence of abnormal change between the group consuming less than the TDI value (6/31, 19.4%) and the group consuming equal to or greater than the TDI value (17/98, 17.3%). In addition, no abnormal change related to cinnamon bark was found for individual

  11. Human health risks from metals and metalloid via consumption of food animals near gold mines in Tarkwa, Ghana: estimation of the daily intakes and target hazard quotients (THQs).

    PubMed

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Akoto, Osei; Baidoo, Elvis; Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal and metalloid contamination in food resulting from mining is of major concern due to the potential risk involved. Food consumption is the most likely route of human exposure to metals. This study was therefore to assess metals in different organs and different animal species near gold mines used for human consumption (free-range chicken, goat and sheep) in Tarkwa, Ghana, and to estimate the daily intake and health risk. The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were measured with an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and Hg analysis was done using the mercury analyzer. Principal component analysis of the results showed a clear separation between chicken, grouped on one side, and the ruminants clustered on another side in both offal and muscle. Interestingly, As, Cd, Hg, Mn and Pb made one cluster in the offal of chicken. Chicken muscle also showed similar distribution with As, Hg and Pb clustered together. The daily intake of metals (μg/kg body weight/day) were in the following ranges; As [0.002 (kidneys of goat and sheep)-0.19 (chicken gizzard)], Cd [0.003 (chicken muscle)-0.55 (chicken liver)], Hg [0.002 (goat muscle)-0.29 (chicken liver)], Pb [0.01 (muscles and kidneys of goat and sheep)-0.96 (chicken gizzard)] and Mn [0.13 (goat kidney)-8.92 (sheep liver)]. From the results, daily intakes of As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Mn in these food animals were low compared to the provisional tolerable daily intake guidelines. The THQs although less than one, indicated that contributions of chicken gizzard and liver to toxic metal exposure in adults and especially children could be significant. PMID:25450929

  12. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass does not affect daily water intake or the drinking response to dipsogenic stimuli in rats.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Anikó; Santollo, Jessica; Corteville, Caroline; Lutz, Thomas A; Daniels, Derek

    2014-07-15

    Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for severe obesity, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common approach in the United States and worldwide. Many studies have documented the changes in body weight, food intake, and glycemic control associated with the procedure. Although dehydration is commonly listed as a postoperative complication, little focus has been directed to testing the response to dipsogenic treatments after RYGB. Accordingly, we used a rat model of RYGB to test for procedure-induced changes in daily water intake and in the response to three dipsogenic treatments: central administration of ANG II, peripheral injection of hypertonic saline, and overnight water deprivation. We did not find any systematic differences in daily water intake of sham-operated and RYGB rats, nor did we find any differences in the response to the dipsogenic treatments. The results of these experiments suggest that RYGB does not impair thirst responses and does not enhance any satiating effect of water intake. Furthermore, these data support the current view that feedback from the stomach is unnecessary for the termination of drinking behavior and are consistent with a role of orosensory or postgastric feedback. PMID:24898844

  13. Selenium in groundwater and its contribution towards daily dietary Se intake under different hydrogeological zones of Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, Karaj S.; Dhillon, Surjit K.

    2016-02-01

    More than 750 groundwater samples collected from different hydrological zones of Punjab state in India were analysed for selenium and some quality parameters to determine suitability of groundwater for irrigation and drinking purpose. Selenium content varied from 0.01 to 35.6 μg L-1. Average Se content in groundwater was the highest in Northeastern Siwalik foothill zone (NSFZ) followed by Central zone (CZ) and Southwestern zone (SWZ). Majority of the water samples contained <10 μg Se L-1 - the safe limit for drinking purpose except one location each in SWZ and CZ and three locations in NSFZ. Only at one location, water contained >20 μg Se L-1 which is considered unsuitable for irrigation of crops. On the basis of pH, 42% of the samples were unfit for drinking in SWZ, 41% in CZ and 6% in NSFZ. Only in SWZ, 24% of the samples with high total dissolved salts were unfit for drinking and 18% unfit for irrigation purpose due to high EC. Selenium content in groundwater was inversely related to depth of water and the degree of relationship was higher for NSFZ (r = -0.342∗∗) followed by CZ (r = -0.157∗) and SWZ (r = -0.126∗). Depending on the amount of water consumed from 2 to 5 L, average Se intake varied from 1.66 to 6.39 μg d-1 and its contribution towards the recommended daily Se allowance ranged from 3.0% to 11.6% for women and 2.4% to 9.1% for men. Among the grain samples, 94% of wheat and 46% of rice contained Se above the deficiency limit of 100 μg kg-1. Thus, the residents in the study area primarily consuming wheat grains and drinking groundwater are getting adequate supply of Se. Among the materials tested for decreasing Se from drinking waters, scrap iron fillings showed potential for commercial use.

  14. Perchlorate in indoor dust and human urine in China: contribution of indoor dust to total daily intake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Xiaojia; Wang, Dou; Li, Rudan; Ma, Yufang; Mo, Weiwen; Sun, Hongwen; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-02-17

    Perchlorate is used in fireworks and China is the largest fireworks producer and consumer in the world. Information regarding human exposure to perchlorate is scarce in China, and exposure via indoor dust ingestion (EDI indoor dust) has rarely been evaluated. In this study, perchlorate was found in indoor dust (detection rate: 100%, median: 47.4 μg/g), human urine (99%, 26.2 ng/mL), drinking water (100%, 3.99 ng/mL), and dairy milk (100%, 12.3 ng/mL) collected from cities that have fireworks manufacturing areas (Yueyang and Nanchang) and in cities that do not have fireworks manufacturing industries (Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Yuxi and Guilin) in China. In comparison with perchlorate levels reported for other countries, perchlorate levels in urine samples from fireworks sites and nonfireworks sites in China were higher. Median indoor dust perchlorate concentrations were positively correlated (r = 0.964, p < 0.001) with outdoor dust perchlorate levels reported previously. The total daily intake (EDI total) of perchlorate, estimated based on urinary levels, ranged from 0.090 to 27.72 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day for all studied participants; the percentage of donors who had EDI total exceeding the reference dose (RfD) recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) was 79%, 48%, and 25% for toddlers (median: 1.829 μg/kg bw/day), adults (0.669 μg/kg bw/day), and children (median: 0.373 μg/kg bw/day), respectively. Toddlers (0.258 μg/kg bw/day) had the highest median EDI indoor dust, which was 2 to 5 times greater than the EDI indoor dust calculated for other age groups (the range of median values: 0.044 to 0.127 μg/kg bw/day). Contribution of indoor dust to EDItotal was 26%, 28%, and 7% for toddlers, children, and adults, respectively. Indoor dust contributed higher percentage to EDI total than that by dairy milk (0.5-5%). PMID:25587720

  15. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure

  16. Daily Manganese Intake Status and Its Relationship with Oxidative Stress Biomarkers under Different Body Mass Index Categories in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bu, So-Young

    2012-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for human and plays an important role as a cofactor for several enzymes involving fatty acid synthesis, hepatic gluconeogenesis, and oxidative stresses. Also, Mn intake status has been reported to have beneficial effects in reversing metabolic dysfunction including obesity and nonalcoholic steatosis which is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses, however, information on dietary Mn intake in Koreans are limited. Hence we investigated the relationship between dietary Mn intake and antioxidant defense factors in healthy and obese subjects. Total of 333 healthy subjects were recruited in the study and were assigned to one of three study groups: a normal group (18.5-22.9), a overweight group (23-24.9), and a obesity group (>25) according to their body mass index (BMI). We assessed Mn intakes (24-hr recall method) and several indicators for antioxidative defenses such as glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and urinary malonaldehyde (MDA). Results showed that body weight and blood pressure of study subjects were increased in dependent of their BMI (p < 0.01). However dietary Mn intakes and oxidative stress biomarkers (GSH, GPx, and MDA) were not significantly different by groups defined by BMI. In correlation analysis adjusting for age, sex and energy intake, dietary Mn intake of the subjects in different BMI categories were not significantly correlated with GSH, GPx, MDA and showed a weak or no association with these oxidative stress markers. In conclusion dietary Mn intake at least in this study has a little or no influence on markers of oxidative status in both healthy and obese subjects. PMID:23431039

  17. Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach.

    PubMed

    Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, P<0.001) and a quadratic trend (β=0.02, P<0.01) over time, but no group difference (β=-0.23, P=0.08). Analysis of the 365 days of self-reported body weight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (β=-0.01, P<0.01). Overall compliance to daily tracking was 76%±5%. Daily self-monitoring of weight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits. PMID:22709772

  18. Daily consumption of a synbiotic yogurt decreases energy intake but does not improve gastrointestinal transit time: a double-blind, randomized, crossover study in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Probiotic and synbiotic products are widely marketed to healthy individuals, although potential benefits for these individuals are rarely studied. This study investigated the effect of daily consumption of a synbiotic yogurt on gastrointestinal (GI) function in a sample of healthy adults. Subjects/Methods In a randomized crossover double-blind study, 65 healthy adults consumed 200 g/day of yogurt with (synbiotic) or without (control) added probiotics (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12, Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Lactobacillus casei CRL431) and 4 g inulin for two 15-day treatment periods, each preceded by a 6-week washout period. GI transit time (GTT), duration of colour (DOC), GI symptoms and dietary intake were assessed and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA, including PRE-treatment GTT as a covariate. Participants were grouped as short GTT (STT, n = 50, ≤32.7 h) or long GTT (LTT, n = 15, >32.7 h) based on their PRE-treatment GTT assessment. Results POST-treatment GTT and DOC were not different between synbiotic and control, and did not change from PRE-treatment, within the STT or LTT groups. There were no changes in GI symptom ratings, indicating that both yogurts were well tolerated. In STT, energy, fat and protein intakes were decreased from baseline with synbiotic (p = 0.055, p = 0.059 and p = 0.005, respectively) and dietary fibre intake was higher POST-treatment with synbiotic versus control (p = 0.0002). In LTT, decreases in energy and fat intakes with synbiotic were not significant (p = 0.14 and p = 0.18, respectively) and there were no differences in dietary fibre intake. Conclusion Consuming 200 g/day of synbiotic yogurt did not significantly alter GTT in healthy adults, but was well tolerated and helped to reduce overall energy intake. PMID:23787118

  19. Decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Vendl, Catharina; Clauss, Marcus; Stewart, Mathew; Leggett, Keith; Hummel, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Michael; Munn, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested using a chopped lucerne hay (alfalfa) diet. Body mass-specific absolute CH4 production resembled values previously reported in wallabies and non-ruminant herbivores such as horses, and did not differ with food intake level, although there was no concomitant proportionate decrease in fibre digestibility with higher food intake. In contrast, CH4 yield decreased with increasing intake, and was intermediate between values reported for ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores. These results correspond to those in ruminants and other non-ruminant species where increased intake (and hence a shorter digesta retention in the gut) leads to a lower CH4 yield. We hypothesize that rather than harbouring a fundamentally different microbiome in their foregut, the microbiome of macropods is in a particular metabolic state more tuned towards growth (i.e. biomass production) rather than CH4 production. This is due to the short digesta retention time in macropods and the known distinct 'digesta washing' in the gut of macropods, where fluids move faster than particles and hence most likely wash out microbes from the forestomach. Although our data suggest that kangaroos only produce about 27% of the body mass-specific volume of CH4 of ruminants, it remains to be modelled with species-specific growth rates and production conditions whether or not significantly lower CH4 amounts are emitted per kg of meat in kangaroo than in beef or mutton production. PMID:26538176

  20. Effect of daily feed intake in laying period on laying performance, egg quality and egg composition of genetically fat and lean lines of chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Xu, L M; Shan, A S; Hu, J W; Zhang, Y Y; Li, Y H

    2011-04-01

    1. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feed intake on laying performance, egg quality and egg composition in a Fat line and a Lean line during the laying period (34 to 54 weeks of age). 2. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial design with two dietary intake levels (nutrition recommendation and 75% of recommendation) and two broiler genotypes (Fat line and Lean line). Hens (384 of each line) were randomly divided at 23 weeks of age into 4 treatments, with each treatment represented by 12 replicates of 16 birds each. The experiment started when the rate of lay reached 5% and continued until 54 weeks of age. 3. The results indicated that there was a significant interaction between daily feed intake and genotype on egg production, egg weight, percentage yolk, yolk/albumen ratio and yolk cholesterol content. Fat line hens produced significantly more eggs and had a lower incidence of cracked eggs than the Lean line hens. The reduction in feed intake decreased egg weight and increased egg production, egg-shape index and cholesterol content of yolk significantly. PMID:21491238

  1. Essential and toxic metals in taros (Colocasia esculenta) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain): evaluation of content and estimate of daily intake.

    PubMed

    Luis-González, Gara; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Ángel; González-Weller, Dailos; Revert, Consuelo; Hardisson, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Taros are a staple in the diet of many people around the world, and they are an excellent source of minerals. Monitoring the levels of metals in food provides basic information that is useful from the perspectives of safety, regulation, and nutrition. Forty-two samples of taros were randomly obtained from supermarkets, vegetable markets, and farmer's plots on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determine the contents of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The levels of Cr, Ni, Cd, and Pb were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Mean concentrations (mg/kg) were 565.6 Na, 2947 K, 231.4 Ca, 364.5 Mg, 1.224 Cu, 3.818 Fe, 1.408 Mn, 2.242 Zn, 0.044 Cr, 0.021 Ni, 0.003 Cd, and 0.006 Pb. The mean concentrations of Cd and Pb were well below the accepted European Commission limits (0.1 mg/kg weight for both metals, respectively). Daily consumption of taro (10.41 g taro/person/day) contributes to the dietary intake of essential metals and trace elements, mainly Mg (1.265% in adult women and 1.084% in adult men) and Cu (1.182% for adult men and women). The average daily intakes of Cd (0.031 μg/day) and Pb (0.062 μg/day) from taro were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes (TWIs). Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat based on their metal concentrations and legislated allowable intakes. PMID:25412891

  2. Ready To Eat Cereal (RTEC) Consumption Positively Affects Total Daily Nutrient Intakes in Hispanic Children and Adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the impact of breakfast meal pattern on nutrient intake status of Hispanic children and adolescents (N=3220), we compared breakfast skippers (S), RTEC, and other breakfast consumers using 24-hour recall data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our data ind...

  3. Genetic variance and covariance components for feed intake, average daily gain, and postweaning gain in growing beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed is the single most expensive cost related to a beef cattle production enterprise. Data collection to determine feed efficient animals is also costly. Currently a 70 d performance test is recommended for accurate calculation of efficiency. Previous research has suggested intake tests can be l...

  4. Determination of five pesticide residues in oranges by matrix solid-phase dispersion and liquid chromatography to estimate daily intake of consumers.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, A I; Picó, Y; Font, G

    2001-01-01

    Residues of benzoylphenylurea insecticides (diflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, and flufenuxuron), carboxamide acaricides (hexythiazox), and carbamate insecticides (benfuracarb) were determined in 150 orange fruit samples from September 1998 to June 1999, to estimate exposure of the Valencian population to oranges contaminated with these newly developed pesticides. The method for monitoring these residues is based on matrix solid-phase dispersion and liquid chromatography with UV or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry (APCI/MS) detection. Orange samples representing 11 varieties were collected from an agricultural cooperative and examined for the 5 pesticides. In 74.6% of all analyzed samples, the pesticide residues were below detection limits, which ranged from 0.002 to 0.05 mg/kg. Residues were detected in 25.4% of the samples, with higher incidences of diflubenzuron, flufenuxuron, hexythiazox, and benfuracarb; hexaflumuron residues were detected only occasionally. Two different pesticides exceeded maximum residue limits (MRLs) in 4 (2.7%) of the orange samples. Diflubenzuron surpassed 1 mg/kg MRL in 3 samples and flufenuxuron exceeded the 0.3 mg/kg MRL in 3 samples. The estimated daily intake of the 5 pesticide residues during the period was 0.077 microg/kg body weight per day. This value is much lower than the total admissible daily intake proposed by the Food and Agricultural Organization and the World Health Organization. PMID:11417653

  5. High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: influence of contaminated fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, C C; Lin, W T; Liao, P C; Su, H J; Chen, H L

    2006-05-01

    An abandoned pentachlorophenol plant and nearby area in southern Taiwan was heavily contaminated by dioxins, impurities formed in the PCP production process. The investigation showed that the average serum PCDD/Fs of residents living nearby area (62.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) was higher than those living in the non-polluted area (22.5 and 18.2 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) (P<0.05). In biota samples, average PCDD/F of milkfish in sea reservoir (28.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g) was higher than those in the nearby fish farm (0.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g), and Tilapia and shrimp showed the similar trend. The average daily PCDD/Fs intake of 38% participants was higher than 4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day suggested by the world health organization. Serum PCDD/F was positively associated with average daily intake (ADI) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status. In addition, a prospective cohort study is suggested to determine the long-term health effects on the people living near factory. PMID:16213641

  6. Genome-wide association and systems genetic analyses of residual feed intake, daily feed consumption, backfat and weight gain in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feed efficiency is one of the major components determining costs of animal production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed and the expected feed intake given a certain production. Residual feed intake 1 (RFI1) was calculated based on regression of individual daily feed intake (DFI) on initial test weight and average daily gain. Residual feed intake 2 (RFI2) was as RFI1 except it was also regressed with respect to backfat (BF). It has been shown to be a sensitive and accurate measure for feed efficiency in livestock but knowledge of the genomic regions and mechanisms affecting RFI in pigs is lacking. The study aimed to identify genetic markers and candidate genes for RFI and its component traits as well as pathways associated with RFI in Danish Duroc boars by genome-wide associations and systems genetic analyses. Results Phenotypic and genotypic records (using the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip) were available on 1,272 boars. Fifteen and 12 loci were significantly associated (p < 1.52 × 10-6) with RFI1 and RFI2, respectively. Among them, 10 SNPs were significantly associated with both RFI1 and RFI2 implying the existence of common mechanisms controlling the two RFI measures. Significant QTL regions for component traits of RFI (DFI and BF) were detected on pig chromosome (SSC) 1 (for DFI) and 2 for (BF). The SNPs within MAP3K5 and PEX7 on SSC 1, ENSSSCG00000022338 on SSC 9, and DSCAM on SSC 13 might be interesting markers for both RFI measures. Functional annotation of genes in 0.5 Mb size flanking significant SNPs indicated regulation of protein and lipid metabolic process, gap junction, inositol phosphate metabolism and insulin signaling pathway are significant biological processes and pathways for RFI, respectively. Conclusions The study detected novel genetic variants and QTLs on SSC 1, 8, 9, 13 and 18 for RFI and indicated significant biological processes and metabolic pathways involved in RFI. The

  7. Restricting night-time eating reduces daily energy intake in healthy young men: a short-term cross-over study.

    PubMed

    LeCheminant, James D; Christenson, Ed; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A

    2013-12-14

    Few experimental data are available to support the notion that reducing night-time eating changes total daily energy intake (EI) or body weight in healthy adults. The present study primarily examined the short-term effect of night eating restriction (NER) on daily EI in healthy young men. It secondarily examined body weight and moods associated with NER. Using a cross-over design, twenty-nine men (20·9 (sd 2·5) years; 24·4 (sd 2·5) kg/m²) initiated a 2-week NER intervention (elimination of EI from 19.00 to 06.00 hours) and a 2-week control condition, counterbalanced and separated by a 1-week washout period. EI and macronutrient intake were assessed using computerised, multiple-pass 24 h food recalls, body weight via a digital scale and mood using the Profile of Mood States survey. Of the twenty-nine participants, twenty-seven (93 %) completed all aspects of the study. During the NER condition, the participants consumed less total energy per d than during the control condition (10 125 v. 11 146 kJ/d; F= 6·41; P= 0·018). During the NER condition, no energy was reported consumed between 19.00 and 06.00 hours; however, during the control condition, the energy intake of participants was 2920 (sd 1347) kJ/d between 19.00 and 06.00 hours. There was a significant difference in weight change between the NER (-0·4 (sd 1·1) kg) and control (+0·6 (sd 0·9) kg) conditions (F= 22·68; P< 0·001). Differences in total mood score or mood subscales between the NER and control conditions were not apparent (P>0·05). These findings provide support for NER decreasing short-term EI in healthy young men. PMID:23702187

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the air and comparison of the daily intake and uptake through inhalation by Shanghai residents with those through other matrices and routes.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunlei; Zhao, Zhishen; Lei, Bingli; An, Jing; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Yingxin

    2015-02-01

    To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the main source and route of human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), the daily intake and uptakes through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact for Shanghai residents were estimated on the basis of the PBDE concentrations in the air obtained in the present study and previous data reported in the literature. The PBDE concentrations in the gas and particle phases collected in Shanghai were 0.99-57.5 and 0.1-234 pg/m(3), respectively. The contamination levels of PBDEs in the air in Shanghai were similar to or slightly lower than the data from other regions. The estimated total daily intakes of PBDEs through the three routes were 607 and 1,636 ng/day for children and adults, respectively, while they decreased to 63.0 and 93.1 ng/day when the uptake efficiency (which is the fraction of contaminants that reaches the systemic circulation) of PBDEs was added to calculation. The results showed that dust is the main source of human exposure to PBDEs when PBDE uptake efficiency was not considered. It accounted for 66.2-79.2 % of the total PBDE intake. However, food is the main source, which accounted for 66.6-75.1 %, when the uptake efficiency was added to calculation. Among the three routes, dermal contact (53.1-76.6 %) is the main pathway, whereas ingestion (84.7-92.9 %) is the main one when the uptake efficiency was considered. Furthermore, risk assessment showed that the PBDE exposure amount would not cause obvious non-cancer and cancer risks to local residents. PMID:25009095

  9. Children’s Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers

    PubMed Central

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.; Langer, Sarka; Callesen, Michael; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2013-01-01

    Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child’s home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw) and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw). For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDIcum), which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDIcum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child’s total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values. PMID:23626820

  10. The assessment of daily dietary intake reveals the existence of a different pattern of bioaccumulation of chlorinated pollutants between domestic dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Rial, Cristian; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; González, Maira Almeida; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-10-15

    Pet dogs and cats have been proposed as sentinel species to assess environmental contamination and human exposure to a variety of pollutants, including POPs. However, some authors have reported that dogs but not cats exhibit intriguingly low levels of some of the most commonly detected POPs, such as DDT and its metabolites. This research was designed to explore these differences between dogs and cats. Thus, we first determined the concentrations of 53 persistent and semi-persistent pollutants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in samples of the most consumed brands of commercial feed for dogs and cats, and we calculated the daily dietary intake of these pollutants in both species. Higher levels of pollutants were found in dog food and our results showed that the median values of intake were about twice higher in dogs than in cats for all the three groups of pollutants (ΣPAHs: 274.8 vs. 141.8; ΣOCPs: 233.1 vs. 83; ΣPCBs: 101.8 vs. 43.8 (ng/kg bw/day); respectively). Additionally, we determined the plasma levels of the same pollutants in 42 and 35 pet dogs and cats, respectively. All these animals lived indoors and were fed on the commercial brands of feed analyzed. As expected (considering the intake), the plasma levels of PAHs were higher in dogs than in cats. However, for organochlorines (OCPs and PCBs) the plasma levels were much higher in cats than in dogs (as much as 23 times higher for DDTs), in spite of the higher intake in dogs. This reveals a lower capacity of bioaccumulation of some pollutants in dogs, which is probably related with higher metabolizing capabilities in this species. PMID:26026408

  11. Anion Coordination Interactions in Solvates with the Lithium Salts LiDCTA and LiTDI

    SciTech Connect

    McOwen, Dennis W.; Delp, Samuel A.; Paillard, Elie; Herriot, Cristelle; Han, Sang D.; Boyle, Paul D.; Sommer, Roger D.; Henderson, Wesley A.

    2014-04-17

    Lithium 4,5-dicyano-1,2,3-triazolate (LiDCTA) and lithium 2-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazole (LiTDI) are two salts proposed for lithium battery electrolyte applications, but little is known about the manner in which the DCTA- and TDI- anions coordinate Li+ cations. To explore this in-depth, crystal structures are reported here for two solvates with LiDCTA: (G2)1:LiDCTA and (G1)1:LiDCTA with diglyme and monoglyme, respectively, and seven solvates with LiTDI: (G1)2:LiTDI, (G2)2:LiTDI, (G3)1:LiTDI, (THF)1:LiTDI, (EC)1:LiTDI, (PC)1:LiTDI and (DMC)1/2:LiTDI with monoglyme, diglyme, triglyme, tetrahydrofuran, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate, respectively. These latter solvate structures are compared with the previously reported acetonitrile (AN)2:LiTDI structure. The solvates indicate that the LiTDI salt is much less associated than the LiDCTA salt and that the ions in LiTDI, when aggregated in solvates, have a very similar TDI-...Li+ cation mode of coordination through both the anion ring and cyano nitrogen atoms. Such coordination facilitates the formation of polymeric ion aggregates, instead of dimers. Insight into such ion speciation is instrumental for understanding the electrolyte properties of aprotic solvent mixtures with these salts.

  12. Inspection and profiling of moving objects using a TDI camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajan, M. R.; Tay, Cho J.; Shang, Huai M.; Asundi, Anand K.

    1997-03-01

    Dynamic inspection of moving objects is a significant task in industrial machine vision systems. Time Delay and Integration (TDI) cameras are being used in some industries for solving problems encountered while using conventional CCD cameras for imaging moving objects. The CCD camera which works in TDI mode is equivalent to a digital drum camera providing possibilities for dynamic inspection on moving objects (either rotating or translating on industrial platforms). Here we report some advances in the application of TDI cameras for inspection and profiling of moving objects. The method is based on the conventional light projection systems which is widely used in industries. The TDI system generates an on-line scanning moire display which could assist operators to identify defects on objects such as dents. Conventional projection systems use mechanical or interferometric type of fringe projections, which is not desirable in the industrial environment. The TDI system makes use of temporal modulation of the projected light which could be easily controlled by a PC or by the output ports in vision systems. In addition to the details of system implementation, we also describe two algorithms for unwrapping the deformation or shape profile of the test object based on fast Fourier transform and sinusoidal fitting on the recorded patterns.

  13. Restoration of TDI camera images with motion distortion and blur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiagu; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, qi; Chen, Yueting

    2010-11-01

    Platform movement during exposure of imaging system severely degrades image quality. In the case of Time delay and integration (TDI) camera, abnormal movements cause not only image blur but also distortion, for image Point Spread Function (PSF) is space-variant. In this paper, we present a motion degradation model of TDI image, and provide a method to restore such degraded image. While a TDI camera is imaging, it outputs images row by row (or line by line) along the scanning axis, and our method processes in the same track. We firstly calculate the space-invariant PSF of each row using the movement information of the TDI camera. Then, we substitute pixels of the row and the ones of their neighbor rows together with the PSF into standard Richardson-Lucy algorithm. By deconvoluting we get the restored pixels of the row. The same operations are executed for all rows of the degraded TDI image. Finally, a restored image can be reconstructed from those restored rows. Both simulated and experimental results prove the effectiveness of our method.

  14. Comparison of the ISU, NCI, MSM, and SPADE Methods for Estimating Usual Intake: A Simulation Study of Nutrients Consumed Daily

    PubMed Central

    Laureano, Greice H. C.; Torman, Vanessa B. L.; Crispim, Sandra P.; Dekkers, Arnold L. M.; Camey, Suzi A.

    2016-01-01

    Various methods are available for estimating usual dietary intake distributions. Hence, there is a need for simulation studies to compare them. The methods Iowa State University (ISU), National Cancer Institute (NCI), Multiple Source Method (MSM) and Statistical Program to Assess Dietary Exposure (SPADE) were previously compared in another study, but some results were inconclusive due to the small number of replications used in the simulation. Seeking to overcome this limitation, the present study used 1000 simulated samples for 12 different scenarios to compare the accuracy of estimates yielded by the aforementioned methods. The focus is on scenarios that exhibited the most uncertainty in the conclusions of the mentioned study above, i.e., scenarios with small sample sizes, skewed intake distributions, and large ratios of the between- and within-person variances. Bias was used as a measure of accuracy. For scenarios with small sample sizes (n=150), the ISU, MSM and SPADE methods generally achieved more accurate estimates than the NCI method, particularly for the 10th and 90th percentiles. The differences between methods became smaller with larger sample sizes (n = 300 and n = 500). With few exceptions, the methods were found to perform similarly. PMID:26999193

  15. Data on daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption prepared by household desalinators working by reverse osmosis process.

    PubMed

    Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Dobaradaran, Sina; Esmaili, Abdolhamid; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji; Keshtkar, Mozhgan

    2016-09-01

    In this data article, we evaluated the daily fluoride contents in 20 household desalinators working by reverse osmosis (RO) process in Bushehr, Iran. The concentration levels of fluoride in inlet and outlet waters were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK). The fluoride content in outlet waters were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water. PMID:27508234

  16. Optimal vitamin D3 daily intake of 2000IU inferred from modeled solar exposure of ancestral humans in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Krzyścin, Janusz W; Guzikowski, Jakub; Rajewska-Więch, Bonawentura

    2016-06-01

    Recently, high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (~110nmol/L) was found in the Hadza tribe still keeping ancient hunter-gather life style. This level could serve as optimal vitamin D level that was built during millennia of human evolution. The personal vitamin D3 effective solar exposures of the Hadza adults are estimated using radiative model simulations with input from the satellite observations over lake Eyasi (3.7°S, 35.0°E). The calculations are carried out assuming the Hadza typical clothing habits and specific scenarios of the out-door activity comprising early morning and late afternoon working time in sun and prolonged midday siesta in the shade. The modeled doses received by the Hadza are converted to the vitamin D3 effective daily doses pertaining to the lighter skinned persons. We propose a novel formula to get adequate vitamin D level - exposure of 1/3 MED around local noon to 1/3 part of the whole body during warm sub-period of the year in the low- and mid-latitude regions. Such daily solar exposure is equivalent to ~2000IU of vitamin D3 taken orally. For many contemporary humans with limited out-door activity habit achieving such daily norm requires vitamin D3 supplementation of 2000IU throughout the whole year. PMID:27043260

  17. Information-Efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor With Tdi

    DOEpatents

    Rienstra, Jeffrey L.; Gentry, Stephen M.; Sweatt, William C.

    2004-01-13

    A programmable optical filter for use in multispectral and hyperspectral imaging employing variable gain time delay and integrate arrays. A telescope focuses an image of a scene onto at least one TDI array that is covered by a multispectral filter that passes separate bandwidths of light onto the rows in the TDI array. The variable gain feature of the TDI array allows individual rows of pixels to be attenuated individually. The attenuations are functions of the magnitudes of the positive and negative components of a spectral basis vector. The spectral basis vector is constructed so that its positive elements emphasize the presence of a target and its negative elements emphasize the presence of the constituents of the background of the imaged scene. This system provides for a very efficient determination of the presence of the target, as opposed to the very data intensive data manipulations that are required in conventional hyperspectral imaging systems.

  18. A Review of Mycotoxins in Food and Feed Products in Portugal and Estimation of Probable Daily Intakes.

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, Luís; Morales, Héctor; Soares, Célia; Calado, Thalita; Vila-Chã, Ana Sofia; Pereira, Martinha; Venâncio, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that occur naturally in agricultural commodities worldwide. Aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisins, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and ergot alkaloids are presently the most important for food and feed safety. These compounds are produced by several species that belong to the Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps genera and can be carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, cytotoxic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, estrogenic, and immunosuppressant. Human and animal exposure to mycotoxins is generally assessed by taking into account data on the occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed as well as data on the consumption patterns of the concerned population. This evaluation is crucial to support measures to reduce consumer exposure to mycotoxins. This work reviews the occurrence and levels of mycotoxins in Portuguese food and feed to provide a global overview of this issue in Portugal. With the information collected, the exposure of the Portuguese population to those mycotoxins is assessed, and the estimated dietary intakes are presented. PMID:24987806

  19. Fourier transform profilometry for 360-deg shape using TDI camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xianyu; Sajan, M. R.; Asundi, Anand K.

    1997-03-01

    This paper demonstrates a Fourier transform profilometry for 360 degree shape using TDI camera. Single stripe structured light can be recorded sequentially on one image when the camera is in TDI mode. An extended and deformed grating could be recorded in high speed and high resolution. The deformed fringe pattern is regarded as a fringe pattern in the Telecentric Fourier Transform Profilometry (TFTP), of which a wrapped phase is obtained directly. The unwrapped phase of TFTP gives the extended 360 degree profile without high frequency noise. Theoretical and experimental results are presented.

  20. Variation of cadmium concentration in Swedish wheat and barley. An indicator of changes in daily cadmium intake during the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Kjellström, T; Linnman, L; Elinder CarlGustaf

    1975-07-01

    In order to evaluate whether or not an increase in daily cadmium intake may be taking place, 75 wheat samples (spring wheat and fall wheat) harvested from the same "nonpolluted'' farm fields between the years 1916 and 1972 were analyzed. The individual scatter was large but a significant (Psmaller than.05) tendency toward increasing concentration with time was evident for fall wheat. A similar tendency was found for spring wheat, through not a statistical significance. This increase may be explained by general air contamination or the cumulative effect of fertilizers. There was a clear covariation in cadmium concentrations of differenc genotypes of wheat and barley harvested in the same year despite yearly variations in average concentration. PMID:1147697

  1. Reasons for raising the maximum acceptable daily intake of EDTA and the benefits for iron fortification of foods for children 6–24 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Wreesmann, Carel Theo Jozef

    2014-01-01

    The current maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of 1.9 mg day−1 per kilogram bodyweight (mg day−1 kgbw−1) limits the daily intake of iron as iron EDTA [ferric sodium EDTA; sodium iron(III) EDTA] to approximately 2–2.5 mg day−1 for children 6–24 months of age. This limit was defined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1973 based on data from an animal-feed study published in 1963. Other animal studies indicate that this limit can be raised to 4.4 or possibly up to 21.7 mg day−1 kgbw−1, which is 2.3–11.4 times higher than the current value. For nearly 50 years, iron EDTA has been used in France in medicinal syrup for infants 1–6 months of age. The maximum recommended dosage of this drug is 37 times higher than the maximum ADI of EDTA. No adverse health effects have been reported as a result of this medicinal consumption of iron EDTA. Raising the maximum ADI of EDTA to only 4.4 mg day−1 kgbw−1 would enable iron EDTA, an iron fortificant with proven bioavailability in phytate-rich meals, to be added in adequate amounts to cereal-based meals for children 6–24 months of age, who are at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:24521261

  2. Evaluation of content and estimation of daily intake of cadmium and lead in several varieties of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Luis, G; Rubio, C; González-Weller, D; Gutiérrez, A J; Revert, C; Hardisson, A

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring the metal content in foods such as potatoes is an important aspect of food safety and regulation. Samples of nine varieties of potatoes (73 samples of local potatoes and 77 samples of imported potatoes) were randomly obtained from supermarkets, farmers markets, and farmer plots in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis because Spaniards traditionally eat only peeled potatoes. Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd concentrations ranged from 0.006 mg/kg in the Cara and Negra varieties to 0.019 mg/kg in the Bonita variety, and Pb concentrations ranged from 0.007 mg/kg in the Up-to-date variety to 0.023 mg/kg in the Recara variety. The mean concentrations of Cd (0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.014 mg/kg) were below the limits established by European regulations for potatoes (0.1 mg/kg of wet weight for each metal). Based on a mean consumption of 143.2 g of potato per person per day for the Canary Islands population, the mean daily intakes of Cd (0.015 mg/day) and Pb (0.023 mg/day) were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes. Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat with regard to the metal concentrations found. PMID:24680081

  3. [Peripuberal development of genetic obesity in beta rats. Daily changes in food intake, body weight, deep body temperature, triglyceridemia and glycemia].

    PubMed

    Calderari, S; Gayol, M C; Elliff, M I; Labourdette, V; Troiano, M F; Romano, G

    1990-01-01

    The moderate quality of beta obesity and its relatively slow evolution make it potentially useful for defining the sequence of events that lead to the overt syndrome. Estimates of food intake, live body weight, deep body temperature, triglyceridemia and glycemia were obtained at several times during the day in beta genetically obese and alpha (alpha) control male rats at peripuberal age, in order to characterize the dynamic phase of this obesity and to attempt the definition of some previous proceedings that eventually produce the full obesity syndrome. Beta higher food intake in the light cycle preceded its whole day hyperphagia. Both genotypes showed the normal pattern of predominantly nocturnal feeding. A lower light phase's weight loss in beta preceded the overweight. Thus, beta rats were not significantly heavier than alpha until the end of the last period studied, when they were 75 days old. A defect in adaptive thermogenesis in beta genotype is suggested, as values on deep body temperature in relation to alpha were significantly lower at all times of day tested. Correlation coefficient value between daily net weight gain versus deep body temperature was: r = -0.601 (p less than 0.01), suggesting a diminished lipolytic stimulation in beta brown adipose tissue. A sustained hypertriglyceridemia in beta at every time of the day studied suggested its endogenous source. Differences in glycemia values were not statistically significant between genotypes, though apparently wider variations in beta could reflect a certain glycemic regulation lability in the obese genotype. PMID:2101545

  4. The acute effects of daily nicotine intake on heart rate--a toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic modelling study.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, M; Worth, A; Urani, C; Briesen, H; Schramm, K-W

    2014-10-01

    Joint physiologically-based toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic (PBTK/TD) modelling was applied to simulate concentration-time profiles of nicotine, a well-known stimulant, in the human body following single and repeated dosing. Both kinetic and dynamic models were first calibrated by using in vivo literature data for the Caucasian population. The models were then used to estimate the blood and liver concentrations of nicotine in terms of the Area Under Curve (AUC) and the peak concentration (Cmax) for selected exposure scenarios based on inhalation (cigarette smoking), oral intake (nicotine lozenges) and dermal absorption (nicotine patches). The model simulations indicated that whereas frequent cigarette smoking gives rise to high AUC and Cmax in blood, the use of nicotine-rich dermal patches leads to high AUC and Cmax in the liver. Venous blood concentrations were used to estimate one of the most common acute effects, mean heart rate, both at rest and during exercise. These estimations showed that cigarette smoking causes a high peak heart rate, whereas dermal absorption causes a high mean heart rate over 48h. This study illustrates the potential of using PBTK/TD modelling in the safety assessment of nicotine-containing products. PMID:25066669

  5. 2,4-/2,6-Toluene diisocyanate mixture (TDI)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - / 2,6 - Toluene diisocyanate mixture ( TDI ) ; CASRN 26471 - 62 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Haz

  6. 75 FR 63184 - Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services... of agencies subject to the FTR to enhance travel cost savings and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This guidance will improve management of agency travel programs, save money on travel costs,...

  7. No evidence of dehydration with moderate daily coffee intake: a counterbalanced cross-over study in a free-living population.

    PubMed

    Killer, Sophie C; Blannin, Andrew K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-01-01

    It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3-6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na(+) excretion was higher in C than W (p = 0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

  8. The daily fluorine and arsenic intake for residents with different dietaries and fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area, Yunnan, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Luo, Kun-Li; Tang, Yue-Gang; Liu, Yong-Lin

    2015-02-01

    The daily fluorine (F)/arsenic (As) intake (DFI/DAsI) for residents at different ages with different dietaries and dietary changes was investigated to analyze the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area in Yunnan, Southwest China. The DFI for residents with a dietary of roasted corn and roasted chili was 5.06, 9.60, and 14.38 mg for age groups 3-7, 8-15, and over 15 years, respectively. Over 90 % of DFI was from roasted foodstuffs. The DFI for residents of the same age group living on rice and roasted chili was 1.94, 3.50, and 4.95 mg, respectively, which were less than that for the former dietary type, and 65 % of DFI was from roasted chili. The main sources for their DFI are roasted foodstuffs. Both were higher than the dietaries with non-roasted foodstuffs and the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for USA and China at different levels. The DAsI for all residents ranged from 25 to 135 μg, and at this level of DAsI, it would not influence human health. However, As pollution of roasted foodstuffs might have an important influence for the fluorosis. Residents are changing their staple food from roasted corn to rice, and especially, younger people are more focused on quality life. However, even if residents change their staple food, the habit of eating chili will not change, which also may cause them getting fluorosis. Developing economy, changing dietary types, and changing the habit of drying and keeping chili will help to reduce the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area of Southwest China. PMID:25167821

  9. A CMOS TDI image sensor for Earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, Joseph E.; Stefanov, Konstantin D.; Holland, Andrew D.; Endicott, James; Mayer, Frederic; Barbier, Frederic

    2015-09-01

    Time Delay and Integration (TDI) is used to increase the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) in image sensors when imaging fast moving objects. One important TDI application is in Earth observation from space. In order to operate in the space radiation environment, the effect that radiation damage has on the performance of the image sensors must be understood. This work looks at prototype TDI sensor pixel designs, produced by e2v technologies. The sensor is a CCD-like charge transfer device, allowing in-pixel charge summation, produced on a CMOS process. The use of a CMOS process allows potential advantages such as lower power consumption, smaller pixels, higher line rate and extra on-chip functionality which can simplify system design. CMOS also allows a dedicated output amplifier per column allowing fewer charge transfers and helping to facilitate higher line rates than CCDs. In this work the effect on the pixels of radiation damage from high energy protons, at doses relevant to a low Earth orbit mission, is presented. This includes the resulting changes in Charge Transfer inefficiency (CTI) and dark signal.

  10. Track Filtering via Iterative Correction of TDI Topology

    PubMed Central

    Aydogan, Dogu Baran; Shi, Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new technique to clean outlier tracks from fiber bundles reconstructed by tractography. Previous techniques were mainly based on computing pair-wise distances and clustering methods to identify unwanted tracks, which relied heavy upon user inputs for parameter tuning. In this work, we propose the use of topological information in track density images (TDI) to achieve a more robust filtering of tracks. There are two main steps of our iterative algorithm. Given a fiber bundle, we first convert it to a TDI, then extract and score its critical points. After that, tracks that contribute to high scoring loops are identified and removed using the Reeb graph of the level set surface of the TDI. Our approach is geometrically intuitive and relies only on a single parameter that enables the user to decide on the length of insignificant loops. In our experiments, we use our method to reconstruct the optic radiation in human brain using the multi-shell HARDI data from the human connectome project (HCP). We compare our results against spectral filtering and show that our approach can achieve cleaner reconstructions. We also apply our method to 215 HCP subjects to test for asymmetry of the optic radiation and obtain statistically significant results that are consistent with post-mortem studies. PMID:26798847

  11. Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Schinckel, A. P.; Einstein, M. E.; Jungst, S.; Matthews, J. O.; Booher, C.; Dreadin, T.; Fralick, C.; Wilson, E.; Boyd, R. D.

    2012-01-01

    A trial was conducted to: i) evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii) evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii) to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts), two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg) corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg) with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen) recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI), ME (MEI) and NE (NEI) intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d) were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively). Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001) than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001) for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d). However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49) or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13), thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377) and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113) was less (p<0.001) for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150), therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of

  12. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95

  13. Phthalate intake by infants calculated from biomonitoring data.

    PubMed

    Völkel, Wolfgang; Kiranoglu, Mandy; Schuster, Ralph; Fromme, Hermann

    2014-03-01

    Urine samples (n=207) of 47 infants between 1- and 5-month of age were quantitated for 12 metabolites of 7 phthalates and compared with samples collected from the mothers of the infants at different time points. Median and 95-percentile were lower for all metabolites in urine samples of infants compared to mothers. For di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) the 95-percentile daily intake was 23.3μg/kg b.w. for mothers and 5.4μg/kg b.w. for infants and for di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) 10.1μg/kg b.w. and 8.5μg/kg b.w. Some values exceeded the corresponding tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DiBP for infants and mothers and for DEHP and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) only for mothers. Both, infants and mothers are able to efficiently form phase II metabolites but infants with a slightly lower degree. Therefore, a distinguished risk assessment with respect to the formed toxic metabolites of phthalates would be necessary in combination with a reduction of the most toxic phthalates. PMID:24374175

  14. Once-daily milking during late lactation in pasture-fed dairy cows has minor effects on feed intake, body condition score gain, and hepatic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Grala, T M; Handley, R R; Roche, J R; Walker, C G; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K

    2016-04-01

    Milking cows once daily (1×) is a management practice occasionally used during mid/late lactation in pasture-based systems. It has been postulated that 1× milking will reduce dry matter intake (DMI) and increase body condition score (BCS) gain; however, this has not been quantified. Lactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=52) were allocated to either 1× or twice-daily (2×) milking in mid-January (summer, 175d in milk). To obtain accurate DMI measurements, cows underwent 4 periods in a Calan gate indoor feeding facility, interspersed with grazing outdoors. Milk production, body weight (BW), and BCS were recorded 2 wk before treatment start (-2 wk) and weekly thereafter. Blood variables were recorded at -2 wk and weekly when indoors. Liver was biopsied at -2, 2, and 10 wk, and hepatic gene expression measured using quantitative PCR. Milking cows 1× tended to lower DMI (17.8 vs. 18.2 kg of dry matter), but increased BCS gain (0.36 vs. 0.13 BCS units) and BW (546 vs. 533 kg) at wk 12 relative to 2×. The greater BCS and BW of cows milked 1× compared with 2× were reflected in lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and lower transcription of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids, indicating reduced release and processing of fatty acids. Cows milked 1× produced 20% less milk, and although milk fat and protein concentrations were increased relative to cows milked 2×, yields of fat and protein were 14 and 17% less, respectively. The reduction in milk production with 1× milking (14.1 vs. 16.8 kg/cow per d energy-corrected milk) was accompanied by increases in blood concentrations of glucose and insulin, with a concurrent decrease in the transcription of the insulin receptor and gluconeogenic genes. These results indicate a coordinated response to reduce glucose production due to decreased mammary demand. Expression of 2 genes linked to inflammation and adipokine signaling was reduced in cows milked 1× and may indicate a lower

  15. Compared with Daily, Weekly n–3 PUFA Intake Affects the Incorporation of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid into Platelets and Mononuclear Cells in Humans123

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Lucy M.; Walker, Celia G.; Mander, Adrian P.; West, Annette L.; Gambell, Joanna; Madden, Jackie; Calder, Philip C.; Jebb, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of oily fish is sporadic, whereas controlled intervention studies of n–3 (ω-3) fatty acids usually provide capsules containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a daily dose. This methodologic study explored whether there are differences in the short-, medium-, and long-term incorporation of EPA and DHA into blood plasma and cells with the provision of identical amounts of EPA and DHA, equivalent to 2 oily fish servings per week (or 6.54 g/wk EPA and DHA), either intermittently (i.e., 1 portion twice per week) or continuously (i.e., divided into daily amounts). The study was part of a randomized, double-blind controlled intervention lasting 12 mo, with participants stratified by age and sex. There were 5 intervention groups, 2 of which are reported here: the 2 intermittent portions (2I) and 2 continuous portions (2C) groups. EPA and DHA were measured in plasma phosphatidylcholine, platelets, and blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) at 9 time points. Sixty-five participants completed the study (2I group, n = 30, mean age of 49.2 y; 2C group, n = 35, mean age of 50.6 y). The incorporation pattern over the 12-mo intervention was different between the 2 groups in all samples (P < 0.0001, time × treatment interaction). At the end of the 12-mo intervention, the 2C group had higher EPA, DHA, and EPA + DHA in platelets (all P < 0.01) and higher EPA and EPA + DHA in MNCs (both P < 0.05) compared with the 2I group. No significant differences were shown for plasma phosphatidylcholine EPA (P = 0.1), DHA (P = 0.15), EPA + DHA (P = 0.07), or MNC DHA (P = 0.06). In conclusion, the pattern of consumption does affect the incorporation of EPA and DHA into cells used as biomarkers of intake. The differences identified here need to be considered in the design of studies and when extrapolating results from continuous capsule-based intervention studies to dietary guidelines for oily fish consumption. This trial was registered at www

  16. Capabilities of different liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry systems in determining pesticide residues in food. Application to estimate their daily intake.

    PubMed

    Soler, Carla; James, K J; Picó, Yolanda

    2007-07-20

    Three different liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) instruments equipped with triple quadrupole (QqQ), quadrupole ion trap (QIT) and quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqTOF), suitable to carry out tandem mass spectrometry, were examined to determine pesticide residues in food. Twelve pesticides (acrinathrin, bupirimate, buprofezin, cyproconazole, lambda-cyhalothrin, fluvalinate, hexaflumuron, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, pyrifenox, pyriproxyfen and tebufenpyrad) and six matrices (oranges, strawberries, cherries, peaches, apricots and pears) were taken as model. The comparison was focused on two aspects: the quantitative, covering sensitivity, precision and accuracy as well as the qualitative, checking the possibility to identify any metabolite present in the samples, which were not targeted in the methods. The extraction was carried out using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with ethyl acetate and acid alumina. Recoveries were over 70 % for all the analytes. Repeatabilities were better for the QqQ (5-12%) than for QIT (6-15%) and for QqTOF (14-19%). QqQ offered a linear dynamic range of at least three orders of magnitude, whereas those of QIT and QqTOF were two and one orders of magnitude, respectively. QqQ reached at least 20-fold higher sensitivity than QIT and QqTOF. However, the QqQ failed to identify non-target compounds. QIT and QqTOF were able to successfully identify the metabolite of bupirimate, ethirimol. Application to monitor the content in fruits, taken from agricultural cooperatives, and to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) to establish if there is any difference of toxicological interest is also reported. PMID:17466998

  17. Polychlorobiphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in conventional and organic brands of milk: occurrence and dietary intake in the population of the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Luzardo, O P; Almeida-González, M; Henríquez-Hernández, L A; Zumbado, M; Alvarez-León, E E; Boada, L D

    2012-07-01

    The population of the Spanish archipelago of the Canary Islands has been studied in depth regarding its levels of contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Foodstuffs of animal origin, such as milk, are prominent contributors to the body burden of these contaminants. As this population presents one of the highest milk-intake in Spain and Europe, we evaluated the level of OCs and PCBs in 26 commercially available brands of milk (16 conventional and 10 organic brands) present in the market of these Islands, in order to estimate the relevance of milk as a source of these chemicals for the Canary population. Our findings showed that hexachlorobenzene, trans-chlordane, and PCB153 were present in almost all the samples with independence of the type of milk. For both types of milks, the concentration of OCs was very low, showing organic milks lower levels than conventional ones. As a consequence, the estimated daily intake for OCs was lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) established by International Agencies. The levels of PCBs in milk were also found to be very low, but, in this case, the situation was the opposite: there were higher levels of PCBs in organic than in conventional brands of milk. Unexpectedly, levels of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) reached values higher than 25 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) fat in percentile 75 for both types of milk indicating the existence of a number of brands of milk highly contaminated by these toxicants. Consequently, the population who consume the most contaminated milk brands could have estimated daily intakes well above the recommended TDI (2 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1)b.w.d(-1)) established by European Union Authorities. These results are of concern if we consider the well known adverse health effects exerted by dioxin-like compounds. PMID:22472097

  18. CMOS-TDI detector technology for reconnaissance application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckardt, Andreas; Reulke, Ralf; Jung, Melanie; Sengebusch, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    The Institute of Optical Sensor Systems (OS) at the Robotics and Mechatronics Center of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has more than 30 years of experience with high-resolution imaging technology. This paper shows the institute's scientific results of the leading-edge detector design CMOS in a TDI (Time Delay and Integration) architecture. This project includes the technological design of future high or multi-spectral resolution spaceborne instruments and the possibility of higher integration. DLR OS and the Fraunhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems (IMS) in Duisburg were driving the technology of new detectors and the FPA design for future projects, new manufacturing accuracy and on-chip processing capability in order to keep pace with the ambitious scientific and user requirements. In combination with the engineering research, the current generation of space borne sensor systems is focusing on VIS/NIR high spectral resolution to meet the requirements on earth and planetary observation systems. The combination of large-swath and high-spectral resolution with intelligent synchronization control, fast-readout ADC (analog digital converter) chains and new focal-plane concepts opens the door to new remote-sensing and smart deep-space instruments. The paper gives an overview of the detector development status and verification program at DLR, as well as of new control possibilities for CMOS-TDI detectors in synchronization control mode.

  19. A new architecture of current-mode CMOS TDI Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Cheng; Chen, Yongping

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, CMOS sensors still suffer from the problem of low SNR, especially in the stage of low illumination and high relative scanning velocity. Lots of methods have been develop to overcome this problem. Among these researches, TDI (Time Delay Integration) architecture is a more natural choice, which is natively supported by CCD sensors. In this paper a new kind of proposed current-mode sensor is used to achieve TDI operation in analog domain. The circuit is composed of three main parts. At first, a current-type pixel is proposed, in which the active MOSFET is operated in the triode region to ensure the output current is linearly dependent on the gate voltage and avoid the reduction of threshold voltage in the traditional voltage mode pixels, such as 3T, 4T which use the source followers as its active part. Then a discrete double sampling (DDS) unit, which is operated in the form of currents is used to efficiently reduce the fixed pattern noise (FPN) and make the output is independent of reset voltage of pixels. For accumulation, an improved current mirror adder under controlled of timing circuits is proposed to overcome the problem of saturation suffered in voltage domain. Some main noise sources, especially come from analog sample and holds capacitors and switches is analyzed. Finally, simulation results with CSMC 0.5um technology and Cadence IC show that the proposed method is reasonable and efficient to improve the SNR.

  20. Measurements of daily urinary uranium excretion in German peacekeeping personnel and residents of the Kosovo region to assess potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU).

    PubMed

    Oeh, U; Priest, N D; Roth, P; Ragnarsdottir, K V; Li, W B; Höllriegl, V; Thirlwall, M F; Michalke, B; Giussani, A; Schramel, P; Paretzke, H G

    2007-08-01

    Following the end of the Kosovo conflict, in June 1999, a study was instigated to evaluate whether there was a cause for concern of health risk from depleted uranium (DU) to German peacekeeping personnel serving in the Balkans. In addition, the investigations were extended to residents of Kosovo and southern Serbia, who lived in areas where DU ammunitions were deployed. In order to assess a possible DU intake, both the urinary uranium excretion of volunteer residents and water samples were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). More than 1300 urine samples from peacekeeping personnel and unexposed controls of different genders and age were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. The urine measurements for 113 unexposed subjects revealed a daily uranium excretion rate with a geometric mean of 13.9 ng/d (geometric standard deviation (GSD)=2.17). The analysis of 1228 urine samples from the peacekeeping personnel resulted in a geometric mean of 12.8 ng/d (GSD=2.60). It follows that both unexposed controls and peacekeeping personnel excreted similar amounts of uranium. Inter-subject variation in uranium excretion was high and no significant age-specific differences were found. The second part of the study monitored 24 h urine samples provided by selected residents of Kosovo and adjacent regions of Serbia compared to controls from Munich, Germany. Total uranium and isotope ratios were measured in order to determine DU content. (235)U/(238)U ratios were within +/-0.3% of the natural value, and (236)U/(238)U was less than 2 x 10(-7), indicating no significant DU in any of the urine samples provided, despite total uranium excretion being relatively high in some cases. Measurements of ground and tap water samples from regions where DU munitions were deployed did not show any contamination with DU, except in one sample. It is concluded that both peacekeeping personnel and residents serving or living in the Balkans

  1. Implementation of TDI based digital pixel ROIC with 15μm pixel pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, Omer; Shafique, Atia; Burak, A.; Caliskan, Can; Abbasi, Shahbaz; Yazici, Melik; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2016-05-01

    A 15um pixel pitch digital pixel for LWIR time delay integration (TDI) applications is implemented which occupies one fourth of pixel area compared to previous digital TDI implementation. TDI is implemented on 8 pixels with oversampling rate of 2. ROIC provides 16 bits output with 8 bits of MSB and 8 bits of LSB. Pixel can store 75 M electrons with a quantization noise of 500 electrons. Digital pixel TDI implementation is advantageous over analog counterparts considering power consumption, chip area and signal-to-noise ratio. Digital pixel TDI ROIC is fabricated with 0.18um CMOS process. In digital pixel TDI implementation photocurrent is integrated on a capacitor in pixel and converted to digital data in pixel. This digital data triggers the summation counters which implements TDI addition. After all pixels in a row contribute, the summed data is divided to the number of TDI pixels(N) to have the actual output which is square root of N improved version of a single pixel output in terms of signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR).

  2. 76 FR 43236 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Chapter 301 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice... Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) in an effort to streamline travel policies, increase travel efficiency and... pertain to Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances that include special conveyances, per diem and...

  3. 41 CFR 301-1.3 - Who is eligible for TDY allowances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 1-APPLICABILITY § 301-1.3 Who is eligible for TDY allowances? This chapter covers the following individuals: (a) Employees traveling on official business; (b) Interviewees performing pre-employment interview travel; (c) Employees who must interrupt official...

  4. Transpirative Deficit Index (TDI) for the management of water scarcity in irrigated areas: development and application in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Anna; Facchi, Arianna; Rienzner, Michele; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    proposed for the well-known Standard Precipitation Index (SPI). IDRAGRA is a distributed-parameters conceptual model, which allows the simulation of the water balance in the soil-plant-atmosphere system on a daily basis. It accounts for the spatial variability of soils, crops, meteorological and irrigation inputs by dividing study areas with a regular mesh. Modules for the simulation of crop development and irrigation water sources conveyance and distribution are moreover included. IDRAGRA was modified to allow the computation of TDI, both in absence and presence of irrigation. The simulation system was applied to a pilot study area of about 230 km2, located in the Po River Plain. TDI was computed considering a reference meteorological data series of 22 years (1993-2014). TDI patterns were analysed for two years, one (2003) with very scarce and the other (2014) with abundant precipitations. Results showed that the irrigation supply cannot compensate severe droughts in some districts of the pilot area, and were confirmed by yield data and by the staff of the Irrigation Consortium managing irrigation water in the area.

  5. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  6. Iron absorption is more closely related to iron status than to daily iron intake in 12- to 48-mo-old children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have evaluated iron absorption in small children after the first year of life. Our objective was to examine the relations among iron intake, iron absorption, and iron status in a group of healthy children. We studied 28 children, ages 12 to 48 mo, after a 7-d home adaptation to a diet re...

  7. [Relationship between the number of daily meals and the energy and nutrient intake in the elderly. Effect on various cardiovascular risk factors].

    PubMed

    Ortega, R M; Redondo, M R; Zamora, M J; López-Sobaler, A M; Quintas, M E; Andrés, P; Gaspar, M J; Requejo, A M

    1998-01-01

    The metabolic consequences of the consumption of a diet depend, in part, on the frequency and distribution of meals. The aim of the present study was to examine the number of meals taken per day by elderly persons, and to analyse the relationship between the number of meals per day on the intake of energy and nutrients, the incidence of obesity/overweight, and different cardiovascular risk factors. Food intake was monitored for five consecutive days using 'precise individual weighing' for institutionalised subjects (n = 58), and by means of a 'food intake record' for independent subjects (n = 92). The number of meals taken per day was recorded, along with anthropometric data, blood pressure and serum lipid and lipoprotein levels. No subject took only one meal per day, 7.3% took two, 56.7% took three, 33.3% took four and 2.7% took five. Only 10% of subjects took a mid-morning meal. Breakfast and merienda (a light evening snack) were the meals most frequently omitted. A positive, significant relationship was found to exist between the number of meals taken per day and the intake of fibre (r = 0.2737), thiamin (r = 0.1671), pyridoxine (r = 0.2060), magnesium (r = 0.2423) and the percentage of energy provided by carbohydrates (r = 0.2144). Women subjects who took 2-3 meals per day showed greater body mass indices and a greater proportion were overweight/obese compared to those who took 4-5 meals per day. Subjects who took 4-5 meals per day showed higher levels of HDL-cholesterol and lower levels of LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol and cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol than did those who took fewer meals per day. Inverse, significant relationships were also found between the number of meals per day and serum cholesterol (r = 0.2297) and LDL-cholesterol levels (r = 0.1984). Taking into account energy and nutrient intakes, the incidence of obesity/overweight and serum lipid and lipoprotein levels, the consumption of 4-5 meals per day would seem more advisable for the elderly

  8. Automatic focus algorithms for TDI X-Ray image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörr, J.; Rosenbaum, M.; Sauer-Greff, W.; Urbansky, R.

    2012-09-01

    In food industry, most products are checked by X-rays for contaminations. These X-ray machines continuously scan the product passing through. To minimize the required X-ray power, a Time, Delay and Integration (TDI) CCD-sensor is used to capture the image. While the product moves across the sensor area, the X-ray angle changes during the pass. As a countermeasure, adjusting the sensor shift speed on a single focal plane of the product can be selected. However, the changing angle result in a blurred image in dependance to the thickness of the product. This so-called ''laminographic effect'' can be compensated individually for one plane by inverse filtering. As the plane of contamination is unknown, the blurred image will be inversely filtered for different planes, but only one of these images shows the correctly focussed object. If the correct image can be found, the plane containing the contamination is identified. In this contribution we demonstrate how the correctly focussed images can be found by analyzing the images of all planes. Different characteristics for correctly and incorrectly focussed planes like sharpness, number of objects and edges are investigated by using image processing algorithms.

  9. High-stage analog accumulator for TDI CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianxin, Li; Fujun, Huang; Yong, Zong; Jing, Gao

    2016-02-01

    The impact of the parasitic phenomenon on the performance of the analog accumulator in TDI CMOS image sensor is analyzed and resolved. A 128-stage optimized accumulator based on 0.18-μm one-poly four-metal 3.3 V CMOS technology is designed and simulated. A charge injection effect from the top plate sampling is employed to compensate the un-eliminated parasitics based on the accumulator with a decoupling switch, and then a calibration circuit is designed to restrain the mismatch and Process, Voltage and Temperature (PVT) variations. The post layout simulation indicates that the improved SNR of the accumulator upgrades from 17.835 to 21.067 dB, while an ideal value is 21.072 dB. In addition, the linearity of the accumulator is 99.62%. The simulation results of two extreme cases and Monte Carlo show that the mismatch and PVT variations are restrained by the calibration circuit. Furthermore, it is promising to design a higher stage accumulator based on the proposed structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404090, 61434004).

  10. InSb 288*32 FPA with digital TDI for low background application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishko, V. F.; Kasatkin, I. L.; Lopukhin, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    32*288 format FPA based on InSb two dimension arrays (IDA) of photodiodes with function of digital TDI were investigated at low background flow. Dark currents of TDA photodiodes in wide temperature region, spectral noise distribution and threshold power with TDI simulation are investigated. It was established that at T=77K dark current is (I - 3)*10-11A at optimal negative bias and decreases in the order of magnitude at T=65K. Threshold power at T=77K at integration time Ti=6 ms is not more 2*10 -14 W/pixel and is limited commonly by dark current noise. Modeling of digital TDI showed that not more than twenty TDI stages are effective because of the presence of 1/f noise and threshold power would be at about 3*10 -15 W/pixel.

  11. Determination of PCDD/Fs in breast milk of women living in the vicinities of Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (Vietnam) and estimation of the infant's daily intake.

    PubMed

    Hue, N T M; Nam, V D; Thuong, N V; Huyen, N T; Phuong, N T H; Hung, N X; Tuan, N H; Son, L K; Minh, N H

    2014-09-01

    Seventeen toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in breast milks using the high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method. Twenty seven breast milk samples were collected from primiparae who have lived over 5 years in wards namely Chinh Gian, An Khe, Khue Trung, and Hoa Thuan Tay which are located near the Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (the AO/Dioxin hot spot). The samples were then analyzed for PCDD/F residues in order to assess the human exposure to dioxins from the AO/Dioxin hot spot, especially health risk to the breast-fed infants. The average TEQ levels in the four studied cohorts ranged from 8.1 to 26 pg/g lipid, with the highest level up to 51 pg TEQ/g lipid found in the An Khe ward. The TEQ level was correlated with geographical position and ranking in the order of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe. The mean estimated PCDD/Fs infant's daily intake in the cohort of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe was about 41, 122, 124, and 134 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, respectively, which are much higher than the tolerable daily intake proposed by the World Health Organization (4 pg TEQ/kg bw/day). PMID:24613651

  12. Validity and Reproducibility of a Self-Administered Semi-Quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Usual Daily Fat, Fibre, Alcohol, Caffeine and Theobromine Intakes among Belgian Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bolca, Selin; Huybrechts, Inge; Verschraegen, Mia; De Henauw, Stefaan; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2009-01-01

    A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d) estimated diet records (EDR, n 64) and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79). Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47–0.94; weighted κ 0.25–0.66) and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71–0.87) with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted κ 0.33–0.80). In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population. PMID:19440274

  13. Leptin concentrations in finishing beef steers and heifers and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Tait, R G; Keisler, D H; Hales, K E; Freetly, H C

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition measures of finishing beef steers and heifers and to determine if multiple sampling time points improve the associations of plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition traits. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) and ADG were determined for 84 d using steers and heifers (n = 127 steers and n = 109 heifers). Blood was collected on day 0, day 42, and day 83 for determination of plasma leptin concentrations. Leptin concentrations were greater in heifers than those in steers on day 0 (P < 0.001 for sex by day interaction), and leptin concentrations increased in both sexes but were not different from each other on day 83. Leptin concentrations at all 3 time points and the mean were shown to be positively associated with DMI (P ≤ 0.006), whereas the mean leptin concentration explaining 8.3% of the variance of DMI. Concentrations of leptin at day 42, day 83, and the mean of all 3 time points were positively associated with ADG (P ≤ 0.011). Mean leptin concentration was negatively associated with gain:feed ratio and positively associated with residual feed intake (RFI), indicating that more efficient cattle had lower leptin concentrations. However, leptin concentrations explained very little of the variation in residual feed intake (≤ 3.2% of the variance). Leptin concentrations were positively associated with body fat measured by ultrasonography at the 12th rib and over the rump (P < 0.001), with the mean leptin concentration explaining 21.9% and 12.7% of the variance in 12th rib and rump fat thickness, respectively. The same trend was observed with carcass composition where leptin concentrations were positively associated with 12th rib fat thickness, USDA-calculated yield grade (YG), and marbling score (P ≤ 0.006) and mean leptin concentration explained 16.8, 18.2, and 4.6% of the variance for 12th

  14. Airway hyperreactivity elicited by toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-albumin conjugate is not accompanied by airway eosinophilic infiltration in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Millecchia, L L; Frazer, D G; Fedan, J S

    1998-02-01

    Nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness is present in many patients with toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced asthma; however, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of this hyperresponsiveness remain controversial. In the present study, we used a guinea pig model to investigate the association of TDI-induced airway hyperresponsiveness with eosinophilic airway infiltration, which is widely considered to play a key role in the development of allergen-induced hyperresponsiveness. Guinea pigs were sensitized by i.d. injections of 10 microl TDI on day 1 and day 6. Control animals received saline injections. Two weeks after the second injection, airway reactivity to inhaled methacholine and specific airway resistance (sRaw) was measured before and at several times after inhalation challenge with TDI-GSA (guinea pig serum albumin) conjugates. Eosinophils in the airways were detected using enzyme histochemistry and quantified using computer-assisted image analysis. TDI-specific IgG1 antibodies were found in the blood of TDI-sensitized animals. An immediate increase in sRaw was induced in these animals by TDI-GSA challenge; airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine was observed at 6 h and 18 h after TDI-GSA challenge. However, TDI-GSA challenge did not result in an elevation of eosinophils in the airways, compared with control animals. The results suggest that the development of TDI-induced airway hyperresponsiveness is not dependent upon eosinophil infiltration in airways. PMID:9520137

  15. Influence of the method of production of eggs on the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine contaminants: an independent study in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Rodríguez-Hernández, Angel; Quesada-Tacoronte, Yohana; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Almeida-González, Maira; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

    2013-10-01

    Analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were performed on eggs from three different production types (conventional, free-run and organic) collected from the markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). Unlike other studies we did not found differences in the content of PCBs or OCPs of eggs in relation to its production type. Median ∑OCPs content was 3.87 ng g⁻¹ fat, being dieldrin, dicofol, hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT the most frequently detected. Median ∑PCBs value was 3.93 ng g⁻¹ fat, with 79.9% of this amount coming from the marker PCBs. Two samples, one free-run and one organic, greatly exceeded the current European Commission (EC) limit of 2.5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F) g⁻¹ lipid, but the rest were well below of this limit. The concentrations of PAHs in conventionally produced eggs were almost 4 times higher than in free-run or organic eggs. Mean dietary intake estimates of the organochlorine contaminants based on consumption of eggs, regardless of the type chosen, is negligible for the Canary Islands' population. However, the median dietary intake estimates of PAHs greatly depend on the type of eggs chosen, being much lower when free-run and organic eggs are consumed. PMID:23939041

  16. Exposure and immunological determinants in a murine model for toluene diisocyanate (TDI) asthma.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Joanna M; Johnson, Victor J; Vallyathan, Velayudhan; Luster, Michael I

    2005-03-01

    Isocyanate-induced asthma, the most commonly reported cause of occupational asthma, has been difficult to diagnose and control, in part, because the biological mechanisms responsible for the disease and the determinants of exposure have been difficult to define. Appropriate animals models of isocyanate asthma will be instrumental to further our understanding of this disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that dermal exposure to isocyanates in mice results in systemic sensitization that leads to eosinophilic airways inflammation upon subsequent airway challenge. We hypothesized that inhalation of vapor phase toluene diisocyante (TDI) will lead to immunologic sensitization in mice and that subsequent challenge will induce pathology and immune system alterations indicative of asthma found in humans. To determine the impact of exposure dose as well as the involvement of immune (allergic) or nonimmune mechanisms, a murine model of TDI asthma was established and characterized following either low-level subchronic or high-dose acute inhalation TDI exposure. C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to TDI by inhalation either subchronically for 6 weeks (20 ppb, 4 h/day, 5 days/week) or by a 2-h acute exposure at 500 ppb. Both groups were challenged 14 days later via inhalation with 20 ppb TDI for 1 h. Mice that underwent the subchronic exposure regimen demonstrated a marked allergic response evidenced by increases in airway inflammation, eosinophilia, goblet cell metaplasia, epithelial cell alterations, airway hyperreponsiveness (AHR), T(H)1/T(H)2 cytokine expression in the lung, elevated levels of serum IgE, and TDI-specific IgG antibodies, as well as the ability to transfer these pathologies to naive mice with lymphocytes or sera from TDI exposed mice. In contrast, mice that received acute TDI exposure demonstrated increased AHR, specific IgG antibodies, and pathology in the lung consistent with asthma, but without the presence of elevated serum IgE, lung eosionophilia, or

  17. Daily intake of rosehip extract decreases abdominal visceral fat in preobese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Nagatomo, Akifumi; Nishida, Norihisa; Fukuhara, Ikuo; Noro, Akira; Kozai, Yoshimichi; Sato, Hisao; Matsuura, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity has become a great problem all over the world. We repeatedly screened to find an effective food to treat obesity and discovered that rosehip extract shows potent anti-obesity effects. Investigations in mice have demonstrated that rosehip extract inhibits body weight gain and decreases visceral fat. Thus, the present study examined the effect of rosehip extract on human body fat in preobese subjects. Methods We conducted a 12-week, single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 32 subjects who had a body mass index of ≥25 but <30. The subjects were assigned to two random groups, and they received one tablet of placebo or rosehip that contained 100 mg of rosehip extract once each day for 12 weeks with no dietary intervention. Abdominal fat area and body fat percent were measured as primary outcomes. The other outcomes were body weight and body mass index. Results Abdominal total fat area, abdominal visceral fat area, body weight, and body mass index decreased significantly in the rosehip group at week 12 compared with their baseline levels (P<0.01) after receiving the rosehip tablet intake, and the decreases in these parameters were significantly higher when compared with those in the placebo group. Additionally, body fat percent tended to decrease compared with the placebo group and their baseline level. Moreover, the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was significantly lower in the rosehip group than in the placebo group at week 12 after the initiation of intake (P<0.05). In addition, there were no abnormalities, subjective symptoms, and findings that may indicate clinical problems during the study period. Conclusion These results suggest that rosehip extract may be a good candidate food material for preventing obesity. PMID:25834460

  18. Daily Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know Online Tools Enhancing Daily Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing ... Tweet Email | Print Create a Daily Routine Daily Plan Activities Communication Food/Eating Get Tips on Personal Care Bathing ...

  19. Occupational asthma caused by a prepolymer but not the monomer of toluene diisocyanate (TDI).

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, O; Cartier, A; Lesage, J; Perrault, G; Grammer, L C; Malo, J L

    1992-06-01

    Isocyanates are the most common cause of occupational asthma. Isocyanate monomers and prepolymers are widely used in the manufacture of polyurethane compounds. However, prepolymers are generating increasing interest because of their lower volatility. No distinction has yet been made between asthmatic reactions caused by the monomers and the prepolymers of isocyanates, and asthmatic reactions caused by one type of isocyanate but not the other type have not been reported. We describe two wood-roof maintenance workers who developed asthma after being exposed to a varnish containing a prepolymer of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) with only small amounts of the monomer. Specific inhalation-challenge tests with the TDI monomer did not elicit significant airway obstruction, whereas exposure to the varnish and to the purified TDI prepolymer induced late asthmatic reactions. Specific antibodies against TDI monomer human serum albumin and TDI prepolymer human serum albumin conjugates could not be demonstrated. These observations demonstrate that isocyanate prepolymers can cause occupational asthma and that asthmatic reactions caused by isocyanate prepolymers, but not to the corresponding monomer, can occur in some exposed workers. PMID:1318888

  20. Characterization of polyurethane systems which contain low levels of free TDI

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, R.L.; Thomas, E.V.

    1995-04-01

    EN-7, EN-8, and EN-9 are polyurethane systems that are used in numerous applications in the Department of Energy complex. These systems contain high levels of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Currently, TDI is being treated as a suspect human carcinogen within the Department of Energy complex. This report documents the results of a material characterization study of three polyurethane systems that contain low levels of free (potentially airborne) TDI. The characterization has been accomplished by performing a set of statistically designed experiments. The purpose of these experiments is to explore the effects of formulation and cure schedule on various material properties. In general, the material properties (pot life, glass transition temperature, hardness, and tear strength) were relatively insensitive to variation in the cure schedule. On the other hand, variation in curative level had measurable effects on material properties for the polyurethane systems studied. Furthermore, the material properties of the three low-free-TDI polyurethane systems were found to be comparable or superior (for certain curative levels) to commonly-used polyurethane systems. Thus, these low-free-TDI systems appear to be viable candidates for applications where a polyurethane is needed.

  1. The characteristic analysis and optimization design for HgCdTe TDI infrared detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Mei-feng; Chen, Xing; Qiu, Guang-yin; Xie, Xiao-hui

    2011-08-01

    Time Delay Integration (TDI) is an effective approach for high sensitive infrared detectors. According to the principle of the TDI, the central distance of pixel along the time delay integral direction is closely linked with the specific application requirements. So the optimization design, such as the area of pixels and their distance, plays an important role to improve the performance of TDI detectors. The crosstalk between pixels is a crucial factor that results in the decline of detector Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), and then affects the imaging quality. In this paper the optimization design rule for the arrangement of pixel has been investigated. The results show that the main method to appreciate it is reducing the crosstalk between pixels and enhancing detectivity. Chips of which pixel areas and edge intervals are different but with same distance were designed for the experiments. The optical and electrical measurements were carried out for these chips and the optimized structure was obtained. In addition, relationships between the crosstalk and parameters of material, pixel structure were analyzed based on the experiment data. According to the comprehensive analysis of the measurement data, we obtained the optimum design for specific HgCdTe TDI infrared detector. Meanwhile it is also a well reference for other HgCdTe TDI detector structure design.

  2. TDI and clock noise removal for the split interferometry configuration of LISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Markus; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    2012-10-01

    Laser phase noise is the dominant noise source in the on-board measurements of the space-based gravitational wave detector LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna). A well-known data analysis technique, the so-called time-delay interferometry (TDI), provides synthesized data streams free of laser phase noise. At the same time, TDI also removes the next largest noise source: phase fluctuations of the on-board clocks which distort the sampling process. TDI needs precise information about the spacecraft separations, sampling times and differential clock noise between the three spacecrafts. These are measured using auxiliary modulations on the laser light. Hence, there is a need for algorithms that account for clock noise removal schemes combined with TDI while preserving the gravitational wave signal. In this paper, we will present the mathematical formulation of the LISA-like data streams and discuss a compliant algorithm that corrects for both clock and laser noise in the case of a rotating, non-breathing LISA constellation. In contrast to previous papers, we consider the current optical bench design (split interferometry configuration), i.e. the test mass readout is done by the local oscillators only, instead of reflecting the weak inter-spacecraft light off the test mass. Furthermore, the absolute order of laser frequencies is taken into account and it can be shown that the TDI equations remain invariant. This is a crucial issue and was, up to now, completely neglected in the analysis.

  3. Daily intake of bisphenol A and triclosan and their association with anthropometric data, thyroid hormones and weight loss in overweight and obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Geens, Tinne; Dirtu, Alin C; Dirinck, Eveline; Malarvannan, Govindan; Van Gaal, Luc; Jorens, Philippe G; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) were determined in urine of Belgian overweight and obese (n=151) and lean (n=43) individuals. After the first urine collection (0M), obese patients started a diet program or have undergone bariatric surgery. Hereafter, three additional urine samples from obese patients were collected after 3 (3M), 6 (6M) and 12 (12M) months. Both compounds were detected in >99% of the samples. BPA had median concentrations of 1.7 and 1.2ng/mL in obese and lean groups, respectively, while TCS had median concentrations of 1.5 and 0.9ng/mL in the obese and lean groups, respectively. The obese group had higher urinary concentrations (ng/mL) of BPA (p<0.5), while no significant differences were found for TCS between the obese and lean groups. No time trends between the different collection moments were observed. The BPA concentrations in the obese group were negatively associated with age, while no gender difference or relationship with body mass index was observed. For TCS, no relationships with gender, BMI, or age were found. The temporal variability of BPA and TCS was assessed with calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient, Spearman rank correlation coefficients, and surrogate category analysis. We observed evidence that single spot urine samples might be predictive of exposure over a longer period of time. Dietary intakes of BPA and TCS did not differ significantly among the time points considered after obese individuals started losing weight (6 and 12months). Multiple linear regression analyses after adjusting for age and weight loss revealed negative associations between urinary TCS and serum FT4 in the 0M and 3M female obese individuals and positive associations between urinary BPA and serum TSH in the lean group. PMID:25575039

  4. Daily Pomegranate Intake Has No Impact on PSA Levels in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer - Results of a Phase IIb Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stenner-Liewen, Frank; Liewen, Heike; Cathomas, Richard; Renner, Christoph; Petrausch, Ulf; Sulser, Tullio; Spanaus, Katharina; Seifert, Hans Helge; Strebel, Räto Thomas; Knuth, Alexander; Samaras, Panagiotis; Müntener, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate has been shown to prolong PSA doubling time in early prostate cancer, but no data from a placebo controlled trial has been published yet. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the impact of pomegranate juice in patients with prostate cancer. We conducted a phase IIb, double blinded, randomized placebo controlled trial in patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer. Only patients with a PSA value ≥ 5ng/ml were included. The subjects consumed 500 ml of pomegranate juice or 500 ml of placebo beverage every day for a 4 week period. Thereafter, all patients received 250 ml of the pomegranate juice daily for another 4 weeks. PSA values were taken at baseline, day 14, 28 and on day 56. The primary endpoint was the detection of a significant difference in PSA serum levels between the groups after one month of treatment. Pain scores and adherence to intervention were recorded using patient diaries. 102 patients were enrolled. The majority of patients had castration resistant prostate cancer (68%). 98 received either pomegranate juice or placebo between October 2008 and May 2011. Adherence to protocol was good, with 94 patients (96%) completing the first period and 87 patients (89%) completing both periods. No grade 3 or higher toxicities occurred within the study. No differences were detected between the two groups with regard to PSA kinetics and pain scores. Consumption of pomegranate juice as an adjunct intervention in men with advanced prostate cancer does not result in significant PSA declines compared to placebo. PMID:24069070

  5. Power capability of LiTDI-based electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillet, Sabrina; Schmidt, Gregory; Ladouceur, Sébastien; Fréchette, Joël; Barray, Francis; Clément, Daniel; Hovington, Pierre; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Vijh, Ashok; Cayrefourcq, Ian; Zaghib, Karim

    2015-10-01

    We report results obtained with lithium 4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl) imidazolide (LiTDI), which we believe is a promising lithium salt for electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. This "Hückel"- type salt has high charge delocalizations which contribute to good lithium-ion dissociation. In addition, it has high thermal stability and safer degradation products compared to LiPF6, which were identified by TGA-MS. It also does not corrode but passivate the aluminum current collector. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed a stability up to 4.5 V, which is sufficient for use with standard cathode materials. The power capability of half cells containing LiTDI in EC/DEC was evaluated with standard cathodes used in lithium-ion batteries: LFP, NMC, LCO and LMO. Two LiTDI concentrations were investigated: 1 M and 0.6 M and compared with a reference electrolyte: 1 M LiPF6. In spite of a slightly lower conductivity than the LiPF6, LiTDI (1 M and 0.6 M) shows similar power capability up to 2C with LFP (84% of specific capacity recovered), 10C with NMC (61% of specific capacity recovered), and up to 20C for LMO (88% of specific capacity recovered). Furthermore, better power capability was obtained with 0.6 M LiTDI with LCO, which yielded 82% of specific capacity recovered at 1C (67% for 1 M LiTDI and 1 M LiPF6).

  6. 41 CFR 301-1.1 - What is an “agency” for purposes of TDY allowances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is an âagencyâ for purposes of TDY allowances? 301-1.1 Section 301-1.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 1-APPLICABILITY § 301-1.1 What is...

  7. 41 CFR 301-1.1 - What is an “agency” for purposes of TDY allowances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is an âagencyâ for purposes of TDY allowances? 301-1.1 Section 301-1.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 1-APPLICABILITY § 301-1.1 What is...

  8. Asthma Symptoms and Specific IgE Levels among Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI) Exposed Workers in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    SHARIFI, Laleh; KARIMI, Akram; SHOKOUHI SHOORMASTI, Raheleh; MIRI, Sara; HEYDAR NAZHAD, Hassan; BOKAIE, Saied; FAZLOLLAHI, Mohammad Reza; SADEGHNIIAT HAGHIGHI, Khosro; POURPAK, Zahra; MOIN, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Background Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is an imperative chemical substance used in the production of polyurethane foams, elastomers, paints and coatings that cause a variety of health problems in workers who are exposed in work places. This study aimed to determine the asthma symptoms and serum specific IgE levels in TDI exposed workers and comparing the results with healthy control group. Methods: All the plants that use TDI in the manufacturing of paint and glue in the west of Tehran Province entered to the study and all the workers (550) completed modified initial questionnaire of the NIOSH, the questions were consisted of asthma symptoms. For each symptomatic exposed worker one healthy, sex and age matched control selected. Total IgE and Specific TDI IgE tests were done for each case and control groups. Results: Among 550 TDI exposed workers, 26(4.7%) had asthma symptoms. Nine (34.6%) of symptomatic workers who were exposed to TDI were active cigarette consumer versus 3(11.5%) unexposed workers, P=0.049(CI= 0.953–17.29) OR=4.059. Nine (34.6%) workers had positive family history of atopy versus 1(3.8%) unexposed workers, P=0.0138 (CI= 1.45–305.41) OR=13.24. TDI specific IgE was found in 2 TDI exposed workers and 1 unexposed worker (P=0.5). Mean of total IgE was 339.05 in exposed workers (P=0.201). Conclusion: This study provides clinical and paraclinical data of workers exposed to TDI and points to a relation between atopy and smoking habit with asthma symptoms that offer preventing recommendations for TDI exposed workers and their heath administrators. PMID:23785679

  9. Realization of the FPGA based TDI algorithm in digital domain for CMOS cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Shuping; Jin, Guang; Zhang, Xuyan; Qu, Hongsong

    2012-10-01

    In order to make the CMOS image sensors suitable for space high resolution imaging applications, a new method realizing TDI in digital domain by FPGA is proposed in this paper, which improves the imaging mode for area array CMOS sensors. The TDI algorithm accumulates the corresponding pixels of adjoining frames in digital domain, so the gray values increase by M times, where M is for the integration number, and the image's quality in signal-to-noise ratio can be improved. In addition, the TDI optimization algorithm is discussed. Firstly, the signal storage is optimized by 2 slices of external RAM, where memory depth expanding and the table tennis operation mechanism are used. Secondly, the FIFO operation mechanism reduces the reading and writing operation on memory by M×(M-1) times, It saves so much signal transfer time as is proportional to the square of integration number M2, that the frame frequency is able to increase greatly. At last, the CMOS camera based on TDI in digital domain is developed, and the algorithm is validated by experiments on it.

  10. 41 CFR 101-39.203-1 - Obtaining motor vehicles while on temporary duty (TDY) travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Obtaining motor vehicles..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Services § 101-39.203-1 Obtaining motor vehicles while on temporary duty (TDY) travel....

  11. A configurable distributed high-performance computing framework for satellite's TDI-CCD imaging simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Bo; Mao, Bingjing; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang

    2010-11-01

    This paper renders a configurable distributed high performance computing(HPC) framework for TDI-CCD imaging simulation. It uses strategy pattern to adapt multi-algorithms. Thus, this framework help to decrease the simulation time with low expense. Imaging simulation for TDI-CCD mounted on satellite contains four processes: 1) atmosphere leads degradation, 2) optical system leads degradation, 3) electronic system of TDI-CCD leads degradation and re-sampling process, 4) data integration. Process 1) to 3) utilize diversity data-intensity algorithms such as FFT, convolution and LaGrange Interpol etc., which requires powerful CPU. Even uses Intel Xeon X5550 processor, regular series process method takes more than 30 hours for a simulation whose result image size is 1500 * 1462. With literature study, there isn't any mature distributing HPC framework in this field. Here we developed a distribute computing framework for TDI-CCD imaging simulation, which is based on WCF[1], uses Client/Server (C/S) layer and invokes the free CPU resources in LAN. The server pushes the process 1) to 3) tasks to those free computing capacity. Ultimately we rendered the HPC in low cost. In the computing experiment with 4 symmetric nodes and 1 server , this framework reduced about 74% simulation time. Adding more asymmetric nodes to the computing network, the time decreased namely. In conclusion, this framework could provide unlimited computation capacity in condition that the network and task management server are affordable. And this is the brand new HPC solution for TDI-CCD imaging simulation and similar applications.

  12. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  13. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) airway effects and dose-responses in different animal models

    PubMed Central

    Schupp, Thomas; Collins, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Many inhalation exposure studies have been performed with toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in different animal species. Many were targeted at respiratory irritation and/or sensitisation. As there is still no broadly accepted guideline for the performance of respiratory sensitisation tests, protocols used and endpoints investigated are numerous. In this review we collected data from those respiratory sensitisation and/or irritation studies that provided threshold or dose-response information. Against this aim, and as TDI is a model substance for a respiratory sensitiser, a great number of mechanistic studies are not cited in this paper, although they were checked for relevant information. The literature data available allow the conclusion that both respiratory irritation and sensitisation may be interdependent, and both irritation and sensitisation by TDI is a threshold phenomenon. Across species, the majority of NOAECs for respiratory sensitisation are in the range of 0.005 to 0.03 ppm, whereas the LOAEC is about 0.02 to 0.4 ppm. PMID:27298608

  14. Implementation of pixel level digital TDI for scanning type LWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, Omer; Kayahan, Huseyin; Yazici, Melik; Afridi, Sohaib; Shafique, Atia; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2014-07-01

    Implementation of a CMOS digital readout integrated circuit (DROIC) based on pixel level digital time delay integration (TDI) for scanning type LWIR focal plane arrays (FPAs) is presented. TDI is implemented on 8 pixels with over sampling rate of 3. Analog signal integrated on integration capacitor is converted to digital domain in pixel, and digital data is transferred to TDI summation counters, where contributions of 8 pixels are added. Output data is 16 bit, where 8 bits are allocated for most significant bits and 8 bits for least significant bits. Control block of the ROIC, which is responsible of generating timing diagram for switches controlling the pixels and summation counters, is realized with VerilogHDL. Summation counters and parallel-to-serial converter to convert 16 bit parallel output data to single bit output are also realized with Verilog HDL. Synthesized verilog netlists are placed&routed and combined with analog under-pixel part of the design. Quantization noise of analog-to-digital conversion is less than 500e-. Since analog signal is converted to digital domain in-pixel, inaccuracies due to analog signal routing over large chip area is eliminated. ROIC is fabricated with 0.18μm CMOS process and chip area is 10mm2. Post-layout simulation results of the implemented design are presented. ROIC is programmable through serial or parallel interface. Input referred noise of ROIC is less than 750 rms electron, while power consumption is less than 30mW. ROIC is designed to perform in cryogenic temperatures.

  15. Design of 90×8 ROIC with pixel level digital TDI implementation for scanning type LWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, Omer; Kayahan, Huseyin; Yazici, Melik; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2013-06-01

    Design of a 90×8 CMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) based on pixel level digital time delay integration (TDI) for scanning type LWIR focal plane arrays (FPAs) is presented. TDI is implemented on 8 pixels which improves the SNR of the system with a factor of √8. Oversampling rate of 3 improves the spatial resolution of the system. TDI operation is realized with a novel under-pixel analog-to-digital converter, which improves the noise performance of ROIC with a lower quantization noise. Since analog signal is converted to digital domain in-pixel, non-uniformities and inaccuracies due to analog signal routing over large chip area is eliminated. Contributions of each pixel for proper TDI operation are added in summation counters, no op-amps are used for summation, hence power consumption of ROIC is lower than its analog counterparts. Due to lack of multiple capacitors or summation amplifiers, ROIC occupies smaller chip area compared to its analog counterparts. ROIC is also superior to its digital counterparts due to novel digital TDI implementation in terms of power consumption, noise and chip area. ROIC supports bi-directional scan, multiple gain settings, bypass operation, automatic gain adjustment, pixel select/deselect, and is programmable through serial or parallel interface. Input referred noise of ROIC is less than 750 rms electrons, while power consumption is less than 20mW. ROIC is designed to perform both in room and cryogenic temperatures.

  16. Comparison of PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels in Turkish foodstuffs: industrial versus rural, local versus supermarket products, and assessment of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Devrim; Çakıroğulları, Gül Çelik; Uçar, Yunus; Theelen, Rob; Traag, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like (indicator) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored in various foodstuffs of animal origin and edible oil samples obtained from two different cities in Turkey both rural and industrial. Total dioxin+dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCB concentrations of pooled samples ranged 0.20-4.19 pg World Health Organization-Toxic Equivalency (WHO-TEQ)(1998)/g fat and 57.2-1710 pg/g fat, respectively. The dominant congeners were 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDD and PCB126. Dietary intake of dioxin+dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCBs from fish, dairy products, edible oil, egg and meat was 0.509 pg WHO-TEQ1998/kg bw (body weight)/day and 839 pg/kg bw/day in Afyon and 0.588 pg WHO-TEQ1998/ kg bw/day and 1070 pg/kg bw/day in Kocaeli, respectively. The major contributors to total exposure were dairy products and fish. Despite the unexplained high contamination level in an individual egg sample from Kocaeli, average concentration levels in Turkey, even in industrialized regions, were low compared to reported concentrations in Western Europe. Exposure levels were well below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 2 pg WHO-TEQ1998/kg body weight. PMID:21547797

  17. 41 CFR 301-70.507 - May we authorize per diem if an employee discontinues a TDY assignment because of a personal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May we authorize per diem if an employee discontinues a TDY assignment because of a personal emergency situation? 301-70.507 Section 301-70.507 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES...

  18. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

  19. Contamination of food samples from Malaysia with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and estimation of human intake.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Chiang, Pui-Nyuk; Jaafar, Hajjaj Juharullah; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-04-01

    A total of 126 food samples, categorised into three groups (seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products) from Malaysia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The concentration of PCDD/Fs that ranged from 0.16 to 0.25 pg WHO05-TEQ g(-1) fw was found in these samples. According to the food consumption data from the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the dietary exposures to PCDD/F from seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products for the general population in Malaysia were 0.064, 0.183 and 0.736 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. However, the exposure was higher in seafood and seafood products (0.415 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and meat and meat products (0.317 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) when the data were estimated using the Malaysian food consumption statistics. The lower exposure was observed in dairy products with an estimation of 0.365 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1). Overall, these dietary exposure estimates were much lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) as recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that the dietary exposure to PCDD/F does not represent a risk for human health in Malaysia. PMID:24392728

  20. Brief exposure of air-filled guinea-pig isolated trachea to low levels of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) vapor in vitro increases reactivity to methacholine.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Frazer, D G; Millecchia, L L; Fedan, J S

    1997-12-26

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) causes occupational asthma characterized by inflammation and hyperreactivity of airways to irritants and bronchoconstrictor drugs. We examined the non-immune, direct effect of TDI on airway reactivity in vitro in the absence of an inflammatory response using the guinea-pig isolated, perfused trachea preparation to measure reactivity to methacholine (MCh), and fixed point ion mobility spectrometry to measure moment to moment levels of TDI vapor in air that was delivered to the tracheal mucosa. MCh was added to the mucosal modified Krebs-Henseleit (MKH) perfusing solution to generate control concentration-response curves for contractile responses. The lumen was then emptied and perfused with air or air containing 5, 20 or 70 ppb TDI vapor, after which the trachea was perfused with MKH solution and reactivity to MCh was re-examined. After only 30 min of treatment, TDI vapor concentration-dependently increased reactivity of the trachea to MCh (2.4- and 2.9-fold, respectively, for 20 and 70 ppb TDI; 5 ppb TDI and air alone had no effect). In tracheas treated in vitro with 2 microM capsaicin to deplete tachykinins, TDI caused the same (4-fold) increase in reactivity to MCh that was observed in control tracheas. However, TDI vapor (70 ppb) no longer enhanced reactivity to MCh in tracheas from which the epithelium had been removed. Our results indicate that a direct, non-immune, non-inflammatory action of TDI on respiratory epithelium leads to hyperreactivity of airways in vitro. PMID:9457998

  1. Temporal and Spatial Comparison of Gridded TMY, TDY, and TGY Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Lopez, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2014-02-01

    Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) data sets provide industry standard resource information for building designers and are commonly used by the solar industry to estimate photovoltaic and concentrating solar power system performance. Historically, TMY data sets were only available for certain station locations, but current TMY data sets are available on the same grid as the National Solar Radiation Database data and are referred to as the gridded TMY. In this report, a comparison of TMY, typical direct (normal irradiance) year (TDY), and typical global (horizontal irradiance) year (TGY) data sets were performed to better understand the impact of ancillary weather variables upon them. These analyses identified geographical areas of high and low temporal and spatial variability, thereby providing insight into the representativeness of a particular TMY data set for use in renewable energy as well as other applications.

  2. Time delay and integration array (TDI) using charge transfer device technology. Phase 2, volume 1: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The 20x9 TDI array was developed to meet the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper Requirements. This array is based upon a self-aligned, transparent gate, buried channel process. The process features: (1) buried channel, four phase, overlapping gate CCD's for high transfer efficiency without fat zero; (2) self-aligned transistors to minimize clock feedthrough and parasitic capacitance; and (3) transparent tin oxide electrode for high quantum efficiency with front surface irradiation. The requirements placed on the array and the performance achieved are summarized. This data is the result of flat field measurements only, no imaging or dynamic target measurements were made during this program. Measurements were performed with two different test stands. The bench test equipment fabricated for this program operated at the 8 micro sec line time and employed simple sampling of the gated MOSFET output video signal. The second stand employed Correlated Doubled Sampling (CDS) and operated at 79.2 micro sec line time.

  3. 41 CFR 301-30.4 - When an illness or injury occurs on TDY, what expenses may be allowed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When an illness or... TRAVEL EXPENSES 30-EMERGENCY TRAVEL § 301-30.4 When an illness or injury occurs on TDY, what expenses may... incapacitating illness or injury for a reasonable period of time (generally 14 calendar days). However,...

  4. 41 CFR 301-30.4 - When an illness or injury occurs on TDY, what expenses may be allowed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true When an illness or injury... 30-EMERGENCY TRAVEL § 301-30.4 When an illness or injury occurs on TDY, what expenses may be allowed... illness or injury for a reasonable period of time (generally 14 calendar days). However, your agency...

  5. 41 CFR 301-30.4 - When an illness or injury occurs on TDY, what expenses may be allowed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When an illness or... TRAVEL EXPENSES 30-EMERGENCY TRAVEL § 301-30.4 When an illness or injury occurs on TDY, what expenses may... incapacitating illness or injury for a reasonable period of time (generally 14 calendar days). However,...

  6. 41 CFR 301-30.4 - When an illness or injury occurs on TDY, what expenses may be allowed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When an illness or... TRAVEL EXPENSES 30-EMERGENCY TRAVEL § 301-30.4 When an illness or injury occurs on TDY, what expenses may... incapacitating illness or injury for a reasonable period of time (generally 14 calendar days). However,...

  7. 41 CFR 301-30.4 - When an illness or injury occurs on TDY, what expenses may be allowed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When an illness or... TRAVEL EXPENSES 30-EMERGENCY TRAVEL § 301-30.4 When an illness or injury occurs on TDY, what expenses may... incapacitating illness or injury for a reasonable period of time (generally 14 calendar days). However,...

  8. A fast auto-focusing technique for the long focal lens TDI CCD camera in remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dejiang; Ding, Xu; Zhang, Tao; Kuang, Haipeng

    2013-02-01

    The key issue in automatic focus adjustment for long focal lens TDI CCD camera in remote sensing applications is to achieve the optimum focus position as fast as possible. Existing auto-focusing techniques consume too much time as the mechanical focusing parts of the camera move in steps during the searching procedure. In this paper, we demonstrate a fast auto-focusing technique, which employs the internal optical elements and the TDI CCD itself to directly sense the deviations in back focal distance of the lens and restore the imaging system to a best-available focus. It is particularly advantageous for determination of the focus, due to that the relative motion between the TDI CCD and the focusing element can proceed without interruption. Moreover, the theoretical formulas describing the effect of imaging motion on the focusing precision and the effective focusing range are also developed. Finally, an experimental setup is constructed to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique. The results of the experiment show a ±5 μm precision of auto-focusing in a range of ±500 μmdefocus, and the searching procedure could be accomplished within 0.125 s, which leads to remarkable improvement on the real-time imaging capability for high resolution TDI CCD camera in remote sensing applications.

  9. Dynamic MTF improvement scheme and its validation for CCD operating in TDI mode for Earth imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Neeraj; Banerjee, Arup

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents the scheme for improving the image contrast in the remote sensing images and highlights the novelty in hardware & software design in the test system developed for measuring image contrast function. Modulation transfer function (MTF) is the most critical quality element of the high-resolution imaging payloads for earth observation consisting of TDI-CCD (Time Delayed Integration Charge Coupled Device) image. From the mathematical model for MTF Smear MTF of 65% (35% degradation) is observed. Then a operating method for TDI-CCD is developed, using which 96% of Motion Smear MTF will occur within the imaging operation. As a major part of the validation, indigenously designed and developed a test system for measuring the dynamic MTF of TDI Sensors which consists of the optical scanning system, TDI-CCD camera drive & video processing electronics, thermal control system and telecentric uniform illumination system. The experimental results confirm that image quality improvement can be achieved by this method. This method is now implemented in the flight model hardware of the remote sensing payload.

  10. ESTIMATED DAILY AVERAGE PER CAPITA WATER INGESTION BY CHILD AND ADULT AGE CATEGORIES BASED ON USDA'S 1994-96 AND 1998 CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKES BY INDIVIDUALS (JOURNAL ARTICLE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current water ingestion estimates are important for the assessment of risk to human populations of exposure to water-borne pollutants. This paper reports mean and percentile estimates of the distributions of daily average per capita water ingestion for 12 age range groups. The ...

  11. Phenotypic and genetic relationships between residual energy intake and growth, feed intake, and carcass traits of young bulls.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J; Mao, I L; Andersen, B B; Madsen, P

    1992-02-01

    Residual energy intake, defined as actual minus predicted energy intake during a production period, was estimated for each of 650 bull calves of 31 Holstein Friesian or Brown Swiss sires. Residual energy intake, measured under ad libitum feeding, had heritabilities similar to those of growth rate and energy conversion ratio with an estimate of approximately .3. Residual energy intake was related to average daily energy intake both phenotypically and genetically such that selection for decreased residual energy intake would lead to a decrease in daily feed intake. Such selection would also tend to increase carcass fatness (i.e., genetically fat animals are the most efficient). Residual energy intake estimated with and without correction for carcass composition were closely correlated. Thus, residual energy intake may be estimated without the knowledge of carcass composition in growing bulls of dual-purpose breeds. PMID:1548200

  12. Congener profile, occurrence and estimated dietary intake of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in foods marketed in the Region of Valencia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Marin, S; Villalba, P; Diaz-Ferrero, J; Font, G; Yusà, V

    2011-02-01

    During 2006-2008, a monitoring program was conducted on 29 target compounds, including PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, comprising 150 randomly collected individual food samples marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain, grouped into 8 categories (vegetables, cereals, fats and oils, eggs, milk and dairy products, fish products, meat and meat products and fish oil). For PCDD/Fs, the highest frequency of detection corresponds to 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF; and PCBs 118, 105 and 156 were the more frequent dl-PCBs. The food groups presenting higher contamination, expressed as toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs), were fish oil (6.38 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat), fish (1.21 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)w.w.) and milk and dairy products (0.90 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat). Of all analysed samples, only two fish oils presented levels higher than the EU limits for total WHO-TEQ. The average PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs intakes were estimated as 2.86 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1)b.w.d(-1) and 4.58 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1)b.w.d(-1), for adults and children, respectively, using the deterministic method for chronic exposure. The main contributors to total intake for adults were fish (59%), milk and dairy products (19%), and fat and oils (9%). The average daily intake for adults (2.86 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1)b.w.d(-1)) is within range of TDI recommended by the WHO (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1)b.w.d(-1)), and slightly above the TWI and PTMI adopted by SCF and JECFA respectively. PMID:21216434

  13. Design and realization of 144 x 7 TDI ROIC with hybrid integrated test structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, Omer; Kayahan, Huseyin; Yazici, Melik; Baran, Muhammet Burak; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2012-06-01

    Design and realization of a 144x7 silicon readout integrated circuit (ROIC) based on switched capacitor TDI for MCT LWIR scanning type focal plane arrays (FPAs) and its corresponding hybrid integrated test circuits are presented. TDI operation with 7 detectors improves the SNR of the system by a factor of √7, while oversampling rate of 3 improves the spatial resolution of the system. ROIC supports bidirectional scan, 5 adjustable gain settings, bypass operation, automatic gain adjustment in case of mulfunctioning pixels and pixel select/deselect properties. Integration time of the system can be determined by the help of an external clock. Programming of ROIC can be done in parallel or serial mode according to the needs of the system. All properties except pixel select/deselect property can be performed in parallel mode, while pixel select/deselect property can be performed only in serial mode. ROIC can handle up to 3.75V dynamic range with a load of 25pF and output settling time of 80ns. Input referred noise of the ROIC is less than 750 rms electrons, while the power consumption is less than 100mW. To test ROIC in absence of detector array, a process and temperature compensated current reference array, which supplies uniform input current in range of 1-50nA to ROIC, is designed and measured both in room and cryogenic (77ºK) temperatures. Standard deviations of current reference arrays are measured 3.26% for 1nA and 0.99% for 50nA. ROIC and current reference array are fabricated seperately, and then flip-chip bonded for the test of the system. Flip-chip bonded system including ROIC and current reference test array is successfully measured both in room and cryogenic temperatures, and measurement results are presented. The manufacturing technology is 0.35μm, double poly-Si, four metal, 5V CMOS process.

  14. Rapid assessment of dietary calcium intake.

    PubMed

    Nordblad, Mikaela; Graham, Fiona; Mughal, M Zulf; Padidela, Raja

    2016-07-01

    A five-food item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 3-day food diary (3DFD) were used to estimate daily dietary calcium (Ca) intake in 32 patients aged 1-17 years. Median and IQR of Ca intake from 3DFD was 840 mg and 438 mg while from FFQ it was 700 mg and 987 mg, respectively. The non-parametrical Bland-Altman limits of agreement plot between two methods showed that most of the values fell between the limits of agreement at +794 mg and -388 mg. The FFQ had a specificity of 93% in identifying children who consumed inadequate amount of dietary Ca and a sensitivity of 78% in identifying children whose dietary Ca intake exceeded UK's Reference Nutrient Intake. Thus the FFQ allows rapid estimation of children with low daily dietary Ca intake in the clinic setting; however it does not replace 3DFD. PMID:26662924

  15. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  16. The intake of intense sweeteners - an update review.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Andrew G

    2006-04-01

    Studies on the intakes of intense sweeteners in different countries published since the author's previous review in 1999 indicate that the average and 95th percentile intakes of acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by adults are below the relevant acceptable daily intake (ADI) values. Fewer data are available for the newer sweeteners, sucralose and alitame, and because they are recent introductions to the market very low intakes were reported in those countries where they were available at the time of the intake study. Overall there has not been a significant change in the intakes of sweeteners in recent years. The only data indicating that the intake of an intense sweetener could exceed its ADI value were the 95th percentile intakes of cyclamate in children, particularly those with diabetes. This sub-group was identified as having high intakes of cyclamate in 1999, and recent studies have not generated reliable intake data to address this possibility. PMID:16546879

  17. A Fixed-Pattern Noise Correction Method Based on Gray Value Compensation for TDI CMOS Image Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenwang; Xu, Jiangtao; Wang, Xinlei; Nie, Kaiming; Jin, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    In order to eliminate the fixed-pattern noise (FPN) in the output image of time-delay-integration CMOS image sensor (TDI-CIS), a FPN correction method based on gray value compensation is proposed. One hundred images are first captured under uniform illumination. Then, row FPN (RFPN) and column FPN (CFPN) are estimated based on the row-mean vector and column-mean vector of all collected images, respectively. Finally, RFPN are corrected by adding the estimated RFPN gray value to the original gray values of pixels in the corresponding row, and CFPN are corrected by subtracting the estimated CFPN gray value from the original gray values of pixels in the corresponding column. Experimental results based on a 128-stage TDI-CIS show that, after correcting the FPN in the image captured under uniform illumination with the proposed method, the standard-deviation of row-mean vector decreases from 5.6798 to 0.4214 LSB, and the standard-deviation of column-mean vector decreases from 15.2080 to 13.4623 LSB. Both kinds of FPN in the real images captured by TDI-CIS are eliminated effectively with the proposed method. PMID:26389917

  18. Daily oral intake of theanine prevents the decline of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation in hippocampal dentate gyrus with concomitant alleviation of behavioral abnormalities in adult mice with severe traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Takeshi; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Kakuda, Takami; Nakazato, Ryota; Kokubo, Hiroshi; Ikeno, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Saki; Hinoi, Eiichi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2015-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is a long-lasting psychiatric disease with the consequence of hippocampal atrophy in humans exposed to severe fatal stress. We demonstrated a positive correlation between the transient decline of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and long-lasting behavioral abnormalities in mice with traumatic stress. Here, we investigated pharmacological properties of theanine on the declined BrdU incorporation and abnormal behaviors in mice with traumatic stress. Prior daily oral administration of theanine at 50-500 mg/kg for 5 days significantly prevented the decline of BrdU incorporation, while theanine significantly prevented the decline in the DG even when administered for 5 days after stress. Consecutive daily administration of theanine significantly inhibited the prolonged immobility in mice with stress in forced swimming test seen 14 days later. Although traumatic stress significantly increased spontaneous locomotor activity over 30 min even when determined 14 days later, the increased total locomotion was significantly ameliorated following the administration of theanine at 50 mg/kg for 14 days after stress. These results suggest that theanine alleviates behavioral abnormalities together with prevention of the transient decline of BrdU incorporation in the hippocampal DG in adult mice with severe traumatic stress. PMID:25837925

  19. Carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Le Gall, Maude

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates represent more than 50% of the energy sources present in most human diets. Sugar intake is regulated by metabolic, neuronal, and hedonic factors, and gene polymorphisms are involved in determining sugar preference. Nutrigenomic adaptations to carbohydrate availability have been evidenced in metabolic diseases, in the persistence of lactose digestion, and in amylase gene copy number. Furthermore, dietary oligosaccharides, fermentable by gut flora, can modulate the microbiotal diversity to the benefit of the host. Genetic diseases linked to mutations in the disaccharidase genes (sucrase-isomaltase, lactase) and in sugar transporter genes (sodium/glucose cotransporter 1, glucose transporters 1 and 2) severely impact carbohydrate intake. These diseases are revealed upon exposure to food containing the offending sugar, and withdrawal of this sugar from the diet prevents disease symptoms, failure to thrive, and premature death. Tailoring the sugar composition of diets to optimize wellness and to prevent the chronic occurrence of metabolic diseases is a future goal that may yet be realized through continued development of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics approaches. PMID:22656375

  20. Nutritional intake of elite football referees.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Gonçalves, Liliana; Meneses, Tiago; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4.4% and 34.6 ± 4.1% of the DEI. Carbohydrate intakes before, during and after exercise were 66 ± 42, 7 ± 15 and 120 ± 62 g. Daily carbohydrate, fibre, polyunsaturated fat and water intakes were below recommendations, while fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intakes were above recommended values. The prevalence of inadequate intake was high for vitamin E (96%), folate (74%), vitamin A (61%), vitamin C (39%), magnesium (26%) and calcium (22%). Carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise were far from achieving the minimum recommended values. Most referees demonstrated a negligent behaviour of hydration during exercise. Referees would benefit from dietary education in order to optimise performance and health. PMID:24784464

  1. Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Paul, David R; Kramer, Matthew; Rhodes, Donna G; Rumpler, William V

    2005-01-01

    Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To investigate these effects, 12 men were provided with an ad libitum cafeteria-style diet for 16 weeks. The macronutrient composition of the diets were covertly modified with drinks containing 2.1 MJ of predominantly carbohydrate (Hi-CHO), protein (Hi-PRO), or fat (Hi-FAT). Total energy expenditure was measured for seven days on two separate occasions (doubly labeled water and physical activity logs). Results Preprandial ghrelin concentrations were not affected by macronutrient intake, energy expenditure or energy intake (all P > 0.05). In turn, daily energy intake was significantly influenced by energy expenditure, but not ghrelin. Conclusion Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Similarly, ghrelin does not appear to affect acute or chronic energy intake under free-living conditions. PMID:15745452

  2. Factors affecting pasture intake and total dry matter intake in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, O P; Smith, T R

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the most relevant variables for estimating pasture intake and total dry matter (DM) intake in grazing dairy cows using 27 previously published studies. Variables compared were pasture allowance, days in milk, amount of forage, amount of concentrate and total supplementation, pasture allowance and supplementation interaction, fat-corrected milk, body weight (BW), metabolic BW, daily change in BW, percentage of legumes in pasture, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents of pasture, and NDF in pasture selected. The variables were selected using stepwise regression analysis for total DM intake and pasture DM intake. Variables selected in the total DM intake regression equation (R2 = 0.95) were pasture allowance, total supplementation, interaction of pasture allowance and supplementation, fat-corrected milk, BW, daily change in BW, percentage of legumes and pasture NDF content. Pasture DM intake regression equation (R2 = 0.90) was similar to total DM intake equation, but supplementation coefficient was negative, showing substitution effect in supplementing grazing cows. The intake of NDF as a percentage of BW was higher than 1.3% when considering NDF content of the pasture allowance. Low pasture allowance groups had values higher than 1.3%. PMID:11049073

  3. NEW APPROACHES IN THE DERIVATION OF ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE (ADI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current methods for estimating human health risks from exposure to threshold-acting toxicants in water or food, such as those established by the U.S. EPA, the FDA, the NAS, the WHO and the FAO, consider only chronic or lifetime exposure to individual chemicals. These methods gene...

  4. Arguments at Mealtime and Child Energy Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnier, Daniel; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine how arguments at mealtimes relate to children's daily energy intake. Design: A cross-sectional study using data obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 (QLSCD), a representative sample of children born in 1998, in the province of Quebec, Canada. Setting: Face-to-face interviews,…

  5. Nicotine intake by snuff users.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Devitt, G; Feyerabend, C

    1981-01-01

    Blood nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured in 27 volunteers before and after taking snuff. Within 10 minutes after snuffing blood nicotine concentrations were comparable to those obtained after the 10 minutes or so that it takes to smoke a cigarette. Nicotine intake from snuffing was related to the experience of the snuffer. In daily and occasional snuffers increases in plasma nicotine concentrations averaged 77.7 and 12.3 nmol/l (12.6 and 2.0 ng/ml) respectively, while the novices showed no appreciable increase. The increase shown by thea daily snuffers was comparable to the average increase of 62.3 nmol/l (10.1 ng/ml) obtained from a single cigarette by a group of heavy smokers. The peak nicotine concentrations in the daily snuffers were also similar to the peak values in 136 heavy smokers--222.6 and 226-3 nmol/l (36.1 and 36.7 ng/ml), respectively. Unusual multiple-dose snuffing produced massive increases in plasma nicotine to concentrations that have never been recorded in smokers. The similarity of the concentrations produced by regular daily snuffing and regular daily smoking suggests that the plasma nicotine concentration has some controlling influence over the self-regulation of these two quite different forms of tobacco use. The rapid absorption of nicotine from snuff confirms its potential as an acceptable and relatively harmless substitute for smoking. PMID:6794710

  6. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  7. Clinical outcome of daily dialysis.

    PubMed

    Vos, P F; Zilch, O; Kooistra, M P

    2001-01-01

    Dialysis patients are prone to malnutrition, which may be counteracted by daily home hemodialysis (DHHD, 6 times a week) due to improved clinical outcome and quality of life. Eleven patients were treated with DHHD during 18 months, after a run-in period with three dialysis sessions a week. The total weekly dialysis dose was kept constant during the first 6 months of DHHD, whereupon it was allowed to increase. KT/V was 3.1 +/- 0.5 at baseline, 3.2 +/- 0.5 after 6 months and 4.0 +/- 0.8 at 18 months. Blood pressure decreased from 142 +/- 19/83 +/- 8 to 130 +/- 25/79 +/- 9 mmHg with a more than 50% reduction in antihypertensive medication. Potassium did not change, but potassium binding resins could be stopped almost completely. Bicarbonate increased from 20.6 +/- 3.3 to 23.1 +/- 2.6 mEq/L after 18 months. Patients with a protein intake of less than 1.0 g/kg/d showed a greater increase in body weight (62.3 +/- 6.0 to 65.5 +/- 3.7, P: < 0.05) and normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) (0.87 +/- 0.08 to 1.25 +/- 0.36, ns) than patients with acceptable protein intake (>/=1.0 g/kg/d). Phosphate decreased, though not significantly, especially in the latter group. Erythropoietin dose could be reduced from 6400 +/- 5400 U/L at baseline to 5100 +/- 4000 U/L at 18 months. Quality of life improved significantly, especially with to respect to physical condition and mental health. The DHHD markedly improves hemodynamic control and quality of life. Overall nutritional parameters did not change, except cholesterol. Patients with a low protein intake, however, showed a significant increase in body weight, and a greater rise in nPCR. PMID:11158871

  8. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kaganov, Boris; Caroli, Margherita; Mazur, Artur; Singhal, Atul; Vania, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population. PMID:25984741

  9. Sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children - United States, 2009-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A national health objective is to reduce average U.S. sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily to help prevent high blood pressure, a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Identifying common contributors to sodium intake among children can help reduction efforts. Average sodium intake, sodium consumed p...

  10. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake ≥ 75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P = 0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health

  11. Estimated intake levels for Finnish children of methylmercury from fish.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Anna K; Hallikainen, Anja; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Knip, Mikael; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Leino, Olli; Simell, Olli; Sinkko, Harri; Tuomisto, Jouni T; Veijola, Riitta; Venäläinen, Eija-Riitta; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2013-04-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a well-known neurotoxic agent, and consumption of contaminated fish is the principal environmental source of MeHg exposure in humans. Children are more susceptible to adverse effects than adults. No previous specific data exist for intake by Finnish children of methylmercury from fish. We estimated fish consumption and MeHg intakes from species most commonly consumed by Finnish children aged 1-6 years. The total mercury concentrations were determined in fish species consumed, and age-specific methylmercury intakes were derived. We also examined safety margins and the proportion of children exceeding the tolerable daily intakes set by international expert bodies. The daily intake of MeHg ranged from 0 to 0.33 μg/kg bw. The strictest reference value 0.1 μg/kg bw/day for MeHg, proposed by USEPA, was exceeded by 1-15% of the study population, and FAO/WHO JECFA provisional tolerable weekly intake of 1.6 μg/kg bw was exceeded by 1% of boys and 2.5% of girls aged 6 years. Intakes of 1-year old girls were higher than of boys, whereas for 3-year olds they were the opposite. The highest intakes were observed for 6-year-old boys and girls. There was great variation in the estimated MeHg intakes among Finnish children. PMID:22425939

  12. Dietary intakes of age-group swimmers.

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, J A; Williams, M M

    1991-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to collect information regarding the dietary habits of male and female age-group swimmers and report the energy consumptions of these athletes in relation to their daily training demands. Twenty competitive swimmers, who were training 6000 m per day 6 days a week, recorded all fluid and food consumed during a 4-day period. Dietary analysis revealed that 11 swimmers (55%) had calcium intakes below recommended dietary allowances (RDA), while 13 (65%) had iron intakes lower than RDA. Despite identical training loads and body mass, male swimmers had significantly greater (P = 0.004) daily mean (s.d.) energy consumption (3072(732) kcal, 12.9(3.1) MJ) than females (2130(544) kcal, 8.9(2.3) MJ) and were maintaining energy balance. Although the contribution of carbohydrate to total daily energy intake was the same for male (55%) and female swimmers (56%), the females ingested significantly less (P = 0.011) carbohydrate (292(87) g) than the males (404(88) g) and could be considered deficient in dietary carbohydrate with respect to their daily training demands. PMID:1777785

  13. Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

  14. Dietary Intake and Serum Level of Carotenoids in Lung Cancer Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Asbaghi, Somayeh; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Hosseini, Mostafa; Honarvar, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh; Khosravi, Adnan; Azargashb, Eznollah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake and serum levels of some selected carotenoids of lung cancer patients with healthy subjects. Thirty-five lung cancer patients and 33 healthy people were enrolled into this case-control study. Daily intake of nutrients was estimated using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and a 3-day 24-h food recall questionnaire. The concentration of serum beta-carotene and lycopene were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography method. Case and control groups did not differ by the means of age, gender, smoking habits, weight, body mass index, mean daily energy intake, mean daily fat intake, and the percentage of daily energy provided by fat to total daily energy intake. The beta-carotene and lycopene intake of the case subjects was 96% and 195% greater than that of the control subjects. Daily intake of fruits and vegetables in the cancer group was higher than the control group. However, the serum concentration of 118% beta-carotene and 60% lycopene were higher in the control group. Despite a higher daily dietary intake of beta-carotene and lycopene by lung cancer patients, serum beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations were significantly lower than the group without cancer. PMID:26168284

  15. Managing Daily Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... To Cure MD PPMD Merchandise Host an Event Create a Personal Page My Donor Portfolio™ Sponsor Programs Other Ways to Help About Us Mission Financials History Staff & Board Media Awards Partners Contact Us Home / Care for Duchenne / Managing Daily Life Print Email Managing Daily Life Environmental ...

  16. Chronic daily headaches

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Fayyaz; Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Khalil, Modar

    2012-01-01

    Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches. PMID:23024563

  17. Genetic parameters of growth, feed intake, feed conversion and carcass composition of dual-purpose bulls in performance testing.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J; Mao, I L; Andersen, B B; Madsen, P

    1991-03-01

    Genetic parameters for growth, total energy intake, feed conversion ratio, average daily energy intake and carcass composition were estimated in an experiment with 650 bull calves from 31 half-sib groups of Holstein Friesian or Brown Swiss sires. All traits analyzed had an amount of additive genetic variance that allows for considerable response to selection. No interaction between genotype (sire group) and proportion of roughage in the diet was found. Daily gain was strongly correlated negatively with feed conversion ratio but positively correlated with daily energy intake. Results indicate that genetic selection for either daily gain or average daily energy intake would decrease carcass fatness at a constant slaughter weight. However, the environmental correlation between daily energy intake and carcass fatness was positive. PMID:2061263

  18. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Caroline M.; Black, Lucinda J.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements. PMID:24424459

  19. Energy and macronutrient intakes of professional football (soccer) players.

    PubMed Central

    Maughan, R J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the dietary habits of professional soccer players at two Scottish Premier League clubs during the competitive season. METHODS: A study of the dietary intake of 51 professional soccer players with two different clubs was carried out by the seven day weighed intake method. RESULTS: Physical characteristics of the two groups of players were similar, with only small differences in age and body mass but no difference in height and body fat. Mean (SD) daily energy intake for club A was 11.0 (2.6) MJ, and for club B 12.8 (2.2) MJ. The higher energy intake at club B was largely accounted for by a higher (P < 0.005) fat intake (118 v 93 g d-1): there was no difference in the absolute amounts of protein, carbohydrate, or alcohol consumed. When expressed as a fraction of total energy intake, mean protein intake was higher (P < 0.05) and fat intake lower (P < 0.01) at club A. CONCLUSIONS: The mean energy intake of these players was not high compared with athletes in endurance sports. Fractional contribution of the macronutrients to total energy intake was broadly similar to that of the general population. PMID:9132211

  20. Should Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Technologists Estimate Dietary Calcium Intake at the Time of DXA?

    PubMed

    McKenna, Malachi J; McKenna, Mary Clare S; van der Kamp, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Adequate calcium intake is essential for bone health. Calcium is obtained from dietary sources and supplementation. Knowing the daily dietary calcium intake is helpful in deciding on the need for supplementation. Dietary calcium intake can be estimated quickly and accurately using an approach recommended by the National Osteoporosis Foundation. We sought to evaluate the usefulness of estimating dietary calcium intake by a technologist at the time of attendance for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. We conducted a retrospective survey of results on estimated dietary calcium intake in adults attending our DXA unit over 2 years (n=5569). We assessed intake with reference to the specifications of the Institute of Medicine according to sex and age. The average intake was 736 mg daily: Young adults had higher intakes than older adults (p<0.001), and men had higher intakes than women (p=0.017). According to Institute of Medicine's specification, we estimate that nearly 45% of Irish women need supplemental intake of 500 mg daily but <4% need supplemental intake of 1000 mg daily. Younger adults are apt to have intakes within, or higher than, the requirement. Having DXA technologists estimate dietary calcium intake at the time of DXA scanning may provide helpful information to the referring clinicians about the need for supplementation. PMID:25934029

  1. Increased energy and nutrient intake during training and competition improves elite triathletes' endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Frentsos, J A; Baer, J T

    1997-03-01

    Dietary habits were evaluated in 6 elite triathletes (4 male, 2 female). Analysis of 7-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except zinc chromium, which did not meet 66% of recommended amounts. Individualized nutrition intervention using the Diabetic Food Exchange System to support performance during training and competition was provided. To improve dietary intake, subjects consumed fortified nutrition supplements (Reliv, Inc.) before and after daily training. Follow-up 7-day diet records showed that average energy intake and percentage of energy from carbohydrate increased, as did intakes of zinc and chromium. Triathletes' performance in a short course triathlon was improved compared to a similar competition completed prior to the nutrition intervention. Following the intervention, triathletes were able to meet recommended daily energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes and improve endurance performance. PMID:9063765

  2. Energy intake highs and lows: how much does consistency matter in weight control?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Diane L.; Schumacher, Leah M.; Schaumberg, Katherine; Piers, Amani D.; Gaspar, Monika E.; Lowe, Michael R.; Forman, Evan M.; Butryn, Meghan L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Behavioural weight control programmes recommend adherence to daily energy intake goals, yet also allow for flexibility in intake across days. Evidence is lacking as to whether intake consistency is important for weight control. The current study explored the relation between day-to-day intake consistency and weight loss in the context of behavioural weight loss treatment and examined the relationship between variability in intake and several factors known to be associated with weight control success. Participants (N = 283) enrolled in a 12-month behavioural weight loss programme completed 24-h recalls of dietary intake and psychological measures. At the end of treatment, low intake variability and greater weight loss were associated, but variability was not predictive of weight loss independent of mean intake in continuous analyses. Interestingly, participants who met the programme goal of ≥10% weight loss had less intake variability compared to those who lost <10%, although groups did not differ significantly on mean intake. Results suggest that daily intake consistency may facilitate successful weight loss for some. Additionally, autonomous motivation for weight management and cognitive dietary restraint were inversely related to end-of-treatment intake variability. Additional research is needed to examine whether recommendations to limit intake variability during behavioural weight loss treatment improve long-term weight control. PMID:27020845

  3. Energy intake highs and lows: how much does consistency matter in weight control?

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Diane L; Schumacher, Leah M; Schaumberg, Katherine; Piers, Amani D; Gaspar, Monika E; Lowe, Michael R; Forman, Evan M; Butryn, Meghan L

    2016-06-01

    Behavioural weight control programmes recommend adherence to daily energy intake goals, yet also allow for flexibility in intake across days. Evidence is lacking as to whether intake consistency is important for weight control. The current study explored the relation between day-to-day intake consistency and weight loss in the context of behavioural weight loss treatment and examined the relationship between variability in intake and several factors known to be associated with weight control success. Participants (N =  283) enrolled in a 12-month behavioural weight loss programme completed 24-h recalls of dietary intake and psychological measures. At the end of treatment, low intake variability and greater weight loss were associated, but variability was not predictive of weight loss independent of mean intake in continuous analyses. Interestingly, participants who met the programme goal of ≥10% weight loss had less intake variability compared to those who lost <10%, although groups did not differ significantly on mean intake. Results suggest that daily intake consistency may facilitate successful weight loss for some. Additionally, autonomous motivation for weight management and cognitive dietary restraint were inversely related to end-of-treatment intake variability. Additional research is needed to examine whether recommendations to limit intake variability during behavioural weight loss treatment improve long-term weight control. PMID:27020845

  4. Municipal sewage sludge application on Ohio farms: estimation of cadmium intake

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, C.S.; Dorn, C.R.

    1985-12-01

    This study was designed to estimate the contribution of municipal sewage sludge exposure and smoking to the daily Cd intake in Ohio farm residents, based on the Cd concentrations in 24-hr fecal samples. The fecal samples were analyzed for Cd and the daily Cd intakes were calculated by correcting for absorption (4.6%) in the gastrointestinal tract. Fecal samples from cattle grazing on sludge-treated pastures were also similarly treated except that published 24-hr fecal weights and a 2% absorption correction were used. Fecal weights and the daily Cd intakes, in humans, calculated from these data were significantly lower in females than in males with a female/male ratio of 0.77/1. Daily Cd intakes calculated from these data ranged from 5.37 to 13.31 g/day for females and 8.87 to 18.52 g/day for males. No significant increase in daily Cd intake resulted from exposure of humans to sludge on the farmlands. Although daily Cd intake for smokers was 1 g/day higher than for nonsmokers, the difference was not statistically significant. Cattle grazing on sludge-treated pastures consumed significantly more (up to 3 times) Cd than cattle on control pastures. It was concluded that application of sewage sludge on farmlands at rates of 2-10 dry metric tons/ha did not significantly contribute to the daily Cd intake in humans; cattle on such farms, however, significantly increased their Cd consumption.

  5. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. Objectives: This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. Patients and Methods: A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Results: Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. Conclusions: The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable. PMID:26199684

  6. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  7. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Adolescent Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    LEE, MATTHEW T.; VETA, PAIGE S.; JOHNSON, BYRON R.; PAGANO, MARIA E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore changes in belief orientation during treatment and the impact of increased daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on adolescent treatment response. One-hundred ninety-five adolescents court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment program were assessed at intake and discharge. Forty percent of youth who entered treatment as agnostic or atheist identified themselves as spiritual or religious at discharge. Increased DSE was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence, increased prosocial behaviors, and reduced narcissistic behaviors. Results indicate a shift in DSE that improves youth self-care and care for others that may inform intervention approaches for adolescents with addiction. PMID:25525291

  8. Fluids Intake and Beverage Consumption Pattern among University Students

    PubMed Central

    Balaghi, Sima; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mahdavi, Reza; Ghaemmaghami, Jamal

    2011-01-01

    Background: Insufficient and inappropriate daily fluid intake in a long period may have adverse effect on human's health. Therefore, the present study evaluated the amounts and sources of fluids consumed by university students to determine whether these amounts and sources of fluid were enough and appropriate. Methods: In this descriptive study, 245 (142 females and 103 males) volunteer students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2009 were recruited. Food and fluid intake of subjects were as­sessed by 24-hour recall method of 3 days (two week days and one week- end included). Dietary intake of subjects was analyzed by Nutritionist III software program. The mean total fluid intake (drinking fluid values merged with data on the water content of foods) and the rate of metabolic water were figured out. Comparisons of the results with recommended dietary values were made using student's t-test.. Data of dietary intakes for two under-reporter female subjects were not included in the statistical analysis. Results: Daily total mean of fluid intake for girls (1598±40ml) and boys (1861±59ml) reflect the sum of beverages (Girls, 818±29ml; boys, 1147±57ml) and food water (Girls, 780±47ml; boys, 714±86m). The most consumed beverage for girls and boys were water (40%) and tea (49%) respectively. Daily mean intake of milk for girls and boys were 106.31±10ml (13%) and 57.30±11ml (5%), respectively. Conclusion: The mean daily fluid intake of subjects, specially water, and milk was lower than rec­ommended values. Therefore, there is an urgent need for tailored nutrition intervention targeting the young adults to improve their beverage choices. PMID:24688900

  9. Dietary intake of advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T D; Bowman, K B; Jackson, G P

    1983-02-01

    A state registered dietitian assessed the voluntary dietary intake of 13 advanced cancer inpatients on one ward of St. Christopher's Hospice for five consecutive days. There were 11 females, two males; median age 74 years (range 56 to 83). Two patients died on the fourth day of the study. A partially individualised weighed technique was used. Standard sized scoops and spoons were used to serve the food in small, medium or large standard portions (depending on appetite) and were weighed as served. Individual plate waste (by weight) was subtracted to give estimated individual intake. Foods provided by visitors was not included. The median and range of individual mean daily intakes (estimated) were: energy 5760 (938-8945) kJ, 1376 (224-2137) kcal; protein 44 (11-86) g; fat 52 (9-93) g; carbohydrate 169 (21-194) g; calcium 748 (268-1457) mg; iron 4.8 (0.5-21.0) mg; dietary fibre 5.0 (0.5-21.0) g. Compared to recommended amounts, energy, iron and dietary fibre intakes were low; calcium intake was high. Nutritional status may affect prognosis and/or subjective well-being in advanced cancer. The value of nutritional supplementation and the role of appetite stimulants in improving nutritional status needs investigation. PMID:6841131

  10. Dietary intake of acrylamide in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Svensson, K; Abramsson, L; Becker, W; Glynn, A; Hellenäs, K-E; Lind, Y; Rosén, J

    2003-11-01

    High levels of acrylamide have been found in foods heated at high temperatures, especially in carbohydrate rich foods. Several kinds of foods (industrially produced) representing different food/product groups available on the Swedish market have been analysed for acrylamide. A considerable variation in levels of acrylamide between single foodstuffs (different brands) within food categories were found, which also applies for levels in different food categories. Using recent Swedish food consumption data the dietary intake of acrylamide for the Swedish adult population was assessed based on foodstuffs with low to high levels of acrylamide (<30-2300 microg/kg), such as processed potato products, bread, breakfast cereals, biscuits, cookies, snacks and coffee. The estimated dietary intake of acrylamide per person (total population) given as the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile were 9.1, 27 and 62 microg/day respectively, from those food/product groups (mean 31 microg/day). No acrylamide was found in many other foodstuffs analysed and those were therefore not included in the dietary intake assessment of acrylamide. However, an additional minor contribution of a few microg/day of acrylamide from foods/products like poultry, meat, fish, cocoa powder and chocolates cannot be excluded. An average daily intake of 35 microg corresponds to 0.5 microg per kg body weight and day (body weight 70 kg). Risk assessments of acrylamide, made by US EPA and WHO, imply that this dietary intake of acrylamide could be associated with potential health risks. PMID:12963011

  11. Contribution of daily and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and daily rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and daily rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal daily rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.

  12. Revised reference values for selenium intake.

    PubMed

    Kipp, A P; Strohm, D; Brigelius-Flohé, R; Schomburg, L; Bechthold, A; Leschik-Bonnet, E; Heseker, H

    2015-10-01

    The German, Austrian and Swiss nutrition societies are the joint editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of selenium and published them in February 2015. The saturation of selenoprotein P (SePP) in plasma is used as a criterion for the derivation of reference values for selenium intake in adults. For persons from selenium-deficient regions (China) SePP saturation was achieved with a daily intake of 49μg of selenium. When using the reference body weights the D-A-CH reference values are based upon, the resulting estimated value for selenium intake is 70μg/day for men and 60μg/day for women. The estimated value for selenium intake for children and adolescents is extrapolated using the estimated value for adults in relation to body weight. For infants aged 0 to under 4 months the estimated value of 10μg/day was derived from the basis of selenium intake via breast milk. For infants aged 4 to under 12 months this estimated value was used and taking into account the differences regarding body weight an estimated value of 15μg/day was derived. For lactating women compared to non-lactating women a higher reference value of 75μg/day is indicated due to the release of selenium with breast milk. The additional selenium requirement for pregnant women is negligible, so that no increased reference value is indicated. PMID:26302929

  13. Removing Potatoes from Children's Diets May Compromise Potassium Intake.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A; Liu, Yan; Islam, Noemi; O'Neil, Carol E

    2016-01-01

    White potatoes are a forgotten source of nutrients. The goal of this study was to identify the nutritional implications of replacing a composite of white potatoes with a composite of vegetables commonly consumed by children aged 2-18 y (n = 3460) in a nationally representative sample. The NHANES 2005-2012 24-h dietary recall data were used to determine nutrient intake. Two replacement models were developed: one for potato consumers and another for those consuming vegetables other than potatoes. Analyses focused on 1) mean nutrient contributions per 1 cup equivalent vegetable composite (VC)/potato composite (PC) consumed by participants, and 2) mean daily nutrient intake when the nutrients per 1 cup equivalent PC replaced the nutrients per 1 cup equivalent VC. Covariate adjusted analysis was tested for statistical significance (P < 0.002). When 1 cup equivalent VC replaced 1 cup equivalent PC, significantly lower mean intakes were found for 20 of the 23 nutrients studied and higher mean intakes of total sugars, folate, and calcium. Differences were found including higher total intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids and potassium and lower total intakes of vitamins A and K. The percentage contribution of the PC to total daily nutrient intake was 6% for total energy, 8% for total fat, 5% for saturated fatty acids, 13% for dietary fiber, 4% for sodium, and 11% for potassium. Both composites contributed a variety of nutrients to the total diet; the consumption of white potatoes may be an important strategy to help meet the potassium recommendation. PMID:26773033

  14. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  15. Coal daily by fax

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    COAL Daily lets you quickly and easily track U.S. coal market developments, including spot coal prices and market and business news. The Btu-, quality- and location-specific prices and analyses reflect the large investment to systematically collect accurate coal market price data Fieldston has made.

  16. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

  17. Tips for Daily Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Share Plus on Google Plus I Have Alzheimer's Disease alz.org | IHaveAlz I Have Alz Homepage Know ... others living with Alzheimer's back to top The Alzheimer's ... living with the disease, share their personal insights about the daily strategies ...

  18. Dietary intake, food composition and nutrient intake in wild and captive populations of Daubentonia madagascariensis.

    PubMed

    Sterling, E J; Dierenfeld, E S; Ashbourne, C J; Feistner, A T

    1994-01-01

    Data are presented on dietary and nutrient intake in a wild population of aye-ayes. Study animals ate 4 main food types: seeds, nectar, fungus and insect larvae. Calculated calorie intake was slightly lower during the cold season than during the hot, wet and the hot, dry seasons. Total intakes almost doubled to compensate for the lower energy content of the diet during the cold season. Comparison of natural and captive diets suggests that maintenance and even growth requirements of aye-ayes can be met by relatively low-fat, low-protein diets. Daily energy requirements were estimated to average about 280 kcal metabolizable energy/day. Animals in the wild were estimated to eat between 260 and 342 kcal, while captive animals consumed 260 kcal/day. PMID:7721197

  19. Analysis of a seventeenth-century panel painting by reflection terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI): contribution of ultrafast optics to museum collections inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch Dandolo, Corinna L.; Filtenborg, Troels; Skou-Hansen, Jacob; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2015-11-01

    Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz -TDI) has been applied for nondestructive visualization of a hidden painting and other subsurface composition layers of a seventeenth-century panel painting belonging to the National Gallery of Denmark. Plan-type and cross-sectional scans realized by THz have been compared with images obtained by X-radiography, thus helping in a deep understanding of the strengths and limitations of this technique for art diagnostic purposes and in defining its rule among the other complementary investigation tools for nondestructive inspection of art pieces.

  20. Wall Painting Investigation by Means of Non-invasive Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI): Inspection of Subsurface Structures Buried in Historical Plasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-02-01

    Characterization of subsurface features of wall paintings is important in conservation and technical art history as well as in building archaeology and architecture fields. In this study, an area of the apsidal wall painting of Nebbelunde Church (Rødby, Denmark) has been investigated by means of terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). Subsurface structures have been detected at different depths inside the lime-based plaster of the wall painting until approximately 1 cm from the surface. The surface morphology of the buried structures has been 3D imaged in detail, providing a substantial contribution in their characterization.

  1. Access to food outlets and children's nutritional intake in urban China: a difference-in-difference analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years supermarkets and fast food restaurants have been replacing those “wet markets” of independent vendors as the major food sources in urban China. Yet how these food outlets relate to children’s nutritional intake remains largely unexplored. Method Using a longitudinal survey of households and communities in China, this study examines the effect of the urban built food environment (density of wet markets, density of supermarkets, and density of fast food restaurants) on children’s nutritional intake (daily caloric intake, daily carbohydrate intake, daily protein intake, and daily fat intake). Children aged 6–18 (n = 185) living in cities were followed from 2004 to 2006, and difference-in-difference models are used to address the potential issue of omitted variable bias. Results Results suggest that the density of wet markets, rather than that of supermarkets, positively predicts children’s four dimensions of nutritional intake. In the caloric intake model and the fat intake model, the positive effect of neighborhood wet market density on children’s nutritional intake is stronger with children from households of lower income. Conclusion With their cheaper prices and/or fresher food supply, wet markets are likely to contribute a substantial amount of nutritional intake for children living nearby, especially those in households with lower socioeconomic status. For health officials and urban planners, this study signals a sign of warning as wet markets are disappearing from urban China’s food environment. PMID:22748026

  2. Recording strategies and selection potential of feed intake measured using the X-ray method in rainbow trout

    PubMed Central

    Kause, Antti; Tobin, Declan; Dobly, Alexandre; Houlihan, Dominic; Martin, Sam; Mäntysaari, Esa A; Ritola, Ossi; Ruohonen, Kari

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the way long-term feed intake should be recorded accurately for selective breeding purposes, and estimates selection potential in feed intake using the X-ray method to record individual daily feed intake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The analysis showed that the point estimates of daily feed intake displayed low repeatabilities (r = 0.09–0.32). This indicates that a minimum of three repeated records were needed to accurately record average feed intake at a fixed age. To effectively breed for feed intake over the whole growing period, it is necessary to determine average feed intake at different ages, since there were only moderate phenotypic and genetic correlations between average daily feed intake recorded at 140 g, 750 g and 2000 g wet mass. Heritability for average daily feed intake was low (average h2 = 0.10), indicating that modest genetic changes can be obtained in response to selection. It was concluded that selection to genetically change long-term feed intake can be successful, yet repeated observations at several life stages are needed to ensure the accuracy of feed intake estimates and the efficiency of selection. PMID:16790229

  3. Reproducibility of ad libitum energy intake with the use of a computerized vending machine system123

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, Susanne B; Franks, Paul W; Krakoff, Jonathan; Salbe, Arline D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Accurate assessment of energy intake is difficult but critical for the evaluation of eating behavior and intervention effects. Consequently, methods to assess ad libitum energy intake under controlled conditions have been developed. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of ad libitum energy intake with the use of a computerized vending machine system. Design: Twelve individuals (mean ± SD: 36 ± 8 y old; 41 ± 8% body fat) consumed a weight-maintaining diet for 3 d; subsequently, they self-selected all food with the use of a computerized vending machine system for an additional 3 d. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from the actual weight of foods consumed and expressed as a percentage of weight-maintenance energy needs (%WMEN). Subjects repeated the study multiple times during 2 y. The within-person reproducibility of energy intake was determined through the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between visits. Results: Daily energy intake for all subjects was 5020 ± 1753 kcal during visit 1 and 4855 ± 1615 kcal during visit 2. There were no significant associations between energy intake and body weight, body mass index, or percentage body fat while subjects used the vending machines, which indicates that intake was not driven by body size or need. Despite overconsumption (%WMEN = 181 ± 57%), the reproducibility of intake between visits, whether expressed as daily energy intake (ICC = 0.90), %WMEN (ICC = 0.86), weight of food consumed (ICC = 0.87), or fat intake (g/d; ICC = 0.87), was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Although ad libitum energy intake exceeded %WMEN, the within-person reliability of this intake across multiple visits was high, which makes this a reproducible method for the measurement of ad libitum intake in subjects who reside in a research unit. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00342732. PMID:19923376

  4. Beverage caffeine intakes in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane C; Knight, Carol A; Hockenberry, Jon; Teplansky, Robyn; Hartman, Terryl J

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is one of the most researched food components, with the vast majority of dietary contributions coming from beverage consumption; however, there is little population-level data on caffeine intakes in the U.S. This study estimated the caffeine intakes of the U.S. population using a comprehensive beverage survey, the Kantar Worldpanel Beverage Consumption Panel. A nationally representative sample of 37,602 consumers (aged ≥ 2 years) of caffeinated beverages completed 7-day diaries which facilitated the development of a detailed database of caffeine values to assess intakes. Results showed that 85% of the U.S. population consumes at least one caffeinated beverage per day. The mean (±SE) daily caffeine intake from all beverages was 165±1 mg for all ages combined. Caffeine intake was highest in consumers aged 50-64 years (226±2 mg/day). The 90th percentile intake was 380 mg/day for all ages combined. Coffee was the primary contributor to caffeine intakes in all age groups. Carbonated soft drinks and tea provided a greater percentage of caffeine in the younger (<18 years) age groups. The percentage of energy drink consumers across all age groups was low (≤10%). These data provide a current perspective on caffeinated beverage consumption patterns and caffeine intakes in the U.S. population. PMID:24189158

  5. Usual coffee intake in Brazil: results from the National Dietary Survey 2008-9.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Alessandra Gaspar; da Costa, Teresa Helena Macedo

    2015-05-28

    Coffee is central to the economy of many developing countries, as well as to the world economy. However, despite the widespread consumption of coffee, there are very few available data showing the usual intake of this beverage. Surveying usual coffee intake is a way of monitoring one aspect of a population's usual dietary intake. Thus, the present study aimed to characterise the usual daily coffee intake in the Brazilian population. We used data from the National Dietary Survey collected in 2008-9 from a probabilistic sample of 34,003 Brazilians aged 10 years and older. The National Cancer Institute method was applied to obtain the usual intake based on two nonconsecutive food diaries, and descriptive statistical analyses were performed by age and sex for Brazil and its regions. The estimated average usual daily coffee intake of the Brazilian population was 163 (SE 2.8) ml. The comparison by sex showed that males had a 12% greater usual coffee intake than females. In addition, the highest intake was recorded among older males. Among the five regions surveyed, the North-East had the highest usual coffee intake (175 ml). The most common method of brewing coffee was filtered/instant coffee (71%), and the main method of sweetening beverages was with sugar (87%). In Brazil, the mean usual coffee intake corresponds to 163 ml, or 1.5 cups/d. Differences in usual coffee intake according to sex and age differed among the five Brazilian regions. PMID:25851731

  6. Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.L.

    1985-05-01

    Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

  7. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-12-01

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols' health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183-4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake. PMID:26690212

  8. Inadequate Dietary Calcium and Vitamin D Intake in Patients with Osteoporotic Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Dong Sik; Lee, Young-Kyun; Ha, Yong-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background Inadequate calcium and vitamin D intake is a possible risk factor of osteoporosis. Our purposes were to estimate calcium and vitamin D intake in women with osteoporotic fractures, to determine associated factors for low calcium and vitamin D intake, and to evaluate the effects of calcium and vitamin D intake on bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This is a multicenter, hospital-based, and cross-sectional study involving 277 women with osteoporotic fractures. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intake were evaluated using the Korean Calcium Assessment Tool (KCAT) self-reported questionnaire. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Results Average daily calcium and vitamin D intake was 503.7±274.7 mg and 7.5±12.6 µg, respectively. Patients with low calcium intake had less family history of osteoporosis and were older. There was a negative correlation between age and calcium intake (r=-0.14; P=0.019). In multivariate analysis, calcium intake showed a positive correlation with BMD of femoral neck (β=0.0005, P=0.021). Conclusions About 80% of patients with osteoporotic fracture had calcium and vitamin D intake below the recommended dietary intake. Low calcium intake was associated with no family history of osteoporosis and older age. Dietary calcium intake showed positive effect on BMD. PMID:27294077

  9. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183–4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake. PMID:26690212

  10. Administering the Test of Adult Basic Education at Intake: A Biased Marker of Offender Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccone, Jason E.

    2006-01-01

    Incarceration is an anxiety- and depression-inducing experience. These states are maximal at prison intake, when the offender is struggling to adjust to dramatic changes in daily life. At intake, offenders undergo a wide array of assessments, many of which determine the services and treatment that they will receive. In the Commonwealth of…

  11. Analysis of food intake profile among women from the oasis of southeastern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bidi, Amina; El Bouhali, Bachir; Nasri, Issad; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional status is the best indicator of the global well-being of women and food intake is known to reflect a healthy diet. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of socioeconomic status on the food intake in women living in the southeastern oasis of Morocco by exploring their nutritional intake through 24-h dietary recall (n=387). Analysis of the relationship between food intake and the socioeconomic characteristics in women showed a positive correlation between daily vegetable, cereals, red and white meat intake and region of residence (p<0.001, p=0.005, p=0.001 and p=0.04 respectively). The number of persons living at home showed a positive significant correlation with the daily intake of vegetables (p=0.01) and beverage (p=0.004). For fish and cereals, a positive significant correlation with the occupation variable has been shown (p=0.04 and p<0.001 respectively). In addition, a positive correlation has been noticed between the daily intake of vegetables, cereals, white meat, and dairy product and family status in housing (p=0.03, p=0.02, p=0.03 and p=0.04 respectively). In conclusion, the level of education, family size and occupation influence the daily intake of food in this region. PMID:26246164

  12. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for feed intake and other traits in growing beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI), residual feed intake (RFI), average daily gain (ADG), mid-period body weight (MBW), gain to feed ratio (G:F) and flight speed (FS) were estimated using 1165 steers from a mixed-breed population using restricted maximum likelihood methodology applied to...

  13. Bermudagrass intake and efficiency of utilization in Katahdin, Suffolk, and reciprocal-cross lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daily intake of fresh common bermudagrass was estimated using 12 spring-born Katahdin, Suffolk, and reciprocal-cross ewe lambs (n=3 per breed group) individually fed fresh harvested forage in pens in each of three years. Two 24-h estimates of intake were measured for each week of the study from June...

  14. [Chromium content in foods and dietary intake estimation in the Northwest of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Grijalva Haro, M I; Ballesteros Vázquez, M N; Cabrera Pacheco, R M

    2001-03-01

    Chromium is an indispensable nutrient for the carbohydrates and lipids metabolism. In this study the chromium content in the twenty main foods of the diet from Northwestern Mexico was determined, as well as the daily mean intake which was estimated based on the food intake basket of this region. Chromium content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using the graphite furnace technique and previous digestion of foods in microwave oven. The chromium mean intake was estimated considering the chromium daily mean intake for person per day and the chromium content of the foods analyzed in this study. The range chromium content in the foods analyzed was between 0.0004 and 0.1641 microgram/g dry weight. White cheese showed the highest chromium content followed by pasta soup, wheat tortilla, bread and meat. The main foods chromium contributors in the diet were: wheat tortilla (20%), white cheese (11%), corn tortilla (11%), pasta soup (10%), milk (10%), meat (9%) and white bread (8%). The daily chromium intake was 30.43 +/- 1.6 micrograms/d. Chromium values obtained in the food analyzed are considered low. Moreover, chromium intake obtained from the diet is not enough to meet the safety and adequate daily chromium intake. Therefore, the population from the Northwestern Mexico has a suboptimal dietary chromium intake. PMID:11515227

  15. An Evaluation of Residual Feed Intake Estimates Obtained with Computer Models Versus Empirical Regression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data on individual daily feed intake, bi-weekly BW, and carcass composition were obtained on 1,212 crossbred steers, in Cycle VII of the Germplasm Evaluation Project at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Within animal regressions of cumulative feed intake and BW on linear and quadratic days on fe...

  16. SEI Formation and Interfacial Stability of a Si Electrode in a LiTDI-Salt Based Electrolyte with FEC and VC Additives for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Fredrik; Xu, Chao; Niedzicki, Leszek; Marcinek, Marek; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Björefors, Fredrik; Edström, Kristina; Younesi, Reza

    2016-06-22

    An electrolyte based on the new salt, lithium 4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl)imidazolide (LiTDI), is evaluated in combination with nano-Si composite electrodes for potential use in Li-ion batteries. The additives fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and vinylene carbonate (VC) are also added to the electrolyte to enable an efficient SEI formation. By employing hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES), the SEI formation and the development of the active material is probed during the first 100 cycles. With this electrolyte formulation, the Si electrode can cycle at 1200 mAh g(-1) for more than 100 cycles at a coulombic efficiency of 99%. With extended cycling, a decrease in Si particle size is observed as well as an increase in silicon oxide amount. As opposed to LiPF6 based electrolytes, this electrolyte or its decomposition products has no side reactions with the active Si material. The present results further acknowledge the positive effects of SEI forming additives. It is suggested that polycarbonates and a high LiF content are favorable components in the SEI over other kinds of carbonates formed by ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) decomposition. This work thus confirms that LiTDI in combination with the investigated additives is a promising salt for Si electrodes in future Li-ion batteries. PMID:27220376

  17. Factors associated with feed intake of Angus steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimates of variance components were obtained from 475 records of average (AFI) and residual feed intake (RFI). Covariates in various (8) models included average daily gain (G), age (A) and weight (W) on test, and slaughter (S) and ultrasound (U) carcass measures (fat thickness, ribeye area and ma...

  18. Residual feed intake and temperament breed differences among Florida heifers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate residual feed intake, average daily gain, chute temperament score, and exit velocity of Brahman (B),Angus (A), and Romosinuano (R) (n = 40, 19, and 26, respectively)and F1 (n = 7, 8, and 12 for BA, RA, and RB, respectively) heifers. One month after weaning ...

  19. Caffeine Intake Among Adolescents in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Gera, Mridul; Kalra, Swati; Gupta, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    Background: Availability and advertising of caffeinated drinks is on the rise in Indian market. Excess caffeine intake may have deleterious effects on health. Objective: To estimate the daily consumption of caffeine among urban school-going adolescents from Delhi. Materials and Methods: A school-based survey was conducted to determine the amount and pattern of caffeine consumption among students of classes 9-12, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of 300 participants (median age 15 year, 174 boys), 291 (97%) were consuming caffeine [mean (SD): 121.0 (98.2) mg/day]. Nineteen (6%) students were consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine per day. Tea/coffee contributed to more than 50% of the caffeine intake. The rest was derived from cola beverages, chocolates, and energy drinks. Conclusion: Average caffeine consumption among school-going adolescents from Delhi is high. The findings of this preliminary survey need to be confirmed in larger data sets. PMID:27051091

  20. Multiple daily fractionation schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Peschel, R.E.; Fischer, J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Although conventional fractionation schedules have been satisfactory for the treatment of some tumors, there is reason to believe that the results of radiation therapy could be improved in some cases by appropriate alterations in treatment schedules. The pharmacological characteristics of some of the electron affinic radiation sensitizers have provided added incentive to investigate newer fractionation schemes, particularly ones which deliver the majority of the radiation dose in short periods of time. This editorial discusses three papers describing preliminary clinical studies using multi-daily fractionated (MDF) radiation therapy. Two of these studies also make use of the radiation sensitizer misonidazole. (KRM)

  1. Calcium intake and its relationship with risk of overweight and obesity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Peres, Luciana Natal Lopes; Berbel, Marina Nogueira; Heigasi, Máircia Braz; Ribeiro, Josy Maria Cabral; Suzuki, Karina; Josué, Liene Mílcia Aparecida; Dalmas, José Carlos

    2009-03-01

    Adolescents' eating habits are determined by social, psychological, economic, political, and educational influences. They tend to prefer foods with inadequate nutritional value and high fat and carbohydrate content which leads to excessive weight gain and for many, calcium intake is restricted. According to some authors, low calcium intake is linked to increased adiposity. The objective was to evaluate adolescent calcium intake and investigate a possible relationship between calcium intake and nutritional state. As part of their first consultation at Botucatu Adolescent Outpatient Clinic-UNESP, 107 adolescents were nutritionally classified by BMI, according to age, gender, and bands proposed by CDC and AAP. Diet was evaluated by a 3 day 24h food recall, adopting 1300 mg/day calcium intake as recommended by Dietary Reference Intakes. Median calcium intake for the whole sample was 546.6 mg/day, with 91.30% female and 86.84% male presenting lower than adequate daily recommended ingestion levels (DRI). There was significant difference between calcium densities (Ca mg/1000 kcal) in eutrophic and overweight/obesity in males. Male adolescents showed an inverse relationship between calcium intake and adiposity (r = -0.488 and p = 0.0173), which corroborates the hypothesis that low calcium intake is linked to fatty tissue gain. Only 8.70% of female and 13.16% of male adolescents reached their daily recommended calcium intake levels. It must therefore be stressed that nutritional education is an important protection factor for children and adolescents in later life. PMID:19480339

  2. Energy and Nutrient Intake From Pizza in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Binh T.; Dietz, William H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pizza consumption is a top contributor to children’s and adolescents’ caloric intake. The objective of this study was to examine children’s and adolescents’ pizza consumption patterns and its impact on their energy and nutrient intake. METHODS: Twenty-four–hour dietary recall data for children aged 2 to 11 and adolescents aged 12 to 19 were drawn from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We tested changes in consumption patterns, including by race/ethnicity, income, meal occasion, and source. Individual-level fixed effects regression models estimated the impact of pizza consumption on total energy intake (TEI) and intakes of sugar, saturated fat, and sodium. RESULTS: From 2003–2004 to 2009–2010, overall energy intake from pizza declined 25% among children (110 to 83 kcal, P ≤ .05). Among adolescents, although caloric intake from pizza among those who consumed pizza fell (801 to 624 kcal, P ≤ .05), overall pizza intake remained unchanged due to slightly higher pizza consumption prevalence. For children and adolescents, pizza intake fell (P ≤ .05) at dinner time and from fast food. For children and adolescents, respectively, pizza consumption was significantly associated with higher net daily TEI (84 kcal and 230 kcal) and higher intakes of saturated fat (3 g and 5 g) and sodium (134 mg and 484 mg) but not sugar intake, and such affects generally did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Pizza consumption as a snack or from fast-food restaurants had the greatest adverse impact on TEI. CONCLUSIONS: The adverse dietary effects of pizza consumption found in this study suggest that its consumption should be curbed and its nutrient content improved. PMID:25601973

  3. POROUS DIKE INTAKE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a porous dike intake. A small-scale test facility was constructed and continuously operated for 2 years under field conditions. Two stone dikes of gabion construction were tested: one consisted of 7.5 cm stones; and the other, 20 cm st...

  4. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  5. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  6. A review of the dietary intakes of chemical contaminants*

    PubMed Central

    Gorchev, H. Galal; Jelinek, Charles F.

    1985-01-01

    Data on the dietary intakes of certain contaminants have been received from eleven collaborating centres participating in the Joint FAO/WHO Food Contamination Monitoring Programme. The data cover the period from 1971 to 1983 and include information on the intakes of a series of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, cadmium, lead, and aflatoxins. When compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) or provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of the pesticides/contaminants in question, the data indicate that, in some countries, the exposure to certain organochlorine pesticides may constitute a significant portion ofthe ADI. Because of the concentration of these compounds in the fatty portions of food, a high animal fat intake will increase the dietary exposure to organochlorine compounds Dietary intakes of cadmium and lead constitute an appreciable percentage oft he PTWI for these two contaminants. As the intakes of cadmium and lead per kilogram of body weight are highest for infants and children, every effort should be made to reduce the levels of these two contaminants in the food supply. PMID:3879207

  7. Effect on blood pressure of daily lemon ingestion and walking.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoji; Domoto, Tokio; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Katagiri, Takao; Sato, Kimiko; Miyake, Yukiko; Aoi, Satomi; Ishihara, Katsuhide; Ikeda, Hiromi; Umei, Namiko; Takigawa, Atsusi; Harada, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon) has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (Δ%) of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure Δ%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration Δ% and the number of steps with blood pressure Δ%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms. PMID:24818015

  8. Two-dimensional tracking and TDI are consistent methods for evaluating myocardial longitudinal peak strain in left and right ventricle basal segments in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Laura; Toncelli, Loira; Gianassi, Marco; Manetti, Paolo; Di Tante, Valentina; Vono, Maria Robertina Concetta; Moretti, Andrea; Cappelli, Brunello; Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Galanti, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    Background Myocardial contractility can be investigated using longitudinal peak strain. It can be calculated using the Doppler-derived TDI method and the non-Doppler method based on tissue tracking on B-mode images. Both are validated and show good reproducibility, but no comparative analysis of their results has yet been conducted. This study analyzes the results obtained from the basal segments of the ventricular chambers in a group of athletes. Methods 30 regularly-trained athletes were submitted to an echocardiography at rest and after handgrip. Starting from the four-chamber view, overall myocardial function and regional velocities were evaluated. The images obtained were processed to determine strain in left and right ventricle basal segments. Strain was calculated using the TDI method and a validated "speckle tracking" or, more correctly, "feature tracking" algorithm. The statistical analysis included a Student's t-test (p < 0.05). Results The range of strain values obtained is in agreement with the data reported in the literature. In the left ventricle (LV) the average strain values of the basal segments calculated with TDI on IVS and LW at rest and after stress were: -21.05 ± 3.31; -20.41 ± 2.99 and -20.05 ± 2.61; -21.20 ± 2.37, respectively. In the right ventricle (RV) the same method gave IVS and LW strain values at rest of -22.22 ± 2.58 ; -24.42 ± 5.84, and after HG of -22.02 ± 5.20 ;-23.93 ± 6.34. The values obtained using feature tracking were: LV at rest -20.48 ± 2.65 for IVS, and -21.25 ± 2.85 for LW; LV after HG: -19.48 ± 3 for IVS and -21.69 ± 3.85 for LW. In RV at rest: -21.46 ± 3.25 for IVS and -24.13 ± 5.86 for LW; RV after HG: -24.79 ± 7.9 for IVS and -24.13 ± 7.0 for LW. Tissue Doppler and "feature tracking" methods showed the respective consistency of the results in the basal segments of myocardial ventricle walls. Conclusion Provided that echographic imaging is good, strain can be computed in athletes by both Doppler

  9. Seasonal Variation in the Voluntary Food Intake of Domesticated Cats (Felis Catus)

    PubMed Central

    Serisier, Samuel; Feugier, Alexandre; Delmotte, Sébastien; Biourge, Vincent; German, Alexander James

    2014-01-01

    There are numerous reports about seasonal cycles on food intake in animals but information is limited in dogs and cats. A 4-year prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted to assess differences in food intake in 38 ad-libitum-fed adult colony cats, of various breeds, ages and genders. Individual food intake was recorded on a daily basis, and the mean daily intake for each calendar month was calculated. These data were compared with climatic data (temperature and daylight length) for the region in the South of France where the study was performed. Data were analysed using both conventional statistical methods and by modelling using artificial neural networks (ANN). Irrespective of year, an effect of month was evident on food intake (P<0.001), with three periods of broadly differing intake. Food intake was least in the summer months (e.g. June, to August), and greatest during the months of late autumn and winter (e.g. October to February), with intermediate intake in the spring (e.g. March to May) and early autumn (e.g. September). A seasonal effect on bodyweight was not recorded. Periods of peak and trough food intake coincided with peaks and troughs in both temperature and daylight length. In conclusion, average food intake in summer is approximately 15% less than food intake during the winter months, and is likely to be due to the effects of outside temperatures and differences in daylight length. This seasonal effect in food intake should be properly considered when estimating daily maintenance energy requirements in cats. PMID:24759851

  10. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

  11. Predicting water intake by yearling feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Sexson, J L; Wagner, J J; Engle, T E; Eickhoff, J

    2012-06-01

    Data from 4 separate beef cattle feedlot experiments, which were conducted at the Southeast Colorado Research Center (SECRC) in Lamar, CO, in 2001, 2003, 2004, and 2007, were utilized in a retrospective longitudinal study investigating possible relationships between daily water consumption (WC), DMI, and weather variables. The data set consisted of 8,209 records from 2001, 2003, 2004, and 2007, with pen based daily WC (L•animal(-1)) and DMI measurements and calculated daily steer BW from April to October in each year. Daily weather data were obtained from the weather station located at Lamar Municipal Airport located approximately 1.9 km from SECRC. Data collected consisted of daily high, low, and mean temperature; high, low, and mean humidity; high, low, and mean sea level pressure; mean wind speed; total precipitation; and average daily wind direction (cosine of radians from due north). Univariate analysis demonstrated that the continuous variables of BW, humidity, and sea level pressure were negatively related (P < 0.0001), whereas DMI, temperature the previous day, daily temperature, change in temperature from the previous day, average wind speed, and the temperature-humidity index (THI) were positively related (P < 0.001) to daily WC. There was a trend (P < 0.06) for the cosine of wind direction (1 = due north and -1 = due south) to be negatively related to WC. The multivariate, parsimonious model predicting average daily WC included (P < 0.05) average humidity, average humidity squared, high temperature squared, high humidity squared, low temperature, low temperature squared, low humidity, average sea level pressure, average wind speed, average daily BW, high sea level pressure, low sea level pressure, high humidity, and low humidity. The generalized R(2) of the parsimonious multivariate model was 0.32. These results indicate that BW and numerous weather factors are related to WC by yearling feedlot steers. Dry matter intake had minimal impact on WC for

  12. Assessment of antioxidant nutrient intake of a population of southern US African-American and Caucasian women of various ages when compared to dietary reference intakes.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S M; Mayhugh, M A; Freni, S C; Thorn, B; Cardoso, S; Buffington, C; Jairaj, K; Feuers, R J

    2003-01-01

    Antioxidant nutrient intervention strategies to ameliorate negative health factors are of notable research interest. Central to the thesis that antioxidant nutrients improve biological defense systems and provide health benefits is an accurate indication of daily antioxidant nutrient intake. Little information is available concerning these nutrient intakes among non-affluent women of the southern U.S. This study examines the 24-h intake of vitamins: A, E, C, -carotene, a-tocopherol, riboflavin, and minerals: zinc, selenium, copper, manganese, iron, and molybdenum among 259 Caucasian (CA) and African-American (AA) women from small urban communities. Women were non-pregnant females, 19-93 y of age. Statistical comparisons of nutrient intake were made by least squares means within age groups. Intakes were compared to various Dietary Reference Intakes including Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) and Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) values as established by the U.S. National Research Council. Numerous dietary deficiencies in important antioxidant nutrients associated with metabolic antioxidant systems were identified. Few race-related differences were detected. Intake of vitamin A was generally within recommended levels while vitamin E intake was below the EAR. The vitamin precursors, -carotene and a-tocopherol, were significantly (P<0.05) below customary intakes at all ages. More than 60% of this population reported dietary copper, zinc, and selenium intakes below recommended levels. A lack of race differences for most nutrient intakes suggests similar socioeconomic or endogeneous regional factors. All women in this population reported dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins and minerals below recommended values, conditions that could contribute to subsequent health risks unless nutrient-dense food choices and antioxidant supplementation are considered in their overall nutritional support. PMID:12679833

  13. An overview of the contribution of dairy and cheese intakes to nutrient intakes in the Irish diet: results from the National Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Emma L; Nugent, Anne P; Mc Nulty, Breige; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Eileen R

    2016-02-28

    Dairy products are important contributors to nutrient intakes. However, dairy intakes are reportedly declining in developed populations, potentially due to concerns regarding Na and SFA in dairy foods, particularly cheese. This could impact other nutrient intakes. The present study used data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) to (1) examine dairy intakes, with a specific focus on cheese, and (2) to examine the contribution of cheese to population nutrient intakes. The NANS captured detailed dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample (n 1500) between 2008 and 2010 using 4-d semi-weighed food diaries; 99·9% of the population reported dairy intake. Mean daily population dairy intake was 290·0 (SD 202·1) g. Dairy products provided 8·7% of the population intake of reported dietary Na, 19·8% SFA, 39% Ca, 34·5% vitamin B12 and 10·5% Mg. Cheese alone provided 3·9% Na intake, 9·1% Ca, 12·6% retinol, 8·3% SFA, 3·7% protein, 3·4% vitamin B12 and 3·2% riboflavin. High dairy consumers had greater Ca and Mg intakes per 10 MJ, greater total energy intake, greater percentage of energy from carbohydrate and SFA and lower Na intakes compared with low dairy consumers. Similar trends were observed for high consumers of cheese for most nutrients except Na. These results demonstrate that dairy and cheese are important contributors to nutrient intakes of public health interest, such as Ca and B12. Our analysis also demonstrated that food-based dietary guidelines recommending lower-fat versions of dairy products are warranted. PMID:26675882

  14. Soda Consumption During Ad Libitum Food Intake Predicts Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Bundrick, Sarah C.; Thearle, Marie S.; Venti, Colleen A.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index [BMI] 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20%) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=–0.27, P=0.0001), and choosing low-fat foods (r=−0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain. PMID:24321742

  15. Estimation of Apple Intake for the Exposure Assessment of Residual Chemicals Using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Database

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop strategies and algorithms of calculating food commodity intake suitable for exposure assessment of residual chemicals by using the food intake database of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In this study, apples and their processed food products were chosen as a model food for accurate calculation of food commodity intakes uthrough the recently developed Korea food commodity intake calculation (KFCIC) software. The average daily intakes of total apples in Korea Health Statistics were 29.60 g in 2008, 32.40 g in 2009, 34.30 g in 2010, 28.10 g in 2011, and 24.60 g in 2012. The average daily intakes of apples by KFCIC software was 2.65 g higher than that by Korea Health Statistics. The food intake data in Korea Health Statistics might have less reflected the intake of apples from mixed and processed foods than KFCIC software has. These results can affect outcome of risk assessment for residual chemicals in foods. Therefore, the accurate estimation of the average daily intake of food commodities is very important, and more data for food intakes and recipes have to be applied to improve the quality of data. Nevertheless, this study can contribute to the predictive estimation of exposure to possible residual chemicals and subsequent analysis for their potential risks. PMID:27152299

  16. Estimation of Apple Intake for the Exposure Assessment of Residual Chemicals Using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Database.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bumsik; Baek, Min-Seok; Lee, Yongmin; Paik, Jean Kyung; Chang, Moon-Ik; Rhee, Gyu-Seek; Ko, Sanghoon

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study were to develop strategies and algorithms of calculating food commodity intake suitable for exposure assessment of residual chemicals by using the food intake database of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In this study, apples and their processed food products were chosen as a model food for accurate calculation of food commodity intakes uthrough the recently developed Korea food commodity intake calculation (KFCIC) software. The average daily intakes of total apples in Korea Health Statistics were 29.60 g in 2008, 32.40 g in 2009, 34.30 g in 2010, 28.10 g in 2011, and 24.60 g in 2012. The average daily intakes of apples by KFCIC software was 2.65 g higher than that by Korea Health Statistics. The food intake data in Korea Health Statistics might have less reflected the intake of apples from mixed and processed foods than KFCIC software has. These results can affect outcome of risk assessment for residual chemicals in foods. Therefore, the accurate estimation of the average daily intake of food commodities is very important, and more data for food intakes and recipes have to be applied to improve the quality of data. Nevertheless, this study can contribute to the predictive estimation of exposure to possible residual chemicals and subsequent analysis for their potential risks. PMID:27152299

  17. Estimate of intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, S; Temme, E; Andjelkovic, M; De Wil, M; Vinkx, C; Goeyens, L; Van Loco, J

    2010-08-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the usual daily intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population. Food consumption data were retrieved from the national food consumption survey. In a first step, individual food consumption data were multiplied with the maximum permitted use levels for sulfites, expressed as sulphur dioxide, per food group (Tier 2). In a second step, on the basis of a literature review of the occurrence of sulfites in different foods, the results of the Tier 2 exposure assessment and available occurrence data from the control programme of the competent authority, a refined list of foods was drafted for the quantification of sulphite. Quantification of sulphite was performed by a high-performance ion chromatography method with eluent conductivity detector in beers and potato products. Individual food consumption data were then multiplied with the actual average concentrations of sulfite per food group, or the maximum permitted levels in case actual levels were not available (partial Tier 3). Usual intakes were calculated using the Nusser method. The mean intake of sulfites was 0.34 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) (Tier 2), corresponding to 49% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and 0.19 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), corresponding to 27% of the ADI (partial Tier 3). The food group contributing most to the intake of sulfites was wines. The results showed that the intake of sulfites is likely to be below the ADI in Belgium. However, there are indications that high consumers of wine have an intake around the ADI. PMID:20503127

  18. Importance of milk replacer intake and composition in rearing orphan foals

    PubMed Central

    Cymbaluk, Nadia F.; Smart, Marion E.; Bristol, Frank M.; Pouteaux, Victor A.

    1993-01-01

    Effects of milk replacer composition and intake on the growth of orphan foals were evaluated. Twenty foals were assigned to four treatments: 1) mare-nursed, 2) commercial foal milk replacer at recommended intakes (standard), 3) commercial foal milk replacer at high intakes (high), and 4) acidified replacer at recommended intakes (acidified). Foals fed milk replacer diets were weaned at 12-24 hours postpartum and fed milk replacer for 50 days. Mare-nursed foals were weaned between 52 and 56 days of age. Foals fed replacer diets gained 12% to 28% less weight than mare-nursed foals up to two weeks of age. However, by four months of age, weights of replacer-fed foals were similar to those of mare-nursed foals and 32 other mare-nursed foals at the farm weaned between three and four months postparium. Foals drank 10 to 12 L/100 kg body weight (BW) in fluid replacer daily over the trial period. During the first week, high intake foals consumed 26% more replacer (p<0.05) than foals fed acidified or standard diets. This higher intake resulted in diarrhea earlier (6-11 days vs 11-22 days) and for a longer time (6.3 days vs 2.5-3.6 days) than in foals fed recommended amounts. Mare-nursed foals developed “foal heat scours” in the second week postpartum. After the first week, foals fed high replacer diet voluntarily consumed the same volume of fluid replacer as foals fed the standard intake. Foals ate less than 1 kg grain mix/100 kg BW daily to one month of age, then increased intake to 1.5-2 kg/ 100 kg BW to weaning. Water intake was 20-40% of daily fluid intake and was correlated (r = 0.85) to dry matter intake. Foals in the high intake group ate less (p<0.05) solid feed and drank less water than foals fed the standard and acidified diets. The foal's stomach capacity appears to limit meal size and thus replacer intake. If recommended feeding intervals are used, replacer intakes by foals are less than 15% BW daily. High volume intakes appeared to prolong diarrhea. Normal

  19. Lognormal distributions for total water intake and tap water intake by pregnant and lactating women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Burmaster, D E

    1998-04-01

    Using probability plots and Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), we fit lognormal distributions to data compiled by Ershow et al. for daily intake of total water and tap water by three groups of women (controls, pregnant, and lactating; all between 15-49 years of age) in the United States. We also develop bivariate lognormal distributions for the joint distribution of water ingestion and body weight for these three groups. Overall, we recommend the marginal distributions for water intake as fit by MLE for use in human health risk assessments. PMID:9637077

  20. Comparison of the dietary cobalt intake in three different Australian diets.

    PubMed

    Hokin, Bevan; Adams, Michelle; Ashton, John; Louie, Honway

    2004-01-01

    Differences in the dietary intake of cobalt were assessed for vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian Australians using food intake logs, and daily or average trend recall over three months. A significant decrease in cobalt intake was observed for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian population compared with the intake in vegans and omnivores. There is no RDI for cobalt, however, the cobalt intake of Australians was similar to that reported in other countries. Microflora above the terminal ileum have been shown to produce significant amounts of biologically available vitamin B12. This study was unable to demonstrate a correlation between elemental cobalt intake and serum vitamin B12 concentrations in humans, as has been shown in vitro. PMID:15331342

  1. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  2. Potential Effects of Nutrient Profiles on Nutrient Intakes in the Netherlands, Greece, Spain, USA, Israel, China and South-Africa

    PubMed Central

    Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; Schlatmann, Anke; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Daamen, Robert; Dong, Jie; Guarro, Marta; Stergiou, Margarita; Sayed, Nazeeia; Ronoh, Eunice; Jansen, Léon; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Nutrient profiling is defined as the science of categorising foods based on their nutrient composition. The Choices Programme is a nutrient profile system with criteria that determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. The Daily Menu Method which has been developed to evaluate these criteria is described here. This method simulates the change in calculated nutrient intakes which would be the result of consumers changing their diets in favour of food products that comply with the criteria. Methods Average intakes of energy, trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids (SAFA), sodium, added sugar and fibre were derived from dietary intake studies and food consumption surveys of 7 countries: The Netherlands, Greece, Spain, the USA, Israel, China and South Africa. For each of the key nutrients, these average intakes were translated into three Typical Daily Menus per country. Average intakes based on these three menus were compared with average intakes from three Choices Daily Menus. To compose the Choices Menus, foods from the Typical Menus that did not comply with the Choices criteria were replaced with foods that did comply and are available on the market. Results Comparison of intakes from the Choices Menus with the survey data showed that calculated intakes of energy, SAFA, TFA, sodium and added sugar were reduced. Fibre intakes were increased. The size of the effect differed per country. Conclusion The Daily Menu Method is a useful means to predict the potential effects of nutrient profiles such as the Choices criteria, on daily nutrient intakes. The method can be applied internationally and confirms that the criteria of the Choices Programme are in line with the aim of the programme: to improve nutrient intakes in the direction of the recommendations. PMID:21373186

  3. Inhibition of food intake.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Over 100 publications, principally from five groups, describe an effect of amylin and amylin analogs in inhibition of food intake in animals and humans. The major groups contributing to this area are those of the following: Chance and Balasubramaniam (Balasubramaniam et al., 1991a,b; Chance et al., 1991a,b, 1992a,b, 1993). Morley, Flood, and Edwards (Edwards and Morley, 1992; Flood and Morley, 1992; Macintosh et al., 2000; Morley and Flood, 1991, 1994; Morley et al., 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997). Lutz, Geary, and others (Barth et al., 2003; Del Prete et al., 2002; Lutz et al., 1994, 1995a,b, 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998a,b,c, 2000a,b, 2001a,b,c, 2003; Mollet et al., 2001, 2003a,b, 2004; Riediger et al., 2002, 2004; Rushing et al., 2000a,b, 2001, 2002). Workers at Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc., or their collaborators (Bhavsar et al., 1995, 1996, 1997a, 1998; Birkemo et al., 1995; Chapman et al., 2004a,b; Edwards et al., 1998; Feinle et al., 2002; Mack et al., 2003; Riediger et al., 1999; Roth et al., 2004; Watkins et al., 1996; Weyer et al., 2004; Young, 1997; Young and Bhavsar, 1996). Arnelo, Reidelberger, and others (Arnelo et al., 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998, 2000; Fruin et al., 1997; Granqvist et al., 1997; Reidelberger et al., 2001, 2002, 2004). The magnitude of amylin inhibition of food intake, and its potency for this effect when delivered peripherally, suggests a physiological role in satiogenesis. Increases in food intake following disruption of amylin signal-signaling (e.g., with amylin receptor blockade, or with amylin gene knock-out mice) further support a role of endogenous amylin to tonically restrict nutrient intake. In addition, synergies with other endogenous satiety agents may be present, and convey greater physiological importance than is conveyed by single signals. The anorectic effect of amylin is consistent with a classic amylin pharmacology. The anorectic effect of peripheral amylin appears principally due to a direct action at the area postrema

  4. Salmon calcitonin reduces food intake through changes in meal sizes in male rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Nicholas T.; Kemm, Matthew H.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2008-01-01

    Amylinergic mechanisms are believed to be involved in the control of appetite. This study examined the effects of the amylin agonist, salmon calcitonin, on food intake and meal patterns in adult male rhesus monkeys. Fifteen minutes before the onset of their 6-h daily feeding period, monkeys received intramuscular injections of various doses of salmon calcitonin (0.032, 0.056, 0.1, 0.32, and 1 μg/kg) or saline. Salmon calcitonin dose dependently reduced total daily and hourly food intake, with significant decreases at the 0.1, 0.32, and 1 μg/kg doses. Daily food intake was reduced by ∼35%, 62%, and 96%, at these doses, respectively. An analysis of meal patterns revealed that size of the first meal was significantly reduced across the dose range of 0.056 to 1 μg/kg, while average meal size was reduced with the 0.32 and 1 μg/kg doses. Meal number was only affected at the 1 μg/kg dose. Repeated 5-day administration of the 0.1 μg/kg dose resulted in a reduction in daily food intake only on injection day 2, while significant reductions in food intake were observed on all five injection days with a 0.32 μg/kg dose. Daily food intake was also reduced for 1 day after the termination of the 5-day injections of the 0.32 μg/kg salmon calcitonin dose. These sustained reductions in intake were expressed through decreases in meal size. These data demonstrate that salmon calcitonin acutely and consistently decreases food intake mainly through reductions in meal sizes in nonhuman primates. PMID:18480241

  5. Salmon calcitonin reduces food intake through changes in meal sizes in male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bello, Nicholas T; Kemm, Matthew H; Moran, Timothy H

    2008-07-01

    Amylinergic mechanisms are believed to be involved in the control of appetite. This study examined the effects of the amylin agonist, salmon calcitonin, on food intake and meal patterns in adult male rhesus monkeys. Fifteen minutes before the onset of their 6-h daily feeding period, monkeys received intramuscular injections of various doses of salmon calcitonin (0.032, 0.056, 0.1, 0.32, and 1 microg/kg) or saline. Salmon calcitonin dose dependently reduced total daily and hourly food intake, with significant decreases at the 0.1, 0.32, and 1 microg/kg doses. Daily food intake was reduced by approximately 35%, 62%, and 96%, at these doses, respectively. An analysis of meal patterns revealed that size of the first meal was significantly reduced across the dose range of 0.056 to 1 microg/kg, while average meal size was reduced with the 0.32 and 1 microg/kg doses. Meal number was only affected at the 1 microg/kg dose. Repeated 5-day administration of the 0.1 microg/kg dose resulted in a reduction in daily food intake only on injection day 2, while significant reductions in food intake were observed on all five injection days with a 0.32 microg/kg dose. Daily food intake was also reduced for 1 day after the termination of the 5-day injections of the 0.32 microg/kg salmon calcitonin dose. These sustained reductions in intake were expressed through decreases in meal size. These data demonstrate that salmon calcitonin acutely and consistently decreases food intake mainly through reductions in meal sizes in nonhuman primates. PMID:18480241

  6. Energy and nutrient intakes of young children in the UK: findings from the Gemini twin cohort.

    PubMed

    Syrad, H; Llewellyn, C H; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Johnson, L; Jebb, S A; Wardle, J

    2016-05-28

    Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK Gemini twin cohort completed 3-d diet diaries in 2008/2009. Family background information was obtained from questionnaires completed 8 months after birth. Mean total daily intakes of energy, macronutrients (g and %E) and micronutrients from food and beverages, including and excluding supplements, were derived. Comparisons with UK dietary reference values (DRV) were made using t tests and general linear regression models, respectively. Daily energy intake (kJ), protein (g) and most micronutrients exceeded DRV, except for vitamin D and Fe, where 96 or 84 % and 70 or 6 % of children did not achieve the reference nutrient intake or lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI), respectively, even with supplementation. These findings reflect similar observations in the smaller sample of children aged 18-36 months in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. At a population level, young children in the UK are exceeding recommended daily intakes of energy and protein, potentially increasing their risk of obesity. The majority of children are not meeting the LRNI for vitamin D, largely reflecting inadequate use of the supplements recommended at this age. Parents may need more guidance on how to achieve healthy energy and nutrient intakes for young children. PMID:27093345

  7. Dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation in hungarian patients with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Speer, Gábor; Szamosujvári, Pál; Dombai, Péter; Csóré, Katalin; Mikófalvi, Kinga; Steindl, Tímea; Streicher, Ildikó; Tarsoly, Júlia; Zajzon, Gergely; Somogyi, Péter; Szamosújvári, Pál; Lakatos, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy-when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years) (68.01 (CI95: 67.81-68.21)) patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665 ± 7.9 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81-68.21)) daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.045), whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P = 0.041), but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558 ± 6.2 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81-68.21)) daily. The cumulative dose of calcium-from both dietary intake and supplementation-was significantly associated with lumbar (r = 0.024, P = 0.049), but not with femur BMD (r = 0.021, P = 0.107). The currently recommended 1000-1500 mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients. PMID:23737777

  8. Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Szamosujvári, Pál; Dombai, Péter; Csóré, Katalin; Mikófalvi, Kinga; Steindl, Tímea; Streicher, Ildikó; Tarsoly, Júlia; Zajzon, Gergely; Somogyi, Péter; Szamosújvári, Pál; Lakatos, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years) (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665 ± 7.9 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.045), whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P = 0.041), but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558 ± 6.2 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r = 0.024, P = 0.049), but not with femur BMD (r = 0.021, P = 0.107). The currently recommended 1000–1500 mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients. PMID:23737777

  9. Sodium and potassium intake among U.S. adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommend Americans reduce sodium intake and choose foods that contain potassium to decrease the risk of hypertension and subsequent heart disease and stroke. We estimated the distributions of usual daily sodium and potassium intakes by sociodemographic and health charact...

  10. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and between-person variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account time-varying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices. PMID:25239402

  11. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and betweenperson variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account timevarying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices. PMID:25239402

  12. Warmer daily temperatures since 1951

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-09-01

    Days and nights have indeed become warmer over the past 60 years, a new study finds. Although several observation-based studies have shown that daily average temperatures as well as daily maximum and minimum temperatures have increased over the past few decades, controversy has remained as to how the observed trends in extreme and average temperatures are related to each other: Are the warming trends in extreme temperatures a result of a shifting mean climate, or have temperatures become more variable? Using a global observational data set of daily temperatures, Donat and Alexander compared the probability distributions of daily maximum and minimum temperatures over two 30-year periods, 1951-1980 and 1981-2010. The authors show that the maximum and minimum daily temperatures all over the globe have significantly shifted toward higher values during the latter period. They further show that the distributions have become skewed toward the hotter part of the distribution; changes are greater for daily minimum (nighttime) temperatures than for the daily maximum (daytime) temperatures. The authors conclude that the distribution of global daily temperatures has indeed become “more extreme” compared to the middle of the twentieth century. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2012GL052459, 2012)

  13. High alcohol intake in female Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola; Carai, Mauro A M; Franconi, Flavia; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-06-01

    Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred for high alcohol preference and consumption. When exposed to the standard, home cage 2-bottle "alcohol (10%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen with continuous access, male sP rats consume daily approximately 6 g/kg alcohol. Conversely, when exposed to the intermittent (once every other day) access to 2 bottles containing alcohol (20%, v/v) and water, respectively, male sP rats display marked increases in daily alcohol intake and signs of alcohol intoxication and "behavioral" dependence. The present study was designed to assess alcohol intake in female sP rats exposed, under the 2-bottle choice regimen, to (a) 10% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA10%), (b) 10% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA10%), (c) 20% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA20%), and (d) 20% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA20%). Male sP rats (exposed to CA10% and IA20% conditions) were included for comparison. Over 20 daily drinking sessions, daily alcohol intake in female CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 7.0 and 9.6 g/kg, respectively. The rank of alcohol intake was IA20% > IA10% = CA20% > CA10%. Conversely, daily alcohol intake in male CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 6.0 and 8.2 g/kg, respectively. Comparison of female and male rats yielded the following rank of alcohol intake: female IA20% > male IA20% > female CA10% ≥ male CA10%. An additional experiment found that alcohol drinking during the first hour of the drinking session produced mean blood alcohol levels of 35-40 mg% and 85-100 mg% in the CA10% and IA20% rats, respectively. These results (a) extend to female sP rats previous data demonstrating the capacity of the IA20% condition to markedly escalate alcohol drinking, and (b) demonstrate that female sP rats consume more alcohol than male sP rats. This sex difference is more evident under the IA20% condition, suggesting that female sP rats are highly sensitive to the promoting effect

  14. Voluntary sodium intake during effort in hot environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohar, E.; Adar, R.; Hershco, A.

    1982-01-01

    The factors that influence the amount of salt that a person adds to his food at mealtime, and the part played by the general requirement for salt in the daily diet stemming from the coluntary input of salt are studied. Careful measurements of salt intake and outflow were performed on ten marchers in a high temperature environment who were given individual salt shakers that were weighed before and after each meal. Some marchers were told to add salt to their meals on specific days. No parallelity was found between the voluntary sodium intake and the general sodium intake, the excretion of sodium in the urine or the environmental heat stress. Individual food habit was found to be the most important factor.

  15. Maternal intake of vitamin E and birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2005

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Lee, Kyung A.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Traven, Flavia K.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Correa, Adolfo; Boyle, Coleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In a recent study, high maternal periconceptional intake of vitamin E was found to be associated with risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). To explore this association further, we investigated the association between total daily vitamin E intake and selected birth defects. Methods We analyzed data from 4,525 controls and 8,665 cases from the 1997–2005 National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We categorized estimated periconceptional energy-adjusted total daily vitamin E intake from diet and supplements into quartiles (referent, lowest quartile). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted vitamin E intake and selected birth defects were adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and nutritional factors. Results We observed a statistically significant association with the third quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.01 – 1.35) and all CHDs combined. Among CHD sub-types, we observed associations with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction defects, and its sub-type, coarctation of the aorta and the third quartile of vitamin E intake. Among defects other than CHDs, we observed associations between anorectal atresia and the third quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.01 – 2.72) and hypospadias and the fourth quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.09 – 1.87). Conclusions Selected quartiles of energy-adjusted estimated total daily vitamin E intake were associated with selected birth defects. However, because these few associations did not exhibit exposure-response patterns consistent with increasing risk associated with increasing intake of vitamin E, further studies are warranted to corroborate our findings. PMID:24740457

  16. COVERT MANIPULATION OF MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE HAS LITTLE IMPACT ON LONG TERM VOLUNTARY FOOD INTAKE AND MACRONUTRIENT SELECTION IN MEN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a means to investigate the effect of daily macronutrient composition on food intake, twelve healthy normal weight men (79.9 ± 8.3 kg, 39 ± 9 yrs, 24.1 ± 1.4 kg/m2) were fed continuously for two 8-week periods. They were allowed cafeteria-style ad libitum access to a variety of foods of varying ma...

  17. The nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of MOW clients and the need for further targeted strategies to enhance intakes.

    PubMed

    Walton, Karen; Charlton, Karen E; Manning, Fiona; McMahon, Anne T; Galea, Sarah; Evans, Kaitlyn

    2015-12-01

    There is a paucity of literature about the nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of Meals on Wheels (MOW) clients. The current study aimed to determine the nutritional status and the adequacy of energy and protein intakes of MOW clients. Forty-two clients were recruited from two MOW services in the Illawarra region of Australia for assessment of their nutritional status, using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA(®)). Estimated energy and protein intakes for a MOW day were compared to a non-MOW day and average daily energy and protein intakes were assessed against estimated daily requirements. A single dietitian performed all assessments and home based interviews to explore the client's perception of the service. Mean daily energy intake (7593 (±2012) kJ) was not significantly different to estimated requirements (7720 (±975) kJ) (P = 0.480), while mean daily protein intake was higher (78.7 (±23.4) g) than calculated requirements (68.4 (±10.8) g; P = 0.009). However 16 clients were identified as at risk of malnutrition and 2 were malnourished; consuming 2072 kJ (P = 0.000) less energy and 20.4 g less protein (P = 0.004) per day compared to well-nourished clients. MOW clients are at risk of being poorly nourished and meals delivered by the service provide an important contribution to overall intakes. These findings support the need for regular nutrition screening and dietary monitoring in this high risk group, to identify those for whom additional strategies may be indicated. PMID:26297468

  18. Low Nutrient Intake Is an Essential Component of Frailty in Older Persons

    PubMed Central

    Bartali, Benedetta; Frongillo, Edward A.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Lauretani, Fulvio; Semba, Richard D.; Fried, Linda P.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Background Poor nutrient intake is conceptualized to be a component of frailty, but this hypothesis has been little investigated. We examined the association between low energy and nutrient intake and frailty. Methods We used data from 802 persons aged 65 years or older participating to the InCHIANTI (Invecchiare in Chianti, aging in the Chianti area) study. Frailty was defined by having at least two of the following criteria: low muscle strength, feeling of exhaustion, low walking speed, and reduced physical activity. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) questionnaire was used to estimate the daily intake of energy and nutrients. Low intake was defined using the value corresponding to the lowest sex-specific intake quintile of energy and specific nutrients. Adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to study the association of frailty and frailty criteria with low intakes of energy and nutrients. Results Daily energy intake ≤21 kcal/kg was significantly associated with frailty (odds ratio [OR]: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.02–1.5). After adjusting for energy intake, a low intake of protein (OR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.18–3.31); vitamins D (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.48–3.73), E (OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.28–3.33), C (OR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.34–3.45), and folate (OR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.14–2.98); and having a low intake of more than three nutrients (OR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.29–3.50) were significantly and independently related to frailty. Conclusions This study provides evidence that low intakes of energy and selected nutrients are independently associated with frailty. PMID:16799141

  19. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  20. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris intake on cadmium detoxification in rats fed cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, You Jin; Kwon, Sanghee

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary Chlorella vulgaris (chlorella) intake would be effective on cadmium (Cd) detoxification in rats fed dietary Cd. Fourteen-week old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighing 415.0 ± 1.6 g were randomly divided into two groups and fed slightly modified American Institute of Nutrition-93 Growing (AIN-93G) diet without (n=10) or with (n=40) dietary Cd (200 ppm) for 8 weeks. To confirm alteration by dietary Cd intake, twenty rats fed AIN-93G diet without (n=10) and with (n=10) dietary Cd were sacrificed and compared. Other thirty rats were randomly blocked into three groups and fed slightly modified AIN-93G diets replacing 0 (n=10), 5 (n=10) or 10% (n=10) chlorella of total kg diet for 4 weeks. Daily food intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight (liver, spleen, and kidney), perirenal fat pad and epididymal fat pad weights were measured. To examine Cd detoxification, urinary Cd excretion and metallothonein (MT) concentrations in kidney and intestine were measured. Food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight and fat pad weights were decreased by dietary Cd intake. Urinary Cd excretion and MT concentrations in kidney and small intestine were increased by dietary Cd. After given Cd containing diet, food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weights and fat pad weights were not influenced by dietary chlorella intake. Renal MT synthesis tended to be higher in a dose-dependent manner, but not significantly. And chlorella intake did not significantly facilitate renal and intestinal MT synthesis and urinary Cd excretion. These findings suggest that, after stopping cadmium supply, chlorella supplementation, regardless of its percentage, might not improve cadmium detoxification from the body in growing rats. PMID:20016707

  1. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

    2000-04-01

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

  2. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark, 2005.

    PubMed

    Leth, T; Jensen, U; Fagt, S; Andersen, R

    2008-06-01

    In 2005, 76 out of 177 analysed samples of non-alcoholic beverages were found to contain the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin. The content of cyclamate did not exceed the now permitted maximum level in the European Union of 250 mg l(-1) in soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners was calculated using the Danish Dietary Survey based on 3098 persons aged 1-80 years. The estimated intake with 90th percentiles of 0.7, 0.8 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin, respectively, was much lower than the acceptable daily intake values of 15, 40, 7, and 2.5 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin, respectively, and on the same level as in the similar investigation from 1999. In contrast to the 1999 investigation, the 90th percentile of the estimated cyclamate intake in 1-3 year olds with 3.7 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) was in 2005 lower than the acceptable daily intake of 7 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1). However, the 99th percentile for 1-3 year olds with 7.4 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) still exceeded the acceptable daily intake slightly. The 90th percentile for the whole population with 0.9 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) was halved compared with 1999. The reduction in the European Union of the maximum permitted level for cyclamate from 400 to 250 mg l(-1) has brought the intake of cyclamate in small children down to well below the acceptable daily intake value. PMID:18484294

  3. The patient with daily headaches.

    PubMed

    Maizels, Morris

    2004-12-15

    The term "chronic daily headache" (CDH) describes a variety of headache types, of which chronic migraine is the most common. Daily headaches often are disabling and may be challenging to diagnose and treat. Medication overuse, or drug rebound headache, is the most treatable cause of refractory daily headache. A pathologic underlying cause should be considered in patients with recent-onset daily headache, a change from a previous headache pattern, or associated neurologic or systemic symptoms. Treatment of CDH focuses on reduction of headache triggers and use of preventive medication, most commonly anti-depressants, antiepileptic drugs, and beta blockers. Medication overuse must be treated with discontinuation of symptomatic medicines, a transitional therapy, and long-term prophylaxis. Anxiety and depression are common in patients with CDH and should be identified and treated. Although the condition is challenging, appropriate treatment of patients with CDH can bring about significant improvement in the patient's quality-of-life. PMID:15617293

  4. Publishing Daily on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, George

    1997-01-01

    Relates how a 16,000 circulation daily newspaper publishes on the Web. Discusses lessons learned about audience, content, design, interactivity, and making money. Muses about the effect new media will have on print. (PA)

  5. MyPlate Daily Checklist

    MedlinePlus

    ... what and how much to eat within your calorie allowance. Your food plan is personalized, based on ... Daily Checklists are available below. Cross reference the calorie level and the age group in the table ...

  6. A novel approach for food intake detection using electroglottography

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Muhammad; Fontana, Juan M; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Many methods for monitoring diet and food intake rely on subjects self-reporting their daily intake. These methods are subjective, potentially inaccurate and need to be replaced by more accurate and objective methods. This paper presents a novel approach that uses an Electroglottograph (EGG) device for an objective and automatic detection of food intake. Thirty subjects participated in a 4-visit experiment involving the consumption of meals with self-selected content. Variations in the electrical impedance across the larynx caused by the passage of food during swallowing were captured by the EGG device. To compare performance of the proposed method with a well-established acoustical method, a throat microphone was used for monitoring swallowing sounds. Both signals were segmented into non-overlapping epochs of 30 s and processed to extract wavelet features. Subject-independent classifiers were trained using Artificial Neural Networks, to identify periods of food intake from the wavelet features. Results from leave-one-out cross-validation showed an average per-epoch classification accuracy of 90.1% for the EGG-based method and 83.1% for the acoustic-based method, demonstrating the feasibility of using an EGG for food intake detection. PMID:24671094

  7. Recurrent patterns of daily intimate partner violence and environment.

    PubMed

    Katerndahl, David; Ferrer, Robert; Burge, Sandra; Becho, Johanna; Wood, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Although predictors of violent relationships have been identified, we are only beginning to understand the day-to-day dynamics of domestic violence. The objective of this study was to identify commonly seen patterns and strings of consecutive days involving verbal or physical abuse, and their preceding and subsequent events. Adult women (n=20) seen in a primary care clinic who experienced violence within the past month were enrolled. Subjects completed a daily telephone assessment of household environment and marital relationship for two months using Interactive Verbal Response (IVR). Results were analyzed using orbital decomposition, an analytic technique based on symbolic dynamics, in which categorical time series data are used to identify recurrent patterns of strings and quantify their complexity. While days without abuse had varied patterns involving arguments, stress levels, daily hassles, husband's alcohol intake, and sense of closeness (27 unique patterns), days involving verbal or physical abuse included a narrower range of patterns (15 patterns for verbal and 16 patterns for physical abuse). Daily patterns appear to cluster in triplets (3 consecutive days) of activity and show nonlinearity with triplets involving verbal abuse and triplets involving physical violence. Triplets involving either verbal or physical abuse were associated with arguments and high stress, but differed in the consistency of association with hassles, alcohol intake, and closeness. Finally, physical and verbal abuse tended to self-propagate. However, days involving verbal abuse did not precede days involving physical violence. In conclusions, while patterns of violence and household environments followed a nonlinear trajectory, only a limited set of patterns were observed. Although violence led to more violence, verbal abuse did not necessarily lead to physical aggression. In fact, verbal abuse and physical violence differed in the consistency of their relationships to hassles

  8. Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Calcium and Vitamin D Intake in Adolescent Girls with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Catherine; Lamparello, Brooke; Kruczek, Kimberly; Anderson, Ellen J.; Hubbard, Jane; Misra, Madhusmita

    2009-01-01

    Background Assessing calcium and vitamin D intake becomes important in conditions associated with low bone density such as anorexia nervosa (AN). Food records (FR) that assess intake over a representative time period are used in research and sometimes clinical settings. However, compliance in adolescents can be suboptimal. Objectives This study was undertaken to determine the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for assessing calcium and vitamin D intake in adolescent AN and healthy girls compared to a validated FR assessing intake over a four-day period, the hypothesis being that intake would be adequately predicted by the FFQ. Design Thirty-six girls with AN and 39 healthy girls 12–18 years old completed both the FR and the FFQ. An additional 31 subjects (20 AN, 11 controls) completed the FFQ, but not the FR, and one AN girl completed the FR, but not the FFQ. Results Subjects demonstrated greater compliance with the FFQ (99%) than the FR (71%). Daily calcium and vitamin D intake calculated using the FR and FFQ did not differ, although the FFQ tended to under-report vitamin D intake corrected for energy intake. Using quartile analysis, no gross misclassification was noted of calcium or vitamin D intake calculated using the FR or FFQ in AN. Strong correlations were observed of daily vitamin D intake derived from the FFQ versus the FR, particularly in AN (r=0.78, p<0.0001). Less robust correlations were observed for calcium intake (r=0.65, p<0.0001). Conclusion The FFQ used in this study can be effectively used to assess daily calcium and vitamin D intake in adolescent girls suffering from AN PMID:19248866

  9. Sex and race differences in caloric intake during sleep restriction in healthy adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Dinges, David F; Goel, Namni

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence indicates that men and African Americans may be more susceptible to weight gain resulting from sleep loss than women and whites, respectively. Increased daily caloric intake is a major behavioral mechanism that underlies the relation between sleep loss and weight gain. Objective: We sought to assess sex and race differences in caloric intake, macronutrient intake, and meal timing during sleep restriction. Design: Forty-four healthy adults aged 21–50 y (mean ± SD: 32.7 ± 8.7 y; n = 21 women, n = 16 whites) completed an in-laboratory protocol that included 2 consecutive baseline nights [10 or 12 h time in bed (TIB)/night; 2200–0800 or 2200–1000] followed by 5 consecutive sleep-restriction nights (4 h TIB/night; 0400–0800). Caloric intake and meal-timing data were collected during the 2 d after baseline sleep and the first 3 d after sleep restriction. Results: During sleep restriction, subjects increased daily caloric intake (P < 0.001) and fat intake (P = 0.024), including obtaining more calories from condiments, desserts, and salty snacks (Ps < 0.05) and consumed 532.6 ± 295.6 cal during late-night hours (2200–0359). Relative to women, men consumed more daily calories during baseline and sleep restriction, exhibited a greater increase in caloric intake during sleep restriction (d = 0.62), and consumed a higher percentage of daily calories during late-night hours (d = 0.78, Ps < 0.05). African Americans and whites did not significantly differ in daily caloric intake, increased caloric intake during sleep restriction, or meal timing. However, African Americans consumed more carbohydrates, less protein, and more caffeine-free soda and juice than whites did during the study (Ps < 0.05). Conclusions: Men may be more susceptible to weight gain during sleep loss than women due to a larger increase in daily caloric intake, particularly during late-night hours. These findings are relevant to the promotion of public health awareness by

  10. Effects of naltrexone on food intake and body weight gain in olanzapine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Kurbanov, Daniel B; Currie, Paul J; Simonson, Donald C; Borsook, David; Elman, Igor

    2012-09-01

    Blockade of opioidergic neurotransmission contributes to reduction in body weight. However, how such blockade affects body weight gain (BWG) attributed to second generation antipsychotic agents (SGAs) has not yet been established. Here we examined the effects of an opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (NTX), on food intake and BWG associated with an SGA, olanzapine (OL). Four groups of Wistar Han IGS rats were treated for 28 days with either OL (2 mg/kg twice daily, intraperitoneal (IP)), a combination of OL (2 mg/kg twice daily, IP) + extended-release NTX (50 mg/kg, one-time, intramuscular (IM)), extended-release NTX (50 mg/kg, one-time, IM) or vehicle and their food intake and body weight were measured daily for the first nine days and every other day thereafter. Food intake and BWG that were increased by OL were decreased by the added NTX while NTX alone had no significant effects on food intake or on BWG. Plasma leptin concentrations were significantly elevated in the three groups receiving pharmacological agents, but did not differ among each other, suggesting that changes in leptin secretion and/or clearance alone would not explain the food intake and the body weight findings. Our results extend prior reports on anorexigenic effects of opioid antagonists by demonstrating that such effects may generalize to food intake increases and BWG arising in the context of OL pharmacotherapy. PMID:22723540

  11. Fruit, vegetable and fat intake in a population-based sample of African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Gary, Tiffany L.; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Gregg, Edward W.; Williams, Desmond E.; Beckles, Gloria L. A.; Miller, Edgar J.; Engelgau, Michael M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: African Americans experience high rates of obesity and other chronic diseases, which may be related, in part, to diet. However, little is known about dietary patterns in this population, particularly from population-based data sources. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 2,172 African-American adults in Project DIRECT (Diabetes Interventions Reaching and Educating Communities Together). A baseline assessment was conducted using a multistaged population-based probability sample from Raleigh and Greensboro, NC. Daily fruit, vegetable and fat intake was evaluated using a modified version of the Block questionnaire, and then stratified results were analyzed by sociodemographic, health and behavior characteristics. STATA Survey commands were used to account for the complex survey design. RESULTS: Overall, a very small number of participants met national recommendations for > or = 2 servings of fruit (8%) and > or = 3 servings of vegetables (16%) per day. Many participants reported eating high-fat foods; the average daily fat intake was 86 g, and the average daily intake from saturated fat was 24 g. People with more education and higher incomes had a higher average daily fruit intake (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that participants' fruit, vegetable and fat intake deviated greatly from national guidelines; older people, women, participants with higher socioeconomic status and those who were physically active consumed healthier foods. These data may be useful in developing dietary and weight loss interventions for African Americans. PMID:15622690

  12. BACLOFEN, RACLOPRIDE, AND NALTREXONE DIFFERENTIALLY REDUCE SOLID FAT EMULSION INTAKE UNDER LIMITED ACCESS CONDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    RE, Rao; FHE, Wojnicki; J, Coupland; S, Ghosh; RLW, Corwin

    2009-01-01

    Previous work in rats has demonstrated that an Intermittent (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) schedule of access promotes binge-type consumption of 100% vegetable shortening during a 1-hour period of availability. The present study used novel shortening-derived stable solid emulsions of various fat concentrations. These emulsions were the consistency of pudding and did not demonstrate oil and water phase separation previously reported with oil-based liquid emulsions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped according to schedule of access (Daily or Intermittent) to one of three concentrations (18%, 32%, 56%) of solid fat emulsion. There were no significant Intermittent vs. Daily differences in amount consumed, due to high intakes in all groups. This indicated the acceptability of the emulsions. Baclofen (GABA-B agonist) and raclopride (D2-like antagonist) both significantly reduced emulsion intake in all Daily groups, but only in the 56% fat Intermittent group. Naltrexone (opioid antagonist), in contrast, significantly reduced 32% and 56% fat emulsion intake in the Intermittent, as well as the Daily groups. These results indicate that the fat intake reducing effects of GABAB activation and D2 blockade depend upon fat concentration and schedule of fat access, while the fat intake reducing effects of opioid blockade depend upon fat concentration but not schedule of access. PMID:18353432

  13. Calcium and vitamin D intake by postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in Spain: an observational calcium and vitamin D intake (CaVIT) study

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Tao; Nocea, Gonzalo; Modi, Ankita; Stokes, Leah; Sen, Shuvayu S

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporotic fractures are important causes of morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. However, the risk of osteoporotic fractures can be decreased, with clinical studies supporting the use of calcium and vitamin D supplements to promote bone health. Vitamin D insufficiency is widespread, particularly among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, and this indicates that dietary intake is suboptimal, even though vitamin D supplements are widely available. Methods We conducted an observational study, using telephone surveys, to estimate vitamin D and calcium intake and the use of prescription osteoporosis medications in Spanish women aged ≥ 50 years with osteoporosis. Results Among the study participants, mean dietary calcium intake was 1239 mg/day and generally appeared sufficient in terms of the recommended daily intake guidance documents. Participants aged ≥ 75 years had a significantly lower mean dietary calcium intake (988 mg/day), thus one-half were below the level advised by the World Health Organization. Daily calcium intake was also lower in participants who were not taking prescription medications for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake was 167 IU/day, which is well below both the established target dose (400 IU/day) and the more recent, higher guideline recommended for postmenopausal women (800–1300 IU/day). Dietary vitamin D intake was even lower for participants aged ≥ 75 years (120 IU/day) and was not related to the use of bone health prescription medications. Conclusion These results support the need for greater promotion of the benefits of higher vitamin D intake in Spanish women with osteoporosis. PMID:23818767

  14. [Dietary fiber intake and intake patterns among the general population in Aomori, calculated using modified Southgate and Prosky methods].

    PubMed

    Nakaji, S; Sakamoto, J; Sugawara, K; Iwane, S; Ohta, M; Mori, B

    1993-06-01

    Based on the result of the Aomori Nutrition Survey, we have calculated daily dietary fiber (DF) intake using modified Southgate and Prosky methods. Result obtained were as follows: DF intake in Aomori was 23.7 +/- 8.4g by the modified Southgate method, and 22.2 +/- 8.5g by the modified Prosky method. As for supply sources of DF, 32.3% was from grains; 22.7%, vegetables; 15.6%, beans; and 7.8%, fruits calculated by the modified Southgate method, and 31.3%, vegetables; 19.0%, grains; 18.0%, beans; and 11.6%, fruits by the modified Prosky method. As to types of DF, intake of hemicellulose was 11.5 +/- 4.2g, cellulose 7.8 +/- 3.0g and lignin 4.4 +/- 2.3g. In the group with DF intake below 10.0g, DF came mainly from grains and fruits, while the group with DF intake above 30.0g took DF from various foods. PMID:8393118

  15. [Estimation of the daily nutrients distribution in the Spanish standard diet].

    PubMed

    Moreno Rojas, Rafael; Fernández Torres, Angela; García Pereda, Javier; Cámara Martos, Fernando; Amaro López, Manuel A; Ros Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez de Victoria Muñoz, Emilio; Martínez de Victoria Carazo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Based on the raw data from the Spanish intake, have made the necessary changes and groupings to establish nutritional content per serving as percentages, regarding the total daily intake of each individual surveyed (n = 3000). Also, it was found the effect of the rating factors (sex, age and location) on the distribution of these percentages. The result indicates that individuals below 25 year should be considered as different groups, front those above that age; and locality effect (treated as random factor rather than fixed) causes differences in the distribution of nutrients between food daily intakes. However, the sex was was not relevant to the anecdotal footage found in statistically significant differences. Percentage distribution of individual nutrients between different food outlets is proposed. PMID:26040379

  16. Incident Heart Failure Is Associated with Lower Whole-Grain Intake and Greater High-Fat Dairy and Egg Intake in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    NETTLETON, JENNIFER A.; STEFFEN, LYN M.; LOEHR, LAURA R.; ROSAMOND, WAYNE D.; FOLSOM, AARON R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Prospective studies evaluating associations between food intake and risk of heart failure (HF) in diverse populations are needed. Objectives Relationships between incident HF (death or hospitalization) and intake of seven food categories (whole grains, fruits/vegetables, fish, nuts, high-fat dairy, eggs, red meat) were investigated in an observational cohort of 14,153 African-American and white adults, age 45 to 64 years, sampled from four US communities. Methods Between baseline (1987–1989) and Exam 3 (1993–1995), dietary intake was based on responses to a 66-item food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline; thereafter, intake was based on averaged baseline and Exam 3 responses. Hazard ratios (HR [95% CI]) for HF were calculated per 1–daily serving difference in food group intake. Results During a mean of 13 years, 1,140 HF hospitalizations were identified. After multivariable adjustment (energy intake, demographics, lifestyle factors, prevalent cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension), HF risk was lower with greater whole-grain intake (0.93 [0.87, 0.99]), but HF risk was higher with greater intake of eggs (1.23 [1.08, 1.41]) and high-fat dairy (1.08 [1.01, 1.16]). These associations remained significant independent of intakes of the five other food categories, which were not associated with HF. Conclusions In this large, population-based sample of African-American and white adults, whole-grain intake was associated with lower HF risk, whereas intake of eggs and high-fat dairy were associated with greater HF risk after adjustment for several confounders. PMID:18954578

  17. A critical assessment of the upper intake levels for infants and children.

    PubMed

    Zlotkin, Stanley

    2006-02-01

    The dietary reference intake (DRI) committees of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine were charged with establishing DRIs for all of the essential nutrients, including fat and energy. These reference values are quantitative estimates of the nutrient intakes to be used to plan and assess the diets of healthy people. The reference values include both recommended intakes and tolerable upper intake levels (ULs). The ULs are defined as "the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population." As intake increases above the UL, the risk of adverse effects increases. The term "tolerable intake" was chosen to avoid the implication of a possible beneficial effect. Instead, the term is intended to connote a level of intake that can, with a high probability, be tolerated biologically. Yet, with intakes above the ULs, the risk of adverse health effects increases. Thus, there is no obvious benefit for healthy individuals to consume quantities of nutrients above the UL. PMID:16424135

  18. Intakes of total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in Irish children, teenagers and adults.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Triona; Wallace, Alison J; McCarthy, Sinead N; Gibney, Michael J

    2009-02-01

    Recommendations limiting the intake of total fat, SFA, MUFA and PUFA have been established in several countries with the aim of reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as CVD. Studies have shown that intakes of total fat and SFA are above desired recommended intake levels across a wide range of age and sex groups. In addition, intakes of PUFA and MUFA are often reported to be less than the desired recommended intake levels. The aims of the present paper are to provide the first data on estimates of current intakes and main food sources of SFA, MUFA and PUFA in Irish children (aged 5-12 years), teenagers (aged 13-17 years) and adults (aged 18-64 years) and to analyse compliance with current dietary recommendations. Data for this analysis were based on the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (n 1379, 18-64 years), the National Children's Food Survey (n 594, 5-12 years) and the National Teen Food Survey (n 441, 13-17 years). Results showed that SFA intakes in Irish children, teenagers and adults are high, with only 6 % of children, 11 % of teenagers and 21 % of adults in compliance with the recommended daily intake. The main food groups that contributed to SFA intakes were whole milk; fresh meat; meat products; biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries; and sugars, confectionery and preserves. PMID:19026091

  19. Hibernation and daily torpor minimize mammalian extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiser, Fritz; Turbill, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Small mammals appear to be less vulnerable to extinction than large species, but the underlying reasons are poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that almost all (93.5%) of 61 recently extinct mammal species were homeothermic, maintaining a constant high body temperature and thus energy expenditure, which demands a high intake of food, long foraging times, and thus exposure to predators. In contrast, only 6.5% of extinct mammals were likely heterothermic and employed multi-day torpor (hibernation) or daily torpor, even though torpor is widespread within more than half of all mammalian orders. Torpor is characterized by substantial reductions of body temperature and energy expenditure and enhances survival during adverse conditions by minimizing food and water requirements, and consequently reduces foraging requirements and exposure to predators. Moreover, because life span is generally longer in heterothermic mammals than in related homeotherms, heterotherms can employ a ‘sit-and-wait’ strategy to withstand adverse periods and then repopulate when circumstances improve. Thus, torpor is a crucial but hitherto unappreciated attribute of small mammals for avoiding extinction. Many opportunistic heterothermic species, because of their plastic energetic requirements, may also stand a better chance of future survival than homeothermic species in the face of greater climatic extremes and changes in environmental conditions caused by global warming.

  20. Nutrient intake from multivitamin/mineral supplements is similar among users from five ethnic groups: the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Yi; Murphy, Suzanne P; Martin, Carrie L; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2008-03-01

    A multivitamin/mineral supplement is the most widely used type of dietary supplement among American adults. Therefore, accurate assessment of intake from this supplement is crucial when studying diet and chronic diseases. From 1999 to 2001, the Multiethnic Cohort Study collected detailed information on multivitamin/mineral use among five ethnic groups: African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites. Daily nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals were calculated using the nutrient composition specified on the product label. For reported supplements with insufficient detail to match to a specific product, default nutrient profiles were assigned. Multivitamin/mineral use was reported by 50% of the participants (38% for Native Hawaiians to 57% for whites). Default profiles were assigned for 38% of users. The median daily nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals among users (n=75,865) were well above the Recommended Daily Allowance or Adequate Intake for vitamins A, B-6, B-12, and E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, folate, and zinc. Although nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals varied widely among individuals, there was no substantial difference in the median intake across ethnic groups. To accurately estimate nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals, detailed information on the product consumed should be collected. When detailed information is not available, the same default nutrient profiles can be used when estimating intakes for these five ethnic groups. PMID:18313435

  1. Preliminary investigation of thiamine and alcohol intake in clinical and healthy samples.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Phillip S; Sullivan, Karen A

    2004-06-01

    Insufficient thiamine intake during heavy alcohol dependence has been well established as a precursor to alcohol-related brain damage, including Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. This study compared the alcohol and thiamine intakes of 35 alcohol-dependent patients upon admission for detoxification with 49 healthy young undergraduates. Subjects were interviewed using a retrospective diary that recorded alcohol and food and vitamin consumption for the previous seven days. As predicted, the clinical group consumed significantly less thiamine than the healthy group, and well below the minimum safe daily intakes. Findings have implications for the prevention of alcohol-related brain damage and public health policy. PMID:15217037

  2. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  3. Proposed nomenclature for salt intake and for reductions in dietary salt.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm R C; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Webster, Jacqui; Lackland, Daniel T; Neal, Bruce; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-04-01

    There is considerable confusion about what ranges of dietary salt(a) could be considered low, normal, or high and also what ranges of reduction in dietary salt are small or large. The World Hypertension League with other organizations involved in dietary salt reduction have proposed a standardized nomenclature based on normal ancestral levels of salt intake and also on ranges of reduction in salt intake in clinical and population interventions. Low daily salt (sodium) intake where harm due to deficiency would be expected to occur is recommended to remain undefined because of inadequate research but likely <0.25 g (100 mg), normal (physiological) intake <2.5 g (1000 mg), recommended intake <5.0 g (2000 mg), high ≥5.0 g (2000 mg), very high >10 to 15 g (4000-6000 mg), and extremely high >15 g (6000 mg). Reductions in daily salt (sodium) intake are recommended to be called small if <2.5 g (1000 mg), moderate if 2.5 to 5.0 g (1000-2000 mg) and large if >5.0 g (2000 mg). Use of this nomenclature is likely to result in less confusion about salt intake and interventions to reduce dietary sodium. PMID:25413335

  4. BACLOFEN, RACLOPRIDE, AND NALTREXONE DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECT INTAKE OF FAT/SUCROSE MIXTURES UNDER LIMITED ACCESS CONDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    Wong, KJ; Wojnicki, FHW; Corwin, RLW

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of the opioid antagonist naltrexone, the dopamine 2-like (D2) antagonist raclopride, and the GABAB agonist baclofen on consumption of fat/sucrose mixtures (FSM) using a limited access protocol. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped according to two schedules of access (Daily [D] or Intermittent [I]) to an optional FSM. Each FSM was created by whipping 3.2% (L), 10% (M), or 32% (H) powdered sugar into 100% vegetable shortening in a w/w manner (n=10 per group). One-hour intakes of the IL and IM groups were significantly greater than intakes of the respective DL and DM groups, thus fulfilling our operational definition of binge-type eating in these groups. Baclofen reduced intakes of the L and M mixtures regardless of access schedule, but failed to reduce intake of the H mixture. Naltrexone reduced intake in all groups, but potency was greater in IL rats than in DL rats. Furthermore, potency was attenuated in Intermittent rats, but enhanced in Daily rats, at higher sucrose concentrations. Raclopride reduced intake in the DL and stimulated intake in the IL groups, reduced intake in both M groups, and was without effect in both H groups. These results indicate that fat/sucrose mixtures containing relatively low concentrations of sucrose allow distinctions to be made between: 1) intakes stimulated by different access schedules and 2) opioid and dopaminergic modulation of those intakes. These results also suggest that brief bouts of food consumption involving fatty, sugar-rich foods may prove to be particularly resistant to pharmacological intervention. PMID:19217918

  5. Baclofen reduces fat intake under binge-type conditions.

    PubMed

    Buda-Levin, Ariel; Wojnicki, Francis H E; Corwin, Rebecca L

    2005-09-15

    The GABA-B agonist baclofen reduces drug self-administration in rats and has shown promise clinically in the treatment of substance abuse. Baclofen generally does not reduce food intake in non-binge feeding protocols. In this study, baclofen was tested in a fat-binge protocol. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups (B: binge; FM: fat-matched; C: chow). B received a bowl of vegetable shortening for 2 h on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday (MWF) and continuous access to powdered chow (regular chow) in all phases. FM had continuous access to a regular chow+shortening mixture (FM chow) that provided the same proportion of shortening and regular chow that the B rats consumed in all phases. In addition, FM had the following: phase 1: no separate bowl of shortening; phase 2: 2-h MWF access to a separate bowl of shortening; phase 3, daily 2-h access to a separate bowl of shortening; C rats had continuous access to the regular chow in all phases. In addition, C had the following: phase 1: no separate bowl of shortening; phase 2: 2-h MWF access to a separate bowl of shortening; in phase 3, daily 2-h access to a separate bowl of shortening. Baclofen (1.0, 1.8 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced shortening intake regardless of access condition. Baclofen had no effect on, or stimulated, FM and regular chow intake. These results demonstrate that baclofen can reduce fat intake in rats under binge-type conditions. Furthermore, these results indicate that bingeing, as modeled in our protocol, is different from other forms of food intake and may share similarities with substance abuse. PMID:16140347

  6. Design of landfill daily cells.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakopoulos, D; Dokas, I

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the behaviour of the landfill soil-to-refuse (S/R) ratio when size, geometry and operating parameters of the daily cell vary over realistic ranges. A simple procedure is presented (1) for calculating the cell parameters values which minimise the S/R ratio and (2) for studying the sensitivity of this minimum S/R ratio to variations in cell size, final refuse density, working face length, lift height and cover thickness. In countries where daily soil cover is required, savings in landfill space could be realised following this procedure. The sensitivity of minimum S/R to variations in cell dimensions decreases with cell size. Working face length and lift height affect the S/R ratio significantly. This procedure also offers the engineer an additional tool for comparing one large daily cell with two or more smaller ones, at two different working faces within the same landfill. PMID:11720268

  7. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake < 75% RI, n = 159). Each group was then further divided into three subgroups based on daily average coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  8. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake < 75% RI, n = 159). Each group was then further divided into three subgroups based on daily average coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  9. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  10. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  11. Effects of deoxynivalenol in naturally contaminated wheat on feed intake and health status of horses.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Anna-Katharina; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven; Coenen, Manfred; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the short-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), administered at two different concentrations via a feed preparation using naturally contaminated wheat, on feed intake, liver and kidney metabolism and immunomodulatory properties in horses. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 21 days. DON was provided via naturally contaminated wheat (14.6 ± 6.5 mg DON/kg dry matter). The daily feed intake was adjusted to 4 kg of wheat and 1.7 kg of silage per 100 kg of body weight (BW). Horses were fed one of the following diets: control wheat with 0% contaminated wheat (CON), wheat mixture containing 53 ± 2% of DON-contaminated wheat [low DON intake (LDI)] or wheat mixture containing 78 ± 4% of DON-contaminated wheat [high DON intake (HDI)]. CON, LDI and HDI corresponded to a targeted daily DON intake via the complete ration of <5, 50 and 75 μg/kg BW, respectively. None of the horses demonstrated any clinical signs commonly associated with the intake of DON such as colic or depression. HDI was associated with lower daily wheat intake on day 21. Serum DON concentrations increased with higher DON intake. The non-toxic DON metabolite, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) was only detected on day 21 of the DON feeding period. No changes in haematological and serum parameters or serum globulins or in the ex vivo proliferation response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed. These results suggest that horses are less sensitive to DON exposure than other domestic species, for example, swine. Therefore, the European Commission guidance value for critical DON concentrations in swine feed (complete diet) of 0.9 mg/kg could be safely applied for rations intended for feeding adult horses as well. PMID:26420605

  12. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    PubMed

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20% of calories from fat) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain. PMID:24321742

  13. Tractor Operation and Daily Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fore, J. M.; And Others

    Written for the tractor operator, the manual describes, with the aid of colored illustrations and diagrams, the tasks involved in the proper operation and daily maintenance of tractors. It offers explanations for the desirability of the various servicing and adjustment operations, as well as guidelines for tractor operation and safety. The…

  14. Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Lehmann, Sune; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-10-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness) to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.

  15. Daily Physical Activity Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the Daily Physical Activity (DPA) Survey was to gather school-level information from teachers and principals regarding their perceptions of DPA, thus providing a greater understanding of DPA implementation in grades 1 to 9. This study aimed to help identify the many variables that influence the attainment of the DPA outcomes and…

  16. Low sodium and high potassium intake for cardiovascular prevention: evidence revisited with emphasis on challenges in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Bigna, Jean Joel R; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N

    2015-01-01

    Reduction in dietary salt intake and increase in potassium intake can make a major contribution to the prevention and control of hypertension and consequential cardiovascular disease, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where prevalence rates are highest. African populations are going through a westernization of their traditional eating patterns, with a shift towards a US/Western-style diet, which contains an excessive amount of salt. Currently, the mean sodium intake in SSA populations is far above the recommended daily allowance. Besides, potassium intake is low, and, particularly, the supply of fruits and vegetables that are important sources of potassium is insufficient to meet current and growing population needs in SSA countries. Context-relevant strategies are needed for population-wide sodium intake reduction and increase in potassium intake. PMID:25382734

  17. Lactation in the horse: milk composition and intake by foals.

    PubMed

    Oftedal, O T; Hintz, H F; Schryver, H F

    1983-10-01

    Milk samples averaging 500 ml were collected weekly from 10 to 54 days postpartum from five lactating mares. Samples were obtained by hand milking after oxytocin administration and while the foal nursed. Dry matter, protein and gross energy were higher in samples obtained at 10 and 17 days postpartum than those obtained during the midlactation period of 24-54 days. Midlactation samples averaged 10.5% dry matter, 1.29% fat, 1.93% protein, 6.91% sugar and 50.6 kcal/100 g. Protein comprised 22% of milk energy. Milk intake was estimated in five foals from deuterium oxide (D2O) turnover to be 16, 15 and 18 kg/day at 11, 25 and 39 days postpartum. Milk intake differed significantly among foals and at the various postpartum ages, whether intake was expressed as a daily amount, as a percent of foal body weight, per kilogram0.75 or per gram of foal body weight gain. Milk production was equivalent to 3.1% of the mare's body weight at 11 days postpartum, 2.9% at 25 days and 3.4% at 39 days. On the basis of metabolic body size milk output by the mare was 149 g/kg0.75, 139 g/kg0.75 and 163 g/kg0.75 at 11, 25 and 39 days postpartum, respectively. Nutrient intakes by foals were calculated from milk composition and intake data. At 11, 25 and 39 days postpartum, respectively, dry matter intake equaled 3.1, 2.1 and 2.0% of foal body weight, and daily gross energy intake was 9380, 7590 and 8910 kcal. For each gram of body weight gain, foals ingested 0.37 g protein and 8.3 kcal at 11 days, 0.26 g protein and 6.7 kcal at 25 days, and 0.30 g protein and 7.8 kcal at 39 days of age. PMID:6619986

  18. Nutrient Intakes and Vegetable and White Potato Consumption by Children Aged 1 to 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    In 2020, for the first time, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans will include recommendations for children from birth to age 24 mo. We examined average nutrient intakes as well as total vegetable and white potato (WP) consumption among children aged 1-3 y using day 1 dietary data from the NHANES 2009-2012 and the Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2009-2012. Appropriate survey weights were used to calculate average daily consumption of total vegetables and WPs, which included French-fried potatoes and chips, for boys and girls aged 1-3 y. We calculated mean intakes of selected nutrients of concern, including vitamin D, potassium, dietary fiber (DF), and calcium. We also examined intakes of selected nutrients by major food group. Average intakes of most nutrients, including calcium, by children aged 1-3 y exceeded Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). However, average intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were 67%, 55%, and 49% of DRIs, respectively. Mean total vegetable intake was less than the recommendation of 1 cup/d. Boys and girls aged 1-3 y consumed an average of 0.58 cup equivalents of total vegetables on the day of the survey, which included 0.16 cups of WPs. Average vegetable consumption and mean intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were far below recommendations. The consumption of all vegetables, particularly those that are excellent sources of potassium and DF, such as potatoes, should be encouraged. PMID:26773032

  19. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVI. Body temperature and physical activity of female mice during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Yuko; Bernard, Amelie; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hambly, Catherine; Al Jothery, Aqeel; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of mammalian reproduction, and lactation performance may be affected by events during pregnancy. For example, food intake may be limited in late pregnancy by competition for space in the abdomen between the alimentary tract and fetuses. Hence, females may need to compensate their energy budgets during pregnancy by reducing activity and lowering body temperature. We explored the relationships between energy intake, body mass, body temperature and physical activity throughout pregnancy in the MF1 mouse. Food intake and body mass of 26 females were recorded daily throughout pregnancy. Body temperature and physical activity were monitored every minute for 23 h a day by implanted transmitters. Body temperature and physical activity declined as pregnancy advanced, while energy intake and body mass increased. Compared with a pre-mating baseline period, mice increased energy intake by 56% in late pregnancy. Although body temperature declined as pregnancy progressed, this served mostly to reverse an increase between baseline and early pregnancy. Reduced physical activity may compensate the energy budget of pregnant mice but body temperature changes do not. Over the last 3 days of pregnancy, food intake declined. Individual variation in energy intake in the last phase of pregnancy was positively related to litter size at birth. As there was no association between the increase in body mass and the decline in intake, we suggest the decline was not caused by competition for abdominal space. These data suggest overall reproductive performance is probably not constrained by events during pregnancy. PMID:23720802

  20. Dietary sources and determinants of soy isoflavone intake among midlife Chinese Women in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sieu-gaen; Ho, Suzanne C; Kreiger, Nancy; Darlington, Gerarda; So, Kam F; Chong, Portia Y Y

    2007-11-01

    The dietary sources, intake levels, and determinants of soy isoflavone intake were examined using 3217 dietary recalls (DR) collected from 141 Hong Kong Chinese women aged 50-61 y. Multiple-pass 24-h DR were administered by phone by trained interviewers on 23 random, nonconsecutive days to participants over a 12-mo period from 2001 to 2002. We calculated isoflavone intake using analytical values in the Chinese University of Hong Kong Soy Isoflavone Database. Results indicated that the daily intake of total isoflavones was 7.8 +/- 5.6 mg in the study population. Non-Cantonese women had a higher intake of 10.7 +/- 7.6 mg compared with 7.3 +/- 5.0 mg in Cantonese women (P = 0.04). Altogether, 22 foods contributed approximately 90% of the total isoflavone intake. Soft tofu alone accounted for approximately 21% of the isoflavone intake, followed by bean curd skin (7.1%), name-brand soybean milk (6.3%), homemade soybean milk (6.2%), and generic soybean milk (5.8%). Combined, these 5 food items contributed 46% of the total dietary isoflavones. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated dialect group, self-reported health, and age group were significant independent predictors of soy isoflavone consumption. The data provide the basis for elucidating the patterns, determinants, and assessment of dietary soy isoflavone intake in Asian women. PMID:17951484

  1. Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Isoniemi, Merja; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Finglas, Paul; Plumb, Jenny; Tuominen, Pirkko; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) among Finnish consumers. The estimated average intake of estragole was 0.20mg/d, of trans-anethole 1.15mg/d, of rosmarinic acid 0.09mg/d, of p-coumaric acid 0.0068mg/d, of kaempferol 0.0034mg/d, of luteolin 0.0525μg/d, of quercetin 0.0246mg/d, of matairesinol 0.0066μg/d and of lignans 0.0412μg/d. The intakes of kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, matairesinol and lignans from PFS were low in comparison with their dietary supply. The intake of estragole was usually moderate, but a heavy consumption of PFS may lead to a high intake of estragole. The intake of trans-anethole did not exceed the acceptable daily intake, but PFS should be taken into account when assessing the total exposure. To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations. PMID:26471600

  2. Dietary modulation of oral amphetamine intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Kanarek, R B; Marks-Kaufman, R

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of sucrose availability and oral self-administration of amphetamine was examined in 23 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Fourteen rats were given a 0.075 mg/ml amphetamine sulfate solution as their sole source of fluid and 9 rats were given water. Feeding conditions were alternated between weeks with both granulated sucrose and chow available and weeks with only chow present. Rats drank significantly less of the amphetamine solution when consuming sucrose and chow than when eating chow alone. Sucrose intake had a slight effect on water intake. Rats drinking the amphetamine solution consumed significantly less food, gained significantly less weight, and were significantly less efficient at using calories for weight gain than rats drinking water. However, when given access to sucrose, rats drinking the amphetamine solution chose a significantly greater proportion of their daily caloric intake as sucrose (60%) than rats drinking water (42.5%). The present results demonstrate that 1) amphetamine intake alters nutrient choice and 2) that dietary variables can profoundly affect drug self-administration. PMID:3237840

  3. Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-01-01

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors. PMID:18514747

  4. Food consumption pattern and nutrient intake of Indian obese males.

    PubMed

    Gera, T; Khetarpaul, N

    2000-01-01

    Mean daily intake of all foods except cereals i.e. pulses, green leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, fruits, milk and milk products, sugar and fats of Indian obese male respondents was higher than the values recommended by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, 1987). The consumption of fat and sugar was 18 and 8 percent more than the recommended intake values respectively. However, their non-obese counterparts consumed significantly (P < 0.05) lower amounts of all the foods except cereals and pulses. The intake of various nutrients i.e. energy, protein, fats, beta-carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vit B12, folacin, ascorbic acid and calcium by obese respondents was considerably higher than the recommended values (ICMR, 1990) and the control group. All the obese respondents were consuming adequate (100% and above) amounts of energy, protein and fats. Intake of carbohydrates was marginally adequate (75-99.9%) among 92 percent of the obese respondents whereas 8 percent were consuming adequate amount of carbohydrates. They had higher consumption of visible as well as invisible fat than the control group. PMID:11142609

  5. Intakes of Vegetables and Fruits are Negatively Correlated with Risk of Stroke in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Mitra; Darvishi, Leila; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Khorvash, Fariborz; Aghaei, Mahmud; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a leading cause of death. Current therapeutic strategies have been unsuccessful. Several studies have reported benefits on reducing stroke risk and improving the poststroke associated functional declines in patients who ate foods rich in fruits and vegetables. Their potential protective effects may be due to their antioxidants, calcium, potassium, riboflavine, peridoxin, riboflavin contents. Folic acid, peridoxin, and riboflavin are all cofactors in hyperhomocysteinemia as a stroke risk factor.Studies suggest that oxidative stress plays important roles in pathogenesis of ischemic cerebral injury and higher intake of antioxidants has been associated with a lower stroke risk. The aim of this study was to examine if the dietary intake of vegetables and fruits in patients with stroke were comparatively worse than those in patients without stroke. Methods: In this case control study, 93 stroke patients admitted to Alzahra hospital were matched for age and sex with 60 patients who were not affected with acute cerebrovascular diseases and did not have a history of stroke. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire.Food intakes were compared between two groups and with recommended value. Results: Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits was more in male with stroke than male without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was higher in male with stroke.Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits were lower in women with stroke than women without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was lower in women with stroke Conclusions: Our findings suggest that increased vegetable and fruits intake may be associated with decreased risk of stroke PMID:23776742

  6. Beverage Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient and Caloric Intake from Beverages in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Venci, Brittany; Hodac, Nicole; Lee, Seung-Yeon; Shidler, Marcelle; Krikorian, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine total water intake and patterns of beverage consumption, and its contribution to total daily micronutrients and calories in older adults with mild memory decline. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was used with 60 independent community-dwelling older adults (71.7 ± 5.4 years) with mild cognitive impairment, who were mostly female, well-educated, and white. Three-day food records were analyzed using the Nutrition Data Systems for Research. Descriptive statistics were conducted for a summary of demographics, the average intakes of beverages, and the contribution of beverages to total calorie and micronutrient intakes. Total daily water intake was 53.6 ± 26.7 fl oz and milk, plain water, and tea/coffee were beverages consumed most frequently. Beverage consumption contributed substantially to the intake of vitamin D (29.4%), calcium (26.4%), riboflavin (22.0%), magnesium (18.9%), and vitamin C (18.1%), but constituted only ∼12.5% of total energy. These findings suggest that nutrient-dense beverages play a fundamental role in overall micronutrient intake, despite comprising a small component of daily caloric intake. Incorporating adequate amounts of such beverages in meals and snacks may help older adults meet their nutrient recommendations. PMID:26571357

  7. Daily Feeding of Fructooligosaccharide or Glucomannan Delays Onset of Senescence in SAMP8 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshitake; Tanabe, Kenichi; Kawahashi-Tokuhisa, Miho; Yui, Katsuyuki; Miyakoda, Mana; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that daily intake of nondigestible saccharides delays senescence onset through the improvement of intestinal microflora. Here, we raised senescence accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) on the AIN93 diet (CONT), with sucrose being substituted for 5% of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) or 5% of glucomannan (GM), 15 mice per group. Ten SAMR1 were raised as reference of normal aging with control diet. Grading of senescence was conducted using the method developed by Hosokawa, and body weight, dietary intake, and drinking water intake were measured on alternate days. Following 38 weeks of these diets we evaluated learning and memory abilities using a passive avoidance apparatus and investigated effects on the intestinal microflora, measured oxidative stress markers, and inflammatory cytokines. Continuous intake of FOS and GM significantly enhanced learning and memory ability and decelerated senescence development when compared with the CONT group. Bifidobacterium levels were significantly increased in FOS and GM-fed mice. Urinary 8OHdG, 15-isoprostane, serum TNF-α, and IL-6 were also lower in FOS-fed mice, while IL-10 in FOS and GM groups was higher than in CONT group. These findings suggest that daily intake of nondigestible saccharides delays the onset of senescence via improvement of intestinal microflora. PMID:24987410

  8. The sodium and potassium intake of 3 to 5 year olds.

    PubMed Central

    Allison, M E; Walker, V

    1986-01-01

    The sodium intake of preschool children in their home environment was investigated and the major sources of sodium other than added table salt identified. Thirty five children from a Southampton general practice were studied. Twenty four hour urinary sodium excretion was measured as a reliable indicator of daily total sodium intake. The daily intake of sodium other than that from added table salt, and of potassium and other nutrients, was also calculated from three day dietary diaries collected using the household measures method. Median excretion of sodium was 62 mmol/24h (range 28-105, 28 urine collections) and of potassium was 25 mmol/24 h (range 14-46). The sodium:potassium ratio was 2.7 (1.4-5.2). From the diaries, the average daily intake of sodium was 68 mmol (32-98) and of potassium was 47 mmol (24-95), and the sodium:potassium ratio was 1.4 (0.5-2.7) (median and ranges, 35 children). Foods contributing more than 30 mmol sodium to one day's intake were mainly processed convenience foods. PMID:3954440

  9. First quantification of calcium intake from calcium-dense dairy products in Dutch fracture patients (the Delft cohort study).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M M; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2014-06-01

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition. PMID:24959951

  10. 30 days in the life: daily nutrient balancing in a wild chacma baboon.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Caley A; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M; Clarke, David; Swedell, Larissa

    2013-01-01

    For most animals, the ability to regulate intake of specific nutrients is vital to fitness. Recent studies have demonstrated nutrient regulation in nonhuman primates over periods of one observation day, though studies of humans indicate that such regulation extends to longer time frames. Little is known about longer-term regulation in nonhuman primates, however, due to the challenges of multiple-day focal follows. Here we present the first detailed study of nutrient intake across multiple days in a wild nonhuman primate. We conducted 30 consecutive all day follows on one female chacma baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa. We documented dietary composition, compared the nutritional contribution of natural and human-derived foods to the diet, and quantified nutrient intake using the geometric framework of nutrition. Our focus on a single subject over consecutive days allowed us to examine daily dietary regulation within an individual over time. While the amounts varied daily, our subject maintained a strikingly consistent balance of protein to non-protein (fat and carbohydrate) energy across the month. Human-derived foods, while contributing a minority of the diet, were higher in fat and lower in fiber than naturally-derived foods. Our results demonstrate nutrient regulation on a daily basis in our subject, and demonstrate that she was able to maintain a diet with a constant proportional protein content despite wide variation in the composition of component foods. From a methodological perspective, the results of this study suggest that nutrient intake is best estimated over at least an entire day, with longer-term regulatory patterns (e.g., during development and reproduction) possibly requiring even longer sampling. From a management and conservation perspective, it is notable that nearly half the subject's daily energy intake derived from exotic foods, including those currently being eradicated from the study area for replacement

  11. 30 Days in the Life: Daily Nutrient Balancing in a Wild Chacma Baboon

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Caley A.; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M.; Clarke, David; Swedell, Larissa

    2013-01-01

    For most animals, the ability to regulate intake of specific nutrients is vital to fitness. Recent studies have demonstrated nutrient regulation in nonhuman primates over periods of one observation day, though studies of humans indicate that such regulation extends to longer time frames. Little is known about longer-term regulation in nonhuman primates, however, due to the challenges of multiple-day focal follows. Here we present the first detailed study of nutrient intake across multiple days in a wild nonhuman primate. We conducted 30 consecutive all day follows on one female chacma baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa. We documented dietary composition, compared the nutritional contribution of natural and human-derived foods to the diet, and quantified nutrient intake using the geometric framework of nutrition. Our focus on a single subject over consecutive days allowed us to examine daily dietary regulation within an individual over time. While the amounts varied daily, our subject maintained a strikingly consistent balance of protein to non-protein (fat and carbohydrate) energy across the month. Human-derived foods, while contributing a minority of the diet, were higher in fat and lower in fiber than naturally-derived foods. Our results demonstrate nutrient regulation on a daily basis in our subject, and demonstrate that she was able to maintain a diet with a constant proportional protein content despite wide variation in the composition of component foods. From a methodological perspective, the results of this study suggest that nutrient intake is best estimated over at least an entire day, with longer-term regulatory patterns (e.g., during development and reproduction) possibly requiring even longer sampling. From a management and conservation perspective, it is notable that nearly half the subject’s daily energy intake derived from exotic foods, including those currently being eradicated from the study area for

  12. Salt intake and hypertension therapy.

    PubMed

    Milan, Alberto; Mulatero, Paolo; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal organ damage. Environmental conditions affect the development of high blood pressure (BP), although genetic influences are also important. Current international guidelines recommend reducing dietary sodium to no more than 100 mmol (about 2.4 g sodium or approximately 6 g salt) per day to prevent BP rising; the current intake of sodium in industrialized countries is approximately double the recommended amount. Clinical trials (DASH and TOHP studies) have shown that dietary factors are fundamental in the prevention and control of BP. Low dietary sodium intake is particularly effective in preventing hypertension in subjects with an increased risk such as the overweight, borderline hypertensives or the elderly. A low-salt diet combined with anti-hypertensive therapies facilitates BP reduction independent of race. The hypotensive effect of calcium channel blockers is less dependent on salt intake than other drugs, such as ACE inhibitors or diuretics. Reduced sodium intake associated with other dietary changes (such as weight loss, and increasing potassium, calcium and magnesium intake) are important instruments for the prevention and therapy of hypertension. PMID:11936420

  13. Determination of Alkane Content in Fresh Fecal Samples to Estimate Intake on Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    External markers of wax alkanes C32 and C36 are effective tools for determining intake of grazing animals. The technique requires daily dosing of markers which is impractical under extensive grazing conditions, so controlled release capsules (CRC) have been used. However, consistency of payout from ...

  14. Effect of prebiotic supplementation and calcium intake on body mass index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to assess the effects of a prebiotic supplement and usual calcium intake on body composition changes during pubertal growth. We measured anthropometry and body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptionmetry in 97 young adolescents who were randomized to receive either a daily prebiotic...

  15. Effects of Royal Jelly Supplementation on Body Weight and Dietary Intake in Type 2 Diabetic Females

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoradian, Samira; Mahdavi, Reza; Mobasseri, Majid; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mobasseri, Mehrnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of royal jelly supple-mentation on body weight, total daily energy and macronutrients intakes in type2 diabetic fe-males. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, fifty female volunteers with type2 diabetes were as-signed into the supplemented (n=25) and placebo (n=25) groups, given a daily dose of 1000 mg royal jelly soft gel or placebo, for 8 weeks, respectively. Before and after the intervention, body weight and height of subjects were measured and body mass index was calculated. Dietary intake of patients was assessed using 24-hour food recall questionnaire for three non consecutive days (including 1 weekend day) and analyzed with Nutritionist IV software. The normally distributed data were compared using paired and independent t-tests, where appropriate. Results: Royal jelly supplementation significantly (P<0.01) decreased the mean body weight (72.45±4.42 vs. 71.00±6.44 kg) while it increased insignificantly in placebo group (73.02±6.44 vs 73.52±6.80 kg). Royal jelly supplementation resulted in significant decrease of mean daily total energy (P<0.01) and carbohydrate (P<0.01) intakes, while in placebo group the mean daily total energy and fat intakes were increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation with royal jelly may be beneficial in weight management of di-abetic patients. PMID:24688939

  16. Food Sources, Dietary Behavior, and the Saturated Fat Intake of Latino Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Studies dietary patterns that distinguish children with higher and lower mean daily percentages of calories from saturated fat using data from mothers of 205 Latino children aged 4-7 years in New York City. Substituting low-fat for whole milk appears a key strategy for lowering saturated fat intake. (SLD)

  17. Estimation of copper intake in moderate wine consumers in croatia.

    PubMed

    Tariba, Blanka; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Pizent, Alica

    2011-09-01

    To estimate Cu exposure level from wine consumption and to assess possible health risk for moderate wine consumers, wine samples were collected from different wine-growing areas of Croatia. Median concentrations were 180 μg L-1, range (76 to 292) μg L-1, in commercial wines and 258 μg L-1, range (115 to 7600) μg L-1, in homemade wines (P>0.05). Maximum permitted level of 1000 μg L-1 was exceeded in three homemade wines. However, daily intake of Cu from wine (in the range from 0.02 mg d-1 to 1.52 mg d-1) estimated from Cu concentration in all wine samples is lower than the tolerable upper intake level of 5 mg d-1 proposed by the EU Scientific Committee on Food and does not present a risk to moderate wine consumers. PMID:21971106

  18. Growth rates and energy intake of hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bell, K M; Rutherfurd, S M; Morton, R H

    2012-04-01

    Growth rate is an important factor in neonatal survival. The aim of this study was to determine growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs in South Africa fed a prescribed energy intake, calculated for growth in the domestic cat. Growth was then compared with previously published data from hand-reared cubs in North America and the relationship between growth and energy intake explored. Daily body weight (BW) gain, feed and energy intake data was collected from 18 hand-reared cheetah cubs up to 120 days of age. The average pre-weaning growth rate was 32 g/day, which is lower than reported in mother-reared cubs and hand-reared cubs in North American facilities. However, post-weaning growth increased to an average of 55 g/day. Growth was approximately linear prior to weaning, but over the entire age range it exhibited a sigmoidal shape with an asymptotic plateau averaging 57 kg. Energy intake associated with pre-weaning growth was 481 kJ ME/kg BW(0.75). Regression analysis described the relationship between metabolic BW, metabolisable energy (ME) intake, and hence daily weight gain. This relationship may be useful in predicting energy intake required to achieve growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs similar to those observed for their mother-reared counterparts. PMID:21429043

  19. Common sources and estimated intake of plant sterols in the Spanish diet.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Escrig, Antonio; Santos-Hidalgo, Ana B; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2006-05-01

    Plant sterols (PS) are minor lipid components of plants, which may have potential health benefits, mainly based in their cholesterol-lowering effect. The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of PS in plant-based foods commonly consumed in Spain and to estimate the PS intake in the Spanish diet. For this purpose, the determination of PS content, using a modern methodology to measure free, esterified, and glycosidic sterol forms, was done. Second, an estimation of the intake of PS, using the Spanish National Food Consumption data, was made. The daily intake per person of PS--campesterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and stigmastanol--in the Spanish diet was estimated at 276 mg, the largest component being beta-sitosterol (79.7%). Other unknown compounds, tentatively identified as PS, may constitute a considerable potential intake (99 mg). When the daily PS intake among European diets was compared in terms of campesterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and stigmastanol, the PS intake in the Spanish diet was in the same range of other countries such as Finland (15.7% higher) or The Netherlands (equal). However, some qualitative differences in the PS sources were detected, that is, the predominant brown bread and vegetable fat consumption in the northern diets versus the white bread and vegetable oil consumption in the Spanish diet. These differences may help to provide a link between the consumption of PS and healthy effects of the diet. PMID:16637708

  20. Observability of market daily volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  1. Fluid intake patterns: an epidemiological study among children and adolescents in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Energy from liquids is one of the most important factors that could impact on the high prevalence of children and adolescents obesity around the world. There are few data on the liquid consumption in Brazil. The aim of this study is to evaluate the volume and quality of liquids consumed by Brazilian children and adolescents and to determine the proportion of their daily energy intake composed of liquids. Methods A multicenter study was conducted in five Brazilian cities; the study included 831 participants between 3 and 17 years of age. A four-day dietary record specific to fluids was completed for each individual, and the volume of and Kcal from liquid intake were evaluated. The average number of Kcal in each beverage was determined based on label information, and the daily energy intake data from liquids were compared with the recommendations of the National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária– ANVISA), the Brazilian food regulation authority, according to each subject’s age. Results As the children aged, the volume of carbonated beverages that they consumed increased significantly, and their milk intake decreased significantly. For children between the ages of 3 and 10, milk and dairy products contributed the greatest daily number of Kcal from liquids. Sugar sweetened beverages which included carbonated beverages, nectars and artificial beverages, accounted for 37% and 45% of the total Kcal from liquid intake in the 3- to 6-year-old and 7- to 10- year-old groups, respectively. Among adolescents (participants 11- to 17- years old), most of the energy intake from liquids came from carbonated beverages, which accounted for an average of 207 kcal/day in this group (42% of their total energy intake from liquids). Health professionals should be attentive to the excessive consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in children and adolescents. The movement toward healthier dietary patterns at the individual and population

  2. Awareness of Daily Life Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Metin, Barbaros; Schneider, Jutta; Markopoulos, Panos; De Ruyter, Boris

    The well-publicized aging of Western societies has prompted a growing interest into technologies that support awareness in cross-generational families. The idea of supporting continual and partly automated flow of information between seniors living alone and their social intimates has been gaining ground among researchers but even among industries. It is anticipated that such an information flow can help bridge geographical distance, discrepant lifestyles, and daily routines, potentially providing peace of mind to both parties and feelings of being connected.

  3. 50 CFR 20.24 - Daily limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Daily limit. 20.24 Section 20.24 Wildlife... (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.24 Daily limit. No person shall take in any 1 calendar day, more than the daily bag limit or aggregate daily bag limit, whichever applies....

  4. Contribution of orosensory stimulation to strain differences in oil intake by mice.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, John I; Feld, Natalie; Goodman, Leora; Bayor, Rouane

    2008-10-20

    Little is known about why animals differ in daily intake of oils. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the oral acceptability of oil is a key determinant of daily intake. To this end, we examined short- and long-term ingestive responses of eight mouse strains (FVB/NJ, SWR/J, SM/J, C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, 129P3/J, DBA/2J and AKR/J) to Intralipid, a stable emulsion of soybean oil. In Experiment 1, we compared orosensory responsiveness (as indicated by initial licking rates) of eight mouse strains to a range of concentrations of Intralipid and sucrose. We included sucrose because there are two natural alleles of Tas1r3 (the gene that encodes the T1R3 sweet taste receptor), and strains with the Tas1r3Sac-b allele exhibit higher daily intake of sucrose and oil than strains with the Tas1r3Sac-d allele. All strains exhibited concentration-dependent increases in lick rates for both sucrose and Intralipid, but the extent of these increases varied greatly across strains. The strains with the Tas1r3Sac-b allele licked more vigorously for sucrose at concentrations < or =0.3 M, but not for Intralipid at any concentration. In Experiment 2, we ran the mice through 24-h preference tests, in which they had a choice between water and each of four concentrations of Intralipid (1, 5, 10 and 20%). The strains differed greatly in daily intake of Intralipid, particularly at the 1 and 5% concentrations. Regression analyses revealed that strain differences in orosensory responsiveness reliably predicted strain differences in daily intake of 1 and 5% Intralipid, but not 10 or 20% Intralipid. These findings indicate (i) that Tas1r3 genotype does not modulate orosensory stimulation from oil, (ii) that orosensory stimulation contributes to strain differences in daily intake of dilute oil emulsions, but not concentrated ones, and (iii) that daily intake of concentrated oil emulsions is controlled primarily by post-oral satiety mechanisms. PMID:18691606

  5. Emphasized warning reduces salt intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pinjuh Markota, Nina; Rumboldt, Mirjana; Rumboldt, Zvonko

    2015-03-01

    Excessive salt intake is a major cardiovascular risk factor. At variance to the developed countries, the main source of sodium in transitional and developing countries is salt added while cooking and/or at the table. The objective of this trial was to examine the impact of warning labels placed on home salt containers on daily salt intake.A sample of treated hypertensives (n = 150) was randomized in two subgroups, one receiving just a leaflet about the harmful effects of excessive salt intake (control; n = 74), and the other one receiving in addition warning stickers for household salt containers (intervention; n = 76). Arterial blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (Na24) were measured in all the subjects at the start of the trial, and 1 month and 2 months later. The average starting Na24 was 207 ± 71 mmol in the control group and 211 ± 85 mmol in the intervention group (P = .745). One month and 2 months later, a significant decrease was observed in the intervention group (to 183 ± 63 mmol and 176 ± 55 mmol; P < .0001), as opposed to the control group (203 ± 60 mmol and 200 ± 58 mmol; P = .1466). Initial BP was 143.7/84.1 mm Hg in the control, and 142.9/84.7 mm Hg in the intervention group (P = .667). One month and 2 months later, a significant drop in BP, by 5.3/2.9 mm Hg, was observed in the intervention group as opposed to the control group (0.4/0.9 mm Hg). Decrease in Na24 positively correlated to BP lowering (r(2) = 0.5989; P < .0001). A significant reduction in 24Na and BP is achieved with warning labels on harmful effects of excessive salt intake. Decreasing daily salt input by 35 mmol may result in an extra BP lowering by some 5-6/2-3 mm Hg. PMID:25659228

  6. Chromium, selenium, and other trace element intakes of a selected sample of Canadian premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R S; Scythes, C A

    1984-04-01

    Daily Cr, Se, Ag, Cs, Rb, Sb, and Sc intakes of 84 Canadian women aged 30.3±6.1 yr (mean±SD) living in a University community and consuming self-selected diets were determined by analyses of 1-d food composites collected by the subjects. Aliquots of the homogenized food composites were freeze-dried and then analyzed by instrumental neutron activation procedures following irradiation for 72h. In all cases, trace element concentrations in the food composites were non-Gaussian. Median daily intakes were: Cr, 47 μg; Se, 74 μg; Ag, 7.1 μg; Cs, 4.4 μg; Rb, 1.5 mg; Sb 2.0 μg; and Sc, 0.38 μg. Sixty percent and 24% of the subjects received daily Cr and Se intakes, respectively, below the US Food and Nutrition Board safe and adequate range. High Cr density diets were associated with a significantly higher consumption of cheese and dry legumes and nuts (p<0.05). In the high Se density diets, intakes of grain products and breakfast cereals were significantly higher (p<0.05), and intakes of potatoes, table fats, total fat, saturated fat, and oleic acid were significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the low Se density diets. The low daily Cr intakes evident in this study may be cause for concern in view of the increasing evidence that women may be at greater risk for deficiency of Cr than men because of Cr depletion during pregnancy. PMID:24263851

  7. Dietary sources and sodium intake in a sample of Australian preschool children

    PubMed Central

    O'Halloran, Siobhan A; Grimes, Carley A; Lacy, Kathleen E; Nowson, Caryl A; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess dietary sodium intake and the food sources of sodium in a sample of Australian preschool children. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Mothers were followed up when children were approximately 3.5 years of age after participating in a cluster randomised controlled trial: the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program. Participants 251 Australian children aged 3.5±0.19 (SD) years. Primary and secondary outcome measures The average daily sodium intake was determined using three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The contributions of food groups, core, discretionary and processed foods to daily sodium intake were assessed. Results The average sodium intake was 1508±495 (SD) mg/day, (salt equivalent 3.9±1.3 (SD) g/day) and 87% of children exceeded the Australian Upper Level of Intake (UL) for sodium of 1000 mg/day (salt equivalent 2.6 g/day). Main food sources of sodium were cereal/cereal products (25%), milk products (19%), meat, poultry/game (17%) and cereal-based products (15%). Core foods contributed 65%, and discretionary foods 35% of total daily sodium intake, and within the total diet, minimally processed, processed, processed culinary ingredient and ultraprocessed foods contributed 16%, 35%, 1% and 48% of sodium, respectively. Conclusions Within this sample, most children exceeded the recommended UL for sodium. Core and ultraprocessed foods were key sources of sodium which suggests that reductions in the sodium content of these foods are required to reduce sodium intake in young children. These data also provide further support for public health campaigns that seek to reduce consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. PMID:26846894

  8. DAILY INTAKE ESTIMATES OF PBDES ASSOCIATED WITH CONSUMPTION OF CATFISH IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in a wide variety of consumer products. Concerns surrounding these compounds are primarily due do their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as in human tissue, such as milk, coupled with evidence indi...

  9. Daily profiles of dehydroepiandrosterone and its hydroxylated metabolites with respect to food intake.

    PubMed

    Stárka, Luboslav; Rácz, Beata; Šrámková, Monika; Hill, Martin; Dušková, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Eight women of reproductive age with normal body mass index were given 5 standardised meals, and their hormonal milieu was determined during the course of the day. Plasma from 12 withdrawals was analysed for dehydroepiandrosterone and its 7- and 16-hydroxylated metabolites. Overall, there was a maximum in the levels of steroid hormones in the morning, followed by decreases throughout the day. There was also an additional significant decrease found for dehydroepiandrosterone and its 7α-hydroxyderivative in association with the consumption of main meals, but not for the 7β-isomer or 16α-hydroxyderivative. PMID:25923969

  10. Daily dietary selenium intake and hair selenium content in a high selenium area of Enshi, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium is essential to humans and is widely distributed within the human body. Its content in blood, urine, hair and nails are important indicators to evaluate Se level in the human body. In China (Shadi, Enschi city), human selenosis of residents is reported to occur in high numbers. In this stud...

  11. Dietary and supplementary intake of nutrients by patients with gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Harju, E

    1986-12-01

    The dietary and supplementary intake of food, energy, and nutrients were examined in 54 patients after various gastrointestinal operations and in 33 patients with gastritis, peptic ulcer, or undefined abdominal pain. Forty-six of the operated and 21 of the nonoperated patients had to avoid certain foods (p less than 0.001, chi 2-test), mainly milk, beans, cabbage and other vegetables, bread, and fried foods. Only a few patients got discomfort from coffee, fatty foods, and meat. The intake of energy was at the level of light physical work. The dietary intake of iron, vitamin A, and niacin did not reach the level of the recommended daily allowance (RDA). One-half of the patients used vitamins and supplements, which increased their intake over the level of RDA. It is important to inform patients before operations about the possibility of persistent abdominal symptoms after the operation. PMID:3805666

  12. Consumption of calcium in the U.S.: food sources and intake levels.

    PubMed

    Fleming, K H; Heimbach, J T

    1994-08-01

    Calcium intake is one of a number of factors that affect peak bone mass. Low bone mass is related to increased incidence of osteoporotic fractures. Data from the USDA 1987-88 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey were used to determine populations most at risk of less than optimal calcium intake and food sources of calcium intake. Mean per capita daily consumption of calcium for the total U.S. population was 737 mg and varied by region of the country, household income, ethnic group, sex, and age. For most groups of females, intake was substantially less than the RDA. About 50% of total dietary calcium was supplied by milk and milk products. Milk and cheese used as ingredients in meat, grain, and vegetable mixtures contributed another 20% of dietary calcium. The remaining 30% of calcium was provided by grains and grain products, meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, fruits, eggs, legumes, nuts, and seeds. PMID:8064396

  13. Fluoxetine attenuates alcohol intake and desire to drink.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, C A; Poulos, C X; Bremner, K E; Lanctot, K L

    1994-09-01

    Several serotonin uptake inhibitors, including the long-acting fluoxetine, have been found to decrease alcohol intake in moderately dependent alcoholics. While the mechanism of their effect is not fully elucidated, a previous study with citalopram indicated that decreased desire to drink may be an important factor. Therefore, we tested fluoxetine effects on alcohol intake and desire to drink in a placebo-controlled study. Subjects, recruited by advertisement, were mildly/moderately dependent alcoholics (12 male, four female, aged 19-59 years, healthy, non-depressed) who did not believe they had a drinking problem and were not requesting treatment. After a 1 week baseline they received, single-blind, 2 weeks placebo followed by 2 weeks fluoxetine 60 mg/day. As out-patients, subjects recorded daily standard drinks (13.6 g ethanol) and rated interest, desire, craving and liking for alcohol biweekly. Each out-patient period was immediately followed by a double-blind experimental drinking session. Out-patient daily drinks slightly decreased during fluoxetine to 6.6 +/- 0.9 (mean +/- S.E.M.) compared with during placebo (7.16 +/- 0.95, p = 0.07, N.S.) and baseline (7.18 +/- 1.0, p > 0.1, N.S.). Desire, interest and craving for alcohol decreased during fluoxetine vs placebo baseline (p < 0.05), but not vs placebo. Appetite loss and decrease in food intake (p < 0.01, fluoxetine vs placebo) correlated with each other (r = 0.91, p < 0.01) but neither correlated with decrease in alcohol intake (appetite: r = 0.26, N.S.; food intake: r = 0.22, N.S.). Weight loss occurred during fluoxetine (p < 0.05 vs placebo) but did not correlate with decrease in alcohol intake (r = 0.1, N.S.). In the experimental drinking sessions after placebo and fluoxetine treatments subjects rated their desire for each of 18 mini-drinks (each one-third of a standard drink) offered at 5 min intervals. Fluoxetine decreased desire to drink throughout the sessions; both mean and maximum desire ratings were

  14. [Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone. PMID:26119308

  15. Effects of long daily photoperiod and bovine somatotropin (Trobest) on milk yield in cows.

    PubMed

    Miller, A R; Stanisiewski, E P; Erdman, R A; Douglass, L W; Dahl, G E

    1999-08-01

    Bovine somatotropin (bST) and exposure to long daily photoperiod increase milk yield of dairy cattle. We tested the hypothesis that long daily photoperiod and bST treatment would increase milk yield in an additive manner in lactating cows. At winter solstice, 40 lactating cows were started on a 140-d experiment; cows were greater than 70 d in milk (DIM) and were balanced for uniformity of DIM and milk yield within parity. Cows were randomly assigned to one of four treatments (10/treatment): 1) natural photoperiod, 2) natural photoperiod + bST (14 mg/d Trobest i.m.), 3) long daily photoperiod (18 h of light and 6 h of darkness/d), or 4) long daily photoperiod + bST. Long daily photoperiod increased fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield 1.9 kg/d versus natural photoperiod. Treatment with bST increased FCM 5.7 kg/d versus natural photoperiod, and long daily photoperiod + bST increased FCM 5.8 kg/d versus long daily photoperiod. Long daily photoperiod + bST was additive, increasing FCM 7.7 kg/d versus natural photoperiod. Serum somatotropin increased with bST, but not photoperiod, and bST increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I. Long daily photoperiod tended to increase prolactin; bST had no effect. Long daily photoperiod + bST increased dry matter intake (DMI) relative to natural photoperiod and natural photoperiod + bST; long daily photoperiod increased DMI relative to natural photoperiod + bST. Photoperiod had no effect on net energy balance; however, bST decreased net energy balance. Generally, body weight and milk composition did not differ among treatments. In conclusion, combination of bST with long-daily photoperiod tended to amplify the increases in milk yield observed with either treatment individually. PMID:10480097

  16. Daily lifestyles in the fog and haze weather

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Dong-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background China is being plagued by a large-scaled lasting fog and haze, under which people have to work and live. Therefore, it matters to do what we can to minimize the adverse impact of the fog and haze on individual health on a daily basis. Methods Relative literatures on the fog and haze have been searched and reviewed. Particular attention has been paid to the literatures on the adverse impact of the fog and haze on the people’s health and on the ways minimizing this impact. Results Coming across the weather of fog and haze, appropriate measures taken can minimize its adverse impact on individuals on a daily basis. The measures included vitamin intake, water drinking, air cleaning indoors, stay-at-home, and mask wearing outdoors. These measures are simple and proven effective. Conclusions Simple and effective measures seem to be sufficient to minimizing the adverse impact of the fog and haze on the individual’s health on a daily basis. Lifestyle changes, awareness of environment protection, energy conservation, and new and clean energy use are ultimate ways to curb the air pollution and reduce the occurrence of the fog and haze. PMID:26904256

  17. Dietary intake and food sources of added sugar in the Australian population.

    PubMed

    Lei, Linggang; Rangan, Anna; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-03-14

    Previous studies in Australian children/adolescents and adults examining added sugar (AS) intake were based on now out-of-date national surveys. We aimed to examine the AS and free sugar (FS) intakes and the main food sources of AS among Australians, using plausible dietary data collected by a multiple-pass, 24-h recall, from the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey respondents (n 8202). AS and FS intakes were estimated using a previously published method, and as defined by the WHO, respectively. Food groups contributing to the AS intake were described and compared by age group and sex by one-way ANOVA. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups. Usual intake of FS (as percentage energy (%EFS)) was computed using a published method and compared with the WHO cut-off of <10%EFS. The mean AS intake of the participants was 60·3 (SD 52·6) g/d. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for the greatest proportion of the AS intake of the Australian population (21·4 (sd 30·1)%), followed by sugar and sweet spreads (16·3 (SD 24·5)%) and cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (15·7 (sd 24·4)%). More than half of the study population exceeded the WHO's cut-off for FS, especially children and adolescents. Overall, 80-90% of the daily AS intake came from high-sugar energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. To conclude, the majority of Australian adults and children exceed the WHO recommendation for FS intake. Efforts to reduce AS intake should focus on energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. PMID:26794833

  18. Challenges of daily data homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, C.; Auer, I.; Mestre, O.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years the growing demand of extreme value studies has led to the development of methods for the homogenisation of daily data. The behaviour of some of these methods has been investigated: Two methods (HOM: Della-Marta and Wanner, 2006 and SPLIDHOM: Mestre et al., submitted) which adjust the whole distribution of the climate element (especially minimum and maximum temperature) have been compared to the simpler Vincent's method (Vincent et al., 2002) which interpolates monthly adjustment factors onto daily data. The results indicate that the behaviour of the methods HOM and SPLIDHOM is very similar, although the complexity of these methods is different. They can improve the results compared to the Vincent's method when inhomogeneities in higher order moments occur. However, their applicability is limited since highly correlated neighbour series are required. More over, more data in the intervals before and after breaks is needed if the whole distribution shall be adjusted instead of the mean only. Due to these limitations a combination of distribution dependent adjustment methods and the Vincent method seems to be necessary for the homogenization of many time series. A dataset of Austrian daily maximum and minimum temperature data is used to illustrate the challenges of distribution dependent homogenization methods. Emphasis is placed on the estimation of the (sampling) uncertainty of these methods. Therefore a bootstrap approach is used. The accuracy of the calculated adjustments varies mainly between about 0.5°C for mean temperatures and more than one degree Celsius for the margins of the distribution. These uncertainty estimates can be valuable for extreme value studies.

  19. Timing of food intake and obesity: a novel association.

    PubMed

    Garaulet, Marta; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies link energy regulation to the circadian clock at the behavioral, physiological and molecular levels, emphasizing that the timing of food intake itself may have a significant role in obesity. In this regards, there is emerging literature in animals demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation. Unusual feeding time can produce a disruption of the circadian system which might produce unhealthy consequences in humans. In a longitudinal study, we recently showed that the timing of the main meal was predictive of weight loss during a 20-week dietary intervention and that this effect was independent from total 24-h caloric intake. The importance of caloric distribution across the day on weight loss therapy was supported by a recent 12-week experimental study showing that subjects assigned to high caloric intake during breakfast lost significantly more weight than those assigned to high caloric intake during the dinner. Furthermore, one of the most influential discoveries relevant for this area of research in the last years is the presence of an active circadian clock in different organs related to food intake. This is the case for stomach, intestine, pancreas or liver. New data also suggest that there is a temporal component in the regulation of adipose tissue functions. Thus, a specific temporal order in the daily patterns of adipose tissue genes appears to be crucial for adipose tissue to exclusively either accumulate fat or to mobilize fat at the proper time. Taking into account that feeding is the source of energy for adipose tissue, the time of feeding, particularly for high-energy content meals, may be decisive, and changes in this timing could have metabolic consequences for the development of obesity and for weight loss. PMID:24467926

  20. Genetic regulation of prepartum dry matter intake in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Shonka, B N; Tao, S; Dahl, G E; Spurlock, D M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI) in prepartum nonlactating and in lactating Holstein cows. Measurements were recorded on cows from Iowa State University (ISU) and the University of Florida (UF) dairy herds. Individual feed intake data were recorded daily at ISU from approximately 30 d prepartum through 150 d in milk (DIM). Individual intakes from cows at UF were recorded for approximately 42 d pre- and postpartum. Prepartum DMI traits were defined as DMI on d -15 (multiparous) or d -8 (primiparous) relative to calving date (DRYDMI), DMI on d -1 before parturition (CALVEDMI), and the negative of the slope of a regression line fitted through the last 14 (multiparous) or 7 (primiparous) days before calving (DEC). Lactation DMI traits were defined as DMI at 30 DIM (DMI30) and 100 DIM (DMI100; ISU data only). The final data set included 245 primiparous and 221 multiparous cows from ISU, and 125 multiparous cows from UF. Heritability estimates were 0.43, 0.64, 0.32, and 0.62 for DRYDMI, CALVEDMI, DEC, and DMI30, respectively. The estimate of heritability for DMI100 (ISU only) was 0.52. The genetic correlation between DRYDMI and DMI30 was 0.97. Thus, DMI prepartum is a moderately heritable trait that is highly correlated with intake during early lactation. Genetic correlations between DEC and DMI during lactation were lower and similar to standard error estimates (-0.24 ± 0.22 for DEC and DMI30 for combined data, and -0.13 ± 0.27 for DEC and DMI100 in ISU data). Thus, selection for altered DMI during lactation may not dramatically affect the depression in intake that occurs before parturition. PMID:26319760

  1. Carbohydrate Intake and Overweight and Obesity among Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    MERCHANT, ANWAR T.; VATANPARAST, HASSANALI; BARLAS, SHAHZAIB; DEHGHAN, MAHSHID; SHAH, SYED MAHBOOB ALI; DE KONING, LAWRENCE; STECK, SUSAN E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the dietary habits of people with optimal body weight in communities with high overweight and obesity prevalence. Objective To evaluate carbohydrate intake in relation to overweight and obesity in healthy, free-living adults. Design We used a cross-sectional analysis. Subjects/setting The Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 is a cross-sectional survey of Canadians conducted in 2004–2005. There were 4,451 participants aged 18 years and older with anthropometric and dietary data and no comorbid conditions in this analysis. Main outcome measures Outcome variables were body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m2) and overweight or obesity status (dichotomous) defined as BMI ≥25 compared with BMI <25 based on measured height and weight. Diet was evaluated by 24-hour dietary recall based on the Automated Multi-Pass Method. Statistical analyses performed Weighted regression models with bootstrapping and cubic splines were used. Outcome variables were BMI and overweight or obesity, and predictors were daily nutrient intake. Adjustment for total energy intake, age, leisure time energy expenditure, sex, smoking, education, and income adequacy was performed. Results Risk of overweight and obesity was decreased in all quartiles of carbohydrate intake compared to the lowest intake category (multivariate odds ratio quartile 2=0.63; 95% confidence interval: 0.49 to 0.90; odds ratio quartile 3=0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.41 to 0.82; odds ratio quartile 4=0.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.42 to 0.85). Spline analyses revealed lowest risk among those consuming 290 to 310 g/day carbohydrates. Conclusions Consuming a low-carbohydrate (approximately <47% energy) diet is associated with greater likelihood of being overweight or obese among healthy, free-living adults. Lowest risk may be obtained by consuming 47% to 64% energy from carbohydrates. PMID:19559132

  2. Nonlinear optics in daily life.

    PubMed

    Garmire, Elsa

    2013-12-16

    An overview is presented of the impact of NLO on today's daily life. While NLO researchers have promised many applications, only a few have changed our lives so far. This paper categorizes applications of NLO into three areas: improving lasers, interaction with materials, and information technology. NLO provides: coherent light of different wavelengths; multi-photon absorption for plasma-materials interaction; advanced spectroscopy and materials analysis; and applications to communications and sensors. Applications in information processing and storage seem less mature. PMID:24514630

  3. Dietary intake of four artificial sweeteners by Irish pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; Nugent, Anne P; McNulty, Breige A; O'Reilly, Emer; Tlustos, Christina; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    In spite of rigorous pre- and post-market reviews of safety, there remains a high level of debate regarding the use of artificial sweeteners in foods. Young children are of particular interest when assessing food chemical exposure as a result of their unique food consumption patterns and comparatively higher exposure to food chemicals on a body weight basis when compared with the general population. The present study examined the intakes of four intense sweeteners (acesulfame K, aspartame, saccharin, sucralose) in the diets of children aged 1-4 years using food consumption and sweetener presence data from the Irish National Pre-school Nutrition Survey (2010-11) and analytical data for sweetener concentration in foods obtained from a national testing programme. Four exposure assessment scenarios were conducted using the available data on sweetener occurrence and concentration. The results demonstrated that the mean daily intakes for all four sweeteners were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) (17-31%), even considering the most conservative assumptions regarding sweetener presence and concentration. High consumer intakes (P95) were also below the ADI for the four sweeteners when more realistic estimates of exposure were considered. Both sweetener occurrence and concentration data had a considerable effect on reducing the estimated intake values, with a combined reduction in intakes of 95% when expressed as a proportion of the ADI. Flavoured drinks were deemed to be a key contributor to artificial sweetener intakes in this population cohort. It was concluded that there is no health risk to Irish pre-school children at current dietary intake levels of the sweeteners studied. PMID:26939625

  4. Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amschler, Denise H.

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

  5. 75 FR 3182 - Intake Screening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons 28 CFR Part 522 RIN 1120-AB47 Intake Screening AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Bureau of Prisons (Bureau... to the Rules Unit, Office of General Counsel, Bureau of Prisons, 320 First Street, NW.,...

  6. Protein intake and bone health.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe

    2011-03-01

    Adequate nutrition plays an important role in the development and maintenance of bone structures resistant to usual mechanical stresses. In addition to calcium in the presence of an adequate supply of vitamin D, dietary proteins represent key nutrients for bone health and thereby function in the prevention of osteoporosis. Several studies point to a positive effect of high protein intake on bone mineral density or content. This fact is associated with a significant reduction in hip fracture incidence, as recorded in a large prospective study carried out in a homogeneous cohort of postmenopausal women. Low protein intake (< 0.8 g/kg body weight/day) is often observed in patients with hip fractures and an intervention study indicates that following orthopedic management, protein supplementation attenuates post-fracture bone loss, tends to increase muscle strength, and reduces medical complications and rehabilitation hospital stay. There is no evidence that high protein intake per se would be detrimental for bone mass and strength. Nevertheless, it appears reasonable to avoid very high protein diets (i. e. more than 2.0 g/kg body weight/day) when associated with low calcium intake (i. e. less than 600 mg/day). In the elderly, taking into account the attenuated anabolic response to dietary protein with ageing, there is concern that the current dietary protein recommended allowance (RDA), as set at 0.8 g/kg body weight/day, might be too low for the primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. PMID:22139564

  7. Food and macronutrient intake of male adolescent Kalenjin runners in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Dirk L; Van Hall, Gerrit; Hambraeus, Leif

    2002-12-01

    A nutritional survey based on twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in Kenya during a 2-week field study was carried out in order to determine the composition of their diet and make a comparison with macronutrient recommendations for athletes. Food samples were collected for analysis of macronutrient distribution and energy content from main meals and the macronutrient distribution and energy content of additional food intake were based on the information of a 24 h recall interview and estimated from food tables. The diet of the Kalenjin runners was very high in carbohydrate (71 % 8.7 g/kg body weight per d) and very low in fat (15 %). Intake of total protein (13 %; 1.6 g/kg body weight per d) was above the daily intake recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU), while essential amino acid intake was estimated to be in the borderline-to-low range based on FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations for children <12 years and adults. The energy intake was mainly derived from vegetable sources (90 %) with maize and kidney beans as the staple food (81 %). The diet of the Kalenjin runners met recommendations for endurance athletes for total protein and most essential amino acid intake as well as carbohydrate intake even though it was based on a small range of food items. PMID:12493093

  8. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  9. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  10. Daily cycles in coastal dunes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

  11. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

  12. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ... they eat. Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ...

  13. Efficacy and safety of coadministration of once-daily indacaterol and glycopyrronium versus indacaterol alone in COPD patients: the GLOW6 study

    PubMed Central

    Vincken, Walter; Aumann, Joseph; Chen, Hungta; Henley, Michelle; McBryan, Danny; Goyal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Background Addition of a second bronchodilator from a different pharmacological class may benefit patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) whose symptoms are insufficiently controlled by bronchodilator monotherapy. GLOW6 evaluated the efficacy and safety of once-daily coadministration of the long-acting β2-agonist indacaterol (IND) and the long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrronium (GLY) versus IND alone in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Materials and methods In this randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, 12-week study, patients were randomized 1:1 to IND 150 μg and GLY 50 μg daily (IND + GLY) or IND 150 μg daily and placebo (IND + PBO) (all delivered via separate Breezhaler® devices). The primary objective was to demonstrate the superiority of IND + GLY versus IND + PBO for trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at week 12. Other end points included trough FEV1 at day 1, FEV1 area under the curve from 30 minutes to 4 hours (AUC30min–4h), peak FEV1, inspiratory capacity and trough forced vital capacity (FVC) at day 1 and week 12, and transition dyspnea index (TDI) focal score, COPD symptoms, and rescue medication use over 12 weeks. Results A total of 449 patients were randomized (IND + GLY, 226; IND + PBO, 223); 94% completed the study. On day 1 and at week 12, IND + GLY significantly improved trough FEV1 versus IND + PBO, with treatment differences of 74 mL (95% CI 46–101 mL) and 64 mL (95% CI 28–99 mL), respectively (both P<0.001). IND + GLY significantly improved postdose peak FEV1, FEV1 AUC30min–4h, and trough FVC at day 1 and week 12 versus IND + PBO (all P<0.01). TDI focal score and COPD symptoms (percentage of days able to perform usual daily activities and change from baseline in mean daytime respiratory score) were significantly improved with IND + GLY versus IND + PBO (P<0.05). The incidence of adverse events was similar for the two treatment groups

  14. Association, effects and validation of polymorphisms within the NCAPG - LCORL locus located on BTA6 with feed intake, gain, meat and carcass traits in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In a previously reported genome-wide association study based on a high-density bovine SNP genotyping array, 8 SNP were nominally associated (Pdaily gain (ADG) and 3 of these were also associated (Pdaily feed intake (ADFI) in a population of c...

  15. Dietary intake and physical activity in a Canadian population sample of male patients with HIV infection and metabolic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Bianca Maria; Aghdassi, Elaheh; Mohammed, Saira Saddia; Fung, Lillia Yan; Jalali, Pegah; Salit, Irving Elliot; Allard, Johane Pierette

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess dietary intake and physical activity in a Canadian population sample of male patients with HIV and metabolic abnormalities and to compare the data to Canadian recommendations. Sixty-five HIV-infected men with at least one feature associated with the metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, central obesity, or lipodystrophy) were enrolled. Results from 7-day food records and activity logs were compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes and recommendations of Canada's Physical Activity Guide, respectively. Anthropometric data were also measured. Fifty-two percent of the subjects were overweight, another 15% were obese. However, energy intake (mean+/-SEM) (2153+/-99 kcal/d) was lower than the estimated requirement (2854+/-62 kcal/d; p<0.0001), and 84.5% of the patients reached the recommended minimum of 60 min of mild or 30 min of moderate daily exercise. Intake was adequate for protein, but high for fat and cholesterol in 40% of patients. No patient reached the recommendation for fiber. Intake from diet alone was suboptimal for most micronutrients. Prevalence was highest for low vitamin E (91% of patients) and magnesium (68%) intake, and high sodium intake (72%). In summary, a large proportion of HIV patients with metabolic abnormalities were overweight or obese. However, this was not associated with high energy intake, or reduced physical activity. High fat, low fiber and inadequate micronutrient intakes were prevalent. PMID:18288980

  16. Reducing added sugar intake in Norway by replacing sugar sweetened beverages with beverages containing intense sweeteners - a risk benefit assessment.

    PubMed

    Husøy, T; Mangschou, B; Fotland, T Ø; Kolset, S O; Nøtvik Jakobsen, H; Tømmerberg, I; Bergsten, C; Alexander, J; Frost Andersen, L

    2008-09-01

    A risk benefit assessment in Norway on the intake of added sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid from beverages, and the influence of changing from sugar sweetened to diet beverages was performed. National dietary surveys were used in the exposure assessment, and the content of added sugar and food additives were calculated based on actual contents used in beverages and sales volumes provided by the manufactures. The daily intake of sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid were estimated for children (1- to 13-years-old) and adults according to the current intake level and a substitution scenario where it was assumed that all consumed beverages contained intense sweeteners. The change from sugar sweetened to diet beverages reduced the total intake of added sugar for all age groups but especially for adolescent. This change did not result in intake of intense sweeteners from beverages above the respective ADIs. However, the intake of acesulfame K approached ADI for small children and the total intake of benzoic acid was increased to above ADI for most age groups. The highest intake of benzoic acid was observed for 1- to 2-year-old children, and benzoic acid intake in Norwegian children is therefore considered to be of special concern. PMID:18639604

  17. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A.; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. Objective To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Design Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). Results In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (− 2 to 2). Conclusions Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered. PMID:27014577

  18. Heavy metal and metalloids intake risk assessment in the diet of a rural population living near a gold mine in the Peruvian Andes (Cajamarca).

    PubMed

    Barenys, Marta; Boix, Nuria; Farran-Codina, Andreu; Palma-Linares, Imma; Montserrat, Roser; Curto, Ariadna; Gomez-Catalan, Jesus; Ortiz, Pedro; Deza, Nilton; Llobet, Juan M

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates the diet composition of a rural population near a gold mine in the Cajamarca district of Peru. The main consumed items by this population were tubers and cereals, and the mean energy intake (1990 kcal) was shown not to cover the recommended intake values for the male population. The concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Zn, Al, Cr and, Cu in drinking water and food samples of items contributing to 91% of this diet (145 samples, 24 different items) were determined and used to calculate their daily intakes for risk assessment. The As, Cd and Pb daily intakes exceeded the limit values established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), entailing serious concerns for the population's health. Moreover, the intake values of As and Pb were shown to be higher, the closer to the gold mine the studied population was. PMID:24994564

  19. Daily Medicine Record for Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... the-Counter Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Daily Medicine Record for Your Child (English) Share Tweet Linkedin ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...

  20. Fluid deprivation increases isotonic NaCl intake, but not hypertonic salt intake, under normal and heated conditions in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Omouessi, S T; Lemamy, G J; Kiki-Mvouaka, S; Fernette, B; Falconetti, C; Ndeboko, B; Mouecoucou, J; Thornton, S N

    2016-02-01

    In the course of exposure to fluid deprivation and heated environment, mammals regulate their hydromineral balance and body temperature by a number of mechanisms including sweating, water and salt intakes. Here we challenged obese Zucker rats, known to have a predisposition to hypertension, with 0.9%NaCl alone or with 2%NaCl solution + water to drink under fluid deprivation and heated conditions. Food and fluid intakes, body weight, diuresis and natriuresis were measured daily throughout. Serum aldosterone levels and Na(+) concentration were also analyzed. Data showed that obese and lean rats presented similar baseline measurements of food, 0.9%NaCl and fluid intakes, diuresis and fluid balance; whereas hypertonic 2%NaCl consumption was almost absent. Before and during fluid deprivation animals increased isotonic but not hypertonic NaCl intake; the obese showed significant increases in diuresis and Na(+) excretion, whereas, total fluid intake was similar between groups. Heat increased isotonic NaCl intake and doubled natriuresis in obese which were wet on their fur and displayed a paradoxical increase of fluid gain. Fluid deprivation plus heat produced similar negative fluid balance in all groups. Body weight losses, food intake and diuresis reductions were amplified under the combined conditions. Animals exposed to 2%NaCl showed higher circulating levels of aldosterone and obese were lower than leans. In animals which drank 0.9%NaCl, obese showed higher serum levels of Na(+) than leans. We conclude that in spite of their higher sensitivity to high salt and heat obese Zucker rats can control hydromineral balance in response to fluid deprivation and heat by adjusting isotonic NaCl preference with sodium balance and circulating levels of aldosterone. This suggests a key hormonal role in the mechanisms underlying thermoregulation, body fluid homeostasis and sodium intake. PMID:26621332

  1. Contrails reduce daily temperature range.

    PubMed

    Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

    2002-08-01

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period. PMID:12167846

  2. Title VII--Nutrition Program for the Elderly. I. Contribution to one day's dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Kohrs, M B; O'Hanlon, P; Eklund, D

    1978-05-01

    Food records kept by 466 individuals participating in the federally funded Nutrition Program for the Elderly show that those eating at the meal site on the day of the food record consumed more energy, protein, and calcium than non-participants and participants who did not eat there on the day of the record. Dietary ratings, which included eight nutrients and energy, indicated they also had better overall diets than non-participants. Non-participants consumed more iron than participants. The daily intake of all nutrients, except calcium, of those eating at the meal site reflected what was offered. Between 40 and 50 per cent of the total daily intake was consumed at the meal center. Women consumed a significantly greater proportion of their daily intake of most nutrients from the food provided by program than the men. The desirability of providing a high proportion of the recommended allowances for protein and other nutrients through the meal program menus is emphasized. The results of the study demonstrated the importance of nutritionists in administrative roles at the state and area levels in determining the effectiveness of a meal program, since food intake reflected menu planning. PMID:649896

  3. Association between Macronutrients Intake, Visceral Obesity and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Obese Egyptian Women

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nayera E.; El Shebini, Salwa M.; Ahmed, Nihad H.; Selim Mostafa, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Study the association between the total caloric intake, protein, lipid, and some classes of fatty acids of the diet, and their effects on blood pressure in a sample of Egyptian obese women with and without visceral obesity. METHODS: Five hundred forty-nine obese women were included in the study with mean age of 38.1 ± 11.56 years and mean Body mass index [BMI] of 36.17 ± 7.23. They enrolled in a program for losing weight. Visceral fat was determined using ultrasound. Blood pressure was measured 3 times and the mean was recorded. Twenty four hours dietary recall was reported. RESULTS: Thirty point four percentages of samples has visceral obesity ≥ 7cm; they were the older, showed higher values of BMI, visceral obesity and blood pressure. Significant difference was found between groups regarding mean value of BMI, visceral obesity, both systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP and most of the daily macronutrients intake. In groups (2&3) positive significant correlation was recorded between (SBP) & (DBP) and total daily intake of total calories, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and negative significant correlation with total daily intake of total protein, animal and vegetable protein, linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, while oleic fatty acid showed negative correlation with SBP&DBP in all groups. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the hypothesis that the macronutrients composition of diet influences blood pressure in different ways, in obese patients with visceral obesity. PMID:27275219

  4. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    An, Ruopeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Methods: Data came from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Results: Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Conclusion: Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting. PMID:27153083

  5. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers. PMID:23960108

  6. Recent data on iodine intake in Germany and Europe.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. These regulate metabolism, promote growth, development and maturation of all organs, especially the brain. Most iodine is found in oceans and most continental soil and ground water is deficient in iodine. Therefore, around 2 billion individuals are estimated to have insufficient iodine intake and are at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. The best carrier for save iodine supplementation is salt, as the daily intake of salt is mainly constant. Due to the collaboration between international and national organisations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries introduced universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory or voluntary fortification programs. In Germany as in most European countries the use of iodized salt is voluntary not only in household but also in the food industry. Two recent epidemiological surveys in Germany revealed that 33% of children and 32% of adults are still suffering from mild to moderate iodine deficiency. The best surrogate parameter for iodine deficiency is goitre. The goitre prevalence is around 30% in children as well as in adults which is in accordance with the documented iodine deficiency. From other European countries epidemiological derived data on iodine intake are only available from Denmark and Poland. Further efforts are under way to reveal the iodine status with proper methods in all European countries. On this background it might be possible to establish adequate iodine fortification programs in all European countries. PMID:27421794

  7. Predictors of Measurement Error in Energy Intake During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Eric; Siega-Riz, Anna-Maria; Herring, Amy; He, Ka; Stuebe, Alison; Olshan, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition plays a critical role in maternal and fetal health; however, research on error in the measurement of energy intake during pregnancy is limited. The authors analyzed data on 998 women living in central North Carolina with singleton pregnancies during 2001–2005. Second-trimester diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Estimated energy requirements were calculated using Institute of Medicine prediction equations, with adjustment for energy costs during the second trimester. Implausible values for daily energy intake were determined using confidence limits of agreement for energy intake/estimated energy requirements. Prevalences of low energy reporting (LER) and high energy reporting (HER) were 32.8% and 12.9%, respectively. In a multivariable analysis, pregravid body mass index was related to both LER and HER; LER was higher in both overweight (odds ratio = 1.96, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 3.02; P = 0.031) and obese (odds ratio = 3.29, 95% confidence interval: 2.33, 4.65; P < 0.001) women than in normal-weight counterparts. Other predictors of LER included marriage and higher levels of physical activity. HER was higher among subjects who were underweight, African-American, and less educated and subjects who had higher depressive symptom scores. LER and HER are prevalent during pregnancy. Identifying their predictors may improve data collection and analytic methods for reducing systematic bias in the study of diet and reproductive outcomes. PMID:21273398

  8. Changes in dairy food and nutrient intakes in Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Parker, Carole E; Vivian, Wendy J; Oddy, Wendy H; Beilin, Lawrence J; Mori, Trevor A; O'Sullivan, Therese A

    2012-12-01

    Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01). Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01). Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01), due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health. PMID:23363991

  9. Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Carole E.; Vivian, Wendy J.; Oddy, Wendy H.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Mori, Trevor A.; O’Sullivan, Therese A.

    2012-01-01

    Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01). Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01). Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01), due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health. PMID:23363991

  10. A STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORT ON INTAKE TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents an updated evaluation of mechanisms and intake designs for reducing the number of fish entrained and impinged at water intake facilities. These mechanisms consist of intake configurations, behavioral barriers for guiding fish past intake entrances, physical sc...

  11. Comparison of food and nutrient intakes between cohorts of the HAPIEE and Whitehall II studies

    PubMed Central

    Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Kubinova, Ruzena; Bobak, Martin; Brunner, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Differences in dietary habits have been suggested as an important reason for the large health gap between Eastern and Western European populations. Few studies have compared individual-level nutritional data directly between the two regions. This study addresses this hypothesis by comparing food, drink and nutrient intakes in four large population samples. Methods: Czech, Polish and Russian participants of the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study, and British participants in the Whitehall II study, altogether 29 972 individuals aged 45–73 years, were surveyed in 2002–2005. Dietary data were collected by customised food frequency questionnaires. Reported food, drink and nutrient intake data were harmonised and compared between cohorts using multivariable adjusted quantile regression models. Results: Median fruit and vegetable intakes were lower in the pooled Eastern European sample, but not in all country cohorts, compared with British subjects. Median daily consumption of fruits were 275, 213, 130 and 256 g in the Czech, Polish, Russian and Whitehall II cohort, respectively. The respective median daily intakes of vegetables were 185, 197, 292 and 246 g. Median intakes of animal fat foods and saturated fat, total fat and cholesterol nutrients were significantly higher in the Czech, Polish and Russian cohorts compared with the British; for example, median daily intakes of saturated fatty acids were 31.3, 32.5, 29.2 and 25.4 g, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there are important differences in dietary habits between and within Eastern and Western European populations which may have contributed to the health gap between the two regions. PMID:26637342

  12. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Schweitzer, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  13. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S; Fulgoni, Victor L; Schweitzer, Cindy M

    2015-06-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003-2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey's reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth "mixed dishes" group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%-20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%-25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  14. Intake of essential fatty acids in Indonesian children: secondary analysis of data from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Neufingerl, Nicole; Djuwita, Ratna; Otten-Hofman, Anke; Nurdiani, Reisi; Garczarek, Ursula; Sulaeman, Ahmad; Zock, Peter L; Eilander, Ans

    2016-02-28

    Essential fatty acids (EFA) such as α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) are needed for healthy growth and development of children. Worldwide, reliable intake data of EFA are often lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate dietary intake of EFA in Indonesian children. Dietary intake data of 4-12-year-old children (n 45,821) from a nationally representative Indonesian survey were used to estimate median intake and distribution of population fatty acid intake. Missing data on individual fatty acids in the Indonesian food composition table were complemented through chemical analyses of national representative food samples and imputation of data from the US nutrient database. Nutrient adequacy ratios were calculated as a percentage of FAO/WHO intake recommendations. The medians of total fat intake of the children was 26·7 (10th-90th percentile 11·2-40·0) percentage of total daily energy (%E). Intakes of fatty acids were 4·05 (10th-90th percentile 1·83-7·22) %E for total PUFA, 3·36 (10th-90th percentile 1·14-6·29) %E for LA and 0·20 (10th-90th percentile 0·07-0·66) %E for ALA. Median intake of PUFA was 67 % and that of ALA 40 % of the minimum amounts recommended by FAO/WHO. These data indicate that a majority of Indonesian children has intakes of PUFA and specifically ALA that are lower than recommended intake levels. Total fat and LA intakes may be suboptimal for a smaller yet considerable proportion of children. Public health initiatives should provide practical guidelines to promote consumption of PUFA-rich foods. PMID:26824732

  15. Estimation of Total and Inorganic Arsenic Intake from the Diet in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mi-Na; Lee, Seul-Gi; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Jeongseon; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kim, Heon; Choi, Byung-Sun; Yu, Il-Je; Park, Jung-Duck

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a major environmental pollutant and a known human carcinogen that is widely distributed in the air, soil, and water. General population is mainly exposed to As through drinking water and food from the contaminated water and soil. Arsenic in drinking water is generally well controlled now. This study was performed to estimate total and inorganic As intake and to determine the major contributing source in the Korean adult diet. The study subjects were 2117 healthy adults (922 males and 1195 females) who had not been occupationally exposed to As. Total dietary intake was studied using the 24-h recall method, which included 138 specific food items. The estimates of total As and inorganic As intake were based on total and inorganic As contents in each food item consumed during the last 24 h. Daily dietary intake was estimated to be 1373.6 g. Total As intake was estimated to be 145.4 µg As/day. Total dietary As intake was correlated with consumption of fish/shellfish, seaweeds, and grains. Approximately 87% of total dietary As intake was attributed to seafood, such as 105.5 µg As/day from fish/shellfish and 20.5 µg As/day from seaweeds. Inorganic As intake was estimated to be 10.4 µg As per day. Inorganic As intake was mainly provided by grains (6.4 µg As/day), followed by seaweeds and fish/shellfish. Our results indicate that seafood and grains are the main As dietary sources in Korean adults and that dietary As exposure may be associated with individual dietary habits and environmental As contamination among countries. PMID:26706926

  16. Mate and Tea Intake, Dietary Antioxidants and Risk of Breast Cancer: a Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Stefani, Eduardo De; Mendoza, Beatriz; Vazquez, Alvaro; Abbona, Estela; Sanchez, Gustavo; Rosa, Alejandro De

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported an inverse association between high 'mate' intake (infusion of Ilex paraguariensis herb, a staple beverage in temperate South America) and breast cancer (BC) risk. Stronger inverse associations were found in high strata of tea, vegetable, fruit and energy intakes, and in overweight/obese women, suggesting possible roles for 'mate' mainly from its antioxidant contribution. The present study attempted to thoroughly explore possible associations among 'mate' and tea intake, dietary antioxidants and BC risk. Combining two databases of previous studies, 572 BC incident cases and 889 controls were interviewed with a specific questionnaire featuring socio-demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, and a food frequency questionnaire (64 items), focusing on 'mate' intake (consumer status, daily intake, age at start, age at quit, duration of habit). Food-derived nutrients were calculated from available databases. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated through unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant potential confounders. The highest 'mate' intake was significantly inversely associated with BC risk for both low and high carotenoids (OR=0.40 vs. 0.41), vitamin C (OR=0.33 vs. 0.50), vitamin E (OR=0.37 vs. 0.45), flavonols (OR=0.38 vs. 0.48) and reduced glutathione (OR=0.48 vs. 0.46) strata. High tea intake showed significant inverse risk associations only with high carotenoids (OR=0.41), vitamin E (OR=0.48) and reduced glutathione (OR=0.43) strata. In conclusion, a strong and inverse association for 'mate' intake and BC was found, independent of dietary antioxidant levels. Also strong inverse associations with tea intake were more evident only at high levels of certain dietary antioxidants. PMID:27356713

  17. Soy intake and risk of breast cancer in Asians and Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Wu, A H; Ziegler, R G; Nomura, A M; West, D W; Kolonel, L N; Horn-Ross, P L; Hoover, R N; Pike, M C

    1998-12-01

    Evidence from case-control studies suggests, although not entirely consistently, that soy intake may protect against breast cancer. The designs and findings of studies conducted in Asian women living in Japan, Singapore, China, and the United States are reviewed. Because of the considerably higher intake of soy by native Asians than by Asian Americans living in California and Hawaii, these studies investigated different segments of the dose-response relation between soy intake and breast cancer risk. Data are not sufficient to determine the amount or frequency of soy intake effective in protecting against breast cancer. Of concern is that soy intake may be homogeneously high in Asia, making it difficult to identify differences in breast cancer risk between high and moderate daily consumers. In studies conducted in Asian Americans, it is difficult to be certain that soy intake is not a marker of other factors related to Western lifestyle that are causally associated with risk of breast cancer. Additional studies assessing the role of soy and breast cancer are needed. These studies should assess intake of all food sources of soy, considering portion size as well as other dietary and nondietary factors that may confound the soy-breast cancer association. A better understanding of the mechanisms whereby soy intake may influence the risk of breast cancer is also needed. Dietary intervention studies with soy will provide information on the acute effects of soy on endogenous hormone concentrations. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies are necessary to investigate the longer-term relations between hormone concentrations and soy intake in women. PMID:9848513

  18. Dietary intake of lutein and diabetic retinopathy in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Sahli, Michelle W.; Mares, Julie A.; Meyers, Kristin J.; Klein, Ronald; Brady, William E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Donahue, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypothesis that dietary intake of lutein is inversely associated with prevalence of diabetic retinopathy due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and its location within the retina. Methods We used logistic regression to examine the association between prevalent DR and energy-adjusted lutein intake [by quartile (Q)] using data collected from 1,430 ARIC study participants with diabetes (n=994 White and n=508 Black). DR was assessed using a 45-degree nonmydriatic retinal photograph from one randomly chosen eye taken at visit 3 (1993–95). Dietary lutein intake was estimated using a 66-item food frequency questionnaire at visit 1(1987–89). Results The median estimated daily lutein intake was 1,370 μg/1000 kcals and the prevalence of DR was ~21%. We found a crude association between lutein and DR [OR (95% CI) for Q4 (high intake) vs. Q1 (low intake) =2.11 (1.45–3.09); p for trend<0.0001] which was attenuated after adjustment for race, duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, field center and energy intake [1.41 (0.87–2.28); p for trend=0.01]. In analyses limited to persons with a short duration of diabetes (<6 years), the association no longer persisted [0.94 (0.31–2.16); p for trend=0.72] as compared to the association in those with a longer duration of diabetes (≥6 year) [1.58 (0.91–2.75); p for trend=0.01]. Conclusion Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the odds of higher lutein intake were greater among those with DR than those without DR. However, after adjusting for confounders, intake of lutein was not associated with DR. PMID:26949989

  19. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study.

    PubMed

    Chouet, Justine; Ferland, Guylaine; Féart, Catherine; Rolland, Yves; Presse, Nancy; Boucher, Kariane; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined). Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS). Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64), those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better) mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024) and lower (i.e., better) FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042). In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013) and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = -0.33, p = 0.037). Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = -0.24, p = 0.001). Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults. PMID:26274973

  20. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study

    PubMed Central

    Chouet, Justine; Ferland, Guylaine; Féart, Catherine; Rolland, Yves; Presse, Nancy; Boucher, Kariane; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined). Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS). Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64), those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better) mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024) and lower (i.e., better) FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042). In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013) and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = −0.33, p = 0.037). Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = −0.24, p = 0.001). Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults. PMID:26274973

  1. Association between hair mineral and age, BMI and nutrient intakes among Korean female adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Se Ra; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Na Ri; Chung, Hwan Wook

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the association between hair mineral levels and nutrient intakes, age, and BMI in female adults who visited a woman's clinic located in Seoul. Dietary intakes were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and mineral levels were measured in collected hairs, and the relationship between these was examined. The average daily nutrient intakes of subjects were compared to those of the KDRIs, and the energy intake status was fair. The average intake of calcium in women of 50 years and over was 91.35% of KDRIs and the potassium intake was greatly below the recommended levels in all age groups. In the average hair mineral contents in subjects, calcium and copper exceeded far more than the reference range while selenium was very low with 85.19% of subjects being lower than the reference value. In addition, the concentrations of sodium, potassium, iron, and manganese in the hair were below the reference ranges in over 15% of subjects. The concentrations of sodium, chromium, sulfur, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with age, but the hair zinc level showed a negative correlation (P < 0.05) with age. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, chromium, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with BMI. Some mineral levels in subjects of this study showed significant correlations with nutrient intakes, but it seems that the hair mineral content is not directly influenced by each mineral intake. As described above, some hair mineral levels in female adults deviated from the normal range, and it is considered that nutritional intervention to control the imbalance of mineral nutrition is required. Also, as some correlations were shown between hair mineral levels and age, BMI, and nutrient intakes, the possibility of utilizing hair mineral analysis for specific purposes in the future is suggested. PMID:20090887

  2. Dietary fibers reduce food intake by satiation without conditioned taste aversion in mice.

    PubMed

    Rasoamanana, Rojo; Even, Patrick C; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2013-02-17

    It is well known that intake of dietary fiber (DF) potently decreases food intake and feelings of hunger and/or promotes satiety ratings. However, the mechanisms explaining these effects are not well characterized. This work was performed to determine which of satiation and/or satiety mechanisms provoke the decrease of food intake induced by DF in mice. We tested in an intra-group protocol a low-viscosity (LV, fructo-oligosaccharide), a viscous (VP, guar gum) and a high-viscosity (HV, mixture of guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharide) preload. These were given to mice by intra-gastric gavage. It appeared that viscous preloads such as VP and HV reduced the daily energy intake by 14% and 21% respectively. The strong effect of HV was mainly due to a large decrease of meal size (by 57%) and meal duration (by 65%) with no effect on ingestion rate during the first 30 min after administration. Therefore, the DF-induced decrease of energy intake was due to a satiation mechanism. This is further supported by a 3-fold increased sensitization of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract as observed by c-Fos protein immunolabelling. No compensation of food intake was observed during the rest of the day, a phenomenon that may be explained by the fact that metabolic rate remained high despite the lower food intake. We have also shown that the DF-induced inhibition of food intake was not paired with a conditioned taste aversion. To conclude, this work demonstrates that DF inhibits food intake by increasing satiation during ~1h after administration. PMID:23268328

  3. Osteoporosis knowledge, calcium intake, and weight-bearing physical activity in three age groups of women.

    PubMed

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women and compare knowledge to calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity (WBPA). In this cross-sectional study, knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA were assessed using probe interviews, a food frequency and an activity questionnaire, respectively. Seventy-five white women were separated into three groups: young (25-35 years), middle aged (36-46 years) and postmenopausal (50+ years). Concept maps were used to assess knowledge (concepts, integration and misconceptions). Calcium intakes from diet, supplements and fortified orange juice were estimated as were minutes of daily WBPA. Analysis of covariance was used to compare knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA by age group. Covariates included education, family history, physical problems making exercise difficult, and lactose intolerance. Chi square analysis was used to determine differences in these covariates across age groups. Correlations and regression analysis were used to determine relationships between knowledge and behaviors. Knowledge scores averaged 32-44 points (183 possible). Average calcium intake in all groups exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake's recommended Adequate Intake but 20-24% consumed less than 60% of the AI. Housework, walking at work, and standing at home and work accounted for 90% of WBPA. Knowledge about osteoporosis was limited and not associated with age, WBPA or calcium intake. Calcium intake and WBPA were not associated with age. Practitioners need to provide explicit information on osteoporosis and risk reducing behaviors to women of all ages. PMID:12238730

  4. Mate Intake and Risk of Breast Cancer in Uruguay: a Case- Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Stefani, Eduardo De; Mendoza, Beatriz; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Vazquez, Alvaro; Abbona, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Regarding 'mate' intake (infusion of Ilex paraguariensis herb, a staple beverage in temperate South American regions), most epidemiologic studies showed positive associations with risk of some cancers, (e.g. upper aerodigestive tract), but evidence on breast cancer (BC) risk is limited to a previous multi-site study, which reported a non significant odds ratio [OR]=0.85, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.67-1.09, p for trend=0.31) for the highest quartile of intake. The present study was conducted in order to further assess associations of 'mate' intake with BC risk. We combined two databases of women belonging to public and private healthcare hospitals. The sample included 572 BC incident cases and 889 controls interviewed with a specific questionnaire featured by socio-demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, and a food frequency questionnaire of 64 items, also analyzing 'mate' intake (consumer status, daily intake, age at start, age at quit, duration of habit, intensity of intake). ORs and their 95%CI were calculated through unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant potential confounders. The highest quartile of 'mate' intake was inversely associated with BC risk (OR=0.40, 95%CI 0.26-0.57, p for trend <0.001). Stratified analyses also displayed strong significant inverse associations for 'mate' in frequent tea drinkers (OR=0.22), high energy intake (OR=0.23), high body mass index (OR=0.29) and in postmenopausal women (OR=0.36), among other results. As conclusions, we found evidence of a significant inverse association for 'mate' intake and BC risk. PMID:27039789

  5. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults. PMID:27294952

  6. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11–24 Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N. S.; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J.; Foster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11–24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11–24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults. PMID:27294952

  7. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  8. The effect of frozen grass silage on the feed intake and feeding behavior of pregnant ewes.

    PubMed

    Bøe, K E; Dønnem, I

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of frozen grass silage on the feed intake, feed preferences, and feeding behavior of ewes. Two experiments were conducted, each involving 8 pregnant ewes in a Latin square design with 4 treatments: 1) frozen silage; 2) partly frozen silage; 3) frozen, chopped silage; 4) and unfrozen silage (control). In Exp. 2, the ewes in square 1 were fed grass silage with low DM content (LDM) and in square 2 the ewes were fed grass silage with high DM content (HDM). In both experiments, each treatment period lasted for 14 d. A feed preference test was conducted, where the ewes could choose between 2 of the experimental feed treatments for 1 d in a changeover design so that they were exposed to all pairwise combinations of the 4 treatments. On the last day of each experimental period in Exp. 1, the feeding behavior was scored by direct observation for 4 h. In Exp. 1 ( < 0.0001) and in Exp. 2 ( = 0.03), feed intake in the first 4 h after feeding was lowest on the frozen silage treatment and highest on the control treatment. The DMI in the first 4 h after feeding was higher ( = 0.005) in the HDM treatment than in the LDM treatment. The total daily feed intake in Exp. 1 was lowest on the frozen, chopped silage treatment and highest on the unfrozen silage treatment ( = 0.02). In Exp. 2, daily feed intake did not differ ( = 0.32) among treatments. Total daily feed intake was higher ( < 0.0001) in the LDM treatment than in the HDM treatment but there was no difference in the DMI. There was no difference in the preference for the different feed treatments, when considering either the first 4 h ( = 0.12 to = 0.86) or the whole 24-h period ( = 0.25 to = 0.53). Time spent eating normally was longer on the control treatment and shorter on the frozen silage treatments ( < 0.0001) whereas time spent eating by tearing off feed from the frozen block followed the opposite pattern ( < 0.0001). We conclude that intake of frozen silage was

  9. Calculation of the intake of three intense sweeteners in young insulin-dependent diabetics.

    PubMed

    Garnier-Sagne, I; Leblanc, J C; Verger, P

    2001-07-01

    In 1994, European Directive 94/35/CE authorised the use as food additives of five intense sweeteners for which Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADI) were established. The same directive stipulated that member states should organise a monitoring system to determine the consumption of these substances. Diabetic children are normally considered to constitute a group with a high consumption of sweeteners (European Commission, 1998. Report on Methodology for the Monitoring of Food Additives Intake across the European Union. Report of the Scientific Cooperation, Task 4.2 SCOOP/INT/REPORT/2. European Commission Directorate General III, Brussels.). A stepwise approach to the food additive intake in the general population had shown that three of the five authorised intense sweeteners (aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame K) are used at particularly high levels in sugar-free foods and are also very commonly utilised as table-top sweeteners. This paper presents the results of a food intake survey conducted in a group of French, insulin-dependent children in 1997, aimed at estimating the Theoretical Maximum Daily Intake (TMDI) for these three sweeteners and comparing this with the relevant ADI values. A 5-day diary questionnaire was used to estimate the intake of sugar-free, artificially sweetened foods and table-top sweeteners. When assessing the intake of each additive, all sugar-free products were assumed to be sweetened using a single sweetener at its maximum authorised level. This study was performed in five age groups, and based on the mean and 97.5th percentile of the distribution of consumption, demonstrated that it was unlikely that total exposure could rise above the ADI. PMID:11397521

  10. Patterns of nutrients’ intake at six months in the northeast of Italy: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adequate complementary feeding is recognized as an important predictor of health later in life. The objective of this study was to describe the feeding practices and nutrients’ intake, and their association with breastfeeding at six months of age, in a cohort of infants enrolled at birth in the maternity hospital of Trieste, Italy. Methods Out of 400 infants enrolled at birth, 268 (67%) had complete data gathered through a 24-hour feeding diary on three separate days at six months, and two questionnaires administered at birth and at six months. Data from feeding diaries were used to estimate nutrients’ intakes using the Italian food composition database included in the software. To estimate the quantity of breastmilk, information was gathered on the frequency and length of breastfeeds. Results At six months, 70% of infants were breastfed and 94% were given complementary foods. The average daily caloric intake was higher in non-breastfed (723 Kcal) than in breastfed infants (547 Kcal, p < 0.001) due to energy provided by complementary foods (321 vs. 190 Kcal, p < 0.001) and milk (363 vs. 301 Kcal, p = 0.007). Non-breastfed infants had also higher intakes of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. The mean intake of macronutrients was within recommended ranges in both groups, except for the higher protein intake in non-breastfed infants. These consumed significantly higher quantities of commercial baby foods than breastfed infants. Conclusions Contrary to what is recommended, 94% of infants were not exclusively breastfed and were given complementary foods at six months. The proportion of daily energy intake from complementary foods was around 50% higher than recommended and with significant differences between breastfed and non-breastfed infants, with possible consequences for future nutrition and health. PMID:24884789

  11. Individual and familial factors associated with fruit and vegetable intake among 11- to 14-year-old Romanian school children.

    PubMed

    Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Tutui, Iulia

    2015-09-01

    The healthy nutrition guidelines proposed by international research institutes and the World Health Organization recommend a daily intake of fruit and vegetables of at least 400 g, representing five servings a day (each serving contains around 80 g). Moreover, the recommendations stress the importance of consuming both fruit and vegetables daily, preferably at least two portions of fruit and three portions of vegetables per day. To efficiently develop interventions for promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among children, it is essential to identify and understand the factors that influence these behaviours. The present study aims at identifying the individual and familial factors which influence fruit and vegetable consumption among Romanian children. A cross-sectional survey by means of anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 361 school children, aged 11-14, from Cluj-Napoca, Romania (April-May 2011). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake. The results show that 44.6% of the children met the recommendations regarding fruit intake, while 9.1% of the children declared eating the daily recommended portions of vegetables. Knowledge regarding the recommended number of daily servings and higher self-efficacy concerning the intake of fruit and vegetables every day were positively associated with higher consumption of fruit and vegetables. Fruit preference also influenced positively the consumption of fruit. The familial factor associated with vegetable intake was the perceived behaviour of the mother, while fruit intake was higher among children who declared higher fruit availability at home. Hence, it is necessary to develop in Romania nutrition interventions addressing the determinants of fruit and vegetable intake as identified by this study; these interventions should target both children and parents. PMID:25323566

  12. Consumer clusters in Denmark based on coarse vegetable intake frequency, explained by hedonics, socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle factors. A cross-sectional national survey.

    PubMed

    Beck, Tove K; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, Sonni Hansen; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kidmose, Ulla

    2015-08-01

    Vegetable intake seems to play a protective role against major lifestyle diseases. Despite this, the Danish population usually eats far less than the recommended daily intake. The present study focused on the intake of 17 coarse vegetables and the potential barriers limiting their intake. The present study drew upon a large Danish survey (n = 1079) to study the intake of coarse vegetables among Danish consumers. Four population clusters were identified based on their intake of 17 different coarse vegetables, and profiled according to hedonics, socio-demographic, health, and food lifestyle factors. The four clusters were characterized by a very low intake frequency of coarse vegetables ('low frequency'), a low intake frequency of coarse vegetables; but high intake frequency of carrots ('carrot eaters'), a moderate coarse vegetable intake frequency and high intake frequency of beetroot ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects, 'beetroot eaters' were characterized as traditional food consumers, and 'high frequency' were individuals with a strong food engagement and high vegetable liking. 'Low frequency' identified more barriers than other consumer clusters and specifically regarded low availability of pre-cut/prepared coarse vegetables on the market as a barrier. Across all clusters a low culinary knowledge was identified as the main barrier. PMID:25916624

  13. Effect of dam factors on milk intake and performance of Belgian Blue suckling calves.

    PubMed

    Fiems, L O; Van Caelenbergh, W; De Campeneere, S; De Brabander, D L

    2008-01-01

    Milk intake data were collected at 4-week intervals from Belgian Blue double-muscled (BBDM) suckling calves up to 16 weeks after birth. Dams were fed at 100%, 90%, 80% or 70% of their energy requirements during a 140-day indoor period from the beginning of December to the end of April (restriction period). Afterwards, cows were turned out on pasture (re-alimentation period). Mean calving date was 3 June, but parturitions were spread over the year. A total of 521 individual milk intake (IMI) and 120 average daily milk intake (AMI, mean of IMI) records were collected. IMI amounted to 7.0 ± 2.2 kg/day and was not affected by energy level during the indoor period. It was highest in May and June. Calves born out of multiparous cows consumed more milk than those born out of primiparous cows (7.4 v. 6.2 kg per day; P = 0.001), while intake tended to be higher in female than in male calves (7.2 v. 6.8 kg per day; P = 0.044). Dam age at calving, parity, post partum weight and body condition were only weakly correlated with AMI (r 0.4). AMI was correlated with pre-weaning live-weight gain (r = 0.807) and weaning weight (r = 0.783), with a slightly higher correlation for male than for female calves. Daily live-weight gain during the suckling period was increased by 79 g per extra kg daily milk intake on average, and by 86 and 74 g, respectively, for male and female calves. Calf solid feed intake was low, even when milk intake was low. In terms of net energy intake, milk was only substituted for solid feed by 29%. It can be concluded from the calf intake that milk production in BBDM cows is comparable with that of cows from other beef breeds, but its variation is considerable, complicating an accurate estimation. PMID:22444972

  14. Changes in Dietary Fat Intake and Projections for Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in Sweden: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Björck, Lena; Rosengren, Annika; Winkvist, Anna; Capewell, Simon; Adiels, Martin; Bandosz, Piotr; Critchley, Julia; Boman, Kurt; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; O’Flaherty, Martin; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2016-01-01

    Objective In Sweden, previous favourable trends in blood cholesterol levels have recently levelled off or even increased in some age groups since 2003, potentially reflecting changing fashions and attitudes towards dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA). We aimed to examine the potential effect of different SFA intake on future coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in 2025. Methods We compared the effect on future CHD mortality of two different scenarios for fat intake a) daily SFA intake decreasing to 10 energy percent (E%), and b) daily SFA intake rising to 20 E%. We assumed that there would be moderate improvements in smoking (5%), salt intake (1g/day) and physical inactivity (5% decrease) to continue recent, positive trends. Results In the baseline scenario which assumed that recent mortality declines continue, approximately 5,975 CHD deaths might occur in year 2025. Anticipated improvements in smoking, dietary salt intake and physical activity, would result in some 380 (-6.4%) fewer deaths (235 in men and 145 in women). In combination with a mean SFA daily intake of 10 E%, a total of 810 (-14%) fewer deaths would occur in 2025 (535 in men and 275 in women). If the overall consumption of SFA rose to 20 E%, the expected mortality decline would be wiped out and approximately 20 (0.3%) additional deaths might occur. Conclusion CHD mortality may increase as a result of unfavourable trends in diets rich in saturated fats resulting in increases in blood cholesterol levels. These could cancel out the favourable trends in salt intake, smoking and physical activity. PMID:27490257

  15. Estimation of internal radiation dose to the adult Asian population from the dietary intakes of two long-lived radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, G V; Kawamura, H; Dang, H S; Parr, R M; Wang, J W; Akhter, Perveen; Cho, S Y; Natera, E; Miah, F K; Nguyen, M S

    2004-01-01

    Daily dietary intakes of two naturally occurring long-lived radionuclides, 232Th and 238U, were estimated for the adult population living in a number of Asian countries, using highly sensitive analytical methods such as instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The Asian countries that participated in the study were Bangladesh (BGD), China (CPR), India (IND), Japan (JPN), Pakistan (PAK), Philippines (PHI), Republic of Korea (ROK) and Vietnam (VIE). Altogether, these countries represent more than 50% of the world population. The median daily intakes of 232Th ranged between 0.6 and 14.4 mBq, the lowest being for Philippines and the highest for Bangladesh, and daily intakes of 238U ranged between 6.7 and 62.5 mBq, lowest and the highest being for India and China, respectively. The Asian median intakes were obtained as 4.2 mBq for 232Th and 12.7 mBq for 238U. Although the Asian intakes were lower than intakes of 12.3 mBq (3.0 ug) 232Th and 23.6 mBq (1.9 ug) 238U proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the ICRP Reference Man, they were comparable to the global intake values of 4.6 mBq 232Th and 15.6 mBq 238U proposed by the United Nation Scientific Commission on Effects of Radiation (UNSCEAR). The annual committed effective doses to Asian population from the dietary intake of 232Th and 238U were calculated to be 0.34 and 0.20 microSv, respectively, which are three orders of magnitude lower than the global average annual radiation dose of 2400 microSv to man from the natural radiation sources as proposed by UNSCEAR. PMID:15381318

  16. Calcium intake increases risk of prostate cancer among Singapore Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Lesley M.; Wong, Alvin S.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of dairy products, the primary source of calcium in Western diets, has been found to be positively associated with prostate cancer. In an Asian diet, non-dairy foods are the major contributors of calcium. Thus, a study of dietary calcium and prostate cancer in Asians can better inform on whether calcium, as opposed to other dairy components is responsible for the dairy foods-prostate cancer association. We examined calcium intake and prostate cancer risk among 27,293 men of the Singapore Chinese Health Study that was established between 1993 and 1998. As of December 31, 2007, 298 incident prostate cancer cases had been diagnosed among the cohort members. Diet was assessed at baseline with a validated 165-item food frequency questionnaire. It is hypothesized that there is greater net absorption of calcium in smaller individuals. Therefore, the calcium-prostate cancer association was also assessed in stratified analyses by median body mass index (BMI). Vegetables were the largest contributor of daily calcium intake in the study population. Overall, we observed a modest, statistically nonsignificant 25% increase in prostate cancer risk for the 4th (median = 659 mg/day) versus 1st (median=211 mg/day) quartiles of calcium intake after adjustment for potential confounders. The association became considerably stronger and achieved statistical significance (hazard ratio=2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.34; P for trend=0.01) for men with below median (22.9 kg/m2) BMI. Dietary calcium may be a risk factor for prostate cancer even at relatively low intake. PMID:20516117

  17. Intake of added sugar in Malaysia: a review.

    PubMed

    Amarra, Maria Sofia V; Khor, Geok Lin; Chan, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The term 'added sugars' refers to sugars and syrup added to foods during processing or preparation, and sugars and syrups added at the table. Calls to limit the daily intakes of added sugars and its sources arose from evidence analysed by WHO, the American Heart Association and other organizations. The present review examined the best available evidence regarding levels of added sugar consumption among different age and sex groups in Malaysia and sources of added sugars. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys and published studies. Varying results emerged, as nationwide information on intake of sugar and foods with added sugar were obtained at different times and used different assessment methods. Data from the 2003 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) using food frequency questionnaires suggested that on average, Malaysian adults consumed 30 grams of sweetened condensed milk (equivalent to 16 grams sugar) and 21 grams of table sugar per day, which together are below the WHO recommendation of 50 grams sugar for every 2000 kcal/day to reduce risk of chronic disease. Published studies suggested that, for both adults and the elderly, frequently consumed sweetened foods were beverages (tea or coffee) with sweetened condensed milk and added sugar. More accurate data should be obtained by conducting population-wide studies using biomarkers of sugar intake (e.g. 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose excretion or serum abundance of the stable isotope 13C) to determine intake levels, and multiple 24 hour recalls to identify major food sources of added sugar. PMID:27222405

  18. Caffeine increases food intake while reducing anxiety-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Patrick; Levack, Russell; Watters, Jared; Xu, Zhenping; Yang, Yunlei

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different doses of caffeine on appetite and anxiety-related behavior. Additionally, we sought to determine if withdrawal from chronic caffeine administration promotes anxiety. In this study, we utilized rodent open field testing and feeding behavior assays to determine the effects of caffeine on feeding and anxiety-related behavior (n = 8 mice; 4-8 weeks old). We also measured 2 h and 24 h food intake and body-weight during daily administration of caffeine (n = 12 mice; 4-8 weeks old). To test for caffeine withdrawal induced anxiety, anxiety-related behavior in rodents was quantified following withdrawal from four consecutive days of caffeine administration (n = 12 mice; 4-8 weeks old). We find that acute caffeine administration increases food intake in a dose-dependent manner with lower doses of caffeine more significantly increasing food intake than higher doses. Acute caffeine administration also reduced anxiety-related behaviors in mice without significantly altering locomotor activity. However, we did not observe any differences in 24 h food intake or body weight following chronic caffeine administration and there were no observable differences in anxiety-related behaviors during caffeine withdrawal. In conclusion, we find that caffeine can both increase appetite and decrease anxiety-related behaviors in a dose dependent fashion. Given the complex relationship between appetite and anxiety, the present study provides additional insights into potential caffeine-based pharmacological mechanisms governing appetite and anxiety disorders, such as bulimia nervosa. PMID:26972351

  19. Intracerebroventricular capsaicin and food intake in the rat.

    PubMed

    Falchi, M; Ferrara, F; Gharib, C; Dib, B

    2001-01-01

    To investigate whether capsaicin affected food intake and body weight and/or interfered with the mechanisms regulating the body temperature, capsaicin was administered intracerebroventricularly to rats at a daily dose of 25 micrograms of 5 microliters of vehicle for 10 consecutive days. The vehicle consisted of 5% ethanol plus 5% Tween 80 in isotonic saline. The ambient temperature (Ta) was 22 degrees C. Two control groups were used: the first group was treated with the vehicle but its concentration was lowered 10 times in order to avoid the wellknown brain toxicity of Tween 80; the second group was injected with NaCl 0.9% alone. The subsequent observation period lasted 38 days and the rats were exposed to a Ta of 22, 32, 35, 10 and 22 degrees C for different times. Food intake and body weight showed a remarkable decrease during the treatment period in both the capsaicin- and vehicle-treated groups. During the observation period, food intake behavior and body weight evolution were different among the three groups of treated rats. The influence of Ta was most apparent in the capsaicin-treated rats that showed a long-lasting deficit in their body weight and a clear inability to regulate their body temperature (Tb) in a warm environment (Ta 35 degrees C). However, the capsaicin-treated rats began to recover from the weight loss when they were finally housed at Ta 22 degrees C. Tween 80-treated rats began to recover from the weight loss earlier, the pretreatment body weight having been reached during Ta 32 degrees C exposure, i.e., 12 days after the end of the treatment. Since capsaicin did not reduce food intake for a long time during the recovery process, the effect of capsaicin on Ta and body weight seems to be related to metabolic processes. Under the conditions of the present study, neither capsaicin nor Tween 80 seem to have permanently impaired the animals' energy balance regulation. PMID:11392055

  20. Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Modelling as a Tool to Support Risk Assessment: Three Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Hans; Gundert-Remy, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we present three case studies of physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) modelling in regulatory risk assessment. (1) Age-dependent lower enzyme expression in the newborn leads to bisphenol A (BPA) blood levels which are near the levels of the tolerated daily intake (TDI) at the oral exposure as calculated by EFSA. (2) Dermal exposure of BPA by receipts, car park tickets, and so forth, contribute to the exposure towards BPA. However, at the present levels of dermal exposure there is no risk for the adult. (3) Dermal exposure towards coumarin via cosmetic products leads to external exposures of two-fold the TDI. PBTK modeling helped to identify liver peak concentration as the metric for liver toxicity. After dermal exposure of twice the TDI, the liver peak concentration was lower than that present after oral exposure with the TDI dose. In the presented cases, PBTK modeling was useful to reach scientifically sound regulatory decisions. PMID:22649449

  1. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese

    PubMed Central

    Huang, De-Jia; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. PMID:26950871

  2. Dietary intake of nutrients and its correlation with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bitarafan, Sama; Harirchian, Mohammad-Hossein; Nafissi, Shahriar; Sahraian, Mohammad-Ali; Togha, Mansoureh; Siassi, Fereydoun; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Alipour, Elham; Mohammadpour, Nakisa; Chamary, Maryam; Honarvar, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of nutrition in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) and related complications such as fatigue has been reported by several studies. The aim of this study is the assessment of nutritional status and its relationship with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, in which 101 relapsing-remitting MS patients were enrolled. The fatigue status was determined using the validated Persian version of of the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS). Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record questionnaire and compared to dietary reference intake (DRI) values. Association between variables was determined using Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Results In the preset study, 25 men and 76 women (total = 101) were enrolled. Analysis of dietary intake showed that daily intake of vitamin D, folate, calcium, and magnesium were significantly lower than DRI in all of patients. In men, zinc intake was significantly lower than DRI; while, in women, iron was significantly below the DRI level. After adjusting for energy, MFIS and its physical subscale were highly correlated with intake of folate and magnesium. Conclusion Our findings support that lower magnesium and folate diets are correlated with higher fatigue scores in MS patients. PMID:24800044

  3. Oxytocin knockout mice demonstrate enhanced intake of sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Rinaman, Linda; Vollmer, Regis R; Amico, Janet A

    2007-05-01

    Oxytocin knockout (OT KO) mice display enhanced intake of nutritive and nonnutritive sweet solutions (i.e., sucrose and saccharin) compared with wild-type (WT) mice of the same C57BL/6 background strain. The present study further investigated the differential behavioral response of OT KO and WT mice to sucrose solutions and also examined intake preferences of OT KO and WT mice for palatable but nonsweet isocaloric solutions of carbohydrate and fat. A progressive ratio operant licking procedure demonstrated that OT KO and WT mice display a similar motivational drive to consume 10% sucrose. A series of two-bottle intake tests revealed that OT KO mice consume significantly larger amounts of both sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions (i.e., sucrose, Polycose, and cornstarch) compared with WT cohorts. Intake pattern analyses revealed that OT KO mice overconsume carbohydrate solutions by initiating more drinking bouts compared with WT mice; bout sizes did not differ between the genotypes. In contrast, OT KO and WT mice did not differ in their intake of Intralipid, a palatable soybean oil emulsion. These findings indicate that the absence of OT in mice does not affect their appetitive drive to consume palatable sucrose solutions. Instead, the absence of OT may increase daily intake of palatable sweet and nonsweet solutions of carbohydrate (but not fat) by selectively blunting or masking processes that contribute to postingestive satiety. PMID:17272659

  4. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese.

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Jia; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. PMID:26950871

  5. Dietary intake of non-nutritive sweeteners in type 1 diabetes mellitus children.

    PubMed

    Dewinter, Louise; Casteels, Kristina; Corthouts, Karen; Van de Kerckhove, Kristel; Van der Vaerent, Katrien; Vanmeerbeeck, Kelly; Matthys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current cross-sectional study were (1) to assess the intake of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-k, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, sucralose, saccharin, steviol glycosides and neotame among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D); (2) to compare the obtained intakes with the respective acceptable daily intake (ADI) values; and (3) to conduct a scenario analysis to obtain practical guidelines for a safe consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) among children with T1D. T1D patients of the Paediatrics Department of the University Hospitals Leuven were invited to complete a food frequency questionnaire designed to assess NNS intake using a tier 2 and tier 3 exposure assessment approach. A scenario analysis was conducted by reducing the P95 consumption of the most contributing food categories in order to reach a total sweetener intake lower than or equal to the ADI. Estimated total intakes higher than ADIs were only found for the P95 consumers only of acesulfame-k, cyclamate and steviol glycosides (tier 2 and tier 3 approach). Scenario analysis created dietary guidelines for each age category for diet soda, bread spreads and dairy drinks. There is little chance for T1D children to exceed the ADI of the different NNS, however diabetes educators and dieticians need to pay attention regarding the use of NNS. PMID:26523968

  6. Comparison of Various Databases for Estimation of Dietary Polyphenol Intake in the Population of Polish Adults

    PubMed Central

    Witkowska, Anna M.; Zujko, Małgorzata E.; Waśkiewicz, Anna; Terlikowska, Katarzyna M.; Piotrowski, Walerian

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to estimate the consumption of polyphenols in a population of 6661 subjects aged between 20 and 74 years representing a cross-section of the Polish society, and the second objective was to compare the intakes of flavonoids calculated on the basis of the two commonly used databases. Daily food consumption data were collected in 2003–2005 using a single 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of total polyphenols was estimated using an online Phenol-Explorer database, and flavonoid intake was determined using following data sources: the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) database combined of flavonoid and isoflavone databases, and the Phenol-Explorer database. Total polyphenol intake, which was calculated with the Phenol-Explorer database, was 989 mg/day with the major contributions of phenolic acids 556 mg/day and flavonoids 403.5 mg/day. The flavonoid intake calculated on the basis of the USDA databases was 525 mg/day. This study found that tea is the primary source of polyphenols and flavonoids for the studied population, including mainly flavanols, while coffee is the most important contributor of phenolic acids, mostly hydroxycinnamic acids. Our study also demonstrated that flavonoid intakes estimated according to various databases may substantially differ. Further work should be undertaken to expand polyphenol databases to better reflect their food contents. PMID:26569297

  7. A systematic review of behavioral interventions to promote intake of fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Ravia, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake in the United States remains below recommended levels despite evidence of the health benefits of regular consumption. Efforts to increase F/V intake include behavior-based interventions. A systematic review of MEDLINE PubMed and PsycINFO databases (2005-2010) was conducted to identify behavior-based intervention trials designed to promote F/V intake. Using predetermined limits and selection criteria, 34 studies were identified for inclusion. Behavior-based interventions resulted in an average increase in F/V intake of +1.13 and +0.39 servings per day in adults and children, respectively. Interventions involving minority adults or low-income participants demonstrated average increases in daily F/V consumption of +0.97 servings/day, whereas worksite interventions averaged +0.8 servings/day. Achieving and sustaining F/V intake at recommended levels of intake across the population cannot be achieved through behavior-based interventions alone. Thus, efforts to combine these interventions with other approaches including social marketing, behavioral economics approaches, and technology-based behavior change models should be tested to ensure goals are met and sustained. PMID:21963019

  8. Cokriging estimation of daily suspended sediment loads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.-K.; Schilling, K.; Skopec, M.

    2006-01-01

    Daily suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with daily river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated daily loads were compared with the daily measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated daily sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured daily values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating daily sediment loads with CK when daily discharge data is available. The estimated daily loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the daily S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Local food environments are associated with girls’ energy, sugar-sweetened beverage and snack-food intakes

    PubMed Central

    Deierlein, Andrea L; Galvez, Maida P; Yen, Irene H; Pinney, Susan M; Biro, Frank M; Kushi, Lawrence H; Teitelbaum, Susan; Wolff, Mary S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe availability and frequency of use of local snack-food outlets and determine whether reported use of these outlets was associated with dietary intakes. Design Data were cross-sectional. Availability and frequency of use of three types of local snack-food outlets were reported. Daily dietary intakes were based on the average of up to four 24 h dietary recalls. Multivariable linear regression models estimated average daily intakes of energy, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and snack foods/sweets associated with use of outlets. Setting Multi-site, observational cohort study in the USA, 2004–2006. Subjects Girls aged 6–8 years (n 1010). Results Weekly frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increased with number of available types of outlets. Girls with access to only one type of outlet reported consuming food/beverage items less frequently than girls with access to two or three types of outlets (P < 0·001). Girls’ daily energy, SSB and snack foods/ sweets intakes increased with greater use of outlets. Girls who reported using outlets >1 to 3 times/week consumed 0·27 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·40) servings of SSB more daily than girls who reported no use. Girls who reported using outlets >3 times/week consumed 449·61 (95 % CI 134·93, 764·29) kJ, 0·43 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·58) servings of SSB and 0·38 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·65) servings of snack foods/sweets more daily than those who reported no use. Conclusions Girls’ frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increases with the number of available types of outlets and is associated with greater daily intakes of energy and servings of SSB and snack foods/sweets. PMID:24821228

  10. The economics of daily consumption controlling food- and water-reinforced responding1

    PubMed Central

    Hursh, Steven R.

    1978-01-01

    In the first experiment, two rhesus monkeys earned their entire ration of food and water during daily sessions with no provisions to ensure constant daily intakes. Two variable-interval schedules of food presentations were concurrent with one variable-interval schedule of water presentations; the maximum rate of food presentations arranged by one food schedule was varied. As the rate of food presentations was increased, the absolute level of responding on the two food schedules combined decreased, while responding on the water schedule increased. The preference for the variable food schedule compared to the other food schedule approximately matched the proportion of reinforcers obtained from it. The preference for the variable food schedule compared to the water schedule did not match, but greatly decreased, as the proportion of reinforcers from the food schedule increased. When Experiment I was replicated, with provisions to ensure constant daily intakes of food and water (Experiment II), the absolute response rates under the two food schedules combined and under the water schedule no longer changed with increases in the rate of food during the sessions. On the other hand, choice between the two food schedules remained proportional to the distribution of obtained food pellets. These results were interpreted as indicating that behavior to obtain nonsubstitutable commodities, such as food and water, is strongly controlled by the economic conditions of daily consumption, while choice between substitutable commodities is independent of these factors. PMID:16812071

  11. Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R.; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light–dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light–dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high‐amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light–dark cycle. PMID:25263204

  12. Patrol Officer Daily Noise Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, Lynn R; Vosburgh, Donna J H

    2015-01-01

    established by the OSHA or ACGIH occupational exposure levels from the daily occupational tasks that were monitored. PMID:26011417

  13. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Shahril, Mohd Razif; Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535

  14. Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

  15. Energy expenditure and dietary intake during high-volume and low-volume training periods among male endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Pivarnik, James M

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine dietary intake in endurance-trained athletes during a week of high-volume and a week of low-volume training while measuring exercise energy expenditure (EEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). In addition, compliance with current American College of Sports Medicine/American Dietetic Association nutrition and performance recommendations for macronutrients was evaluated. Energy expenditure and dietary intake were measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 nonconsecutive weeks resembling a high-volume and a low-volume training period. Anthropometric measurements were taken and percentage body fat was determined at the beginning and end of each week of training. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was calculated by summing RMR, NEAT, and EEE. Dietary intake was assessed with an online food-frequency questionnaire completed at the end of each week of data collection. Despite significant differences between TDEE and energy intake, no difference in body composition between the beginning and end of either week of training was observed, suggesting underreporting of caloric intake. Further, no changes in total caloric intake or macronutrient intake occurred even though TDEE increased significantly during the high-volume training. Reported carbohydrate intake (4.5 g·kg(-1)) and fiber intake (25 g·day(-1)) were below recommendations, whereas fat intake (1.3 g·kg(-1)) was slightly above recommendations. In summary, no short-term dietary adjustments occurred in response to differences in training regimen. Because these athletes were generally consuming a Western diet, they may have required some support to achieve desirable intakes for health and performance. PMID:22360344

  16. Estimation of usual intake and food sources of choline and betaine in New Zealand reproductive age women.

    PubMed

    Mygind, Vanessa L; Evans, Sophie E; Peddie, Meredith C; Miller, Jody C; Houghton, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    Recently, choline has been associated with neurodevelopment, cognitive function and neural tube defect incidence. However, data on usual intakes are limited, and estimates of dietary intakes of choline and its metabolite betaine, are not available for New Zealanders. The objective of the present study was to determine usual intake and food sources of choline and betaine in a group of New Zealand reproductive age women. Dietary intake data were collected from a sample of 125 women, aged 18-40 years, by means of a 3-day weighed food record, and usual choline and betaine intake distributions were determined. The mean (SD) daily intakes of choline and betaine were 316 (66) mg and 178 (66) mg, respectively. The total choline intake relative to energy intake and body weight was 0.18 mg/kcal and 5.1 mg/kg, respectively. Only 16% of participants met or exceeded the Adequate Intake (AI) for adult women of 425 mg of choline. The top five major food contributors of choline were eggs, red meat, milk, bread and chicken; and of betaine were bread, breakfast cereal, pasta, grains and root vegetables (carrots, parsnips, beetroot, swedes). Our findings contribute towards the recent emergence of published reports on the range of dietary choline and betaine intakes consumed by free-living populations. In our sample of New Zealand women, few participants were meeting or exceeding the AI level. Given recent epidemiological evidence suggesting health benefits of increased choline and betaine intakes, recommendations should be made to encourage the consumption of choline and betaine-rich foods. PMID:23635379

  17. Daily feeding regimen impacts pig growth and behavior.

    PubMed

    Colpoys, Jessica D; Johnson, Anna K; Gabler, Nicholas K

    2016-05-15

    A primary swine production goal is to increase efficiency of lean tissue gains. While many swine production systems currently utilize ad libitum feeding, recent research suggests that altering feeding patterns may impact feed efficiency. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare two feeding patterns and evaluate their impact on whole body tissue accretion, feeding behavior and activity in growing pigs. Forty eight individually housed gilts (55.9±5.2kg on test BW) were assigned into one of two feeding treatments: 1) Free access to the feeder (Free Access) or 2) twice daily access where gilts were allowed to eat ad libitum between 08:00-09:00h and again from 17:00-18:00h (2×). Pig performance was recorded weekly for 55days and average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain:feed (G:F) was calculated. Body composition was assessed in 12 gilts per treatment using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at day -3 and 55 of treatment, and tissue accretion rates were calculated. Gilt behaviors were assessed via video analysis during week 7 and included time spent eating, feeding rate, enrichment interaction, postural changes, standing, sitting, and lying behaviors. Gilts fed 2× had lower ADG and ADFI compared to Free Access gilts (P≤0.01); however, no treatment difference in G:F was observed (P=0.83). At day 55 gilts fed 2× had a lower fat:protein compared to Free Access gilts (P=0.05). Fat, lean, and protein accretion rates were lower in gilts fed 2× compared to those fed Free Access (P=0.01). Gilts fed 2× ate less frequently and for a shorter duration of time, interacted with enrichment more frequently (P≤0.005), and tended to have less frequent postural changes compared to Free Access gilts (P=0.08). No treatment differences were observed in duration of time spent standing, sitting, or lying (P≥0.39). Although feed regimen did not alter feed efficiency, these data indicate that twice daily feeding reduced gilt adiposity and growth

  18. Sleep Restriction Enhances the Daily Rhythm of Circulating Levels of Endocannabinoid 2-Arachidonoylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Erin C.; Tasali, Esra; Leproult, Rachel; Stuhr, Kara L.; Doncheck, Elizabeth; de Wit, Harriet; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Van Cauter, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Increasing evidence from laboratory and epidemiologic studies indicates that insufficient sleep may be a risk factor for obesity. Sleep curtailment results in stimulation of hunger and food intake that exceeds the energy cost of extended wakefulness, suggesting the involvement of reward mechanisms. The current study tested the hypothesis that sleep restriction is associated with activation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system, a key component of hedonic pathways involved in modulating appetite and food intake. Methods: In a randomized crossover study comparing 4 nights of normal (8.5 h) versus restricted sleep (4.5 h) in healthy young adults, we examined the 24-h profiles of circulating concentrations of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and its structural analog 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG). We concomitantly assessed hunger, appetite, and food intake under controlled conditions. Results: A robust daily variation of 2-AG concentrations with a nadir around the middle of the sleep/overnight fast, followed by a continuous increase culminating in the early afternoon, was evident under both sleep conditions but sleep restriction resulted in an amplification of this rhythm with delayed and extended maximum values. Concentrations of 2-OG followed a similar pattern, but with a lesser amplitude. When sleep deprived, participants reported increases in hunger and appetite concomitant with the afternoon elevation of 2-AG concentrations, and were less able to inhibit intake of palatable snacks. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that activation of the eCB system may be involved in excessive food intake in a state of sleep debt and contribute to the increased risk of obesity associated with insufficient sleep. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 495. Citation: Hanlon EC, Tasali E, Leproult R, Stuhr KL, Doncheck E, de Wit H, Hillard CJ, Van Cauter E. Sleep restriction enhances the daily rhythm of circulating levels of

  19. Nutrient and nontraditional food intakes by Zambian children in a controlled feeding trial

    PubMed Central

    Schmaelzle, Samantha; Kaliwile, Chisela; Arscott, Sara A.; Gannon, Bryan; Masi, Cassim; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many programs aim to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Biofortification is an approach to improve provitamin A carotenoid concentrations of staple crops in some developing countries. In rural Zambia, maize accounts for the majority of energy intake. Provitamin A–biofortified (orange) maize has been released in Zambia. Objective This study quantified food intake of Zambian children from records collected in a feeding trial in 2012 in order to compare adoption of orange maize and a new vegetable (green beans) with white maize and traditional foods. Methods One hundred thirty-six children with a mean age of 71.5 ± 6.9 months were fed three meals a day for 6 days a week for 15 weeks at four feeding centers. Breakfast consisted of maize porridge, and lunch and dinner were stiff porridge (nshima) with various side dishes (relishes). There were three treatment groups, which received orange maize and placebo oil, white maize and placebo oil, or white maize and a daily vitamin A supplement. Food was weighed before and after consumption. Nutritionists were trained to interview the children’s caregivers about the previous day’s intake using dietary recalls. Nine dietary recalls for each child were recorded and analyzed. Results Total food intake did not differ among the groups (p = .31) and energy intakes on Sundays (<880 kcal) were below recommendations. Nshima intake was lower in the orange-maize group (p = .008), largely due to a genotype effect. Intakes of relish, green bean, and porridge did not differ among the groups (p > .19). Dietary recalls revealed that children living in sites closer to the main road consumed more on Sundays than children living about 8 km from the main road, but less in the evenings when children were off site. Conclusions The intakes of energy of these Zambian children suggest inadequacy. Implementation and adoption of new and biofortified foods is possible with promotion. PMID:24791580

  20. Maternal dietary fat intake during pregnancy is associated with infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Hanna C; Kuzava, Sierra E; Werner, Elizabeth A; Monk, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Research with rodents and nonhuman primates suggests that maternal prenatal dietary fat intake is associated with offspring behavioral functioning indicative of risk for psychopathology. The extent to which these findings extend to humans remains unknown. The current study administered the Automated Self-Administered 24 hr Dietary Recall Questionnaire three times in pregnancy (n = 48) to examine women's dietary fat intake in relation to infant temperament assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire at 4-months old. The amount of saturated fat that the mother consumed was considered as a moderator of the association between total fat intake and child temperament. Results from a series of multiple linear regressions indicate that greater total fat intake was associated with poorer infant regulation and lower surgency. However, this second effect was moderated by maternal saturated fat intake, such that total fat intake was only related to infant surgency when mothers consumed above the daily recommended allowance of saturated fat. Under conditions of high total fat and high saturated fat, infants were rated as lower on surgency; under conditions of low total fat yet high saturated fat, infants were rated as higher on surgency. There were no associations between maternal prenatal fat intake and infant negative reactivity. These findings provide preliminary evidence that pregnant women's dietary fat intake is associated with infants' behavioral development, though future research is needed to address this report's limitations: a relatively small sample size, the use of self-report measures, and a lack of consideration of maternal and infant postnatal diet. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 528-535, 2016. PMID:26709151

  1. Whole grain intakes in the diets of Irish children and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Niamh F C; McNulty, Breige A; Gibney, Michael J; Thielecke, Frank; Smith, Hayley; Nugent, Anne P

    2013-07-28

    A growing body of evidence supports the inclusion of whole grain foods in the diet to help prevent certain chronic diseases. Although much of the research has been conducted in adult cohorts, it is thought that younger populations may also benefit from whole-grain-rich diets. The aim of the present study was to quantify the intake of whole grain in Irish children and teenagers, and assess the major sources of intake. Data used in the present study were from the National Children's Food Survey and the National Teens' Food Survey, which used 7 d food diaries to collect data on habitual food and beverage consumption in representative samples of Irish children and teenagers. Results showed that over 90 % of children (5-12 years) and over 86 % of teenagers (13-17 years) are consumers of whole grain, with mean daily intakes of 18·5 and 23·2 g/d, respectively. Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals made the greatest contribution to whole grain intakes for both children and teenagers (59·3 and 44·3 %), followed by bread (14·4 and 26·5 %), with wheat being the major source of intake, accounting for over 65 % of all whole grains consumed. Whole grain consumers had significantly higher intakes of fibre, P and Mg in comparison with non-consumers of whole grain, even though whole grain intakes in this sample were well below the recommendation of three servings or 48 g/d. The present study characterises, for the first time, the patterns of whole grain consumption in Irish children and teenagers and shows whole grain intake to be low. PMID:23228207

  2. Salt intake of children and adolescents in South London: consumption levels and dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods. PMID:24614217

  3. Dietary intake of manganese and the risk of the metabolic syndrome in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Biao; Su, Xuefen; Su, Danting; Zeng, Fangfang; Wang, Maggie Haitian; Huang, Lichun; Huang, Enshan; Zhu, Yibo; Zhao, Dong; He, Denghua; Zhu, Xuhui; Yeoh, Engkiong; Zhang, Ronghua; Ding, Gangqiang

    2016-09-01

    Animal studies have suggested that Mn might be associated with some components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). A few epidemiological studies have assessed dietary Mn intake and its association with the risk of the MetS and its components among Chinese adults. In this study, we assessed daily dietary Mn intake and its relationship with MetS risk among Chinese adults in Zhejiang Province using data from the 5th Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey (2010-2012). A total of 2111 adults were included. Dietary Mn intake was assessed using 3-d 24-h dietary recalls; health-related data were obtained by questionnaire surveys, physical examinations and laboratory assessments. The mean intake of Mn was 6·07 (sd 2·94) mg/d for men (n 998) and 5·13 (sd 2·65) mg/d for women (n 1113). Rice (>42 %) was the main food source of Mn. The prevalence of the MetS was 28·0 % (590/2111). Higher Mn intake was associated with a decreased risk of the MetS in men (Q4 v. Q1 OR 0·62; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·92; P trend=0·043) but an increased risk in women (Q4 v. Q1 OR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·02, 2·45; P trend=0·078). In addition, Mn intake was inversely associated with abdominal obesity (P trend=0·016) and hypertriacylglycerolaemia (P trend=0·029) in men, but positively associated with low HDL-cholesterol in both men (P trend=0·003) and women (P trend<0·001). Our results suggest that higher Mn intakes may be protective against the MetS in men. The inverse association between Mn intake and the MetS in women might be due to the increased risk for low HDL-cholesterol. PMID:27385039

  4. Effect of exercise and dietary restraint on energy intake of reduced-obese women.

    PubMed

    Keim, N L; Canty, D J; Barbieri, T F; Wu, M M

    1996-02-01

    Self-selected food intake of 15 reduced-obese women living in a metabolic ward was studied for 14 consecutive days to determine the effect of exercise and other metabolic and behavioral variables on energy intake. A choice of prepared food items were offered at breakfast, lunch and dinner, and a variety of additional food items were available continuously 24 h/day. Subjects performed either moderate intensity aerobic exercise (A-EX) (n = 8) expending 354 +/- 76 kcal/session or low intensity resistance weight training (R-EX)(n =7) expending 96 +/- kcal/session, 5 days/week. Mean energy intakes (kcal/day, +/- SEM) of the exercise groups were similar: 1867 +/- 275 for A-EX, 1889 +/- 294 for R-EX. Mean energy intakes of individuals ranged from 49 to 157% of the predetermined level required for weight maintenance. Resting metabolic rate per kg 0.75 and the Eating Inventory hunger score contributed significantly to the between subject variance in energy intake, whereas exercise energy expenditure did not. Regardless of exercise, eight women consistently restricted their energy intake (undereaters), and seven other consumed excess energy (overeaters). Overeaters were distinguished by higher Eating Inventory disinhibition (P = 0.023) and hunger (p = 0.004) scores. The overeaters' diet had a higher fat content 34 +/- 1% (p = 0.007). Also, overeaters took a larger percentage of their daily energy, than that of undereaters, 27 +/- 1 energy intake in the evening, 13 +/- 2%, compared to undereaters, 7 +/- 1% (p = 0.005). We conclude that the Eating Inventory is useful for identifying reduced-obese women at risk of overeating, and these individuals may benefit from dietary counseling aimed at reducing fat intake and evening snacking. PMID:8660033

  5. Sodium and Potassium Intake of Urban Dwellers: Nothing Changed in Yazd, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Masoud; Namayandeh, Mahdieh; GharahiGhehi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    To assess the daily salt intake of people aged 20-74 years based on the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion in urban population of Yazd, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted. This is a substudy of Yazd Healthy Heart Project in Iran. From 2004 to 2005, two thousand people of the urban population of Yazd city, aged 20-74 years, were enrolled in the main study. Overall, 219 volunteer participants of 20-70 years were enrolled in this substudy. Sample frame was the household numbers according to the database of Yazd City Health Services. Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and creatinine were measured in the urine samples collected from the participants over a 24-hour period. Sodium content in urine over 24 hours was 171.7±82.9 mmol/day in males and 127.8±56.1 mmol/day in females (p<0.0001) while potassium content was 49.4±23.2 mmol/day in males and 41.5±25.1 mmol/day in females (p=0.2). Estimated average daily salt (NaCl) intake was 10.0±4.8 g/day in males and 7.5±3.3 g/day in females (p<0.0001). Only one participant had the ideal Na/K ratio of less than one. Na/K ratios greater than one and less than two were seen in 11.3% (n=24), and a ratio equal to or greater than 2 was observed in 82.3% (n=118) of the participants. The average Na/K ratio was 3.69±1.58. Unlike many developed countries where sodium intake declined over the past few decades, the daily sodium intake in Yazd is high, and daily potassium intake is low. This is similar to what was observed four decades ago in an area not far from Yazd. Efforts must be directed towards health promotion interventions to increase public awareness to reduce sodium intake and increase potassium intake. PMID:24847600

  6. The use of a commercial vegetable juice as a practical means to increase vegetable intake: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recommendations for daily dietary vegetable intake were increased in the 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines, as consumption of a diet rich in vegetables has been associated with lower risk of certain chronic health disorders including cardiovascular disease. However, vegetable consumption in the United St...

  7. Chronic intake of honey, sugar and high fructose corn syrup exert equivalent effects on glucose and insulin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of nutritive sweeteners is high with ‘added sugars’ intake from the WWEIA (2009-2010) survey in all individuals = 2 yr at 76.2 g or 295 kcal daily. Controversy continues regarding the metabolic effects of the source of sweetener. Our goal was to evaluate the glycemic and insulin effect o...

  8. Association Between 100% Juice Consumption and Nutrition Intake and Weight of Children Aged 2 to 11 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to investigate the associations between 4 categories of daily 100% juice consumption (0 fl oz, greater than 0 to less than or equal to 6 fl oz; greater than 6 to less than 12 fl oz; and greater than or equal to 12 fl oz) and nutrient and food group intake and weight in...

  9. U.S. Food Guide Pyramid food group intake by Asian Indian immigrants in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, S S; Diwan, S; Cohen, D L

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the food group intake and the dietary quality of middle-aged and older Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants (45 years or older) living in two urban metropolitan areas in the U.S. Participants (90 men, 99 females) completed a 24-hour dietary recall, which was used to determine if they met the daily food group intake guidelines of the U.S. Food Guide Pyramid. The overall quality of their reported dietary intake was determined using the Healthy Eating Index based on their nutrient and food group intake. Both men and women met the daily number of servings recommendations for the grains (men: 9.3 servings/day; women: 6.9 servings/day) and vegetables (men: 4.5 servings/day; women: 3.6 servings/day) groups, but did not meet the recommendations for fruits, dairy and meats groups. The total score on the Healthy Eating Index of the diets of these participants was 73, indicative of a dietary intake that does not meet the established U.S. dietary guidelines. These immigrants should be educated about appropriate food choices (ethnic and non-ethnic) within each of the U.S. Food Guide Pyramid food groups to improve the overall quality of their dietary intakes. PMID:15980923

  10. Floating intake reduces pump damage

    SciTech Connect

    Kronig, A.

    1993-12-31

    The solution to a costly sand erosion problem at the Grande Dixence hydroelectric project in Switzerland turned out to be as simple as a floating pump. The 726-MW Grande Dixence project drains a 350-square-kilometer reach of the Zermatt and Herens valleys in the southwestern Swiss Alps. About half of the drainage area is covered by active glaciers. Because the glaciers in Zermatt Valley are so low in altitude, their water is collected in Z`mutt Reservoir at the base of the Matterhorn, then pumped up 500 meters for transport to the main Grande Disence Reservoir near Sion. The glacier water is heavily laden with sand. In spite of a gravel pass and a desilter, the 700,000-acubic-meter Z`mutt Reservoir receives large quantities of sand. The sand tends to remain in solution because of the low water temperatures (1 to 2 degrees Centigrade). In the original intake system, the sand would be sucked into the pump intakes, causing extensive erosion to the pump wheels and an expensive yearly program of repair. (Pump damage averaged 200,000 Swiss Francs ($284,000 U.S.) per year between 1980 and 1985.)

  11. Rats with spontaneous high level of NaCl intake have hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Belló, A A; Covian, M R

    1991-11-01

    The thyroid function was studied by means of a comparison between rats that drank daily less than 2 mEq of a NaCl solution (control) and rats that spontaneously drank daily above 4 mEq of this solution (0.25 M), which is considered aversive to rats. It was found that, in these rats, the protein-bound iodine (PBI-127) and the radioactive iodine uptake (I-131) were less than in the control rats, in spite of similar thyroid weight. It seems, therefore, that the rats that drank high levels of the aversive salt solution have hypothyroidism. This finding shows another link between the thyroid gland and NaCl intake. These data have implications in the design and interpretation of experiments in which NaCl intake is studied. PMID:1805272

  12. Dietary intakes and food use of groups of elite Australian male athletes.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Gollan, R A; Read, R S

    1991-12-01

    The present study conducted dietary surveys of four groups of Australian male athletes: triathletes, marathon runners, Australian Rules football players, and Olympic weightlifters. Their training diets were assessed via a 7-day food record from which mean daily intakes of energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients were estimated. The data were compared between groups as well as to recommendations in the literature for athlete nutrition. Results showed major differences between groups. The contribution of carbohydrate to total energy intake was greater for triathletes and marathon runners than for the other two groups. There was no difference between all four groups in the total amount of fat consumed, yet its contribution to total energy intake was significantly lower for triathletes and marathon runners. The football players and weightlifters consumed a similar fat:energy ratio as the typical Australian diet. Furthermore, the micronutrient density of the football players' diets was significantly lower than that of the other groups. PMID:1844570

  13. Training response inhibition to food is associated with weight loss and reduced energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Natalia S.; O'Sullivan, Jamie; Parslow, David; Javaid, Mahmood; Adams, Rachel C.; Chambers, Christopher D.; Kos, Katarina; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The majority of adults in the UK and US are overweight or obese due to multiple factors including excess energy intake. Training people to inhibit simple motor responses (key presses) to high-energy density food pictures reduces intake in laboratory studies. We examined whether online response inhibition training reduced real-world food consumption and weight in a community sample of adults who were predominantly overweight or obese (N = 83). Participants were allocated in a randomised, double-blind design to receive four 10-min sessions of either active or control go/no-go training in which either high-energy density snack foods (active) or non-food stimuli (control) were associated with no-go signals. Participants' weight, energy intake (calculated from 24-h food diaries), daily snacking frequency and subjective food evaluations were measured for one week pre- and post-intervention. Participants also provided self-reported weight and monthly snacking frequency at pre-intervention screening, and one month and six months after completing the study. Participants in the active relative to control condition showed significant weight loss, reductions in daily energy intake and a reduction in rated liking of high-energy density (no-go) foods from the pre-to post-intervention week. There were no changes in self-reported daily snacking frequency. At longer-term follow-up, the active group showed significant reductions in self-reported weight at six months, whilst both groups reported significantly less snacking at one- and six-months. Excellent rates of adherence (97%) and positive feedback about the training suggest that this intervention is acceptable and has the potential to improve public health by reducing energy intake and overweight. PMID:26122756

  14. Association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes among adult men and women in India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is postulated that a diet high in legumes may be beneficial in preventing diabetes. However, little empirical evidence on this association exists in developing countries. We aimed to examine the association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes status in adult men and women in India. Methods The analysis is based on a population-based cross sectional study of 99,574 women and 56,742 men aged 20–49 years included in India’s third National Family Health Survey conducted in 2005–06. Association of legume intake, determined by the frequency of consumption of pulses and beans (daily, weekly and occasionally or never), with the reported prevalence of diabetes were estimated using multiple logistic regression after adjusting for frequency of consumption of other food items, BMI status, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, watching television, age, education, living standard of the household, residence and geographic regions. Results Daily (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59–0.87; p=0.001) and weekly (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.54–0.80; p<0.001) legumes intake were associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of diabetes among adult Indian women even after controlling for the effects of potentially confounding factors, whereas non-significant inverse associations were observed in men. Conclusion Daily or weekly intake of legumes was inversely associated with presence of diabetes in the Indian population. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. More epidemiological research with better measures of legumes intake and clinical measures of diabetes is needed to clarify this relationship. PMID:23915141

  15. Fruit and vegetable intake and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective Numerous studies support the protective effect of high fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption on chronic disease risk, mainly against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Compared with younger adults, older people experience additional health, social, and environmental conditions that affect dietary intake. To identify those additional dimensions and examine them in association with FV intake, data on 3,840 participants in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) in South Africa were analyzed. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study in 2008 with a sample of 3,840 participants, aged 50 years or older, in South Africa. The questionnaire included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometry, and blood pressure measurements. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between socio-demographic factors, health variables, and inadequate FV consumption. Results Overall prevalence rates of insufficient FV intake were 68.5%, 64.8% among men and 71.4% among women, with a mean intake of 4.0 servings of FV among older adults (50 years and older). In multivariable analysis, coming from the Black African or Colored population group, lower educational level and daily tobacco use were associated with inadequate FV intake. Conclusions The amount of fruit and vegetables (FVs) consumed by older South African participants was considerably lower than current recommendations (daily intake of at least five servings; 400 g). Public education and campaigns on adequate consumption of FVs should be promoted targeting lower educated and Black African and Colored population groups. PMID:23195518

  16. Dairy intake is associated with brain glutathione concentration in older adults123

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Phil; Denney, Douglas R; Spaeth, Kendra; Nast, Olivia; Ptomey, Lauren; Roth, Alexandra K; Lierman, Jo Ann; Sullivan, Debra K

    2015-01-01

    Background: A reduction in key antioxidants such as glutathione has been noted in brain tissue undergoing oxidative stress in aging and neurodegeneration. To date, no dietary factor has been linked to a higher glutathione concentration. However, in an earlier pilot study, we showed evidence of a positive association between cerebral glutathione and dairy intake. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that dairy food consumption is associated with cerebral glutathione concentrations in older adults. Design: In this observational study, we measured cerebral glutathione concentrations in 60 healthy subjects (mean ± SD age: 68.7 ± 6.2 y) whose routine dairy intakes varied. Glutathione concentrations were measured by using a unique, noninvasive magnetic resonance chemical shift imaging technique at 3 T and compared with dairy intakes reported in 7-d food records. Results: Glutathione concentrations in the frontal [Spearman's rank-order correlation (rs) = 0.39, P = 0.013], parietal (rs = 0.50, P = 0.001), and frontoparietal regions (rs = 0.47, P = 0.003) were correlated with average daily dairy servings. In particular, glutathione concentrations in all 3 regions were positively correlated with milk servings (P ≤ 0.013), and those in the parietal region were also correlated with cheese servings (P = 0.015) and calcium intake (P = 0.039). Dairy intake was related to sex, fat-free mass, and daily intakes of energy, protein, and carbohydrates. However, when these factors were controlled through a partial correlation, correlations between glutathione concentrations and dairy and milk servings remained significant. Conclusions: Higher cerebral glutathione concentrations were associated with greater dairy consumption in older adults. One possible explanation for this association is that dairy foods may serve as a good source of substrates for glutathione synthesis in the human brain. PMID:25646325

  17. Evaluating the Impact of Menu Labeling on Food Choices and Intake

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Peter D.; Agnew, Henry; Baik, Jenny; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of restaurant menu calorie labels on food choices and intake. Methods. Participants in a study dinner (n = 303) were randomly assigned to either (1) a menu without calorie labels (no calorie labels), (2) a menu with calorie labels (calorie labels), or (3) a menu with calorie labels and a label stating the recommended daily caloric intake for an average adult (calorie labels plus information). Food choices and intake during and after the study dinner were measured. Results. Participants in both calorie label conditions ordered fewer calories than those in the no calorie labels condition. When calorie label conditions were combined, that group consumed 14% fewer calories than the no calorie labels group. Individuals in the calorie labels condition consumed more calories after the study dinner than those in both other conditions. When calories consumed during and after the study dinner were combined, participants in the calorie labels plus information group consumed an average of 250 fewer calories than those in the other groups. Conclusions. Calorie labels on restaurant menus impacted food choices and intake; adding a recommended daily caloric requirement label increased this effect, suggesting menu label legislation should require such a label. Future research should evaluate menu labeling's impact on children's food choices and consumption. PMID:20019307

  18. Impact of nutritional labelling on 10-d energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, Elise; Perron, Julie; Drapeau, Vicky; Lamarche, Benoît; Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia; Provencher, Véronique

    2015-12-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutritional labelling on energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food. During a 10-d period, seventy normal-weight (BMI<25 kg/m2) and seventy-one obese women (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were given three meals per d under ad libitum conditions. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental labelling groups in which the only difference was the label posted on lunch meal entrée: (1) low-fat label, (2) energy label (energy content of the entrée and average daily needs) and (3) no label (control). Average energy intake was calculated by weighing all foods before v. after daily consumption. Hunger and fullness perceptions were rated on visual analogue scales immediately before and after each meal. Satiety efficiency was assessed through the calculation of the satiety quotient (SQ). The appreciation and perceived healthiness of the lunch entrées were rated on eight-point Likert scales. There was no difference in energy intake, SQ and attitudes towards food between the three labelling groups. Fasting hunger perception was higher in the low-fat label group compared with the two others groups (P=0·0037). No interactions between labelling groups and BMI categories were observed. In conclusion, although labelling does not seem to influence energy intake, a low-fat label may increase women's fasting hunger perceptions compared with an energy label or no label. PMID:26439975

  19. Evaluation of dietary cholesterol intake in elderly Chinese: a longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiaofang; Su, Chang; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Huijun; Jiang, Hongru; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate daily cholesterol intake across demographic factors and its food sources in elderly Chinese. Design A longitudinal study was conducted using demographic and dietary data for elders aged 60 and above from eight waves (1991–2011) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Setting The data were derived from urban and rural communities of nine provinces (autonomous regions) in China. Participants There were 16 274 participants (7657 male and 8617 female) in this study. Outcomes The primary outcome was daily cholesterol intake, which was calculated by using the Chinese Food Composition Table, based on dietary data. Results Daily consumption of cholesterol in the elderly significantly increased by 34% from 1991 to 2011 (p<0.0001) and reached 253.9 mg on average in 2011. Secular trends in the proportion of subjects with an intake of >300 mg/day increased significantly during 1991–2011 (p<0.0001). The major food sources of cholesterol by ranked order were eggs, pork, and fish and shellfish in 1991 and 2011, while organ meats which ranked fourth in the contribution to total intake in 1991 was replaced by poultry in 2011. Moreover, younger elders, male elders and elders from a high-income family or a highly urbanised community had higher cholesterol intakes and larger proportions of subjects with excessive cholesterol consumption in each survey year. Conclusions The large growth in daily cholesterol intake may pose major challenges for the health of elders in China. Reduced exposure to food enriched in cholesterol is required for elderly Chinese. PMID:27507232

  20. Dose combinations of exendin-4 and salmon calcitonin produce additive and synergistic reductions in food intake in nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Kemm, Matthew H.; Ofeldt, Erica M.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2010-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and amylin mediate the feedback control of eating by seemingly separate, but overlapping mechanisms. This study examined the effects of combined doses of the GLP-1 agonist, exendin-4 (Ex-4), and the amylin analog, salmon calcitonin (sCT), on food intake and meal patterns in adult male rhesus monkeys. Monkeys received intramuscular injections of Ex-4 (0, 0.1, 0.32, or 0.56 μg/kg), sCT (0, 0.1, or 0.32 μg/kg), or combinations thereof before a 6-h daily access to food. Dose combinations produced reductions in food intake that were significantly greater than those produced by the individual doses. Surface plots of the hourly intake indicated a synergistic interaction at lower doses of Ex-4 and sCT during the first 4 h of feeding and additive effects at hours 5 and 6. Meal pattern analysis revealed the combinational doses reduced average meal size and meal frequency by additive interactions, whereas infra-additive effects were apparent at lower doses for first meal size. Combinational doses were further characterized by administration of repeated daily injections of 0.56 μg/kg Ex-4 + 0.32 μg/kg sCT for 5 days. This resulted in sustained reductions in daily food intake (>70% from saline baseline) for 5 days with residual reductions (∼48% from saline baseline) persisting on day 1 following the injections. In contrast, when pair-fed an identical amount of daily food, there was a compensatory food intake increase on day 1 following the pair-feeding (∼132% of saline baseline). Such data suggest Ex-4 and sCT interact in an overall additive fashion to reduce food intake and further the understanding of how GLP-1 and amylin agonist combinations influence feeding behavior. PMID:20554932