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1

(Tolerable daily intake of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler was asked by the World Health Organization (WHO) to participate as a temporary advisor in a Consultation on Tolerable Daily Intake from Food of 2,3,7,8,-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) in Bilthoven, Netherlands, December 4--7, 1990. The goal of the Consultation was to review the scientific literature and, based on a comprehensive toxicological evaluation, develop guidelines for Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) that could be used on an international basis. The Consultation was also to develop guidelines for risk management of TCDD with emphasis on dairy products and other food sources.

Travis, C.C.

1990-12-17

2

Heavy metals in common foodstuff: Daily intake  

SciTech Connect

Lately, toxic effects of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) as well as desirable ones of some others (Ni, Mn, Zn) have been a field of thorough investigation. The main way of human body fortification in metals is through foodchain depending on the kind and quantity of the consumed food, according to dietary habits. The purpose of this study is the calculation of metals daily intake through common foodstuff of Greek inhabitants. The calculation is based on results from quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn in common foodstuff from the market of the city of Thessaloniki. The daily food consumption data is derived from three sources: (a) answers to a questionnaire distributed to families of the city of Thessaloniki, (b) nutrition data provided by the Agricultural Bank of Greece and (c) nutrition data according to international bibliography.

Tsoumbaris, P.; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H. (Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

1994-07-01

3

Dietary intake of PCDDs/PCDFs and coplanar PCBs among the Japanese population estimated by duplicate portion analysis: a low proportion of adults exceed the tolerable daily intake.  

PubMed

Dietary intake of dioxins was estimated by duplicate portion analysis of consecutive 3-day food samples among 86 men and 288 women (aged 17-72 years), who were living in 75 different areas of 25 prefectures in Japan. The mean (median) intake of PCDDs+PCDFs, coplanar PCBs (co-PCBs), and total dioxins, expressed on the basis of toxicity equivalents (TEQ), was 0.46 (0.34), 0.59 (0.39), and 1.06 (0.79)pg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Dietary intake was highest in fishing areas, followed by farming and urban areas. In multiple regression analysis, TEQs of PCDDs+PCDFs, co-PCBs, and total dioxins were positively associated with age and intake amount of fish and shellfish, and milk and dairy products, and negatively associated with survey year. There were significant positive correlations between dietary intake and blood levels for TEQs of PCDDs+PCDFs, co-PCBs, and total dioxins (Pearson r=0.35-0.36). The proportion of those whose dietary intake exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI), set by the World Health Organization (4pg TEQ/kg/day) and European Union (2pg TEQ/kg/day), was estimated at 2.1% and 10.4%, respectively. However, these proportions were considered to be overestimated because of the effect of day-to-day within-person variation. Therefore, the ratio of within- and between-person variance was estimated by applying random effects one-way analysis of variance to repeated measurements for another group of 35 persons. When the effect of within-person variation of dietary intake was accounted for, the proportion of subjects whose long-term intake exceeded the TDI of WHO and EU decreased to 0.06% and 2.9%, respectively. PMID:18692182

Arisawa, Kokichi; Uemura, Hirokazu; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Satoh, Hiroshi; Sumiyoshi, Yoshio; Morinaga, Kenji; Kodama, Kazunori; Suzuki, Taka-ichiro; Nagai, Masaki; Suzuki, Tsuguyoshi

2008-10-01

4

Increased sensitivity to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in airways previously exposed to low doses of TDI.  

PubMed

Repeated airway exposures to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) may cause sensitization and asthma. This study has examined the acute inflammatory response to TDI in guinea-pig tracheobronchial airways, the development of increased sensitivity to TDI and the effects of xanthines and a glucocorticoid on these responses to TDI. A restricted surface area of the tracheobronchial mucosa of Ketalar-Xylazin anaesthetized guinea-pigs was exposed to TDI, dissolved in olive oil, by means of 1 min infusions through an oral catheter. The TDI-induced inflammatory process was quantified by determination of airway luminal entry of plasma. Already 3 nl (approximately 20 pmol) of TDI produced a significant and sustained exudation response (P less than 0.001 to P less than 0.01, 5 and 17 hr after exposure). Pretreatment with intravenous enprofylline (25 mumol/kg) intraperitoneally or 26 mumol/kg by tracheal superfusion) was without effect. Two repeated exposures to TDI 3 nl (on days 1 and 8) made the animals hyperresponsive to TDI so that on day 15 a previously subthreshold dose of TDI (0.3 nl) produced significant exudation both at 5 and 17 hr after exposure (P less than 0.001 to P less than 0.01). Similarly, two repeated dermal exposures to a large dose of TDI (20 microliters) lowered the threshold for tracheal provocation with TDI. Budesonide (2.6 mumol/kg orally) given daily during the topical airway 'sensitization' regimen (days 1-14) significantly reduced the response to the subsequent 0.3 nl challenge dose of TDI (P less than 0.05). The effects of daily treatments with either theophylline (100 mumol/kg) or enprofylline (50 mumol/kg) were not significant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1330235

Erjefält, I; Persson, C G

1992-09-01

5

Daily mercury intake in fish-eating populations in the Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although high levels of fish consumption and bioindicators of mercury exposure have been reported for traditional populations in the Amazon, little is known about their actual daily intake of Hg. Using an ecosystem approach, calculate daily mercury intake in adult fish-eaters, examine the relations between mercury intake and bioindicators of exposure and the factors that influence these relations. A cross-sectional

Carlos José Sousa Passos; Delaine Sampaio Da Silva; Mélanie Lemire; Myriam Fillion; Jean Rémy Davée Guimarães; Marc Lucotte; Donna Mergler

2008-01-01

6

Daily intakes of copper, zinc and arsenic in drinking water by population of Shanghai, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily intakes of metals in drinking water are of extreme importance in risk assessment to human health. Some papers focused on this topic, but most of them did not consider the effect of age, gender and work location on daily intakes of metals in drinking water. The objective of present paper is to estimate the levels of Cu, Zn and

Peng Xu; Shengbiao Huang; Zijian Wang; Gustavo Lagos

2006-01-01

7

Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

2011-01-01

8

Estimation of daily mercury intake from seafood in Japanese women: Akita cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

We estimated daily mercury intakes from seafood in 154 mothers residing in several cities and towns in Akita, Japan, to address the relationships between the reference dose (RfD of 0.1 microg/kg body weight per day, derived by US EPA) and daily mercury intakes, combined with hair mercury levels. The frequency and volume of seafood ingested by them were examined using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with 25 kinds of full-scale pictures including fish and shellfish items. Hair mercury concentrations in the mothers were also determined. The geometric means in the mothers were 15.3 (2.65-48.4) microg/day for daily mercury intakes from seafood, calculated on the basis of the references on mercury contents, and 1.73 (0.49-5.82) microg/g for hair mercury concentrations. The daily mercury intake was significantly correlated with hair mercury concentrations (Spearman rank correlation coefficient rs=0.335, p<0.001). No significant differences in mercury intakes were found either between mothers residing in fishing and non-fishing areas or between those in cities and towns (p>0.05). Assuming the methylmercury content rate of 75% in seafood mercury and body weight of 55 kg, the mothers were estimated to ingest methylmercury of 0.21 microg/kg body weight per day. It is suggested that daily mercury intakes, calculated by the FFQ, reflect hair mercury levels, and there is no interregional difference in the daily mercury intake unless any special circumstance exists. Daily methylmercury intake in more than 90% of Japanese women may exceed the RfD, and it therefore seems to be far from the present state of Japanese dietary lives. PMID:12962403

Iwasaki, Yoko; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Nakai, Kunihiko; Oka, Tomoko; Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Satoh, Hiroshi; Murata, Katsuyuki

2003-06-01

9

Daily polyphenol intake in France from fruit and vegetables.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to create a French database on the polyphenol content of fruit and vegetables as uncooked fruits and vegetables and then to evaluate polyphenol intake through fruit and vegetable consumption in France. To achieve this, we used the Folin-Ciocalteu method adapted to fruit and vegetable polyphenol quantitation (1). Vegetables with the highest polyphenol concentration were artichokes, parsley, and brussels sprouts [>250 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh edible portion (FEP)]; fruits with the highest concentrations were strawberries, lychees, and grapes (>180 mg of GAE/100 g FEP). Conversely, melons (Cantaloupe cv.) and avocados had the lowest polyphenol concentration for fruits and vegetables, respectively. Based on fruit consumption data, apples and strawberries are the main sources of polyphenols in the French diet, whereas potatoes, lettuces, and onions are the most important vegetable sources. Total polyphenol intake from fruit is about 3 times higher than from vegetables, due to the lower polyphenol concentration in vegetables. The calculation of polyphenol intake, based on both assessment methods used [(Société d'Etudes de la Communication, Distribution et Publicité (SECODIP) and Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SUVIMAX)], showed that apples and potatoes provide approximatively half of the total polyphenol intake from fruit and vegetables in the French diet. PMID:16920856

Brat, Pierre; Georgé, Stéphane; Bellamy, Annick; Du Chaffaut, Laure; Scalbert, Augustin; Mennen, Louise; Arnault, Nathalie; Amiot, Marie Josèphe

2006-09-01

10

Assessment of daily iron intake for the Pakistani population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Iron deficiency is the number one nutritional disorder in the world and is quite common in Pakistan. Iron deficiency anaemia may result from a low dietary intake, inadequate intestinal absorption, excessive blood loss, and\\/or increased needs. While iron overload is also responsible of number of diseases. The normal iron status of our body is usually maintained by controlling

P. Akhter; D. Mohammad; S. D. Orfi; N. Ahmad; K. Rehman

2005-01-01

11

Daily selenium intake estimates for residents of arsenic-endemic areas.  

PubMed

The selenium in the diet of persons in arsenic-endemic areas, high levels of arsenic in the drinking water, was evaluated. The methodology used was that of 24-hr dietary recall. Daily selenium intakes of two rural towns in northern Mexico were found to be similar, approximating 72.9 and 60.6 micrograms. These values were similar to those of a previously arsenic-exposed area from California, Edison community. The Edison participants had a daily selenium intake of 61.8 micrograms. The possible negative effect of selenium to produce differences in reported geographical variation in disease could not be substantiated in this study. Other nutrient intakes, protein and energy were also found similar for communities. Differences were noted in vitamin A intake where one-third the daily requirement was experienced by Mexican participants compared to two-thirds the requirement being satisfied by those participants from Edison. PMID:8287837

Valentine, J L; Cebrian, M E; Garcia-vargas, G G; Faraji, B; Kuo, J; Gibb, H J; Lachenbruch, P A

1994-01-01

12

Average daily nitrate and nitrite intake in the Belgian population older than 15 years.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite in Belgium. The nitrate content of processed vegetables, cheeses and meat products was analysed. These data were completed by data from non-targeted official control and from the literature. In addition, the nitrite content of meat products was measured. Concentration data for nitrate and nitrite were linked to food consumption data of the Belgian Food Consumption Survey. This study included 3245 respondents, aged 15 years and older. Food intakes were estimated by a repeated 24-h recall using EPIC-SOFT. Only respondents with two completed 24-h recalls (n=3083) were included in the analysis. For the intake assessment, average concentration data and individual consumption data were combined. Usual intake of nitrate/nitrite was calculated using the Nusser method. The mean usual daily intake of nitrate was 1.38 mg kg(-1) bodyweight (bw) day(-1) and the usual daily intake at the 97.5 percentile was 2.76 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1). Exposure of the Belgian population to nitrate at a mean intake corresponded to 38% of the ADI (while 76% at the 97.5 percentile). For the average consumer, half of the intake was derived from vegetables (especially lettuce) and 20% from water and water-based drinks. The average daily intake of nitrate and nitrite from cheese and meat products was low (0.2% and 6% of the ADI at average intake, respectively). Scenario analyses with a higher consumption of vegetables or a higher nitrate concentration in tap water showed a significant higher intake of nitrate. Whether this is beneficial or harmful must be further assessed. PMID:21728895

Temme, E H M; Vandevijvere, S; Vinkx, C; Huybrechts, I; Goeyens, L; Van Oyen, H

2011-09-01

13

The estimated daily manganese intake of Korean children aged 11-12  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to estimate the daily manganese (Mn) intake of Korean children. This study was done using a three-day dietary intake survey of 257 Korean children (boys 123; girls 134). The Mn intake values were calculated based on a database that provides the Mn content of the frequently consumed Korean foods, alongside the food composition table provided by the Korean National Rural Living Science Institute. The average age, height, weight and body mass index of our subjects were 11.9 years, 155.4 cm, 48.9 kg and 20.2 kg/m2 in boys and 11.9 years, 154.1 cm, 43.5 kg and 18.3 kg/m2 in girls. The average daily energy intakes were 2,249.2 kcal in boys and 2,044.5 kcal in girls. Boys consumed significantly more Mn than girls, based on intake estimates of 4,585.3 µg (117.6% of adequate intake) and 4,029.3 µg (117.1% of adequate intake), respectively (P < 0.001). Boys had a Mn intake of 2,041.1 µg per 1,000 kcal of energy consumption, whereas for girls this was at 1,983.9 µg per 1,000 kcal. Neither group exceeded the tolerable upper intake level for Mn. The major food groups which contributed to Mn intake in our subjects were cereals (50.8%), vegetables (21.0%), seasonings (8.9%), and pulses (7.7%). Notably, boys derived a higher Mn intake through cereals and vegetable than did girls (P < 0.001, P < 0.05). The key food sources of Mn, in descending order, were rice, soybean curd, kimchi, black rice and cereals. We propose that the results of our study may be used as a basis for follow-up studies that examine the Mn intake of children. PMID:22259680

Choi, Mi Kyeong

2011-01-01

14

Daily selenium intake in a moderate selenium deficiency area of Suzhou China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Daily dietary selenium (Se) intake in Suzhou China was investigated to determine whether residents were susceptible to Se deficiency. Food samples were purchased from local supermarkets, including vegetables, fruits, meats and seafood. Hair samples were collected from 285 people ranging from 20 to ...

15

Comparison of three methods to reduce energy density: effects on daily energy intake  

PubMed Central

Reductions in food energy density can decrease energy intake, but it is not known if the effects depend on the way that energy density is reduced. We investigated whether three methods of reducing energy density (decreasing fat, increasing fruit and vegetables, and adding water) differed in their effects on energy intake across the day. In a crossover design, 59 adults ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for four weeks. Across conditions, the entrées were either standard in energy density or were reduced in energy density by 20% using one of the three methods. Each meal included a manipulated entrée along with unmanipulated side dishes, and all foods were consumed ad libitum. Reducing the energy density of entrées significantly decreased daily energy intake compared to standard entrées (mean intake 2667±77 kcal/day; 11,166±322 kJ/day). The mean decrease was 396±44 kcal/day (1658±184 kJ/day) when fat was reduced, 308±41 kcal/day (1290±172 kJ/day) when fruit and vegetables were increased, and 230±35 kcal/day (963±147 kJ/day) when water was added. Daily energy intake was lower when fat was decreased compared to the other methods. These findings indicate that a variety of diet compositions can be recommended to reduce overall dietary energy density in order to moderate energy intake. PMID:23523752

Williams, Rachel A.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

2013-01-01

16

Estimated daily intake and seasonal food sources of quercetin in Japan.  

PubMed

Quercetin is a promising food component, which can prevent lifestyle related diseases. To understand the dietary intake of quercetin in the subjects of a population-based cohort study and in the Japanese population, we first determined the quercetin content in foods available in the market during June and July in or near a town in Hokkaido, Japan. Red leaf lettuce, asparagus, and onions contained high amounts of quercetin derivatives. We then estimated the daily quercetin intake by 570 residents aged 20-92 years old in the town using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The average and median quercetin intakes were 16.2 and 15.5 mg day-1, respectively. The quercetin intakes by men were lower than those by women; the quercetin intakes showed a low correlation with age in both men and women. The estimated quercetin intake was similar during summer and winter. Quercetin was mainly ingested from onions and green tea, both in summer and in winter. Vegetables, such as asparagus, green pepper, tomatoes, and red leaf lettuce, were good sources of quercetin in summer. Our results will help to elucidate the association between quercetin intake and risks of lifestyle-related diseases by further prospective cohort study and establish healthy dietary requirements with the consumption of more physiologically useful components from foods. PMID:25849945

Nishimuro, Haruno; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Sato, Midori; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Matsunaga, Izumi; Naito, Shigehiro; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Oike, Hideaki; Nagata, Tadahiro; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Kobori, Masuko

2015-01-01

17

Estimated daily intake of Fe, Cu, Ca and Zn through common cereals in Tehran, Iran.  

PubMed

This paper presents the findings of study undertaken to estimate the dietary intake of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) through common cereals in Tehran, Iran. 100 samples of rice, wheat and barley were collected from various brands between August and October 2013. The samples were analyzed performing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The dietary intake for adults was estimated by a total cereal study. Calculations were carried out on the basis of the reported adults' average food consumption rate data. The total daily intake estimated in mgd(-1) for Tehran population were 3.6 (Fe), 10.2 (Zn), 0.3 (Cu) and 234.5 (Ca). Wheat showed the highest contribution to Zn, Cu and Ca intakes. Furthermore, intakes were compared with recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Zn total intake (10.2mgd(-1)) was comparable with RDA values for males (11mgd(-1)) and was higher than recommended value for females (8mgd(-1)). The intakes of other studied elements were below the respective RDAs. PMID:25624223

Kashian, S; Fathivand, A A

2015-06-01

18

Estimated daily intake and cumulative risk assessment of phthalate diesters in a Belgian general population.  

PubMed

The daily intakes (DI) were estimated in a Belgian general population for 5 phthalates, namely diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), based on the urinary measurements of their corresponding metabolites. DI values ranged between daily intakes) to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQ), which highlight an intake above the dose considered as safe for values greater than 1. If very few of our Belgian participants exceeded this threshold for phthalates considered individually, 6.2% of the adults and 25% of the children showed an excessive hazard index (HI) which took into account the cumulative risk of adverse anti-androgenic effects. These results are of concern since these HI were based on only 3 phthalates (DEHP, DiBP and DnBP), and showed a median of 0.55 and 0.29 for children and adults respectively. The comparison with previously determined dietary intakes demonstrated that for DEHP, food intake was nearly the only route of exposure while other pathways occurred mainly for the other studied phthalates. PMID:24968065

Dewalque, Lucas; Charlier, Corinne; Pirard, Catherine

2014-12-01

19

Daily fluoride intake from the diet of Hungarian children in fluoride deficient and naturally fluoridated areas.  

PubMed

Average daily dietary intakes of F were determined for 67 kindergarten children (X age 3.9 years) and 118 schoolchildren (X age 14.0 years), resident in one of three areas where the concentration of naturally occurring F in the household water ranged 0.06-0.11 mg/l, 0.05-1.10 mg/l and 1.6-3.1 mg/l. Mean daily F intakes increased consistently and significantly with increasing F content of the water in all dietary categories in both age groups. Due to relatively low water and high milk consumption, F from foods has made a greater contribution to total F intake (40-53% over the whole sample) than F in water ingested as such, or in beverages. The total amount of F ingested from dietary sources is considered safe even at the highest intake levels found (X = 0.44 mg/day, SD = 0.11 at 3.9 years; 1.49 mg/day, SD = 0.35 at 14.0 years). PMID:3227863

Schamschula, R G; Un, P S; Sugár, E; Duppenthaler, J L; Tóth, K; Barmes, D E

1988-01-01

20

Personal, social and environmental predictors of daily fruit and vegetable intake in 11-year-old children in nine European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate potential personal, social and physical environmental predictors of daily fruit intake and daily vegetable intake in 11-year-old boys and girls in nine European countries.Subjects:The total sample size was 13 305 (90.4% participation rate).Results:Overall, 43.2% of the children reported to eat fruit every day, 46.1% reported to eat vegetables every day. Daily fruit intake and daily vegetable intake was

I De Bourdeaudhuij; S te Velde; J Brug; P Due; M Wind; C Sandvik; L Maes; A Wolf; C Perez Rodrigo; A Yngve; I Thorsdottir; M Rasmussen; I Elmadfa; B Franchini; K-I Klepp

2008-01-01

21

Breakfast consumption with and without vitamin-mineral supplement use favorably impacts daily nutrient intake of ninth-grade students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess the contribution of breakfast consumption (with and without dietary supplement intake) on total daily nutrient intake of ninth-grade students.Methods: Twenty-four-hour recall of dietary intake was collected from a random sample of 711 ninth-grade students attending 12 Archdiocesan high schools in New Orleans, Louisiana. Analysis of variance techniques, Pearson’s Chi-square statistic, and Breznahn–Shapiro method with Scheffé probabilities were

Theresa A Nicklas; Christina Reger; Leann Myers; Carol O’Neil

2000-01-01

22

International project on human daily dietary intake of minor and trace elements  

SciTech Connect

A coordinate research program on dietary intake of nutrient and other elements initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is currently under way. The purpose of the core program of this project is to obtain reliable data on the average daily intakes of several important minor and trace elements in diets consumed in a number of developed and developing countries such as Brazil, Canada, China, Iran, Italy, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Thailand, and Turkey. In the core program which will be collected for determination of the nutrient elements such as calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, iodine, selenium, and zinc, among others. The project also provides for the measurement of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in view of the biological significance of these elements as toxicants in the diet and includes estimation of the energy, phytate, and fiber components of the diet.

Iyengar, V.

1986-01-01

23

Daily menus can result in suboptimal nutrient intakes, especially calcium, of adolescents living in dormitories.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate daily menus in Croatian dormitories and to assess the overall intake of dairy products among resident adolescents. For this purpose, 168 daily menus were chosen for nutritional evaluation by random sampling. In addition, 227 adolescents (133 girls and 94 boys) participated in a questionnaire focused on food intake in addition to the meals supplied in dormitories with the aim to assess the amount and the type of dairy products consumed. The results showed that only 35% of the daily menus were nutritionally balanced. Most of the menus provided an excess of energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated fat, phosphorus, riboflavin, and vitamin A. The levels of calcium and magnesium in the menus were suboptimal. The menus offered to adolescents provided approximately 2 servings of dairy products per day. Milk was the most often supplied dairy product (1.1 servings per day), whereas yogurt had the lowest frequency of serving (0.2 servings per day). The most preferred dairy-based snack for both sexes was milk. Dairy-based snacks provided about 1 serving per day for both sexes and contributed to about 30% of the recommended dietary allowances for calcium. Adolescents who regularly consumed dairy-based snacks meet the recommendations (3.2 servings of dairy products per day and about 98% recommended dietary allowances for calcium). We conclude that the institutional menu planning should be improved because the intake of dairy snacks will continue to be a problem for achieving a healthy diet in adolescences. PMID:19083403

Kresi?, Greta; Simundi?, Borislav; Mandi?, Milena L; Kendel, Gordana; Zezelj, Sandra Pavici?

2008-03-01

24

A simple individual model for simulating weight gain dynamics in response to intake rate and daily behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often necessary to estimate the weight that an individual may be capable of gaining depending on its degree of activity. A simple individual-based model was developed for studying the dynamics of weight in terms of daily behavior and ingestion rate. It was based on the balance between the individual's energy intake and the cost of its daily activities.

María Verónica Simoy

2011-01-01

25

Human metabolic, mineral, and microbiota fluctuations across daily nutritional intake visualized by a data-driven approach.  

PubMed

Daily intake information is important for an understanding of the metabolic fluctuation of humans exposed to environmental stimuli. However, little investigation has been performed on the variations in dietary intake as an input and the relationship with human fecal, urinary, and salivary metabolic fluctuations as output information triggered by daily dietary intake. In the present study, we describe a data-driven approach for visualizing the daily intake information on a nutritional scale and for evaluating input-output responses under uncontrolled diets in a human study. For the input evaluation of nutritional intake, we collected information about daily dietary intake and converted this information to numeric data of nutritional elements. Furthermore, for the evaluation of output metabolic, mineral, and microbiota responses, we characterized the metabolic, mineral, and microbiota variations of noninvasive human samples of feces, urine, and saliva. The data-driven approach captured significant differences in the fluctuation of intestinal microbiota and some metabolites caused by a high-protein and a high-fat diet in daily life. This approach should contribute to the metabolic assessment of humans affected by environmental and nutritional factors under unlimited and uncontrolled diets. PMID:25626911

Misawa, Takuma; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

2015-03-01

26

Estimation of daily intake of organohalogenated contaminants from food consumption and indoor dust ingestion in Romania.  

PubMed

We estimated human exposure to organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDT and metabolites, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordanes, but also polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), through food consumption (mainly food of animal origin) and indoor dust ingestion in Romania. A total of 71 food samples (meat, diary products, vegetable cooking oil, and eggs from urban supermarkets and rural areas) and 18 indoor dust samples were collected from Iasi, Eastern Romania. HCHs and DDTs were the most prevalent OCPs in both food and dust samples. Higher levels of OCPs were measured in food samples collected from rural areas compared to those from urban supermarkets, except milk-based products for which no significant differences could be recorded. However, levels of contamination with HCHs in milk-based products were occasionally higher than current European maximum residue levels (MRLs). Above-MRL levels of DDTs were also recorded in eggs from rural areas. In dust, DDTs (median concentration of 1050 ng/g) were the most prevalent contaminants and p,p'-DDT was consistently the main contributor of sum DDTs, with a contribution between 50 and 75%. Surprisingly, OCPs, mainly DDT, were found at elevated levels in indoor dust samples (median concentrations for sum OCPs of 1200 ng/g dust). This suggests the importance of dust as an exposure route for pesticides (especially at contaminated sites), since dust is not commonly considered in exposure assessments for these chemicals. The main contributor to the sum PBDEs in dust samples was BDE 209 (median concentration of 495 ng/g), with a contribution between 94 and 99%. We estimated that the dietary intake of SigmaHCHs and SigmaDDTs is high for both adults (1500-2100 ng/day) and toddlers (1100-1500 ng/day), while the PCB dietary intake was estimated at 200 ng/day for adults, being compared to other European studies. The contribution of dust ingestion to the daily intake of PBDEs is increased in comparison to intake of other chlorinated contaminants, while food consumption seems to be more important than dust for the HBCD intake. However, neither BDE 209 nor HBCD were measured at levels above method LOQ in any food samples and their dietary intake is probably overestimated because nondetects were replaced by (1)/(2) LOQ. The estimated intakes obtained in the present study are in good agreement with the higher concentrations of OCPs and the low levels of PBDEs reported recently in Romanian human samples. PMID:20704229

Dirtu, Alin C; Covaci, Adrian

2010-08-15

27

Daily intake and human risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) based on Cambodian market basket data.  

PubMed

To assess organochlorine pesticide (OCP) contaminations and its possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ?OCP concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 1.28 to 188 (median 3.11), 1.06 to 25.1 (5.59) and 2.20 to 103 (20.6) ng g(-1), respectively. The dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the predominant OCPs and accounted for 62.2% (median) among all foodstuffs. Congener profile analyses suggested that there were new input sources of DDTs and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in Cambodia, particularly in Kandal province. The estimated daily intake of OCPs (330 ng kg(-1)day(-1)) for residents in Kandal province ranked No. 1 among the 13 compared countries or regions. On the basis of 95th percentile concentrations, the carcinogenic hazard ratios (HRs) of most investigated individual OCPs in vegetable and fish in Cambodia exceeding unity. Particularly for ?-HCH in vegetable, the 95th HR was as high as 186. The data revealed that there is a great cancer risk for the local residents with life time consumption of OCP contaminated vegetable and fish. To our knowledge, this the first study to evaluate the daily intakes of OCPs in Cambodia. PMID:21764512

Wang, Hong-Sheng; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Du, Jun; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Chris Kong-Chu; Wong, Ming-Hung

2011-09-15

28

Estimated daily intake and hazard quotients and indices of phthtalate diesters for young danish men.  

PubMed

Because of wide exposure to phthalates, we investigated whether simultaneous exposure to several phthalates reached levels that might cause adverse antiandrogenic effects. Thirty three healthy young Danish men each delivered three 24-h urine samples during a three months period. The daily intakes of the sum of di-n-butyl and di-iso-butyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-iso-nonyl phthalate, and butylbenzyl phthalate were estimated based on urinary excretion of the metabolites. Based on a hazard quotient (HQ) of the individual phthalate (i.e., the ratio between the daily intake and an acceptable level of exposure), a hazard index (HI) for each man was calculated as the sum of HQs for the individual phthalates. All men were exposed to all phthalates during the urine collection periods. Median HIs were all below 1 (i.e., below an acceptable cumulative threshold) ranging from 0.11 to 0.17 over the three different sample collections. Of the 33 men, 2 men had HIs above 1 in one of their three samples, indicating that occasionally the combined exposure to the investigated phthalates reached a level that may not be considered safe. Besides the phthalates investigated here, humans are exposed to numerous other chemicals that also may contribute to a cumulative antiandrogenic exposure. PMID:24228837

Kranich, Selma K; Frederiksen, Hanne; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

2014-01-01

29

Sources of variation in energy intake by men and women as determined from one year's daily dietary records1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a year-long study conducted by the US Department of Agricub- ture's Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center were used to identify sources of variation in daily energy intakes. A specific hypothesis was that an inverse relationship exists between past body weight and future energy intake whereas a direct relationship exists between past energy intake and future weight. Daily energy

P Peter Basiotis; Robin G Thomas; June L Kelsay; Walter Mertz

30

Interaction of angiotensin I-converting enzyme insertion-deletion polymorphism and daily salt intake influences hypertension in Japanese men.  

PubMed

The contribution of angiotensin I-converting enzyme insertion-deletion polymorphism (ACE I/D) to salt-sensitivity hypertension has been extensively studied by means of salt-loading tests, but whether or not the interaction with daily salt intake affects blood pressure still remains to be clarified. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study of 284 Japanese male workers (age range, 20-64 years) to examine the effect of ACE I/D genotype and daily salt intake on hypertension. Blood pressure was measured and the ACE I/D was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Daily salt intake was calculated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). In multivariate analyses, we explored the interaction of ACE I/D and salt intake by means of logistic regression analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. ACE I/D per se was not associated with blood pressure levels or hypertension. ACE I/D interacted with daily salt intake and correlated with hypertension (p for interaction = 0.047). In the ID+II genotype, hypertension was increased by high salt intake (p = 0.005), while in the DD genotype it was not (p = 0.257). The interaction was more prominent in the overweight group (p = 0.039) than in non-overweight group. In the overweight group, high salt intake induced a 10.5 mmHg higher diastolic blood pressure in the ID+II genotype than in the DD genotype (p = 0.042). Our results suggest that ACE I/D and daily salt intake constitute a gene-environment interaction, which may be further modulated by overweight. PMID:17283861

Zhang, Ling; Miyaki, Koichi; Araki, Jungo; Song, Yixuan; Kimura, Tomomi; Omae, Kazuyuki; Muramatsu, Masaaki

2006-10-01

31

Mycotoxin analyses in some home produced eggs in Belgium reveal small contribution to the total daily intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low levels of deoxynivalenol (DON, range: 2.6–17.9 ng\\/g) and its metabolite de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1, range: 2.4–23.7 ng\\/g) were found in 20 home-produced egg samples collected in Belgium during autumn 2006 (from 10 breeders) and spring 2007 (same breeders). DON intake assessment showed that the consumption of these eggs may contribute to less than 1% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 1 ?g\\/kg

E. K. Tangni; N. Waegeneers; I Van Overmeire; L Goeyens; L. Pussemier

2009-01-01

32

Determination of compound-specific acceptable daily intakes for 11 mutagenic carcinogens used in pharmaceutical synthesis.  

PubMed

The synthesis of pharmaceutical products often involves the use of reactive starting materials and intermediates. Low levels may be present in the final product as impurities and of particular concern are impurities that have mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. Regulatory guidance documents provide a general framework to minimise human exposure to these impurities; however, compound-specific recommendations are limited. Our practical experience with 11 pharmaceutical impurities is presented. The genotoxicity and carcinogenicity data are summarised and the approach used to derive an acceptable daily intake (ADI) is described for each chemical. We have highlighted the considerations and challenges associated with calculating ADIs based on available carcinogenicity data. This may provide a useful reference to others in the pharmaceutical industry regarding impurity control, where the weight of evidence indicates the chemical is a mutagenic carcinogen. PMID:23228434

Ellis, Patricia; Kenyon, Michelle; Dobo, Krista

2013-03-01

33

A review of the acceptable daily intakes of pesticides assessed by WHO.  

PubMed

Over the past three decades, WHO has evaluated and reevaluated, through the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues, 230 pesticides. The acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) of these pesticides are analyzed along with their scientific bases. In most cases, the evaluation process was consistent with the stated general principles and procedures of JMPR. However, the safety factors used in allocating the ADIs of several pesticides seem to be inconsistent with the severity of the toxicity, and thus, may require further consideration. These chemicals are abamectin, dinocap, procymidone, chlormequat, ethion, glyphosate, fentin hydroxide, and fentin compounds. In addition, pesticides that were evaluated many years ago, e.g., bromomethane, might merit a reevaluation in light of any relevant recent data. PMID:7480888

Lu, F C

1995-06-01

34

Environmental factors affecting daily water intake on cattle finished in feedlots.  

PubMed

Records from 7 studies conducted during 1999 to 2005 were utilized to assess the effects of environmental factors on daily water intake (DWI) of finishing cattle. Data from unshaded feedlot pens (up to 24 pens utilized per study; 6 to 9 animals·pen(-1)) containing predominantly Angus crossbred cattle were obtained by dividing total water intake by the number of animals utilizing that waterer. Each waterer was shared by 2 pens; therefore, data were derived from a database containing 72 experimental units comprising 144 pen records. Climatic data were compiled from weather stations located at the feedlot facility. The database included daily measures of mean ambient (Ta), maximum (Tmax), and minimum (Tmin) temperature (°C), precipitation, relative humidity (%), wind speed (m•s(-1)), solar radiation (SR, W•m(-2)), and temperature-humidity index (THI), as well as DMI (kg•d(-1)) and DWI (L•d(-1)). Simple and multiple regression analyses were conducted by season and for the overall data set. Results confirmed that DWI increases during the summer (P < 0.01). When seasons were combined and analyzed by linear regression, the best predictors of DWI were THI (r(2) = 0.57), Ta (r(2) = 0.57), Tmin (r(2) = 0.56), and Tmax (r(2) = 0.54). In multiple regression analyses, smaller coefficients of determination (R(2) < 0.25) were found within summer and winter seasons. Across season, the largest R(2) (0.65) were obtained from the following prediction equations: 1) DWI = 5.92 + (1.03•DMI) + (0.04•SR) + (0.45•Tmin); and 2) DWI = -7.31 + (1.00•DMI) + (0.04•SR) + (0.30•THI). In conclusion, Ta, Tmin, and THI were found to be the primary factors that influence DWI in finishing cattle, whereas SR and DMI were found to have a smaller influence on DWI. PMID:20870953

Arias, R A; Mader, T L

2011-01-01

35

Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate ingested may be an important risk factor in the development of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Reliable food tables listing the oxalate content of foods are currently not available. The aim of this research was to develop an accurate and reliable method to measure the food content of oxalate. METHODS: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) were compared as direct techniques for the estimation of the oxalate content of foods. Foods were thoroughly homogenized in acid, heat extracted, and clarified by centrifugation and filtration before dilution in water for analysis. Five individuals consuming self-selected diets maintained food records for three days to determine their mean daily oxalate intakes. RESULTS: Both techniques were capable of adequately measuring the oxalate in foods with a significant oxalate content. With foods of very low oxalate content (<1.8 mg/100 g), IC was more reliable than CE. The mean daily intake of oxalate by the five individuals tested was 152 +/- 83 mg, ranging from 44 to 352 mg/day. CONCLUSIONS: CE appears to be the method of choice over IC for estimating the oxalate content of foods with a medium (>10 mg/100 g) to high oxalate content due to a faster analysis time and lower running costs, whereas IC may be better suited for the analysis of foods with a low oxalate content. Accurate estimates of the oxalate content of foods should permit the role of dietary oxalate in urinary oxalate excretion and stone formation to be clarified. Other factors, apart from the amount of oxalate ingested, appear to exert a major influence over the amount of oxalate excreted in the urine.

Holmes, R. P.; Kennedy, M.

2000-01-01

36

Antidepressant treatment decreases daily salt intake and prevents heart dysfunction following subchronic aortic regurgitation in rats.  

PubMed

Depression is a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with heart failure. Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may improve these outcomes. Left ventricular volume overload induced hypertrophy that is associated with aortic regurgitation (AR) leads to ventricular dysfunction and heart failure. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the SSRI paroxetine on cardiac function, as well as on fluid intake and excretion, in subchronic AR. Male Wistar rats (260 to 280g) received sham (SH) surgery or AR induced by retrograde puncture of the aortic valve leaflets. The presence of AR was confirmed by echocardiography (ECHO) exams. Four weeks after AR surgery, subcutaneous injections of paroxetine (PAR: 10mg/kg 3 times in a week) or saline were administered. The rats were randomly divided into the following 4 groups and treated for 4 weeks: AR-PAR, ARsaline, SH-PAR and SH-saline. At the end of the treatment period, fractional shortening was preserved in AR-PAR, compared to AR-saline (46.6±2.7% vs 38.3±2.2%, respectively). Daily 0.3 M NaCl intake was reduced in PAR-treated rats. Natriuresis was increased in weeks 2-3 after PAR treatment. Our results suggest that augmentation of central 5-HT neurotransmission has a beneficial effect on cardiovascular remodeling following volume overload. The mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. PMID:25747768

De Gobbi, Juliana Irani Fratucci; Omoto, Ana Carolina Mieko; Siqueira, Tamires Ferreira; Matsubara, Luiz Shigueto; Roscani, Meliza Goi; Matsubara, Beatriz Bojikian

2015-05-15

37

Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes  

PubMed Central

Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation. PMID:23803740

Kobayashi, Yukiko; Hattori, Mikako; Wada, Sayori; Iwase, Hiroya; Kadono, Mayuko; Tatsumi, Hina; Kuwahata, Masashi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Kido, Yasuhiro

2013-01-01

38

The daily rhythm of milk synthesis is dependent on the timing of feed intake in dairy cows  

PubMed Central

Abstract Regulation of the daily rhythm of milk synthesis is important to production animals and breastfeeding, but is difficult to observe in nursing animals. The rate of food intake varies over the day and is expected to create a daily rhythm of nutrient absorption. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of food intake entrains a daily pattern of milk synthesis. Seventeen Holstein cows were used in a crossover design. Treatments were ad libitum feeding of a total mixed ration once daily (1× fed) or fed in four equal meals every 6 h (4× fed). Cows were milked every 6 h the last 7 days of each period. There was a treatment by time of day interaction for milk and milk component yield and concentration. Milk fat and protein concentration and yield exhibited a daily rhythm and the amplitude of the rhythm was reduced in 4× fed. In addition, milk fat percent was higher in 4× fed than 1× fed at three of the four milking intervals (0.22–0.45% higher) and 4× fed increased daily milk fat yield. Treatment by time of day interactions were detected for plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen. These variables also fit a cosine function with a 24 h period and the amplitudes of plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen rhythms were decreased by 4× feeding. In conclusion, there is a circadian pattern of milk synthesis in the dairy cow that is responsive to the timing of food intake. PMID:24963033

Rottman, L. Whitney; Ying, Yun; Zhou, Kan; Bartell, Paul A.; Harvatine, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

39

Bisphenol A (BPA) daily intakes in the United States: Estimates from the 2003–2004 NHANES urinary BPA data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations into human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) have, for the most part, assessed intake based on food consumption estimates combined with measurements or estimates of BPA in foods. In this study, nationally representative data on urinary levels of BPA in the United States (US) from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to estimate daily

Judy S Lakind; Daniel Q Naiman; Judy S

2008-01-01

40

Daily mercury intake in fish-eating populations in the Brazilian Amazon CARLOS JOSE SOUSA PASSOSa,d  

E-print Network

. (2000), who examined mercury contamination in lacustrine sediments following deforestation, suggestDaily mercury intake in fish-eating populations in the Brazilian Amazon CARLOS JOSE´ SOUSA PASSOSa Although high levels of fish consumption and bioindicators of mercury exposure have been reported

Long, Bernard

41

Bone quality associated with daily intake of coffee: a biochemical, radiographic and histometric study.  

PubMed

Caffeine induces loss of calcium and influences the normal development of bone. This study investigated the effects of coffee on bone metabolism in rats by biochemical measurement of calcium, bone densitometry and histometry. Male rats, born of female treated daily with coffee and with coffee intake since born, were anesthetized, subjected to extraction of the upper right incisor, and sacrificed 7, 21 and 42 days after surgery. Blood and urine samples were taken, and their maxilla radiographed and processed to obtain 5-µm-thick semi-serial sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The volume and bone quality were estimated using an image-analysis software. The results showed significantly greater amount of calcium in the plasma (9.40 ± 1.73 versus 9.80 ± 2.05 mg%) and urine (1.00 ± 0.50 versus 1.25 ± 0.70 mg/24 h) and significantly less amount in bone (90.0 ± 1.94 versus 86.0 ± 2.12 mg/mg bone), reduced bone mineral density (1.05 ± 0.11 versus 0.65 ± 0.15 mmAL), and lower amount of bone (76.19 ± 1.6 versus 53.41 ± 2.1 %) (ANOVA; p?0.01) in animals treated with coffee sacrificed after 42 days. It may be concluded that coffee/caffeine intake caused serious adverse effects on calcium metabolism in rats, including increased levels of calcium in the urine and plasma, decreased bone mineral density and lower volume of bone, thus delaying the bone repair process. PMID:21203700

Lacerda, Suzie Aparecida; Matuoka, Renata Inahara; Macedo, Rander Moreira; Petenusci, Sergio Olavo; Campos, Alessandra Aparecida; Brentegani, Luiz Guilherme

2010-01-01

42

Daily milk intake improves vitamin B-12 status in young vegetarian Indians: an intervention trial  

PubMed Central

Background Asymptomatic Indian lacto vegetarians, who make up more than half of the Indian population in different geographic regions, have distinctly low vitamin B-12 concentrations than non- vegetarians. Vegetarians consume milk but it seems that the amount is not enough to improve vitamin B-12 status or vitamin B-12 concentration in milk itself may be low. The aim of this study was to determine if daily milk consumption can improve vitamin B-12 status. Methods Fifteen male and 36 female, young healthy post-graduate volunteers participated. Blood from ten participants (4 males and 6 females) was collected (day-1). They continued their regular diet for next fourteen days and on day-15, blood of all 51 participants was collected, plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was measured and were divided into two groups; Normal (vitamin B-12 >148 pmol/L, n?=?22) and Vitamin B-12 deficient (<148 pmol/L, n?=?29), the remaining plasma was stored. All participants consumed 600 ml. of non-enriched buffalo milk (200 × 3) during the day along with their usual diet. Next day blood was collected for plasma holotranscobalamin II measurement. Subjects from deficient group continued to drink 400 ml of milk daily for next 14 days and blood was collected on day-30. Plasma holotranscoabalamin II (day-1, 15, 16, 30), vitamin B-12, folate, total homocysteine, creatinine and hematoloical parameters (day-1, 15, 30), and milk vitamin B-12 concentrations (day-15, 16, 30) were measured. Results Fifty seven per cent of the participants were vitamin B-12 deficient and 65% were hyperhomocysteinemic. No significant difference in biomarkers was observed when there was no intervention. Plasma holotranscobalamin II concentration increased from 19.6 to 22.27 pmol/L (p?intake in vitamin B-12 deficient subjects. Conclusions Regular intake of milk improved vitamin B-12 status of vitamin B-12 deficient vegetarians indicating a potential dietary strategy to improve the vitamin status. PMID:24107225

2013-01-01

43

Application of TLC method with video scanning in estimation of daily dietary intake of specific flavonoids--preliminary studies.  

PubMed

Flavonoids, substances present in foods of plant origin, play an important role in many metabolic processes. Numerous properties of these substances were described, including their anti-allergic, antitumor and antioxidant properties. Therefore, an increased intake of these nutrients may play a beneficial role in human health. The aim of the presented study was to estimate the daily intake of specific flavonoid compounds using thin layer chromatography (TLC) combined with densitometric qualitative and quantitative analysis. Performed investigations revealed the presence of two flavonoids in the extracts from daily food rations--naringenin and hesperidin. Naringenin content in the daily food ration of women was calculated to be 179-537 mg, whereas in the group of men it ranged around 181-550 mg, depending on the conducted method of extraction and solvent system used. Daily dietary intake of hesperidin was calculated to be 193-534 mg in the group of women and 194-562 mg in the group of men. The highest degree of extraction of these flavonoids was obtained for the mixture of acetone and water (7 : 3, v/v) by means of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). PMID:23923385

Koch, Wojciech; Kuku?a-Koch, Wirginia; Marzec, Zbigniew; Mar?, Diana

2013-01-01

44

Effects of daily consumption of one or varied peanut flavors on acceptance and intake.  

PubMed

To realize the health benefits associated with peanut consumption, it is important that they remain acceptable with regular intake. Peanuts are marketed with various flavorings so that consumers will not become fatigued by frequent consumption of any single flavor. This study sought to determine whether liking of peanuts or compliance to a peanut feeding intervention would differ based on receiving an individual flavor or a variety of flavors. Participants (n=151) were directed to consume 42 g peanuts/d for 12 weeks as 14-g servings of 3 different flavors (n=50) or a single flavor (n=25-26/group). The trial was randomized, with a parallel-group design. Neither the peanut flavor consumed nor the presence of variety had an impact on liking of the peanuts or compliance with the study protocol (p>0.05). Men had significantly greater compliance and liking ratings than women (p<0.05), but liking declines did not differ based on sex. Eating attitudes and dietary restraint did not correlate with liking or compliance. Peanuts were generally well-liked in the study, with a mean liking of 69 on a 100-mm visual analogue scale and a decrease of less than 15% over 12 weeks. Overall compliance to the protocol was 96.9%, suggesting participants were able to incorporate peanuts into their diet on a daily basis. These findings suggest a recommendation to regularly consume peanuts would be well-tolerated, facilitating their contribution to a healthy diet. The study was conducted between February 2010 and May 2012 at Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01886326. PMID:25064672

Jones, Joshua B; Provost, Marion; Keaver, Laura; Breen, Claire; Ludy, Mary-Jon; Mattes, Richard D

2014-11-01

45

Consuming More of Daily Caloric Intake at Dinner Predisposes to Obesity. A 6-Year Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives It has been hypothesized that assuming most of the caloric intake later in the day leads to metabolic disadvantages, but few studies are available on this topic. Aim of our study was to prospectively examine whether eating more of the daily caloric intake at dinner leads to an increased risk of obesity, hyperglycemia, metabolic syndrome, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Subjects/Methods 1245 non-obese, non-diabetic middle-aged adults from a population-based cohort underwent a 3-day food record questionnaire at enrollment. Anthropometric values, blood pressure, blood metabolic variables, and estimated liver fat were measured at baseline and at 6-year follow-up. Design Prospective cohort study. Results Subjects were divided according to tertiles of percent daily caloric intake at dinner. A significant increase in the incidence rate of obesity (from 4.7 to 11.4%), metabolic syndrome (from 11.1 to 16.1%), and estimated NAFLD (from 16.5 to 23.8%) was observed from the lower to higher tertile. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for multiple covariates, subjects in the highest tertile showed an increased risk of developing obesity (OR?=?2.33; 95% CI 1.17–4.65; p?=?0.02), metabolic syndrome (OR?=?1.52; 95% CI 1.01–2.30; p?=?0.04), and NAFLD (OR?=?1.56; 95% CI 1.10–2.22; p?=?0.01). Conclusions Consuming more of the daily energy intake at dinner is associated with an increased risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD. PMID:25250617

Bo, Simona; Musso, Giovanni; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Fadda, Maurizio; Fedele, Debora; Gambino, Roberto; Gentile, Luigi; Durazzo, Marilena; Ghigo, Ezio; Cassader, Maurizio

2014-01-01

46

Children's phthalate intakes and resultant cumulative exposures estimated from urine compared with estimates from dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their homes and daycare centers.  

PubMed

Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw) and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw). For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum)), which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDI(cum). Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child's total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values. PMID:23626820

Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J; Langer, Sarka; Callesen, Michael; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

2013-01-01

47

Daily intake of antioxidants in relation to survival among adult patients diagnosed with malignant glioma  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant glioma is a rare cancer with poor survival. The influence of diet and antioxidant intake on glioma survival is not well understood. The current study examines the association between antioxidant intake and survival after glioma diagnosis. Methods Adult patients diagnosed with malignant glioma during 1991-1994 and 1997-2001 were enrolled in a population-based study. Diagnosis was confirmed by review of pathology specimens. A modified food-frequency questionnaire interview was completed by each glioma patient or a designated proxy. Intake of each food item was converted to grams consumed/day. From this nutrient database, 16 antioxidants, calcium, a total antioxidant index and 3 macronutrients were available for survival analysis. Cox regression estimated mortality hazard ratios associated with each nutrient and the antioxidant index adjusting for potential confounders. Nutrient values were categorized into tertiles. Models were stratified by histology (Grades II, III, and IV) and conducted for all (including proxy) subjects and for a subset of self-reported subjects. Results Geometric mean values for 11 fat-soluble and 6 water-soluble individual antioxidants, antioxidant index and 3 macronutrients were virtually the same when comparing all cases (n = 748) to self-reported cases only (n = 450). For patients diagnosed with Grade II and Grade III histology, moderate (915.8-2118.3 mcg) intake of fat-soluble lycopene was associated with poorer survival when compared to low intake (0.0-914.8 mcg), for self-reported cases only. High intake of vitamin E and moderate/high intake of secoisolariciresinol among Grade III patients indicated greater survival for all cases. In Grade IV patients, moderate/high intake of cryptoxanthin and high intake of secoisolariciresinol were associated with poorer survival among all cases. Among Grade II patients, moderate intake of water-soluble folate was associated with greater survival for all cases; high intake of vitamin C and genistein and the highest level of the antioxidant index were associated with poorer survival for all cases. Conclusions The associations observed in our study suggest that the influence of some antioxidants on survival following a diagnosis of malignant glioma are inconsistent and vary by histology group. Further research in a large sample of glioma patients is needed to confirm/refute our results. PMID:20482871

2010-01-01

48

Estimates of the theoretical maximum daily intake of erythorbic acid, gallates, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in Italy: a stepwise approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three recent EU directives which fixed maximum permitted levels (MPL) for food additives for all member states also include the general obligation to establish national systems for monitoring the intake of these substances in order to evaluate their use safety. In this work, we considered additives with primary antioxidant technological function for which an acceptable daily intake (ADI) was

C Leclercq; D Arcella; A Turrini

2000-01-01

49

Coenzyme Q 10 and Q 9 contents in 6 commercial vegetable oils and their average daily intakes in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the concentration of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and Q9 (CoQ9) in 6 commercial vegetable oils commonly consumed in Korea and estimated the average daily intake of CoQ9 and CoQ10 from oils selected. The analytical method employed saponification before solvent extraction and quantification using high\\u000a performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a mass spectrometer (LC-MS). Contents of CoQ9 and CoQ10

Young-Hee Pyo

2010-01-01

50

Determination of several elements in duplicate meals from catering establishments using closed vessel microwave digestion with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection: estimation of daily dietary intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimation of the dietary exposure of French consumers to 21 essential and non-essential mineral elements using duplicate meals (breakfast and lunch) purchased from catering establishments was investigated after digestion by a closed vessel microwave procedure and quantification by ICP-MS. Daily dietary exposure estimates for metals and minerals were compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intakes (PTWI), the Tolerable Daily

J.-C. Leblanc; T. Guérin

2003-01-01

51

Daily dry matter intake to sustain body weight of mature, nonlactating, nonpregnant cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To quantify the relationship between DM consumption, the ability to sustain weight per unit of DMI and days to reach weight equilibrium among diverse cattle breeds, weight and DM intake data were recorded for mature, non-pregnant and non-lactating cows sampled from Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Heref...

52

Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives  

PubMed Central

Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I–VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496

Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

53

Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives.  

PubMed

Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I-VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P 95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496

Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

2014-07-01

54

Trace elements in animal-based food from Shanghai markets and associated human daily intake and uptake estimation considering bioaccessibility.  

PubMed

The concentrations of four human essential trace elements [iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr)] and non-essential elements [cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg)] in eighteen animal-based foods including meat, fish, and shellfish collected from markets in Shanghai, China, were analyzed, and the associated human daily intake and uptake considering bioaccessibility were estimated. The mean concentration ranges for eight trace elements measured in the foods were 3.98-131µgg(-1) for Fe, 0.437-18.5µgg(-1) for Mn, 5.47-53.8µgg(-1) for Zn, none detected-0.101µgg(-1) for Cr, 2.88×10(-4)-2.48×10(-2)µgg(-1) for Cd, 1.18×10(-3)-0.747µgg(-1) for Pb, none detected-0.498µgg(-1) for As, and 8.98×10(-4)-6.52×10(-2)µgg(-1) for Hg. The highest mean concentrations of four human essential elements were all found in shellfish. For all the trace elements, the observed mean concentrations are mostly in agreement with the reported values around the world. The total daily intake of trace elements via ingestion of animal-based food via an average Shanghai resident was estimated as 7371µgd(-1) for the human essential elements and 13.0µgd(-1) for the human non-essential elements, but the uptake decreased to 4826µgd(-1) and 6.90µgd(-1), respectively, after trace element bioaccessibility was considered. Livestock and fish for human essential and non-essential elements, respectively, were the main contributor, no matter whether the bioaccessibility was considered or not. Risk estimations showed that the intake and uptake of a signal trace element for an average Shanghai resident via ingestion animal-based foods from Shanghai markets do not exceed the recommended dietary allowance values; consequently, a health risk situation is not indicated. PMID:23890681

Lei, Bingli; Chen, Liang; Hao, Ying; Cao, Tiehua; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Yingxin; Fu, Jiamo

2013-10-01

55

Daily fluid intake and outcomes in kidney recipients: post hoc analysis from the randomized ABCAN trial.  

PubMed

Generous and even excessive fluid intake is routinely recommended to kidney transplant recipients despite minimal evidence to support this practice. We hypothesized that increased fluid intake, ascertained by 24-h urine volume output, may adversely affect graft outcomes as it would impose an extra workload on a limited number of nephrons. Kidney transplant recipients who were randomized to losartan vs. placebo in the Angiotensin II Blockade for Chronic Allograft Nephropathy (ABCAN) trial (n = 153) underwent baseline, five-yr biopsies, and annual iothalamate glomerular filtration rate assessment. Recipients with higher urine volume at randomization had higher urinary sodium and also higher urinary protein. The proportion using diuretics or CNI based regimens were similar across urinary volume tertiles. The highest urinary volume tertile (>2.56 L/d) did not predict the development of interstitial volume doubling or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (OR = 3.52, 95% CI 0.4, 31.24, p = 0.26), interstitial volume doubling or all-cause ESRD (OR = 7.04, 95% CI 0.66, 74.87, p = 0.11), and was not associated with the conventional endpoint of doubling serum creatinine, all-cause ESRD, or death (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.21, 3.71, p = 0.87). These results suggest that the current practice of liberal fluid intake may not be beneficial in low risk and mostly Caucasian transplant recipients. PMID:25619874

Weber, M; Berglund, D; Reule, S; Jackson, S; Matas, A J; Ibrahim, H N

2015-03-01

56

Comparative research for the dietary pattern of patients with esophageal cancer at different developing stages and the daily intake of vitamin A, E and ?-carotene.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the different stages of normal esophageal's developing to esophageal cancer, and the difference among dietary patterns of patients with esophageal cancer and acceptable daily intake of vitamin A, E and beta carotene intake in diet. This paper takes advantage of food composition table, calculates the intake amount of dietary vitamin A, E and beta carotene in all kinds of food for patients with esophageal cancer, and analyzes the intake amount difference of dietary vitamin A, E and beta carotene in each kind of food for different groups of people. Research conclusions: the low content level of dietary vitamin A, E beta-carotene and low intake amount of beans, vegetables and fruit intake may increase the risk of esophageal cancer' occurring, while the relationship among dietary vitamin E, the occurrence and development of esophageal cancer needs further discussion. PMID:25016272

Hu, Jigang; Qi, Qingbin; Zhang, Yanli

2014-07-01

57

Phthalate metabolites in obese individuals undergoing weight loss: Urinary levels and estimation of the phthalates daily intake.  

PubMed

Human exposure to chemicals commonly encountered in our environment, like phthalates, is routinely assessed through urinary measurement of their metabolites. A particular attention is given to the specific population groups, such as obese, for which the dietary intake of environmental chemicals is higher. To evaluate the exposure to phthalates, nine phthalate metabolites (PMs) were analyzed in urine collected from obese individuals and a control population. Obese individuals lost weight through either bariatric surgery or a conservative weight loss program with dietary and lifestyle counseling. Urine samples were also collected from the obese individuals after 3, 6 and 12months of weight loss. Individual daily intakes of the corresponding phthalate diesters were estimated based on the urinary PM concentrations. A high variability was recorded for the levels of each PM in both obese and control urine samples showing the exposure to high levels of PMs in specific subgroups. The most important PM metabolite as percentage contribution to the total PM levels was mono-ethyl phthalate followed by the metabolites of di-butyl phthalate and di 2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP). No differences in the PM levels and profiles between obese entering the program and controls were observed. Although paralleled by a significant decrease of their weight, an increase in the urinary PM levels after 3 to 6months loss was seen. Constant figures for the estimated phthalates daily intake were observed over the studied period, suggesting that besides food consumption, other human exposure sources to phthalates (e.g. air, dust) might be also important. The weight loss treatment method followed by obese individuals influenced the correlations between PM levels, suggesting a change of the intake sources with time. Except for few gender differences recorded between the urinary DEHP metabolites correlations, no other differences were observed for the urinary PM levels as a function of age, body mass index or waist circumference. Linear regression analysis showed almost no significance of the relationship between measured urinary PMs and serum free thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) for all obese individuals participating to the study, while for the control samples, several PMs were significantly associated with the serum TSH levels. PMID:23892227

Dirtu, Alin C; Geens, Tinne; Dirinck, Eveline; Malarvannan, Govindan; Neels, Hugo; Van Gaal, Luc; Jorens, Philippe G; Covaci, Adrian

2013-09-01

58

A daily intake of approximately 6 g vitamin B12 appears to saturate all the vitamin B12-related variables in Danish postmenopausal women1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recommended daily intakes of vitamin B-12 vary between 2 and 6 g. Objective: The objective was to examine the associations between vitamin B-12 intake and markers of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Design:We studied 98 Danish postmenopausal women aged 41-75 y. Serum cobalamin, transcobalamin (TC) saturated with vitamin B-12 (holo-TC), TC saturation (holo-TC\\/total TC), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine (tHcy)

Mustafa Vakur Bor; Eva Lydeking-Olsen; Jan Møller; Ebba Nexø

59

Daily dry matter intake to sustain body weight of mature, nonlactating, nonpregnant cows.  

PubMed

To quantify the relationship between DM consumption, the ability to sustain BW per unit of DMI (BW stasis), and days to reach BW equilibrium among diverse cattle breeds, weekly individual cow BW and DMI data were recorded for mature, nonpregnant, and nonlactating cows sampled from Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Hereford, Gelbvieh, Limousin, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, and Simmental breeds. Within each breed, cows were assigned to receive 1 of 4 daily DM allowances (56, 76, 93, or 111 g.BW(-0.75, kg)) of a ground alfalfa hay-corn grain-based diet. Cows were housed in pens (space for 4 animals/pen) in open-front barns and fed individually using head gates. During the first 60 d of the experiment, BW were recorded every 28 d, after which BW were recorded on a weekly basis until the cows were determined to have attained BW equilibrium. Individual cows were determined to be at BW equilibrium when the rate of weekly BW change did not differ from 0 over an 8-wk period. The number of days to reach BW equilibrium was not affected (P > 0.79) by breed but was affected by the daily DM allowance (P < 0.003). The number of days required to attain BW equilibrium was greater as the rate of feeding (g of DM fed.BW(-0.75)) increased and ranged from 103 to 136 d. Within breed linear and the pooled quadratic regressions were significant for BW. Observed breed differences varied with feeding rate. Weight stasis estimates for mature Red Poll cows (68.3 +/- 3.8) differed (P < 0.05) from estimates for all the breeds, with the exception of Limousin (72.0 +/- 3.8), Braunvieh (74.0 +/- 4.8), and Pinzgauer (75.5 +/- 3.8) cows at the lowest feeding rate. At the 111 g.BW(-0.75) daily DM allowance, the estimates for Limousin (82.2 +/- 3.8) were greater (P < 0.05) than for the other breeds, with the exception of the Pinzgauer (81.0 +/- 4.3) and Braunvieh (75.7 +/- 3.9), which were similar to the remaining breeds in the study (P > 0.05). The change in rank of breed estimates for BW stasis suggests a breed x nutrition interaction for BW stasis. PMID:17400974

Jenkins, T G; Ferrell, C L

2007-07-01

60

Effects of restricted feed intake on finishing pigs weighing between 68 and 114 kilograms fed twice or 6 times daily.  

PubMed

In a previous study with limit-fed gestating gilts, we observed that gilts fed 6 times/d had greater ADG than those fed the same amount over 2 feedings. To confirm these earlier responses, we used finishing pigs as a model in two 42-d trials and two 28-d trials to evaluate the effects of restricted feed intake and feeding frequency (2 vs. 6 times/d, floor fed) on pig performance between 68 and 114 kg. In all experiments, pigs (10/pen) were housed in 1.8 × 3.1 m pens with a half-solid, half-slatted concrete floor. Pigs were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet formulated to 1.15% standardized ileal digestible Lys and 3,294 kcal of ME/kg. In Exp. 1 to 3, energy and Lys were supplied to pigs according to NRC (1998) calculations to target an ADG of 0.80 kg. In Exp. 4, the diet was supplied to pigs to target an ADG of 0.80 kg (low feed intake) or 0.95 kg (high feed intake) to determine if the amount of energy above the maintenance requirement and feeding frequency affected pig performance. Pigs were fed by dropping similar amounts of feed onto the solid concrete floor either 2 (0700 or 1400 h) or 6 times (3 meals within 2 h at the morning and afternoon feedings) per day with an Accu-Drop Feed Dispenser (AP Systems, Assumption, IL). In Exp. 1 and 2, pigs fed 6 times daily had increased (P < 0.02) ADG and G:F compared with pigs fed 2 times per day. Greater feeding frequency increased (P < 0.05) the duration of time spent feeding and standing and reduced the lying time. In Exp. 3, a third treatment was included to determine whether the improvements in performance were due to decreased feed wastage. This treatment was designed to minimize feed wastage by dropping feed closer to the floor for pigs fed 2 times per day. Pigs fed 6 times daily had improved (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F compared with pigs in either treatment fed 2 times per day. No difference (P > 0.05) in performance was observed between pigs fed 2 times per day when feed was dropped from the feed drop or by the modified method. In Exp. 4, increasing the feeding frequency from 2 to 6 times per day improved (P < 0.01) ADG and G:F for pigs fed the low feed intake and tended to increase (P < 0.06) ADG and improved (P < 0.05) G:F for pigs fed the high feed intake. In limit-feeding situations, increasing the frequency of feeding from 2 to 6 times per day improved pig performance, which confirmed our earlier findings in gestating gilts. PMID:21934028

Schneider, J D; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Dritz, S S; Derouchey, J M; Sulabo, R C

2011-10-01

61

Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland  

SciTech Connect

Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)] [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)] [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

2010-08-15

62

Mineral Composition of Organically Grown Wheat Genotypes: Contribution to Daily Minerals Intake  

PubMed Central

In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved. PMID:20948934

Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva

2010-01-01

63

Personal, social and environmental predictors of daily fruit and vegetable intake in 11-year-old children in nine European countries. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

De Bourdeaudhuij I, te Velde S, Brug J, Due P, Wind M, Sandvik C, Maes L, Wolf A, Perez Rodrigo C, Yngve A, Thorsdottir I, Rasmussen M, Elmadfa I, Franchini B, Klepp KI. Personal, social and environmental predictors of daily fruit and vegetable intake in 11-year-old children in nine European countries.

64

Relation Between Benchmark Dose and No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level in Clinical Research: Effects of Daily Alcohol Intake on Blood Pressure in Japanese Salesmen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benchmark dose (BMD) is defined as the dose that corresponds to a specific change in an adverse response compared to the response in unexposed subjects, and the lower 95% confidence limit is termed the benchmark dose level (BMDL). In this study, the threshold of daily ethanol intake affecting blood pressure was calculated by both the BMD approach and multiple

Miwako Dakeishi; Katsuyuki Murata; Akiko Tamura; Toyoto Iwata

2006-01-01

65

Characterization studies of lower and non-TDI polyurethane encapsulants  

SciTech Connect

Polyurethane prepolymers containing toluene diisocyanate (TDI) are used within the Nuclear Weapons complex for many adhesive and encapsulation applications. As part of a program for minimizing hazards to workers and the environment, TDI will be eliminated. This report presents evaluation of alternative encapsulants.

Wilson, M.H.

1993-09-01

66

Polybrominated biphenyl ethers in breast milk and infant formula from Shanghai, China: temporal trends, daily intake, and risk assessment.  

PubMed

To investigate the temporal trend of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk and assess the risks to breast- and formula-fed infants, breast milk and infant formula samples were collected from Shanghai, China. The PBDE concentrations decreased from 14.8 to 4.85 pmol/g lipid weight during 2006-2012, with a rate of decrease by half approximately every four years. Although there were no significant correlations between the total PBDEs in breast milk and age, parity, and pre-pregnant BMI of mothers, there were significant differences between primiparous and multiparous mothers for tri- to hepta-BDEs. PBDEs in breast milk were much higher than those in infant formula (equivalent to 91.9 vs. 5.25 pg/mL). Among the different brand infant formulas, there were no significant differences in their PBDE concentrations. The estimated daily intake of PBDEs by breast- and formula-fed infants suggested that breast-fed infants are exposed to much more PBDEs than formula-fed ones (12.9 vs. 0.72 ng/kg-bw/day). However, the hazard quotient values were much smaller than one, indicating that the ingested PBDEs did not exert obvious adverse effects on both breast- and formula-fed infants considering non-carcinogenic effect endpoint. This is the first report on temporal trend of PBDEs in breast milk from China. PMID:25155891

Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Kaiqiong; Yang, Dan; Ma, Li; Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhou, Jing; Fang, Xiangming; Yu, Yingxin

2014-11-01

67

Studies of safe maximal daily dietary Se-intake in a seleniferous area in China. Part II: Relation between Se-intake and the manifestation of clinical signs and certain biochemical alterations in blood and urine.  

PubMed

Selenosis occurs in areas of Enshi county because of the high Se content of the food. Morphological changes in finger-nails were used as the main criterion for clinical diagnosis of selenosis. Pathological nails were observed to occur almost only in adults, not at all in young children and very seldom in teenagers. Symptoms of selenosis in susceptible patients were found at or above an Se-intake of 910 micrograms/d, corresponding to a blood Se level of 1.05 mg/L. There was no evidence for an increased susceptibility to dental caries due to high Se consumption, and an increase in Se-intake seems unlikely to reduce the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries. No abnormalities of liver or heart were seen by supersonic B or electrocardiographic examinations. The biochemical investigations showed that with increasing whole blood Se the ratio of plasma Se to erythrocyte Se tended to decrease. As Se-intake increases to over 750 micrograms daily, the ratio decreases to near a minimal level. Reduced glutathione in whole blood decreases within a blood Se range of 1.01 to 2.28 micrograms in the high Se area. The amount of trimethylselenonium ion excreted in urine increased with the increase of urinary Se. Cases with prolonged prothrombin time occurred as blood Se increased to a level above 1 mg/L. The white blood cell count also increased significantly. Quantitative values were obtained only for ratio of plasma-Se to erythrocyte-Se for prothrombin time and for maintenance of nail Symptoms of susceptible patients. The overall results indicated that a daily Se-intake of 750-850 micrograms [corrected] might be the marginal level of safe intake. When other variable factors are also taken into consideration a daily Se-intake of 400 micrograms [corrected] is suggested as the maximum daily safe intake. At this level of Se-intake the corresponding approximate tissue Se levels are: whole blood 0.559 mg/L, plasma 0.327 mg/L, urine excretion 173 micrograms/d, hair 3.60 mg/kg, toe-nails 4.25 mg/kg, and finger-nails 4.70 mg/kg. PMID:2535331

Yang, G; Yin, S; Zhou, R; Gu, L; Yan, B; Liu, Y; Liu, Y

1989-09-01

68

Lithium cation conducting TDI anion-based ionic liquids.  

PubMed

In this paper we present the synthesis route and electrochemical properties of new class of ionic liquids (ILs) obtained from lithium derivate TDI (4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl)imidazolium) anion. ILs synthesized by us were EMImTDI, PMImTDI and BMImTDI, i.e. TDI anion with 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations, where alkyl meant ethyl, propyl and butyl groups. TDI anion contains fewer fluorine atoms than LiPF6 and thanks to C-F instead of P-F bond, they are less prone to emit fluorine or hydrogen fluoride due to the rise in temperature. Use of IL results in non-flammability, which is making such electrolyte even safer for both application and environment. The thermal stability of synthesized compounds was tested by DSC and TGA and no signal of decomposition was observed up to 250 °C. The LiTDI salt was added to ILs to form complete electrolytes. The structures of tailored ILs with lithium salt were confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. The electrolytes showed excellent properties regarding their ionic conductivity (over 3 mS cm(-1) at room temperature after lithium salt addition), lithium cation transference number (over 0.1), low viscosity and broad electrochemical stability window. The ionic conductivity and viscosity measurements of pure ILs are reported for reference. PMID:24803282

Niedzicki, Leszek; Karpierz, Ewelina; Zawadzki, Maciej; Dranka, Maciej; Kasprzyk, Marta; Zalewska, Aldona; Marcinek, Marek; Zachara, Janusz; Doma?ska, Urszula; Wieczorek, W?adys?aw

2014-06-21

69

Neutrophil chemotactic activity in toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced asthma.  

PubMed

We quantitated serum neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA), which is associated with mast cell or basophil activation, to determine if mast cell or basophil mediators are released during bronchoprovocation-inhalation challenge with subirritant levels of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Four subjects with suspected TDI-induced asthma and four mite-sensitive subjects with asthma who served as a comparison group were studied. NCA was measured in a multiwell, microchemotaxis chamber. Blood samples were collected, and FEV1 measurements were performed before challenge and at regular intervals during the subsequent 24 hours. Three of four workers clinically sensitive to TDI reacted to a subirritant TDI exposure. There was no increase in NCA during placebo challenges. NCA increased in the three TDI-sensitive workers during early and late asthmatic reactions in quantities proportional to the FEV1 decline. No increase in NCA was found during TDI exposures in the TDI-negative worker. Gel filtration analysis demonstrated the main NCA fraction eluted with macromolecules of an estimated molecular weight greater than 440,000 daltons. This characteristic is compatible with neutrophil chemotactic factor of basophil or mast cell origin. The kinetics of NCA release were similar in mite- and TDI-induced asthmatic reactions. A high correlation (r = 0.97; p = 0.0006) was obtained between the percent decrease in FEV1 during early asthmatic reactions and percent increase in NCA. These observations support the hypothesis that activation of mast cells or basophils is associated with TDI-induced early and late asthmatic reaction. PMID:2155957

Sastre, J; Banks, D E; Lopez, M; Barkman, H W; Salvaggio, J E

1990-03-01

70

Human health risks from metals and metalloid via consumption of food animals near gold mines in Tarkwa, Ghana: estimation of the daily intakes and target hazard quotients (THQs).  

PubMed

Heavy metal and metalloid contamination in food resulting from mining is of major concern due to the potential risk involved. Food consumption is the most likely route of human exposure to metals. This study was therefore to assess metals in different organs and different animal species near gold mines used for human consumption (free-range chicken, goat and sheep) in Tarkwa, Ghana, and to estimate the daily intake and health risk. The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were measured with an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and Hg analysis was done using the mercury analyzer. Principal component analysis of the results showed a clear separation between chicken, grouped on one side, and the ruminants clustered on another side in both offal and muscle. Interestingly, As, Cd, Hg, Mn and Pb made one cluster in the offal of chicken. Chicken muscle also showed similar distribution with As, Hg and Pb clustered together. The daily intake of metals (?g/kg body weight/day) were in the following ranges; As [0.002 (kidneys of goat and sheep)-0.19 (chicken gizzard)], Cd [0.003 (chicken muscle)-0.55 (chicken liver)], Hg [0.002 (goat muscle)-0.29 (chicken liver)], Pb [0.01 (muscles and kidneys of goat and sheep)-0.96 (chicken gizzard)] and Mn [0.13 (goat kidney)-8.92 (sheep liver)]. From the results, daily intakes of As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Mn in these food animals were low compared to the provisional tolerable daily intake guidelines. The THQs although less than one, indicated that contributions of chicken gizzard and liver to toxic metal exposure in adults and especially children could be significant. PMID:25450929

Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Akoto, Osei; Baidoo, Elvis; Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

2015-01-01

71

Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n?=?17), 69% of acute (n?=?40), 50% of short-term (n?=?10), 92% of non-randomized (n?=?12) and 75% of randomized trials (n?=?24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure, or employed adequate assessment methods for energy and macronutrient intake. Conclusions We found no consistent evidence that increased physical activity or exercise effects energy or macronutrient intake. PMID:24454704

Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

2014-01-01

72

Perchlorate in indoor dust and human urine in china: contribution of indoor dust to total daily intake.  

PubMed

Perchlorate is used in fireworks and China is the largest fireworks producer and consumer in the world. Information regarding human exposure to perchlorate is scarce in China, and exposure via indoor dust ingestion (EDIindoor dust) has rarely been evaluated. In this study, perchlorate was found in indoor dust (detection rate: 100%, median: 47.4 ?g/g), human urine (99%, 26.2 ng/mL), drinking water (100%, 3.99 ng/mL), and dairy milk (100%, 12.3 ng/mL) collected from cities that have fireworks manufacturing areas (Yueyang and Nanchang) and in cities that do not have fireworks manufacturing industries (Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Yuxi and Guilin) in China. In comparison with perchlorate levels reported for other countries, perchlorate levels in urine samples from fireworks sites and nonfireworks sites in China were higher. Median indoor dust perchlorate concentrations were positively correlated (r = 0.964, p < 0.001) with outdoor dust perchlorate levels reported previously. The total daily intake (EDItoal) of perchlorate, estimated based on urinary levels, ranged from 0.090 to 27.72 ?g/kg body weight (bw)/day for all studied participants; the percentage of donors who had EDItotal exceeding the reference dose (RfD) recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) was 79%, 48%, and 25% for toddlers (median: 1.829 ?g/kg bw/day), adults (0.669 ?g/kg bw/day), and children (median: 0.373 ?g/kg bw/day), respectively. Toddlers (0.258 ?g/kg bw/day) had the highest median EDIindoor dust, which was 2 to 5 times greater than the EDIindoor dust calculated for other age groups (the range of median values: 0.044 to 0.127 ?g/kg bw/day). Contribution of indoor dust to EDItotal was 26%, 28%, and 7% for toddlers, children, and adults, respectively. Indoor dust contributed higher percentage to EDItotal than that by dairy milk (0.5-5%). PMID:25587720

Zhang, Tao; Chen, Xiaojia; Wang, Dou; Li, Rudan; Ma, Yufang; Mo, Weiwen; Sun, Hongwen; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2015-02-17

73

Health risk assessment of Chinese consumers to nickel via dietary intake of foodstuffs.  

PubMed

A quantitative risk assessment was carried out to characterise the health risk from nickel (Ni) via dietary exposure for Chinese consumers. Ni contamination in foods was investigated by conducting a survey and a literature review. The daily diet of the public was categorised into nine food groups and the consumption data for each group were obtained from a nationwide survey. Deterministic and probabilistic methods were applied to calculate the target hazard quotients (THQs) by comparing the estimated dietary Ni intake with respect to the tolerable daily intake (TDI). The average estimated daily Ni intake (?g kg(-1) bw day(-1)) for men, women, 2-3-year-old children and 4-17-year-old children were 7.2, 7.3, 17.1 and 10.0, respectively. The consumption of cereals, beans, vegetables and marine products contributed significantly to the total daily intake of Ni. The mean THQ values (95% confidence interval) and the probability of dietary Ni exposure higher than the TDI were 0.60 (0.58-0.62) and 8.2% for men, 0.61 (0.59-0.63) and 8.4% for women, 1.35 (1.32-1.39) and 72.0% for 2-3-year-old children, and 0.87 (0.82-0.91) and 28.5% for 4-17-year-old children, respectively. This study showed a potential health risk from Ni via dietary exposure for Chinese consumers, especially among children. PMID:25215469

Wang, Wen; Zhang, Zhiheng; Yang, Guiling; Wang, Qiang

2014-01-01

74

Children’s Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers  

PubMed Central

Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child’s home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw) and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw). For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDIcum), which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDIcum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child’s total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values. PMID:23626820

Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.; Langer, Sarka; Callesen, Michael; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

2013-01-01

75

Daily Self-Monitoring of Body Weight, Step Count, Fruit/Vegetable Intake and Water Consumption: A Feasible and Effective Long-Term Weight Loss Maintenance Approach  

PubMed Central

Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals, thus practical and effective weight loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group (WEV versus WEV+) 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted (June 2007–February 2010) to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of weight loss maintenance intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced (mean weight lost = 6.7 ± 0.6 kg; BMI 29.2 ± 1.1 kg/m2) individuals aged 63 ± 1 yrs, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight (Weight), step count (Exercise), and fruit/vegetable intake (Vegetable). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 floz of water before each main meal (i.e., three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures ANOVA. Over 12 months, there was a linear decline in weight (? = ?0.32, P < 0.001) and a quadratic trend (? = 0.02, P < 0.01) over time, but no group difference (? = ?0.23, P = 0.08). Analysis of the 365 days of self-reported body weight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in WEV+ than WEV, corresponding to weight changes of ?0.67 kg and 1.00 kg respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (? = ?0.01, P < 0.01). Overall compliance to daily tracking was 76 ± 5%. Daily self-monitoring of weight, physical activity, and fruit/vegetable consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits. PMID:22709772

Akers, Jeremy D.; Cornett, Rachel A.; Savla, Jyoti S.; Davy, Kevin P.; Davy, Brenda M.

2012-01-01

76

Daily Manganese Intake Status and Its Relationship with Oxidative Stress Biomarkers under Different Body Mass Index Categories in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for human and plays an important role as a cofactor for several enzymes involving fatty acid synthesis, hepatic gluconeogenesis, and oxidative stresses. Also, Mn intake status has been reported to have beneficial effects in reversing metabolic dysfunction including obesity and nonalcoholic steatosis which is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses, however, information on dietary Mn intake in Koreans are limited. Hence we investigated the relationship between dietary Mn intake and antioxidant defense factors in healthy and obese subjects. Total of 333 healthy subjects were recruited in the study and were assigned to one of three study groups: a normal group (18.5-22.9), a overweight group (23-24.9), and a obesity group (>25) according to their body mass index (BMI). We assessed Mn intakes (24-hr recall method) and several indicators for antioxidative defenses such as glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and urinary malonaldehyde (MDA). Results showed that body weight and blood pressure of study subjects were increased in dependent of their BMI (p < 0.01). However dietary Mn intakes and oxidative stress biomarkers (GSH, GPx, and MDA) were not significantly different by groups defined by BMI. In correlation analysis adjusting for age, sex and energy intake, dietary Mn intake of the subjects in different BMI categories were not significantly correlated with GSH, GPx, MDA and showed a weak or no association with these oxidative stress markers. In conclusion dietary Mn intake at least in this study has a little or no influence on markers of oxidative status in both healthy and obese subjects. PMID:23431039

Bu, So-Young

2012-01-01

77

Anion Coordination Interactions in Solvates with the Lithium Salts LiDCTA and LiTDI  

SciTech Connect

Lithium 4,5-dicyano-1,2,3-triazolate (LiDCTA) and lithium 2-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazole (LiTDI) are two salts proposed for lithium battery electrolyte applications, but little is known about the manner in which the DCTA- and TDI- anions coordinate Li+ cations. To explore this in-depth, crystal structures are reported here for two solvates with LiDCTA: (G2)1:LiDCTA and (G1)1:LiDCTA with diglyme and monoglyme, respectively, and seven solvates with LiTDI: (G1)2:LiTDI, (G2)2:LiTDI, (G3)1:LiTDI, (THF)1:LiTDI, (EC)1:LiTDI, (PC)1:LiTDI and (DMC)1/2:LiTDI with monoglyme, diglyme, triglyme, tetrahydrofuran, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate, respectively. These latter solvate structures are compared with the previously reported acetonitrile (AN)2:LiTDI structure. The solvates indicate that the LiTDI salt is much less associated than the LiDCTA salt and that the ions in LiTDI, when aggregated in solvates, have a very similar TDI-...Li+ cation mode of coordination through both the anion ring and cyano nitrogen atoms. Such coordination facilitates the formation of polymeric ion aggregates, instead of dimers. Insight into such ion speciation is instrumental for understanding the electrolyte properties of aprotic solvent mixtures with these salts.

McOwen, Dennis W.; Delp, Samuel A.; Paillard, Elie; Herriot, Cristelle; Han, Sang D.; Boyle, Paul D.; Sommer, Roger D.; Henderson, Wesley A.

2014-04-17

78

Essential and toxic metals in taros (Colocasia esculenta) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain): evaluation of content and estimate of daily intake.  

PubMed

Taros are a staple in the diet of many people around the world, and they are an excellent source of minerals. Monitoring the levels of metals in food provides basic information that is useful from the perspectives of safety, regulation, and nutrition. Forty-two samples of taros were randomly obtained from supermarkets, vegetable markets, and farmer's plots on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determine the contents of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The levels of Cr, Ni, Cd, and Pb were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Mean concentrations (mg/kg) were 565.6 Na, 2947 K, 231.4 Ca, 364.5 Mg, 1.224 Cu, 3.818 Fe, 1.408 Mn, 2.242 Zn, 0.044 Cr, 0.021 Ni, 0.003 Cd, and 0.006 Pb. The mean concentrations of Cd and Pb were well below the accepted European Commission limits (0.1 mg/kg weight for both metals, respectively). Daily consumption of taro (10.41 g taro/person/day) contributes to the dietary intake of essential metals and trace elements, mainly Mg (1.265% in adult women and 1.084% in adult men) and Cu (1.182% for adult men and women). The average daily intakes of Cd (0.031 ?g/day) and Pb (0.062 ?g/day) from taro were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes (TWIs). Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat based on their metal concentrations and legislated allowable intakes. PMID:25412891

Luis-González, Gara; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Ángel; González-Weller, Dailos; Revert, Consuelo; Hardisson, Arturo

2015-01-01

79

Relationships of feeding behaviors with average daily gain, dry matter intake, and residual feed intake in Red Angus-sired cattle.  

PubMed

Feeding behavior has the potential to enhance prediction of feed intake and to improve understanding of the relationships between behavior, DMI, ADG, and residual feed intake (RFI) in beef cattle. Two cohorts, born in 2009 and 2010, the progeny of Red Angus bulls (n = 58 heifers and n = 53 steers), were evaluated during the growing phase, and the latter group of steers was also evaluated during the finishing phase. All behavior analyses were based on 7 feeding behavior traits (bunk visit frequency, bunk visit duration [BVDUR], feed bout frequency, feed bout duration, meal frequency, meal duration, and average meal intake) and their relationships with ADG, DMI, and RFI. During the growing phase, feeding duration traits were most indicative of DMI with positive correlations between BVDUR and DMI for cohort 1 steers, growing phase (n = 28, r = 0.52, P = 0.00); cohort 2 steers, growing phase (n = 25, r = 0.44, P = 0.01); and cohort 2 heifers, growing phase (n = 29, r = 0.28 P = 0.05). There were similar trends toward correlation of BVDUR and RFI for both steer groups and cohort 1 heifers, growing phase (C1HG; n = 29; r = 0.27, P = 0.06; r = 0.30, P = 0.07; and r = 0.26, P = 0.08, respectively). Feed bout frequency was correlated with ADG in C1HG and in cohort 2 steers, finishing phase (r = -0.31, P = 0.04, and r = 0.43, P = 0.01, respectively). Feed bout duration was correlated with ADG in heifer groups (r = 0.29 and r = 0.28, P = 0.05 for both groups) and DMI for all growing phase animals (r = 0.29 to 0.55, P ? 0.05 for all groups). Evaluation of growing vs. finishing phase steer groups suggests that all behaviors, RFI, and DMI, but not ADG, are correlated through the growing and finishing phases (P ? 0.01 for all variables excluding ADG), implying that feeding behaviors determined during the growing phase are strong predictors of DMI in either life stage. Sire maintenance energy EPD effects (measured as high or low groups) on progeny feeding behaviors revealed a difference in meal duration with a tendency to differ in average meal intake (P = 0.01 and P = 0.07, respectively). Feeding behavior duration traits may be useful predictors of DMI in Red Angus cattle. PMID:25349363

McGee, M; Welch, C M; Ramirez, J A; Carstens, G E; Price, W J; Hall, J B; Hill, R A

2014-11-01

80

Daily calcium intake and its relation to blood pressure, blood lipids, and oxidative stress biomarkers in hypertensive and normotensive subjects  

PubMed Central

Several studies revealed that low calcium intake is related to high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is high in Koreans along with their low dietary calcium consumption. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the status of calcium intake between the hypertension and normotension groups and to investigate the correlation between dietary calcium intake and blood pressure, blood lipid parameters, and blood/urine oxidative stress indices. A total of 166 adult subjects participated in this study and were assigned to one of two study groups: a hypertension group (n = 83) who had 140 mmHg or higher in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or 90 mmHg or higher in diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and an age- and sex-matched normotension group (n = 83, 120 mmHg or less SBP and 80 mmHg or less DBP). The hypertension group consumed 360.5 mg calcium per day, which was lower than that of the normotension group (429.9 mg) but not showing significant difference. In the hypertension group, DBP had a significant negative correlation with plant calcium (P < 0.01) after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and energy intake. In the normotension group, total calcium and animal calcium intake were significantly and positively correlated with serum triglycerides. No significant relationship was found between calcium intake and blood/urine oxidative stress indices in both groups. Overall, these data suggest reconsideration of food sources for calcium consumption in management of the blood pressure or blood lipid profiles in both hypertensive and normotensive subjects. PMID:23198021

Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bu, So Young

2012-01-01

81

Information-Efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor With Tdi  

DOEpatents

A programmable optical filter for use in multispectral and hyperspectral imaging employing variable gain time delay and integrate arrays. A telescope focuses an image of a scene onto at least one TDI array that is covered by a multispectral filter that passes separate bandwidths of light onto the rows in the TDI array. The variable gain feature of the TDI array allows individual rows of pixels to be attenuated individually. The attenuations are functions of the magnitudes of the positive and negative components of a spectral basis vector. The spectral basis vector is constructed so that its positive elements emphasize the presence of a target and its negative elements emphasize the presence of the constituents of the background of the imaged scene. This system provides for a very efficient determination of the presence of the target, as opposed to the very data intensive data manipulations that are required in conventional hyperspectral imaging systems.

Rienstra, Jeffrey L. (Albuquerque, NM); Gentry, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM); Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2004-01-13

82

Effect of estradiol and progesterone on daily rhythm in food intake and feeding patterns in Fischer rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The product of meal number × meal size, over time, is food intake. Because estrogens modulate feeding activity via their action on the hypothalamus, and because there is a diurnal rhythm in the expression of cytoplasmic estrogen receptors and in estrogen binding activity, the present study examined the effects of ovariectomy and later hormone therapy on acute changes in body

Madhu Varma; Jia-Ke Chai; Michael M. Meguid; Alessandro Laviano; John R. Gleason; Zhong-Jin Yang; Vladimir Blaha

1999-01-01

83

Ready To Eat Cereal (RTEC) Consumption Positively Affects Total Daily Nutrient Intakes in Hispanic Children and Adolescents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To examine the impact of breakfast meal pattern on nutrient intake status of Hispanic children and adolescents (N=3220), we compared breakfast skippers (S), RTEC, and other breakfast consumers using 24-hour recall data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our data ind...

84

Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni in selected Nigerian tubers, legumes and cereals and estimates of the adult daily intakes.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the levels of microminerals (manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr)) and heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni)) in some tubers, legumes and cereals obtained from the markets in Abeokuta city, South-West Nigeria. The food samples were digested by dry ashing procedure and their minerals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results show mean values of 1.67-32.00, 7.25-61.58, 1.59-10.56, 6.65-46.99, 0.02-0.58, <0.01-0.09, <0.08, and 0.06-0.14 mg/kg for Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni respectively. The levels of these metals in all the samples analysed were within the ranges reported for similar tubers, legumes and cereals from various parts of the world. The daily intakes of the metals through tubers, legumes and cereals were found to be lower than the provisional tolerable daily intakes proposed by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. PMID:25466079

Akinyele, I O; Shokunbi, O S

2015-04-15

85

Reasons for raising the maximum acceptable daily intake of EDTA and the benefits for iron fortification of foods for children 6–24 months of age  

PubMed Central

The current maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of 1.9?mg?day?1 per kilogram bodyweight (mg?day?1?kgbw?1) limits the daily intake of iron as iron EDTA [ferric sodium EDTA; sodium iron(III) EDTA] to approximately 2–2.5?mg?day?1 for children 6–24 months of age. This limit was defined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1973 based on data from an animal-feed study published in 1963. Other animal studies indicate that this limit can be raised to 4.4 or possibly up to 21.7?mg?day?1?kgbw?1, which is 2.3–11.4 times higher than the current value. For nearly 50 years, iron EDTA has been used in France in medicinal syrup for infants 1–6 months of age. The maximum recommended dosage of this drug is 37 times higher than the maximum ADI of EDTA. No adverse health effects have been reported as a result of this medicinal consumption of iron EDTA. Raising the maximum ADI of EDTA to only 4.4?mg?day?1?kgbw?1 would enable iron EDTA, an iron fortificant with proven bioavailability in phytate-rich meals, to be added in adequate amounts to cereal-based meals for children 6–24 months of age, who are at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:24521261

Wreesmann, Carel Theo Jozef

2014-01-01

86

Reasons for raising the maximum acceptable daily intake of EDTA and the benefits for iron fortification of foods for children 6-24 months of age.  

PubMed

The current maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of 1.9?mg?day(-1) per kilogram bodyweight (mg?day(-1) ?kgbw(-1) ) limits the daily intake of iron as iron EDTA [ferric sodium EDTA; sodium iron(III) EDTA] to approximately 2-2.5?mg?day(-1) for children 6-24 months of age. This limit was defined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1973 based on data from an animal-feed study published in 1963. Other animal studies indicate that this limit can be raised to 4.4 or possibly up to 21.7?mg?day(-1) ?kgbw(-1) , which is 2.3-11.4 times higher than the current value. For nearly 50 years, iron EDTA has been used in France in medicinal syrup for infants 1-6 months of age. The maximum recommended dosage of this drug is 37 times higher than the maximum ADI of EDTA. No adverse health effects have been reported as a result of this medicinal consumption of iron EDTA. Raising the maximum ADI of EDTA to only 4.4?mg?day(-1) ?kgbw(-1) would enable iron EDTA, an iron fortificant with proven bioavailability in phytate-rich meals, to be added in adequate amounts to cereal-based meals for children 6-24 months of age, who are at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:24521261

Wreesmann, Carel Theo Jozef

2014-10-01

87

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist activity of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements: implications for daily intake of dioxins and PCBs.  

PubMed

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) rich oils derived primarily from fish are frequently consumed as supplements. Due to the tendency of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to accumulate in exposed organisms, n-3 PUFA supplements can contain sufficient POPs to present a risk to consumers. Here we investigated PCB concentrations and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist activity in 17 n-3 PUFA supplements available in Canada. PCBs ranged from <0.8 to 793 ng g(-1) oil, with salmon- and seal-derived products yielding the highest values. AhR agonist activity from a reporter gene assay ranged from 1.3 to 72.2 pg TEQ g(-1) oil, with salmon and tuna yielding the highest values. When consumed at the recommended doses and as a supplement to the average Canadian diet, seal-derived oil can contribute to exceedance of the tolerable daily intake of 20 ng PCBs kg-BW(-1)day(-1), and salmon-, tuna-, and sea herring-derived oils can contribute to exceedance of the tolerable daily intake limit of 2.3 pg TEQ kg-BW(-1)day(-1). The beneficial properties of fish and n-3 PUFA supplements, and the results of this study suggest that it is prudent to consume supplements derived from small, cold-water fatty fish. Further research will be necessary to draw firm conclusions. PMID:20692313

Bourdon, J A; Bazinet, T M; Arnason, T T; Kimpe, L E; Blais, J M; White, P A

2010-11-01

88

Genome-wide association and systems genetic analyses of residual feed intake, daily feed consumption, backfat and weight gain in pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Feed efficiency is one of the major components determining costs of animal production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed and the expected feed intake given a certain production. Residual feed intake 1 (RFI1) was calculated based on regression of individual daily feed intake (DFI) on initial test weight and average daily gain. Residual feed intake 2 (RFI2) was as RFI1 except it was also regressed with respect to backfat (BF). It has been shown to be a sensitive and accurate measure for feed efficiency in livestock but knowledge of the genomic regions and mechanisms affecting RFI in pigs is lacking. The study aimed to identify genetic markers and candidate genes for RFI and its component traits as well as pathways associated with RFI in Danish Duroc boars by genome-wide associations and systems genetic analyses. Results Phenotypic and genotypic records (using the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip) were available on 1,272 boars. Fifteen and 12 loci were significantly associated (p?

2014-01-01

89

Restricting night-time eating reduces daily energy intake in healthy young men: a short-term cross-over study.  

PubMed

Few experimental data are available to support the notion that reducing night-time eating changes total daily energy intake (EI) or body weight in healthy adults. The present study primarily examined the short-term effect of night eating restriction (NER) on daily EI in healthy young men. It secondarily examined body weight and moods associated with NER. Using a cross-over design, twenty-nine men (20·9 (sd 2·5) years; 24·4 (sd 2·5) kg/m²) initiated a 2-week NER intervention (elimination of EI from 19.00 to 06.00 hours) and a 2-week control condition, counterbalanced and separated by a 1-week washout period. EI and macronutrient intake were assessed using computerised, multiple-pass 24 h food recalls, body weight via a digital scale and mood using the Profile of Mood States survey. Of the twenty-nine participants, twenty-seven (93 %) completed all aspects of the study. During the NER condition, the participants consumed less total energy per d than during the control condition (10 125 v. 11 146 kJ/d; F= 6·41; P= 0·018). During the NER condition, no energy was reported consumed between 19.00 and 06.00 hours; however, during the control condition, the energy intake of participants was 2920 (sd 1347) kJ/d between 19.00 and 06.00 hours. There was a significant difference in weight change between the NER (-0·4 (sd 1·1) kg) and control (+0·6 (sd 0·9) kg) conditions (F= 22·68; P< 0·001). Differences in total mood score or mood subscales between the NER and control conditions were not apparent (P>0·05). These findings provide support for NER decreasing short-term EI in healthy young men. PMID:23702187

LeCheminant, James D; Christenson, Ed; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A

2013-12-14

90

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the air and comparison of the daily intake and uptake through inhalation by Shanghai residents with those through other matrices and routes.  

PubMed

To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the main source and route of human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), the daily intake and uptakes through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact for Shanghai residents were estimated on the basis of the PBDE concentrations in the air obtained in the present study and previous data reported in the literature. The PBDE concentrations in the gas and particle phases collected in Shanghai were 0.99-57.5 and 0.1-234 pg/m(3), respectively. The contamination levels of PBDEs in the air in Shanghai were similar to or slightly lower than the data from other regions. The estimated total daily intakes of PBDEs through the three routes were 607 and 1,636 ng/day for children and adults, respectively, while they decreased to 63.0 and 93.1 ng/day when the uptake efficiency (which is the fraction of contaminants that reaches the systemic circulation) of PBDEs was added to calculation. The results showed that dust is the main source of human exposure to PBDEs when PBDE uptake efficiency was not considered. It accounted for 66.2-79.2 % of the total PBDE intake. However, food is the main source, which accounted for 66.6-75.1 %, when the uptake efficiency was added to calculation. Among the three routes, dermal contact (53.1-76.6 %) is the main pathway, whereas ingestion (84.7-92.9 %) is the main one when the uptake efficiency was considered. Furthermore, risk assessment showed that the PBDE exposure amount would not cause obvious non-cancer and cancer risks to local residents. PMID:25009095

Li, Chunlei; Zhao, Zhishen; Lei, Bingli; An, Jing; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Yingxin

2015-02-01

91

Assessment of daily intake of toxic elements due to consumption of vegetables, fruits, meat, and seafood by inhabitants of Xiamen, China.  

PubMed

This study was designed to estimate the dietary intake of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) (total and methyl), and arsenic (As) by inhabitants of Xiamen, China. The concentrations of these toxic elements (TEs) were determined in vegetables, fruits, meat, and seafood samples randomly acquired in 5 districts of Xiamen between 2005 and 2009. Health risks were evaluated for inhabitants of Xiamen due to dietary consumption. The target hazard quotient (THQ) values for individual elements were far below 1, indicating minimal noncarcinogenic risks from TEs for inhabitants of Xiamen under the current food consumption rate. However, consumption of the entire foodstuffs could lead to potential health risks since the 95th percentile HI was higher than 1. The relative contributions of Cd, Pb, Hg T, and As to the HI were 16.0%, 15.9%, 5.9%, and 62.2% for the mean exposure level, and 13.3%, 13.4%, 5.6%, and 67.9% for the 95th percentile estimate. The THQ value of methyl mercury through consumption of cephalopod was less than 1. Tomato, cephalopod, eggplant, cabbage, orange, and pork were the main sources of total dietary intakes of TEs. The estimation of carcinogenic risk shows that the carcinogenic rate of arsenic exceeded the accepted risk level of 10(-4) . Therefore, the carcinogenic risk of arsenic for inhabitants of Xiamen is of concern. Practical Application:? Tomato, cephalopod, eggplant, cabbage, orange, and pork were the main sources of dietary intakes of TEs in Xiamen, China. The carcinogenic risk of arsenic for inhabitants in this area who consume large amounts of fruits and vegetables daily may be of concern. Consumers are encouraged to eat fruits and vegetables with different origins and eat less cephalopod to reduce the possibilities of continuously eating commodities from the contaminated areas. PMID:21913923

Chen, Chen; Qian, Yongzhong; Chen, Qiong; Li, Chuanyong

2011-10-01

92

Evaluation of content and estimation of daily intake of cadmium and lead in several varieties of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain).  

PubMed

Monitoring the metal content in foods such as potatoes is an important aspect of food safety and regulation. Samples of nine varieties of potatoes (73 samples of local potatoes and 77 samples of imported potatoes) were randomly obtained from supermarkets, farmers markets, and farmer plots in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis because Spaniards traditionally eat only peeled potatoes. Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd concentrations ranged from 0.006 mg/kg in the Cara and Negra varieties to 0.019 mg/kg in the Bonita variety, and Pb concentrations ranged from 0.007 mg/kg in the Up-to-date variety to 0.023 mg/kg in the Recara variety. The mean concentrations of Cd (0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.014 mg/kg) were below the limits established by European regulations for potatoes (0.1 mg/kg of wet weight for each metal). Based on a mean consumption of 143.2 g of potato per person per day for the Canary Islands population, the mean daily intakes of Cd (0.015 mg/day) and Pb (0.023 mg/day) were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes. Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat with regard to the metal concentrations found. PMID:24680081

Luis, G; Rubio, C; González-Weller, D; Gutiérrez, A J; Revert, C; Hardisson, A

2014-04-01

93

Feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and real-time ultrasound traits in Duroc pigs: II. Genomewide association.  

PubMed

Efficient use of feed resources has become a clear challenge for the U.S. pork industry as feed costs continue to be the largest variable expense. The availability of the Illumina Porcine60K BeadChip has greatly facilitated whole-genome association studies to identify chromosomal regions harboring genes influencing those traits. The current study aimed at identifying genomic regions associated with variation in feed efficiency and several production traits in a Duroc terminal sire population, including ADFI, ADG, feed conversion ratio, residual feed intake (RFI), real-time ultrasound back fat thickness (BF), ultrasound muscle depth, intramuscular fat content (IMF), birth weight (BW at birth), and weaning weight (BW at weaning). Single trait association analyses were performed using Bayes B models with 35,140 SNP on 18 autosomes after quality control. Significance of nonoverlapping 1-Mb length windows (n = 2,380) were tested across 3 QTL inference methods: posterior distribution of windows variances from Monte Carlo Markov Chain, naive Bayes factor, and nonparametric bootstrapping. Genes within the informative QTL regions for the traits were annotated. A region ranging from166 to 140 Mb (4-Mb length) on SSC 1, approximately 8 Mb upstream of the MC4R gene, was significantly associated with ADFI, ADG, and BF, where SOCS6 and DOK6 are proposed as the most likely candidate genes. Another region affecting BW at weaning was identified on SSC 4 (84-85 Mb), harboring genes previously found to influence both human and cattle height: PLAG1, CHCHD7, RDHE2 (or SDR16C5), MOS, RPS20, LYN, and PENK. No QTL were identified for RFI, IMF, and BW at birth. In conclusion, we have identified several genomic regions associated with traits affecting nutrient utilization that could be considered for future genomic prediction to improve feed utilization. PMID:24962532

Jiao, S; Maltecca, C; Gray, K A; Cassady, J P

2014-07-01

94

Daily intake of Jeju groundwater improves the skin condition of the model mouse for human atopic dermatitis.  

PubMed

Drinking water is an important nutrient for human health. The mineral ingredients included in drinking water may affect the physical condition of people. Various kinds of natural water are in circulation as bottled water in developed countries; however, its influence on clinical conditions of patients with certain diseases has not been fully evaluated. In this study, effects of the natural groundwater from Jeju Island on clinical symptoms and skin barrier function in atopic dermatitis (AD) were evaluated. NC/Tnd mice, a model for human AD, with moderate to severe dermatitis were used. Mice were given different natural groundwater or tap water for 8 weeks from 4 weeks of age. Clinical skin severity scores were recorded every week. Scratching analysis and measurement of transepidermal water loss were performed every other week. The pathological condition of the dorsal skin was evaluated histologically. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed for cytokine expression in the affected skin. The epidermal hyperplasia and allergic inflammation were reduced in atopic mice supplied with Jeju groundwater when compared to those supplied with tap water or other kinds of natural groundwater. The increase in scratching behavior with the aggravation of clinical severity of dermatitis was favorably controlled. Moreover, transepidermal water loss that reflects skin barrier function was recovered. The early inflammation and hypersensitivity in the atopic skin was alleviated in mice supplied with Jeju groundwater, suggesting its profitable potential on the daily care of patients with skin troubles including AD. PMID:23294459

Tanaka, Akane; Jung, Kyungsook; Matsuda, Akira; Jang, Hyosun; Kajiwara, Naoki; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Ahn, Ginnae; Ohmori, Keitaro; Kang, Kyung-goo; Matsuda, Hiroshi

2013-03-01

95

1 comprising 35 days adaptation and 21 days test, refusal rates of 20 and 50 % of straw offered were compared with 18 goats per treatment. Mean intakes of straw (g DM per kg W075 daily,  

E-print Network

were compared with 18 goats per treatment. Mean intakes of straw (g DM per kg W075 daily, ± s days adaptation, 42 days test), 12 goats per treatment were offered 18, 54 or 90 g straw DM per kg W indicate a strategy for stall-feeding goats on straw, namely to feed generously and accept wastage

Boyer, Edmond

96

No Evidence of Dehydration with Moderate Daily Coffee Intake: A Counterbalanced Cross-Over Study in a Free-Living Population  

PubMed Central

It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3–6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na+ excretion was higher in C than W (p?=?0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

Killer, Sophie C.; Blannin, Andrew K.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

2014-01-01

97

The daily fluorine and arsenic intake for residents with different dietaries and fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area, Yunnan, Southwest China.  

PubMed

The daily fluorine (F)/arsenic (As) intake (DFI/DAsI) for residents at different ages with different dietaries and dietary changes was investigated to analyze the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area in Yunnan, Southwest China. The DFI for residents with a dietary of roasted corn and roasted chili was 5.06, 9.60, and 14.38 mg for age groups 3-7, 8-15, and over 15 years, respectively. Over 90 % of DFI was from roasted foodstuffs. The DFI for residents of the same age group living on rice and roasted chili was 1.94, 3.50, and 4.95 mg, respectively, which were less than that for the former dietary type, and 65 % of DFI was from roasted chili. The main sources for their DFI are roasted foodstuffs. Both were higher than the dietaries with non-roasted foodstuffs and the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for USA and China at different levels. The DAsI for all residents ranged from 25 to 135 ?g, and at this level of DAsI, it would not influence human health. However, As pollution of roasted foodstuffs might have an important influence for the fluorosis. Residents are changing their staple food from roasted corn to rice, and especially, younger people are more focused on quality life. However, even if residents change their staple food, the habit of eating chili will not change, which also may cause them getting fluorosis. Developing economy, changing dietary types, and changing the habit of drying and keeping chili will help to reduce the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area of Southwest China. PMID:25167821

Li, Ling; Luo, Kun-Li; Tang, Yue-Gang; Liu, Yong-Lin

2015-02-01

98

Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011  

PubMed Central

Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95% CI [0.14, 0.83]). Conclusion Interventions aimed at improving fruit and vegetable intake need to consider where individuals’ purchase food and the availability within stores as a behavioral and environmental strategy. PMID:23360547

2013-01-01

99

Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) regulates haem oxygenase-1/ferritin expression: implications for toluene diisocyanate-induced asthma  

PubMed Central

Diisocyanate is a leading cause of occupational asthma (OA). Diisocyanate-induced OA is an inflammatory disease of the airways that is associated with airway remodelling. Although the pathogenic mechanisms are unclear, oxidative stress may be related to the pathogenesis of diisocyanate-induced OA. In our previous report, we observed that the expression of ferritin light chain (FTL) was decreased in both of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum of patients with diphenyl-methane diisocyanate (MDI)-induced OA compared to those of asymptomatic exposed controls and unexposed healthy controls. In this study of toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-OA, we found identical findings with increased transferrin and decreased ferritin levels in the serum of patients with TDI-OA. To elucidate whether diisocyanate suppresses FTL synthesis directly, we tested the effect of TDI on the FTL synthesis in A549 cells, a human airway epithelial cell line. We found that haem oxygenase-1 as well as FTL was suppressed by treatment with TDI in dose- and time-dependent manners. We also found that the synthesis of other anti-oxidant proteins such as thioredoxin-1, glutathione peroxidase, peroxiredoxin 1 and catalase were suppressed by TDI. Furthermore, TDI suppressed nuclear translocation of Nrf2 through suppressing the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs); extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2); p38; and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonists, 15-deoxy-?12,14-PGJ2 and rosiglitazone rescued the effect of TDI on HO-1/FTL expression. Collectively, our findings suggest that TDI suppressed HO-1/FTL expression through the MAPK–Nrf2 signalling pathway, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of TDI-induced OA. Therefore, elucidating these observations further should help to develop the therapeutic strategies of diisocyanate-induced OA. PMID:20345975

Kim, S-H; Choi, G-S; Ye, Y-M; Jou, I; Park, H-S; Park, S M

2010-01-01

100

Persistent asthma due to isocyanates. A follow-up study of subjects with occupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate (TDI)  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-five subjects with occupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposure were examined. All the subjects were studied with inhalation challenges with TDI and with methacholine. TDI asthma was documented by a positive inhalation challenge to low levels of TDI. Airway responsiveness to methacholine was in the range of asthmatic patients at the time of diagnosis. After an average follow-up interval of 10 months, all the subjects were re-examined. Of the 35 subjects examined, 30 subjects (85.7%) left the workplace, and 5 remained in the same job. Twenty-seven subjects (77.1%) continued to have asthmatic attacks requiring medication for relief of symptoms. At follow-up examination, TDI asthma was documented by a positive inhalation challenge to TDI in 27 subjects. Of these 27 TDI reactors, 22 subjects were removed from occupational exposure to TDI. The TDI reactors had persistent respiratory symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. At follow-up visit, 8 subjects (22.9%) lost sensitization to TDI; 5 subjects (62.5%) in this group had also normal airway responsiveness to methacholine after removal from exposure. Only 1 subject among the TDI nonreactors complained of mild respiratory symptoms. At diagnosis, there were no significant differences between subjects who recovered and those who did not with regard to age, smoking habits, atopy, duration of exposure to isocyanates, duration of symptoms, baseline FEV1 (% pred), and baseline airway responsiveness to methacholine.

Mapp, C.E.; Corona, P.C.; De Marzo, N.; Fabbri, L.

1988-06-01

101

Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

2012-01-01

102

Determination of PCDD/Fs in breast milk of women living in the vicinities of Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (Vietnam) and estimation of the infant's daily intake.  

PubMed

Seventeen toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in breast milks using the high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method. Twenty seven breast milk samples were collected from primiparae who have lived over 5 years in wards namely Chinh Gian, An Khe, Khue Trung, and Hoa Thuan Tay which are located near the Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (the AO/Dioxin hot spot). The samples were then analyzed for PCDD/F residues in order to assess the human exposure to dioxins from the AO/Dioxin hot spot, especially health risk to the breast-fed infants. The average TEQ levels in the four studied cohorts ranged from 8.1 to 26 pg/g lipid, with the highest level up to 51 pg TEQ/g lipid found in the An Khe ward. The TEQ level was correlated with geographical position and ranking in the order of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe. The mean estimated PCDD/Fs infant's daily intake in the cohort of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe was about 41, 122, 124, and 134 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, respectively, which are much higher than the tolerable daily intake proposed by the World Health Organization (4 pg TEQ/kg bw/day). PMID:24613651

Hue, N T M; Nam, V D; Thuong, N V; Huyen, N T; Phuong, N T H; Hung, N X; Tuan, N H; Son, L K; Minh, N H

2014-09-01

103

Validity and Reproducibility of a Self-Administered Semi-Quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Usual Daily Fat, Fibre, Alcohol, Caffeine and Theobromine Intakes among Belgian Post-Menopausal Women  

PubMed Central

A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d) estimated diet records (EDR, n 64) and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79). Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47–0.94; weighted ? 0.25–0.66) and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71–0.87) with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted ? 0.33–0.80). In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population. PMID:19440274

Bolca, Selin; Huybrechts, Inge; Verschraegen, Mia; De Henauw, Stefaan; Van de Wiele, Tom

2009-01-01

104

Body composition and appetite: fat-free mass (but not fat mass or BMI) is positively associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake in humans.  

PubMed

The idea of body weight regulation implies that a biological mechanism exerts control over energy expenditure and food intake. This is a central tenet of energy homeostasis. However, the source and identity of the controlling mechanism have not been identified, although it is often presumed to be some long-acting signal related to body fat, such as leptin. Using a comprehensive experimental platform, we have investigated the relationship between biological and behavioural variables in two separate studies over a 12-week intervention period in obese adults (total n 92). All variables have been measured objectively and with a similar degree of scientific control and precision, including anthropometric factors, body composition, RMR and accumulative energy consumed at individual meals across the whole day. Results showed that meal size and daily energy intake (EI) were significantly correlated with fat-free mass (FFM, P values < 0·02-0·05) but not with fat mass (FM) or BMI (P values 0·11-0·45) (study 1, n 58). In study 2 (n 34), FFM (but not FM or BMI) predicted meal size and daily EI under two distinct dietary conditions (high-fat and low-fat). These data appear to indicate that, under these circumstances, some signal associated with lean mass (but not FM) exerts a determining effect over self-selected food consumption. This signal may be postulated to interact with a separate class of signals generated by FM. This finding may have implications for investigations of the molecular control of food intake and body weight and for the management of obesity. PMID:21733267

Blundell, John E; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; Näslund, Erik; King, Neil A; Finlayson, Graham

2012-02-01

105

On-orbit calibration performance of MODIS TDI bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bands 13 (667 nm) and 14 (678 nm) of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites are built with a time delay and integration (TDI) circuit and a high-low dual-gain setting intended for the monitoring of the ocean environment. An important on-orbit performance issue for the high-gain output of Terra Band 14 and Aqua Band 13 and 14 is that these three bands saturate during standard on-orbit calibrations using the onboard solar diffuser (SD). Consequently, their calibration procedure requires a derivation different from other reflective solar bands (RSB). A high-low scaling-ratio approach is employed for these bands to obtain the high-gain coefficients via the low-gain output 13L and 14L through a calculated constant ratio derived from other sources. Currently, earth view (EV) scenes over the North Atlantic Ocean are used as the primary sources. As it also has been observed that the response versus scan-angle (RVS) exhibits noticeable changes with time for RSB, a time-dependent RVS calibration algorithm has been implemented based on the SD and lunar calibration results. This paper reviews the electronic design and operation of Band 13 and 14, discusses the SD calibration and the saturation issue of the high-gain output, and the time-dependent RVS algorithms. Long-term performance of the calibration coefficient and RVS are presented. The long-term trend shows that the gain-change for Terra MODIS Band 13 and 14, for both high- and lowgain bands, is significant at 6% and 23%, but is more modest for Aqua MODIS Band 13 and 14 at 6% and 2%. The gain ratios 13H/13L and 14H/14L are very stable at the level of 0.01% for both MODIS instruments. The long-term gain difference due to RVS effect is up to 3% for Terra MODIS and about 2% and below for Aqua MODIS.

Chu, Mike; Sun, Junqiang; Angal, Amit; Chen, Hongda; Geng, Xu; Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaoxiang (Jack)

2013-09-01

106

Impact of dietary fat source and concentration and daily fatty acid intake on the composition of carcass fat and iodine value sampled in three regions of the pork carcass.  

PubMed

The increased inclusion of unsaturated fats in pig diets has raised issues related to pork carcass fat quality. The objective of this experiment was to more precisely measure how differing levels of daily fatty acid intake alters the fatty acid composition in 3 different fat depots. A total of 42 gilts and 21 barrows (PIC 337×C22/29) with an average initial weight of 77.80±0.38 kg were allotted randomly based on sex and BW to 7 treatments: 3 and 6% of each of tallow (TAL; iodine value [IV]=41.9), choice white grease (CWG; IV=66.5), or corn oil (CO; IV=123.1) and a control (CNTR) corn-soybean meal-based diet with no added fat. Pigs were individually housed to allow accurate measurement of individual feed intake, in particular, daily dietary fatty acid and energy intake. Fat samples were collected from the jowl, belly, and loin at slaughter. Diet and carcass fat samples were analyzed for IV. Belly weights were recorded at slaughter along with a subjective belly firmness score (1=firmest to 3=least firm). Carcass lipid IV was increased (P<0.001) by increasing the degree of unsaturation of the dietary fat source (66.8, 70.3, and 76.3 for TAL, CWG, and CO, respectively). Carcass lipid IV for TAL and CWG was not affected (P>0.05) by inclusion levels; however, carcass lipid IV was greater (P<0.001) in pigs fed 6 than 3% CO (80.0 vs. 72.6), and carcasses of gilts had greater IV (P<0.001) than carcasses of barrows (71.5 vs. 69.1). Increasing the level of TAL and CO but not CWG from 3 to 6% decreased the apparent total tract digestibility of GE, resulting in a source×level interaction (P<0.05). Dietary fat source had no effect (P?0.66) on apparent total tract digestibility of either DM or GE, but feeding 6% dietary fat increased G:F (P=0.006) over pigs fed 3% fat (0.358 vs. 0.337). Of all the fatty acids measured, only linoleic acid intake presented a reasonable coefficient of determination (R2=0.61). Overall, IV product (IVP) was approximately equal to linoleic acid intake as a predictor of carcass IV (R2=0.93 vs. R2=0.94). When inclusion of dietary fat and PUFA intake increased, IVP placed more emphasis on the dietary fat inclusion level rather than the dietary fat composition. Linoleic acid intake corrected the overemphasis placed on dietary fat inclusion by IVP. To conclude, linoleic acid intake showed a strong relationship with carcass IV and can be used as a predictor. PMID:25367509

Kellner, T A; Prusa, K J; Patience, J F

2014-12-01

107

Estimation of safe dietary intake levels of acrylamide for humans.  

PubMed

Acrylamide (AA), a human neurotoxicant and rat tumorigen, is produced in starchy foods when cooked. AA is also an industrial chemical used in polyacrylamide production. A safety evaluation of ingested AA by humans was conducted using a newly developed, state-of-the-art physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBPK or PBTK) model to compare internal doses of AA and its metabolite glycidamide (GA) in humans and rats. Based on modes of action (MoA), a nonlinear dose-response approach was applied for neurotoxicity (non-genotoxicity) and carcinogenicity (mixed: genotoxicity and epigenetic MoA). Tolerable daily intake (TDI) for neurotoxicity from AA was estimated to be 40 microg/kg-day; TDIs for cancer were estimated to be 2.6 and 16 microg/kg-day based on AA or GA, respectively. Margins of exposure (MoE) were calculated for average AA consumers to be 300 and 500 based on AA and GA, respectively; for cancer, the MoE for average AA consumers was estimated to be 200 and 1200 based on AA and GA, respectively. For high consumers of AA, MoEs were somewhat less. PMID:19948203

Tardiff, Robert G; Gargas, Michael L; Kirman, Christopher R; Carson, M Leigh; Sweeney, Lisa M

2010-02-01

108

The high CA diet had no effect upon phosphorus utilization. Daily amounts of excreted, absorbed and retained calcium were increased whereas Ca absorption relative to intake was not  

E-print Network

The high CA diet had no effect upon phosphorus utilization. Daily amounts of excreted, absorbed- phaturia and hypercalciura appeared with both high and normal Ca diets though some of them, especially hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia, were aggravated by the high Ca diet. Pigs fed this diet also exhibited

Boyer, Edmond

109

Nutritional survey in Greek children: nutrient intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the survey was to record the food habits and nutrient intake of Greek children. Data was obtained by a 3 d household measured diet record from a random stratified sample (1936 children aged 2–14 y). Mean daily protein intake was much higher than PRI and none of the children had lower intake than AR. Mean energy intake

E Roma-Giannikou; D Adamidis; M Gianniou; R Nikolara; N Matsaniotis

1997-01-01

110

Daily intake of rosehip extract decreases abdominal visceral fat in preobese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity has become a great problem all over the world. We repeatedly screened to find an effective food to treat obesity and discovered that rosehip extract shows potent anti-obesity effects. Investigations in mice have demonstrated that rosehip extract inhibits body weight gain and decreases visceral fat. Thus, the present study examined the effect of rosehip extract on human body fat in preobese subjects. Methods We conducted a 12-week, single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 32 subjects who had a body mass index of ?25 but <30. The subjects were assigned to two random groups, and they received one tablet of placebo or rosehip that contained 100 mg of rosehip extract once each day for 12 weeks with no dietary intervention. Abdominal fat area and body fat percent were measured as primary outcomes. The other outcomes were body weight and body mass index. Results Abdominal total fat area, abdominal visceral fat area, body weight, and body mass index decreased significantly in the rosehip group at week 12 compared with their baseline levels (P<0.01) after receiving the rosehip tablet intake, and the decreases in these parameters were significantly higher when compared with those in the placebo group. Additionally, body fat percent tended to decrease compared with the placebo group and their baseline level. Moreover, the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was significantly lower in the rosehip group than in the placebo group at week 12 after the initiation of intake (P<0.05). In addition, there were no abnormalities, subjective symptoms, and findings that may indicate clinical problems during the study period. Conclusion These results suggest that rosehip extract may be a good candidate food material for preventing obesity.

Nagatomo, Akifumi; Nishida, Norihisa; Fukuhara, Ikuo; Noro, Akira; Kozai, Yoshimichi; Sato, Hisao; Matsuura, Yoichi

2015-01-01

111

41 CFR 301-11.8 - What is the maximum per diem rate I will receive if lodging is not available at my TDY location?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...lodging is not available at my TDY location? 301-11.8 Section 301-11.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules §...

2010-07-01

112

Contribution of cod liver oil related nutrients –vitamins A, D, E and eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid- to daily nutrient intake and their associations with plasma concentrations in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort  

E-print Network

Background: Total Nutrient Intake (TNI) is intake from food and supplements. This provides assessment of nutrient adequacy, prevalence of excessive intake as well as response on biomarkers. Cod liver oil (CLO) is the most frequently consumed...

Lentjes, Marleen A. H.; Mulligan, Angela A.; Welch, Ailsa A.; Bhaniani, Amit; Luben, Robert N.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

2014-09-16

113

76 FR 43236 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...pertain to Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances that include special...open to the public based upon space availability. Attendees and...oral presentations based upon space and on a first-come, first-serve...Dobbs, Director, Office of Travel, Transportation & Asset...

2011-07-20

114

Realization of the FPGA based TDI algorithm in digital domain for CMOS cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to make the CMOS image sensors suitable for space high resolution imaging applications, a new method realizing TDI in digital domain by FPGA is proposed in this paper, which improves the imaging mode for area array CMOS sensors. The TDI algorithm accumulates the corresponding pixels of adjoining frames in digital domain, so the gray values increase by M times, where M is for the integration number, and the image's quality in signal-to-noise ratio can be improved. In addition, the TDI optimization algorithm is discussed. Firstly, the signal storage is optimized by 2 slices of external RAM, where memory depth expanding and the table tennis operation mechanism are used. Secondly, the FIFO operation mechanism reduces the reading and writing operation on memory by M×(M-1) times, It saves so much signal transfer time as is proportional to the square of integration number M2, that the frame frequency is able to increase greatly. At last, the CMOS camera based on TDI in digital domain is developed, and the algorithm is validated by experiments on it.

Tao, Shuping; Jin, Guang; Zhang, Xuyan; Qu, Hongsong

2012-10-01

115

A configurable distributed high-performance computing framework for satellite's TDI-CCD imaging simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper renders a configurable distributed high performance computing(HPC) framework for TDI-CCD imaging simulation. It uses strategy pattern to adapt multi-algorithms. Thus, this framework help to decrease the simulation time with low expense. Imaging simulation for TDI-CCD mounted on satellite contains four processes: 1) atmosphere leads degradation, 2) optical system leads degradation, 3) electronic system of TDI-CCD leads degradation and re-sampling process, 4) data integration. Process 1) to 3) utilize diversity data-intensity algorithms such as FFT, convolution and LaGrange Interpol etc., which requires powerful CPU. Even uses Intel Xeon X5550 processor, regular series process method takes more than 30 hours for a simulation whose result image size is 1500 * 1462. With literature study, there isn't any mature distributing HPC framework in this field. Here we developed a distribute computing framework for TDI-CCD imaging simulation, which is based on WCF[1], uses Client/Server (C/S) layer and invokes the free CPU resources in LAN. The server pushes the process 1) to 3) tasks to those free computing capacity. Ultimately we rendered the HPC in low cost. In the computing experiment with 4 symmetric nodes and 1 server , this framework reduced about 74% simulation time. Adding more asymmetric nodes to the computing network, the time decreased namely. In conclusion, this framework could provide unlimited computation capacity in condition that the network and task management server are affordable. And this is the brand new HPC solution for TDI-CCD imaging simulation and similar applications.

Xue, Bo; Mao, Bingjing; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang

2010-11-01

116

Feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and real-time ultrasound traits in Duroc pigs: II. Genome-wide association.  

PubMed

Efficient use of feed resources has become a clear challenge for the US pork industry as feed costs continue to be the largest variable expense. The availability of the Illumina Porcine60K BeadChip has greatly facilitated whole-genome association studies to identify chromosomal regions harboring genes influencing those traits. The current study aimed at identifying genomic regions associated with variation in feed efficiency and several production traits in a Duroc terminal sire population, including ADFI, ADG, feed conversion ratio (FCR), residual feed intake (RFI), real-time ultrasound back fat thickness (BF), muscle depth (MD), intramuscular fat content (IMF), birth weight (BW at birth) and weaning weight (BW at weaning). Single trait association analyses were performed using Bayes-B models with 35,140 SNP on 18 autosomes after quality control. Significance of non-overlapping 1-Mb length windows (n = 2,380) were tested across 3 QTL inference methods: posterior distribution of windows variances from Monte Carlo Markov Chain, naive Bayes Factor and non-parametric bootstrapping. Genes within the informative QTL regions for the traits were annotated. A region ranging from166-140 Mb (4-Mb length) on SSC 1, approximately 8 Mb upstream MC4R gene, was significantly associated with ADFI, ADG and BF, where SOCS6 and DOK6 are proposed as the most likely candidate genes. Another region affecting BW at weaning was identified on SSC 4 (84-85 Mb), harboring genes previously found to influence both human and cattle height: PLAG1, CHCHD7, RDHE2 (or SDR16C5), MOS, RPS20, LYN and PENK. No QTL were identified for RFI, IMF and BW at birth. In conclusion, we have identified several genomic regions associated with traits affecting nutrient utilization that could be considered for future genomic prediction to improve feed utilization. PMID:24778334

Jiao, S; Maltecca, C; Gray, K A; Cassady, J P

2014-04-28

117

Daily intake of bisphenol A and triclosan and their association with anthropometric data, thyroid hormones and weight loss in overweight and obese individuals.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) were determined in urine of Belgian overweight and obese (n=151) and lean (n=43) individuals. After the first urine collection (0M), obese patients started a diet program or have undergone bariatric surgery. Hereafter, three additional urine samples from obese patients were collected after 3 (3M), 6 (6M) and 12 (12M) months. Both compounds were detected in >99% of the samples. BPA had median concentrations of 1.7 and 1.2ng/mL in obese and lean groups, respectively, while TCS had median concentrations of 1.5 and 0.9ng/mL in the obese and lean groups, respectively. The obese group had higher urinary concentrations (ng/mL) of BPA (p<0.5), while no significant differences were found for TCS between the obese and lean groups. No time trends between the different collection moments were observed. The BPA concentrations in the obese group were negatively associated with age, while no gender difference or relationship with body mass index was observed. For TCS, no relationships with gender, BMI, or age were found. The temporal variability of BPA and TCS was assessed with calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient, Spearman rank correlation coefficients, and surrogate category analysis. We observed evidence that single spot urine samples might be predictive of exposure over a longer period of time. Dietary intakes of BPA and TCS did not differ significantly among the time points considered after obese individuals started losing weight (6 and 12months). Multiple linear regression analyses after adjusting for age and weight loss revealed negative associations between urinary TCS and serum FT4 in the 0M and 3M female obese individuals and positive associations between urinary BPA and serum TSH in the lean group. PMID:25575039

Geens, Tinne; Dirtu, Alin C; Dirinck, Eveline; Malarvannan, Govindan; Van Gaal, Luc; Jorens, Philippe G; Covaci, Adrian

2015-03-01

118

Daily Pomegranate Intake Has No Impact on PSA Levels in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer - Results of a Phase IIb Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Pomegranate has been shown to prolong PSA doubling time in early prostate cancer, but no data from a placebo controlled trial has been published yet. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the impact of pomegranate juice in patients with prostate cancer. We conducted a phase IIb, double blinded, randomized placebo controlled trial in patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer. Only patients with a PSA value ? 5ng/ml were included. The subjects consumed 500 ml of pomegranate juice or 500 ml of placebo beverage every day for a 4 week period. Thereafter, all patients received 250 ml of the pomegranate juice daily for another 4 weeks. PSA values were taken at baseline, day 14, 28 and on day 56. The primary endpoint was the detection of a significant difference in PSA serum levels between the groups after one month of treatment. Pain scores and adherence to intervention were recorded using patient diaries. 102 patients were enrolled. The majority of patients had castration resistant prostate cancer (68%). 98 received either pomegranate juice or placebo between October 2008 and May 2011. Adherence to protocol was good, with 94 patients (96%) completing the first period and 87 patients (89%) completing both periods. No grade 3 or higher toxicities occurred within the study. No differences were detected between the two groups with regard to PSA kinetics and pain scores. Consumption of pomegranate juice as an adjunct intervention in men with advanced prostate cancer does not result in significant PSA declines compared to placebo. PMID:24069070

Stenner-Liewen, Frank; Liewen, Heike; Cathomas, Richard; Renner, Christoph; Petrausch, Ulf; Sulser, Tullio; Spanaus, Katharina; Seifert, Hans Helge; Strebel, Räto Thomas; Knuth, Alexander; Samaras, Panagiotis; Müntener, Michael

2013-01-01

119

Adaptive beamforming with TDI CCD-based true-time-delay processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an adaptation of the BEAMTAP (Broadband and Efficient Adaptive Method for True-time-delay Array Processing) algorithm, previously developed for wideband phased array radars, to lower bandwidth applications such as sonar. This system utilizes the emerging time or wavelength multiplexed optical hydro-phone sensors and processes the cohered array of signals in the optical domain without conversion to the electronic domain or digitization. Modulated signals from an optical hydro-phone array are pre- processed then imaged through a photorefractive crystal where they interfere with a reference signal and its delayed replicas. The diffraction of the sonar signals off these adaptive weight gratings and detection on a linear time- delay-and-integrate charge coupled device (TDI CCD) completes the true-time-delay (TTD) beamforming process. Optical signals focused on different regions of the TDI CCD accumulate the appropriate delays necessary to synchronize and coherently sum the acoustic signals arriving at various angles on the hydro-phone array. In this paper, we present an experimental demonstration of TTD processing of low frequency signals (in the KHz sonar regime) using a TDI CCD tapped delay line. Simulations demonstrating the performance of the overall system are also presented.

Kiruluta, Andrew M.; Kriehn, Gregory; Silveira, Paulo E. X.; Weaver, Samuel P.; Kraut, Shawn; Wagner, Kelvin H.; Anderson, Dana Z.

1999-10-01

120

Intake port  

DOEpatents

The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

Mendler, Edward Charles

2005-02-01

121

Dermal uptake and excretion of 14C-toluene diisocyante (TDI) and 14C-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in male rats. Clinical signs and histopathology following dermal exposure of male rats to TDI.  

PubMed

Polyurethanes (PU) are polymers made with diisocyanates such as MDI (4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate) and TDI (2,4-toluene diisocyanate and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate). Investigations have been undertaken with MDI and TDI to assess dermal uptake and resulting systemic exposure. Absorption, distribution and excretion of MDI was studied in rats using a single dermal administration of (14)C-MDI dissolved in acetone at nominal 165 mg/kg body weight and 15 mg/kg bw (4.0 and 0.4 mg/cm(2)) and intradermal injection of (14)C-MDI dissolved in corn oil at nominal 1.4 mg/kg bw. Dermal absorption of (14)C-MDI (at both doses) was low; at or below 1% of the applied dose. Considerable amounts of the applied radioactivity were found at the application site which could not be washed off. By intradermal administration of (14)C-MDI approximately 66% of applied radioactivity remained at the application site with approximately 26% recovered in excreta, cage wash, tissues and carcass. The absorption, distribution and excretion of 2,4-TDI was studied in rats following a single dermal administration of radiolabelled (14)C-2,4-TDI at nominal 350 mg/kg body weight (12 mg/cm(2)). Dermal absorption of (14)C-2,4-TDI was at or below 1% of the applied dose. Considerable amounts of the applied radioactivity were found at the application site which could not be washed off. In summary the results show that dermal uptake of MDI and TDI is very low. Due to the chemical reactivity of isocyanates it can be expected that small amounts which might be absorbed will react with tissue constituents directly at the exposed skin area, or will be converted to adducts with biomacromolecules or to biologically inactive oligoureas. Overall it is concluded that, following dermal exposure to MDI and TDI, systemic exposures and resulting toxicity, other than the known sensitization, can be expected to be very low. In addition studies were performed with dermal application of unlabelled 2,4 and 2,6 TDI to check the availability and fate of this chemical on rat skin surface and to assess possible tissue damage. These experiments showed that unchanged test material can be detected on rat skin for up to 8h if not washed off. Dermal treatment with 2,4 or 2,6 TDI was associated with irritation with increased severity over a 48 h period after washing with a decontaminant solution. PMID:20933064

Hoffmann, H D; Leibold, E; Ehnes, C; Fabian, E; Landsiedel, R; Gamer, A; Poole, A

2010-12-15

122

Implementation of pixel level digital TDI for scanning type LWIR FPAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implementation of a CMOS digital readout integrated circuit (DROIC) based on pixel level digital time delay integration (TDI) for scanning type LWIR focal plane arrays (FPAs) is presented. TDI is implemented on 8 pixels with over sampling rate of 3. Analog signal integrated on integration capacitor is converted to digital domain in pixel, and digital data is transferred to TDI summation counters, where contributions of 8 pixels are added. Output data is 16 bit, where 8 bits are allocated for most significant bits and 8 bits for least significant bits. Control block of the ROIC, which is responsible of generating timing diagram for switches controlling the pixels and summation counters, is realized with VerilogHDL. Summation counters and parallel-to-serial converter to convert 16 bit parallel output data to single bit output are also realized with Verilog HDL. Synthesized verilog netlists are placed&routed and combined with analog under-pixel part of the design. Quantization noise of analog-to-digital conversion is less than 500e-. Since analog signal is converted to digital domain in-pixel, inaccuracies due to analog signal routing over large chip area is eliminated. ROIC is fabricated with 0.18?m CMOS process and chip area is 10mm2. Post-layout simulation results of the implemented design are presented. ROIC is programmable through serial or parallel interface. Input referred noise of ROIC is less than 750 rms electron, while power consumption is less than 30mW. ROIC is designed to perform in cryogenic temperatures.

Ceylan, Omer; Kayahan, Huseyin; Yazici, Melik; Afridi, Sohaib; Shafique, Atia; Gurbuz, Yasar

2014-07-01

123

High Speed 3D Surface Profile Measurement System Using TDI Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Online 3D profile measurement is required for various production lines. Light section method is well-known and easy to apply for getting surface profile. But the light section method does not meet speed requirement for online measurement in steel industry. We developed high speed 3D surface profile measurement system based on light section method. By using Time Delay Integration (TDI) camera and modulated light source, profile information is coded as phase shift of fringe. Phase of fringe image is recovered by quadrature demodulation and phase unwrapping. We apply this method to measure steel strip shape and successfully build online measurement system.

Konno, Yusuke; Hashiguchi, Shohei; Naito, Syuji

124

Relation between dietary intake and nutritional status in cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated adherence to current dietary recommendations of children with cystic fibrosis and mild lung disease and their siblings by comparing energy intake. Fifty children (25 with cystic fibrosis) aged between 7 and 12 years completed the study. Energy intake was assessed by weighed dietary intake, resting energy expenditure was used to calculate recommended daily intakes. The children with

H Anthony; J Bines; P Phelan; S Paxton

1998-01-01

125

Comparison of PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels in Turkish foodstuffs: industrial versus rural, local versus supermarket products, and assessment of dietary intake.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like (indicator) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored in various foodstuffs of animal origin and edible oil samples obtained from two different cities in Turkey both rural and industrial. Total dioxin+dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCB concentrations of pooled samples ranged 0.20-4.19 pg World Health Organization-Toxic Equivalency (WHO-TEQ)(1998)/g fat and 57.2-1710 pg/g fat, respectively. The dominant congeners were 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDD and PCB126. Dietary intake of dioxin+dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCBs from fish, dairy products, edible oil, egg and meat was 0.509 pg WHO-TEQ1998/kg bw (body weight)/day and 839 pg/kg bw/day in Afyon and 0.588 pg WHO-TEQ1998/ kg bw/day and 1070 pg/kg bw/day in Kocaeli, respectively. The major contributors to total exposure were dairy products and fish. Despite the unexplained high contamination level in an individual egg sample from Kocaeli, average concentration levels in Turkey, even in industrialized regions, were low compared to reported concentrations in Western Europe. Exposure levels were well below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 2 pg WHO-TEQ1998/kg body weight. PMID:21547797

Kilic, Devrim; Çak?ro?ullar?, Gül Çelik; Uçar, Yunus; Theelen, Rob; Traag, Wim

2011-01-01

126

Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ?3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

2014-01-01

127

REQUEST AND AUTH FOR TDY TRAVEL OF INT'L MILITARY STUDENT (Reference: DSCA SAMM) (Read Privacy Act Statement on  

E-print Network

or preclude timely authorization of travel request. 16. REMARKS (Continued) (Use this space for specialREQUEST AND AUTH FOR TDY TRAVEL OF INT'L MILITARY STUDENT (Reference: DSCA SAMM) (Read Privacy Act Statement on back before completing form.) 1. DATE OF REQUEST (YYYYMMDD) REQUEST FOR OFFICIAL TRAVEL 2. NAME

128

Time delay and integration array (TDI) using charge transfer device technology. Phase 2, volume 1: Technical  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 20x9 TDI array was developed to meet the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper Requirements. This array is based upon a self-aligned, transparent gate, buried channel process. The process features: (1) buried channel, four phase, overlapping gate CCD's for high transfer efficiency without fat zero; (2) self-aligned transistors to minimize clock feedthrough and parasitic capacitance; and (3) transparent tin oxide electrode for high quantum efficiency with front surface irradiation. The requirements placed on the array and the performance achieved are summarized. This data is the result of flat field measurements only, no imaging or dynamic target measurements were made during this program. Measurements were performed with two different test stands. The bench test equipment fabricated for this program operated at the 8 micro sec line time and employed simple sampling of the gated MOSFET output video signal. The second stand employed Correlated Doubled Sampling (CDS) and operated at 79.2 micro sec line time.

1977-01-01

129

Identification of immobile single molecules using polarization-modulated asynchronous TDI-mode scanning  

PubMed Central

We report the development of a data acquisition method for identifying single molecules on large surfaces with simultaneous characterization of their absorption dipole. The method is based on a previously described device for microarray readout at single molecule sensitivity1. Here, we introduced asynchronous time delay and integration- (TDI-) mode imaging to record also the time course of fluorescence signals: the images thus contain both spatial and temporal information. We demonstrate the principle by modulating the signals via rotating excitation polarization, which allows for discriminating static absorption dipoles against multiple or freely rotating single absorption dipoles. Experiments on BSA carrying different numbers of fluorophores demonstrate the feasibility of the method. Protein species with average labeling degree of 0.55 and 2.89 fluorophores per protein can be readily distinguished. PMID:20380382

Jacak, Jaroslaw; Hesch, Clemens; Hesse, Jan; Schütz, Gerhard J.

2015-01-01

130

Usual Dietary Intakes: Details of the Method  

Cancer.gov

If estimating usual intakes of nutrients (or any dietary component consumed daily), the steps are simpler because there is no need to model probability. Therefore, a two-part model is not needed in Step 1.

131

Growth and metal accumulation response of Vigna radiata L. var PDM 54 (mung bean) grown on fly ash-amended soil: effect on dietary intake.  

PubMed

Plants of Vigna radiata L. var. PDM 54 (mung bean) were grown in soil amended with different amounts (10 and 25%) of fly ash (FA). Although total metal content increased with increasing FA amendment, DTPA-extractable metals were higher for 10% FA. Accumulation of metals by the plants increased with increasing FA amendment and was greater in shoots than in roots (except for Mn and Cu) and seeds (except Mn). The total daily intake (TDI) of all the tested metals in seeds was within the recommended dietary allowance (RDA)/provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) for adults, except for Cd, which was higher than recommended values. Principal-components analysis (PCA) based on studies of physicochemical properties, DTPA-extractable metals, and metal accumulation in the different parts of V. radiata showed that physicochemical properties such as cation-exchange capacity, organic carbon, and organic matter had significant positive effects on accumulation of Cd, Co, Ni, and Pb by the plant, whereas EC had a significant negative effect. Although addition of fly ash (10%) initially increased the rate of growth, toxic symptoms were observed for 25% FA. Results from analysis of antioxidants (carotenoids, ascorbic acid, non-protein thiol, and free proline) revealed that these increased more in plants grown in 10% FA than in those grown in garden soil. Cysteine and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased with increasing FA amendment. PCA also showed that all the antioxidants studied behaved similarly except cysteine, for which there was a close relationship with MDA content. Thus, the results obtained during this study revealed that V. radiata L. var. PDM 54 may be grown in 10% FA and/or contaminated agricultural soil. PMID:18668327

Gupta, Amit K; Sinha, Sarita

2009-08-01

132

Fiber intake and childhood appendicitis.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the possible role of fiber in the etiology of acute appendicitis, 203 consecutive appendectomized children with histologically proved appendicitis and 1922 controls were studied by the diet history method. Statistics were performed by multivariate analysis of variance, discriminant analysis and chi 2. Appendectomized children had statistically significant lower mean daily intake of fiber (17.4 g versus 20.4 g, P < 0.001) including all fiber fractions: cellulose, uronic acid, pentose, exose and lignin. No statistical difference was found for energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat intake. Discriminant analysis proved that only cellulose and exose are independently correlated to appendicitis and lower fiber intake is thought to be the cause in 70% of the cases. Recurrent abdominal pain, chronic constipation and positive family history of appendectomy were more frequent in appendectomized children (P < 0.001). This study gives evidence that low fiber intake could play an important role in the pathogenesis of appendicitis. PMID:10945110

Adamidis, D; Roma-Giannikou, E; Karamolegou, K; Tselalidou, E; Constantopoulos, A

2000-05-01

133

Poetry Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some might say that a poem a day isn't nearly enough, while the skeptical might say that it is quite enough already, thank you very much. Regardless of that debate, Poetry Daily is a splendid resource that brings visitors new poems from books, magazines and journals currently in print. Visitors to the site will find themselves looking straight at "Today's Poem", which of course features the daily poem, along with links to other works by the author. If one poem is simply not enough, the site also contains an archive that goes back approximately one year. Additionally, the site also contains a "News, Reviews, & Special Features" section, which digests recent news stories about the world of poetry.

134

Daily Grammar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Bill Johanson, a veteran English teacher of junior high and high school students, this Website offers students the opportunity to take their daily dose of grammar electronically. On the site, visitors can sign up for a free email service that sends five grammar lessons a week -- one for each day -- and a sixth one that offers a quiz on the week's lessons. The next scheduled run of the 300 lessons on the standard topics of traditional grammar -- parts of speech, tense, sentence structure, adjectives and adverbs, complex sentence structure, etc. -- begins September 1. Students can sign up now for this cycle (another cycle will begin on January 1, 2001), or they can simply go at their own pace using the complete archive of the lessons posted on-site. Daily Grammar is offered by Word Place, Inc., a purveyor of word processing software and supplemental aids to electronic written communication.

135

Constitution Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyone could use a bit of the Constitution added to their daily lives, and this website more than delivers on its promise to deliver "smart conversation about the Constitution". Constitution Daily is an experimental blog edited by the National Constitution Center (NCC) in Philadelphia, and commentary here can include conversations about student privacy rights, the Second Amendment, and the activities of Congress. Visitors can click on the "Issues" section to dive into topic areas that include civility and privacy. After looking at each topic area, visitors can look at an interactive timeline that arranges comments, posts, and discussion on the subject. The site also contains some nice polls, and information about upcoming events at the NCC.

136

ESTIMATED DAILY AVERAGE PER CAPITA WATER INGESTION BY CHILD AND ADULT AGE CATEGORIES BASED ON USDA'S 1994-96 AND 1998 CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKES BY INDIVIDUALS (JOURNAL ARTICLE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Current water ingestion estimates are important for the assessment of risk to human populations of exposure to water-borne pollutants. This paper reports mean and percentile estimates of the distributions of daily average per capita water ingestion for 12 age range groups. The ...

137

Food Intake of Children with Short Stature Born Small for Gestational Age before and during a Randomized GH Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents of short children born SGA often report that their children have a serious lack of appetite and a low food intake. In this study we investigated food intake, by using a standardized 7-day food questionnaire, in 88 short SGA children before start of GH treatment. The intake was compared with the recommended daily intake (RDI) of age-matched children. We

V. H. Boonstra; N. J. T. Arends; T. Stijnen; W. F. Blum; O. Akkerman; A. C. S. Hokken-Koelega

2006-01-01

138

Carnitine supplementation accelerates normalization of food intake depressed during TPN  

Microsoft Academic Search

When total parenteral nutrition (TPN; containing glucose, fat, and amino acids; caloric ratio 50:30:20) providing 100% of the rat's daily caloric intake is given for 3–4 days, food intake rapidly decreases by approximately 85%. After stopping TPN, there is a lag period of 3–4 days before food intake returns to previous level, which appears to be related to fatty acid

Alessandro Laviano; Michael M. Meguid; Tad Renvyle; Zhong-Jin Yang; J. Lee Beverly

1996-01-01

139

Antioxidant intake is associated with semen quality in healthy men  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We seek to determine whether dietary and supplement intake of specific micronutrients (zinc and folate) and antioxidants (vitamins C, E and b-carotene) is associated with semen quality. METHODS: Ninety- seven healthy, non-smoking men provided semen and were interviewed. Average daily nutrient intake from food and supplements was derived from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Intake levels were summar- ized

B. Eskenazi; S. A. Kidd; A. R. Marks; E. Sloter; G. Block; A. J. Wyrobek

2005-01-01

140

Molecular and cytogenetic evidence for the location of Tdy and Hya on the mouse Y chromosome short arm.  

PubMed Central

Using a combination of in situ mapping and DNA analysis with recombinant DNA probes specific for the Sxr region of the mouse Y chromosome, we show that both the gene(s) controlling sex determination and the expression of the male-specific antigen H-Y (Tdy and Hya, respectively) are located on the minute short arm of the mouse Y chromosome. We demonstrate that the H-Y- variant of Sxr (Sxr') arose by a partial deletion within the Sxr region. Also, we show that intrachromosomal recombination between the Y short arm and Sxr' can sometimes occur during male meiosis, restoring the deleted DNA sequences and resulting in an H-Y+ mouse (male 719 in this paper). Based on these results, we propose a model for the generation of the original Sxr region and the Sxr' and Sxr719 variants. Images PMID:3413106

Roberts, C; Weith, A; Passage, E; Michot, J L; Mattei, M G; Bishop, C E

1988-01-01

141

Arguments at Mealtime and Child Energy Intake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine how arguments at mealtimes relate to children's daily energy intake. Design: A cross-sectional study using data obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 (QLSCD), a representative sample of children born in 1998, in the province of Quebec, Canada. Setting: Face-to-face interviews,…

Burnier, Daniel; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

2011-01-01

142

Nutrient intakes and impact of fortified breakfast cereals in schoolchildren.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To report micronutrient intakes in Northern Ireland schoolchildren, and to establish the contribution of fortified breakfast cereal to overall nutrient intakes and achievement of current dietary recommendations. DESIGN: Analysis of dietary intakes and physical characteristics of participants in a randomly selected 2% population sample of 1015 schoolchildren aged 12 and 15 years in Northern Ireland during the 1990/1 school year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dietary intakes, physical characteristics, and their association with consumption of fortified breakfast cereal. RESULTS: Mean micronutrient intakes were generally adequate with the exception of low intakes of folate (boys and girls) and iron (girls). Fortified breakfast cereals, consumed by a high proportion (94% boys; 83% girls) of the sample, were associated with higher daily intakes of most micronutrients and fibre and with a macronutrient profile consistent with current nutritional recommendations. Appreciable proportions of subjects who did not consume fortified breakfast cereals had daily intakes that fell below the lower reference nutrient intake for riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin B-12, and iron (girls). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the potential of fortification in contributing to micronutrient intakes of schoolchildren, particularly where requirements are high, or for those on marginal diets of low nutritional quality. PMID:9014598

McNulty, H; Eaton-Evans, J; Cran, G; Woulahan, G; Boreham, C; Savage, J M; Fletcher, R; Strain, J J

1996-01-01

143

Sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children - United States, 2009-2010  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A national health objective is to reduce average U.S. sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily to help prevent high blood pressure, a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Identifying common contributors to sodium intake among children can help reduction efforts. Average sodium intake, sodium consumed p...

144

Daily digestible protein and energy requirements for growth and maintenance of sub-adult Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)  

E-print Network

This study utilized two diets (25 and 35% crude protein) fed at 10 different rates to produce differences in shrimp specific growth rate which were regressed against daily digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE) intake to estimate daily...

Siccardi, Anthony Joseph, III

2009-06-02

145

Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium  

PubMed Central

Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake???75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P?=?0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health consequences, interventions involving parents and school environment to promote water consumption seem pertinent. PMID:24964803

2014-01-01

146

Natural radionuclides in Syrian diet and their daily intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than one hundred different food stuffs (meat, vegetables cereals, seafood,..) have been collected during 1998, 1999 and\\u000a 2000 and analyzed for radioactivity as part of the National Food Monitoring Program in Syria. Results have shown that most\\u000a of the observed concentrations were within the range of the worldwide values with the exception of relatively high levels\\u000a of 210Po being

M. S. Al-Masri; H. Mukallati; A. Al-Hamwi; H. Khalili; M. Hassan; H. Assaf; Y. Amin; A. Nashawati

2004-01-01

147

Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients  

PubMed Central

Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

2009-01-01

148

Two-dimensional tracking and TDI are consistent methods for evaluating myocardial longitudinal peak strain in left and right ventricle basal segments in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Myocardial contractility can be investigated using longitudinal peak strain. It can be calculated using the Doppler-derived TDI method and the non-Doppler method based on tissue tracking on B-mode images. Both are validated and show good reproducibility, but no comparative analysis of their results has yet been conducted. This study analyzes the results obtained from the basal segments of the

Laura Stefani; Loira Toncelli; Marco Gianassi; Paolo Manetti; Valentina Di Tante; Maria Robertina Concetta Vono; Andrea Moretti; Brunello Cappelli; Gianni Pedrizzetti; Giorgio Galanti

2007-01-01

149

The Effect of Synthetic Salidroside on Cytokines and Airway Inflammation of Asthma Induced by Diisocyanate (TDI) in Mice by Regulating GATA3/T-bet.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to explore the anti-asthma effects of synthetic salidroside on cytokines and airway inflammation of asthma induced by diisocyanate (TDI) in mice. The experiment was carried out 60 female BALB/C mice which were randomly assigned to six experimental groups: control, vehicle, model, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg), and salidroside (24 and 48 mg/kg). After the experiment, histological studies were evaluated by the hematoxylin and eosin staining, the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood were collected from the animals, and the composition of the induced inflammatory cells, and the concentrations of certain cytokines (IL-4, INF-?) were evaluated. GATA3 and T-bet mRNAs were evaluated by QPCR. Our study demonstrated that salidroside inhibited TDI-induced increases in eosinophil count; IL-4 and INF-? were recovered. Histological studies demonstrated that salidroside substantially inhibited TDI-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue. Salidroside can improve T-bet mRNA and reduce GATA3 mRNA in lung. These findings suggest that salidroside may effectively ameliorate the progression of asthma and could be used as a therapy for patients with allergic asthma by regulating GATA3/T-bet balance. PMID:25052478

Wang, Jing; Xiao, Lu; Zhu, Lingpeng; Hu, Mei; Wang, Qiujuan; Yan, Tianhua

2015-04-01

150

Clinical application of the second morning urine method for estimating salt intake in patients with hypertension.  

PubMed

Estimation of salt intake by cumbersome 24-h urine collection is not suitable for individual patients because of substantial daily variation in intake. We developed the second morning urine (SMU) method for monitoring daily salt intake in healthy subjects by calculating the daily creatinine excretion and measuring the ratio of sodium to creatinine in the SMU specimen. To determine whether the SMU method was applicable to hypertensive patients, we tested it in hospitalized patients under an equilibrated sodium balance as a model population. This review focuses on application of the SMU method in hypertensive patients with mild target organ damage. PMID:24785300

Kawamura, Minoru; Kawasaki, Terukazu

2015-01-01

151

Chronic daily headaches  

PubMed Central

Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches. PMID:23024563

Ahmed, Fayyaz; Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Khalil, Modar

2012-01-01

152

Columbia Journalism Review Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The journalism school at Columbia University is held in high-regard by many for their commitment to training journalists that will hold a high standard of quality investigative reporting that will inspire future generations of like-minded individuals. As with many journalism schools, they have made great headway into offering both critique and comment on the changing world of journalism, and the Columbia Journalism Review Daily is a fine example of such efforts. The Daily was born in 2004 with a mandate to monitor coverage of the presidential election campaign, and has continued over the past several years by offering daily (and, at times, hourly) critiques of political journalism and analyses of the broader forces affecting press performance. Visitors to the homepage can read their commentaries and analyses, and also search the entire contents of the Daily via a handy search feature. Additionally, visitors can make their way through the Daily's archives, if they so wish.

153

Usual Intake of Energy  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Energy Table A44. Energy: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1426.1 (17.93) 963.7 (18.47) 1052.5

154

Usual Intake of Tomatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Tomatoes Table A10. Tomatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1 (0.01) 0.1

155

Usual Intake of Yogurt  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Yogurt Table A35. Yogurt: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1 (0.01) 0.0 (0.00) 0.0

156

Usual Intake of Poultry  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Poultry Table A26. Poultry: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.9 (0.03) 0.3 (0.05) 0.4

157

Usual Intake of Cheese  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Cheese Table A36. Cheese: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.4 (0.03) 0.1 (0.02) 0.1

158

Contribution of daily and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and daily rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and daily rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal daily rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.

Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz

2014-07-01

159

Recording strategies and selection potential of feed intake measured using the X-ray method in rainbow trout  

PubMed Central

This study examines the way long-term feed intake should be recorded accurately for selective breeding purposes, and estimates selection potential in feed intake using the X-ray method to record individual daily feed intake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The analysis showed that the point estimates of daily feed intake displayed low repeatabilities (r = 0.09–0.32). This indicates that a minimum of three repeated records were needed to accurately record average feed intake at a fixed age. To effectively breed for feed intake over the whole growing period, it is necessary to determine average feed intake at different ages, since there were only moderate phenotypic and genetic correlations between average daily feed intake recorded at 140 g, 750 g and 2000 g wet mass. Heritability for average daily feed intake was low (average h2 = 0.10), indicating that modest genetic changes can be obtained in response to selection. It was concluded that selection to genetically change long-term feed intake can be successful, yet repeated observations at several life stages are needed to ensure the accuracy of feed intake estimates and the efficiency of selection. PMID:16790229

Kause, Antti; Tobin, Declan; Dobly, Alexandre; Houlihan, Dominic; Martin, Sam; Mäntysaari, Esa A; Ritola, Ossi; Ruohonen, Kari

2006-01-01

160

Development of a respiratory sensitization/elicitation protocol of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in Brown Norway rats to derive an elicitation-based occupational exposure level.  

PubMed

Toluene diisocyanate (TDI), a known human asthmagen, was investigated in skin-sensitized Brown Norway rats for its concentration×time (C×t)-response relationship on elicitation-based endpoints. The major goal of study was to determine the elicitation inhalation threshold dose in sensitized, re-challenged Brown Norway rats, including the associated variables affecting the dosimetry of inhaled TDI-vapor in rats and as to how these differences can be translated to humans. Attempts were made to duplicate at least some traits of human asthma by using skin-sensitized rats which were subjected to single or multiple inhalation-escalation challenge exposures. Two types of dose-escalation protocols were used to determine the elicitation-threshold C×t; one used a variable C (Cvar) and constant t (tconst), the other a constant C (Cconst) and variable t (tvar). The selection of the "minimal irritant" C was based an ancillary pre-studies. Neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) were considered as the endpoint of choice to integrate the allergic pulmonary inflammation. These were supplemented by physiological measurements characterizing nocturnal asthma-like responses and increased nitric oxide in exhaled breath (eNO). The Cconst×tvar regimen yielded the most conclusive dose-response relationship as long C was high enough to overcome the scrubbing capacity of the upper airways. Based on ancillary pre-studies in naïve rats, the related human-equivalent respiratory tract irritant threshold concentration was estimated to be 0.09ppm. The respective 8-h time-adjusted asthma-related human-equivalent threshold C×t-product (dose), in 'asthmatic' rats, was estimated to be 0.003ppm. Both thresholds are in agreement of the current ACGIH TLV(®) of TDI and published human evidence. In summary, the findings from this animal model suggest that TDI-induced respiratory allergy is likely to be contingent on two interlinked, sequentially occurring mechanisms: first, dermal sensitizing encounters high enough to cause systemic sensitization. Second, when followed by inhalation exposure(s) high enough to initiate and amplify an allergic airway inflammation, then a progression into asthma may occur. This bioassay requires an in-depth knowledge on respiratory tract dosimetry and irritation of the involved test substance to clearly understand the dosimetry causing C- and/or C×t-dependent respiratory tract irritation and eventually asthma. PMID:24572447

Pauluhn, Jürgen

2014-05-01

161

Daily Spiritual Experiences and Adolescent Treatment Response  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to explore changes in belief orientation during treatment and the impact of increased daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on adolescent treatment response. One-hundred ninety-five adolescents court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment program were assessed at intake and discharge. Forty percent of youth who entered treatment as agnostic or atheist identified themselves as spiritual or religious at discharge. Increased DSE was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence, increased prosocial behaviors, and reduced narcissistic behaviors. Results indicate a shift in DSE that improves youth self-care and care for others that may inform intervention approaches for adolescents with addiction. PMID:25525291

LEE, MATTHEW T.; VETA, PAIGE S.; JOHNSON, BYRON R.; PAGANO, MARIA E.

2014-01-01

162

Data?derived safety factors for the evaluation of food additives and environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A safety factor of 100?fold is commonly applied to animal data to derive the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of food additives; other factors have been used in some cases and higher values are used more frequently for determining the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of environmental chemicals. The 100?fold factor is considered to represent the product of a 10?fold factor to

A. G. Renwick

1993-01-01

163

Comparison of recommended and actual mean intakes of fluoride by Canadians.  

PubMed

The findings of two separate 1993 reports, one of the actual intake of fluoride by Canadians and the other on their recommended fluoride intake, are summarized and compared. Recent increases in very mild and mild dental fluorosis suggest that the gap between current fluoride intake and recommended intake is narrowing. The daily swallowing of fluoride dentifrice makes a large contribution to the actual total daily fluoride intake, especially in children seven months to four years of age, the age group most susceptible to fluorosis in the anterior permanent teeth. Because of the available data and methods used in each study, the reported actual and recommended fluoride intakes vary greatly both within and between age groups. It is likely that individual variation in fluoride intake also varies greatly. Comparison of the data in the two reports revealed that, for breast-fed infants and nearly all other age groups without fluoridated water, the ranges of the estimates of actual intake are lower than the recommended ranges. However, for formula-fed infants and all other age groups using fluoridated water, the estimates of actual intake greatly exceed the recommended intake, especially for the seven months to four years age group. Ingestion of fluoride at these levels during tooth development will contribute to dental fluorosis. All of the age groups have fluoride intake estimates below levels at which skeletal signs of fluoride exposure are noticed. Nevertheless, exposure to fluoride should be closely monitored and inappropriate use of discretionary fluorides curtailed. PMID:8908873

Lewis, D W; Limeback, H

1996-09-01

164

Managing Daily Life  

MedlinePLUS

Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts to have more problems moving around, consider making changes in ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

165

Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for feed intake and other traits in growing beef cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI), residual feed intake (RFI), average daily gain (ADG), mid-period body weight (MBW), gain to feed ratio (G:F) and flight speed (FS) were estimated using 1165 steers from a mixed-breed population using restricted maximum likelihood methodology applied to...

166

Diurnal changes in blood ketone bodies, glucose and lipids according to energy intake in adult sheep  

E-print Network

Diurnal changes in blood ketone bodies, glucose and lipids according to energy intake in adult the night. The level of food intake had no effect on mean blood glucose content nor on its evolution during the daily evolution of blood ketone bodies, glucose and lipids in our experimental conditions, i.e. sheep

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

167

An Evaluation of Residual Feed Intake Estimates Obtained with Computer Models Versus Empirical Regression  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Data on individual daily feed intake, bi-weekly BW, and carcass composition were obtained on 1,212 crossbred steers, in Cycle VII of the Germplasm Evaluation Project at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Within animal regressions of cumulative feed intake and BW on linear and quadratic days on fe...

168

Physical activity, muscle strength, and calcium intake in fracture of the proximal femur in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular exercise and high calcium intake possibly help to preserve bone mass. Little is known, however, about their role in preventing hip fracture. The physical activity and calcium intake of 300 elderly men and women with hip fractures were compared with those of 600 controls matched for age and sex. In both sexes increased daily activity, including standing, walking, climbing

C. Cooper; D. J. Barker; C. Wickham

1988-01-01

169

Food chromium content, dietary chromium intake, and related biological variables in French free-living elderly  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chromium (Cr3+) is an essential trace element involved in insulin function. Cr deficiencies result in an increased risk of glucose intolerance and diabetes. Few studies have measured Cr intakes in the elderly. We measured the Cr food contents and daily intakes of freely chosen diets for three days i...

170

Australian Food Sources and Intakes of Omega–6 and Omega–3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Both ?–6 and ?–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are recognised as essential nutrients in the human diet, yet we have little information on the extent to which different food sources contribute to their intake. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the daily intakes and food sources of ?–6 and ?–3 PUFAs in our local community. Methods:

Tennille E. Ollis; Barbara J. Meyer; Peter R. C. Howe

1999-01-01

171

Bermudagrass intake and efficiency of utilization in Katahdin, Suffolk, and reciprocal-cross lambs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Daily intake of fresh common bermudagrass was estimated using 12 spring-born Katahdin, Suffolk, and reciprocal-cross ewe lambs (n=3 per breed group) individually fed fresh harvested forage in pens in each of three years. Two 24-h estimates of intake were measured for each week of the study from June...

172

Sex Differences in Ethanol Intake and Sensitivity to Aversive Effects during Adolescence and Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The present experiments examined sex differences in ethanol intake and in the influence of a social context on aversive properties of ethanol in adolescent and adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Experiment 1 examined ethanol intake, with animals receiving daily 2-h access to ethanol and water for 8 days. Experiment 2 assessed the aversive effects of ethanol using a conditioned taste

Courtney Vetter-O; Elena Varlinskaya; Linda Spear

173

Fat emulsion composition alters intake and the effects of baclofen.  

PubMed

Thickened oil-in-water emulsions are useful model foods in rat studies due to their high acceptance and similarity to foods consumed by humans. Previous work from this laboratory used oil-in-water emulsions thickened with a biopolymer blend containing starch. Intake and effects of baclofen, a GABA-B agonist that decreases fat intake and drug self-administration, were reported, but the contribution of starch was not assessed. In the present study, intake and effects of baclofen were assessed in rats using emulsions prepared with two fat types (32% vegetable shortening, 32% corn oil) and thickened with three biopolymer blends. One biopolymer blend contained starch and the other two did not. Daily 1-h intake of the vegetable shortening emulsion containing starch was significantly greater than the other emulsions. When starch was added to the emulsions originally containing no starch, intake significantly increased. Baclofen generally reduced intake of all emulsions regardless of starch content and stimulated intake of chow. However, effects were more often significant for vegetable shortening emulsions. This report: (1) demonstrates that products used to prepare thickened oil-in-water emulsions have significant effects on rat ingestive behavior, and (2) confirms the ability of baclofen to reduce consumption of fatty foods, while simultaneously stimulating intake of chow. PMID:21855586

Wang, Y; Wilt, D C; Wojnicki, F H E; Babbs, R K; Coupland, J N; Corwin, R L C

2011-12-01

174

Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle  

SciTech Connect

Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

Clarke, D.L.

1985-05-01

175

Hoover Dam Intake Towers  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

176

Usual Intake of Milk  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Milk Table A34. Milk: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1.9 (0.05) 0.7 (0.07) 0.9 (0.05) 1.3

177

Usual Intake of Oils  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Oils Table A37. Oils: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 grams Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 11.3 (0.36) 5.2 (0.40) 6.2 (0.38) 8.2

178

Usual Intake of Eggs  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Eggs Table A28. Eggs: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.4 (0.03) 0.1 (0.02) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2

179

Usual Intake of Meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Meat Table A24. Meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.5 (0.04) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2 (0.03) 0.3

180

Hypothalamic dopamine and serotonin in the regulation of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because daily food intake is the product of the size of a meal and the frequency of meals ingested, the characteristic of meal size to meal number during a 24-h light–dark cycle constitutes an identifiable pattern specific to normal states and obesity and that occurs during early cancer anorexia. An understanding of simultaneous changes in meal size and meal number

Michael M Meguid; Serguei O Fetissov; Madhu Varma; Tomoi Sato; Lihua Zhang; Alessandro Laviano; Filippo Rossi-Fanelli

2000-01-01

181

Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April

R. Raghunath; R. M. Tripathi; B. Suseela; Sunil Bhalke; V. K. Shukla; V. D. Puranik

2006-01-01

182

Intake of Inorganic Arsenic in the North American Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary intake of inorganic arsenic, previously assumed to be an insignificant source of arsenic exposure in humans, was estimated for Canadian and United States populations. Input data included arsenic contents of various food groups, a limited historical database from the Ontario Ministry of the Environment measuring the percent inorganic arsenic in food groups, and food consumption data. Estimated daily dietary

L. J. Yost; R. A. Schoof; R. Aucoin

1998-01-01

183

Residual feed intake and temperament breed differences among Florida heifers.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this work was to evaluate residual feed intake, average daily gain, chute temperament score, and exit velocity of Brahman (B),Angus (A), and Romosinuano (R) (n = 40, 19, and 26, respectively)and F1 (n = 7, 8, and 12 for BA, RA, and RB, respectively) heifers. One month after weaning ...

184

Evidence That Intermittent, Excessive Sugar Intake Causes Endogenous Opioid Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal was to determine whether withdrawal from sugar can cause signs of opioid dependence. Because palatable food stimulates neural systems that are implicated in drug addiction, it was hypothesized that intermittent, excessive sugar intake might create dependency, as indicated by withdrawal signs.Research Methods and Procedures: Male rats were food-deprived for 12 hours daily, including 4 hours in the

Carlo Colantuoni; Pedro Rada; Joseph McCarthy; Caroline Patten; Nicole M. Avena; Andrew Chadeayne; Bartley G. Hoebel

2002-01-01

185

[Food calcium intake in teenager women in Panama].  

PubMed

The adequacy of calcium intake from food and carbonated drinks consumption levels in a Panama City's female adolescents group was studied. We evaluated 180 teenage girls (12-17 years) in two public schools using food frequency questionnaires and a 24-hour food recall. According to the results, milk and cheese were this population's main calcium source. Milk was a food source in 60.5%, while 56.7% indicated that they eat cheese. On average, a once-a-day intake of one of these dairy products was observed in 1/4 of the group. Ice cream and pulses were secondary calcium sources. Yogurt, milk-made meals and beverages, green vegetables, fortified food and sardines were not components of these girls' food habits. The average calcium intake was 440 mg/d +/- 423 according to the food frequency questionnaire and 314 mg/d +/- 255 according to their 24-hour food recall. Calcium's low level intakes are less than 50% of the recommended daily intake for this age group. Carbonated drinks were consumed by 72% of the group and 30% drank one unit daily. Dairy products are the main calcium source for the studied group. However, because of insufficient calcium intake and high consumption of carbonated drinks, the future bone health of these teenage girls is at risk. PMID:19137992

Fernández-Ortega, Myriam

2008-09-01

186

COVERT MANIPULATION OF MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE HAS LITTLE IMPACT ON LONG TERM VOLUNTARY FOOD INTAKE AND MACRONUTRIENT SELECTION IN MEN.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a means to investigate the effect of daily macronutrient composition on food intake, twelve healthy normal weight men (79.9 ± 8.3 kg, 39 ± 9 yrs, 24.1 ± 1.4 kg/m2) were fed continuously for two 8-week periods. They were allowed cafeteria-style ad libitum access to a variety of foods of varying ma...

187

[The alcoholic patient in the daily routine].  

PubMed

Chronic alcohol abuse is of significant clinical and economic relevance. A major part of internal medical pathology is associated with chronic alcoholism. 50% of all accidents with subsequent traumatic injuries are related to alcohol intake. Patients who are chronic alcohol abusers have prolonged hospital stays and substantial increases in postoperative morbidity. A sophisticated diagnosis of alcoholism within standard clinical routine is often difficult, and in most cases the treatment of alcohol-related diseases and complications is protracted and requires increased energy expenditure by the treating physicians. In surgical patients, chronic alcohol abuse is associated with a 3- to 4-fold risk of infections, sepsis, cardiac and bleeding complications. Therefore, the patients themselves, along with the general practitioner and an in-hospital interdisciplinary team should cooperate in medical and operative treatment in order to attain better clinical outcome. Each patient history should include a detailed assessment of the quantity of daily alcohol intake. Alcoholic diagnostic regimens including questionnaires (i.e. CAGE, AUDIT) in combination with specific laboratory markers (CDT, GGT, MCV), if implemented, could prove valuable, especially in cases where major surgical procedures are considered. Strict abstinence by alcoholic patients with organ pathology in medical and elective surgical settings as well as the prophylactic treatment of pre-operative alcohol withdrawal appear to be useful strategies to reduce the risk of complications. Short-term interventions are associated with reduced alcohol intake and decreased incidence of re-trauma. Considering the clinical relevance of alcohol abuse, sufficient screening, interventions, and open approaches to address alcohol problems should be important components of the daily clinical routine in outpatient clinics, emergency rooms, in GPs' offices and in general hospitals. PMID:14603733

Breuer, Jan-Philipp; Neumann, Tim; Heinz, Andreas; Kox, Wolfgang J; Spies, Claudia

2003-09-30

188

Health outcomes following treatment for six months with once daily tiotropium compared with twice daily salmeterol in patients with COPD  

PubMed Central

Background: A study was undertaken to record exacerbations and health resource use in patients with COPD during 6 months of treatment with tiotropium, salmeterol, or matching placebos. Methods: Patients with COPD were enrolled in two 6-month randomised, placebo controlled, double blind, double dummy studies of tiotropium 18 µg once daily via HandiHaler or salmeterol 50 µg twice daily via a metered dose inhaler. The two trials were combined for analysis of heath outcomes consisting of exacerbations, health resource use, dyspnoea (assessed by the transitional dyspnoea index, TDI), health related quality of life (assessed by St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, SGRQ), and spirometry. Results: 1207 patients participated in the study (tiotropium 402, salmeterol 405, placebo 400). Compared with placebo, tiotropium but not salmeterol was associated with a significant delay in the time to onset of the first exacerbation. Fewer COPD exacerbations/patient year occurred in the tiotropium group (1.07) than in the placebo group (1.49, p<0.05); the salmeterol group (1.23 events/year) did not differ from placebo. The tiotropium group had 0.10 hospital admissions per patient year for COPD exacerbations compared with 0.17 for salmeterol and 0.15 for placebo (not statistically different). For all causes (respiratory and non-respiratory) tiotropium, but not salmeterol, was associated with fewer hospital admissions while both groups had fewer days in hospital than the placebo group. The number of days during which patients were unable to perform their usual daily activities was lowest in the tiotropium group (tiotropium 8.3 (0.8), salmeterol 11.1 (0.8), placebo 10.9 (0.8), p<0.05). SGRQ total score improved by 4.2 (0.7), 2.8 (0.7) and 1.5 (0.7) units during the 6 month trial for the tiotropium, salmeterol and placebo groups, respectively (p<0.01 tiotropium v placebo). Compared with placebo, TDI focal score improved in both the tiotropium group (1.1 (0.3) units, p<0.001) and the salmeterol group (0.7 (0.3) units, p<0.05). Evaluation of morning pre-dose FEV1, peak FEV1 and mean FEV1 (0–3 hours) showed that tiotropium was superior to salmeterol while both active drugs were more effective than placebo. Conclusions: Exacerbations of COPD and health resource usage were positively affected by daily treatment with tiotropium. With the exception of the number of hospital days associated with all causes, salmeterol twice daily resulted in no significant changes compared with placebo. Tiotropium also improved health related quality of life, dyspnoea, and lung function in patients with COPD. PMID:12728159

Brusasco, V; Hodder, R; Miravitlles, M; Korducki, L; Towse, L; Kesten, S

2003-01-01

189

Two-dimensional tracking and TDI are consistent methods for evaluating myocardial longitudinal peak strain in left and right ventricle basal segments in athletes  

PubMed Central

Background Myocardial contractility can be investigated using longitudinal peak strain. It can be calculated using the Doppler-derived TDI method and the non-Doppler method based on tissue tracking on B-mode images. Both are validated and show good reproducibility, but no comparative analysis of their results has yet been conducted. This study analyzes the results obtained from the basal segments of the ventricular chambers in a group of athletes. Methods 30 regularly-trained athletes were submitted to an echocardiography at rest and after handgrip. Starting from the four-chamber view, overall myocardial function and regional velocities were evaluated. The images obtained were processed to determine strain in left and right ventricle basal segments. Strain was calculated using the TDI method and a validated "speckle tracking" or, more correctly, "feature tracking" algorithm. The statistical analysis included a Student's t-test (p < 0.05). Results The range of strain values obtained is in agreement with the data reported in the literature. In the left ventricle (LV) the average strain values of the basal segments calculated with TDI on IVS and LW at rest and after stress were: -21.05 ± 3.31; -20.41 ± 2.99 and -20.05 ± 2.61; -21.20 ± 2.37, respectively. In the right ventricle (RV) the same method gave IVS and LW strain values at rest of -22.22 ± 2.58 ; -24.42 ± 5.84, and after HG of -22.02 ± 5.20 ;-23.93 ± 6.34. The values obtained using feature tracking were: LV at rest -20.48 ± 2.65 for IVS, and -21.25 ± 2.85 for LW; LV after HG: -19.48 ± 3 for IVS and -21.69 ± 3.85 for LW. In RV at rest: -21.46 ± 3.25 for IVS and -24.13 ± 5.86 for LW; RV after HG: -24.79 ± 7.9 for IVS and -24.13 ± 7.0 for LW. Tissue Doppler and "feature tracking" methods showed the respective consistency of the results in the basal segments of myocardial ventricle walls. Conclusion Provided that echographic imaging is good, strain can be computed in athletes by both Doppler-derived and tracking methods. It is technically feasible to use both -interchangeably, at least in basal segments. PMID:17286850

Stefani, Laura; Toncelli, Loira; Gianassi, Marco; Manetti, Paolo; Di Tante, Valentina; Vono, Maria Robertina Concetta; Moretti, Andrea; Cappelli, Brunello; Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Galanti, Giorgio

2007-01-01

190

[Sodium intake, blood pressure and cardiovascular events].  

PubMed

High dietary salt intake increases blood pressure and impairs cardiovascular health in the long-run. Therefore, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Heart Association (AHA) have argued for a target of 1500-2000mg of sodium per day (4-5 g sodium chloride daily). However, this recommendation is accompanied by a growing criticism. Recently, two papers published in the New England Journal of Medicine and a meta-analysis published in the September issue of the American Journal of Hypertension have flared up the "salt controversy". This paper presents an overview of recent study results. PMID:25643449

Ströhle, Alexander

2014-12-01

191

Capitol Watch Daily News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Capitol Watch On Line offers content on what's going on in the nations capital daily. A dozen or more headline stories plus a special interests section and links to the Federal News Service and other government sites. "Live chat with candidates and the leaders of our nation" is promised to be coming in 2 weeks.

1999-01-01

192

A review of the dietary intakes of chemical contaminants*  

PubMed Central

Data on the dietary intakes of certain contaminants have been received from eleven collaborating centres participating in the Joint FAO/WHO Food Contamination Monitoring Programme. The data cover the period from 1971 to 1983 and include information on the intakes of a series of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, cadmium, lead, and aflatoxins. When compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) or provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of the pesticides/contaminants in question, the data indicate that, in some countries, the exposure to certain organochlorine pesticides may constitute a significant portion ofthe ADI. Because of the concentration of these compounds in the fatty portions of food, a high animal fat intake will increase the dietary exposure to organochlorine compounds Dietary intakes of cadmium and lead constitute an appreciable percentage oft he PTWI for these two contaminants. As the intakes of cadmium and lead per kilogram of body weight are highest for infants and children, every effort should be made to reduce the levels of these two contaminants in the food supply. PMID:3879207

Gorchev, H. Galal; Jelinek, Charles F.

1985-01-01

193

Adequate intake values for dietary fibre based on faecal bulking indexes of 66 foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine an adequate daily intake value for dietary fibre (AIdf) based on faecal bulking indexes (FBIs) for 66 foods of known total dietary fibre (TDF) content.Design: FBIs of 66 foods were measured and expressed as wheat bran equivalents (WBEfb) per 100 g of food. A daily WBEfb requirement for humans was calculated from faecal bulk generated per gram

J A Monro

2004-01-01

194

Effect of level of fish meal on intake and performance in calves grazing sorghum  

E-print Network

) supplement intake protein (SIP, g/kg BW) while to daily digestible forage organic matter and potentially digestible fiber as well as daily gains were unrelated. Fecal crude protein excreted (FCP, g/kg BW) and concentration (g/kg fecal OM) were positively...

Scaglia Alonso, Guillermo

1994-01-01

195

Assessment of antioxidant nutrient intake of a population of southern US African-American and Caucasian women of various ages when compared to dietary reference intakes.  

PubMed

Antioxidant nutrient intervention strategies to ameliorate negative health factors are of notable research interest. Central to the thesis that antioxidant nutrients improve biological defense systems and provide health benefits is an accurate indication of daily antioxidant nutrient intake. Little information is available concerning these nutrient intakes among non-affluent women of the southern U.S. This study examines the 24-h intake of vitamins: A, E, C, -carotene, a-tocopherol, riboflavin, and minerals: zinc, selenium, copper, manganese, iron, and molybdenum among 259 Caucasian (CA) and African-American (AA) women from small urban communities. Women were non-pregnant females, 19-93 y of age. Statistical comparisons of nutrient intake were made by least squares means within age groups. Intakes were compared to various Dietary Reference Intakes including Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) and Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) values as established by the U.S. National Research Council. Numerous dietary deficiencies in important antioxidant nutrients associated with metabolic antioxidant systems were identified. Few race-related differences were detected. Intake of vitamin A was generally within recommended levels while vitamin E intake was below the EAR. The vitamin precursors, -carotene and a-tocopherol, were significantly (P<0.05) below customary intakes at all ages. More than 60% of this population reported dietary copper, zinc, and selenium intakes below recommended levels. A lack of race differences for most nutrient intakes suggests similar socioeconomic or endogeneous regional factors. All women in this population reported dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins and minerals below recommended values, conditions that could contribute to subsequent health risks unless nutrient-dense food choices and antioxidant supplementation are considered in their overall nutritional support. PMID:12679833

Lewis, S M; Mayhugh, M A; Freni, S C; Thorn, B; Cardoso, S; Buffington, C; Jairaj, K; Feuers, R J

2003-01-01

196

Characteristics Influencing Daily Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables and Low-Fat Dairy Products in Older Adults with Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics that may influence fruit, vegetable, and dairy intake in older adults with hypertension. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a random sample of older adults who participate in a Pennsylvania pharmaceutical assistance program. Among those who reported having hypertension (N = 592), daily fruit\\/vegetable intake was more prevalent among women,

Kristie J. Lancaster

2004-01-01

197

Daily Food Checklist  

Cancer.gov

The daily food checklist method is a form of food record. The tool is comprised of a list of foods; over the course of a day, a respondent makes a check beside a food each time she or he eats it. The checklist shares an advantage of other record methods in that it does not rely on memory. In addition, it avoids some disadvantages of complete quantitative food records in that it has relatively low respondent and investigator burden.

198

ScienceDaily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ScienceDaily offers the latest discoveries and research projects in all fields of science from labs across North America. The OK Web Site of the Day offers the "coolest" science sites -- OK as in Zero Kelvin -- and you can't get any cooler than that. Other links lead to Science Magazines and Journals, collections of top-rated science sites, and hands-on science centers. http://www.sciencedaily.com/

199

A Culture-Specific Nutrient Intake Assessment Instrument in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim To develop and evaluate a culture-specific nutrient intake assessment tool for use in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Tbilisi, Georgia. Methods We developed an instrument to measure food intake over 3 consecutive days using a questionnaire format. The tool was then compared to 24 hour food recalls. Food intake data from 31 subjects with TB were analyzed using the Nutrient Database System for Research (NDS-R) dietary analysis program. Paired t-tests, Pearson correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess the agreement between the two methods of dietary intake for calculated nutrient intakes. Results The Pearson correlation coefficient for mean daily caloric intake between the 2 methods was 0.37 (P = 0.04) with a mean difference of 171 kcals/day (p = 0.34). The ICC was 0.38 (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.64) suggesting the within-patient variability may be larger than between-patient variability. Results for mean daily intake of total fat, total carbohydrate, total protein, retinol, vitamins D and E, thiamine, calcium, sodium, iron, selenium, copper, and zinc between the two assessment methods were also similar. Conclusions This novel nutrient intake assessment tool provided quantitative nutrient intake data from TB patients. These pilot data can inform larger studies in similar populations. PMID:23541173

Frediani, Jennifer K.; Tukvadze, Nestani; Sanikidze, Ekaterina; Kipiani, Maia; Hebbar, Gautam; Easley, Kirk A.; Shenvi, Neeta; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Tangpricha, Vin; Blumberg, Henry M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

2013-01-01

200

Dietary intake of Senegalese adults  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

2010-01-01

201

Peptides and food intake.  

PubMed

The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

2014-01-01

202

Peptides and Food Intake  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

2014-01-01

203

Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.  

PubMed

Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20% of calories from fat) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain. PMID:24321742

Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

2014-03-01

204

Importance of milk replacer intake and composition in rearing orphan foals  

PubMed Central

Effects of milk replacer composition and intake on the growth of orphan foals were evaluated. Twenty foals were assigned to four treatments: 1) mare-nursed, 2) commercial foal milk replacer at recommended intakes (standard), 3) commercial foal milk replacer at high intakes (high), and 4) acidified replacer at recommended intakes (acidified). Foals fed milk replacer diets were weaned at 12-24 hours postpartum and fed milk replacer for 50 days. Mare-nursed foals were weaned between 52 and 56 days of age. Foals fed replacer diets gained 12% to 28% less weight than mare-nursed foals up to two weeks of age. However, by four months of age, weights of replacer-fed foals were similar to those of mare-nursed foals and 32 other mare-nursed foals at the farm weaned between three and four months postparium. Foals drank 10 to 12 L/100 kg body weight (BW) in fluid replacer daily over the trial period. During the first week, high intake foals consumed 26% more replacer (p<0.05) than foals fed acidified or standard diets. This higher intake resulted in diarrhea earlier (6-11 days vs 11-22 days) and for a longer time (6.3 days vs 2.5-3.6 days) than in foals fed recommended amounts. Mare-nursed foals developed “foal heat scours” in the second week postpartum. After the first week, foals fed high replacer diet voluntarily consumed the same volume of fluid replacer as foals fed the standard intake. Foals ate less than 1 kg grain mix/100 kg BW daily to one month of age, then increased intake to 1.5-2 kg/ 100 kg BW to weaning. Water intake was 20-40% of daily fluid intake and was correlated (r = 0.85) to dry matter intake. Foals in the high intake group ate less (p<0.05) solid feed and drank less water than foals fed the standard and acidified diets. The foal's stomach capacity appears to limit meal size and thus replacer intake. If recommended feeding intervals are used, replacer intakes by foals are less than 15% BW daily. High volume intakes appeared to prolong diarrhea. Normal growth rates occur when replacer and good-quality feeds are fed concurrently. PMID:17424268

Cymbaluk, Nadia F.; Smart, Marion E.; Bristol, Frank M.; Pouteaux, Victor A.

1993-01-01

205

Relation between calcium intake and fat oxidation in adult humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine if total calcium (Ca2+) intake and intake of Ca2+ from dairy sources are related to whole-body fat oxidation.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SUBJECTS: A total of 35 (21 m, 14 f) non-obese, healthy adults (mean±s.d., age: 31±6 y; weight: 71.2±12.3 kg; BMI: 23.7±2.9 kg m?2; body fat: 21.4±5.4%).MEASUREMENTS: Daily (24 h) energy expenditure (EE) and macronutrient oxidation using whole-room indirect

E L Melanson; T A Sharp; J Schneider; W T Donahoo; G K Grunwald; J O Hill

2003-01-01

206

Hiding vegetables to reduce energy density: an effective strategy to increase children's vegetable intake and reduce energy intake123  

PubMed Central

Background: Strategies are needed to increase children's intake of a variety of vegetables, including vegetables that are not well liked. Objective: We investigated whether incorporating puréed vegetables into entrées to reduce the energy density (ED; in kcal/g) affected vegetable and energy intake over 1 d in preschool children. Design: In this crossover study, 3- to 5-y-old children (n = 40) were served all meals and snacks 1 d/wk for 3 wk. Across conditions, entrées at breakfast, lunch, dinner, and evening snack were reduced in ED by increasing the proportion of puréed vegetables. The conditions were 100% ED (standard), 85% ED (tripled vegetable content), and 75% ED (quadrupled vegetable content). Entrées were served with unmanipulated side dishes and snacks, and children were instructed to eat as much as they liked. Results: The daily vegetable intake increased significantly by 52 g (50%) in the 85% ED condition and by 73 g (73%) in the 75% ED condition compared with that in the standard condition (both P < 0.0001). The consumption of more vegetables in entrées did not affect the consumption of the vegetable side dishes. Children ate similar weights of food across conditions; thus, the daily energy intake decreased by 142 kcal (12%) from the 100% to 75% ED conditions (P < 0.05). Children rated their liking of manipulated foods similarly across ED amounts. Conclusion: The incorporation of substantial amounts of puréed vegetables to reduce the ED of foods is an effective strategy to increase the daily vegetable intake and decrease the energy intake in young children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01252433. PMID:21775554

Spill, Maureen K; Birch, Leann L; Roe, Liane S

2011-01-01

207

Frequency of Fish Intake and Diabetes among Adult Indians  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Recent studies have shown that the choice of foods plays a role in diabetes prevention. However, little empirical evidence on this association exists in developing countries. We aimed to examine the association between frequency of fish intake and self-reported diabetes status among adult men and women in India. Methods: Analysis of cross-sectional data from participants in India's third National Family Health Survey conducted during 2005–2006 was performed. Associations between fish intake, determined by frequency of consumption (daily, weekly, occasionally, and never), and self-reported diabetes were estimated using multivariable-adjusted models in 99,574 women, 56,742 men, and 39,257 couples aged 20–49 years after adjusting for frequency of consumption of other food items, body mass index (BMI) status, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, watching television, age, education, living standard of the household, and place of residence. Results: After adjustment for other dietary, lifestyle, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, odds of diabetes were 2 times higher (odds ratio [OR]: 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59–2.57; p < 0.0001) among those who reported consuming fish daily compared to those who never consumed fish. Weekly fish intake was also associated with a higher odds of having diabetes (OR: 1.55; 95% CI, 1.25–1.93; p < 0.0001). The adjusted effect of daily fish intake on diabetes was greater among men (OR: 2.46; 95% CI, 1.66–3.65) than among women (OR: 1.72; 95% CI, 1.26–2.33). In cross-spousal sensitivity analysis, the odds of a husband having diabetes was also associated with wife's daily/weekly consumption of fish (OR: 1.36; 95% CI, 0.92–2.01) and the odds of a wife having diabetes was also associated with husband's daily/weekly consumption of fish (OR: 1.21; 95% CI, 0.87–1.68). Conclusions: In a large nationally representative sample of adult men and women in India, daily or weekly fish intake was positively associated with the presence of diabetes. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. More epidemiological research with better measures of food intake and clinical measures of diabetes is needed in a developing country setting to validate the findings. PMID:24870294

Agrawal, Sutapa; Millett, Christopher; Subramanian, S. V.; Ebrahim, Shah

2014-01-01

208

Dietary intakes and food sources of n?6 and n?3 PUFA in french adult men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intake of individual n?6 and n?3 PUFA has been estimated in 4,884 adult subjects (2,099 men and 2,785 women), volunteers\\u000a from the French SU.VI.MAX intervention trial. The food intakes of each subject were recorded in at least ten 24-h record questionnaires\\u000a completed over a period of 2.5 yr, allowing the estimation of the daily intake of energy; total fat;

Pierre Astorg; Nathalie Arnault; Sébastien Czernichow; Nathalie Noisette; Pilar Galan; Serge Hercberg

2004-01-01

209

Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake.  

PubMed

The objective was to examine the effect of consuming breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Participants who habitually ate breakfast and those who skipped breakfast were recruited for two studies. Using a randomized crossover design, the first study examined the effect of having participants consume either (a) no breakfast, (b) a high carbohydrate breakfast (335 kcals), or (c) a high fiber breakfast (360 kcals) on three occasions and measured ad libitum intake at lunch. The second study again used a randomized crossover design but with a larger, normal carbohydrate breakfast consumed ad libtum. Intake averaged 624 kcals and subsequent food intake was measured throughout the day. Participants ate only foods served from the Cornell Human Metabolic Research Unit where all foods were weighed before and after consumption. In the first study, neither eating breakfast nor the kind of breakfast consumed had an effect on the amount consumed at lunch despite a reduction in hunger ratings. In the second study, intake at lunch as well as hunger ratings were significantly increased after skipping breakfast (by 144 kcal), leaving a net caloric deficit of 408 kcal by the end of the day. These data are consistent with published literature demonstrating that skipping a meal does not result in accurate energy compensation at subsequent meals and suggests that skipping breakfast may be an effective means to reduce daily energy intake in some adults. PMID:23672851

Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly R

2013-07-01

210

Intake of arsenic from water, food composites and excretion through urine, hair from a studied population in West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the main intake source of arsenic by the villagers from arsenic-affected families in Jalangi and Domkol blocks in Mushidabad district, West Bengal—India, we determined the concentrations of arsenic in tubewell water and in food composites, mainly including vegetables and cereals collected from the surveyed families which were cultivated in that region. The daily dietary intakes of arsenic by

T. Uchino; T. Roychowdhury; M. Ando; H. Tokunaga

2006-01-01

211

Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women.  

PubMed

This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and between-person variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account time-varying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices. PMID:25239402

Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M

2014-12-01

212

Nutrient intakes of infants with atopic dermatitis and relationship with feeding type  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in infants is increasing worldwide. However, the nutrient intake status of infants with atopic dermatitis has not been studied properly. This study was conducted to compare the nutrient intake status of infants in the weaning period with atopic dermatitis by feeding type. MATERIALS/METHODS Feeding types, nutrient intake status and growth status of 98 infants with atopic dermatitis from age 6 to 12 months were investigated. Feeding types were surveyed using questionnaires, and daily intakes were recorded by mothers using the 24-hour recall method. Growth and iron status were also measured. RESULTS The result showed that breastfed infants consumed less energy and 13 nutrients compared to formula-fed or mixed-fed infants (p < 0.001). The breastfed group showed a significantly lower intake rate to the Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans than the other two groups (p < 0.001). In addition, they consumed less than 75% of the recommended intakes in all nutrients, except for protein and vitamin A, and in particular, iron intake was very low, showing just 18.7% of the recommended intake. There was no significant difference in growth by feeding type, but breastfed infants showed a significantly higher rate of iron deficiency anemia (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Continuous management programs should be prepared for breastfed infants with atopic dermatitis, who are in a period when rapid growth takes place and proper nutrient intake is essential. PMID:25671069

Han, Youngshin; Lee, Youngmi; Park, Haeryun; Park, Sunyoung

2015-01-01

213

Efficacy and safety of once-daily QVA149 compared with the free combination of once-daily tiotropium plus twice-daily formoterol in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD (QUANTIFY): a randomised, non-inferiority study  

PubMed Central

Background QVA149 is a once-daily (o.d.) inhaled dual bronchodilator containing a fixed-dose combination of the long-acting ?2-agonist indacaterol and the long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrronium for the treatment of COPD. The QUANTIFY study compared QVA149 with a free-dose bronchodilator combination of tiotropium plus formoterol (TIO+FOR) in improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with COPD. Methods This multicentre, blinded, triple-dummy, parallel-group, non-inferiority study randomised patients aged ?40?years with moderate-to-severe COPD (post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1) ?30% to <80% predicted) to QVA149 110/50?µg o.d. or TIO 18?µg o.d.+ FOR 12?µg twice daily (1:1) for 26?weeks. The primary endpoint was to demonstrate non-inferiority in HRQoL assessed using St George's Respiratory Questionnaire-COPD (SGRQ-C). The prespecified non-inferiority margin was 4 units. Secondary endpoints included Transition Dyspnoea Index (TDI) score, pre-dose FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC) and safety. Results Of the 934 patients randomised (QVA149=476 and TIO+FOR=458), 87.9% completed the study. At week 26, non-inferiority was met for SGRQ-C (QVA149 vs TIO+FOR; difference: –0.69 units; 95% CI ?2.31 to 0.92; p=0.399). A significantly higher percentage of patients achieved a clinically relevant ?1 point improvement in TDI total score with QVA149 (49.6%) versus TIO+FOR (42.4%; p=0.033). QVA149 significantly increased pre-dose FEV1 (+68?mL, 95% CI 37?mL to 100?mL; p<0.001) and FVC (+74?mL, 95% CI 24?mL to 125?mL; p=0.004) compared with TIO+FOR at week 26. The incidence of adverse events was comparable between both treatments (QVA149=43.7% and TIO+FOR=42.6%). Conclusions QVA149 is non-inferior to TIO+FOR in improving HRQoL, with clinically meaningful and significant improvements in breathlessness and lung function in patients with COPD. Trial registration number NCT01120717. PMID:25677679

Buhl, Roland; Gessner, Christian; Schuermann, Wolfgang; Foerster, Karin; Sieder, Christian; Hiltl, Simone; Korn, Stephanie

2015-01-01

214

Evaluation of nutrient intake in early post kidney transplant recipients.  

PubMed

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the dietary intake of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and assess oral intake related nutrition problems. Fifty patients who had undergone kidney transplantation were included: 24 males, 26 females. The mean age was 46.8 ± 11.2 years, height was 161.3 ± 8.3 cm, and body weight was 60.5 ± 8.7 kg. We conducted nutrition education based on the diet guideline for KTRs (energy 32 kcal/kg of ideal body weight [IBW], protein 1.3 g/kg of IBW) and neutropenic diet guideline before discharge. Dietary intake of the patients at 1 month after transplantation was investigated by 3-day food records. Body weight and laboratory values for nutritional status and graft function were also collected. Body weight was significantly decreased from admission to discharge. Body weight from discharge to 1 month and 3 months after transplantation was increased but was not significant. Biochemical measurements were generally improved but the number of patients with hypophosphatemia increased. The daily dietary intake of energy and protein was adequate (33.1 kcal/kg, 1.5 g/kg, respectively). However, the dietary intake of calcium, folate, and vitamin C did not meet the Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake of vitamins and minerals (86.8%, 62.4%, and 88.0%, respectively). Patients with low intake of calcium, folate, and vitamin C presented low intake in milk and dairy products, vegetables, and fruits, and these foods were related to restricted food items in neutropenic diet. More attention should be paid on improving quality of diet, and reconsideration of present neutropenic diet guideline is necessary. These results can be used to establish evidence-based medical nutrition therapy guideline for KTRs. PMID:23429928

Rho, Mi Ra; Lim, Jeong Hyun; Park, Jung Hwa; Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Won Gyoung

2013-01-01

215

Evaluation of Nutrient Intake in Early Post Kidney Transplant Recipients  

PubMed Central

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the dietary intake of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and assess oral intake related nutrition problems. Fifty patients who had undergone kidney transplantation were included: 24 males, 26 females. The mean age was 46.8 ± 11.2 years, height was 161.3 ± 8.3 cm, and body weight was 60.5 ± 8.7 kg. We conducted nutrition education based on the diet guideline for KTRs (energy 32 kcal/kg of ideal body weight [IBW], protein 1.3 g/kg of IBW) and neutropenic diet guideline before discharge. Dietary intake of the patients at 1 month after transplantation was investigated by 3-day food records. Body weight and laboratory values for nutritional status and graft function were also collected. Body weight was significantly decreased from admission to discharge. Body weight from discharge to 1 month and 3 months after transplantation was increased but was not significant. Biochemical measurements were generally improved but the number of patients with hypophosphatemia increased. The daily dietary intake of energy and protein was adequate (33.1 kcal/kg, 1.5 g/kg, respectively). However, the dietary intake of calcium, folate, and vitamin C did not meet the Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake of vitamins and minerals (86.8%, 62.4%, and 88.0%, respectively). Patients with low intake of calcium, folate, and vitamin C presented low intake in milk and dairy products, vegetables, and fruits, and these foods were related to restricted food items in neutropenic diet. More attention should be paid on improving quality of diet, and reconsideration of present neutropenic diet guideline is necessary. These results can be used to establish evidence-based medical nutrition therapy guideline for KTRs. PMID:23429928

Rho, Mi Ra; Lim, Jeong Hyun; Park, Jung Hwa; Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Young Hee

2013-01-01

216

Baclofen, raclopride, and naltrexone differentially affect intake of fat and sucrose under limited access conditions.  

PubMed

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine, and opioids are implicated in impulse control, addiction and binge eating. Recent evidence suggests that sucrose alters the effects of GABAergic, dopaminergic, and opioid receptor ligands on consumption of a fatty food in a rat limited-access binge protocol. This study determined the independent effects of fat and sucrose on the efficacy of these ligands under limited-access conditions. Nonfood-deprived male Sprague-Dawley rats had 1 h access to fat (vegetable shortening) or sucrose (3.2, 10, or 32% w/v). Half had intermittent access (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) and half had daily access. Effects of baclofen (GABAB agonist), SCH 23390 (D1 antagonist), raclopride (D2 antagonist), and naltrexone (opioid antagonist) were assessed. Baclofen and naltrexone reduced fat intake regardless of the access schedule. Baclofen had no effect on sucrose intake; naltrexone reduced sucrose intake at higher doses than were required to reduce fat intake. Raclopride stimulated fat intake in intermittent-access rats and had no effect in daily-access rats; raclopride reduced sucrose intake in all groups. SCH 23390 reduced intake in a nonspecific manner. The results indicate the involvement of GABAB receptors in fat but not sucrose intake, and of D2 receptor dysfunction in rats with a history of bingeing on fat. PMID:19724193

Corwin, Rebecca L; Wojnicki, Francis H

2009-09-01

217

Estimation of dietary folic acid intake in three generations of females in Southern Spain.  

PubMed

An adequate folic acid intake has been related to female fertility. The recommended intake of this vitamin was recently increased to 400?g/day, with an additional 200?g/day during pregnancy. The Mediterranean Diet includes sources of folate such as pulses, green-leaf vegetables, fruit, cereals, and dried fruits; other foods of interest are liver and blue fish. The objectives were to determine the foods that contribute most to folate intake and analyze the factors that influence their consumption by three generations in a female population (n=898; age, 10-75yrs) from Southern Spain: 230 adolescents (10-16yrs), 296 healthy pregnant women (19-45yrs), and 372 menopausal women (>45yrs). Participants completed a previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Over 90% of their folate intake was supplied by cereals, fruit, natural juice, pulses, and cooked and raw vegetables. The mean (SD) daily intake of folate was 288.27(63.64) ?g. A higher Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was significantly related to a greater folate intake. The daily folate intake was not significantly influenced by educational level, number of children, or place of residence (rural vs. urban). In logistic regression analysis, the factors related to an adequate folate intake (>2/3 of recommendations) were higher age, higher MDS, and lower BMI. PMID:23587520

Monteagudo, C; Mariscal-Arcas, M; Palacin, A; Lopez, M; Lorenzo, M L; Olea-Serrano, F

2013-08-01

218

AstronomyDaily.Com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy Daily.Com offers real time astronomical data tailored to the viewer's location and time zone. The personalized front page presents a chart of tonight's sky. Diagrams allow users to view the planets in their orbits. Educators and students can find images of today's moon and its phase on the calendar, plus data dealing with its current position and its physical and orbital characteristics. Phil Harrington, a supervisor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, provides two monthly articles; the first assesses a phenomenon in the sky that can be observed with binoculars and the second discusses a phenomenon in the Deep Sky. Viewers can also participate in many discussion forums with other interested astronomers. Although users are required to register in order to view the customized site, no personal identification is requested. This site is also reviewed in the October 3, 2003 NSDL Physical Sciences Report.

219

Math in Daily Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are your odds of hitting it big at the casino? Should you buy or lease a car? How much will you have when you retire? All of these questions involve math, and this latest addition to the Annenberg Media Projects Learner Online site (described in the September 12, 1997 Scout Report) explores the use of basic mathematical concepts in daily decision-making. The exhibit is divided into several topical sections exploring probability and gambling, compound interest and credit cards, population growth, geometry in the home, and ratios and recipes. In addition to an overview of the topic, each section offers several links to selected related sites and online tools, and two feature interactive learning activities.

220

Math in Daily Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Math in the "real world" happens all the time, and it can involve everything from buying a car to following a simple (or complex) recipe. The "Math in Daily Life" site offers up a series of interesting ways to get students thinking about how math works in everyday life. Created by Annenberg Media, this set of interactive exercises looks at the manifestation of mathematical principles in areas of life such as home decorating, finances, and of course, cooking. In each section, users will find hands-on exercises that complement well-written essays that help introduce visitors to seven different topical areas. Finally, the site includes a list of relevant websites, including links to The Math Forum, the U.S. Census Bureau, and The Metric Conversion Card.

221

The Cornell Daily Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cornell University Library and the Cornell Daily Sun have teamed up to offer access to the complete run of this student newspaper. The paper was first published in September 1880, and over the intervening years it has served as a repository for the hopes, dreams, activities, and general milieu of the members of the Cornell community. Currently, visitors may browse issues dating back to 1880 in their entirety, and the project will eventually allow users to search the entire Sun archives for articles by subject, writer, or date. Visitors can use the "Search" section to type in sample searches like "Ithaca," "sports," or "library." It's an ambitious project, and one that could serve as an ideal model for other student newspapers and related publications hoping to take on a similar challenge.

222

Art & Letters Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users wishing quick and easy access to some of the best writing online will want to examine this site. Art & Letters Daily, updated six days per week, offers links to articles, new book notices and reviews, and essays and opinion pieces in all fields of the humanities. The does not site provide original content, but rather mines a wide array of online newspapers, journals, and other publications and offers links with very brief introductions to the "precious nuggets of real content" on the Web. In addition, the site provides a linked list of the publications and columnists used to glean the reports as well as an archive of past features. Certainly few users will find all of the pieces interesting or pertinent, but the quantity and variety of content and the frequency with which it is updated guarantee that there will be something for almost anyone.

223

ArchDaily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Billed as the "world's most visited architecture website,� ArchDaily is a treasure trove of materials on new building projects, architectural trends, design matters, and competitions. Along the top of its homepage, visitors can delve into areas that include News, Articles, Materials, Software, and Interviews. This last area is a great place to start as it includes fabulous conversations with notables such as Jeanne Gang, Jean-Louis Cohen, and Andreas G. Gjertsen. Moving along, the Materials section offers specific technical information on equipment, finishes, installation techniques, and structural work. The Projects area contains information on new and compelling works, such as the Soundcloud Headquarters in Berlin and the Bagnoli Futura in Italy.

224

Voluntary sodium intake during effort in hot environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors that influence the amount of salt that a person adds to his food at mealtime, and the part played by the general requirement for salt in the daily diet stemming from the coluntary input of salt are studied. Careful measurements of salt intake and outflow were performed on ten marchers in a high temperature environment who were given individual salt shakers that were weighed before and after each meal. Some marchers were told to add salt to their meals on specific days. No parallelity was found between the voluntary sodium intake and the general sodium intake, the excretion of sodium in the urine or the environmental heat stress. Individual food habit was found to be the most important factor.

Sohar, E.; Adar, R.; Hershco, A.

1982-01-01

225

[Salt intake and the progression of chronic renal diseases].  

PubMed

To what extent dietary salt intake is involved in the pathogenesis of progressive renal diseases has never been fully understood in humans. To this aim, we investigated the relationship between urinary sodium excretion (under a low salt & low protein diet) and urinary protein excretion/renal function in patients with three major renal diseases: chronic glomerulonephritis(GN), diabetic nephropathy(DN) and nephrosclerosis(NS). The results were as follows; 1) A significant positive correlation was found between urinary sodium excretion (equivalent to the daily salt intake) and daily urinary protein excretion in patients with a GN and DN. However, no relationship was found between the two parameters in patients with NS. 2) Reduction in salt intake led to a significant decrease in daily protein excretion, the effect of which was prominent in patients with GN and DN. 3) A significant positive correlation was found between urinary sodium excretion and estimated protein intake(EPI) in all three groups. 4) There was a significant positive correlation between EPI and urinary protein excretion in DN, but not in GN. 5) Reduction in salt and protein intake(calculated as an EPI) ameliorates the slope of reciprocal creatinine concentration(1/Cr) in patients with GN and DN. These results indicate that slat restriction is strongly associated with the preservation of renal function in patients with GN and DN, suggesting that this dietary strategy can be a useful measure for retarding the progressive nature of these diseases. Of note is that both salt and protein restriction was renoprotective only in patients with DN. Thus, patients with GN and DN must be followed-up on the basis of a salt-restricted diet throughout their clinical course. PMID:14737992

Kuriyama, Satoru; Tomonari, Haruo; Ohtsuka, Yasushi; Yamagishi, Hiroko; Ohkido, Ichiro; Hosoya, Tatsuo

2003-01-01

226

Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.  

PubMed

Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension. PMID:25767289

O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

2015-03-13

227

SPACE DAILY SPACE WAR TERRA DAILY MARS DAILY SPACE MART SPACE TRAVEL World's Smallest Universal Material  

E-print Network

SPACE DAILY SPACE WAR TERRA DAILY MARS DAILY SPACE MART SPACE TRAVEL NANO TECH World's Smallest spaces as required by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), successfully characterized, professor of mechanical Get Our Free Newsletters Via Email Space - War - Earth - Energy - China your email

Espinosa, Horacio D.

228

Multiple micronutrient supplementation and dietary energy intake in pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To compare dietary intake of women supple- mented with multiple micronutrients (MM) or iron only during pregnancy. Materials and Methods. Design: Ran- domized, double-blind, controlled community-based trial. Set- ting: One semi-urban community in Central Mexico. Subjects: Pregnant women identified before week 13 of pregnancy, willing to provide informed consent. Interventions: Women were randomly assigned to receive daily supplementation with

María de Lourdes Flores; Lynnette M Neufeld; Teresa González-Cossío; Juan Rivera; Reynaldo Martorell; Usha Ramakrishnan

2007-01-01

229

[Alimentary intake of fluorides of artificially fed infants and effect on enamel tissue].  

PubMed

The dietary daily intake of fluorides in the first six months of lifetime has to be taken into special consideration. The slightly toxicological permissible limits of the fluorides can cause mottled enamels. The safe amount of the dietary daily intake for babies ranged up to 0.5 mg. By use of the food-stuff "MANASAN" prepared with fluoridated drinking water the daily intake increased up to 1.01 mg F-. In 150 7-8-years old children which in the first 4 month of lifetime got "MANASAN" prepared with fluoridated drinking water we found in 40% of the children mottled enamels, the fluorosis index scores (defined by DEAN) 0.4 respectively. The caries prevalence was by 0.85 DMF surfacer index. PMID:2095042

Schwarz, D; Kühne, P; Dominok, B; Melde, S

1990-12-01

230

Vegetable and fruit intake and its relevance with serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline in Korean adults  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the daily vegetable and fruit intake status of Korean adults and to examine the relationship of vegetable and fruit intake with bone metabolism. The vegetable and fruit intake of 542 healthy male and female adults was analyzed. Then, by selecting 51 targets from the subjects, the relation of vegetable and fruit intake with serum calcium, osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) excretion in urine was examined. The total vegetable intake per day was 397.7 g and 333.5 g by men and women respectively for the age group of 20-29, 366.9 g and 309.2 g respectively for the age group of 30-49, 378.4 g and 325.9 g respectively for the age group of 50-64. Of vegetable varieties, leafy and stem vegetables displayed the highest intake. The order of major intake items of vegetables and fruits was found to be Chinese cabbage kimchi, onion, radish, cucumber, and welsh onion for the age group of 20-29, watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, peach, potato, and onion for the age group of 30-49 and watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, tomato, potato, and peach for the age group of 50-64. Of 51 targets, ?-carotene intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with serum osteocalcin. While caloric intake as well as protein, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorous, zinc and total food intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with DPD excretion in urine, tuber vegetable intake displayed a significantly positive correlation with DPD excretion in urine. In the future, a study will be necessary to accurately explain the relevance of vegetable and fruit intake with bone mineral density and bone metabolism. Also, efforts will be required to increase vegetable and fruit intake. PMID:21103089

Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Myung-Hee; Bae, Yun-Jung

2010-01-01

231

The effect of number of lactation and concentrate level on feed intake and performance of dairy cows  

E-print Network

The effect of number of lactation and concentrate level on feed intake and performance of dairy in a long-term feeding experiment over 3 complete lactations. After first calving, cows were randomly liveweight and milk yield were measured daily. Mean daily values over the whole lactation for DM

Boyer, Edmond

232

Dietary sources of sodium intake in Brazil in 2008-2009.  

PubMed

Information on the main dietary sources of sodium is essential for developing public health strategies to reduce sodium intake. This study aimed to describe sodium intake according to sex, age, and income and identify the main dietary sources of sodium in Brazil. In total, 34,003 subjects aged 10 years and older participated in the first Brazilian National Dietary Survey, conducted in 2008-2009. Food was classified according to the sodium profile into 31 groups based on a 1-day food record. The daily per capita intake of sodium (mg/day) and sodium density (mg/100 g) were estimated for each food group and stratified by sex, age, and per capita income quartile. The average daily intake of sodium was 3,190 mg/day. The sodium density of the diet increased with age and income (P<0.05). Food groups with the highest densities for both sexes and across all income quartiles included salty preserved meats (997 mg/100 g), processed meats (974 mg/100 g), cheeses (883 mg/100 g), crackers (832 mg/100 g), sandwiches (800 mg/100 g), pizza (729 mg/100 g), and breads (646 mg/100 g), as well as oils, spreads, sauces, and condiments (804 mg/100 g). Altogether, these food groups contributed to 811 mg/day of sodium, which is more than half of the recommended daily sodium intake. Mean sodium intake in Brazil exceeded the tolerable upper intake level of 2,300 mg/day. Processed food contributed to half of the recommended intake and should be targeted by future public health policies aiming at reducing total sodium intake. PMID:23830323

de Moura Souza, Amanda; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Peterson, Karen Eileen; Sichieri, Rosely

2013-10-01

233

Baclofen, raclopride, and naltrexone differentially reduce solid fat emulsion intake under limited access conditions.  

PubMed

Previous work in rats has demonstrated that an Intermittent (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) schedule of access promotes binge-type consumption of 100% vegetable shortening during a 1-h period of availability. The present study used novel shortening-derived stable solid emulsions of various fat concentrations. These emulsions were the consistency of pudding and did not demonstrate oil and water phase separation previously reported with oil-based liquid emulsions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped according to schedule of access (Daily or Intermittent) to one of three concentrations (18%, 32%, 56%) of solid fat emulsion. There were no significant Intermittent vs. Daily differences in amount consumed, due to high intakes in all groups. This indicated the acceptability of the emulsions. Baclofen (GABA(B) agonist) and raclopride (D2-like antagonist) both significantly reduced emulsion intake in all Daily groups, but only in the 56% fat Intermittent group. Naltrexone (opioid antagonist), in contrast, significantly reduced 32% and 56% fat emulsion intake in the Intermittent, as well as the Daily groups. These results indicate that the fat intake-reducing effects of GABA(B) activation and D(2) blockade depend upon fat concentration and schedule of fat access, while the fat intake-reducing effects of opioid blockade depend upon fat concentration but not schedule of access. PMID:18353432

Rao, R E; Wojnicki, F H E; Coupland, J; Ghosh, S; Corwin, R L W

2008-06-01

234

A novel approach for food intake detection using electroglottography.  

PubMed

Many methods for monitoring diet and food intake rely on subjects self-reporting their daily intake. These methods are subjective, potentially inaccurate and need to be replaced by more accurate and objective methods. This paper presents a novel approach that uses an electroglottograph (EGG) device for an objective and automatic detection of food intake. Thirty subjects participated in a four-visit experiment involving the consumption of meals with self-selected content. Variations in the electrical impedance across the larynx caused by the passage of food during swallowing were captured by the EGG device. To compare performance of the proposed method with a well-established acoustical method, a throat microphone was used for monitoring swallowing sounds. Both signals were segmented into non-overlapping epochs of 30 s and processed to extract wavelet features. Subject-independent classifiers were trained, using artificial neural networks, to identify periods of food intake from the wavelet features. Results from leave-one-out cross validation showed an average per-epoch classification accuracy of 90.1% for the EGG-based method and 83.1% for the acoustic-based method, demonstrating the feasibility of using an EGG for food intake detection. PMID:24671094

Farooq, Muhammad; Fontana, Juan M; Sazonov, Edward

2014-05-01

235

Number of 24-Hour Diet Recalls Needed to Estimate Energy Intake  

PubMed Central

Purpose Twenty-four-hour diet recall interviews (24HRs) are used to assess diet and to validate other diet assessment instruments. Therefore it is important to know how many 24HRs are required to describe an individual's intake. Method Seventy-nine middle-aged white women completed seven 24HRs over a 14-day period, during which energy expenditure (EE) was determined by the doubly labeled water method (DLW). Mean daily intakes were compared to DLW-derived EE using paired t tests. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate the effect of call sequence and day of the week on 24HR-derived energy intake while adjusting for education, relative body weight, social desirability, and an interaction between call sequence and social desirability. Results Mean EE from DLW was 2115 kcal/day. Adjusted 24HR-derived energy intake was lowest at call 1 (1501 kcal/day); significantly higher energy intake was observed at calls 2 and 3 (2246 and 2315 kcal/day, respectively). Energy intake on Friday was significantly lower than on Sunday. Averaging energy intake from the first two calls better approximated true energy expenditure than did the first call, and averaging the first three calls further improved the estimate (p = 0.02 for both comparisons). Additional calls did not improve estimation. Conclusions Energy intake is underreported on the first 24HR. Three 24HRs appear optimal for estimating energy intake. PMID:19576535

MA, Yunsheng; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Magner, Robert P.; Ockene, Ira S.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Merriam, Philip A.; Hébert, James R.

2009-01-01

236

Quantification of Daily Physical Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

1994-01-01

237

Incident Heart Failure Is Associated with Lower Whole-Grain Intake and Greater High-Fat Dairy and Egg Intake in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study  

PubMed Central

Background Prospective studies evaluating associations between food intake and risk of heart failure (HF) in diverse populations are needed. Objectives Relationships between incident HF (death or hospitalization) and intake of seven food categories (whole grains, fruits/vegetables, fish, nuts, high-fat dairy, eggs, red meat) were investigated in an observational cohort of 14,153 African-American and white adults, age 45 to 64 years, sampled from four US communities. Methods Between baseline (1987–1989) and Exam 3 (1993–1995), dietary intake was based on responses to a 66-item food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline; thereafter, intake was based on averaged baseline and Exam 3 responses. Hazard ratios (HR [95% CI]) for HF were calculated per 1–daily serving difference in food group intake. Results During a mean of 13 years, 1,140 HF hospitalizations were identified. After multivariable adjustment (energy intake, demographics, lifestyle factors, prevalent cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension), HF risk was lower with greater whole-grain intake (0.93 [0.87, 0.99]), but HF risk was higher with greater intake of eggs (1.23 [1.08, 1.41]) and high-fat dairy (1.08 [1.01, 1.16]). These associations remained significant independent of intakes of the five other food categories, which were not associated with HF. Conclusions In this large, population-based sample of African-American and white adults, whole-grain intake was associated with lower HF risk, whereas intake of eggs and high-fat dairy were associated with greater HF risk after adjustment for several confounders. PMID:18954578

NETTLETON, JENNIFER A.; STEFFEN, LYN M.; LOEHR, LAURA R.; ROSAMOND, WAYNE D.; FOLSOM, AARON R.

2009-01-01

238

Proposed nomenclature for salt intake and for reductions in dietary salt.  

PubMed

There is considerable confusion about what ranges of dietary salt(a) could be considered low, normal, or high and also what ranges of reduction in dietary salt are small or large. The World Hypertension League with other organizations involved in dietary salt reduction have proposed a standardized nomenclature based on normal ancestral levels of salt intake and also on ranges of reduction in salt intake in clinical and population interventions. Low daily salt (sodium) intake where harm due to deficiency would be expected to occur is recommended to remain undefined because of inadequate research but likely <0.25 g (100 mg), normal (physiological) intake <2.5 g (1000 mg), recommended intake <5.0 g (2000 mg), high ?5.0 g (2000 mg), very high >10 to 15 g (4000-6000 mg), and extremely high >15 g (6000 mg). Reductions in daily salt (sodium) intake are recommended to be called small if <2.5 g (1000 mg), moderate if 2.5 to 5.0 g (1000-2000 mg) and large if >5.0 g (2000 mg). Use of this nomenclature is likely to result in less confusion about salt intake and interventions to reduce dietary sodium. PMID:25413335

Campbell, Norm R C; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Webster, Jacqui; Lackland, Daniel T; Neal, Bruce; MacGregor, Graham A

2015-04-01

239

Usual Intake of Refined grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Refined grains Table A19. Refined grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 3.5 (0.10) 1.7

240

Usual Intake of Whole grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Whole grains Table A18. Whole grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.6 (0.03) 0.1

241

Usual Intake of Total grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total grains Table A17. Total grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 4.1 (0.10) 2.2

242

Usual Intake of Solid fats  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Solid fats Table A38. Solid fats: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 grams Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 27.8 (0.73) 15.5 (1.06) 17.8

243

Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks Table A43. Alcoholic drinks: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 number of drinks Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 19-30 1113 0.9

244

Usual Intake of Added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

245

Usual Intake of White potatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of White potatoes Table A13. White potatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1

246

Usual Intake of Other fruits  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Other fruits Table A4. Other fruits: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.6 (0.04) 0.2

247

Usual Intake of Total seafood  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total seafood Table A27. Total seafood: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1 (0.02) 0.0

248

Usual Intake of Soy products  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Soy products Table A30. Soy products: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.0 (0.00) 0.0

249

Usual Intake of Other vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Other vegetables Table A15. Other vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1

250

Usual Intake of Fruit juice  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Fruit juice Table A5. Fruit juice: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.05) 0.1

251

Usual Intake of Total fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total fruit Table A1. Total fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1.5 (0.07) 0.6

252

Baclofen, raclopride, and naltrexone differentially affect intake of fat/sucrose mixtures under limited access conditions.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effects of the opioid antagonist naltrexone, the dopamine 2-like (D2) antagonist raclopride, and the GABA(B) agonist baclofen on consumption of fat/sucrose mixtures (FSM) using a limited access protocol. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped according to two schedules of access (Daily [D] or Intermittent [I]) to an optional FSM. Each FSM was created by whipping 3.2% (L), 10% (M), or 32% (H) powdered sugar into 100% vegetable shortening in a w/w manner (n=10 per group). One-hour intakes of the IL and IM groups were significantly greater than intakes of the respective DL and DM groups, thus fulfilling our operational definition of binge-type eating in these groups. Baclofen reduced intakes of the L and M mixtures regardless of access schedule, but failed to reduce intake of the H mixture. Naltrexone reduced intake in all groups, but potency was greater in IL rats than in DL rats. Furthermore, potency was attenuated in Intermittent rats, but enhanced in Daily rats, at higher sucrose concentrations. Raclopride reduced intake in the DL and stimulated intake in the IL groups, reduced intake in both M groups, and was without effect in both H groups. These results indicate that fat/sucrose mixtures containing relatively low concentrations of sucrose allow distinctions to be made between: 1) intakes stimulated by different access schedules and 2) opioid and dopaminergic modulation of those intakes. These results also suggest that brief bouts of food consumption involving fatty, sugar-rich foods may prove to be particularly resistant to pharmacological intervention. PMID:19217918

Wong, K J; Wojnicki, F H W; Corwin, R L W

2009-05-01

253

MUTUAL FUND DAILY CONDITIONAL PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The empirical finance literature reveals that conditional models estimated with monthly data generally improve fund performance. Furthermore, it has been shown that using daily instead of monthly returns in an unconditional framework increases the proportion of abnormal performances relative to timing. In this article, we study conditional performance estimated with daily data in a bivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH)

Frank Coggins; Marie-Claude Beaulieu; Michel Gendron

2009-01-01

254

Searching images in daily life  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the proliferation of images in daily life, it is crucial to investigate what, where, why and how people search images in response to their everyday needs. In order to examine the daily needs of image searchers, a survey questionnaire was administered to 58 college students. The results demonstrated that the majority of college students use Google or Google Image

JungWon Yoon

2011-01-01

255

Baclofen reduces fat intake under binge-type conditions.  

PubMed

The GABA-B agonist baclofen reduces drug self-administration in rats and has shown promise clinically in the treatment of substance abuse. Baclofen generally does not reduce food intake in non-binge feeding protocols. In this study, baclofen was tested in a fat-binge protocol. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups (B: binge; FM: fat-matched; C: chow). B received a bowl of vegetable shortening for 2 h on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday (MWF) and continuous access to powdered chow (regular chow) in all phases. FM had continuous access to a regular chow+shortening mixture (FM chow) that provided the same proportion of shortening and regular chow that the B rats consumed in all phases. In addition, FM had the following: phase 1: no separate bowl of shortening; phase 2: 2-h MWF access to a separate bowl of shortening; phase 3, daily 2-h access to a separate bowl of shortening; C rats had continuous access to the regular chow in all phases. In addition, C had the following: phase 1: no separate bowl of shortening; phase 2: 2-h MWF access to a separate bowl of shortening; in phase 3, daily 2-h access to a separate bowl of shortening. Baclofen (1.0, 1.8 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced shortening intake regardless of access condition. Baclofen had no effect on, or stimulated, FM and regular chow intake. These results demonstrate that baclofen can reduce fat intake in rats under binge-type conditions. Furthermore, these results indicate that bingeing, as modeled in our protocol, is different from other forms of food intake and may share similarities with substance abuse. PMID:16140347

Buda-Levin, Ariel; Wojnicki, Francis H E; Corwin, Rebecca L

2005-09-15

256

Intake system for diesel cycle engines  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an intake system for diesel cycle engines comprising intake passage means leading through intake port means to combustion chamber means and timing valve means provided in the intake passage means in the vicinity of the combustion chamber means. It also comprises control means for normally closing the timing valve means in a predetermined period of an intake stroke wherein the intake port means is opened to the combustion chamber means and for opening the timing valve means in the remaining period of the intake stroke, and gas drawing means opening to the intake passage means upstream of the timing valve means.

Sahara, M.; Nishida, T.; Sado, O.; Kashimoto, M.

1986-11-25

257

The effects of source of supplemental protein on intake and digestibility in calves grazing bermudagrass pasture  

E-print Network

animal's back, cobalt, samarium, ytterbium and lanthanum were infused to serve as flow markers. Forage was marked with lutetium and dosed two times daily. The infused and dosed markers were used to estimate fecal output. Indigestible neutral detergent... fiber (INDF) was used as an internal marker to allow the estimation of digestibility. Intake was calculated from the estimated fecal output and digestibility. Treatment means for mean daily fecal output, in g OM 100/kg BW were 1118, 1069, 1044...

Martin, Steven David

1989-01-01

258

Influence of water and food consumption on inadvertent antibiotics intake among general population.  

PubMed

Antibiotic entry into the water environment has been of growing concern. However, few investigations have been performed to examine the potential for indirect human exposure to environmental antibiotic residues. We evaluated the contribution of drinking water and major food consumption to inadvertent intake of antibiotic residues among general human population in Korea. We estimated daily human intake of six antibiotics, i.e., sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfathiazole (STZ), trimethoprim (TMP), enrofloxacin (EFX), and roxithromycin (RTM), by measuring the concentrations of the antibiotics and their major metabolites in urine from general population in Korea (n=541). In addition, we measured antibiotics from source water of drinking water as well as in tap water samples, and surveyed water consumption rates among the study population. To assess the contribution of dietary factor, we also surveyed consumption pattern for several major foods which are suspected of antibiotics residue. SMZ, Sulfamethazine-N4-acetyl (SMZ-N4), TMP, EFX, ciprofloxacin (CFX), and RTM were detected up to 448, 6210, 11,900, 6970, 32,400, and 151pg/ml in the urine samples, respectively. Estimates of daily intake of major antibiotics did not appear to be related with consumption of drinking water although antibiotics were frequently detected in source waters (10-67ng/l). Consumption of several foods correlated significantly with urinary excretion of several antibiotics. Daily intake estimates of EFX and CFX were associated with consumption of beef, pork, and dairy products; those of SMZ and TMP associated with pork and dairy products; and that of TMP related with raw fish. Daily antibiotics intake estimates however did not exceed the acceptable daily intake levels. PMID:20624619

Ji, Kyunghee; Kho, Younglim; Park, Changu; Paek, Dohyeon; Ryu, Pandong; Paek, Domyung; Kim, Minyoung; Kim, Pangyi; Choi, Kyungho

2010-10-01

259

NY Times Daily Lesson Plan: Sizing Up Servings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the growing concern over unhealthy eating habits in the US, this lesson plan from the New York Times Learning Network offers a timely and interesting look at the concept of serving size. The lesson helps students understand "the definition of a suggested serving size and re-define their daily food intake in terms of these recommended amounts." A recent New York Times article on the topic plus an extensive set of classroom activities form the basis of the lesson, which requires about one hour to complete. The site also offers homework ideas, links to Web resources, useful vocabulary words, extension activities, and more.

260

Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

2014-01-01

261

Low sodium and high potassium intake for cardiovascular prevention: evidence revisited with emphasis on challenges in sub-Saharan Africa.  

PubMed

Reduction in dietary salt intake and increase in potassium intake can make a major contribution to the prevention and control of hypertension and consequential cardiovascular disease, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where prevalence rates are highest. African populations are going through a westernization of their traditional eating patterns, with a shift towards a US/Western-style diet, which contains an excessive amount of salt. Currently, the mean sodium intake in SSA populations is far above the recommended daily allowance. Besides, potassium intake is low, and, particularly, the supply of fruits and vegetables that are important sources of potassium is insufficient to meet current and growing population needs in SSA countries. Context-relevant strategies are needed for population-wide sodium intake reduction and increase in potassium intake. PMID:25382734

Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Bigna, Jean Joel R; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N

2015-01-01

262

Daily Egyptian Diversity News Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed as part of the online collections at Southern Illinois University-Carbondale's Morris Library, the Daily Egyptian Diversity News Index provides historical insight into the campus climate at this unique school. In 2006, Dr. Seymour Bryson, the associate chancellor for diversity, teamed up with several other colleagues to identify articles in the Daily Egyptian (the University's student newspaper) related to the university's historic minority campus populations. The project entailed surveying microfilm and creating searchable transcripts for online access. Currently, the online archive contains over 1,400 items from the Daily Egyptian, and content includes pieces on African American members of the homecoming court, student activists, musical groups, and student government.

263

Salt Intake Is Associated with Inflammation in Chronic Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) is highly prevalent and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. It has been well established that excessive intake of sodium chloride (salt) induced hypertension in some populations. Although salt seems to induce cardiovascular diseases through elevation of blood pressure, it has also been indicated that salt can induce cardiovascular diseases independently from blood pressure elevation. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the association between salt consumption and inflammation in CHF patients. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 86 patients between 18 and 65 years old who were diagnosed with New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class I and II heart failure. Salt intake was calculated by using 24 hour urine sodium excretion. Besides, the association between inflammation and daily salt intake was evaluated regarding C - reactive protein (CPR), High sensitive CRP (HsCPR), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), and ferritin and fibrinogen levels using Pearson correlation analysis. Results: Our results showed a statistically significant difference between the low (n = 41) and high (n = 45) salt intake groups in terms of serum HsCRP levels (5.21 ± 2.62 vs. 6.36 ± 2.64) (P < 0.048). Additionally, a significant correlation was observed between the amount of salt consumption and HsCRP levels. In this study, daily salt consumption of the enrolled patients was 8.53 gram/day. The medications and even the blood pressures were similar in the two groups, but daily pill count, prevalence of hypertension, and coronary heart disease were higher in the high salt intake group; however, the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.065). Also, no significant difference was observed between the groups concerning the inflammation markers, such as CRP, ESR, ferritin, and fibrinogen. Conclusions: Neurohumoral and inflammatory factors are thought to contribute to high mortality and morbidity rates in CHF. Yet, inflammatory markers may early diagnose CHF and predict the prognosis. Excessive salt intake also worsens the inflammation as well as volume control. PMID:25177670

Azak, Alper; Huddam, Bulent; Gonen, Namik; Yilmaz, Seref Rahmi; Kocak, Gulay; Duranay, Murat

2014-01-01

264

11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE COFFER DAM, OCTOBER 10, 1900. ONE OF THE HUBBELL COMPANY DREDGES IS AT WORK IN THE CENTER OF THE ILLUSTRATION, THE TIMBER FLOATING AROUND WAS PROBABLY FOR USE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF SIDE WALL RETAINING CRIBS. ONE OF THESE IS BEING CONSTRUCTED JUST TO THE LEFT AND TOWARDS THE VIEWER FROM THE DREDGES. (87) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

265

Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, US Population, 2007-10  

Cancer.gov

We have applied the NCI Method for estimating distributions of usual intake to data from two recent cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative sample, to estimate means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake (Tables A1-44) and the percentage of persons meeting recommendations (Tables B1-17) for a range of sex-age groups in the US population.

266

Early sodium and fluid intake and severe intraventricular hemorrhage in extremely low birth weight infants.  

PubMed

Hypernatremic dehydration is an important cause of intracranial hemorrhage. A possible association of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) with hypernatremia and/or high sodium intake has been suggested in preterm infants. To investigate the associations of early fluid and sodium intake or serum sodium concentrations with severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, we reviewed the medical records of 169 inborn ELBW infants. Daily fluid and sodium intake, urine output, weight loss and serum sodium concentration during the first 4 days of life were obtained. Patients were divided into the severe IVH (grade 3/4) and the control (no or grade 1/2 IVH) group. The maximum serum sodium concentration and the incidence of hypernatremia did not differ between the two groups. Related to the fluid balance and sodium intake, the risk for severe IVH was strongly associated with total fluid and sodium intake during the initial four days of life. With respect to the fluids other than transfusion, severe IVH can be discriminated only by sodium intake but not by fluid intake. Large randomized controlled trials are required to clarify the causal relationship between the early sodium intake and severe IVH in ELBW infants. PMID:25729251

Lee, Hye Jin; Lee, Byong Sop; Do, Hyun-Jeong; Oh, Seong-Hee; Choi, Yong-Sung; Chung, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan; Kim, Ki-Soo

2015-03-01

267

BACLOFEN-INDUCED REDUCTIONS IN OPTIONAL FOOD INTAKE DEPEND UPON FOOD COMPOSITION  

PubMed Central

Baclofen reduces intake of some foods but stimulates intake or has no effect on others. The reasons for these differences are not known. The present study examined effects of baclofen when composition, energy density, preference, presentation and intake of optional foods varied. Semi-solid fat emulsions and sucrose products were presented for brief periods to non-food-deprived rats. In Experiment 1, fat and sucrose composition were varied while controlling energy density. In Experiment 2A, schedule of access and the number of optional foods were varied. In Experiment 2B, the biopolymer (thickener) was examined. Baclofen reduced intake of fat and/or sugar options with different energy densities (1.28-9 kcal/g), when presented daily or intermittently, and when intakes were relatively high or low. However, the efficacy of baclofen was affected by the biopolymer used to thicken the options: baclofen had no effect when options were thickened with one biopolymer (3173), but reduced intake when options were thickened with another biopolymer (515). Baclofen failed to reduce intake of a concentrated sugar option (64% sucrose), regardless of biopolymer. Based upon these results, caution is urged when interpreting results obtained with products using different thickening agents. Systematic research is needed when designing products used in rat models of food intake. PMID:23321345

Wojnicki, F.H.E.; Charny, G.; Corwin, R.L.W

2013-01-01

268

Estimation of boron intake and its relation with bone mineral density in free-living Korean female subjects.  

PubMed

In this study, the status of boron intake was evaluated and its relation with bone mineral density was examined among free-living female subjects in Korea. Boron intake was estimated through the use of the database of boron content in frequently consumed foods by Korean people as well as measuring bone mineral density, taking anthropometric measurements, and surveying dietary intake of 134 adult females in order to relatively evaluate the intake of boron as a nutrient to supplement the low level of calcium intake and to verify its relationship with bone mineral density. Average age, height, and weight of the subjects were respectively 40.84 years, 157.62 cm and 59.70 kg. Also, average bone mineral density of lumbar spine L1-L4 and average bone mineral density of the femoral neck were 0.92 g/cm(2) and 0.80 g/cm(2), respectively. Their average intakes of energy and boron per day were 6,538.53 kJ and 926.94 microg. Intake of boron through vegetables, fruits, and cereals accounted for 61.72% of the overall boron intake. The food item that contributed most to their daily boron intake was rice. Also, 65.41% of overall boron intake was from 30 varieties of other food items, such as soybean paste, soybeans, red beans, watermelons, oriental melons, pears, Chinese cabbage Kimchi, soybean sprouts and soybean milk, etc. Boron intake did not show significant relation to bone mineral density in lumbar vertebra and femoral region. In summary, the average daily intake of boron was 926.94 microg and did not display significant relation to bone mineral density in 134 free-living female subjects. The continuous evaluation of boron consumption by more diverse targets will need to be conducted in the future. PMID:18575817

Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung; Lee, Yoon-Shin; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

2008-12-01

269

Dietary intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids among pregnant Mexican women.  

PubMed

Nutritional demands for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are high during pregnancy. Diets low in DHA and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty-acids (LC-PUFA) in pregnancy are associated with poorer DHA status and slower reestablishment of maternal stores. To assess intakes of LC-PUFA among urban pregnant women in Central Mexico, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in Prenatal Clinic at the General Hospital No. 1 of the Mexican Society Security Institute, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. We ascertained intakes over past three months of 110 food items using a food frequency questionnaire developed for this population. Among 1364 pregnant women 18-35 years of age (mean age 26.2 ± 4.7 years) who were interviewed at 18-22 weeks gestation, median (inter-quartile range) daily intakes of linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid (LA), arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA were 17.6 (13.6; 22.2) g, 1.4 (1.0; 2.0) g, 137 (102; 174) mg, 18 (10; 38) mg, and 55 (37; 99) mg respectively. The median ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFA was 11.8:1. The main dietary contributions to DHA intake were eggs, chicken, and fresh canned fish. Intakes of PUFAs were higher among women who had completed high school (p<0.01). We conclude that intakes of DHA were much lower than recommended values; the high n-6 to n-3 ratio suggests a suboptimal balance of these PUFAs. Very few sources of DHA are commonly eaten. PMID:21410881

Parra-Cabrera, Socorro; Stein, Aryeh D; Wang, Meng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Rivera, Juan; Ramakrishnan, Usha

2011-04-01

270

First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study)  

PubMed Central

Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ? 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition. PMID:24959951

van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M. M.; van den Bergh, Joop P. W.; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H.

2014-01-01

271

The effectiveness of a short food frequency questionnaire in determining vitamin D intake in children  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children, yet few validated dietary vitamin D assessment tools are available for use in children. Our objective was to determine whether a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) can effectively assess vitamin D intake in children. Vitamin D intake ascertained by a SFFQ was compared with assessments by a previously validated long food frequency questionnaire (LFFQ) in a population of 296 healthy 6- to 14-y-old children (54% male, 60% African American) from Pittsburgh, PA. The questionnaires were completed at two points 6 mo apart. Median reported daily vitamin D intake from the SFFQ (baseline: 380 IU, follow-up: 363 IU) was higher than the LFFQ (255 IU and 254 IU, respectively). Reported median dairy intake, including milk, cheese, and yogurt, was 3.7 cups/day, which meets the USDA recommendation for children. Vitamin D intake reported by the 2 questionnaires was modestly correlated at baseline and follow-up (r = 0.35 and r = 0.37, respectively; p < 0.001). These associations were stronger in Caucasians (r = 0.48 and r = 0.49, p < 0.001) than in African Americans (r = 0.27 and r = 0.31; p = 0.001). The sensitivity of the SFFQ for predicting daily vitamin D intake, defined as intake of ? 400 IU on both the SFFQ and LFFQ, was 65%. Specificity, defined as intake of < 400 IU on both questionnaires, was 42%. Vitamin D requirements may not be met despite adequate consumption of dairy products. The SFFQ was found to be a modestly valid and sensitive tool for dietary assessment of vitamin D intake in children. PMID:24494056

Nucci, Anita M.; Russell, Caitlin Sundby; Luo, Ruiyan; Ganji, Vijay; Olabopo, Flora; Hopkins, Barbara; Holick, Michael F.; Rajakumar, Kumaravel

2013-01-01

272

Intakes of Vegetables and Fruits are Negatively Correlated with Risk of Stroke in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Stroke is a leading cause of death. Current therapeutic strategies have been unsuccessful. Several studies have reported benefits on reducing stroke risk and improving the poststroke associated functional declines in patients who ate foods rich in fruits and vegetables. Their potential protective effects may be due to their antioxidants, calcium, potassium, riboflavine, peridoxin, riboflavin contents. Folic acid, peridoxin, and riboflavin are all cofactors in hyperhomocysteinemia as a stroke risk factor.Studies suggest that oxidative stress plays important roles in pathogenesis of ischemic cerebral injury and higher intake of antioxidants has been associated with a lower stroke risk. The aim of this study was to examine if the dietary intake of vegetables and fruits in patients with stroke were comparatively worse than those in patients without stroke. Methods: In this case control study, 93 stroke patients admitted to Alzahra hospital were matched for age and sex with 60 patients who were not affected with acute cerebrovascular diseases and did not have a history of stroke. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire.Food intakes were compared between two groups and with recommended value. Results: Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits was more in male with stroke than male without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was higher in male with stroke.Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits were lower in women with stroke than women without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was lower in women with stroke Conclusions: Our findings suggest that increased vegetable and fruits intake may be associated with decreased risk of stroke PMID:23776742

Hariri, Mitra; Darvishi, Leila; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Khorvash, Fariborz; Aghaei, Mahmud; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

2013-01-01

273

Hoover Dam Intake Towers Panorama  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

274

Usual Dietary Intakes: Further Information  

Cancer.gov

Freedman LS, Midthune D, Carroll RJ, Krebs-Smith S, Subar AF, Troiano RP, Dodd K, Schatzkin A, Bingham SA, Ferrari P, Kipnis V. Adjustments to improve the estimation of usual dietary intake distributions in the population.

275

Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

1980-01-01

276

Usual Intake of Cured meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Cured meat Table A25. Cured meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.04) 0.2 (0.04) 0.3

277

Determination of Alkane Content in Fresh Fecal Samples to Estimate Intake on Pasture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

External markers of wax alkanes C32 and C36 are effective tools for determining intake of grazing animals. The technique requires daily dosing of markers which is impractical under extensive grazing conditions, so controlled release capsules (CRC) have been used. However, consistency of payout from ...

278

Relationships between Performance, Intake, Diet Nutritive Quality and Fecal Nutritive Quality of Cattle on Mountain Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlations were developed between average daily gain (ADC), forage organic matter intake (INT), fiitula sample ln vitro organic matter digestibility (DID), futula sample nitrogen (DN), fecal sample in vitro digestibility (FID), and fecal sample nitrogen (FN) of cattle on forest and grassland range in northeastern Oregon. FN and FID were more closely associated with ADG and INT than DN or

J. L. HOLECHEK; M. VAVRA; D. ARTHIJN

279

Milk Yield, Feed Intake, Prolactin, Growth Hormone, and Glucocorticoid Response of Cows to Supplemented Light1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk production and dry matter intake of 21 cows subjected to 16 h of fluo- rescent light and 8 h dark and of 21 cows subjected to natural light 9 to 12 h daily between October 25 and March 14 were measured beginning in early (37 to 74 days postpartum) and late (94 to 204 days postpartum) lactation. Cows that

R. R. Peters; L. T. Chapin; R. S. Emery; H. A. Tucker

1981-01-01

280

Effect of prebiotic supplementation and calcium intake on body mass index  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to assess the effects of a prebiotic supplement and usual calcium intake on body composition changes during pubertal growth. We measured anthropometry and body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptionmetry in 97 young adolescents who were randomized to receive either a daily prebiotic...

281

Relationship between dietary mineral intake and blood pressure (BP) in the elderly in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between daily dietary mineral (Na, K, Ca and Mg) intake and BP in the elderly. This study was conducted on 390 elderly volunteers (?65 years). Subjects were randomly selected from the general population of Ankara, Turkey. Anthropometric measurements, lipid profiles, and mean systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) of

Makbule Gezmen-Karadag; Saniye Bilici; Nilüfer Acar-Tek; Hilal Yildiran; Gamze Akbulut; Eda Koksal; Nevin Sanlier

282

Caloric Intake and Eating Behavior in Infants and Toddlers With Cystic Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Infants and toddlers with cys- tic fibrosis (CF) are at risk for poor growth. Controlled behavioral assessment studies have not focused on this population. This study compared calorie intake, percent- age of Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) per day and per kilogram, and percentage of calories from fat, protein, and carbohydrates between infants and toddlers with CF and healthy peers.

Scott W. Powers; Susana R. Patton; Kelly C. Byars; Monica J. Mitchell; Elissa Jelalian; Mary M. Mulvihill; Melbourne F. Hovell; Lori J. Stark

2009-01-01

283

WHOLE GRAIN INTAKE IN THE USA: ASSESSMENT USING DIETARY GUIDANCE-BASED SERVINGS VERSUS GRAM AMOUNTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the USA, whole grain intake is typically assessed in servings rather than gram amounts. This permits comparison to national dietary guidance to eat at least 3 servings of whole grains daily. Servings are defined in household units consumers understand (e.g., slices of bread; cups of cereal, ric...

284

Contribution of ‘noncore’ foods and beverages to the energy intake and weight status of Australian children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating is based on five core food groups and water. Foods or beverages that do not fit into these groups are considered extra or ‘noncore’. We tested the hypotheses that noncore foods and beverages make a greater proportional contribution to mean daily energy intakes of: (1) children, compared with other age groups; and (2) overweight

A C Bell; P J Kremer; A M Magarey; B A Swinburn; C Bell

2005-01-01

285

Effect of Green Tea Catechins Intake on Brain Pattern of Certain Neurotransmitters in Stz Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: Present work aimed to illustrate the changes in neurotransmitters secretion mainly noradrenaline, serotonin and dopamine as re levant to ox idative stress that induced i n STZ r ats. This was followed by intake of green tea extract (Catechin) in a dose level 50mg\\/kg body weight daily for 10 weeks. Collected data showed a significant decrease in blood

Mohamed M. Elseweidy; Atef E. Abd El-Bak; Ahmed Abdullah

2009-01-01

286

Low Water Intake and Risk for New-Onset Hyperglycemia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Water intake alters vasopressin secretion. Recent findings reveal an independent association between plasma copeptin, a surrogate for vasopressin, and risk of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were 3,615 middle-aged men and women, with normal baseline fasting glycemia (FG), who were recruited in a 9-year follow-up study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for the incidence of hyperglycemia (FG ?6.1 mmol/L or treatment for diabetes) were calculated according to daily water intake classes based on a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS During follow-up, there were 565 incident cases of hyperglycemia. After adjustment for confounding factors, ORs (95% CIs) for hyperglycemia associated with classes of water intake (<0.5 L, n = 677; 0.5 to <1.0 L, n = 1,754; and >1.0 L, n = 1,184) were 1.00, 0.68 (0.52–0.89), and 0.79 (0.59–1.05), respectively (P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS Self-reported water intake was inversely and independently associated with the risk of developing hyperglycemia. PMID:21994426

Roussel, Ronan; Fezeu, Léopold; Bouby, Nadine; Balkau, Beverley; Lantieri, Olivier; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Marre, Michel; Bankir, Lise

2011-01-01

287

Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake  

PubMed Central

Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors. PMID:18514747

Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

2008-01-01

288

Dietary intakes and leptin concentrations  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Leptin, a peptide contained 146 amino-acids, is mostly secreted from adipose tissue and it has a critical role on regulation of body weight, body fat mass, appetite, and food intakes. We tried to review the previous evidence regarding the effects of dietary intakes, including consumption of carbohydrates, fats and protein on concentrations of leptin concentration. METHODS We searched in PubMed search engine to January 2013 by using the following key words: dietary intake, diet, dietary fat, high-fat diet, dietary carbohydrate, high carbohydrate diet, dietary protein, high protein diet in combination with leptin, adipokine. Then, we recruited 35 articles to review in the present study. RESULTS It seems that beside the amount of fats, type of fatty acids have the key roles on circulating leptin concentration. Energy intake also significantly associated with the hormone. Studies regarding the association between carbohydrate intake and concentration of lepton have been reached to contradictory results. It seems that protein intake can increase the lepton activity. CONCLUSION Findings from several studies suggest that a diet display an important role on change the concentration of lepton. PMID:25477984

Izadi, Vajiheh; Saraf-Bank, Sahar; Azadbakht, Leila

2014-01-01

289

Geismar TDI Plant Steam Optimization  

E-print Network

-05-19 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 BASF North America BASF Corporation (U.S.), BASF Canada, BASF Mexicana 6 ESL-IE-13-05-19 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology...

Baily, M.

2013-01-01

290

Daily Feeding of Fructooligosaccharide or Glucomannan Delays Onset of Senescence in SAMP8 Mice.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that daily intake of nondigestible saccharides delays senescence onset through the improvement of intestinal microflora. Here, we raised senescence accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) on the AIN93 diet (CONT), with sucrose being substituted for 5% of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) or 5% of glucomannan (GM), 15 mice per group. Ten SAMR1 were raised as reference of normal aging with control diet. Grading of senescence was conducted using the method developed by Hosokawa, and body weight, dietary intake, and drinking water intake were measured on alternate days. Following 38 weeks of these diets we evaluated learning and memory abilities using a passive avoidance apparatus and investigated effects on the intestinal microflora, measured oxidative stress markers, and inflammatory cytokines. Continuous intake of FOS and GM significantly enhanced learning and memory ability and decelerated senescence development when compared with the CONT group. Bifidobacterium levels were significantly increased in FOS and GM-fed mice. Urinary 8OHdG, 15-isoprostane, serum TNF- ? , and IL-6 were also lower in FOS-fed mice, while IL-10 in FOS and GM groups was higher than in CONT group. These findings suggest that daily intake of nondigestible saccharides delays the onset of senescence via improvement of intestinal microflora. PMID:24987410

Nakamura, Sadako; Kondo, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshitake; Hashiguchi, Michiru; Tanabe, Kenichi; Ushiroda, Chihiro; Kawahashi-Tokuhisa, Miho; Yui, Katsuyuki; Miyakoda, Mana; Oku, Tsuneyuki

2014-01-01

291

Daily Feeding of Fructooligosaccharide or Glucomannan Delays Onset of Senescence in SAMP8 Mice  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that daily intake of nondigestible saccharides delays senescence onset through the improvement of intestinal microflora. Here, we raised senescence accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) on the AIN93 diet (CONT), with sucrose being substituted for 5% of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) or 5% of glucomannan (GM), 15 mice per group. Ten SAMR1 were raised as reference of normal aging with control diet. Grading of senescence was conducted using the method developed by Hosokawa, and body weight, dietary intake, and drinking water intake were measured on alternate days. Following 38 weeks of these diets we evaluated learning and memory abilities using a passive avoidance apparatus and investigated effects on the intestinal microflora, measured oxidative stress markers, and inflammatory cytokines. Continuous intake of FOS and GM significantly enhanced learning and memory ability and decelerated senescence development when compared with the CONT group. Bifidobacterium levels were significantly increased in FOS and GM-fed mice. Urinary 8OHdG, 15-isoprostane, serum TNF-?, and IL-6 were also lower in FOS-fed mice, while IL-10 in FOS and GM groups was higher than in CONT group. These findings suggest that daily intake of nondigestible saccharides delays the onset of senescence via improvement of intestinal microflora. PMID:24987410

Kondo, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshitake; Tanabe, Kenichi; Kawahashi-Tokuhisa, Miho; Yui, Katsuyuki; Miyakoda, Mana; Oku, Tsuneyuki

2014-01-01

292

Does nutritional supplementation influence the voluntary dietary intake in an acute geriatric hospitalized population?  

PubMed

Undernutrition is a significant problem in hospitalized elderly patients, and is associated with a higher morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of an oral nutritional supplementation on the total daily caloric intake in an acute geriatric hospitalized population. A dietary assessment and a total food intake were collected on admission and every other day (day 0, 2, 4, 6 ...) during hospitalization (mean duration, 12.8 days+/-6) in 50 randomly chosen elderly patients (mean age 82.5+/-5.5 years, 18 men and 32 women). The mean daily caloric intake was calculated from 108 dietary assessments after receiving oral supplementation (Nutridrink-Nutricia, 300 kcal/200 mL), and 154 when a voluntary diet without supplementation was consumed. The mean voluntary energy intake (including parenteral fluid) was similar on days a nutritional supplementation was given or not (1546 kcal/d vs 1475 kcal/d, respectively, p=0.27), but the total caloric intake was significantly higher on days a nutritional supplementation was consumed (1825 kcal/d vs 1475 kcal/d, p=0.0006). This beneficial effect of a nutritional supplementation on the total caloric intake existed when patients were divided into well nourished (N=15) and those at risk or malnourished (N=35), according to the Mini-Nutritional Assessment. In conclusion, short-term nutritional supplementation has a beneficial effect on the total daily caloric intake in elderly hospitalized patients with and without malnutrition, but the wastage remains high. PMID:11820713

Joosten, E; Vander Elst, B

2001-10-01

293

Emphasized warning reduces salt intake: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Excessive salt intake is a major cardiovascular risk factor. At variance to the developed countries, the main source of sodium in transitional and developing countries is salt added while cooking and/or at the table. The objective of this trial was to examine the impact of warning labels placed on home salt containers on daily salt intake.A sample of treated hypertensives (n = 150) was randomized in two subgroups, one receiving just a leaflet about the harmful effects of excessive salt intake (control; n = 74), and the other one receiving in addition warning stickers for household salt containers (intervention; n = 76). Arterial blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (Na24) were measured in all the subjects at the start of the trial, and 1 month and 2 months later. The average starting Na24 was 207 ± 71 mmol in the control group and 211 ± 85 mmol in the intervention group (P = .745). One month and 2 months later, a significant decrease was observed in the intervention group (to 183 ± 63 mmol and 176 ± 55 mmol; P < .0001), as opposed to the control group (203 ± 60 mmol and 200 ± 58 mmol; P = .1466). Initial BP was 143.7/84.1 mm Hg in the control, and 142.9/84.7 mm Hg in the intervention group (P = .667). One month and 2 months later, a significant drop in BP, by 5.3/2.9 mm Hg, was observed in the intervention group as opposed to the control group (0.4/0.9 mm Hg). Decrease in Na24 positively correlated to BP lowering (r(2) = 0.5989; P < .0001). A significant reduction in 24Na and BP is achieved with warning labels on harmful effects of excessive salt intake. Decreasing daily salt input by 35 mmol may result in an extra BP lowering by some 5-6/2-3 mm Hg. PMID:25659228

Pinjuh Markota, Nina; Rumboldt, Mirjana; Rumboldt, Zvonko

2015-03-01

294

30 Days in the Life: Daily Nutrient Balancing in a Wild Chacma Baboon  

PubMed Central

For most animals, the ability to regulate intake of specific nutrients is vital to fitness. Recent studies have demonstrated nutrient regulation in nonhuman primates over periods of one observation day, though studies of humans indicate that such regulation extends to longer time frames. Little is known about longer-term regulation in nonhuman primates, however, due to the challenges of multiple-day focal follows. Here we present the first detailed study of nutrient intake across multiple days in a wild nonhuman primate. We conducted 30 consecutive all day follows on one female chacma baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa. We documented dietary composition, compared the nutritional contribution of natural and human-derived foods to the diet, and quantified nutrient intake using the geometric framework of nutrition. Our focus on a single subject over consecutive days allowed us to examine daily dietary regulation within an individual over time. While the amounts varied daily, our subject maintained a strikingly consistent balance of protein to non-protein (fat and carbohydrate) energy across the month. Human-derived foods, while contributing a minority of the diet, were higher in fat and lower in fiber than naturally-derived foods. Our results demonstrate nutrient regulation on a daily basis in our subject, and demonstrate that she was able to maintain a diet with a constant proportional protein content despite wide variation in the composition of component foods. From a methodological perspective, the results of this study suggest that nutrient intake is best estimated over at least an entire day, with longer-term regulatory patterns (e.g., during development and reproduction) possibly requiring even longer sampling. From a management and conservation perspective, it is notable that nearly half the subject’s daily energy intake derived from exotic foods, including those currently being eradicated from the study area for replacement by indigenous vegetation. PMID:23894645

Johnson, Caley A.; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M.; Clarke, David; Swedell, Larissa

2013-01-01

295

Food items contributing most to variation in antioxidant intake; a cross-sectional study among Norwegian women  

PubMed Central

Background Fruit and vegetable intake has been found to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer and diabetes mellitus. It is possible that antioxidants play a large part in this protective effect. However, which foods account for the variation in antioxidant intake in a population is not very clear. We used food frequency data from a population-based sample of women to identify the food items that contributed most to the variation in antioxidant intake in Norwegian diet. Methods We used data from a study conducted among participants in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP), the national program which invites women aged 50–69 years to mammographic screening every 2 years. A subset of 6514 women who attended the screening in 2006/2007 completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Daily intake of energy, nutrients and antioxidant intake were estimated. We used multiple linear regression analysis to capture the variation in antioxidant intake. Results The mean (SD) antioxidant intake was 23.0 (8.5) mmol/day. Coffee consumption explained 54% of the variation in antioxidant intake, while fruits and vegetables explained 22%. The twenty food items that contributed most to the total variation in antioxidant intake explained 98% of the variation in intake. These included different types of coffee, tea, red wine, blueberries, walnuts, oranges, cinnamon and broccoli. Conclusions In this study we identified a list of food items which capture the variation in antioxidant intake among these women. The major contributors to dietary total antioxidant intake were coffee, tea, red wine, blueberries, walnuts, oranges, cinnamon and broccoli. These items should be assessed in as much detail as possible in studies that wish to capture the variation in antioxidant intake. PMID:24433390

2014-01-01

296

Once-daily versus multiple-daily dosing of aminoglycosides.  

PubMed

The pharmacodynamic characteristics of isepamicin and other aminoglycosides, both in terms of efficacy and toxicity, explain why once-daily administration of these agents should be the optimal dosing regimen. Isepamicin, as with other aminoglycosides, exhibits concentration-dependent bactericidal activity and produces prolonged post-antibiotic effects against susceptible organisms. High concentrations of these drugs would be expected to produce more rapid and extensive bacterial killing than lower levels. Furthermore, the post-antibiotic effect would protect against bacterial regrowth when serum and tissue concentrations fall below inhibitory levels. In animal models, the magnitude of the peak serum concentration or the area under the concentration-time curve, are the important determinants of efficacy for isepamicin and the other aminoglycosides. Isepamicin also exhibits the "first-exposure effect", i.e. initial exposure of bacteria to isepamicin down-regulates subsequent uptake of the drug. During this period of down-regulation, bacteria exhibit decreased killing and shorter post-antibiotic effects. Since the first-exposure effect lasts for several hours, once-daily administration of the aminoglycosides allows for this effect to dissipate completely between doses. High peak concentrations, greater than 8-10 times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), will also decrease the emergence of resistant strains. With regard to toxicity, one of the first steps in the uptake of aminoglycosides into sites of toxicity is their binding to the brush borders of renal cells and to the cochlea and vestibular membranes. Binding to these membranes demonstrates saturable kinetics. As a result, uptake of the aminoglycosides is more efficient with low sustained concentrations than with high intermittent levels. Once-daily dosing of aminoglycosides has consistently been less toxic than more frequent dosing in animals. In clinical studies, once-daily dosing of aminoglycosides compared to two-or three-times daily administration has generally exhibited similar efficacy and toxicity. However, a few studies has shown greater efficacy or lower toxicity with once-daily dosing of aminoglycosides. Once-daily dosing of the aminoglycosides has the potential to enhance efficacy, reduce toxicity, and lower administration costs for this drug class. PMID:8622110

Craig, W A

1995-06-01

297

Current dietary salt intake of Japanese individuals assessed during health check-up.  

PubMed

Excess salt intake is a risk factor for increased blood pressure (BP) and hypertension. To prevent hypertension, the reduction of salt intake is promoted in many countries. For people with hypertension or cardiovascular disease (CVD), a more severe restriction of salt intake is indispensable. Japanese individuals consume high quantities of salt, and it is thus important to determine the degree to which the salt intake of these individuals has been restricted. Here, we investigated the current level of salt consumption of Japanese individuals using data obtained during annual health check-ups. A total of 10?762 individuals were assessed who underwent annual health check-ups at our institution in 2011. The estimated daily salt intake (EDSI) was calculated using spot urine samples. The average EDSI was 7.83±2.02?g per day. BP increased in proportion to the EDSI, and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the EDSI was a significant and independent risk factor for hypertension. The average EDSI of the subjects with hypertension or a history of CVD was higher than that of the subjects without these diseases. The subjects who drank more heavily showed higher EDSIs. This study demonstrated that the average EDSI of the subjects needing to restrict their salt intake because of past or present illnesses was high. To achieve adherence to the recommended reduction of salt intake, more efforts are required. PMID:25354779

Toda, Akiko; Ishizaka, Yuko; Tani, Mizuki; Yamakado, Minoru

2015-02-01

298

Association, effects and validation of polymorphisms within the NCAPG - LCORL locus located on BTA6 with feed intake, gain, meat and carcass traits in beef cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: In a previously reported genome-wide association study based on a high-density bovine SNP genotyping array, 8 SNP were nominally associated (Pdaily gain (ADG) and 3 of these were also associated (Pdaily feed intake (ADFI) in a population of c...

299

Timing of food intake and obesity: a novel association.  

PubMed

Recent studies link energy regulation to the circadian clock at the behavioral, physiological and molecular levels, emphasizing that the timing of food intake itself may have a significant role in obesity. In this regards, there is emerging literature in animals demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation. Unusual feeding time can produce a disruption of the circadian system which might produce unhealthy consequences in humans. In a longitudinal study, we recently showed that the timing of the main meal was predictive of weight loss during a 20-week dietary intervention and that this effect was independent from total 24-h caloric intake. The importance of caloric distribution across the day on weight loss therapy was supported by a recent 12-week experimental study showing that subjects assigned to high caloric intake during breakfast lost significantly more weight than those assigned to high caloric intake during the dinner. Furthermore, one of the most influential discoveries relevant for this area of research in the last years is the presence of an active circadian clock in different organs related to food intake. This is the case for stomach, intestine, pancreas or liver. New data also suggest that there is a temporal component in the regulation of adipose tissue functions. Thus, a specific temporal order in the daily patterns of adipose tissue genes appears to be crucial for adipose tissue to exclusively either accumulate fat or to mobilize fat at the proper time. Taking into account that feeding is the source of energy for adipose tissue, the time of feeding, particularly for high-energy content meals, may be decisive, and changes in this timing could have metabolic consequences for the development of obesity and for weight loss. PMID:24467926

Garaulet, Marta; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación

2014-07-01

300

Gut hormone release and appetite regulation in healthy non-obese participants following oligofructose intake. A dose-escalation study.  

PubMed

Prevention of weight gain in adults is a major public health target. Animal experiments have consistently demonstrated a relationship between fermentable carbohydrate intake, such as oligofructose, anorectic gut hormones, and appetite suppression and body weight control. This study was designed to determine the dose of oligofructose which would augment the release of anorectic gut hormones and reduce appetite consistently in non-obese humans. Twelve non-obese participants were recruited for a 5-week dose-escalation study. Following a 9-14-day run-in, participants increased their daily oligofructose intake every week from 15, 25, 35, 45, to 55 g daily. Subjective appetite and side effects were monitored daily. Three-day food diaries were completed every week. Appetite study sessions explored the acute effects of 0, 15, 35, and 55 g oligofructose on appetite-related hormones, glycaemia, subjective appetite, and energy intake. In the home environment, oligofructose suppressed hunger, but did not affect energy intake. Oligofructose dose-dependently increased peptide YY, decreased pancreatic polypeptide and tended to decrease ghrelin, but did not significantly affect appetite profile, energy intake, glucose, insulin, or glucagon-like peptide 1 concentrations during appetite study sessions. In conclusion, oligofructose supplementation at ? 35 g/day increased peptide YY and suppressed pancreatic polypeptide and hunger; however, energy intake did not change significantly. PMID:23474087

Pedersen, Camilla; Lefevre, Solenne; Peters, Véronique; Patterson, Michael; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Morgan, Linda M; Frost, Gary S

2013-07-01

301

Tractor Operation and Daily Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for the tractor operator, the manual describes, with the aid of colored illustrations and diagrams, the tasks involved in the proper operation and daily maintenance of tractors. It offers explanations for the desirability of the various servicing and adjustment operations, as well as guidelines for tractor operation and safety. The…

Fore, J. M.; And Others

302

TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library (USDA) offers this excellent resource on TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads), with links to dozens of relevant and current publications. From basic questions and answers to current policies regarding TMDLs, this collection of resources is well worth browsing.

303

Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, US Population, 2001-04  

Cancer.gov

The NCI Method provides the capability, for the first time, to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the US population. This greatly enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

304

Public Health Risks from Heavy Metals and Metalloids Present in Traditional Chinese Medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of 247 traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) investigated, a proportion were contaminated with arsenic (5–15%), lead (?5%), and mercury (?65%). Some preparations exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for males and females for arsenic (4 and 5 products, respectively), lead (1 and 2 products), and mercury (5 and 7 products). These exceedances were as high as 2760-fold, which posed a

Kelli Cooper; Barry Noller; Des Connell; Jimmy Yu; Ross Sadler; Henry Olszowy; Gary Golding; Ujang Tinggi; Michael R. Moore; Stephen Myers

2007-01-01

305

Organotin Levels in Seafood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolerable average residue levels (TARL) for tributylin (TBT) in seafood products were calculated based on the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of TBT and the seafood consumption of the average consumer in various countries. Data from the literature show that these TARLs in seafood are exceeded in one or more samples in nine of the 22 countries for which data were

A. C. Belfroid; M. Purperhart; F. Ariese

2000-01-01

306

Folate Intake and the Risk of Breast Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Previous observational studies regarding the existence of an association between folate intake and the risk of breast cancer have been inconsistent. This study aimed to summarize the evidence regarding this relationship using a dose-response meta-analytic approach. Methodology and Principal Findings We performed electronic searches of the PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Library databases to identify studies published through June 2013. Only prospective observational studies that reported breast cancer effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for more than 2 folate intake categories were included. We excluded traditional case-control studies because of possible bias from various confounding factors. Overall, we included 14 prospective studies that reported data on 677,858 individuals. Folate intake had little effect on the breast cancer risk (relative risk (RR) for highest versus lowest category?=?0.97; 95% CI, 0.90–1.05; P?=?0.451). Dose-response meta-analysis also suggested that a 100 µg/day increase in folate intake had no significant effect on the risk of breast cancer (RR?=?0.99; 95% CI, 0.98–1.01; P?=?0.361). Furthermore, we used restricted cubic splines to evaluate the nonlinear relationship between folate intake and the risk of breast cancer, and discovered a potential J-shaped correlation between folate intake and breast cancer risk (P?=?0.007) and revealed that a daily folate intake of 200–320 µg was associated with a lower breast cancer risk; however, the breast cancer risk increased significantly with a daily folate intake >400 µg. Conclusion/Significance Our study revealed that folate intake had little or no effect on the risk of breast cancer; moreover, a dose-response meta-analysis suggested a J-shaped association between folate intake and breast cancer. PMID:24932496

Hou, An-Ji; Zhou, Yu-Hao

2014-01-01

307

Efficacy and safety of coadministration of once-daily indacaterol and glycopyrronium versus indacaterol alone in COPD patients: the GLOW6 study  

PubMed Central

Background Addition of a second bronchodilator from a different pharmacological class may benefit patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) whose symptoms are insufficiently controlled by bronchodilator monotherapy. GLOW6 evaluated the efficacy and safety of once-daily coadministration of the long-acting ?2-agonist indacaterol (IND) and the long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrronium (GLY) versus IND alone in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Materials and methods In this randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, 12-week study, patients were randomized 1:1 to IND 150 ?g and GLY 50 ?g daily (IND + GLY) or IND 150 ?g daily and placebo (IND + PBO) (all delivered via separate Breezhaler® devices). The primary objective was to demonstrate the superiority of IND + GLY versus IND + PBO for trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at week 12. Other end points included trough FEV1 at day 1, FEV1 area under the curve from 30 minutes to 4 hours (AUC30min–4h), peak FEV1, inspiratory capacity and trough forced vital capacity (FVC) at day 1 and week 12, and transition dyspnea index (TDI) focal score, COPD symptoms, and rescue medication use over 12 weeks. Results A total of 449 patients were randomized (IND + GLY, 226; IND + PBO, 223); 94% completed the study. On day 1 and at week 12, IND + GLY significantly improved trough FEV1 versus IND + PBO, with treatment differences of 74 mL (95% CI 46–101 mL) and 64 mL (95% CI 28–99 mL), respectively (both P<0.001). IND + GLY significantly improved postdose peak FEV1, FEV1 AUC30min–4h, and trough FVC at day 1 and week 12 versus IND + PBO (all P<0.01). TDI focal score and COPD symptoms (percentage of days able to perform usual daily activities and change from baseline in mean daytime respiratory score) were significantly improved with IND + GLY versus IND + PBO (P<0.05). The incidence of adverse events was similar for the two treatment groups. Conclusion In patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, once-daily coadministration of IND and GLY provides significant and sustained improvement in bronchodilation versus IND alone from day 1, with significant improvements in patient-centered outcomes. PMID:24596459

Vincken, Walter; Aumann, Joseph; Chen, Hungta; Henley, Michelle; McBryan, Danny; Goyal, Pankaj

2014-01-01

308

Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India  

PubMed Central

Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

2014-01-01

309

Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

Amschler, Denise H.

1985-01-01

310

Engine air intake control system  

SciTech Connect

A system for controlling the amount of air taken in by an engine comprises an air duct tube bypassing a throttle valve of an intake tube for taking in air supplied to an automobile engine, a plurality of valves for regulating the amount of air passing through the air duct tube, and control device therefor. The amount of air in the bypass is controlled in accordance with the temperature and number of revolutions of the engine and the air intake pressure downstream of the throttle valve. During the idling of the engine, the air intake control system generates a signal representing the standard engine idling revolutions in accordance with the engine temperature, compares the actual engine revolutions with a reference, and regulates the amount of air flowing in the bypass by use of the results of a comparison, thus rendering the actual engine revolutions identical to the reference. During the loaded engine operation, by contrast, the amount of bypass air is so controlled that the air intake pressure downstream of the throttle valve is maintained at predetermined constant value.

Fujisawa, H.; Kinugawa, M.; Omori, N.; Sueishi, M.

1980-12-09

311

Mental Health Clinic Intake Assessment  

E-print Network

Mental Health Clinic Intake Assessment Welcome to the Mental Health Clinic at Boynton Health or ADHD evaluation for review prior to scheduling your first medication appointment in the Mental Health). Contact the Medical Social Worker for resources­ 612-624-8182. · Long Term Therapy: The Mental Health

Weiblen, George D

312

water intake Water sampling site  

E-print Network

x Drinking water intake WWTP discharge WWTP Water sampling site Reference MICROPOLLUTANT PLUME at WWTP discharge · Conductivity may be used to predict concentrations of waste water derived MPs downstream, a drinking water plant pumps lake water (ca. 100'000 m3 /day) for potable water (sand filter

313

Nutrition practices and children's dietary intakes at 40 child-care centers in New York City.  

PubMed

Early childhood is a critical time to establish nutrition habits to prevent obesity. At least half of US children spend time in care outside of the home, where little is known about their dietary intakes and nutrition environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate nutrition practices of group child-care centers in New York City and to assess whether dietary intakes of children at these centers meet nutrition recommendations. In 2005 and 2006, student research assistants administered surveys to directors of 40 child-care centers in three underserved communities (Central Brooklyn, East/Central Harlem, South Bronx) and in Manhattan, gathered menus, and observed beverages and foods consumed by 240 3- and 4-year-old children. Almost all centers provided beverages and foods recommended by national guidelines, including reduced-fat milk, 100% fruit juice, and whole grains. Some centers also provided higher-fat milk and sugar-sweetened beverages, but no centers provided soda. Drinking water was available in classrooms at only half of the centers. From observations at meal and snack times between 8 AM to 2 PM, <50% of children ate at least half of the daily recommended intake for each of five main food groups, with only 17% of children eating at least half of the daily recommended intake for vegetables and only 5% of children eating at least half of the daily recommended intake for vitamin E. Although many centers provided healthful beverages and foods to children, further efforts are needed to make water available as a beverage throughout the day and to improve dietary intakes, especially of vegetables and vitamin E-containing foods. PMID:21872704

Erinosho, Temitope; Dixon, L Beth; Young, Candace; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Hayman, Laura L

2011-09-01

314

Induction of low-nutritious food intake by subsequent nutrient supplementation in sheep (Ovis aries).  

PubMed

Acceptance of and preference for a particular food depends not only on its intrinsic (e.g. nutritional) properties but also on expected or recent food experiences. An instance of this type of phenomenon has been called induction effect, which consists of an increased intake of a type of food when it precedes a hedonically preferred food in a sequence familiar to the animal, relative to controls that have access only to the less-preferred food. The purpose of our study was to assess intake induction of a low-nutritious food when followed by different high-nutritious supplements in sheep (Ovis aries). In this experiment, we ran a supplemented phase where animals fed oat hay (a low-nutritious food) in the first part of the daily feeding sessions followed by a supplement with either a high (soya bean meal; group GS) or a low (ground corn; group GC) protein-energy ratio in the second part ate more oat hay than controls that were fed oat hay in both parts of sessions (group GH). In addition, supplemented animals presented a stronger preference for oat hay over alfalfa hay than controls in a subsequent choice. When all animals received no food in the second part of the sessions (Non-supplemented phase), intake of oat hay converged to the control's intake level in all the groups, suggesting that the presence of supplements after access to oat hay was responsible for intake induction. Lastly, we repeated the supplemented phase with a different control group where animals received oat hay in the first part of the sessions and no food in the second part (group NF), thus equalizing groups in terms of the time of access to oat hay in a session. Groups GS and GC still developed higher intake of oat hay than group NF. In both supplemented phases of the experiment, we estimated animals' daily metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) intake. CP intake was higher in group GS than in groups GC, GH and NF, but there was no difference between group GC and the controls. In turn, groups did not differ in ME intake in the First supplemented phase, and only group GS presented higher ME intake than the rest of the groups in the Second supplemented phase. Therefore, a nutritional account of the present induction effect seems insufficient. We propose that a learned association between oat hay and the post-ingestive feedback from the subsequent high-nutritious supplements underlay sheep's intake induction and increased preference for oat hay. PMID:23217234

Freidin, E; Catanese, F; Cuello, M I; Distel, R A

2012-08-01

315

Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Modelling as a Tool to Support Risk Assessment: Three Case Studies  

PubMed Central

In this contribution we present three case studies of physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) modelling in regulatory risk assessment. (1) Age-dependent lower enzyme expression in the newborn leads to bisphenol A (BPA) blood levels which are near the levels of the tolerated daily intake (TDI) at the oral exposure as calculated by EFSA. (2) Dermal exposure of BPA by receipts, car park tickets, and so forth, contribute to the exposure towards BPA. However, at the present levels of dermal exposure there is no risk for the adult. (3) Dermal exposure towards coumarin via cosmetic products leads to external exposures of two-fold the TDI. PBTK modeling helped to identify liver peak concentration as the metric for liver toxicity. After dermal exposure of twice the TDI, the liver peak concentration was lower than that present after oral exposure with the TDI dose. In the presented cases, PBTK modeling was useful to reach scientifically sound regulatory decisions. PMID:22649449

Mielke, Hans; Gundert-Remy, Ursula

2012-01-01

316

Dietary fibers reduce food intake by satiation without conditioned taste aversion in mice.  

PubMed

It is well known that intake of dietary fiber (DF) potently decreases food intake and feelings of hunger and/or promotes satiety ratings. However, the mechanisms explaining these effects are not well characterized. This work was performed to determine which of satiation and/or satiety mechanisms provoke the decrease of food intake induced by DF in mice. We tested in an intra-group protocol a low-viscosity (LV, fructo-oligosaccharide), a viscous (VP, guar gum) and a high-viscosity (HV, mixture of guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharide) preload. These were given to mice by intra-gastric gavage. It appeared that viscous preloads such as VP and HV reduced the daily energy intake by 14% and 21% respectively. The strong effect of HV was mainly due to a large decrease of meal size (by 57%) and meal duration (by 65%) with no effect on ingestion rate during the first 30 min after administration. Therefore, the DF-induced decrease of energy intake was due to a satiation mechanism. This is further supported by a 3-fold increased sensitization of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract as observed by c-Fos protein immunolabelling. No compensation of food intake was observed during the rest of the day, a phenomenon that may be explained by the fact that metabolic rate remained high despite the lower food intake. We have also shown that the DF-induced inhibition of food intake was not paired with a conditioned taste aversion. To conclude, this work demonstrates that DF inhibits food intake by increasing satiation during ~1h after administration. PMID:23268328

Rasoamanana, Rojo; Even, Patrick C; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

2013-02-17

317

Calcium and vitamin D supplementation: state of the art for daily practice  

PubMed Central

Background Calcium and vitamin D play an essential role in bone metabolism but deficiency and/or inadequate intake are common. Objectives To describe a practical approach based on the literature regarding clinically important aspects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Methods A systematic evaluation of relevant literature in Medline was conducted. We included physiological studies, publications on relevant guidelines, meta-analysis, randomized clinical trials, and cohort studies. Results An adequate calcium intake and vitamin D supplementation is recommended in most guidelines xon fracture prevention. Daily supplementation with 800 IU is advocated in most guidelines, appears to be safe, and with this approach it is generally not necessary to determine vitamin D levels. There are no data on additional effects of loading doses of vitamin D on fracture or fall prevention. Calcium supplementation should be tailored to the patient’s need: usually 500 mg per day is required. The intestinal absorption of calcium citrate is approximately 24% better than that of calcium carbonate independent of intake with meals. Data on difference between calcium absorption with calcium carbonate compared to calcium citrate with simultaneous use of proton pump inhibitors are lacking. Concern has arisen about a possible link between calcium supplementation and an increased risk of myocardial infarction. Probably only well-designed prospective randomized controlled trials will be able to allow definite conclusions on this subject. Conclusion Daily supplementation with 800 IU vitamin D is a practical and safe strategy without the need for prior determination of vitamin D levels. Calcium supplementation should be tailored to the patient’s need based on total daily dietary calcium intake. In most patients 500 mg per day is required to achieve a total intake of 1,200 mg, or in some 1,000 mg per day. More calcium is absorbed from calcium citrate compared to calcium carbonate. PMID:25147494

van der Velde, Robert Y.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; Geusens, Piet P.; Lems, Willem F.; van den Bergh, Joop P. W.

2014-01-01

318

Toward cinematizing our daily lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a cinematographic video production system to create movie-like attractive footage from our indoor daily life.\\u000a Since the system is designed for ordinary users in non-studio environments, it is composed of standard hardware components,\\u000a provides a simple interface, and works in near real-time of 5?~?6 frames\\/sec. The proposed system reconstructs a visual hull\\u000a from acquired multiple videos and then

Hansung Kim; Ryuuki Sakamoto; Itaru Kitahara; Tomoji Toriyama; Kiyoshi Kogure

2009-01-01

319

Approach to chronic daily headache.  

PubMed

Chronic daily headaches (CDH) is a descriptive term used for patients who experience headaches on at least 15 days or more out of the month; for at least 3 months, irrespective of the underlying headache etiology. It is a syndrome that affects many people, usually with an underlying primary headache disorder, leading to a reduction in quality of life. The two most common underlying primary headaches are migraines and tension-type headaches. The prevalence is about 4%, and research is emerging on risk factors and comorbidities. The first step when approaching a patient with chronic daily headaches is to rule out secondary causes. Once that is done, the goal is to effectively reduce the days of headache through preventive treatment as well as complementary therapies. This also often involves limiting the use of abortive therapy to avoid medication-overuse headaches (MOH). The pathophysiology, although not fully understood, is thought to be related to central sensitization along with "neurogenic inflammation." Chronic daily headaches can be difficult to treat and at times require a tertiary specialized center. PMID:25637288

Sheikh, Huma U

2015-03-01

320

Neighborhood Retail Food Environment and Fruit and Vegetable Intake in a Multiethnic Urban Population  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine relationships between the neighborhood food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in a multiethnic urban population. Design Analysis of cross-sectional survey and observational data. Setting 146 neighborhoods within three large geographic communities of Detroit, Michigan. Subjects Probability sample of 919 African-American, Latino, and White adults. Measures The dependent variable was mean daily fruit and vegetable servings measured using a modified Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. Independent variables included the neighborhood food environment: store availability (large grocery, specialty, convenience, liquor, small grocery), supermarket proximity (street-network distance to nearest chain grocer), and perceived and observed neighborhood fresh fruit and vegetable supply (availability, variety, quality, affordability). Analysis Weighted multilevel regression. Results Presence of a large grocery store in the neighborhood was associated with, on average, 0.69 more daily fruit and vegetable servings in the full sample. Relationships between the food environment and fruit and vegetable intake did not differ between Whites and African-Americans. However, Latinos compared with African-Americans with a large grocery store in their neighborhood consumed 2.20 more daily servings of fruits and vegetables. Presence of a convenience store in the neighborhood was associated with 1.84 fewer daily fruit and vegetable servings among Latinos than African-Americans. Conclusion The neighborhood food environment influences fruit and vegetable intake, and the size of this relationship may vary for different racial/ethnic subpopulations. PMID:19288847

Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Kannan, Srimathi; Lachance, Laurie L.; Mentz, Graciela; Ridella, William

2012-01-01

321

Intake system for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intake system for an internal combustion engine is described comprising working chamber means having a volume which changes cyclically between a top dead center of a smallest volume and a bottom dead center of a largest volume, intake passage means adapted to be cyclically opened to the working chamber means in an intake stroke which starts prior to the

M. Hitorai; S. Okazaki; K. Onishi; J. Sasaki; K. Tominaga

1988-01-01

322

A STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORT ON INTAKE TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents an updated evaluation of mechanisms and intake designs for reducing the number of fish entrained and impinged at water intake facilities. These mechanisms consist of intake configurations, behavioral barriers for guiding fish past intake entrances, physical sc...

323

Relationship between drug structure and minimal inhibitory concentration value used for acceptable daily intake analysis.  

PubMed

The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of an antimicrobial agent for a microbial population (MIC(50, obs) and MIC(90, obs)) is an interpolated value determined for antibacterial drugs by in vitro methods. Many studies have tried to determine the correlation between the MIC(50, obs) or MIC(90, obs) value and the physicochemical parameters to allow quantitaive structure activity relationship (QSAR) predictions of efficacy. A rigorous evaluation of approaches to this problem is presented here. In order to find a correlation between chemical structure and the derivatives of the MIC values for 9 indicatory bacterial strains, it is necessary to employ a number of physicochemical parameters in combination. Only an arithmetic expression composed of many features illustrating the chemical structure of the molecule can be linked to the ƒMIC(50, obs) value. This article demonstrated that, despite the complexity of the MIC value used as the end point, it is possible to validate the model in a limited extent. PMID:25359732

Grabowski, Tomasz; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Jan; Gad, Shayne Cox; Feder, Marcin

2014-01-01

324

DAILY INTAKE ESTIMATES OF PBDES ASSOCIATED WITH CONSUMPTION OF CATFISH IN THE U.S.  

EPA Science Inventory

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in a wide variety of consumer products. Concerns surrounding these compounds are primarily due do their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as in human tissue, such as milk, coupled with evidence indi...

325

The applicability of the ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) for food additives to infants and children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children are not little adults. Children may respond differently from adults because they are in a state of growth and development; or because of differences in toxicokinetics or toxicodynamics. Infants and children are often assumed to be more susceptible to toxic effects, but this generalization is founded on assumptions rather than on facts. Available data are mostly concerned with toxicity

Grete Østergaard; Ib Knudsen

1998-01-01

326

Daily dietary selenium intake and hair selenium content in a high selenium area of Enshi, China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Selenium is essential to humans and is widely distributed within the human body. Its content in blood, urine, hair and nails are important indicators to evaluate Se level in the human body. In China (Shadi, Enschi city), human selenosis of residents is reported to occur in high numbers. In this stud...

327

Daily ingestion of alginate reduces energy intake in free-living subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium alginate is a seaweed-derived fibre that has previously been shown to moderate appetite in models of acute feeding. The mechanisms underlying this effect may include slowed gastric clearance and attenuated uptake from the small intestine. In order to assess whether alginate could be effective as a means of appetite control in free-living adults, 68 males and females (BMI range:

J. R. Paxman; J. C. Richardson; P. W. Dettmar; B. M. Corfe

2008-01-01

328

Oxytocin knockout mice demonstrate enhanced intake of sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions.  

PubMed

Oxytocin knockout (OT KO) mice display enhanced intake of nutritive and nonnutritive sweet solutions (i.e., sucrose and saccharin) compared with wild-type (WT) mice of the same C57BL/6 background strain. The present study further investigated the differential behavioral response of OT KO and WT mice to sucrose solutions and also examined intake preferences of OT KO and WT mice for palatable but nonsweet isocaloric solutions of carbohydrate and fat. A progressive ratio operant licking procedure demonstrated that OT KO and WT mice display a similar motivational drive to consume 10% sucrose. A series of two-bottle intake tests revealed that OT KO mice consume significantly larger amounts of both sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions (i.e., sucrose, Polycose, and cornstarch) compared with WT cohorts. Intake pattern analyses revealed that OT KO mice overconsume carbohydrate solutions by initiating more drinking bouts compared with WT mice; bout sizes did not differ between the genotypes. In contrast, OT KO and WT mice did not differ in their intake of Intralipid, a palatable soybean oil emulsion. These findings indicate that the absence of OT in mice does not affect their appetitive drive to consume palatable sucrose solutions. Instead, the absence of OT may increase daily intake of palatable sweet and nonsweet solutions of carbohydrate (but not fat) by selectively blunting or masking processes that contribute to postingestive satiety. PMID:17272659

Sclafani, Anthony; Rinaman, Linda; Vollmer, Regis R; Amico, Janet A

2007-05-01

329

Nutrient intakes of individuals from food-insufficient households in the United States.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Understanding the nutritional consequences of food insufficiency is important for informed policy-making that addresses the problem of domestic hunger. This study estimated the extent to which individuals from food-insufficient households were likely to have low intakes of energy and 14 other nutrients. METHODS: The diets of pre-schoolers, adult women, and the elderly were analyzed with 24-hour recall data from the 1989 through 1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the association of self-reported household food insufficiency with nutrient intakes below 50% of the recommended daily allowance. RESULTS: For adult women, food insufficiency was significantly associated with low intakes of eight nutrients, including energy, magnesium, and vitamins A, E, C, and B6. Elderly individuals in the food-insufficient group were also more likely to have low intakes of eight nutrients, including protein, calcium, and vitamins A and B6. Household food insufficiency was not significantly associated with low intakes among preschoolers. CONCLUSIONS: The results validate the use of self-reported hunger measures in nutritional surveillance and highlight nutrients of concern for food assistance and nutrition education efforts targeted at individuals from food-insufficient households. PMID:9431283

Rose, D; Oliveira, V

1997-01-01

330

A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535

Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

2013-01-01

331

Intake system for diesel cycle engines  

SciTech Connect

An intake system is described for diesel cycle engines comprising intake passage means leading through intake port means to combustion chamber means. A timing suction pressure responsive valve means provides closing the intake passage means in a beginning period of intake strokes. The intake port means is opened to the combustion chamber means. Opening the intake passage in the remainder period of the intake stroke is characterized by the fact that the valve means includes a valve member which is movable between a closed position where it closes the intake passage means and an open position where it opens the intake passage means. Means biases the valve member toward the closed position, the valve member has a first surface which is subjected in the closed position to a pressure in the intake passage means upstream the valve means and a second surface which is subjected in the closed position to a pressure in the combustion chamber means so that a difference between the pressures on the first and second surfaces of the valve member assists the biasing means biasing the valve member to the closed position. The valve actuator means comprises suction pressure chamber means defined at least partly by, a pressure responsive movable member. A means connects the movable member with the valve member so that a movement of the movable member is transmitted to the valve member and communicates passage means for suction pressure chamber.

Nakamura, S.; Sakurai, S.; Nishida, T.; Sahara, M.

1987-07-28

332

Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

2014-01-01

333

Choline and betaine food sources and intakes in Taiwanese.  

PubMed

Choline and betaine are involved in several similar health-relevant metabolic pathways, but the foods sources are different. We have assessed their intakes (individual, sums and ratios) from a dominantly Chinese food cultural point of view. A representative free-living Taiwanese population aged 13-64 years was drawn from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 1993-1996. Food intake was derived from interviews as 24-hour recalls. The USDA database, with adaptations for Taiwan, provided choline and betaine food compositions. Major food contributors of these nutrients were identified and compared with data from the US Framingham offspring study. Mean and variance reduced median nutrient intakes were calculated. Top ten major food contributors of choline in Taiwan were eggs, pork, chicken, fish, soybean and its products, dark leafy vegetables, dairy, fruit, wheat products and light leafy vegetables in sequence. For betaine, the top ten were dark leafy vegetables, wheat products, fish, pork, bread, chicken, cake/cookies, grain-based alcoholic beverages, rice and its products and sauces. The main contributors of choline in Taiwan and the USA were, respectively, eggs and red meat; and for betaine, greens were similarly best contributor. The rankings of the main food contributors of choline and betaine differed substantially between Taiwan and the USA. The total daily intakes (mean±SE, mg) in Taiwan for choline were 372±19 (median=348) in men and 265±9 (median 261) for women; for betaine, values were 101±3 (median 93) in men and 78±8 (median 76) for women. These allow for health outcome considerations. PMID:23017313

Chu, Da-Ming; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yeh, Nai-Hua; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

2012-01-01

334

Validity of a self-administered diet history questionnaire for estimating vitamin D intakes of Japanese pregnant women.  

PubMed

Maternal vitamin D status is important for fetal development and the prevention of pregnancy complications. Mothers require both sufficient intakes and skin production of this vitamin. We investigated the validity and test-retest reliability of a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) to establish a method of assessing vitamin D intakes of Japanese pregnant women, using a serum marker. A total of 245 healthy pregnant women in the second trimester, who were not taking vitamin D supplements, were recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo between June 2010 and July 2011. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were measured as an indicator of vitamin D status. To assess the test-retest reliability of the DHQ, 58 pregnant women completed it twice within a 4-5-week interval. Significant positive correlations between intakes and serum concentrations of vitamin D were found (r?=?0.266 for daily intakes and r?=?0.249 for energy-adjusted intakes). In the winter investigation in which the serum 25(OH)D concentrations were less likely to be affected by sunlight exposure, the correlation coefficients were 0.304 for both daily and energy-adjusted intakes. After excluding participants with pregnancy-associated nausea, the coefficients increased. The intraclass correlation coefficient between vitamin D intakes estimated from the two-time DHQ was 0.638. The DHQ provides an acceptable validity and reliability of the vitamin D intake of Japanese pregnant women. However, the data of women with nausea should be interpreted with caution. We believe that the DHQ is a useful questionnaire to grasp and improve vitamin D intakes during pregnancy. PMID:24118748

Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Murayama, Ryoko; Kitanaka, Sachiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

2013-10-01

335

Estrogen and chronic daily headache.  

PubMed

Estrogen exerts a strong influence on episodic headaches, such as migraine and tension-type headache. A relationship between sex hormones and chronic daily headache (CDH) is less well established. However, similarities between episodic and CDH suggest that estrogen also may significantly influence CDH. Pathophysiologic studies of CDH identify neurochemical abnormalities similar to those influenced by estrogen in episodic headache, such as aberrant 5-hydroxytryptamine activity. In addition, gender differences in CDH prevalence in pediatric and adult populations support a hormonal influence. Few studies have evaluated the ability of gynecologic events, such as menses, to influence CDH. PMID:14731385

Marcus, Dawn A

2004-02-01

336

Daily Lesson Plan: Diagnosing Delusions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This New York Times Learning Network Daily Lesson Plan explores the dangers of widespread medical myths. Designed for grades 6-8 and 9-12, the lesson focuses on a NYT article about "a particular medical myth and how it has prevented some lung cancer patients from receiving treatment." Story link and discussion questions are provided. Students then conduct research and develop educational pamphlets on the topic for a neat interdisciplinary way to demonstrate their understanding of the issue. Extension activities, vocabulary words, and Web links are all included.

337

The Daily Martian Weather Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science Team features the results of a detailed study of the Martian atmosphere in the form of a daily weather report and precise atmospheric measurements for the planet Mars. Atmospheric temperature and pressure profiles which have been archived with NASA's Planetary Data System are also available on this site. These profiles illustrate the vertical structure of the atmosphere of Mars. The site also includes links to many images of Martian atmospheric and weather phenomena (with captions) from the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MGS MOC), the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) and the Hubble Space Telescope.

Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science Team

338

Assessing arsenic intake from groundwater and rice by residents in Prey Veng province, Cambodia.  

PubMed

We investigated total daily intake of As by residents in Prey Veng province in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Groundwater (n = 11), rice (n = 11) and fingernail (n = 23) samples were randomly collected from the households and analyzed for total As by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Calculation indicated that daily dose of inorganic As was greater than the lower limits on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5 equals to 3.0 ?g d(-1) kg(-1)body wt.). Moreover, positive correlation between As in fingernail and daily dose of As from groundwater and rice and total daily dose of As were found. These results suggest that the Prey Veng residents are exposed to As in groundwater. As in rice is an additional source which is attributable to high As accumulation in human bodies in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. PMID:24231403

Phan, Kongkea; Phan, Samrach; Heng, Savoeun; Huoy, Laingshun; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

2014-02-01

339

The Effect of Daily Stress, Personality, and Age on Daily Negative Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined whether stress reactivity becomes stronger or weaker with age. Daily stress and daily negative affect were modeled using 1,012 subjects from the National Study of Daily Events (NSDE), an 8-day daily diary study. Age ranged from 25 to 74. Data were modeled using within-person HLM techniques. Daily stress and neuroticism interacted in their effect on daily

Daniel K. Mroczek; David M. Almeida

2004-01-01

340

Daily Medicine Record for Your Child  

MedlinePLUS

... the-Counter Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Daily Medicine Record for Your Child (English) (PDF version - 97KB) ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...

341

50 CFR 20.24 - Daily limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.24 Daily limit. No person shall take in any 1 calendar day, more than the daily...

2011-10-01

342

Association Between 100% Juice Consumption and Nutrition Intake and Weight of Children Aged 2 to 11 Years  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of the study was to investigate the associations between 4 categories of daily 100% juice consumption (0 fl oz, greater than 0 to less than or equal to 6 fl oz; greater than 6 to less than 12 fl oz; and greater than or equal to 12 fl oz) and nutrient and food group intake and weight in...

343

Chronic intake of honey, sugar and high fructose corn syrup exert equivalent effects on glucose and insulin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Consumption of nutritive sweeteners is high with ‘added sugars’ intake from the WWEIA (2009-2010) survey in all individuals = 2 yr at 76.2 g or 295 kcal daily. Controversy continues regarding the metabolic effects of the source of sweetener. Our goal was to evaluate the glycemic and insulin effect o...

344

The use of a commercial vegetable juice as a practical means to increase vegetable intake: A randomized controlled trial  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recommendations for daily dietary vegetable intake were increased in the 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines, as consumption of a diet rich in vegetables has been associated with lower risk of certain chronic health disorders including cardiovascular disease. However, vegetable consumption in the United St...

345

A Quantitative Look at Fluorosis, Fluoride Exposure, and Intake in Children Using a Health Risk Assessment Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the United States has increased during the last 30 years. In this study, we used a mathematical model commonly employed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to estimate average daily intake of fluoride via all applicable exposure pathways contributing to fluorosis risk for infants and children living in hypothetical fluoridated and non- fluoridated communities.

Serap Erdal; Susan N. Buchanan

2004-01-01

346

ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to determine if intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) leaves by  

E-print Network

Torr.) leaves by sheep could be increased by supplementing four levels of activated charcoal of activated charcoal. After the 7-d acclimation period, lambs were also given ad libitum access to honey if level of activated charcoal fed to lambs affected daily intake of mesquite leaves. No differences (P = 0

347

Daily cycles in coastal dunes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.

1988-01-01

348

Dietary intake of vitamin D in a northern Canadian Dené First Nation community  

PubMed Central

Background Increased awareness of the wide spectrum of activity of vitamin D has focused interest on its role in the health of Canada's Aboriginal peoples, who bear a high burden of both infectious and chronic disease. Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis is limited at northern latitudes, and the transition from nutrient-dense traditional to nutrient-poor market foods has left many Canadian Aboriginal populations food insecure and nutritionally vulnerable. Objective The study was undertaken to determine the level of dietary vitamin D in a northern Canadian Aboriginal (Dené) community and to determine the primary food sources of vitamin D. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Dietary vitamin D intakes of 46 adult Dené men and women were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and compared across age, gender, season and body mass index. The adequacy of dietary vitamin D intake was assessed using the 2007 Adequate Intake (AI) and the 2011 Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) values for Dietary Reference Intake (DRI). Results Mean daily vitamin D intake was 271.4 IU in winter and 298.3 IU in summer. Forty percent and 47.8% of participants met the vitamin D 1997 AI values in winter and summer, respectively; this dropped to 11.1 and 13.0% in winter and summer using 2011 RDA values. Supplements, milk, and local fish were positively associated with adequate vitamin D intake. Milk and local fish were the major dietary sources of vitamin D. Conclusions Dietary intake of vitamin D in the study population was low. Only 2 food sources, fluid milk and fish, provided the majority of dietary vitamin D. Addressing low vitamin D intake in this population requires action aimed at food insecurity present in northern Aboriginal populations. PMID:23984265

Slater, Joyce; Larcombe, Linda; Green, Chris; Slivinski, Caroline; Singer, Matthew; Denechezhe, Lizette; Whaley, Chris; Nickerson, Peter; Orr, Pamela

2013-01-01

349

Salt intake of children and adolescents in South London: consumption levels and dietary sources.  

PubMed

Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods. PMID:24614217

Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A

2014-05-01

350

Nutrient and nontraditional food intakes by Zambian children in a controlled feeding trial  

PubMed Central

Background Many programs aim to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Biofortification is an approach to improve provitamin A carotenoid concentrations of staple crops in some developing countries. In rural Zambia, maize accounts for the majority of energy intake. Provitamin A–biofortified (orange) maize has been released in Zambia. Objective This study quantified food intake of Zambian children from records collected in a feeding trial in 2012 in order to compare adoption of orange maize and a new vegetable (green beans) with white maize and traditional foods. Methods One hundred thirty-six children with a mean age of 71.5 ± 6.9 months were fed three meals a day for 6 days a week for 15 weeks at four feeding centers. Breakfast consisted of maize porridge, and lunch and dinner were stiff porridge (nshima) with various side dishes (relishes). There were three treatment groups, which received orange maize and placebo oil, white maize and placebo oil, or white maize and a daily vitamin A supplement. Food was weighed before and after consumption. Nutritionists were trained to interview the children’s caregivers about the previous day’s intake using dietary recalls. Nine dietary recalls for each child were recorded and analyzed. Results Total food intake did not differ among the groups (p = .31) and energy intakes on Sundays (<880 kcal) were below recommendations. Nshima intake was lower in the orange-maize group (p = .008), largely due to a genotype effect. Intakes of relish, green bean, and porridge did not differ among the groups (p > .19). Dietary recalls revealed that children living in sites closer to the main road consumed more on Sundays than children living about 8 km from the main road, but less in the evenings when children were off site. Conclusions The intakes of energy of these Zambian children suggest inadequacy. Implementation and adoption of new and biofortified foods is possible with promotion. PMID:24791580

Schmaelzle, Samantha; Kaliwile, Chisela; Arscott, Sara A.; Gannon, Bryan; Masi, Cassim; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

2014-01-01

351

Impacts of a National Strategy to Reduce Population Salt Intake in England: Serial Cross Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background The UK introduced an ambitious national strategy to reduce population levels of salt intake in 2003. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strategy on salt intake in England, including potential effects on health inequalities. Methods Secondary analysis of data from the Health Survey for England. Our main outcome measure was trends in estimated daily salt intake from 2003–2007, as measured by spot urine. Secondary outcome measures were knowledge of government guidance and voluntary use of salt in food preparation over this time period. Results There were significant reductions in salt intake between 2003 and 2007 (?0.175grams per day per year, p<0.001). Intake decreased uniformly across all other groups but remained significantly higher in younger persons, men, ethnic minorities and lower social class groups and those without hypertension in 2007. Awareness of government guidance on salt use was lowest in those groups with the highest intake (semi-skilled manual v professional; 64.9% v 71.0% AOR 0.76 95% CI 0.58–0.99). Self reported use of salt added at the table reduced significantly during the study period (56.5% to 40.2% p<0.001). Respondents from ethnic minority groups remained significantly more likely to add salt during cooking (white 42.8%, black 74.1%, south Asian 88.3%) and those from lower social class groups (unskilled manual 46.6%, professional 35.2%) were more likely to add salt at the table. Conclusions The introduction a national salt reduction strategy was associated with uniform but modest reductions in salt intake in England, although it is not clear precisely which aspects of the strategy contributed to this. Knowledge of government guidance was lower and voluntary salt use and total salt intake was higher among occupational and ethnic groups at greatest risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22238665

Millett, Christopher; Laverty, Anthony A.; Stylianou, Neophytos; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Pape, Utz J.

2012-01-01

352

Effects of Experimental Sleep Restriction on Weight Gain, Caloric Intake, and Meal Timing in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Examine sleep restriction's effects on weight gain, daily caloric intake, and meal timing. Design: Repeated-measures experiments assessing body weight at admittance and discharge in all subjects (N = 225) and caloric intake and meal timing across days following 2 baseline nights, 5 sleep restriction nights and 2 recovery nights or across days following control condition nights in a subset of subjects (n = 37). Setting: Controlled laboratory environment. Participants: Two hundred twenty-five healthy adults aged 22-50 y (n = 198 sleep-restricted subjects; n = 31 with caloric intake data; n = 27 control subjects; n = 6 with caloric intake data). Interventions: Approximately 8-to-1 randomization to an experimental condition (including five consecutive nights of 4 h time in bed [TIB]/night, 04:00-08:00) or to a control condition (all nights 10 h TIB/night, 22:00-08:00). Measurements and Results: Sleep-restricted subjects gained more weight (0.97 ± 1.4 kg) than control subjects (0.11 ± 1.9 kg; d = 0.51, P = 0.007). Among sleep-restricted subjects, African Americans gained more weight than Caucasians (d = 0.37, P = 0.003) and males gained more weight than females (d = 0.38, P = 0.004). Sleep-restricted subjects consumed extra calories (130.0 ± 43.0% of daily caloric requirement) during days with a delayed bedtime (04:00) compared with control subjects who did not consume extra calories (100.6 ± 11.4%; d = 0.94, P = 0.003) during corresponding days. In sleep-restricted subjects, increased daily caloric intake was due to more meals and the consumption of 552.9 ± 265.8 additional calories between 22:00-03:59. The percentage of calories derived from fat was greater during late-night hours (22:00-03:59, 33.0 ± 0.08%) compared to daytime (08:00-14:59, 28.2 ± 0.05%) and evening hours (15:00-21:59, 29.4 ± 0.06%; Ps < 0.05). Conclusions: In the largest, most diverse healthy sample studied to date under controlled laboratory conditions, sleep restriction promoted weight gain. Chronically sleep-restricted adults with late bedtimes may be more susceptible to weight gain due to greater daily caloric intake and the consumption of calories during late-night hours. Citation: Spaeth AM; Dinges DF; Goel N. Effects of experimental sleep restriction on weight gain, caloric intake, and meal timing in healthy adults. SLEEP 2013;36(7):981-990. PMID:23814334

Spaeth, Andrea M.; Dinges, David F.; Goel, Namni

2013-01-01

353

The Daily Practices of Successful Principals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in daily practice. "The Daily Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of daily practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…

Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.

2011-01-01

354

Association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes among adult men and women in India  

PubMed Central

Background It is postulated that a diet high in legumes may be beneficial in preventing diabetes. However, little empirical evidence on this association exists in developing countries. We aimed to examine the association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes status in adult men and women in India. Methods The analysis is based on a population-based cross sectional study of 99,574 women and 56,742 men aged 20–49 years included in India’s third National Family Health Survey conducted in 2005–06. Association of legume intake, determined by the frequency of consumption of pulses and beans (daily, weekly and occasionally or never), with the reported prevalence of diabetes were estimated using multiple logistic regression after adjusting for frequency of consumption of other food items, BMI status, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, watching television, age, education, living standard of the household, residence and geographic regions. Results Daily (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59–0.87; p=0.001) and weekly (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.54–0.80; p<0.001) legumes intake were associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of diabetes among adult Indian women even after controlling for the effects of potentially confounding factors, whereas non-significant inverse associations were observed in men. Conclusion Daily or weekly intake of legumes was inversely associated with presence of diabetes in the Indian population. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. More epidemiological research with better measures of legumes intake and clinical measures of diabetes is needed to clarify this relationship. PMID:23915141

2013-01-01

355

Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light–dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light–dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high?amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light–dark cycle. PMID:25263204

Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R.; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

2014-01-01

356

Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions.  

PubMed

In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light-dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light-dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high-amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light-dark cycle. PMID:25263204

Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

2014-09-01

357

Milk Intake and Total Dairy Consumption: Associations with Early Menarche in NHANES 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Background Several components of dairy products have been linked to earlier menarche. Methods/Findings This study assessed whether positive associations exist between childhood milk consumption and age at menarche or the likelihood of early menarche (<12 yrs) in a U.S sample. Data derive from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Two samples were utilized: 2657 women age 20–49 yrs and 1008 girls age 9–12 yrs. In regression analysis, a weak negative relationship was found between frequency of milk consumption at 5–12 yrs and age at menarche (daily milk intake ??=??0.32, P<0.10; “sometimes/variable milk intake” ??=??0.38, P<0.06, each compared to intake rarely/never). Cox regression yielded no greater risk of early menarche among those who drank milk “sometimes/varied” or daily vs. never/rarely (HR: 1.20, P<0.42, HR: 1.25, P<0.23, respectively). Among the 9–12 yr olds, Cox regression indicated that neither total dairy kcal, calcium and protein, nor daily milk intake in the past 30 days contributed to early menarche. Girls in the middle tertile of milk intake had a marginally lower risk of early menarche than those in the highest tertile (HR: 0.6, P<0.06). Those in the lowest tertiles of dairy fat intake had a greater risk of early menarche than those in the highest (HR: 1.5, P<0.05, HR: 1.6, P<0.07, lowest and middle tertile, respectively), while those with the lowest calcium intake had a lower risk of early menarche (HR: 0.6, P<0.05) than those in the highest tertile. These relationships remained after adjusting for overweight or overweight and height percentile; both increased the risk of earlier menarche. Blacks were more likely than Whites to reach menarche early (HR: 1.7, P<0.03), but not after controlling for overweight. Conclusions There is some evidence that greater milk intake is associated with an increased risk of early menarche, or a lower age at menarche. PMID:21347271

Wiley, Andrea S.

2011-01-01

358

Neighborhood Retail Food Environment and Fruit and Vegetable Intake in a Multiethnic Urban Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To examine relationships between the neighborhood food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in a multiethnic urban population. Design. Analysis of cross-sectional survey and observational data. Setting. One hundred forty-six neighborhoods within three large geographic communities of Detroit, Michigan. Subjects. Probability sample of 919 African-American, Latino, and white adults. Measures. The dependent variable was mean daily fruit and vegetable

Shannon N. Zenk; Laurie L. Lachance; Amy J. Schulz; Graciela Mentz; Srimathi Kannan; William Ridella

2009-01-01

359

Does school environment affect 11-year-olds' fruit and vegetable intake in Denmark?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often found that adolescents eat too little fruit and vegetables. We examined the importance of school for 11-year-olds' daily intake measured by food frequency- and 24-h recall questionnaires in Danish data from the European 2003 Pro Children Survey. Multilevel logistic regression analyses included matched student–parent-school questionnaire data (N=1410) from a random sample of 59 schools and were conducted

Rikke Krølner; Pernille Due; Mette Rasmussen; Mogens Trab Damsgaard; Bjørn E. Holstein; Knut-Inge Klepp; John Lynch

2009-01-01

360

Intraventricular neuropeptide Y does not stimulate food intake in the baboon.  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined the ability of the orexigenic peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY) to stimulate feeding when administered into the lateral ventricle of baboons. No increase of either meal size or total daily food intake was observed over the dose range tested (1-30 micrograms). These results suggest that, in the baboon, NPY may not be an orexigen as it is in other species. PMID:8873242

Sipols, A J; Figlewicz, D P; Seeley, R J; Chavez, M; Woods, S C; Porte, D

1996-09-01

361

Maternal first-trimester dietary intake and childhood blood pressure: the Generation R Study.  

PubMed

Suboptimal maternal dietary intake during pregnancy might lead to fetal cardiovascular adaptations and higher blood pressure in the offspring. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations of maternal first-trimester dietary intake with blood pressure in children at the age of 6 years. We assessed first-trimester maternal daily dietary intake by a FFQ and measured folate, homocysteine and vitamin B?? concentrations in the blood, in a population-based prospective cohort study among 2863 mothers and children. Childhood systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured using a validated automatic sphygmomanometer. First-trimester maternal daily intake of energy, fat, protein and carbohydrate was not associated with childhood blood pressure. Furthermore, maternal intake of micronutrients was not associated with childhood blood pressure. Also, higher maternal vitamin B?? concentrations were associated with a higher diastolic blood pressure (0·31 mmHg per standard deviation increase in vitamin B?? (95% CI 0·06, 0·56)). After taking into account multiple testing, none of the associations was statistically significant. Maternal first-trimester folate and homocysteine concentrations were not associated with childhood blood pressure. The results from the present study suggest that maternal Fe intake and vitamin B?? concentrations during the first trimester of pregnancy might affect childhood blood pressure, although the effect estimates were small and were not significant after correction for multiple testing. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and to assess whether these differences in blood pressure persist in later life. PMID:23528150

van den Hil, Leontine C L; Rob Taal, H; de Jonge, Layla L; Heppe, Denise H M; Steegers, Eric A P; Hofman, Albert; van der Heijden, Albert J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

2013-10-01

362

Fruit and vegetable intake and associated factors in older adults in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background and objective Numerous studies support the protective effect of high fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption on chronic disease risk, mainly against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Compared with younger adults, older people experience additional health, social, and environmental conditions that affect dietary intake. To identify those additional dimensions and examine them in association with FV intake, data on 3,840 participants in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) in South Africa were analyzed. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study in 2008 with a sample of 3,840 participants, aged 50 years or older, in South Africa. The questionnaire included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometry, and blood pressure measurements. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between socio-demographic factors, health variables, and inadequate FV consumption. Results Overall prevalence rates of insufficient FV intake were 68.5%, 64.8% among men and 71.4% among women, with a mean intake of 4.0 servings of FV among older adults (50 years and older). In multivariable analysis, coming from the Black African or Colored population group, lower educational level and daily tobacco use were associated with inadequate FV intake. Conclusions The amount of fruit and vegetables (FVs) consumed by older South African participants was considerably lower than current recommendations (daily intake of at least five servings; 400 g). Public education and campaigns on adequate consumption of FVs should be promoted targeting lower educated and Black African and Colored population groups. PMID:23195518

Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

2012-01-01

363

Brown Daily Herald Digital Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1891, the Brown Daily Herald has chronicled "political protest, athletic wins and losses, curricular changes, and students' initiative." Recently, Brown University's Center for Digital Initiatives and the Herald began working together to create this digital archive of the paper. On the site, visitors can learn more about the digitization project, sign up to be part of their LinkedIn group, and also take a look at their online store. Using the archive is quite simple, and visitors are encouraged to view specific issues by year or month, and they can also use a search engine to look for news coverage of particular interest. One rather compelling feature of the site is that returned search results include the page or story in question, along with thumbnails of the other pages in the issues on the bottom of the screen.

364

SciTech Daily Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users wishing quick and easy access to some of the best writing online will want to examine this site. Scitech Daily Review, updated four days per week offers links to articles, new book notices and reviews, and essays and opinion pieces for the fields of science and technology. The site does not provide original content, but rather mines a wide array of online newspapers, journals, and other publications and offer links with very brief introductions to the "precious nuggets of real content" on the Web. In addition, the site provides a linked list of the publications and columnists used to glean the reports as well as an archive of past features. Certainly few users will find all of the pieces interesting or pertinent, but the quantity and variety of content and the frequency with which it is updated guarantee that there will be something for almost anyone.

365

Sleep and chronic daily headache.  

PubMed

Sleep and headache have a complex and extensive interrelationship. This review focuses on the relationship between sleep and chronic daily headache, examining recent advances in the epidemiology and insights into possible mechanisms of this relationship as well as reviewing advances in treatment. There is a clear relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and snoring and morning headache, but the relationship between OSA and snoring and other primary headaches requires clarification. OSA and chronic migraine share both obesity and patent foramen ovale (PFO) as possible co-morbidities. Hypoxia does not clearly predispose to morning headache. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an established treatment for OSA, and mixed results have been reported with regards to headache improvement with this treatment. PMID:25416461

Stark, Catherine Diana; Stark, Richard James

2015-01-01

366

Twenty-Four-Hour Urine Osmolality as a Physiological Index of Adequate Water Intake  

PubMed Central

While associations exist between water, hydration, and disease risk, research quantifying the dose-response effect of water on health is limited. Thus, the water intake necessary to maintain optimal hydration from a physiological and health standpoint remains unclear. The aim of this analysis was to derive a 24?h urine osmolality (UOsm) threshold that would provide an index of “optimal hydration,” sufficient to compensate water losses and also be biologically significant relative to the risk of disease. Ninety-five adults (31.5 ± 4.3 years, 23.2 ± 2.7?kg·m?2) collected 24?h urine, provided morning blood samples, and completed food and fluid intake diaries over 3 consecutive weekdays. A UOsm threshold was derived using 3 approaches, taking into account European dietary reference values for water; total fluid intake, and urine volumes associated with reduced risk for lithiasis and chronic kidney disease and plasma vasopressin concentration. The aggregate of these approaches suggest that a 24?h urine osmolality ?500?mOsm·kg?1 may be a simple indicator of optimal hydration, representing a total daily fluid intake adequate to compensate for daily losses, ensure urinary output sufficient to reduce the risk of urolithiasis and renal function decline, and avoid elevated plasma vasopressin concentrations mediating the increased antidiuretic effort. PMID:25866433

Perrier, Erica T.; Buendia-Jimenez, Inmaculada; Vecchio, Mariacristina; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Tack, Ivan; Klein, Alexis

2015-01-01

367

Estimation of intake in high producing Holstein cows grazing grass pasture.  

PubMed

The objectives were to estimate intake of pasture and total DMI by high producing cows grazing grass pastures and to measure changes in nutrient composition of grass pasture during the grazing season. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows averaging 31 kg of 4% FCM/d at the start of the trial grazed grass pastures at a stocking rate of 2.5 or 3.9 cows/ha from April until October 1990. Intake was estimated using Cr2O3 as an indigestible fecal marker. Pasture samples were analyzed for nutrient composition at six times during the grazing season corresponding to the times of intake estimation. Total daily DMI increased from 21.3 kg in early spring to 22.4 kg in late spring and then decreased as lactation progressed; however, DMI exceeded NRC recommendations during most of the grazing season. Daily pasture DMI varied with season, ranging from 11.6 to 15.6 kg and was lowest (11.6 kg) in the summer. Estimated NEL intakes were lower than NRC recommendations in early spring. During the grazing season, pasture ranged from 39 to 48% NDF and from 22 to 30% CP with 15 to 20% ruminally degradable protein on a DM basis. Grazing cows consumed adequate DM from pasture except in early spring. Although nutrient composition of pasture varied with season, quality remained high. PMID:7962855

Holden, L A; Muller, L D; Fales, S L

1994-08-01

368

Preliminary assessment of nutrients in daily diets of a sample of Belcher Island Inuit adults.  

PubMed

In order to describe daily food patterns and nutrient intakes of adults in the Inuit community of Sanikiluaq, 48 adults (young and older men and women, 12 per group, randomly selected from all individuals within their age and sex group) provided two 24-hour recalls of food consumption, once each in two seasons (February/March, October/November). The most frequent Inuit foods were reindeer, seal, and arctic char, while the most frequent market foods were tea, sugar, and bannock. On average 799 grams of Inuit food were consumed per day, providing 47% of daily energy and 65-92% of daily protein, iron, zinc, phosphorus, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin. Inuit foods are primary sources of many nutrients for the Belcher Island Inuit. PMID:10093274

Wein, E E; Freeman, M M; Makus, J C

1998-01-01

369

Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.  

PubMed

Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1??g/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs. PMID:21697816

McGowan, C A; Byrne, J; Walsh, J; McAuliffe, F M

2011-09-01

370

Anthelmintics residues in raw milk. Assessing intake by a children population.  

PubMed

Anthelmintics, such as benzimidazoles and probenzimidazoles, are veterinary drugs used against endoparasites in food producing animals. A number of these drugs are considered responsible for embryotoxicity and teratogenicity. The residue levels of Albendazole, Febantel, Fenbendazole, Mebendazole and some of their metabolites (Albendazole sulphoxide, Albendazole sulphone, Fenbendazole sulfone) were assessed in 123 (42 goat, 69 sheep, 12 bovine) raw milk samples collected from all farms throughout Southern Greece. Sample analysis was performed by HPLC with Diode Array Detector. A high percentage (27.6%) of the samples examined was found to be positive for the investigated compounds. In 14 samples (11.4%), the residues' concentration exceeded the established Maximum Residue Limits. Estimated Daily Intakes were calculated for a population of 723 children aged 10-12 years. Data on milk consumption were obtained by personal interview through a 7-day food frequency questionnaire. The maximum Estimated Daily Intakes for the anthelmintic residues, concerning raw milk, did not exceed the current Acceptable Daily Intake. PMID:23691580

Tsiboukis, D; Sazakli, E; Jelastopulu, E; Leotsinidis, M

2013-01-01

371

Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

1975-01-01

372

Dietary Intakes of Geriatric Patients in Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individually weighed food intakes have been obtained over an 8-day period from 14 men (age range 63-91 years) 25 women (age range 61-94 years) resident in geriatric wards in an Essex hospital. Nutrient intakes have been computed from food composition tables vitamin C also by chemical analysis. Energy intakes were low compared with those obtained in other surveys, and were

Elizabeth Evans; Anne L. Stock

1971-01-01

373

Neuropeptide FF reduces food intake in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of neuropeptide FF (NPFF), a mammalian FMRFamide-like peptide with antiopioid activity, on food intake was investigated in food-deprived rat. The ICV administration of NPFF (5 or 10 ?g\\/rat) reduced food intake during the first 60 min after administration. ICV injection of naloxone (10 or 100 ?g\\/rat), an opioid antagonist, also decreased food intake. However, the combination of NPFF

Takashi Murase; Hiroshi Arima; Kunikazu Kondo; Yutaka Oiso

1996-01-01

374

Contributors of water intake in US children and adolescents: associations with dietary and meal characteristics—National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006123  

PubMed Central

Background: Little is known about the association of contributors of total water intake with dietary characteristics in US children. Objective: We examined intakes of total water and its contributors and their associations with diet and meal reporting in children and adolescents. Design: Dietary data for children 2–19 y of age (n = 3978) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006 were used to compute usual intake of total water. The association of total water and its contributors with sociodemographic characteristics and dietary and meal attributes was examined by using multiple regression analysis. Results: The adjusted mean intakes of total water in Americans aged 2–5, 6–11, and 12–19 y were 1.4, 1.6, and 2.4 L, respectively. The mean usual intake of total water was generally less than the Adequate Intake; overall, more boys reported intakes of at least the Adequate Intake. The percentage of total water intake from plain water increased with age. Plain water intake was inversely associated with the intake of beverage moisture and the energy density of foods; conversely, beverage moisture was positively associated with dietary energy, fat, and the energy density of foods. Associations of water contributors with meal patterns (number of eating occasions, reporting of breakfast or snack) were inconsistent across age groups. Nearly 80% of food moisture, >66% of beverage moisture, and ?30% of plain water were reported with main meals. Conclusions: Intake of total water over 24 h from different contributors varied by age. Qualitative differences in dietary intake in association with the amount of plain water and beverage moisture in the recalls were observed. American children and adolescents consumed more than two-thirds of their daily beverages with main meals. PMID:20685949

Graubard, Barry I

2010-01-01

375

Slow Food: Sustained Impact of Harder Foods on the Reduction in Energy Intake over the Course of the Day  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research has shown that oral processing characteristics like bite size and oral residence duration are related to the satiating efficiency of foods. Oral processing characteristics are influenced by food texture. Very little research has been done on the effect of food texture within solid foods on energy intake. Objectives The first objective was to investigate the effect of hardness of food on energy intake at lunch, and to link this effect to differences in food oral processing characteristics. The second objective was to investigate whether the reduction in energy intake at lunch will be compensated for in the subsequent dinner. Design Fifty subjects (11 male, BMI: 21±2 kg/m2, age: 24±2 y) participated in a cross-over study in which they consumed ad libitum from a lunch with soft foods or hard foods on two separate days. Oral processing characteristics at lunch were assessed by coding video records. Later on the same days, subjects consumed dinner ad libitum. Results Hard foods led to a ?13% lower energy intake at lunch compared to soft foods (P<0.001). Hard foods were consumed with smaller bites, longer oral duration per gram food, and more chewing per gram food compared to the soft foods (P<0.05). Energy intake at dinner did not differ after both lunches (P?=?0.16). Conclusions Hard foods led to reduced energy intake compared to soft foods, and this reduction in energy intake was sustained over the next meal. We argue that the differences in oral processing characteristics produced by the hardness of the foods explain the effect on intake. The sustained reduction in energy intake suggests that changes in food texture can be a helpful tool in reducing the overall daily energy intake. PMID:24695412

Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P.; Forde, Ciarán G.; Cheng, Yuejiao; Xu, Haohuan; Martin, Nathalie; de Graaf, Cees

2014-01-01

376

The effect of fat intake and antihypertensive drug therapy on serum lipid profile: a cross-sectional survey of serum lipids in male and female hypertensives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of betablocker with diuretics therapy on serum cholesterol and high density\\u000a lipoprotein (HDL-C) lipids in cross-sectional data (age, sex, weight, and body mass index (BMI), smoking\\/alcoholic consumption)\\u000a and supplemented vegetarian low-fat diet with daily low fat energy intake, salt intake, duration of drug therapy, and serum\\u000a protein as effective measures of lowering

Rakesh SharmaT; T. C. Raghuram; U. Brahmoji Rao; Robert J. Moffatt; Kamla Krishnaswamy

2010-01-01

377

Field energetics and the estimation of pollen and nectar intake in the marsupial honey possum, Tarsipes rostratus , in heathland habitats of South-Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described, based on the simultaneous turnover of both stable (18O) and radioactive isotopes (3H and 22Na), whereby the daily nectar and pollen intake of free-ranging marsupial honey possums (Tarsipes rostratus) may be estimated. The field metabolic rate is measured using doubly labelled water and nectar intake is estimated independently\\u000a from the measured water and sodium fluxes. The

S. D. Bradshaw; F. J. Bradshaw

1999-01-01

378

Association between intake of artificially sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages and preterm delivery: a large prospective cohort study123  

PubMed Central

Background: Artificially sweetened (AS) and sugar-sweetened (SS) beverages are commonly consumed during pregnancy. A recent Danish study reported that the daily intake of an AS beverage was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery. Objective: We examined the intake of AS and SS beverages in pregnant women to replicate the Danish study and observe whether AS intake is indeed associated with preterm delivery. Design: This was a prospective study of 60,761 pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Intakes of carbonated and noncarbonated AS and SS beverages and use of artificial sweeteners in hot drinks were assessed by a self-reported food-frequency questionnaire in midpregnancy. Preterm delivery was the primary outcome, and data were obtained from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. Results: Intakes of both AS and SS beverages increased with increasing BMI and energy intake and were higher in women with less education, in daily smokers, and in single women. A high intake of AS beverages was associated with preterm delivery; the adjusted OR for those drinking >1 serving/d was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.24). Drinking >1 serving of SS beverages per day was also associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (adjusted OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.45). The trend tests were positive for both beverage types. Conclusion: This study suggests that a high intake of both AS and SS beverages is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery. PMID:22854404

Englund-Ögge, Linda; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margareta; Sengpiel, Verena; Khatibi, Ali; Myhre, Ronny; Myking, Solveig; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kacerovsky, Marian; Nilsen, Roy M; Jacobsson, Bo

2012-01-01

379

Correlations between self-efficacy in resisting six temptations and dietary energy and macronutrient intake at each meal.  

PubMed

Self-efficacy in relation to eating behavior for weight control is commonly defined as having the confidence to control urges to overeat in high-risk situations. Prior researchers have suggested that self-efficacy plays a mediating role in eating behavior for weight loss and maintenance. The current study examined the relationship between self-efficacy in resisting certain temptations and daily dietary intake at each meal. Participants were 83 men and 122 women registered at the health management website "Asken". They administered questionnaires about self-efficacy and dietary records. As results of multiple regression analysis, self-efficacy in resisting negative emotions was negatively related to lunch energy intake in men (?=-0.308, p=0.023) and total (?=-0.302, p=0.003), breakfast (?=-0.334, p=0.004), and snacking (?=-0.232, p=0.022) energy intake in women. Also, self-efficacy in resisting rewards was negatively related to lunch energy intake in men (?=-0.218, p=0.040). In men, self-efficacy in resisting hunger was positively related to protein intake (?=0.148, p=0.021) and relaxation was negatively related to lipid intake (?=-0.211, p=0.009). Self-efficacy in resisting some temptations, especially negative emotions, and dietary intakes were negatively related. Future research is needed to confirm these results and assess the prospective effects of self-efficacy. PMID:25215474

Shimpo, Misa; Fukkoshi, Yuko; Akamatsu, Rie

2014-12-01

380

Predicting daily maintenance dose of fluindione, an oral anticoagulant drug.  

PubMed

Due to large inter-individual variations, the dose of vitamin K antagonist required to target the desired hypocoagulability is hardly predictible for a given patient, and the time needed to reach therapeutic equilibrium may be excessively long. This work reports on a simple method for predicting the daily maintenance dose of fluindione after the third intake. In a first step, 37 patients were delivered 20 mg of fluindione once a day, at 6 p.m. for 3 consecutive days. On the morning of the 4th day an INR was performed. During the following days the dose was adjusted to target an INR between 2 and 3. There was a good correlation (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) between the INR performed on the morning of day 4 and the daily maintenance dose determined later by successive approximations. This allowed us to write a decisional algorithm to predict the effective maintenance dose of fluindione from the INR performed on day 4. The usefulness and the safety of this approach was tested in a second prospective study on 46 patients receiving fluindione according to the same initial scheme. The predicted dose was compared to the effective dose soon after having reached the equilibrium, then 30 and 90 days after. To within 5 mg (one quarter of a tablet), the predicted dose was the effective dose in 98%, 86% and 81% of the patients at the 3 times respectively. The mean time needed to reach the therapeutic equilibrium was reduced from 13 days in the first study to 6 days in the second study. No hemorrhagic complication occurred. Thus the strategy formerly developed to predict the daily maintenance dose of warfarin from the prothrombin time ratio or the thrombotest performed 3 days after starting the treatment may also be applied to fluindione and the INR measurement. PMID:8725714

Cazaux, V; Gauthier, B; Elias, A; Lefebvre, D; Tredez, J; Nguyen, F; Cambus, J P; Boneu, B; Boccalon, H

1996-05-01

381

Floating intake reduces pump damage  

SciTech Connect

The solution to a costly sand erosion problem at the Grande Dixence hydroelectric project in Switzerland turned out to be as simple as a floating pump. The 726-MW Grande Dixence project drains a 350-square-kilometer reach of the Zermatt and Herens valleys in the southwestern Swiss Alps. About half of the drainage area is covered by active glaciers. Because the glaciers in Zermatt Valley are so low in altitude, their water is collected in Z`mutt Reservoir at the base of the Matterhorn, then pumped up 500 meters for transport to the main Grande Disence Reservoir near Sion. The glacier water is heavily laden with sand. In spite of a gravel pass and a desilter, the 700,000-acubic-meter Z`mutt Reservoir receives large quantities of sand. The sand tends to remain in solution because of the low water temperatures (1 to 2 degrees Centigrade). In the original intake system, the sand would be sucked into the pump intakes, causing extensive erosion to the pump wheels and an expensive yearly program of repair. (Pump damage averaged 200,000 Swiss Francs ($284,000 U.S.) per year between 1980 and 1985.)

Kronig, A.

1993-12-31

382

Urinary isoflavonoid excretion as a biomarker of dietary soy intake during two randomized soy trials  

PubMed Central

We evaluated urinary isoflavonoid excretion as a biomarker of dietary isoflavone intake during two randomized soy trials (13–24 months) among 256 premenopausal women with a total of 1,385 repeated urine samples. Participants consumed a high-soy diet (2 servings/day) and a low-soy diet (<3 servings/week), completed 7 unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls, and donated repeated urine samples, which were analyzed for isoflavonoid excretion by liquid chromatography methods. We computed correlation coefficients and applied logistic regression to estimate the area under the curve. Median daily dietary isoflavone intakes at baseline, during low- and high-soy diet were 0.5, 0.2, and 67.7 mg aglycone equivalents, respectively. The corresponding urinary isoflavonoid excretion values were 0.9, 1.1, and 43.9 nmol/mg creatinine. Across diets, urinary isoflavonoid excretion was significantly associated with dietary isoflavone intake (rs=0.51, AUC=0.85; p<0.0001) but not within diet periods (rs=0.05–0.06, AUC=0.565–0.573). Urinary isoflavonoid excretion is an excellent biomarker to discriminate between low- and high-soy diets across populations, but the association with dietary isoflavone intake is weak when the range of soy intake is small. PMID:24901088

Morimoto, Yukiko; Beckford, Fanchon; Franke, Adrian A.; Maskarinec, Gertraud

2014-01-01

383

Visual stimuli in daily life.  

PubMed

People of all ages, but especially children and adolescents, are increasingly exposed to visual stimuli. Typical environmental stimuli that can trigger epileptic seizures in susceptible persons are televisions (TVs), computers, videogames (VGs), discothèque lights, venetian blinds, striped walls, rolling stairs (escalators), striped clothing, and sunlight reflected from snow or the sea or interrupted by trees during a ride in a car or train. Less common stimuli are rotating helicopter blades, disfunctioning fluorescent lighting, welding lights, etc. New potentially provocative devices turn up now and then unexpectedly. During the last decades especially, displays have become increasingly dominant in many of our daily-life activities. We therefore focus mainly on the characteristics of artificial light and on current and future developments in video displays and videogames. Because VG playing has been shown also to have positive effects, a rating system might be developed for provocativeness to inform consumers about the content. It is important that patients with epilepsy be informed adequately about their possible visual sensitivity. PMID:14706037

Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée G A; van der Beld, Gerrit; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Groen, Paul

2004-01-01

384

Cancer and cardiovascular diseases nutrition knowledge and dietary intake of medical students.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine medical students' knowledge regarding the association between dietary factors and the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases and to investigate if this knowledge has an impact on their dietary intakes. Three hundred and ninety medical students (males and females) were included in a study and grouped according to their daily fibre and fat intakes. For diet-disease knowledge, questions from the General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire for Adults were used and dietary assessment was done with Food Frequency Questionnaire. The obtained results showed that the students' diet-disease knowledge was generally inadequate. Higher level of diet-disease knowledge was among those with high dietary fibre intake, with slightly better scores for dietary factors and risk for cardiovascular diseases than the risk for cancer. Better diet-disease knowledge positively correlated with higher intake of fish (p = 0.027, p = 0.001) and vegetables (p = 0.019, p = 0.001) in high fibre groups of both gender, and in females additionally with fruit intake (p = 0.038, p = 0.007). A higher dietary fibre intake among studied students seems to be a factor that ensures lower obesity rates, lower intake of energy and lower consumption of coffee, sweets and alcoholic drinks. On the basis of the results of this study, it is clear that medical schools should provide in their nutrition programs the opportunity for students to learn about their own dietary and lifestyle behaviours, in order to more knowledgably and convincingly counsel their future patients. PMID:22053554

Jovanovi?, Gordana Kendel; Kresi?, Greta; Zezelj, Sandra Pavici?; Mi?ovi?, Vladimir; Nadarevi?, Vesna Stefanac

2011-09-01

385

Choline intake in a large cohort of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease123  

PubMed Central

Background: There is significant histologic and biochemical overlap between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis associated with choline deficiency. Objective: We sought to determine whether subjects with biopsy-proven NAFLD and evidence of an inadequate intake of choline had more severe histologic features. Design: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 664 subjects enrolled in the multicenter, prospective Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN) with baseline data on diet composition (from a recall-based food-frequency questionnaire) within 6 mo of a liver biopsy. Food questionnaires were analyzed with proprietary software to estimate daily intakes of choline. Liver biopsies were centrally read, and consensus was scored with the NASH CRN–developed scoring system. Because choline needs vary by age, sex, and menopausal status, participants were segregated into corresponding categories (children 9–13 y old, males ?14 y old, premenopausal women ?19 y old, and postmenopausal women) on the basis of the Institute of Medicine's definition of adequate intake (AI) for choline. Deficient intake was defined as <50% AI. Results: Postmenopausal women with deficient choline intake had worse fibrosis (P = 0.002) once factors associated with NAFLD (age, race-ethnicity, obesity, elevated triglycerides, diabetes, alcohol use, and steroid use) were considered in multiple ordinal logistic regression models. Choline intake was not identified as a contributor to disease severity in children, men, or premenopausal women. Conclusion: Decreased choline intake is significantly associated with increased fibrosis in postmenopausal women with NAFLD. The Pioglitazone vs Vitamin E vs Placebo for Treatment of Non-Diabetic Patients With Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00063622, and the Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00063635. PMID:22338037

Guerrerio, Anthony L; Colvin, Ryan M; Schwartz, Amy K; Molleston, Jean P; Murray, Karen F; Diehl, AnnaMae; Mohan, Parvathi; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B; Lavine, Joel E; Torbenson, Michael S

2012-01-01

386

Water and salt intake of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L)) following dipsogenic stimuli.  

PubMed Central

Wild rabbits trapped in their natural habitat and adapted to laboratory conditions were studied. Food, water and electrolyte (0.5 M-NaCl, 0.5 M-KCl, 0.25 M-MgCl2 and 0.25 M-CaCl2) consumption, urinary volume and sodium losses were monitored daily following stimuli which were found dipsogenic in other species. Water drinking was observed immediately after the intravenous injection of 1 M-NaCl (3 ml/kg), and following withdrawal of a mean of 13.9% of calculated blood volume. Daily intake of water decreased during intracerebroventricular (I.C.V.) infusion of 0.3 M-NaCl in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (c.s.f.), during I.C.V. infusion of 0.9 M-mannitol c.s.f., both at a rate of 17 microliters/h, following peritoneal dialysis with 5% (w/v) glucose solution, and during food restriction. Water intake was not affected following intravenous administration of acetazolamide (10 mg/kg). Daily intake of 0.5 M-NaCl solution was increased following peritoneal dialysis with 5% (w/v) glucose solution, which caused hyponatraemia, but not after haemorrhage which caused about the same sodium deficit as peritoneal dialysis, but as an isosmotic loss. Administration of two different angiotensin II analogues, systemically or I.C.V., failed to induce water drinking. However, urinary sodium excretion and intake of 0.5 M-NaCl were increased during the 5 days of I.C.V. infusion of angiotensin II (10 pmol/h). Infusion for 1 day of angiotensin II (500 pmol/h) led to increased urinary sodium excretion which was followed by increased intake. The intake of other electrolyte solutions was not significantly affected by any of the treatments detailed above. The mechanisms participating in initiation of thirst in wild rabbits are very sensitive to decrease in blood volume, in contrast to other species studied in laboratories. Angiotensin II at the doses and routes administered was not dipsogenic in wild rabbits. The increased intake of 0.5 M-NaCl solution observed during and after the long-term intraventricular administration of angiotensin II in the wild rabbit appears predominantly a response to sodium deficit caused by natriuresis. The persistence of appetite after the cessation of infusion is indicative of a residual effect on central mechanisms of salt appetite. PMID:3926988

Denton, D A; Nelson, J F; Tarjan, E

1985-01-01

387

Intake of fat and fiber-rich foods according to socioeconomic status: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study  

PubMed Central

This study describes the food intake of adolescents participating in the 1993 birth cohort from Pelotas, Southern Brazil, according to socioeconomic position. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the 2004-2005 follow-up visit. Food intake in the previous year was evaluated using the Block questionnaire. Socioeconomic status was evaluated based on an assets index, divided into quintiles. Foods with the highest frequency of daily intake were white bread (83%), butter or margarine (74.6%), beans (66.4%) and milk (48.5%). Intake of butter or margarine, bread, and beans was more frequent among poorer adolescents, and the inverse was true for milk. Intake of fruits and vegetables was low in all socioeconomic strata, but particularly low among the poor. In early adolescence, all socioeconomic groups showed high consumption of foods rich in fat and low consumption of foods rich in fiber. PMID:20963287

Neutzling, Marilda B.; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Vieira, Maria de Fátima A.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Victora, Cesar G.

2013-01-01

388

Gaussian Quadrature is an efficient method for the back-transformation in estimating the usual intake distribution when assessing dietary exposure.  

PubMed

In dietary exposure assessment, statistical methods exist for estimating the usual intake distribution from daily intake data. These methods transform the dietary intake data to normal observations, eliminate the within-person variance, and then back-transform the data to the original scale. We propose Gaussian Quadrature (GQ), a numerical integration method, as an efficient way of back-transformation. We compare GQ with six published methods. One method uses a log-transformation, while the other methods, including GQ, use a Box-Cox transformation. This study shows that, for various parameter choices, the methods with a Box-Cox transformation estimate the theoretical usual intake distributions quite well, although one method, a Taylor approximation, is less accurate. Two applications--on folate intake and fruit consumption--confirmed these results. In one extreme case, some methods, including GQ, could not be applied for low percentiles. We solved this problem by modifying GQ. One method is based on the assumption that the daily intakes are log-normally distributed. Even if this condition is not fulfilled, the log-transformation performs well as long as the within-individual variance is small compared to the mean. We conclude that the modified GQ is an efficient, fast and accurate method for estimating the usual intake distribution. PMID:22771820

Dekkers, A L M; Slob, W

2012-10-01

389

Towards the Fecal Metabolome Derived from Moderate Red Wine Intake  

PubMed Central

Dietary polyphenols, including red wine phenolic compounds, are extensively metabolized during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract; and their biological effects at the gut level (i.e., anti-inflammatory activity, microbiota modulation, interaction with cells, among others) seem to be due more to their microbial-derived metabolites rather than to the original forms found in food. In an effort to improve our understanding of the biological effects that phenolic compounds exert at the gut level, this paper summarizes the changes observed in the human fecal metabolome after an intervention study consisting of a daily consumption of 250 mL of wine during four weeks by healthy volunteers (n = 33). It assembles data from two analytical approaches: (1) UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of phenolic metabolites in fecal solutions (targeted analysis); and (2) UHPLC-TOF MS analysis of the fecal solutions (non-targeted analysis). Both approaches revealed statistically-significant changes in the concentration of several metabolites as a consequence of the wine intake. Similarity and complementarity between targeted and non-targeted approaches in the analysis of the fecal metabolome are discussed. Both strategies allowed the definition of a complex metabolic profile derived from wine intake. Likewise, the identification of endogenous markers could lead to new hypotheses to unravel the relationship between moderate wine consumption and the metabolic functionality of gut microbiota. PMID:25532710

Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Muñoz-González, Irene; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J.; Moreno-Arribas, María Victoria; Bartolomé, Begoña

2014-01-01

390

MOLYBDENUM INTAKE INFLUENCES MOLYBDENUM KINETICS IN HUMANS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Molybdenum is an essential mineral in the human diet and is toxic when intake is excessive. Data on which to base dietary recommendations, especially for excessive intake for humans, is limited. The objective of this study was to determine physiologic adaptations that occur when humans are exposed t...

391

Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats Table A39. Energy from solid fats: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 250.1

392

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars Table A41. Energy from added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 150.2

393

Central nervous system control of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

New information regarding neuronal circuits that control food intake and their hormonal regulation has extended our understanding of energy homeostasis, the process whereby energy intake is matched to energy expenditure over time. The profound obesity that results in rodents (and in the rare human case as well) from mutation of key signalling molecules involved in this regulatory system highlights its

Michael W. Schwartz; Stephen C. Woods; Daniel Porte Jr; Randy J. Seeley; Denis G. Baskin

2000-01-01

394

Usual Intake of Dark-green vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Dark-green vegetables Table A8. Dark-green vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.0

395

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit Table A2. Total whole fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.8

396

Usual Intake of Total starchy vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total starchy vegetables Table A12. Total starchy vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2

397

Usual Intake of Nuts and seeds  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Nuts and seeds Table A31. Nuts and seeds: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.3 (0.04) 0.0

398

FEED INTAKE BEHAVIOR AND IMPLICATIONS FOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of feed intake has been greatly facilitated by the recent development of computerized systems that monitor the feed intake of individual animals within a group. Such equipment was originally designed for use by breeding stock supply organizations in the performance testing of pigs in group situations. The majority of selection programs for pigs place considerable emphasis on feed

Mike Ellis

399

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:2 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:8/20/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

400

SEXUAL HARASSMENT AWARENESS & INTAKE COMMITTEE CENTRAL OFFICE  

E-print Network

1 SEXUAL HARASSMENT AWARENESS & INTAKE COMMITTEE CENTRAL OFFICE The Sexual Harassment Awareness and Intake Awareness Committee (SHAIC) is responsible for educating employees about sexual harassment and its potential consequences to the University community, and for overseeing sexual harassment training. The SHAIC

Brinkmann, Peter

401

Sleep and energy intake in early childhood  

PubMed Central

Background And Objectives: Shorter sleep is associated with higher weight in children, but little is known about the mechanisms. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that shorter sleep was associated with higher energy intake in early childhood. Methods: Participants were 1303 families from the Gemini twin birth cohort. Sleep duration was measured using the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire when the children were 16 months old. Total energy intake (kcal per day) and grams per day of fat, carbohydrate and protein were derived from 3-day diet diaries completed by parents when children were 21 months old. Results: Shorter nighttime sleep was associated with higher total energy intake (P for linear trend=0.005). Children sleeping <10?h consumed around 50?kcal per day more than those sleeping 11–<12?h a night (the optimal sleep duration for children of this age). Differences in energy intake were maintained after adjustment for confounders. As a percentage of total energy intake, there were no significant differences in macronutrient intake by sleep duration. The association between sleep and weight was not significant at this age (P=0.13). Conclusions: This study provides the first evidence that shorter nighttime sleep duration has a linear association with higher energy intake early in life. That the effect is observed before emergence of associations between sleep and weight indicates that differences in energy intake may be a mechanism through which sleep influences weight gain. PMID:24667887

Fisher, A; McDonald, L; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Llewellyn, C; Fildes, A; Schrempft, S; Wardle, J

2014-01-01

402

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:9 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:5/15/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106A Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

403

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:5 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:11/13/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Alfred Singer Building: 10 Room: 3N113 Telephone: 301-496-5461 E-Mail: singera@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

404

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:1 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:6/26/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Jonathan Keller Building: 560 Room: 12-03 Telephone: 1461 E-Mail: kellerjo@mail.nih.gov Center Number: N/A Shipping

405

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:4 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:10/22/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: andre nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 304-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

406

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:3 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:8/20/2013 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Andre Nussenzweig Building: 37 Room: 1106 Telephone: 301-435-6425 E-Mail: nussenza@exchange.nih.gov Center Number:

407

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:6 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:3/18/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Nicholas Restifo Building: 10-CRC Room: 3-5762 Telephone: 301-496-4904 E-Mail: restifo@nih.gov Center Number: N/A Shipping

408

LASP - Request for Animal Intake - Signatory Page  

Cancer.gov

Animal Intake Processing Form Order Number:7 Fax to: 301-846-6590 Request Date:3/18/2014 Investigator Requesting (receiving) Intake Name: Nicholas Restifo Building: 10-CRC Room: 3-5762 Telephone: 301-496-4904 E-Mail: restifo@nih.gov Center Number: N/A Shipping

409

IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. The report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that have been in satisfa...

410

IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. he report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that ave been in satisfact...

411

US Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study: dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine.  

PubMed

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has conducted the Total Diet Study (TDS) since 1961, which designed to monitor the US food supply for chemical contaminants, nutritional elements, and toxic elements. Recently, perchlorate was analyzed in TDS samples. Perchlorate is used as an oxidizing agent in rocket propellant, is found in other items (e.g., explosives, road flares, fireworks, and car airbags), occurs naturally in some fertilizers, and may be generated under certain climatic conditions. It has been detected in surface and groundwater and in food. Perchlorate at high (e.g., pharmacological) doses can interfere with iodide uptake into the thyroid gland, disrupting its function. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has identified that "the fetuses of pregnant women who might have hypothyroidism or iodide deficiency as the most sensitive population." This study reports on intake estimates of perchlorate and iodine, a precursor to iodide, using the analytical results from the TDS. Estimated average perchlorate and iodine daily intakes as well as the contribution of specific food groups to total intakes were estimated for 14 age/sex subgroups of the US population. The estimated smallest lower bound to the largest upper bound average perchlorate intakes by the 14 age/sex groups range from 0.08 to 0.39 micrograms per kilogram body weight per day (microg/kg bw/day), compared with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference dose (RfD) of 0.7 microg/kg bw/day. Infants and children demonstrated the highest estimated intakes of perchlorate on a body weight basis. The estimated average iodine intakes by the 14 age/sex groups reveal a lower bound (ND=0) and upper bound (ND=LOD) range of average intakes from 138 to 353 microg/person/day. Estimated iodine intakes by infants 6-11 months exceed their adequate intake (AI), and intakes by children and adult age/sex groups exceed their relevant estimated average requirement (EAR). PMID:18167505

Murray, Clarence William; Egan, Sara Kathleen; Kim, Henry; Beru, Nega; Bolger, Philip Michael

2008-11-01

412

[Dietary intake assessments: for who? why?].  

PubMed

The use of dietary intake assessment and questionnaires in clinical practice is largely debated, particularly for obese patients. The time needed to carry out them is very long, and the results are little or not at all workable due to the underreporting which may represent up to 50% of intakes for some patients. The usual methods and tools to evaluate dietary intakes are presented, they should not be used to calculate energy intake, but they permit to initiate a dialogue with the patient on his/her dietary pattern. The analysis of the dietary pattern is the first step in diet prescription and is essential to weight management and follow-up. This analysis must consider 3 important components: type of food usually eaten and preferred, the circumstances and environment of food intakes and meals, possible disorders of eating behaviour. Some results on food consumption in adults and children from the Fleurbaix Laventie Ville Santé Study are presented. PMID:12733326

Romon, M; Borys, J M

2002-12-01

413

Dairy Food at the First Occasion of Eating Is Important for Total Dairy Food Intake for Australian Children  

PubMed Central

The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%–138%) greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%–37%). Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children’s intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent. PMID:25251295

Riley, Malcolm D.; Baird, Danielle L.; Hendrie, Gilly A.

2014-01-01

414

Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains: a challenge for consumers.  

PubMed

The 2000 edition of Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans is the first to include a specific guideline for grain foods, separate from fruits and vegetables, and recognize the unique health benefits of whole grains. This paper describes and evaluates major tools for assessing intakes of total grains and whole grains, reviews current data on who consumes grain foods and where, and describes individual- and market-level factors that may influence grain consumption. Aggregate food supply data show that U.S. consumers have increased their intake of grain foods from record low levels in the 1970s, but consumption of whole-grain foods remains low. Data on individual intakes show that consumption of total grains was above the recommended 6 serving minimum in 1994-1996, but consumption of whole grains was only one third of the 3 daily servings many nutritionists recommend. Increased intake of whole-grain foods may be limited by a lack of consumer awareness of the health benefits of whole grains, difficulty in identifying whole-grain foods in the marketplace, higher prices for some whole-grain foods, consumer perceptions of inferior taste and palatability, and lack of familiarity with preparation methods. In July 1999, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authorized a health claim that should both make it easier for consumers to identify and select whole-grain foods and have a positive effect on the availability of these foods in the marketplace. PMID:11160579

Kantor, L S; Variyam, J N; Allshouse, J E; Putnam, J J; Lin, B H

2001-02-01

415

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2013-07-01

416

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2010-07-01

417

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2011-07-01

418

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2012-07-01

419

30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section...Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be...

2014-07-01

420

40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14...STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any...

2014-07-01

421

40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooling water intake structures. 401.14...STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any...

2012-07-01

422

40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14...STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any...

2013-07-01

423

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2012-07-01

424

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2011-07-01

425

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2014-07-01

426

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2010-07-01

427

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2014-07-01

428

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2013-07-01

429

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2013-07-01

430

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2010-07-01

431

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2012-07-01

432

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2011-07-01

433

30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56.13012... Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure...

2013-07-01

434

30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57.13012... Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure...

2011-07-01

435

30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57.13012... Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure...

2012-07-01

436

30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57.13012... Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure...

2014-07-01

437

30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56.13012... Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes