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1

Estimated daily intake of phthalates in occupationally exposed groups.  

PubMed

Improved analytical methods for measuring urinary phthalate metabolites have resulted in biomarker-based estimates of phthalate daily intake for the general population, but not for occupationally exposed groups. In 2003-2005, we recruited 156 workers from eight industries where materials containing diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and/or di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were used as part of the worker's regular job duties. Phthalate metabolite concentrations measured in the workers' end-shift urine samples were used in a simple pharmacokinetic model to estimate phthalate daily intake. DEHP intake estimates based on three DEHP metabolites combined were 0.6-850??g/kg/day, with the two highest geometric mean (GM) intakes in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film manufacturing (17??g/kg/day) and PVC compounding (12??g/kg/day). All industries, except phthalate manufacturing, had some workers whose DEHP exposure exceeded the U.S. reference dose (RfD) of 20??g/kg/day. A few workers also exceeded the DEHP European tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 50??g/kg/day. DEP intake estimates were 0.5-170??g/kg/day, with the highest GM in phthalate manufacturing (27??g/kg/day). DBP intake estimates were 0.1-76??g/kg/day, with the highest GMs in rubber gasket and in phthalate manufacturing (17??g/kg/day, each). No DEP or DBP intake estimates exceeded their respective RfDs. The DBP TDI (10??g/kg/day) was exceeded in three rubber industries and in phthalate manufacturing. These intake estimates are subject to several uncertainties; however, an occupational contribution to phthalate daily intake is clearly indicated in some industries. PMID:20010977

Hines, Cynthia J; Hopf, Nancy B N; Deddens, James A; Silva, Manori J; Calafat, Antonia M

2009-12-16

2

Daily Boron Intake from the American Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in boron as a naturally occurring trace element nutrient from the food supply is increasing. Mounting evidence suggests that boron is essential to human beings. This study explores the major food and beverage contributors of boron and estimates of daily boron intake from the American diet. Previous estimates in the literature of dietary boron consumption are based on limited

CHARLENE J RAINEY; LESLIE A NYQUIST; ROBERT E CHRISTENSEN; PHILIP L STRONG; B DWIGHT CULVER; JAMES R COUGHLIN

1999-01-01

3

Acceptable daily intake vs actual intake: the aspartame example.  

PubMed

This article discusses the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and the postmarketing surveillance of consumption levels for a food additive, using the widely used food additive aspartame (APM, L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) as an example. The safety implications of the ADI and consumption levels are also discussed. Aspartame has been assigned an ADI of 40 mg/kg/day by the World Health Organization and regulatory authorities in Europe and Canada, and of 50 mg/kg/day by the US Food and Drug Administration. A number of different methods have been used to measure consumption levels of food additives. Consumption estimations for aspartame from one such method, the food intake survey, have been done in the United States, Canada, Germany, and Finland. APM consumption in all age groups and selected subpopulations, even at the 90th percentile, is approximately 2-10 mg/kg/day and is thus well below the ADI. PMID:1894884

Butchko, H H; Kotsonis, F N

1991-06-01

4

A Semiparametric Transformation Approach to Estimating Usual Daily Intake Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of usual intakes of dietary components is important to individuals formulating food policy and to persons designing nutrition education programs. The usual intake of a dietary component for a person is the long-run average of daily intakes of that component for that person. Because it is impossible to directly observe usual intake for an individual, it is necessary

S. M. Nusser; A. L. Carriquiry; K. W. Dodd; W. A. Fuller

1996-01-01

5

Assessment of the daily intake of 62 polychlorinated biphenyls from dietary exposure in South Korea.  

PubMed

The dietary intake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was estimated using the sum of 62 PCB congeners (?(62)PCBs), including seven indicator PCBs and 12 dioxin-like PCBs, in the South Korea. In this study, 200 individual food samples belonging to 40 different foodstuffs were investigated to estimate the distribution of PCB congeners in five sampling cities. PCB exposure was estimated using Korean dietary habits as established by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The PCB concentrations in rice, the most frequently consumed food in Korea, was relatively low in whole food samples. The mean PCB levels measured in fish were the highest in this study, but each fish is consumed in relatively small amounts by the general population. Therefore, the daily dietary intake should also be considered with regard to human exposure to PCBs, especially with the consumption of contaminated foods. Dioxin-like PCB levels were also calculated using TEF values that were established in 2005. The average levels (pg TEQ/g) were 0.0002 for rice and 0.0098 for fish. The dioxin-like PCBs accounted for a relatively small percentage of the total PCBs, compared to previous studies. According to our research, the health risks associated with exposure to PCBs could be estimated using the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of the general population. PMID:22874429

Son, Min-Hui; Kim, Jun-Tae; Park, Hyokeun; Kim, Meehye; Paek, Ock-Jin; Chang, Yoon-Seok

2012-08-06

6

Daily intake of uranium by urban indian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The daily intake of uranium (238U) by an urban Indian adult population was estimated by the analysis of a duplicate diet, drinking water, and air samples using neutron activation and radio-chemical separation. The uranium intake through food is 0.55 g which is much larger than that from drinking water and air, at 0.09 and 0.01 g, respectively. The total daily

H. S. Dang; V. R. Pullat; D. D. Jaiswal; M. Parameswaran; C. M. Sunta

1990-01-01

7

Estimation of Daily Human Intake of Food Flavonoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The daily intake of food flavonoids was determined using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a four day\\u000a non consecutive food diary (4DFR) in a group of 45 female Flemish dietitians. The subjects were asked to report their food\\u000a intake three times: day 1 using the FFQ (FFQ1); between day 2 and 13 using a four day non consecutive food diary

P. Mullie; P. Clarys; P. Deriemaeker; M. Hebbelinck

2007-01-01

8

Guidelines for daily carbohydrate intake: do athletes achieve them?  

PubMed

Official dietary guidelines for athletes are unanimous in their recommendation of high carbohydrate (CHO) intakes in routine or training diets. These guidelines have been criticised on the basis of a lack of scientific support for superior training adaptations and performance, and the apparent failure of successful athletes to achieve such dietary practices. Part of the problem rests with the expression of CHO intake guidelines in terms of percentage of dietary energy. It is preferable to provide recommendations for routine CHO intake in grams (relative to the body mass of the athlete) and allow flexibility for the athlete to meet these targets within the context of their energy needs and other dietary goals. CHO intake ranges of 5 to 7 g/kg/day for general training needs and 7 to 10 g/kg/day for the increased needs of endurance athletes are suggested. The limitations of dietary survey techniques should be recognised when assessing the adequacy of the dietary practices of athletes. In particular, the errors caused by under-reporting or undereating during the period of the dietary survey must be taken into account. A review of the current dietary survey literature of athletes shows that a typical male athlete achieves CHO intake within the recommended range (on a g/kg basis). Individual athletes may need nutritional education or dietary counselling to fine-tune their eating habits to meet specific CHO intake targets. Female athletes, particularly endurance athletes, are less likely to achieve these CHO intake guidelines. This is due to chronic or periodic restriction of total energy intake in order to achieve or maintain low levels of body fat. With professional counselling, female athletes may be helped to find a balance between bodyweight control issues and fuel intake goals. Although we look to the top athletes as role models, it is understandable that many do not achieve optimal nutrition practices. The real or apparent failure of these athletes to achieve the daily CHO intakes recommended by sports nutritionists does not necessarily invalidate the benefits of meeting such guidelines. Further longitudinal studies of training adaptation and performance are needed to determine differences in the outcomes of high versus moderate CHO intakes. In the meantime, the recommendations of sports nutritionists are based on plentiful evidence that increased CHO availability enhances endurance and performance during single exercise sessions. PMID:11310548

Burke, L M; Cox, G R; Culmmings, N K; Desbrow, B

2001-01-01

9

New approaches in the derivation of acceptable daily intake (ADI)  

SciTech Connect

Current methods for estimating human health risks from exposure to threshold-acting toxicants in water or food, such as those established by the U.S. EPA, the FDA, the NAS, the WHO and the FAO, consider only chronic or lifetime exposure to individual chemicals. These methods generally estimate a single, constant daily intake rate which is low enough to be considered safe or acceptable. The intake rate is termed the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Two problems with the approach have been recognized. The first problem is that the method does not readily account for the number of animals used to determine the appropriate 'no-observed-effect-level' (NOEL). The second problem with the current approach is that the slope of the dose-response curve of the critical toxic effect is generally ignored in estimating the ADI. The report illustrates both a revised approach to estimate ADIs with all toxicity data which includes methods for partial lifetime assessment, and novel methods for ADI estimation with quantal or continuous toxicity data. The latter method addresses to a degree the common problems with the current approach.

Dourson, M.L.

1986-01-01

10

Acceptable daily intake and the regulation of intense sweeteners.  

PubMed

At the present time there are four intense sweeteners that are available in a number of countries: acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin. Extensive toxicity databases are available on each sweetener and these have been assessed by both national and international regulatory authorities. This review considers briefly the critical toxicity of each sweetener that is the basis for establishing the no adverse effect level in animal studies. The calculation of an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for human intake employs a large safety factor applied to the no-effect level. The magnitude of the safety factor for each sweetener is discussed in relation to the ADI values recommended by the Scientific Committee for Food in 1985. PMID:1697543

Renwick, A G

11

Daily intakes of alkaline earth metals in Japanese males  

SciTech Connect

Diet samples were collected for two duplicate portion studies and one market basket study. {sup 226}Ra in the diet samples was determined by alpha spectrometry and daily intake was estimated as 23 mBq (0.62 pCi) per person. Other alkaline earth metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry. Average mineral intakes of calcium, magnesium, strontium, and barium were 0.55 g, 0.21 g, 2.3 mg, and 0.39 mg, respectively. Element ratios magnesium:calcium 0.38, strontium:calcium 4.2 x 10{sup -3} barium:calcium 7.1 X 10{sup -4}, and Ra:calcium 1.1 x 10{sup -12} were found in the diet; these compared with element ratios in Japanese vertebrae of magnesium:calcium 0.011, strontium:calcium 3.1 x 10{sup -4}, barium:calcium 2.7 x 10{sup -5}, and radium:calcium 2.6 x 10{sup -14}. Observed ratios, defined as the element ratio in bone divided by the respective element intake ratio in Japanese males, were as follows: {sup 226}Ra 0.02, magnesium 0.03, strontium 0.07, and barium 0.04.

Shiraishi, Kunio [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Ueno, Kaoru [Kanazawa Univ., Ishikawa (Japan)] [and others

1994-01-01

12

Daily intake of Se by adult population of Mumbai, India.  

PubMed

The atmospheric Se levels in Mumbai varied between 0.02 and 1.92 ng m(-3) with a mean concentration of 0.21 ng m(-3). The daily intake of Se by the adult population of Mumbai is 61.9 microg day(-1). Differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry (DP-CSV) has been used for the determination of Se in air particulate and food samples. The detection limit of Se using DPCSV was found to be 0.05 ng ml(-1). The reliability of estimation was further assessed through the analysis of standard reference materials (SRMs), tuna fish, animal blood, milk powder and fish tissue obtained from IAEA. The frequency distribution of dietary intake levels of selenium for Mumbai adults showed that approximately 61% of the studied population have a dietary intake of 30-90 microg day(-1). Ingestion was found to be the main route of Se exposure for Mumbai adults. The turn over time of Se through blood is 17 days. PMID:11589402

Mahapatra, S; Tripathi, R M; Raghunath, R; Sadasivan, S

2001-09-28

13

Effects of energy density of daily food intake on long-term energy intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important question that has been raised recently is whether it is mainly the energy density (ED) of the food consumed or its macronutrient composition that determines daily energy intake (EI). In this scope, the effect of ED on EI has been assessed in short-term as well as long-term experiments. Over the short term, i.e., during a meal, it was

M. S. Westerterp-Plantenga

2004-01-01

14

Daily mercury intake in fish-eating populations in the Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although high levels of fish consumption and bioindicators of mercury exposure have been reported for traditional populations in the Amazon, little is known about their actual daily intake of Hg. Using an ecosystem approach, calculate daily mercury intake in adult fish-eaters, examine the relations between mercury intake and bioindicators of exposure and the factors that influence these relations. A cross-sectional

Carlos José Sousa Passos; Delaine Sampaio Da Silva; Mélanie Lemire; Myriam Fillion; Jean Rémy Davée Guimarães; Marc Lucotte; Donna Mergler

2008-01-01

15

Copper content in foods of Java Island and estimation of daily copper intake  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was first to determine copper content in soil, foodstuff and feces of villagers, and estimate the daily copper intake of the villagers and a guest. The data obtained may help clarify the relationships of copper content in the soil-plant (food)-daily intake-feces in Indonesia. Secondly, the percentage of copper contribution of food groups was calculated to determine the influence of the food patterns of villagers and a guest on daily copper intake. Finally, evaluation was made of daily copper intake of villagers in terms of estimated daily copper requirement by WHO.

Rivai, I.F.; Suzuki, S.; Koyama, H.; Hyodo, K.; Djuangsih, N.; Soemarwoto, O.

1988-07-01

16

Daily nutrient intake represents a modifiable determinant of nutritional status in chronic haemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. In maintenance haemodialysis patients, daily food intake is changeable; however, its relation- ship with nutritional status is unexplored. This study aimed to evaluate the isolated, long-term effect of daily nutrient intake on nutritional status in haemodialysis patients. Methods. We performed a prospective 1-year con- trolled study in 27 chronic haemodialysis patients, without recognized risk factors for malnutrition. Each day

Vincenzo Bellizzi; Biagio R. Di Iorio; Vincenzo Terracciano; Roberto Minutolo; Carmela Iodice; Luca De Nicola; Giuseppe Conte

2003-01-01

17

Impact of breakfast on daily energy intake - an analysis of absolute versus relative breakfast calories  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The role of breakfast energy in total daily energy intake is a matter of debate. Acute feeding experiments demonstrated that high breakfast energy leads to greater overall intake supported by cross-sectional data of a free-living population. On the other hand, a large intraindividual analysis has indicated that a high proportion of breakfast to overall intake is associated with lower

Volker Schusdziarra; Margit Hausmann; Claudia Wittke; Johanna Mittermeier; Marietta Kellner; Aline Naumann; Stefan Wagenpfeil; Johannes Erdmann

2011-01-01

18

Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO)  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO]) list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP) including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results The adolescents' mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe.

Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Poortvliet, Eric; Stromberg, Roger; Yngve, Agneta

2011-01-01

19

Independent effects of diet palatability and fat content on bout size and daily intake in rats.  

PubMed

Although considerable evidence attests to the hyperphagic effects of high-fat (HF) diets, the attribute(s) of these diets (e.g., palatability, caloric density, and postingestive effects) which promote overeating is still unclear. The present studies investigated the independent effects of diet palatability and macronutrient composition on intake using the self-regulated intragastric infusion paradigm. In Experiment 1, rats were infused with either HF or high-carbohydrate (HC) diet while drinking either saccharin (Sacc) or a more palatable saccharin-glucose (SaccGlu) test solution for 9 days. HF elicited greater daily intake than HC; lick pattern analysis revealed that HF produced larger but not more frequent bouts. Test solution was not related to intake, possibly due to the relatively modest palatability manipulation. Experiment 2 provided a more sensitive test: The palatability manipulation was strengthened and diet infusion made optional by provision of chow. HF again elicited larger bout size and total daily intake (diet+chow) than HC. Rats given the more palatable solution significantly increased intake (via larger bouts) and thus the amount of diet infused, but chow intake decreased such that total kilocalorie intake was not significantly related to solution palatability. The reliable observation that HF promoted larger bout size and greater total kilocalorie intake than HC provides additional evidence that fat sends weaker feedback signals relevant to controls of both satiation (suppression of ongoing eating, behaviorally manifest in meal size) and satiety (suppression of subsequent intake, reflected in total daily intake). PMID:14637223

Warwick, Zoe S; Synowski, Stephen J; Rice, Karmeshia D; Smart, Andrew B

2003-11-01

20

Estimating Distribution of Daily Intakes of Certain GRAS Substances. Committee on GRAS List Survey. Phase III.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a new method, developed by the National Academy of Sciences Committee on the GRAS List Survey - Phase III, for estimating daily intakes of certain GRAS substances with greater accuracy than reported earlier by the same committee. The ...

1976-01-01

21

Daily intake of essential minerals and metallic micropollutants from foods in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily intakes of essential minerals and metallic micro-pollutants are estimated from foods usually eaten in France. These foods are grouped in nine categories. For essential elements, intake estimates are comparable to the values recommended by the WHO. The cadmium value is lower than the tolerable daily dose. The estimated values are: cobalt 29 ?g\\/day, chromium 98 ?g\\/day, copper 1.5 mg\\/day,

G. H Biego; M Joyeux; P Hartemann; G Debry

1998-01-01

22

The Relationship between Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Proportion of Daily Protein Intake  

PubMed Central

Background The association between daily protein intake and osteoporosis is still controversial and only a few studies have explored the issue in Korea. This study investigated the relationship between daily protein intake and the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korean adults. Methods This study analyzed data extracted from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 4. Participants were aged 19 years or older and had never been treated for osteoporosis. The percentage of calories coming from protein intake was assessed by 24-hour recall method, and participants were divided into three groups according to recommended daily dietary protein intake as a proportion of total daily calories (i.e., <10%, 10%-20%, and >20%). A lumbar or femur neck bone mineral density T-score less than -2.5 was indicative of the presence osteoporosis. The influence of daily protein intake on the prevalence of osteoporosis was analyzed. Results In both sexes, the group with the highest protein intake had significantly lower odds of developing lumber osteoporosis when compared to the group with the lowest protein intake, after adjusting for associated factors (females: odds ratio [OR], 0.618; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.610 to 0.626; P for trend <0.001; males: OR, 0.695; 95% CI, 0.685 to 0.705; P for trend <0.001). Conclusion Sufficient daily protein intake lowered the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korean adults. Further prospective studies are necessary to verify the preventive effect of adequate protein intake on osteoporosis.

Kim, Junga; Lee, Hani; Choi, Hyunrim; Won, Changwon

2013-01-01

23

Maximum daily energy intake: it takes time to lift the metabolic ceiling.  

PubMed

Conventionally, maximum capacities for energy assimilation are presented as daily averages. However, maximum daily energy intake is determined by the maximum metabolizable energy intake rate and the time available for assimilation of food energy. Thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) in migratory disposition were given limited food rations for 3 d to reduce their energy stores. Subsequently, groups of birds were fed ad lib. during fixed time periods varying between 7 and 23 h per day. Metabolizable energy intake rate, averaged over the available feeding time, was 1.9 W and showed no difference between groups on the first day of refueling. Total daily metabolizable energy intake increased linearly with available feeding time, and for the 23-h group, it was well above suggested maximum levels for animals. We conclude that both intake rate and available feeding time must be taken into account when interpreting potential constraints acting on animals' energy budgets. In the 7-h group, energy intake rates increased from 1.9 W on the first day to 3.1 W on the seventh day. This supports the idea that small birds can adaptively increase their energy intake rates on a short timescale. PMID:10685904

Kvist, A; Lindström, A

24

Daily intake of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead by consumption of edible marine species.  

PubMed

The daily intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) through the consumption of 14 edible marine species by the general population of Catalonia, Spain, was estimated. Health risks derived from this intake were also assessed. In March-April 2005, samples of sardine, tuna, anchovy, mackerel, swordfish, salmon, hake, red mullet, sole, cuttlefish, squid, clam, mussel, and shrimp were randomly acquired in six cities of Catalonia. Concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were determined by ICP-MS. On the basis of recent fish and seafood consumption data, the daily intake of these elements was calculated for eight age/sex groups of the population. The highest As concentrations were found in red mullet, 16.6 microg/g of fresh weight, whereas clam and mussel (0.14 and 0.13 microg/g of fresh weight, respectively) were the species with the highest Cd levels. In turn, swordfish (1.93 microg/g of fresh weight) and mussel and salmon (0.15 and 0.10 microg/g of fresh weight) showed the highest concentrations of Hg and Pb, respectively. The highest metal intake through fish and seafood consumption corresponded to As (217.7 microg/day), Cd (1.34 microg/day), and Pb (2.48 microg/day) for male seniors, whereas that of Hg was observed in male adults (9.89 microg/day). The daily intake through fish and seafood consumption of these elements was compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWI). The intakes of As, Cd, Pb, and total Hg by the population of Catalonia were below the respective PTWI values. However, the estimated intake of methylmercury for boys, 1.96 microg/kg/week, was over the PTWI. PMID:16881724

Falcó, Gemma; Llobet, Juan M; Bocio, Ana; Domingo, José L

2006-08-01

25

Daily energy balance in children and adolescents. Does energy expenditure predict subsequent energy intake?  

PubMed

Both physical and sedentary activities primarily impact energy balance through energy expenditure, but they also have important implications in term of ingestive behavior. The literature provides scarce evidence on the relationship between daily activities and subsequent nutritional adaptations in children and adolescents. Sedentary activities and physical exercise are generally considered distinctly despite the fact that they represent the whole continuum of daily activity-induced energy expenditure. This brief review paper examines the impact of daily activities (from vigorous physical activity to imposed sedentary behaviors) on acute energy intake control of lean and obese children and adolescents, and whether energy expenditure is the main predictor of subsequent energy intake in this population. After an overview of the available literature, we conclude that both acute physical activity and sedentary behaviors induce food consumption modifications in children and adolescents but also that the important discrepancy between the methodologies used does not allow any clear conclusion so far. When considering energy intake responses according to the level of energy expenditure generated by those activities, it is clear that energy expenditure is not the main predictor of food consumption in both lean and obese children and adolescents. This suggests that other characteristics of those activities may have a greater impact on calorie intake (such as intensity, duration or induced mental stress) and that energy intake may be mainly determined by non-homeostatic pathways that could override the energetic and hormonal signals. PMID:23023045

Thivel, David; Aucouturier, Julien; Doucet, Éric; Saunders, Travis J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

2012-09-27

26

Effect of Different Types of Exercise Programmes on Daily Dietary Intake of Nutrients in Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation studied the effect of different types of exercise programmes (aerobic, strength, mixed i.e. combination of aerobic & strength) on daily dietary intake of nutrients in 120 females ranging in age from 20- 40 years. The subjects were divided into four groups' viz. aerobic, strength, mixed and control depending upon the type of exercise programme administered to them.

Anuradha Lehri

27

Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake.BackgroundThe amount of oxalate ingested may be an important risk factor in the development of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Reliable food tables listing the oxalate content of foods are currently not available. The aim of this research was to develop an accurate and reliable method to measure the food content

Ross P Holmes; Martha Kennedy

2000-01-01

28

A Review of the Acceptable Daily Intakes of Pesticides Assessed by WHO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past three decades, WHO has evaluated and reevaluated, through the Joint FAO\\/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues, 230 pesticides. The acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) of these pesticides are analyzed along with their scientific bases, In most cases, the evaluation process was consistent with the stated general principles and procedures of JMPR. However, the safety factors used in allocating the

F. C. Lu

1995-01-01

29

Comparison of three methods to reduce energy density. Effects on daily energy intake.  

PubMed

Reductions in food energy density can decrease energy intake, but it is not known if the effects depend on the way that energy density is reduced. We investigated whether three methods of reducing energy density (decreasing fat, increasing fruit and vegetables, and adding water) differed in their effects on energy intake across the day. In a crossover design, 59 adults ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for 4 weeks. Across conditions, the entrées were either standard in energy density or were reduced in energy density by 20% using one of the three methods. Each meal included a manipulated entrée along with unmanipulated side dishes, and all foods were consumed ad libitum. Reducing the energy density of entrées significantly decreased daily energy intake compared to standard entrées (mean intake 2667 ± 77 kcal/day; 11,166 ± 322 kJ/day). The mean decrease was 396 ± 44 kcal/day (1658 ± 184 kJ/day) when fat was reduced, 308 ± 41 kcal/day (1290 ± 172 kJ/day) when fruit and vegetables were increased, and 230 ± 35 kcal/day (963 ± 147 kJ/day) when water was added. Daily energy intake was lower when fat was decreased compared to the other methods. These findings indicate that a variety of diet compositions can be recommended to reduce overall dietary energy density in order to moderate energy intake. PMID:23523752

Williams, Rachel A; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

2013-03-19

30

Validation of the deuterium oxide method for measuring average daily milk intake in infants  

SciTech Connect

The deuterium oxide elimination method for measuring average daily milk intake was validated against measured formula intake in 16 studies of 11 infants in a metabolic ward. Deuterium oxide (approximately 0.10 g/kg body wt) was given orally. Deuterium enrichment was measured in urine samples collected predose, as available for 6-h postdose for TBW determination, and at 24 h and 5-10 d postdose for HDO elimination calculated according to the two-point method. Urine samples were vacuum distilled, water was reduced to hydrogen gas, and deuterium enrichment was measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Milk intake was measured throughout the elimination period from prefeeding and postfeeding bottle weights (n = 12) or volumes (n = 4). Without corrections for atmospheric water influx, milk intake was overestimated by 76 g/d (6%). With corrections for estimated metabolic water production, isotopic fractionation, and atmospheric water influx, deuterium measured 98% +/- 3% or 1300 g milk intake/d compared with actual milk intake of 1329 +/- 206 g/d.

Fjeld, C.R.; Brown, K.H.; Schoeller, D.A.

1988-09-01

31

Daily intake of food additives in Japan in five age groups estimated by the market basket method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The daily intake of 106 food additives (measured as 43 compounds) by five age groups (small children, children, youths, adults, and aged) was estimated. The estimation was based on the concentrations of the compounds in the food mixtures of seven categories consisting of 246 foods by the market basket method. The daily intake of most food additives increased with age.

Hajimu Ishiwata; Takashi Yamada; Nobuo Yoshiike; Motohiro Nishijima; Akio Kawamoto; Yoshiaki Uyama

2002-01-01

32

Daily ingestion of alginate reduces energy intake in free-living subjects.  

PubMed

Sodium alginate is a seaweed-derived fibre that has previously been shown to moderate appetite in models of acute feeding. The mechanisms underlying this effect may include slowed gastric clearance and attenuated uptake from the small intestine. In order to assess whether alginate could be effective as a means of appetite control in free-living adults, 68 males and females (BMI range: 18.50-32.81 kg/m(2)) completed this randomised, controlled two-way crossover intervention to compare the effects of 7 day daily ingestion of a strong-gelling sodium alginate formulation against a control. A sodium alginate with a high-guluronate content was chosen because, upon ingestion, it forms a strong gel in the presence of calcium ions. Daily preprandial ingestion of the sodium alginate formulation produced a significant 134.8 kcal (7%) reduction in mean daily energy intake. This reduced energy intake was underwritten by significant reductions in mean daily carbohydrate, sugar, fat, saturated fat and protein intakes. The absence of any significant interaction effects between the main effect of preload type and those of gender, BMI classification and/or timing of preload delivery indicates the efficacy of this treatment for individuals in different settings. These findings suggest a possible role for a strong-gelling sodium alginate formulation in the future management of overweight and obesity. PMID:18655817

Paxman, J R; Richardson, J C; Dettmar, P W; Corfe, B M

2008-07-04

33

Daily milk intake and body water turnover in suckling mink (Mustela vison) kits.  

PubMed

Daily (24 h) milk intake and body water turnover were measured in eight litters of suckling mink (Mustela vison) kits (6-9 kits litter-1) during weeks 1-4 post partum using the tritiated water (3HHO) dilution technique. The biological half-life of body water turnover in the mink kits increased linearly from 0.9 days in week 1 (3-5 days post partum) to 1.9 days in week 4 (22-24 days post partum). The daily milk intake varied markedly among the mink kits within a litter and increased significantly with increasing body mass from (mean +/- SEM) 10.9 +/- 0.4 g per kit during week 1 to 27.7 +/- 1.0 g per kit during week 4. Throughout the study, male kits were approximately 10% heavier and had a significantly higher milk intake than female kits. The results were corrected for water recycling between the dam and her kits, ranging from approximately 4 to 15% of the daily milk water intake, and the calculated daily milk yield of the 2 year old lactating mink dams increased from 87 +/- 7 g day-1 in week 1 to 190 +/- 15 g day-1 in week 4 post partum. The average body growth rate of the mink kits ranged from 2.9 g kit-1 per day in week 1 to 5.4 g kit-1 per day in week 4, and the calculated mean intake of mink milk per unit of body weight gain was remarkably stable at 1.0 (g g-1) during weeks 1-3 post partum, but increased to 5.6 (g g-1) in week 4 post partum. The amount of metabolizable energy supplied to the kits by the daily milk yield of the dam increased from approximately 450 to approximately 990 kJ day-1, which corresponded well with the calculated daily energy requirements of the kits. The tritiated water dilution technique was found feasible and reliable for repeated measurements of milk intake in suckling mink kits up to 4 weeks of age. PMID:9773486

Wamberg, S; Tauson, A H

1998-04-01

34

Duplicate portion sampling combined with spectrophotometric analysis affords the most accurate results when assessing daily dietary phosphorus intake.  

PubMed

The assessment of daily dietary phosphorus (P) intake is a major concern in human nutrition because of its relationship with Ca and Mg metabolism and osteoporosis. Within this context, we hypothesized that several of the methods available for the assessment of daily dietary intake of P are equally accurate and reliable, although few studies have been conducted to confirm this. The aim of this study then was to evaluate daily dietary P intake, which we did by 3 methods: duplicate portion sampling of 108 hospital meals, combined either with spectrophotometric analysis or the use of food composition tables, and 24-hour dietary recall for 3 consecutive days plus the use of food composition tables. The mean P daily dietary intakes found were 1106 ± 221, 1480 ± 221, and 1515 ± 223 mg/d, respectively. Daily dietary intake of P determined by spectrophotometric analysis was significantly lower (P < .001) and closer to dietary reference intakes for adolescents aged from 14 to 18 years (88.5%) and adult subjects (158.1%) compared with the other 2 methods. Duplicate portion sampling with P analysis takes into account the influence of technological and cooking processes on the P content of foods and meals and therefore afforded the most accurate and reliable P daily dietary intakes. The use of referred food composition tables overestimated daily dietary P intake. No adverse effects in relation to P nutrition (deficiencies or toxic effects) were encountered. PMID:22935340

Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; Zambrano, Esmeralda; Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Agil, Ahmad; Olalla, Manuel

2012-07-31

35

Estimates of genetic parameters for feed intake, feeding behavior, and daily gain in composite ram lambs.  

PubMed

Our objective was to estimate genetic parameters for feed intake, feeding behavior, and ADG in composite ram lambs ((1/2) Columbia, (1/4) Hampshire, (1/4) Suffolk). Data were collected from 1986 to 1997 on 1,239 ram lambs from approximately 11 to 17 wk of age at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center near Clay Center, NE. Feeding equipment consisted of an elevated pen with an entrance chute that permitted access to the feeder by only one ram lamb at a time, with disappearance of feed measured by an electronic weighing system. Ram lambs were grouped 11 per pen from 1986 to 1989, and nine per pen from 1990 to 1997. Data were edited to exclude invalid feeding events, and approximately 80% of the data remained after edits were applied. Traits analyzed were daily feed intake (DFI), event feed intake (EFI), residual feed intake (RFI), daily feeding time (DFT), event feeding time (EFT), number of daily feeding events (DFE), and ADG. Feed intake traits of DFI and EFI had estimated heritabilities of 0.25 and 0.33, respectively, whereas estimated heritability of RFI was 0.11. Heritability estimates for feeding behavior traits, including DFT, EFT, and DFE, ranged from 0.29 to 0.36. Average daily gain had an estimated heritability of 0.26. Genetic correlations were positive between all pairs of traits, except for RFI and ADG, and that estimate was essentially zero. Phenotypic correlations were generally similar to genetic correlations. Genetic correlations were large (0.80) between DFI and ADG, intermediate between DFI and RFI (0.61) and between DFT and DFE (0.55), and low (0.17 to 0.31) for the other pairs of traits, with the exception of RFI and ADG (-0.03). Genetic correlations between behavioral traits were greater than correlations between behavioral traits and measures of feed intake or ADG; however, selection for ADG and/or feed intake would be expected to cause some changes in feeding behavior. PMID:15753331

Cammack, K M; Leymaster, K A; Jenkins, T G; Nielsen, M K

2005-04-01

36

Daily intake of essential minerals and metallic micropollutants from foods in France.  

PubMed

Daily intakes of essential minerals and metallic micro-pollutants are estimated from foods usually eaten in France. These foods are grouped in nine categories. For essential elements, intake estimates are comparable to the values recommended by the WHO. The cadmium value is lower than the tolerable daily dose. The estimated values are: cobalt 29 micrograms/day, chromium 98 microgram/day, copper 1.5 mg/day, manganese 2.5 mg/day, molybdenum 275 micrograms/day, zinc 14 microgram/day, aluminium 4.2 mg/day, boron 1.6 mg/day, cadmium 27 micrograms/day and nickel 231 microgram/day. PMID:9695171

Biego, G H; Joyeux, M; Hartemann, P; Debry, G

1998-06-30

37

Average daily respiratory intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air determined by capillary gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is well used for the quantitative analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in environmental samples with high sensitivity. However, it has a lower separation efficiency in comparison with capillary gas chromatography (GC). This paper describes the comparison of the GC method with the HPLC method by measuring the PAH in air particulate matter; and average daily respiratory intake (ADI) of them in ambient air by man is presented here.

Matsumoto, H.; Kashimoto, T.

1985-01-01

38

PCB congeners transferred by human milk, with an estimate of their daily intake.  

PubMed

The degree of exposure by nursing mothers to individual polychronated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was studied and an estimate made of the daily intake by their infants. Epidemiological data from 100 nursing mothers were collected; 11 individual PCB congeners were determined in samples of the mothers' milk and the toxicity equivalent (TEQ) calculated. The mothers' data and the congener levels were statistically correlated. In over 80% of the samples, PCB congeners nos 180, 28, 138 and 170 were identified, and in over 70%, PCB congeners nos 188, 52, 187 and 153. PCB congeners nos 183, 101 and 118 were identified in percentages of between 39 and 15% of the samples. The highest levels detected were those in PCB no. 28 (1.626 ppb), and the lowest concentrations corresponded to PCB no. 183 (0.109 ppb). The toxicity equivalent (TEQ) was calculated from the toxic equivalent factor (TEF) of the congeners studied. There were no statistical differences between the geographical place of residence, age, occupation, and the congeners studied. There was a significant differentiation with respect to the birthplace, the location of industrial estates and the irrigation facilities in the area of residence, to smoking, the consumption of a varied diet, meat, fish or industrially processed foods, the physical constitution of the mothers, number of children and lactation periods, and PCB congener levels. The total PCB daily intake estimate was under the acceptable daily intake (ADI) limits of tolerance (WHO, 1988), and it was not possible to come to any conclusions for the estimated daily intake (EDI) of the 11 congeners studied since these have not yet been established. It was thus proposed to use the EDIs obtained in order to establish the ADIs of the individual PCB congeners. PMID:10566879

Angulo, R; Martínez, P; Jodral, M L

1999-11-01

39

Daily Dietary Selenium Intake in a High Selenium Area of Enshi, China  

PubMed Central

Enshi is a high selenium (Se) region in Hubei, China, where human selenosis was observed between 1958 and 1963. This study investigated the daily dietary Se intake of residents in Shadi, a town located 72 km northeast of Enshi City, to assess the risk of human selenosis in the high Se area. Foods consumed typically by the local residents and their hair samples were analyzed for total Se concentration. Concentrations of Se in different diet categories were as follows: cereals: 0.96 ± 0.90 mg kg?1 DW in rice and 0.43 ± 0.55 mg kg?1 DW in corn; tuber: 0.28 ± 0.56 mg kg?1 in potato and 0.36 ± 0.12 mg kg?1 in sweet potato; vegetables: ranging from 0.23 ± 1.00 mg kg?1 in carrot to 1.57 ± 1.06 mg kg?1 in kidney bean; animal proteins: 1.99 ± 1.11 mg kg?1 in chicken and egg. Based on the food Se concentrations and the daily per-capita consumption, the estimated daily Se intake in Shadi was 550 ± 307 µg per capita. Moreover, the Se concentrations in the hairs of local adult residents were 3.13 ± 1.91 mg kg?1 (n = 122) and 2.21 ± 1.14 mg kg?1 (n = 122) for females and males, respectively, suggesting that females might be exposed to higher levels of Se from daily cooking. Although there was no human selenosis occurrence in recent years, the high level of the daily Se intake suggested that the potential risk of selenosis for local residents, especially females, might be a matter of concern.

Huang, Yang; Wang, Quanxin; Gao, Jin; Lin, Zhiqing; Banuelos, Gary S.; Yuan, Linxi; Yin, Xuebin

2013-01-01

40

Monitoring oxidative damage in patients with liver cirrhosis and different daily alcohol intake.  

PubMed Central

This study looked at the possible association between alcohol abuse and free radical mediated oxidative injury by examining the presence of oxidative damage, as monitored by erythrocyte malonildialdehyde and plasma lipid hydroperoxides, in patients with liver cirrhosis and different lifetime daily alcohol intake. All patients with an alcohol intake above 100 g/day (ALC) showed concentrations of malonildialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxide on average four to fivefold higher than cirrhotic patients with alcohol intake below 100 g/day (NAC) or healthy controls. Further subgrouping of ALC patients showed that those with alcohol intake ranging between 100 and 200 g/day (ALC1) had malonildialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxide concentrations significantly lower than those with an intake higher than 200 g/day (ALC2). These differences were not related to the extent of liver injury or to the liver derangement as assessed by Child's classification. The increase in lipid peroxidation markers in ALC cirrhotic patients was associated with a decrease in, respectively, plasma alpha-tocopherol and erythrocyte glutathione concentrations. Significant differences were also seen between ALC1 and ALC2 groups in plasma alpha-tocopherol, but not in erythrocyte glutathione concentrations. The concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and glutathione in the blood of NAC patients were in contrast not substantially different from those of healthy controls. The close association between oxidative damage and alcohol abuse suggested that free radical intermediates produced during ethanol metabolism might be responsible for causing oxidative damage.

Clot, P; Tabone, M; Arico, S; Albano, E

1994-01-01

41

Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers.  

PubMed

Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during the night (0000-0600 h) than the least-efficient animals. In summary, correlations between RFI and feeding behavior were weak. Small differences in feeding behavior were observed between the most- and least-efficient animals but adverse behavioral effects associated with such selection in growing dairy heifers are unlikely. PMID:23489775

Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C

2013-03-13

42

Personal, social and environmental predictors of daily fruit and vegetable intake in 11-year-old children in nine European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate potential personal, social and physical environmental predictors of daily fruit intake and daily vegetable intake in 11-year-old boys and girls in nine European countries.Subjects:The total sample size was 13 305 (90.4% participation rate).Results:Overall, 43.2% of the children reported to eat fruit every day, 46.1% reported to eat vegetables every day. Daily fruit intake and daily vegetable intake was

I De Bourdeaudhuij; S te Velde; J Brug; P Due; M Wind; C Sandvik; L Maes; A Wolf; C Perez Rodrigo; A Yngve; I Thorsdottir; M Rasmussen; I Elmadfa; B Franchini; K-I Klepp

2008-01-01

43

Daily intake of copper from drinking water among young children in Sweden.  

PubMed Central

Copper is an essential trace element that may cause intoxication if intake becomes excessive. Young children are at risk of intoxication because of high consumption of drinking water and immature copper metabolism. The aims of this prospective study were to estimate concentrations of copper in drinking water, volumes of drinking water consumed by children, and children's daily intake of copper. Concentrations of copper in unflushed drinking water were analyzed for 1,178 children living in Uppsala and Malmö, Sweden, and concentrations and amounts of copper consumed from drinking water were estimated for 430 of these children, 9-21 months of age. The study children were from Swedish families, were not enrolled in publicly provided day care, and were not breast-fed more than three times a day. In the initial population, the 10th percentile for copper concentration in unflushed drinking water was 0.17 mg/L, the median was 0.72 mg/L, and the 90th percentile was 2.11 mg/L. In the subpopulation of 430 children, the 10th percentile for daily intake of copper from drinking water was 0.03 mg/L, the median was 0.32 mg/L, and the 90th percentile was 1.07 mg/L. The median daily intake of copper from drinking water was higher in Uppsala, at 0.46 mg, than in Malmö, at 0.26 mg. For groups of children whose families took part in a later prospective diary study, the copper concentration in consumed water could, to some extent, be predicted from the concentration of copper in unflushed drinking water. The lowest concentrations of copper in drinking water were found in households with old water-pipe systems and in those living in detached houses. A large proportion of the young children satisfied their daily requirement of copper solely from drinking water. About 10% of the children had a copper intake above the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Pettersson, R; Rasmussen, F

1999-01-01

44

Daily intake of manganese by local population around Kylleng Pyndengsohiong Mawthabah (Domiasiat), Meghalaya in India.  

PubMed

Present work is carried out adjacent to world's highest rainfall area Kylleng Pyndengsohiong (KP) Mawthabah (Domiasiat), Meghalaya in India to establish the baseline value of manganese intake through dietary route by the local tribe population in view of proposed uranium mining. The locally available food items collected from villages surrounding the proposed uranium mining site at KP Mawthabah (Domiasiat) were analysed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Technique. The manganese concentration in different food categories varies from 2.76-12.50 mg kg(-1) in cereals, 1.8-4.20 mg kg(-1) in leafy vegetables, 0.30-13.50 mg kg(-1) in non leafy vegetables, 0.50-15.30 mg kg(-1) in roots and tubers, 0.70-1.50 mg kg(-1) in fruits and 0.12-0.96 mg kg(-1) in flesh food. The mean dietary intake of Mn was found to be 3.83+/-0.25 mg d(-1) compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) of 2-5 mg d(-1). The daily intake of Manganese by the local tribe population is comparable with the value (3.7 mg d(-1)) recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for reference man and lower than the intake value observed for Indian and other Asian population. PMID:19193395

Gothankar, S S; Jha, S K; Lenka, P; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

2009-02-04

45

Self-monitoring of home blood pressure with estimation of daily salt intake using a new electrical device  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated a simple device to monitor daily salt intake at home and examined the relationship between salt excretion and morning blood pressure in order to enable patients to better manage daily salt intake and hypertension. The correlation between 24-h urinary salt excretion and measured value with salt monitor from overnight urine was significant (n=224, r=0.72, P0.4, P21), indicating sodium

K Yamasue; O Tochikubo; E Kono; H Maeda

2006-01-01

46

Breakfast consumption with and without vitamin-mineral supplement use favorably impacts daily nutrient intake of ninth-grade students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess the contribution of breakfast consumption (with and without dietary supplement intake) on total daily nutrient intake of ninth-grade students.Methods: Twenty-four-hour recall of dietary intake was collected from a random sample of 711 ninth-grade students attending 12 Archdiocesan high schools in New Orleans, Louisiana. Analysis of variance techniques, Pearson’s Chi-square statistic, and Breznahn–Shapiro method with Scheffé probabilities were

Theresa A Nicklas; Christina Reger; Leann Myers; Carol O’Neil

2000-01-01

47

Concentrations of selected heavy metals in food from four e-waste disassembly localities and daily intake by local residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to estimate the total daily dietary intakes of the five heavy metals As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb for residents living in five villages located in the Zhejiang province of China. The highest dietary intakes of the five heavy metals were all observed in the four e-waste disassembly localities. These findings suggested that these metals from

Gaofeng Zhao; Huaidong Zhou; Zijian Wang

2010-01-01

48

Daily menus can result in suboptimal nutrient intakes, especially calcium, of adolescents living in dormitories.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate daily menus in Croatian dormitories and to assess the overall intake of dairy products among resident adolescents. For this purpose, 168 daily menus were chosen for nutritional evaluation by random sampling. In addition, 227 adolescents (133 girls and 94 boys) participated in a questionnaire focused on food intake in addition to the meals supplied in dormitories with the aim to assess the amount and the type of dairy products consumed. The results showed that only 35% of the daily menus were nutritionally balanced. Most of the menus provided an excess of energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated fat, phosphorus, riboflavin, and vitamin A. The levels of calcium and magnesium in the menus were suboptimal. The menus offered to adolescents provided approximately 2 servings of dairy products per day. Milk was the most often supplied dairy product (1.1 servings per day), whereas yogurt had the lowest frequency of serving (0.2 servings per day). The most preferred dairy-based snack for both sexes was milk. Dairy-based snacks provided about 1 serving per day for both sexes and contributed to about 30% of the recommended dietary allowances for calcium. Adolescents who regularly consumed dairy-based snacks meet the recommendations (3.2 servings of dairy products per day and about 98% recommended dietary allowances for calcium). We conclude that the institutional menu planning should be improved because the intake of dairy snacks will continue to be a problem for achieving a healthy diet in adolescences. PMID:19083403

Kresi?, Greta; Simundi?, Borislav; Mandi?, Milena L; Kendel, Gordana; Zezelj, Sandra Pavici?

2008-03-01

49

Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain  

PubMed Central

Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ?5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to ?0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity.

Markwald, Rachel R.; Melanson, Edward L.; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.

2013-01-01

50

Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain.  

PubMed

Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ?5%; however, energy intake--especially at night after dinner--was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to -0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity. PMID:23479616

Markwald, Rachel R; Melanson, Edward L; Smith, Mark R; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

2013-03-11

51

Gastro-duodenal injury associated with intake of 100-325 mg aspirin daily.  

PubMed Central

During the year 1991, 43 patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and one with severe epigastric pain associated with intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were admitted for emergency endoscopy to our unit. Fourteen patients (33%) had been treated with 100-325 mg aspirin daily, 11 of them for at least one year. The mean age of this group was 71. Only two patients had a previous history of peptic ulcer. Five patients used anticoagulants or antiplatelet drugs concomitantly with aspirin. The endoscopic diagnosis of the sources of bleeding was erosive gastritis in eight patients, gastric ulcer in four, duodenal ulcer in five and oesophageal ulcer in one. Our results support findings by other groups, showing that doses of aspirin as low as 75 mg daily should be used in the management of elderly patients with thrombo-embolic disease.

Oren, R.; Ligumsky, M.; Lysy, J.; Gonzales, J.; Zimmerman, J.

1993-01-01

52

Cattle selected for lower residual feed intake have reduced daily methane production.  

PubMed

Seventy-six Angus steers chosen from breeding lines divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) were studied to quantify the relationship between RFI and the daily rate of methane production (MPR). A 70-d feeding test using a barley-based ration was conducted in which the voluntary DMI, feeding characteristics, and BW of steers were monitored. The estimated breeding value (EBV) for RFI (RFI(EBV)) for each steer had been calculated from 70-d RFI tests conducted on its parents. Methane production rate (g/d) was measured on each steer using SF(6) as a tracer gas in a series of 10-d measurement periods. Daily DMI of steers was lower during the methane measurement period than when methane was not being measured (11.18 vs. 11.88 kg; P = 0.001). A significant relationship existed between MPR and RFI when RFI (RFI(15d)) was estimated over the 15 d when steers were harnessed for methane collection (MPR = 13.3 x RFI(15d) + 179; r(2) = 0.12; P = 0.01). Animals expressing lower RFI had lower daily MPR. The relationship established between MPR and RFI(15d) was used to calculate a reduction in daily methane emission of 13.38 g accompanied a 1 kg/d reduction in RFI(EBV) in cattle consuming ad libitum a diet of 12.1 MJ of ME/kg. The magnitude of this emission reduction was between that predicted on the basis of intake reduction alone (18 g x d(-1) x kg of DMI(-1)) and that predicted by a model incorporating steer midtest BW and level of intake relative to maintenance (5 g x d(-1) x kg of DMI(-1)). Comparison of data from steers exhibiting the greatest (n = 10) and lowest (n = 10) RFI(15d) showed the low RFI(15d) group to not only have lower MPR (P = 0.017) but also reduced methane cost of growth (by 41.2 g of CH(4)/kg of ADG; P = 0.09). Although the opportunity to abate livestock MPR by selection against RFI seems great, RFI explained only a small proportion of the observed variation in MPR. A genotype x nutrition interaction can be anticipated, and the MPR:RFI(EBV) relationship will need to be defined over a range of diet types to account for this. PMID:17296777

Hegarty, R S; Goopy, J P; Herd, R M; McCorkell, B

2007-02-12

53

Deriving allowable daily intakes for systemic toxicants lacking chronic toxicity data  

SciTech Connect

The lack of human toxicological data for most chemical compounds makes it difficult to quickly assess health risks associated with exposure to contaminants at hazardous waste sites. It would therefore be advantageous to have a technique for estimating acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) of potentially toxic substances based on more widely available animal toxicity data. This article focuses on the use of LD50 data to derive provisional ADIs, and it suggests multiplying oral LD50 values (expressed in mg/kg of body wt) by a factor in the range of 5 X 10(-6) to 1 X 10(-5) day-1 to convert them to such ADIs. It is emphasized that these interim ADI values are no substitute for toxicity testing, but that such testing would most likely result in higher ADI estimates.

Layton, D.W.; Mallon, B.J.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Small, M.J.

1987-03-01

54

Environmental factors affecting daily water intake on cattle finished in feedlots.  

PubMed

Records from 7 studies conducted during 1999 to 2005 were utilized to assess the effects of environmental factors on daily water intake (DWI) of finishing cattle. Data from unshaded feedlot pens (up to 24 pens utilized per study; 6 to 9 animals·pen(-1)) containing predominantly Angus crossbred cattle were obtained by dividing total water intake by the number of animals utilizing that waterer. Each waterer was shared by 2 pens; therefore, data were derived from a database containing 72 experimental units comprising 144 pen records. Climatic data were compiled from weather stations located at the feedlot facility. The database included daily measures of mean ambient (Ta), maximum (Tmax), and minimum (Tmin) temperature (°C), precipitation, relative humidity (%), wind speed (m•s(-1)), solar radiation (SR, W•m(-2)), and temperature-humidity index (THI), as well as DMI (kg•d(-1)) and DWI (L•d(-1)). Simple and multiple regression analyses were conducted by season and for the overall data set. Results confirmed that DWI increases during the summer (P < 0.01). When seasons were combined and analyzed by linear regression, the best predictors of DWI were THI (r(2) = 0.57), Ta (r(2) = 0.57), Tmin (r(2) = 0.56), and Tmax (r(2) = 0.54). In multiple regression analyses, smaller coefficients of determination (R(2) < 0.25) were found within summer and winter seasons. Across season, the largest R(2) (0.65) were obtained from the following prediction equations: 1) DWI = 5.92 + (1.03•DMI) + (0.04•SR) + (0.45•Tmin); and 2) DWI = -7.31 + (1.00•DMI) + (0.04•SR) + (0.30•THI). In conclusion, Ta, Tmin, and THI were found to be the primary factors that influence DWI in finishing cattle, whereas SR and DMI were found to have a smaller influence on DWI. PMID:20870953

Arias, R A; Mader, T L

2010-09-24

55

The comparison in daily intake of nutrients, dietary habits and body composition of female college students by body mass index  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the body composition, dietary habits, daily intake of nutrients and clinical blood indices in female college students by body mass index of normal weight, overweight and obese. The subjects of this research were 141 respondents of a survey carried out on students, and subjects were given 60 minutes to answer questionnaires, by recording their own answers. The average heights and weights of subjects by BMI were 162.17 cm, 52.73 kg in normal weight group, 162.35 cm, 62.22 kg in overweight group and 161.72 cm, 69.82 kg in obesity group, respectively. As for the survey daily of meals, starving breakfast and kind of snacks of subjects were significantly different among the groups by BMI. In animal protein food intakes, meat intake was the highest 'every day' food consumed by subjects, and there was a significant difference in distribution of BMI among subjects. Fruits, and greenish and yellow vegetables intakes were the highest 'every day' foods indicated by the normal weight group. Consumption of carbonated beverages and juices showed a significant difference among groups by BMI. The average of total-cholesterol was the overweight group was the higher value. There was a significant difference in diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure among the groups by BMI. Average daily calories intake levels were insufficient and the intake ratio of carbohydrates, protein, and fat was the normal weight group 68:17:15, the overweight group 64:18:18 and the obese group 73:14:13. Results of the daily vitamin intake analyses displayed riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, and folic acid levels lower than the RI levels. Fe intake was the normal weight group 81%, overweight group 76%, obese group 59% of the RI level. Therefore, it is necessary for college students to establish regular meals, good quality snacks and consuming more vitamin and mineral nutritions for optimal health conditions.

2007-01-01

56

Evaluation of estimated daily intake (EDI) of cadmium and lead for rice (Oryza sativa L.) in calcareous soils.  

PubMed

The excessive amounts of cadmium and lead in food chain can cause health problems for humans and ecosystem. Rice is an important food in human diet. Therefore this study was conducted in order to investigate cadmium and Lead concentrations in seed rice (Oryza saliva) of paddy fields in southwest of Iran. A total of 70 rice seed samples were collected from paddy fields in five regions of Khuzestan province, Southwest Iran, during harvesting time. In the samples cadmium and Lead concentrations were measured. To assess the daily intake of Cadmium and Lead by rice, daily consumption of rice was calculated. The results showed that average concentrations of Cadmium and Lead in rice seeds were 273.6 and 121.8??g/kg, respectively. Less than 72% of rice seed samples had Cadmium concentrations above 200??g/kg (i.e. Guide value for cadmium); and less than 3% had Lead concentrations above 150??g/kg (i.e. Guide value for Lead). The estimated daily intakes of cadmium by the local population was calculated to 0.59??g/day?kg bw, which corresponds to 59% of the tolerable daily intakes (i.e. 1??g/day?kg bw). Eleven out of 70 samples (15.71%) exceed the tolerable daily intakes. The dietary intakes for Lead in the local population ranged from 0.22 to 0.47??g/day?kg bw. Tolerable daily intakes for Lead is 3.6??g/day?kg bw. As a whole, long term consumption of the local rice may bear high risk of heavy metal exposure to the consumer in the study region. PMID:23566692

Chamannejadian, Ali; Sayyad, Gholamabbas; Moezzi, Abdolamir; Jahangiri, Alireza

2013-04-08

57

Portion size effects on daily energy intake in low-income Hispanic and African American children and their mothers1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Portion size influences children's energy intakes at meals, but effects on daily intake are unknown. Objective: Effects of large portions on daily energy intake were testedin5-y-oldHispanicandAfricanAmericanchildrenfromlow- income families. Maternal food intake data were collected to eval- uate familial susceptibility to portion size. Design: A within-subjects experimental design with reference and large portion sizes was used in a study of

Jennifer O Fisher; Angeles Arreola; Leann L Birch; Barbara J Rolls

58

Assessment of daily food and nutrient intake in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients using dietary reference intakes.  

PubMed

Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40-79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation. PMID:23803740

Kobayashi, Yukiko; Hattori, Mikako; Wada, Sayori; Iwase, Hiroya; Kadono, Mayuko; Tatsumi, Hina; Kuwahata, Masashi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Kido, Yasuhiro

2013-06-26

59

Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes  

PubMed Central

Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation.

Kobayashi, Yukiko; Hattori, Mikako; Wada, Sayori; Iwase, Hiroya; Kadono, Mayuko; Tatsumi, Hina; Kuwahata, Masashi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Kido, Yasuhiro

2013-01-01

60

Bisphenol A (BPA) daily intakes in the United States: Estimates from the 2003–2004 NHANES urinary BPA data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations into human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) have, for the most part, assessed intake based on food consumption estimates combined with measurements or estimates of BPA in foods. In this study, nationally representative data on urinary levels of BPA in the United States (US) from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to estimate daily

Judy S Lakind; Daniel Q Naiman; Judy S

2008-01-01

61

Daily intake of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc from drinking water: the Seattle study of trace metal exposure  

SciTech Connect

The daily intake of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc from drinking water is estimated for men, women, and children living in Seattle based on their reported water consumption and the metal concentrations in water from their homes. Metal concentrations were closely associated with the type of plumbing in the home, which was found to be accurately reported by the subjects. Residents of homes with copper plumbing consumed a substantial proportion of their daily required copper from their drinking water, an important finding in view of the possible suboptimal copper levels in American diets. Lead intake levels from water in new homes was comparable to estimated U.S. dietary intakes, but was low relative to levels thought to be toxic. The results suggest practical methods for assessing the associations of chronic diseases with long-term, low-level exposures to these metals.

Sharrett, A.R. (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst., Bethesda, MD); Carter, A.P.; Orheim, R.M.; Feinleib, M.

1982-08-01

62

Mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) TDI arrays producibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sofradir mercury cadmium telluride technology is in production. Among numerous devices one Sofradir product, the 288 X 4 linear array with TDI, is at the top level of the production status. This fact is the result of much effort first at the Infrared Research Laboratory (Lir), then at the Sofradir development center where stabilization of the process, including reliability

Daniel Zenatti; Patrick Radisson

1994-01-01

63

Daily Energy Intake of Broiler Chickens is Altered by Proximate Nutrient Content and Form of the Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was designed to test the ability of broiler chickens to equalize daily energy intake when proximate components of the diet were changed. Afactorialarrangementwasusedtotesteffectsofprotein, fat, and fiber content in the diet. The simplest diet con- tained only corn and soybean meal to provide energy and protein. Protein contents were calculated to be 16.4, 18.2, and 20.0%, with added protein

J. D. Latshaw

2008-01-01

64

Influence of undergradability of protein in the diet on intake, daily gain, feed efficiency, and body composition of Holstein heifers.  

PubMed

Thirty-two Holstein heifers with body weights (BW) between 213 and 231 kg were randomly assigned to one of four treatments for the 50-d trial. Treatments consisted of four percentages of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) (31, 43, 50, and 55% of total N) at 100% of National Research Council recommendations for total digestible nutrients and crude protein. Total mixed diets composed of corn silage, ground barley straw, soybean meal, blood meal, urea, and minerals were formulated for a mean daily BW gain of 0.60 kg. Ration RUP percentage was varied by shifting protein sources. Mean dry matter intake (grams per kilogram of BW0.75) was 97.6, 84.4, 77.8, and 73.5 for 31% RUP (soybean meal), 43% RUP (blood and soybean meal), 50% RUP (blood meal with urea), and 55% RUP (blood meal) treatments, respectively. Daily gain was 0.84, 0.89, 0.91, and 0.96 kg/d, respectively. Intake of digestible energy (megacalories per kilogram of BW0.75 per day) was 0.28, 0.24, 0.22, and 0.21, respectively, and feed efficiency (megacalories of digestible energy per kilogram of BW gain) was 20.6, 16.1, 15.2, and 13.3, respectively. Dry matter intake (grams per kilogram of BW0.75), digestible energy intake, feed efficiency, daily BW gain, and hip height differed with respect to treatment. There were no differences in growth, wither height, or heart girth because of treatments. Changes in percentage of empty body fat as estimated by urea space procedures was 6.73, 4.67, 6.67, and 7.32, respectively, and did not differ with respect to treatments. These results indicate that increasing the RUP percentage in the diets of growing heifers improves feed efficiency and increases BW gain. PMID:9178135

Tomlinson, D L; James, R E; Bethard, G L; McGilliard, M L

1997-05-01

65

Daily intake of antioxidants in relation to survival among adult patients diagnosed with malignant glioma  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant glioma is a rare cancer with poor survival. The influence of diet and antioxidant intake on glioma survival is not well understood. The current study examines the association between antioxidant intake and survival after glioma diagnosis. Methods Adult patients diagnosed with malignant glioma during 1991-1994 and 1997-2001 were enrolled in a population-based study. Diagnosis was confirmed by review of pathology specimens. A modified food-frequency questionnaire interview was completed by each glioma patient or a designated proxy. Intake of each food item was converted to grams consumed/day. From this nutrient database, 16 antioxidants, calcium, a total antioxidant index and 3 macronutrients were available for survival analysis. Cox regression estimated mortality hazard ratios associated with each nutrient and the antioxidant index adjusting for potential confounders. Nutrient values were categorized into tertiles. Models were stratified by histology (Grades II, III, and IV) and conducted for all (including proxy) subjects and for a subset of self-reported subjects. Results Geometric mean values for 11 fat-soluble and 6 water-soluble individual antioxidants, antioxidant index and 3 macronutrients were virtually the same when comparing all cases (n = 748) to self-reported cases only (n = 450). For patients diagnosed with Grade II and Grade III histology, moderate (915.8-2118.3 mcg) intake of fat-soluble lycopene was associated with poorer survival when compared to low intake (0.0-914.8 mcg), for self-reported cases only. High intake of vitamin E and moderate/high intake of secoisolariciresinol among Grade III patients indicated greater survival for all cases. In Grade IV patients, moderate/high intake of cryptoxanthin and high intake of secoisolariciresinol were associated with poorer survival among all cases. Among Grade II patients, moderate intake of water-soluble folate was associated with greater survival for all cases; high intake of vitamin C and genistein and the highest level of the antioxidant index were associated with poorer survival for all cases. Conclusions The associations observed in our study suggest that the influence of some antioxidants on survival following a diagnosis of malignant glioma are inconsistent and vary by histology group. Further research in a large sample of glioma patients is needed to confirm/refute our results.

2010-01-01

66

Daily intake of antioxidants in relation to survival among adult patients diagnosed with malignant glioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Malignant glioma is a rare cancer with poor survival. The influence of diet and antioxidant intake on glioma survival is not well understood. The current study examines the association between antioxidant intake and survival after glioma diagnosis. METHODS: Adult patients diagnosed with malignant glioma during 1991-1994 and 1997-2001 were enrolled in a population-based study. Diagnosis was confirmed by review

Gerald N DeLorenze; Lucie McCoy; Ai-Lin Tsai; Charles P Quesenberry Jr; Terri Rice; Dora Il'yasova; Margaret Wrensch

2010-01-01

67

Differential effects of daily snack food intake on the reinforcing value of food in obese and nonobese women123  

PubMed Central

Background: Food reinforcement, ie, motivation to obtain food, is associated with energy intake and obesity. Finding ways to decrease the reinforcing value of unhealthy foods may help with adherence to diets and maintenance of weight loss. Our previous study in nonobese adults showed that daily consumption of the same snack food (food consumed apart from meals) for 14 d significantly decreased its reinforcing value. Objectives: The aims of this study were to replicate and extend these findings to obese individuals and to examine the effects of different portion sizes of snack foods on food reinforcement. Design: Food reinforcement and liking were tested in 31 obese and 27 nonobese women at baseline and after 2 wk of daily consumption of 0, 100, or 300 kcal/d of the same snack food. Results: We found a significant interaction of phase, portion size, and body mass index on the pattern of operant responding for food. Obese women had a significant increase in food reinforcement after consuming the 300-kcal portion of food for 2 wk, whereas nonobese women had the opposite response. No significant differences were found on the reinforcing value with the 0- and 100-kcal portion-size conditions. Women in the 300-kcal group (obese and nonobese) reported a significant decrease in snack food liking from baseline to after daily intake. Conclusions: These findings suggest that obese and nonobese women respond differently to the daily intake of a snack food and that this may not be a viable mechanism for reducing food reinforcement in obese women. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00837694.

Bulkley, Alison M; Badawy, Rebecca L; Krause, Nicole; McCann, Sarah; Epstein, Leonard H

2009-01-01

68

Effects of milk replacer program fed 2 or 4 times daily on nutrient intake and calf growth.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine if feeding frequency (FF) of milk replacer (MR; meals/d) alters starter intake, growth, and efficiency of growth in nursery calves fed a conventional or accelerated MR. We hypothesized that smaller and more frequent MR meals would increase starter intake and growth when greater amounts of MR nutrients are fed to nursery calves. Forty-eight Holstein and Holstein-cross heifer and bull calves were assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of MR and FF. Treatments included (1) standard 20% CP and 20% fat MR fed at 1.5% of body weight (BW; 2 meals/d; STD2), (2) standard 20% CP and 20% fat MR fed at 1.5% of BW (4 meals/d; STD4), (3) modified 26% CP and 18% fat MR fed at 2.0% of BW (2 meals/d; MOD2), and (4) modified 26% CP and 18% fat MR fed at 2.0% of BW (4 meals/d; MOD4; n=12). All calves were fed at 0600 and 1700 h and STD4 and MOD4 calves were fed 2 additional meals at 1100 and 1400 h, resulting in the same amount of MR offered for the 2 × and 4 × treatments. Treatments were fed from d 2 to 42 of age and all MR feeding rates were adjusted weekly to maintain MR solids intakes at 1.5 or 2.0% of BW for STD and MOD diets, respectively, and were reconstituted to 15% total solids. Milk replacer FF was reduced by 50% on d 36 and calves were weaned on d 42. Calves were housed in hutches bedded with straw and offered water and a texturized 18% CP starter ad libitum. Calf body weight and body structure were measured weekly and starter intake and fecal scores were measured daily. Through both 42 and 56 d, calves fed MOD had greater CP and fat intake, resulting in increased average daily gain, heart girth, circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and muscle total lipid compared with calves fed STD diets. Calves fed MOD diets consumed less starter grain than STD calves but total dry matter intake was similar among treatments. Increased FF for STD calves resulted in greater starter intake at weaning but increasing FF of MOD calves did not have this effect. Due to differences in starter intake, total dry matter by calves through d 56 was similar across treatments. Additionally, increased FF tended to increase serum NEFA concentrations. Serum NEFA concentration was negatively correlated with starter intake. The BW of calves fed STD2 and STD4 treatments almost doubled and the BW of calves on the MOD2 and MOD4 treatments doubled by d 56. Increased FF of the conventional MR program but not accelerated MR program increased starter intake. Increased FF did not affect growth, starter intake, or gain:feed ratio. PMID:23219113

Kmicikewycz, A D; da Silva, D N L; Linn, J G; Litherland, N B

2012-12-06

69

Betel quid chewing as a source of manganese exposure: total daily intake of manganese in a Bangladeshi population  

PubMed Central

Background A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Methods Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Results Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 ?g L-1) compared to non-chewers (0.62 ?g L-1). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg-1 (range 26 -518 mg kg-1). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg-1 (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. Conclusion We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity.

2011-01-01

70

Protein content of diets dictates the daily energy intake of a free-ranging primate  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important goal in nutritional ecology is to understand what governs the diet selection of free-living animals. Relevant information is however scarce because of the considerable challenges of collecting and interpreting such data. Here we use recent advances in nutritional theory to analyze data on food selection and nutrient intake by wild spider monkeys (Ateles chamek). We show that hypotheses

Annika M. Felton; Adam Felton; David Raubenheimer; Stephen J. Simpson; William J. Foley; Jeff T. Wood; Ian R. Wallis; David B. Lindenmayer

2009-01-01

71

Daily intake of heavy metals by infants through milk and milk products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of the essential elements Zn and Cu and potentially toxic elements Pb and Cd in different milk samples and baby food materials were measured, primarily to assess whether the intakes comply with recommended desired levels for essential and permissible levels for toxic elements. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in different types of milk were

R. M Tripathi; R Raghunath; V. N Sastry; T. M Krishnamoorthy

1999-01-01

72

Independent effects of diet palatability and fat content on bout size and daily intake in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although considerable evidence attests to the hyperphagic effects of high-fat (HF) diets, the attribute(s) of these diets (e.g., palatability, caloric density, and postingestive effects) which promote overeating is still unclear. The present studies investigated the independent effects of diet palatability and macronutrient composition on intake using the self-regulated intragastric infusion paradigm. In Experiment 1, rats were infused with either HF

Zoe S. Warwick; Stephen J. Synowski; Karmeshia D. Rice; Andrew B. Smart

2003-01-01

73

[Nutritional intake of daily diets in nursing homes for the aged. I--Energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate and fiber].  

PubMed

Daily diet from 20 nursing homes for the elderly in the German state of Hessen was collected over a period of 7 days. Caloric free beverages were not included. After weighing and protocoling, the components of the meals were combined to one sample per day. Energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate and dietary fiber content was determined by analytical methods and by calculation using the nutrient table Federal Foodstuffs Key (Bundeslebensmittelschlüssel). Mean calculated contents exceeded analytical determined data except for dietary fibre. In comparison to the recommendations of the German Association for Nutrition (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung) concerning nutrient intake of the elderly, energy, fat and protein content of the daily diet were too high. Carbohydrate content did not reach the recommendations, being at least 50% of energy intake. It is remarkable that dietary fibre content exceeded the recommendations of 30 grams per day. In Hessen a similar study was already done in 1982. Regarding energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate content, only negligible changes could be stated since that time. PMID:8766889

Stelz, A; Winter, S; Gareis, C; Taschan, H; Muskat, E

1996-06-01

74

Estimation of genetic parameters of feed intake and daily gain in Durocs using data from electronic swine feeders.  

PubMed

Genetic parameters for daily feed intake (DFI, g/day) and daily gain (DG, g/day) were estimated using records of 1916 Duroc boars from electronic feeder stations. Management was limited and resulted in varied ranges of age and weight on test. Boars were housed in 102 pens, each equipped with one feeder, and allowed ad libitum feeding. Weekly averages of DFI and DG were used due to large variation in daily records. Six traits were defined as DFI and DG during 85-106 (period 1), 107-128 (period 2) and 129-150 days of age (period 3). A six-trait model included age as a linear and a quadratic covariate for DFI and a linear covariate for DG with a fixed effect of year-week-pen and random effects of litter, additive genetic animal and permanent environmental animal. Variance components were estimated by a Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling algorithm. Estimates of heritability for respective periods were 18%, 12% and 10% for DFI and 21%, 11% and 10% for DG. Genetic correlations between DFI and DG in the same period were 0.70, 0.73 and 0.32 for the respective periods. DFI and DG obtained from automatic feeders can be analysed to reveal variation across testing periods by using weekly averages when many monthly averages are incomplete. PMID:20536640

Chen, C Y; Misztal, I; Tsuruta, S; Zumbach, B; Herring, W O; Holl, J; Culbertson, M

2010-06-01

75

Phthalate metabolites in obese individuals undergoing weight loss: Urinary levels and estimation of the phthalates daily intake.  

PubMed

Human exposure to chemicals commonly encountered in our environment, like phthalates, is routinely assessed through urinary measurement of their metabolites. A particular attention is given to the specific population groups, such as obese, for which the dietary intake of environmental chemicals is higher. To evaluate the exposure to phthalates, nine phthalate metabolites (PMs) were analyzed in urine collected from obese individuals and a control population. Obese individuals lost weight through either bariatric surgery or a conservative weight loss program with dietary and lifestyle counseling. Urine samples were also collected from the obese individuals after 3, 6 and 12months of weight loss. Individual daily intakes of the corresponding phthalate diesters were estimated based on the urinary PM concentrations. A high variability was recorded for the levels of each PM in both obese and control urine samples showing the exposure to high levels of PMs in specific subgroups. The most important PM metabolite as percentage contribution to the total PM levels was mono-ethyl phthalate followed by the metabolites of di-butyl phthalate and di 2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP). No differences in the PM levels and profiles between obese entering the program and controls were observed. Although paralleled by a significant decrease of their weight, an increase in the urinary PM levels after 3 to 6months loss was seen. Constant figures for the estimated phthalates daily intake were observed over the studied period, suggesting that besides food consumption, other human exposure sources to phthalates (e.g. air, dust) might be also important. The weight loss treatment method followed by obese individuals influenced the correlations between PM levels, suggesting a change of the intake sources with time. Except for few gender differences recorded between the urinary DEHP metabolites correlations, no other differences were observed for the urinary PM levels as a function of age, body mass index or waist circumference. Linear regression analysis showed almost no significance of the relationship between measured urinary PMs and serum free thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) for all obese individuals participating to the study, while for the control samples, several PMs were significantly associated with the serum TSH levels. PMID:23892227

Dirtu, Alin C; Geens, Tinne; Dirinck, Eveline; Malarvannan, Govindan; Neels, Hugo; Van Gaal, Luc; Jorens, Philippe G; Covaci, Adrian

2013-07-24

76

Daily intake assessment of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame from various processed foods in Korea.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to estimate the daily intakes (EDIs) of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame in order to evaluate the safety of the artificial sweeteners in Korea. A total of 274 food samples were selected from the foods considered to be representative sources of artificial sweeteners in the Korean diet and analysed by using HPLC with evaporative light scattering and ultraviolet detectors. In case of aspartame, the reference values were used without instrumental analysis. The EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame for average consumers were 0.028, 0.008, 4.9 and 0.14 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) were not higher than 1% of ADI of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). For 90th percentile consumers, the EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame were 2.0, 0.20, 141 and 4.6 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the ADI, the EDIs of saccharin and aspartame were 40.7% and 11.4% of the ADI set by the JECFA, respectively. Because JECFA did not assign ADIs for stevioside and D-sorbitol, the values for these sweeteners were not compared. According to these results, the EDIs of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin and aspartame in Korea are significantly lower than ADI set by the JECFA. PMID:16332631

Chung, M-S; Suh, H-J; Yoo, W; Choi, S-H; Cho, Y-J; Cho, Y-H; Kim, C-J

2005-11-01

77

Relation between appetite ratings before and after a standard meal and estimates of daily energy intake in obese and reduced obese individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to relate appetite ratings before and after a standard breakfast to estimates of daily energy intake, before and after weight loss obese men and women. Nineteen obese subjects (9 men and 10 women) took part in a 15-week drug-based weight-loss program coupled to energy intake restriction. Body weight and body composition were significantly

Eric Doucet; Sylvie St-Pierre; Natalie Alméras; Angelo Tremblay

2003-01-01

78

Monitoring programme on nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain: levels and estimated daily intake.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine the current levels of nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods (a total of 1150 samples) marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain, over the period 2000-2008, and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. Average (median) levels of nitrate in lettuce, iceberg-type lettuce and spinach (1156, 798 and 1410 mg kg(-1) w/w, respectively) were lower than the maximum limits established by European Union legislation. Thirteen fresh spinach samples exceeded the regulatory limits. Median nitrate values in other vegetables for which a maximum limit has not been fixed by the European Commission were 196, 203, 1597, 96, 4474 and 2572 mg kg(-1) w/w (for potato, carrot, chard, artichoke, rucola and lamb's lettuce, respectively). The estimated nitrate daily intakes through vegetables consumption for adult, extreme consumers and children were found to be about 29%, 79.8% and 15.1%, respectively, of the acceptable daily intake (3.7 mg kg(-1)). The levels (median = 60.4 mg kg(-1) w/w) found in vegetable-based baby foods were, in all cases, lower the maximum level proposed by European Union legislation. The estimated nitrate daily intake through baby foods for infants between 0-1 and 1-2 years of age were 13% and 18%, respectively, of the acceptable daily intake. PMID:20234964

Pardo-Marín, O; Yusà-Pelechà, V; Villalba-Martín, P; Perez-Dasí, J A

2010-04-01

79

Mineral composition of organically grown wheat genotypes: contribution to daily minerals intake.  

PubMed

In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved. PMID:20948934

Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva

2010-09-06

80

The realization of a project aimed at reducing the plasmatic lipid level in a large Italian population improves the mean calcium daily intake: the Brisighella Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Evaluation of the impact of a coronary heart disease prevention program on calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and vitamin D dietary intake in respect of recommended daily allowances in a large Italian rural population.Design: Retrospective analysis of the Brisighella Study dietary data. The Brisighella Study started in 1972 as a longitudinal study on atherosclerosis risk factors.Setting: Brisighella, a rural North Italian

A Gaddi; AFG Cicero; FO Odo Wani; A Dormi; V Pasquarelli; S D'Addato

2001-01-01

81

Effects of the Method of Calf Starter Delivery and Effects of Weaning Age On Starter Intake and Growth of Holstein Calves Fed Milk Once Daily1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-six Holstein calves were assigned randomly at birth to one of four treatments in a study that evaluated two methods of calf starter delivery (spe- cially designed nipple bottle versus an open con- tainer) and weaning age (28 vs. 56 d) on starter intake and growth. Calves were fed 3.8 L of whole milk once daily through nipple bottles until

B. A. Hopkins

1997-01-01

82

75 FR 63184 - Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sequence 4] Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide...agencies subject to the FTR to enhance travel cost savings and reduce greenhouse gas...guidance will improve management of agency travel programs, save money on travel...

2010-10-14

83

[Research on aluminium content of the diet in haerbin and daily aluminium intake of the local people].  

PubMed

The three sources of dietary aluminium were investigated. IPC was used for measuring aluminium content of individual foods. It was found that aluminium level in natural foods is generally less than 1 ppm, rarely exceeds 10 ppm. Some foods may contain up to 10-30 ppm aluminium during processing and handling. The concentration of aluminium in tape water was usually less than 0.05 ppm. The richest natural sources of aluminium are tea leaves, Chinese prickly ash and mustard. The aluminium content of tea leaves ranges from 300 to 1800 ppm and about 16-20% of the aluminium is extracted from the leaves. Foods made with aluminium-containing food additives contain extremely high level of aluminium. In most cases, the amount of aluminium leaching from aluminium utensils is very small or undetectable except when foods with low pH such as tomatoes are heated in aluminium utensils. Generally 4-15 mg, seldom up to 20 mg aluminium is taken daily from diet by Chinese people. Some people may consume more than 100mg aluminium from diet due to intake of foods made with aluminium-containing food additives. PMID:8325176

Wen, W; Chen, B Q; Li, D

1993-01-01

84

Modeling and simulation of TDI CMOS image sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a mathematical model of TDI CMOS image sensors was established in behavioral level through MATLAB based on the principle of a TDI CMOS image sensor using temporal oversampling rolling shutter in the along-track direction. The geometric perspective and light energy transmission relationships between the scene and the image on the sensor are included in the proposed model. A graphical user interface (GUI) of the model was also established. A high resolution satellitic picture was used to model the virtual scene being photographed. The effectiveness of the proposed model was verified by computer simulations based on the satellitic picture. In order to guide the design of TDI CMOS image sensors, the impacts of some parameters of TDI CMOS image sensors including pixel pitch, pixel photosensitive size, and integration time on the performance of the sensors were researched through the proposed model. The impacts of the above parameters on the sensors were quantified by sensor's modulation transfer function (MTF) of the along-track direction, which was calculated by slanted-edge method. The simulation results indicated that the TDI CMOS image sensor can get a better performance with smaller pixel photosensitive size and shorter integration time. The proposed model is useful in the process of researching and developing a TDI CMOS image sensor.

Nie, Kai-ming; Yao, Su-ying; Xu, Jiang-tao; Gao, Jing

2013-09-01

85

Track density imaging (TDI): validation of super resolution property.  

PubMed

We have recently introduced a novel MRI methodology, so-called super resolution track-density imaging (TDI), which produces high-quality white matter images, with high spatial resolution and exquisite anatomical contrast not available from other MRI modalities. This method achieves super resolution by utilising the long-range information contained in the diffusion MRI fibre tracks. In this study, we validate the super resolution property of the TDI method by using in vivo diffusion MRI data acquired at ultra-high magnetic field strength (7 T), and in silico diffusion MRI data from a well-characterised numerical phantom. Furthermore, an alternative version of the TDI technique is described, which mitigates the track length weighting of the TDI map intensity. For the in vivo data, high-resolution diffusion images were down-sampled to simulate low-resolution data, for which the high-resolution images serve as a gold standard. For the in silico data, the gold standard is given by the known simulated structures of the numerical phantom. Both the in vivo and in silico data show that the structures that could be identified in the TDI maps only after using super resolution were consistent with the corresponding structures identified in the reference maps. This supports the claim that the structures identified by the super resolution step are accurate, thus providing further evidence for the important potential role of the super resolution TDI methodology in neuroscience. PMID:21354314

Calamante, Fernando; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Heidemann, Robin M; Anwander, Alfred; Jackson, Graeme D; Connelly, Alan

2011-02-24

86

Estimated daily intake of plasticizers in 1-week duplicate diet samples following regulation of DEHP-containing PVC gloves in Japan.  

PubMed

Duplicate hospital diet samples obtained over 1 week in 2001 were analysed to estimate the daily intake of plasticizers and the results were compared with those obtained in 1999. The plasticizers quantified in this study were: dibutyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), diisononyl adipate (DINA) and O-acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC). Dipropyl, dipentyl, dihexyl and dicyclohexyl phthalate were also analysed but not detected. The analytical procedure for this follow-up study was essentially the same as in the previous one. Detection limits were 0.1-15.6 ng g(-1) for each plasticizer. One-week duplicate diet samples provided by three hospitals in three remote prefectures of Japan were analysed as individual meals. DEHP was detected at 6-675 ng g(-1) in 62 of 63 meals, significantly lower levels compared with those detected in 1999. Levels of DEHA and DINP also decreased. The mean intake of plasticizers estimated from all samples was 160 microg DEHP day(-1), 12.5 microg DEHA day(-1), 4.7 microg DINP day(-1) and 3.4 microg BBP day(-1). Levels of DINA were relatively high in meals from one hospital: in those meals, the average daily intake was 1338 microg day(-1). Those of ATBC were also higher in meals from another hospital: the average daily intake was 1228 microg day(-1). The sources of DINA and ATBC can be cling-film or sausage packaging. PMID:12775472

Tsumura, Y; Ishimitsu, S; Saito, I; Sakai, H; Tsuchida, Y; Tonogai, Y

2003-04-01

87

Dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene in Catalonia, Spain.  

PubMed

To assess the dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by the population of Catalonia, Spain, a total-diet study was carried out. Concentrations of HCB were determined in food samples randomly acquired in seven cities of Catalonia between June and August 2000. A total of 11 food groups were included in the study. HCB levels were determined by HRGC/HRMS. Estimates of average daily food consumption were obtained from recent studies. HCB intake was estimated for five population groups: children (aged 4 to 9 years), adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years), male and female adults (aged 20 to 65 years), and seniors (aged >65 years). In general, HCB residues in foods were rather low excepting dairy products with a mean concentration of 0.869 ng/g wet weight. Total dietary intakes of HCB (microgram per kilogram body weight/day) were the following: children (0.0064), adolescents (0.0031), female adults (0.0025), male adults (0.0024) and seniors (0.0019). All these values are considerably lower than the WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI), which is 0.17 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for non-cancer effects and 0.16 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for neoplastic effects in humans. PMID:15081738

Falcó, G; Bocio, A; Llobet, J M; Domingo, J L; Casas, C; Teixidó, A

2004-04-25

88

Regular Daily Intake of Black Tea Improves Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Decreases Serum C-Reactive Protein Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible effects of different daily doses of black tea intake on certain oxidative stress, inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Forty-six patients with known T2DM were randomly assigned either to the test (n = 23, 57.0 ± 7.9 years) or the control (n = 23,

Tirang R. Neyestani; Nastaran Shariatzade; Ali Kalayi; A’azam Gharavi; Niloufar Khalaji; Monireh Dadkhah; Telma Zowghi; Homa Haidari; Sakineh Shab-bidar

2010-01-01

89

Daily intake of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) by German children – A comparison of two estimation models based on urinary DEHP metabolite levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a general-purpose plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and has become a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. It is suspected to be an endocrine disrupting\\/modulating substance in humans. Children are of special concern due to their developmental state. In our study we estimated the daily DEHP intake of 239 children aged 2–14 years by extrapolating from their urinary levels of

Matthias Wittassek; Wolfgang Heger; Holger M. Koch; Kerstin Becker; Jürgen Angerer; Marike Kolossa-Gehring

2007-01-01

90

Estimated daily intake of plasticizers in 1-week duplicate diet samples following regulation of DEHP-containing PVC gloves in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplicate hospital diet samples obtained over 1 week in 2001 were analysed to estimate the daily intake of plasticizers and the results were compared with those obtained in 1999. The plasticizers quantified in this study were: dibutyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), diisononyl adipate (DINA) and O-acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC). Dipropyl, dipentyl,

Y. Tsumura; S. Ishimitsu; I. Saito; H. Sakai; Y. Tsuchida; Y. Tonogai

2003-01-01

91

Estimates of the theoretical maximum daily intake of erythorbic acid, gallates, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in Italy: a stepwise approach.  

PubMed

The three recent EU directives which fixed maximum permitted levels (MPL) for food additives for all member states also include the general obligation to establish national systems for monitoring the intake of these substances in order to evaluate their use safety. In this work, we considered additives with primary antioxidant technological function for which an acceptable daily intake (ADI) was established by the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF): gallates, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and erythorbic acid. The potential intake of these additives in Italy was estimated by means of a hierarchical approach using, step by step, more refined methods. The likelihood of the current ADI to be exceeded was very low for erythorbic acid, BHA and gallates. On the other hand, the theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) of BHT was above the current ADI. The three food categories found to be main potential sources of BHT were "pastry, cake and biscuits", "chewing gums" and "vegetables oils and margarine"; they overall contributed 74% of the TMDI. Actual use of BHT in these food categories is discussed, together with other aspects such as losses of this substance in the technological process and percentage of ingestion in the case of chewing gums. PMID:11033195

Leclercq, C; Arcella, D; Turrini, A

2000-12-01

92

THE CONTRIBUTION OF DRINKING WATER TO TOTAL DAILY DIETARY INTAKES OF SELECTED TRACE MINERAL NUTRIENTS IN THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although foods are the major source of mineral nutrients in the diet, drinking water can contribute variable fractions of the total intake. The magnitude of the drinking water contribution, however, has not been characterized because little work has been done to quantify its contribution. The major reason is that drinking water intake is not included in most dietary surveys, and

Joyce Morrissey Donohue; R. D. Charles; O. Abernathy; D. Peter Lassovszky; George Hallberg

93

Design of a 6,032 element TDI CCD imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-delay and integration (TDI) CCD sensors have been proven to increase the effective sensitivity in linescan imaging applications. This paper describes the design and initial test results of a 6032 element, 32-stage TDI imager for airborne reconnaissance applications. The device is fabricated using a 3-poly 3-phase NMOS process, incorporating buried channel CCDs throughout. It is one-side buttable to produce an array of over 12,000 contiguous elements and is capable of read rates of over 4000 lines per second. For fast readout, the design incorporates dual horizontal CCDs for a total of four outputs in the abutted configuration. The architecture also allows dynamic selection in the number of TDI stages.

Strunk, Stephen J.; McMacken, John R.; Kamasz, Stacy R.; Washkurak, William D.; Chamberlain, Savvas G.; Lund, John A.; Pfister, William R.

1992-08-01

94

Heritability of Electronically Recorded Daily Body Weight and Correlations with Yield, Dry Matter Intake, and Body Condition Score  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to estimate herita- bility for daily body weight (BW) and genetic correla- tions of daily BW with daily milk yield (MY), body condition score (BCS), dry matterintake, fat yield, and protein yield. The Afiweigh cow body weighing system records BW of every cow exiting the milking parlor. The Afiweigh system was installed at the

J. K. Toshniwal; C. D. Dechow; B. G. Cassell; G. A. Varga

2008-01-01

95

Effects of olestra, a noncaloric fat substitute, on daily energy and fat intakes in lean men13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient and energy intakes. hunger, and full- ness were examined after the replacement of 36, 20. or 0 g fat in breakfast with olestra, a noncaloric fat substitute. Twenty- four lean, nondieting men (aged 21-30 y) participated in a pla- cebo-controlled, three-condition crossover design . Self-selected. ad libitum intakes at lunch and dinner were monitored in the laboratory. Evening snacks

Barbara J Rolls; Paul A Pirraglia; Michaelle B Jones; John C Peters

96

Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach.  

PubMed

Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (?=-0.32, P<0.001) and a quadratic trend (?=0.02, P<0.01) over time, but no group difference (?=-0.23, P=0.08). Analysis of the 365 days of self-reported body weight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (?=-0.01, P<0.01). Overall compliance to daily tracking was 76%±5%. Daily self-monitoring of weight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits. PMID:22709772

Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

2012-04-25

97

Daily Self-Monitoring of Body Weight, Step Count, Fruit/Vegetable Intake and Water Consumption: A Feasible and Effective Long-Term Weight Loss Maintenance Approach  

PubMed Central

Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals, thus practical and effective weight loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group (WEV versus WEV+) 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted (June 2007–February 2010) to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of weight loss maintenance intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced (mean weight lost = 6.7 ± 0.6 kg; BMI 29.2 ± 1.1 kg/m2) individuals aged 63 ± 1 yrs, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight (Weight), step count (Exercise), and fruit/vegetable intake (Vegetable). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 floz of water before each main meal (i.e., three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures ANOVA. Over 12 months, there was a linear decline in weight (? = ?0.32, P < 0.001) and a quadratic trend (? = 0.02, P < 0.01) over time, but no group difference (? = ?0.23, P = 0.08). Analysis of the 365 days of self-reported body weight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in WEV+ than WEV, corresponding to weight changes of ?0.67 kg and 1.00 kg respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (? = ?0.01, P < 0.01). Overall compliance to daily tracking was 76 ± 5%. Daily self-monitoring of weight, physical activity, and fruit/vegetable consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits.

Akers, Jeremy D.; Cornett, Rachel A.; Savla, Jyoti S.; Davy, Kevin P.; Davy, Brenda M.

2012-01-01

98

Quantitative analysis of tin and lead in TDI combustion catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

A convenient method for quantitative analysis of tin and lead in 2,4—tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) combustion catalyst, which contains Tin, lead and their compounds or complexes, is described. The method consists of decomposition of samples by sodium hydroxide fusion, extraction with hydrochloric acid and complexation by EDTA, followed by titration with zinc chloride standard titration solution, which give rise to a

Li Qin-fang

1997-01-01

99

Exposure to TDI among a group of voluntary firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen voluntary firefighters from the city of Marcos Juarez, Province of Cordoba, Argentina, accidentally exposed to isocyanate fumes during blazes at a polyurethane manufacturing plant have been studied. Exposures took place twice: a 15?day timespan elapsed between each blaze. Firefighters were exposed to TDI for 3 h 30 min during the first blaze while the second exposure lasted 1 h

Daniel Lerda

1995-01-01

100

The once-daily human GLP-1 analogue liraglutide impacts appetite and energy intake in patients with type 2 diabetes after short-term treatment.  

PubMed

The aim was to investigate effects of liraglutide on appetite and energy intake in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Eighteen subjects with type 2 diabetes were assigned to treatment with once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide (increasing by weekly 0.6?mg increments) or placebo for 3?weeks. Appetite ratings were assessed using visual analogue scales during a 5-h meal test. Energy and macronutrient intake during the subsequent ad libitum lunch were also measured. After 3?weeks, mean postprandial and minimum hunger ratings were significantly lower with liraglutide 1.8?mg than placebo (p?intake was 18% lower for liraglutide than placebo [estimated ratio 0.82 (95% CI 0.73;0.94); p?=?0.004], but no significant differences in macronutrient distribution were noted. Findings suggest that reduced appetite and energy intake may contribute to liraglutide-induced weight loss. PMID:23551925

Flint, A; Kapitza, C; Zdravkovic, M

2013-04-23

101

Daily calcium intake and its relation to blood pressure, blood lipids, and oxidative stress biomarkers in hypertensive and normotensive subjects  

PubMed Central

Several studies revealed that low calcium intake is related to high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is high in Koreans along with their low dietary calcium consumption. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the status of calcium intake between the hypertension and normotension groups and to investigate the correlation between dietary calcium intake and blood pressure, blood lipid parameters, and blood/urine oxidative stress indices. A total of 166 adult subjects participated in this study and were assigned to one of two study groups: a hypertension group (n = 83) who had 140 mmHg or higher in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or 90 mmHg or higher in diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and an age- and sex-matched normotension group (n = 83, 120 mmHg or less SBP and 80 mmHg or less DBP). The hypertension group consumed 360.5 mg calcium per day, which was lower than that of the normotension group (429.9 mg) but not showing significant difference. In the hypertension group, DBP had a significant negative correlation with plant calcium (P < 0.01) after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and energy intake. In the normotension group, total calcium and animal calcium intake were significantly and positively correlated with serum triglycerides. No significant relationship was found between calcium intake and blood/urine oxidative stress indices in both groups. Overall, these data suggest reconsideration of food sources for calcium consumption in management of the blood pressure or blood lipid profiles in both hypertensive and normotensive subjects.

Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bu, So Young

2012-01-01

102

Evaluation of daily dietary intake of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and benzene hexachloride (BHC) in India.  

PubMed

Duplicate samples of the diet of vegetarian adults were analyzed to estimate the residues of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and benzene hexachloride (BHC). The total food consumed by an adult per day was collected and categorized as fatty food, non-fatty food, water, and beverages. Fatty food was the main source of these chlorinated insecticides, and it contributed almost 50% of the total dietary intake. The average total DDT and BHC consumed by an adult were 19.24 micrograms/d and 77.15 micrograms/d, respectively. Blood DDT and BHC levels reflected intake (r = 0.685 for DDT; r = 0.515 for BHC). PMID:7509592

Kashyap, R; Iyer, L R; Singh, M M

103

Ready To Eat Cereal (RTEC) Consumption Positively Affects Total Daily Nutrient Intakes in Hispanic Children and Adolescents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To examine the impact of breakfast meal pattern on nutrient intake status of Hispanic children and adolescents (N=3220), we compared breakfast skippers (S), RTEC, and other breakfast consumers using 24-hour recall data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our data ind...

104

Predictive model accuracy in estimating last ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intake from plasma and whole blood cannabinoid concentrations in chronic, daily cannabis smokers administered subchronic oral THC*  

PubMed Central

Background Determining time since last cannabis/?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure is important in clinical, workplace, and forensic settings. Mathematical models calculating time of last exposure from whole blood concentrations typically employ a theoretical 0.5 whole blood-to-plasma (WB/P) ratio. No studies previously evaluated predictive models utilizing empirically-derived WB/P ratios, or whole blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics after subchronic THC dosing. Methods Ten male chronic, daily cannabis smokers received escalating around-the-clock oral THC (40-120 mg daily) for 8 days. Cannabinoids were quantified in whole blood and plasma by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results Maximum whole blood THC occurred 3.0 h after the first oral THC dose and 103.5 h (4.3 days) during multiple THC dosing. Median WB/P ratios were THC 0.63 (n=196), 11-hydroxy-THC 0.60 (n=189), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) 0.55 (n=200). Predictive models utilizing these WB/P ratios accurately estimated last cannabis exposure in 96% and 100% of specimens collected within 1-5 h after a single oral THC dose and throughout multiple dosing, respectively. Models were only 60% and 12.5% accurate 12.5 and 22.5 h after the last THC dose, respectively. Conclusions Predictive models estimating time since last cannabis intake from whole blood and plasma cannabinoid concentrations were inaccurate during abstinence, but highly accurate during active THC dosing. THC redistribution from large cannabinoid body stores and high circulating THCCOOH concentrations create different pharmacokinetic profiles than those in less than daily cannabis smokers that were used to derive the models. Thus, the models do not accurately predict time of last THC intake in individuals consuming THC daily.

Karschner, Erin L.; Schwope, David M.; Schwilke, Eugene W.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Kelly, Deanna L.; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2012-01-01

105

Children's Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers  

PubMed Central

Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child’s home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw) and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw). For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDIcum), which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDIcum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child’s total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.

Beko, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.; Langer, Sarka; Callesen, Michael; Toftum, J?rn; Clausen, Geo

2013-01-01

106

Determination of five pesticide residues in oranges by matrix solid-phase dispersion and liquid chromatography to estimate daily intake of consumers.  

PubMed

Residues of benzoylphenylurea insecticides (diflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, and flufenuxuron), carboxamide acaricides (hexythiazox), and carbamate insecticides (benfuracarb) were determined in 150 orange fruit samples from September 1998 to June 1999, to estimate exposure of the Valencian population to oranges contaminated with these newly developed pesticides. The method for monitoring these residues is based on matrix solid-phase dispersion and liquid chromatography with UV or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry (APCI/MS) detection. Orange samples representing 11 varieties were collected from an agricultural cooperative and examined for the 5 pesticides. In 74.6% of all analyzed samples, the pesticide residues were below detection limits, which ranged from 0.002 to 0.05 mg/kg. Residues were detected in 25.4% of the samples, with higher incidences of diflubenzuron, flufenuxuron, hexythiazox, and benfuracarb; hexaflumuron residues were detected only occasionally. Two different pesticides exceeded maximum residue limits (MRLs) in 4 (2.7%) of the orange samples. Diflubenzuron surpassed 1 mg/kg MRL in 3 samples and flufenuxuron exceeded the 0.3 mg/kg MRL in 3 samples. The estimated daily intake of the 5 pesticide residues during the period was 0.077 microg/kg body weight per day. This value is much lower than the total admissible daily intake proposed by the Food and Agricultural Organization and the World Health Organization. PMID:11417653

Valenzuela, A I; Picó, Y; Font, G

107

High speed, low noise, fine resolution TDI CCD imagers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method employed to design a 2048 by 96 time-delay-and-integration (TDI) CCD imager is described. Design tradeoffs are emphasized, such as those between pixel pitch, dead space between pixels in the horizontal direction, high speed, high photosensitivity, high spatial resolution, and wide dynamic range. A high-speed on-chip output amplifier design and the efficacious use of buried channel MOSFETs are also shown.

Chamberlain, Savvas G.; Washkurak, William D.

108

Restricting night-time eating reduces daily energy intake in healthy young men: a short-term cross-over study.  

PubMed

Few experimental data are available to support the notion that reducing night-time eating changes total daily energy intake (EI) or body weight in healthy adults. The present study primarily examined the short-term effect of night eating restriction (NER) on daily EI in healthy young men. It secondarily examined body weight and moods associated with NER. Using a cross-over design, twenty-nine men (20·9 (sd 2·5) years; 24·4 (sd 2·5) kg/m2) initiated a 2-week NER intervention (elimination of EI from 19.00 to 06.00 hours) and a 2-week control condition, counterbalanced and separated by a 1-week washout period. EI and macronutrient intake were assessed using computerised, multiple-pass 24 h food recalls, body weight via a digital scale and mood using the Profile of Mood States survey. Of the twenty-nine participants, twenty-seven (93 %) completed all aspects of the study. During the NER condition, the participants consumed less total energy per d than during the control condition (10 125 v. 11 146 kJ/d; F= 6·41; P= 0·018). During the NER condition, no energy was reported consumed between 19.00 and 06.00 hours; however, during the control condition, the energy intake of participants was 2920 (sd 1347) kJ/d between 19.00 and 06.00 hours. There was a significant difference in weight change between the NER ( - 0·4 (sd 1·1) kg) and control (+0·6 (sd 0·9) kg) conditions (F= 22·68; P< 0·001). Differences in total mood score or mood subscales between the NER and control conditions were not apparent (P>0·05). These findings provide support for NER decreasing short-term EI in healthy young men. PMID:23702187

Lecheminant, James D; Christenson, Ed; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A

2013-05-23

109

Composite readouts with TDI and dead elements deselection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For 288x4 mercury-cadmium telluride (MCT) diode array silicon readouts with deselection function, the "composite" technology approach, which simplifies the technology of their manufacturing, is considered. Both technology of n-channel CCD devices and the CMOS technology are applied, which allow to weaken considerably the technological requirements for realization of 288x4 readouts with deselection of "dead" elements (generally the 0.8 micron design rules technology is applied). It is shown that the design rules 2.5 ?m for CCD technology and 2.0 design rules for CMOS technology are sufficient to realize most of functions needed for 288x4 MCT array design and manufacture. All analog functions (including TDI as the most complex function for realization in CMOS basis) are realized by CCD elements. Four-phase TDI register was realized using semi-buried channel by phosphorus ion implantation. An amplification of the output signals is realized by CMOS buffer amplifier. Decoding and deselection code storing functions are realized by digital CMOS elements. The parameters of the 288x4 silicon readout device: direct injection input circuits, 4 elements TDI function, 4 outputs; 4 MHz maximum information output frequency; 2 MHz maximum clock frequency; 3 V swing output voltage; not less than 1.6 pC maximum charge capacity per each input; 3.0 pC maximum charge capacity at multiplexor input; 75 dB dynamic band; 28 output pins.

Sizov, Fiodor F.; Reva, Vladimir P.; Derkach, Yuri P.; Golenkov, Alexandr G.; Zabudsky, Vyacheslav V.; Korinets, Sergey V.

2003-09-01

110

Contents of conjugated linoleic acid isomers in ruminant-derived foods and estimation of their contribution to daily intake in Portugal.  

PubMed

The present study provides a detailed overview of the contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in the most consumed Portuguese CLA-rich foods (milk, butter, yoghurt, cheese, beef and lamb meat), by using silver ion-HPLC. In addition, the contribution of these ruminant-derived foods to the daily intake of CLA isomers was estimated based on Portuguese consumption habits. The total CLA concentration in milk and dairy products ranged from 4.00 mg/g fat in yoghurt to 7.22 mg/g fat in butter, and, regarding meats, from 4.45 mg/g fat in intensively produced beef to 11.29 mg/g fat in lamb meat. The predominant CLA isomers identified in these products were cis-9, trans-11 (59.89-79.21 %) and trans-7, cis-9 (8.04-20.20 %). The average estimated total CLA intake for the Portuguese population was 73.70 mg/d. Milk and cheese are probably the two products with the highest contribution to the final CLA intake, as a result of their high fat content and consumption values. The results also suggested that cis-9, trans-11 and trans-7, cis-9 are the isomers most represented, with, respectively, 76.10 and 12.56 % of the total CLA intake. Being the first detailed report on the contents of total and individual CLA isomers in Portuguese commercial ruminant-derived foods, we further discuss the implication of the results for diet characteristics and human health. PMID:17640417

Martins, Susana V; Lopes, Paula A; Alfaia, Cristina M; Ribeiro, Verónica S; Guerreiro, Teresa V; Fontes, Carlos M G A; Castro, Matilde F; Soveral, Graça; Prates, José A M

2007-07-19

111

Daily Intake of Probiotic as well as Conventional Yogurt Has a Stimulating Effect on Cellular Immunity in Young Healthy Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The aim of this work was to study the effects of daily yogurt consumption on the cellular immunity of young healthy women and to compare a conventional with a probiotic product. Methods: 33 young healthy women (22–29 years) consumed 100 g\\/day of either probiotic or conventional commercially available yogurt for 2 weeks and 200 g\\/day for another 2 weeks

Alexa L. Meyer; Michael Micksche; Irene Herbacek; Ibrahim Elmadfa

2006-01-01

112

Assessment of daily intake of toxic elements due to consumption of vegetables, fruits, meat, and seafood by inhabitants of Xiamen, China.  

PubMed

This study was designed to estimate the dietary intake of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) (total and methyl), and arsenic (As) by inhabitants of Xiamen, China. The concentrations of these toxic elements (TEs) were determined in vegetables, fruits, meat, and seafood samples randomly acquired in 5 districts of Xiamen between 2005 and 2009. Health risks were evaluated for inhabitants of Xiamen due to dietary consumption. The target hazard quotient (THQ) values for individual elements were far below 1, indicating minimal noncarcinogenic risks from TEs for inhabitants of Xiamen under the current food consumption rate. However, consumption of the entire foodstuffs could lead to potential health risks since the 95th percentile HI was higher than 1. The relative contributions of Cd, Pb, Hg T, and As to the HI were 16.0%, 15.9%, 5.9%, and 62.2% for the mean exposure level, and 13.3%, 13.4%, 5.6%, and 67.9% for the 95th percentile estimate. The THQ value of methyl mercury through consumption of cephalopod was less than 1. Tomato, cephalopod, eggplant, cabbage, orange, and pork were the main sources of total dietary intakes of TEs. The estimation of carcinogenic risk shows that the carcinogenic rate of arsenic exceeded the accepted risk level of 10(-4) . Therefore, the carcinogenic risk of arsenic for inhabitants of Xiamen is of concern. Practical Application:? Tomato, cephalopod, eggplant, cabbage, orange, and pork were the main sources of dietary intakes of TEs in Xiamen, China. The carcinogenic risk of arsenic for inhabitants in this area who consume large amounts of fruits and vegetables daily may be of concern. Consumers are encouraged to eat fruits and vegetables with different origins and eat less cephalopod to reduce the possibilities of continuously eating commodities from the contaminated areas. PMID:21913923

Chen, Chen; Qian, Yongzhong; Chen, Qiong; Li, Chuanyong

2011-09-13

113

Fumonisin intake of the German consumer.  

PubMed

In order to calculate the dietary fumonisin intake of the German consumer, a large survey was carried out on a variety of potentially contaminated products in the period between December 1998 and July 2001. A total of 1960 food samples comprising all known relevant groups of products were analysed for fumonisins. Furthermore, 272 of these samples were also analysed for hydrolysed fumonisins (HFB). For routine analysis enzyme immunoassay was used, confirmatory and control analyses were performed using HPLC-FLD after precolumn derivatisation, or by LC-MS/MS. Daily intake of fumonisins was calculated by combining fumonisin contamination data obtained in this study with available food consumption data for Germany. In a "mean case" scenario, median fumonisin levels in foods and mean food intake values were used. To generate a "bad case" scenario, the 90(th) percentile of fumonisin levels in foods and mean food intake values were combined. The overall daily fumonisin intake by the German consumer was 1.1 ?g in the "mean case" scenario, and 21 ?g in the "bad case" scenario. It was concluded that in general there is no increased risk for the German consumer in aspects of exceeding the recommended tolerable daily intake of fumonisins (2 ?g/kg body weight). However, certain products (and certain brands of products) were repeatedly found to contain elevated fumonisin levels, which in a "worst case" scenario ("high" food intake of maize-based products) could pose a potential risk for the consumer, in particular concerning foods for infants and young children. High fumonisin levels were found in infant foods in 1999, but contamination levels decreased strongly in the following years. HFBs (mostly HFB1) were frequently found in processed cereals such as corn flakes, but in relatively low concentrations. According to our findings, the new European Union maximum levels for fumonisins are suitable to eliminate peak contamination levels of fumonisins in foods, but would lead to a regular excess of the TDI for infants and young children if these maximum levels would indeed be exhausted. PMID:23606079

Zimmer, I; Usleber, E; Klaffke, H; Weber, R; Majerus, P; Otteneder, H; Gareis, M; Dietrich, R; Märtlbauer, E

2008-03-01

114

A configurable distributed high-performance computing framework for satellite's TDI-CCD imaging simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper renders a configurable distributed high performance computing(HPC) framework for TDI-CCD imaging simulation. It uses strategy pattern to adapt multi-algorithms. Thus, this framework help to decrease the simulation time with low expense. Imaging simulation for TDI-CCD mounted on satellite contains four processes: 1) atmosphere leads degradation, 2) optical system leads degradation, 3) electronic system of TDI-CCD leads degradation and

Bo Xue; Bingjing Mao; Xiaomei Chen; Guoqiang Ni

2010-01-01

115

Daily intake of Jeju groundwater improves the skin condition of the model mouse for human atopic dermatitis.  

PubMed

Drinking water is an important nutrient for human health. The mineral ingredients included in drinking water may affect the physical condition of people. Various kinds of natural water are in circulation as bottled water in developed countries; however, its influence on clinical conditions of patients with certain diseases has not been fully evaluated. In this study, effects of the natural groundwater from Jeju Island on clinical symptoms and skin barrier function in atopic dermatitis (AD) were evaluated. NC/Tnd mice, a model for human AD, with moderate to severe dermatitis were used. Mice were given different natural groundwater or tap water for 8 weeks from 4 weeks of age. Clinical skin severity scores were recorded every week. Scratching analysis and measurement of transepidermal water loss were performed every other week. The pathological condition of the dorsal skin was evaluated histologically. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed for cytokine expression in the affected skin. The epidermal hyperplasia and allergic inflammation were reduced in atopic mice supplied with Jeju groundwater when compared to those supplied with tap water or other kinds of natural groundwater. The increase in scratching behavior with the aggravation of clinical severity of dermatitis was favorably controlled. Moreover, transepidermal water loss that reflects skin barrier function was recovered. The early inflammation and hypersensitivity in the atopic skin was alleviated in mice supplied with Jeju groundwater, suggesting its profitable potential on the daily care of patients with skin troubles including AD. PMID:23294459

Tanaka, Akane; Jung, Kyungsook; Matsuda, Akira; Jang, Hyosun; Kajiwara, Naoki; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Ahn, Ginnae; Ohmori, Keitaro; Kang, Kyung-goo; Matsuda, Hiroshi

2013-01-07

116

Antiarrhythmic Effects of Increasing the Daily Intake of Magnesium and Potassium in Patients With Frequent Ventricular Arrhythmias fn1 fn1 This study was supported by Trommsdorff GmbH and Company, Alsdorf, Germany and Hexal AG, Holzkirchen, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study sought to assess potential antiarrhythmic effects of an increase in the daily oral intake of magnesium and potassium in patients with frequent ventricular arrhythmias.Background. Magnesium and potassium contribute essentially to the electrical stability of the heart. Despite experimental and clinical evidence for the antiarrhythmic properties of the two minerals, controlled data in patients with stable ventricular arrhythmias

Manfred Zehender; Thomas Meinertz; Thomas Faber; Anton Caspary; Andreas Jeron; Katja Bremm; Hanjörg Just

1997-01-01

117

41 CFR 301-1.2 - What is an âemployeeâ for purposes of TDY allowances?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...an âemployeeâ for purposes of TDY allowances? 301-1.2 Section 301-1.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 1-APPLICABILITY § 301-1.2 What is an...

2011-07-01

118

Analysis of imidacloprid residues in fruits, vegetables, cereals, fruit juices, and baby foods, and daily intake estimation in and around Lucknow, India.  

PubMed

A total of 250 samples-including fruits, fruit juices, and baby foods (50 samples each), vegetables (70 samples), and cereals (30 samples)-were collected from Lucknow, India, and analyzed for the presence of imidacloprid residues. The QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method of extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis were carried out, and imidacloprid residues were qualitatively confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Imidacloprid was not detected in samples of fruit juices and baby foods. It was, however, detected in 38 samples of fruits, vegetables, and cereals, which is about 15.20% of the total samples. Of samples of fruits, 22% showed the presence of imidacloprid, and 2% of samples showed residues above the maximal residue limit. Although imidacloprid was detected in 24% of vegetable samples, only 5.71% showed the presence of imidacloprid above the maximal residue limit. However, 33% of cereal samples showed the presence of imidacloprid, and about 3% of samples were above the maximal residue limit. The calculated estimated daily intake ranged between 0.004 and 0.131?µg/kg body weight, and the hazard indices ranged from 0.007 to 0.218 for these food commodities. It is therefore indicated that lifetime consumption of vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, baby foods, wheat, rice, and pulses may not pose a health hazard for the population of Lucknow because the hazard indices for imidacloprid residues were below one. PMID:23258764

Kapoor, Upasana; Srivastava, M K; Srivastava, Ashutosh Kumar; Patel, D K; Garg, Veena; Srivastava, L P

2013-03-01

119

41 CFR 301-30.3 - What should I do if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel? 301-30.3 Section 301-30.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES...

2011-07-01

120

41 CFR 301-30.3 - What should I do if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel? 301-30.3 Section 301-30.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES...

2012-07-01

121

High-speed dual-output-channel stage-selectable TDI CCD image sensor for high-resolution applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

TDI sensors are a proven means of increasing the responsivity in a line scan imaging application. This paper describes the development of a family of high speed 96 stage TDI sensors. The sensor is available in a high resolution 2048 element version. A 512 element part will also be made. The number of TDI stages in the sensor can be

Suhail Agwani; David A. Dobson; William D. Washkurak; Savvas G. Chamberlain

1995-01-01

122

Capabilities of different liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry systems in determining pesticide residues in food. Application to estimate their daily intake.  

PubMed

Three different liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) instruments equipped with triple quadrupole (QqQ), quadrupole ion trap (QIT) and quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqTOF), suitable to carry out tandem mass spectrometry, were examined to determine pesticide residues in food. Twelve pesticides (acrinathrin, bupirimate, buprofezin, cyproconazole, lambda-cyhalothrin, fluvalinate, hexaflumuron, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, pyrifenox, pyriproxyfen and tebufenpyrad) and six matrices (oranges, strawberries, cherries, peaches, apricots and pears) were taken as model. The comparison was focused on two aspects: the quantitative, covering sensitivity, precision and accuracy as well as the qualitative, checking the possibility to identify any metabolite present in the samples, which were not targeted in the methods. The extraction was carried out using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with ethyl acetate and acid alumina. Recoveries were over 70 % for all the analytes. Repeatabilities were better for the QqQ (5-12%) than for QIT (6-15%) and for QqTOF (14-19%). QqQ offered a linear dynamic range of at least three orders of magnitude, whereas those of QIT and QqTOF were two and one orders of magnitude, respectively. QqQ reached at least 20-fold higher sensitivity than QIT and QqTOF. However, the QqQ failed to identify non-target compounds. QIT and QqTOF were able to successfully identify the metabolite of bupirimate, ethirimol. Application to monitor the content in fruits, taken from agricultural cooperatives, and to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) to establish if there is any difference of toxicological interest is also reported. PMID:17466998

Soler, Carla; James, K J; Picó, Yolanda

2007-04-13

123

Three-dimensional imaging using TDI CCD sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atherosclerosis is an arterial disorder characterized by the development of arterial plaques which reduce the distensibility of the artery and obstruct blood flow. Little is known about the mechanisms which initiate the plaques and cause them to grow; however, it is generally agreed that hemodynamic factors are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. To study this disease it is essential to know not only the geometry of the arterial lumen but also the shape of the intimal surface in order to assess the importance of hemodynamic effects. The authors constructed a table-top volume CT scanner with high resolution in all 3 dimensions, which can be used to analyze human arterial specimens in vitro. This system uses an x-ray image intensifier optically coupled to a TDI CCD sensor to obtain low-noise, low-scatter projection digital radiographs from many angles. A slot beam of radiation is scanned across the sample to reduce the detection of scattered radiation without causing excess x-ray tube heating. Objects to be imaged are placed on a computer-controlled stage and projections are obtained as the specimen is rotated through 180 degree(s). CT reconstructions of the resulting data produces volume images with 0.12 X 0.12 X 0.15 mm(superscript 3) volume resolution.

Fenster, Aaron; Holdsworth, David W.; Drangova, Maria

1991-07-01

124

Automatic focus algorithms for TDI X-Ray image reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In food industry, most products are checked by X-rays for contaminations. These X-ray machines continuously scan the product passing through. To minimize the required X-ray power, a Time, Delay and Integration (TDI) CCD-sensor is used to capture the image. While the product moves across the sensor area, the X-ray angle changes during the pass. As a countermeasure, adjusting the sensor shift speed on a single focal plane of the product can be selected. However, the changing angle result in a blurred image in dependance to the thickness of the product. This so-called ''laminographic effect'' can be compensated individually for one plane by inverse filtering. As the plane of contamination is unknown, the blurred image will be inversely filtered for different planes, but only one of these images shows the correctly focussed object. If the correct image can be found, the plane containing the contamination is identified. In this contribution we demonstrate how the correctly focussed images can be found by analyzing the images of all planes. Different characteristics for correctly and incorrectly focussed planes like sharpness, number of objects and edges are investigated by using image processing algorithms.

Dörr, J.; Rosenbaum, M.; Sauer-Greff, W.; Urbansky, R.

2012-09-01

125

Persistent asthma due to isocyanates. A follow-up study of subjects with occupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate (TDI)  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-five subjects with occupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposure were examined. All the subjects were studied with inhalation challenges with TDI and with methacholine. TDI asthma was documented by a positive inhalation challenge to low levels of TDI. Airway responsiveness to methacholine was in the range of asthmatic patients at the time of diagnosis. After an average follow-up interval of 10 months, all the subjects were re-examined. Of the 35 subjects examined, 30 subjects (85.7%) left the workplace, and 5 remained in the same job. Twenty-seven subjects (77.1%) continued to have asthmatic attacks requiring medication for relief of symptoms. At follow-up examination, TDI asthma was documented by a positive inhalation challenge to TDI in 27 subjects. Of these 27 TDI reactors, 22 subjects were removed from occupational exposure to TDI. The TDI reactors had persistent respiratory symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. At follow-up visit, 8 subjects (22.9%) lost sensitization to TDI; 5 subjects (62.5%) in this group had also normal airway responsiveness to methacholine after removal from exposure. Only 1 subject among the TDI nonreactors complained of mild respiratory symptoms. At diagnosis, there were no significant differences between subjects who recovered and those who did not with regard to age, smoking habits, atopy, duration of exposure to isocyanates, duration of symptoms, baseline FEV1 (% pred), and baseline airway responsiveness to methacholine.

Mapp, C.E.; Corona, P.C.; De Marzo, N.; Fabbri, L.

1988-06-01

126

The research of TDI-CCDs imagery stitching using information mending algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-collinear TDI-CCDs sensor was introduced and its imaging characteristics were analyzed. An information mending algorithm was adopted to stitch TDI-CCDs imagery. Key points of the algorithm are image matching and modeling of coordinate transformation between two images. Particularly, piecewise polynomial transformation model was adopted to describe the shift, rotation and the zoom factor of TDI-CCDs imagery after extracting tie points using SIFT algorithm. Coefficients of polynomial transformation were obtained through the solution of error equation constructed by large numbers of tie points and finally TDI-CCDs imagery was geometrically stitched. A certain high resolution satellite remotely sensed imagery were adopted to verify this algorithm. The experiments show that total precision of this information mending stitching algorithm reaches sub-pixel level.

Meng, Weican; Zhu, Shulong; Zhu, Baoshan; Bian, Shaojun

2013-08-01

127

76 FR 46216 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 2011-0002; Sequence 5] Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting; Correction...general public in an effort to streamline travel policies, incorporated travel...

2011-08-02

128

76 FR 43236 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 2011-0002; Sequence 5] Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY...Administration (GSA) is revising the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) in an effort to...

2011-07-20

129

Measurements of daily urinary uranium excretion in German peacekeeping personnel and residents of the Kosovo region to assess potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU).  

PubMed

Following the end of the Kosovo conflict, in June 1999, a study was instigated to evaluate whether there was a cause for concern of health risk from depleted uranium (DU) to German peacekeeping personnel serving in the Balkans. In addition, the investigations were extended to residents of Kosovo and southern Serbia, who lived in areas where DU ammunitions were deployed. In order to assess a possible DU intake, both the urinary uranium excretion of volunteer residents and water samples were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). More than 1300 urine samples from peacekeeping personnel and unexposed controls of different genders and age were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. The urine measurements for 113 unexposed subjects revealed a daily uranium excretion rate with a geometric mean of 13.9 ng/d (geometric standard deviation (GSD)=2.17). The analysis of 1228 urine samples from the peacekeeping personnel resulted in a geometric mean of 12.8 ng/d (GSD=2.60). It follows that both unexposed controls and peacekeeping personnel excreted similar amounts of uranium. Inter-subject variation in uranium excretion was high and no significant age-specific differences were found. The second part of the study monitored 24 h urine samples provided by selected residents of Kosovo and adjacent regions of Serbia compared to controls from Munich, Germany. Total uranium and isotope ratios were measured in order to determine DU content. (235)U/(238)U ratios were within +/-0.3% of the natural value, and (236)U/(238)U was less than 2 x 10(-7), indicating no significant DU in any of the urine samples provided, despite total uranium excretion being relatively high in some cases. Measurements of ground and tap water samples from regions where DU munitions were deployed did not show any contamination with DU, except in one sample. It is concluded that both peacekeeping personnel and residents serving or living in the Balkans, respectively, were not exposed to significant amounts of DU. PMID:17459457

Oeh, U; Priest, N D; Roth, P; Ragnarsdottir, K V; Li, W B; Höllriegl, V; Thirlwall, M F; Michalke, B; Giussani, A; Schramel, P; Paretzke, H G

2007-04-24

130

41 CFR 301-11.14 - How is my daily lodging rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cost is computed by dividing the total lodging cost by the number of days in the rental period. Reimbursement, including an appropriate amount for M&IE, may not exceed the maximum daily per diem rate for the TDY...

2011-07-01

131

41 CFR 301-11.14 - How is my daily lodging rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...cost is computed by dividing the total lodging cost by the number of days in the rental period. Reimbursement, including an appropriate amount for M&IE, may not exceed the maximum daily per diem rate for the TDY...

2012-07-01

132

Increased neutrophil leukocyte chemotaxis induced by release of a serum factor in toluene-diisocyanate (TDI) asthma.  

PubMed

The activation of blood neutrophil leukocytes has been proven in subjects with IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated asthma. This event appears to be modulated by the release of humoral factors. We submitted 12 toluene-diisocyanate (TDI) asthmatic workers to TDI provocation. During the late asthmatic reaction there was release of a serum chemoattracting factor for normal neutrophil leukocytes and activation of asthmatic neutrophil leukocytes. This appears to be the first demonstration of neutrophil chemotactic activity liberated during the late TDI reaction in humans. The results are explained by an acute inflammatory process occurring during the late asthmatic reaction induced by TDI. PMID:2853258

Valentino, M; Governa, M; Fiorini, R

1988-01-01

133

Better knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in older people is associated with a higher serum vitamin D level and a higher daily dietary calcium intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake.Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (?65 years), living in residential homes. Participants were tested for their knowledge on

Christian Oudshoorn; Klaas A Hartholt; Johannes PTM van Leeuwen; Edgar M Colin; Nathalie van der Velde; Tischa JM van der Cammen

2012-01-01

134

Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

2012-01-01

135

Monitoring programme on nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain: levels and estimated daily intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to determine the current levels of nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods (a total of 1150 samples) marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain, over the period 2000–2008, and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. Average (median) levels of nitrate in lettuce, iceberg-type lettuce and spinach (1156, 798 and 1410 mg

O. Pardo-Marín; V. Yusà-Pelechà; P. Villalba-Martín; J. A. Perez-Dasí

2010-01-01

136

Effect of form and of quality of feed on the concentrations of purine derivatives in urinary spot samples, daily microbial N supply and predictability of intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the influence of dietary variation on the usefulness of urinary spot purine derivatives (PD) collected at three periods (8:00–9:30, 14:00–15:30 and 20:00–21:30 hours) as predictors of intake by cattle. Diets comprised teff (Eragrotis tef) straw, fresh and dried napier grass and fresh napier grass supplemented with 1.5 (as fed) of dry alfalfa hay. Variation in dry matter

I. V Nsahlai; P. O Osuji; N. N Umunna

2000-01-01

137

Better knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in older people is associated with a higher serum vitamin D level and a higher daily dietary calcium intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: \\u000aObjective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake.\\u000aMethods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (?65 years), living in residential homes. Participants were tested for their

C. Oudshoorn; K. A. Hartholt; Leeuwen van J. P. T. M; E. M. Colin; Velde van der N; Cammen van der T. J. M

2011-01-01

138

Body composition and appetite: fat-free mass (but not fat mass or BMI) is positively associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake in humans.  

PubMed

The idea of body weight regulation implies that a biological mechanism exerts control over energy expenditure and food intake. This is a central tenet of energy homeostasis. However, the source and identity of the controlling mechanism have not been identified, although it is often presumed to be some long-acting signal related to body fat, such as leptin. Using a comprehensive experimental platform, we have investigated the relationship between biological and behavioural variables in two separate studies over a 12-week intervention period in obese adults (total n 92). All variables have been measured objectively and with a similar degree of scientific control and precision, including anthropometric factors, body composition, RMR and accumulative energy consumed at individual meals across the whole day. Results showed that meal size and daily energy intake (EI) were significantly correlated with fat-free mass (FFM, P values < 0·02-0·05) but not with fat mass (FM) or BMI (P values 0·11-0·45) (study 1, n 58). In study 2 (n 34), FFM (but not FM or BMI) predicted meal size and daily EI under two distinct dietary conditions (high-fat and low-fat). These data appear to indicate that, under these circumstances, some signal associated with lean mass (but not FM) exerts a determining effect over self-selected food consumption. This signal may be postulated to interact with a separate class of signals generated by FM. This finding may have implications for investigations of the molecular control of food intake and body weight and for the management of obesity. PMID:21733267

Blundell, John E; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; Näslund, Erik; King, Neil A; Finlayson, Graham

2011-07-07

139

High resolution tri-linear colour TDI CCD image sensor with programmable responsivity gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a 6032 element, 32 stage Tri-linear Time Delay and Integration Focal Plane Array for high resolution colour imaging applications. The sensor offers an improvement of a factor of 10 over comparable line scan CCD sensors. The imager architecture utilizes three individual TDI arrays, with a new multi-layer dielectric interference film (DIF) color filter or a dyed polyamide patterned

Suhail Agwani; James Miller; Sawas G. Chamberlain; William D. Washkurak

1995-01-01

140

Training, Development, and Improvement (TDI): A New Approach for Reforming Bilingual Teacher Preparation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the need for better prepared bilingual/English-as-a-Second-Language teachers in the United States and presents preliminary data and participant feedback from the University of Colorado BUENO TDI Project. Three teacher training models are critiqued. The BUENO Project is presented as an innovative approach to moving beyond the limitations…

Baca, Leonard; And Others

1994-01-01

141

A Gas Chromatographic Procedure for the Determination of Airborne MDI and TDI  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the analysis of airborne diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) using gas-liquid chromatography. The diisocyanates are collected in acidic absorbing solution where they undergo hydrolysis, converted to the free diamines with caustic, and extracted into toluene. The diamines are derivatized in the toluene with heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA). These derivatives are analyzed by GLC using

R. W. BISHOP; T. A. AYERS; G. G. ESPOSITO

1983-01-01

142

The paired deuterated retinol dilution technique can be used to estimate the daily vitamin A intake required to maintain a targeted whole body vitamin A pool size in men.  

PubMed

The estimated average requirement (EAR) for vitamin A (VA) of adult males is based on the amount of dietary VA required to maintain adequate function and provide a modest liver VA reserve (0.07 ?mol/g). In the present study, the paired-deuterated retinol dilution technique was used to estimate changes in VA pool size in Bangladeshi men from low-income, urban neighborhoods who had small initial VA pool sizes (0.059 ± 0.032 mmol, or 0.047 ± 0.025 ?mol/g liver; n = 16). The men were supplemented for 60 d with 1 of 8 different levels of dietary VA, ranging from 100 to 2300 ?g/d (2 men/dietary VA level). VA pool size was estimated before and after the supplementation period. The mean change (plus or minus) in VA pool size in the men was plotted against their corresponding levels of daily VA intake and a regression line was fit to the data. The level of intake at which the regression line crossed the x-axis (where estimates of VA pool size remained unchanged) was used as an estimate of the EAR. A VA intake of 254-400 ?g/d was sufficient to maintain a small VA pool size (0.059 ± 0.032 mmol) in the Bangladeshi men, corresponding to a VA intake of 362-571 ?g/d for a 70-kg U.S. man, which is lower than their current EAR of 625 ?g/d. The data suggest that the paired-deuterated retinol dilution technique could be used for estimating the EAR for VA for population subgroups for which there are currently no direct estimates. PMID:21248191

Haskell, Marjorie J; Jamil, Kazi M; Peerson, Janet M; Wahed, Mohammed A; Brown, Kenneth H

2011-01-19

143

Evaluation of self-reported skin problems among workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) at a foam manufacturing facility.  

PubMed

Toluene diisocyanate, or TDI (CAS 584-84-9) is a well-known asthmagen and respiratory irritant. TDI is also known for its ability to irritate the skin and mucous membranes. To further investigate the dermal effects of TDI, NIOSH investigators conducted a cross-sectional study at a flexible foam manufacturing plant. A total of 114 workers participated in the study. Participants completed a medical questionnaire, provided blood for antibody testing to TDI and other allergens, and a subset of participants reporting skin symptoms underwent skin patch testing to a standard diisocyanate panel. Production line workers were more than twice as likely to report skin problems as those working in nonproduction areas (PRR = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.14-16.32; P = 0.02). Age, gender and duration of employment at the plant were comparable among participants working in production and nonproduction areas. Of the 100 participants who provided blood samples for antibody testing, specific IgG antibody to TDI was detected in two individuals, and none of the samples demonstrated specific IgE antibody to TDI. Of the 26 workers who underwent skin patch testing, none developed reactions to the diisocyanate allergens. These results suggest that the skin symptoms among study participants represent an irritant rather than an immunologic reaction to TDI, or to an unidentified allergen present in the foam. PMID:12500464

Daftarian, Helga S; Lushniak, Boris D; Reh, Christopher M; Lewis, Daniel M

2002-12-01

144

Review and evaluation of TDI diesel generator owner's group program plan  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a review, performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), of the Transamerica Delaval, Inc. (TDI) Diesel Generator Owner's Group Program Plan. This report was prepared as part of the technical support PNL is providing to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Division of Licensing, on matters pertaining to the reliability of TDI diesel generators as emergency power sources for safety-related nuclear systems. The report presents the comments and conclusions reached by PNL, with the advice and counsel of five diesel engine consultants, on the principal elements of the Owners' Group Plan: Generic Problem Resolution, Design Review/Quality Revalidation, and Engine Testing and Inspection. Also included are PNL's comments on the related issues of Surveillance and Maintenance, and Administrative Controls. The conclusions drawn from PNL's evaluation of these issues form the basis for two additional topics addressed in the report: Critical Elements Required to Establish Diesel Engine Operability and Reliability, and Considerations for Interim Licensing.

Not Available

1984-06-01

145

A new design of signal processing system for TDI infrared focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, according to the characteristics of TDI infrared focal plane array output signal, a novel signal processing system based on AC coupling technology is proposed. Firstly, the output signal characteristics of TDI infrared focal plane array are analyzed. Secondly, the signal processing system based on AC-coupled technology is introduced. The designed system is consist of high pass filter circuit, signal conditioning circuit, differential input analog to digital converting circuit and digital data processing circuit. Thirdly, the designed system is simulated and tested. Simulation and test results show that the novel design idea of signal processing circuit is reasonable and feasible. Compared with the traditional design, the system has the characteristics of high common mode noise rejection, low temperature drift and low power consumption.

Wang, Hua; Wei, Zhiyong; Lei, Ning; Wang, Xu; Zhang, WenYu; Li, Tao

2012-12-01

146

Modeling of satellite borne TDI CCD pitching imaging image motion velocity vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain three-dimensional observation effect with single satellite borne time delay and integrate charge coupled device (TDI-CCD), pitching imaging is required. More accurate real-time image motion velocity vector computational model of space camera is also necessary to make the imaging perfect. Imaging motion velocity vector computation model must be set up on image plane at pitching imaging. According

Liu Zhang; Shujun Li; Guang Jin; Xiubin Yang

2009-01-01

147

Daily Pomegranate Intake Has No Impact on PSA Levels in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer - Results of a Phase IIb Randomized Controlled Trial.  

PubMed

Pomegranate has been shown to prolong PSA doubling time in early prostate cancer, but no data from a placebo controlled trial has been published yet. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the impact of pomegranate juice in patients with prostate cancer. We conducted a phase IIb, double blinded, randomized placebo controlled trial in patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer. Only patients with a PSA value ? 5ng/ml were included. The subjects consumed 500 ml of pomegranate juice or 500 ml of placebo beverage every day for a 4 week period. Thereafter, all patients received 250 ml of the pomegranate juice daily for another 4 weeks. PSA values were taken at baseline, day 14, 28 and on day 56. The primary endpoint was the detection of a significant difference in PSA serum levels between the groups after one month of treatment. Pain scores and adherence to intervention were recorded using patient diaries. 102 patients were enrolled. The majority of patients had castration resistant prostate cancer (68%). 98 received either pomegranate juice or placebo between October 2008 and May 2011. Adherence to protocol was good, with 94 patients (96%) completing the first period and 87 patients (89%) completing both periods. No grade 3 or higher toxicities occurred within the study. No differences were detected between the two groups with regard to PSA kinetics and pain scores. Consumption of pomegranate juice as an adjunct intervention in men with advanced prostate cancer does not result in significant PSA declines compared to placebo. PMID:24069070

Stenner-Liewen, Frank; Liewen, Heike; Cathomas, Richard; Renner, Christoph; Petrausch, Ulf; Sulser, Tullio; Spanaus, Katharina; Seifert, Hans Helge; Strebel, Räto Thomas; Knuth, Alexander; Samaras, Panagiotis; Müntener, Michael

2013-08-29

148

Daily Pomegranate Intake Has No Impact on PSA Levels in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer - Results of a Phase IIb Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Pomegranate has been shown to prolong PSA doubling time in early prostate cancer, but no data from a placebo controlled trial has been published yet. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the impact of pomegranate juice in patients with prostate cancer. We conducted a phase IIb, double blinded, randomized placebo controlled trial in patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer. Only patients with a PSA value ? 5ng/ml were included. The subjects consumed 500 ml of pomegranate juice or 500 ml of placebo beverage every day for a 4 week period. Thereafter, all patients received 250 ml of the pomegranate juice daily for another 4 weeks. PSA values were taken at baseline, day 14, 28 and on day 56. The primary endpoint was the detection of a significant difference in PSA serum levels between the groups after one month of treatment. Pain scores and adherence to intervention were recorded using patient diaries. 102 patients were enrolled. The majority of patients had castration resistant prostate cancer (68%). 98 received either pomegranate juice or placebo between October 2008 and May 2011. Adherence to protocol was good, with 94 patients (96%) completing the first period and 87 patients (89%) completing both periods. No grade 3 or higher toxicities occurred within the study. No differences were detected between the two groups with regard to PSA kinetics and pain scores. Consumption of pomegranate juice as an adjunct intervention in men with advanced prostate cancer does not result in significant PSA declines compared to placebo.

Stenner-Liewen, Frank; Liewen, Heike; Cathomas, Richard; Renner, Christoph; Petrausch, Ulf; Sulser, Tullio; Spanaus, Katharina; Seifert, Hans Helge; Strebel, Rato Thomas; Knuth, Alexander; Samaras, Panagiotis; Muntener, Michael

2013-01-01

149

Daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid-enriched yoghurts: effects on energy metabolism and adipose tissue gene expression in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of positional and geometric isomers of conjugated dienoic derivatives of linoleic acid. The present study was designed to determine whether 14-week CLA supplementation as triacylglycerols (3.76 g) with a 50 : 50 combination of the two main isomers (35 % cis-9, trans-11 and 35 % trans-10, cis-12) added to flavoured yoghurt-like products was able to alter body composition in healthy subjects and to alter the expression of several key adipose tissue genes (PPAR gamma, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2)). Forty-four healthy subjects were randomly assigned to consume daily either a CLA-supplemented yoghurt-like product or a placebo yoghurt for 98 d. There were no significant effects of CLA supplementation on body weight, fat mass or free fat mass. Basal energy expenditure expressed as kg free fat mass increased significantly in the CLA group (123.3 (SEM 2.5) kJ/kg free fat mass per d on day 98 v. 118.7 (SEM 2.3) kJ/kg free fat mass per d on day 0, P = 0.03). PPAR gamma mRNA gene expression increased significantly with CLA supplementation (53 (SEM 20) %, P < 0.01) and a significant reduction in mRNA levels of HSL was observed ( - 42 (SEM 7) %, P = 0.01). The levels of UCP-2 and LPL mRNA were not affected. The present results suggest that a 98 d supplementation diet with a 50 : 50 mixture of the two CLA isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 in a dairy product was unable to alter body composition, although a significant increase in the RMR has been induced. Moreover, changes in mRNA PPAR gamma and HSL in adipose tissue were recorded. PMID:17298695

Nazare, Julie-Anne; de la Perrière, Aude Brac; Bonnet, Fabrice; Desage, Michel; Peyrat, Jocelyne; Maitrepierre, Christine; Louche-Pelissier, Corinne; Bruzeau, Joëlle; Goudable, Joëlle; Lassel, Taous; Vidal, Hubert; Laville, Martine

2007-02-01

150

Industrial Hygiene Sampling for Airborne TDI in Six Flexible Slabstock Foam Manufacturing Facilities in the United States: A Comparison of the Short-Term and Long-Term Sampling Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A majority of all the flexible polyurethane foams are produced by the continuous slabstock process using toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and polyether polyol. The commercially available TDI product is predominantly an 80:20 mixture of the 2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI isomers. TDI can be used in many applications, but the market is dominated by the flexible slabstock foam industry. Even though there has

Barbara J. Cummings; Karroll S. Booth

2002-01-01

151

Design of 90×8 ROIC with pixel level digital TDI implementation for scanning type LWIR FPAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design of a 90×8 CMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) based on pixel level digital time delay integration (TDI) for scanning type LWIR focal plane arrays (FPAs) is presented. TDI is implemented on 8 pixels which improves the SNR of the system with a factor of ?8. Oversampling rate of 3 improves the spatial resolution of the system. TDI operation is realized with a novel under-pixel analog-to-digital converter, which improves the noise performance of ROIC with a lower quantization noise. Since analog signal is converted to digital domain in-pixel, non-uniformities and inaccuracies due to analog signal routing over large chip area is eliminated. Contributions of each pixel for proper TDI operation are added in summation counters, no op-amps are used for summation, hence power consumption of ROIC is lower than its analog counterparts. Due to lack of multiple capacitors or summation amplifiers, ROIC occupies smaller chip area compared to its analog counterparts. ROIC is also superior to its digital counterparts due to novel digital TDI implementation in terms of power consumption, noise and chip area. ROIC supports bi-directional scan, multiple gain settings, bypass operation, automatic gain adjustment, pixel select/deselect, and is programmable through serial or parallel interface. Input referred noise of ROIC is less than 750 rms electrons, while power consumption is less than 20mW. ROIC is designed to perform both in room and cryogenic temperatures.

Ceylan, Omer; Kayahan, Huseyin; Yazici, Melik; Gurbuz, Yasar

2013-06-01

152

Trilinear, 32-stage, selectable TDI CCD image sensor for high-resolution color scanning applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-performance time delay and integration (TDI) CCD image sensor has been developed at DALSA for color scanning applications. The imager comprises three individual 2048 X 32 linear arrays, each with its own color filter for spectral separation. The number of stages in each TDI array can be selected separately in blocks of 4, 8, 16, and 32 for optimum sensitivity over a wide range of illumination conditions. The device is fabricated using a dual metal NMOS buried channel CCD process with a 3-phase, 3-poly imaging region for increased charge storage. The pixel height and pitch is 14 micrometers and the center to center separation between the color channels is 560 micrometers . The data is read out using a 2-phase CCD shift register with a 14 micrometers pitch at an output data rate of 15 MHz per output. The die size is 31.4 mm X 4.3 mm and is housed in a 40 pin, 2.0' X 0.61', dual in line package. In this paper the authors discuss the design and the performance evaluation of the device.

Agwani, Suhail; Dobson, David A.; Washkurak, William D.; Chamberlain, Savvas G.

1994-05-01

153

A 6032 x 32 Time-Delay and Integration (TDI) abuttable image sensor for use in airborne reconnaissance applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-Delay and Integration (TDI) CCD sensors have been proven to increase the effective sensitivity in imaging applications where the image is scanned across the focal plane. This paper describes the development of a 6032 element, 32-stage TDI imager for airborne reconnaissance applications. The device is fabricated using a 3-poly 3-phase NMOS process, incorporating buried channel CCDs throughout. It is one-side buttable to produce an array of over 12,000 contiguous elements and is capable of read rates of over 4000 lines per second. For fast readout, the design incorporates dual horizontal CCDs for a total of four outputs in the abutted configuration. The architecture also allows dynamic selection in the number of TDI stages.

Strunk, Stephen J.; McMacken, John R. F.; Kamasz, Stacy R.; Washkurak, William D.; Harling, Gordon; Lund, John; Pfister, William

1992-08-01

154

Derivation Of Daily Values Used For Nutrition Labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily Values (DVs) are the daily dietary intake standards used for nutrition labeling. Information on the derivation of DVs is important for dietetics professionals and nutrition educators who use DVs to educate and instruct patients and students about diet planning and evaluation and about adherence to modified diets. The first daily intake standards for nutrition labeling were established in 1973

JEAN A. T. PENNINGTON; VANS. HUBBARD

1997-01-01

155

Daily intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in foodstuffs consumed in Tarragona, Spain: a review of recent studies (2001-2003) on human PCDD/PCDF exposure through the diet.  

PubMed

Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) were measured in foodstuffs randomly acquired in various locations of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain) in September 2002. A total of 36 composite samples, belonging to various food groups (vegetables, fruits, meat and meat products, fish and seafood, cereals, pulses, milk, dairy products, eggs, and oils and fats) were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. The dietary intake of PCDD/Fs was subsequently determined. For calculations, recent data on consumption of the selected food items were used. Total dietary intake of PCDD/Fs for the general population of Tarragona County was estimated to be 59.6 pg I-TEQ/day (63.8 pg WHO-TEQ/day). Fish and seafood (33.7%), oils and fats (15.3%), cereals (14.4%), and dairy products (13.7%) were the most important contributors to this intake. This PCDD/F intake is notably lower than the intake estimated in 1998 for the same geographical area, 210.1 pg I-TEQ/day. The current PCDD/F dietary intake is below the tolerable intake range of 1-4 pg TEQ/kg body weight/day established by the WHO in 1998. Finally, the current intake is compared with the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs recently (2001-2003) reported for a number of regions and countries. PMID:15476728

Bocio, Ana; Domingo, Jose L

2005-01-01

156

High-speed, high-resolution time-delay and integration (TDI) image sensor for use in airborne reconnaissance applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2048 X 96 time-delay and integration (TDI) CCD image sensor has been designed which has been optimized for the high speed (13,000 lines/s) scanning typically found in airborne reconnaissance. The image sensor incorporates an imaging area size selection mechanism which, in conjunction with the TDI architecture, extends the response of the sensor over a wide range of incident light intensities. At high signal levels as found in airborne reconnaissance, the dynamic range of the output signal is limited by shot noise of the image rather than device noise. The pixel spacing is 13 micrometers , giving the sensor excellent spatial resolution. The MTF of the sensor at the Nyquist frequency is 50%. The device is fabricated using an NMOS process using three polysilicon layers and buried channel CCD registers to reduce image lag.

Dobson, David A.; Agwani, Suhail; Washkurak, William D.; Chamberlain, Savvas G.

1994-10-01

157

Reaction monitoring of toluenediisocyanate (TDI) polymerization on a non-mixable aqueous surface by MALDI mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The polymerization reaction of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and hydroxyl compounds has been widely used for the production of polyurea resins. Since the composition and molecular-weight distribution of polymer adducts greatly influence the final properties of the resuting polymer, the development of analytical tools capable of monitoring the polyaddition reactions is important to control them as well as the properties of the resuting polymer. Here we report that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) is useful to precisely monitor time-dependent dynamic events occurring in the polymerization reaction of TDI with water. For this purpose, the polymerization reactions were conducted in two different reaction systems, continuously supplying sufficient water and depleting water after an initial exposure of water to provide an anhydrous storage condition of prepolymer adducts. Samples prepared in a time course from the two different reaction systems were analyzed by a MALDI TOF mass spectrometer. The polymerization adducts of TDI and water were monitored and showed to consist of three structural types of polymer adduct series, including diisocyanate, monoamino, and diamino series. These MALDI mass data efficiently reflected changes in the reaction conditions of each TDI polymerization reaction, thereby providing precise information at the molecular level for time-dependent events occurring during the polymerization reaction. These events included changes between the polymer adduct series and in the molecular-weight distribution of each polymer adduct series. The results obtained in this study suggest that high-throughput MALDI MS-based dynamic monitoring of polymerization can be used to precisely control the polymerization reaction as well as to rapidly monitor the state of prepolymers in storage. PMID:23842412

Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Ji Seok; Kim, Sung Ho

2013-01-01

158

41 CFR 301-70.507 - May we authorize per diem if an employee discontinues a TDY assignment because of a personal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a TDY assignment because of a personal emergency situation? Yes. Expenses of appropriate transportation and per diem while en route may be allowed, with the approval of an appropriate agency official, for return travel from the point of...

2012-07-01

159

41 CFR 301-70.507 - May we authorize per diem if an employee discontinues a TDY assignment because of a personal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a TDY assignment because of a personal emergency situation? Yes. Expenses of appropriate transportation and per diem while en route may be allowed, with the approval of an appropriate agency official, for return travel from the point of...

2011-07-01

160

Science Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Daily is a web-based magazine that delivers timely news about discoveries in science and technology, appropriate for all audiences. Articles are often accompanied by streaming video or podcasts; all are written in language a non-scientist can understand. The web site archives contain more than 40,000 resources on topics that include medicine, the brain, plants and animals, earth science, climate, space, matter and energy, computers, mathematics, and paleontology. The web site has been the recipient of numerous awards since its inception in 1995.

2008-03-08

161

Dietary intakes of students.  

PubMed

This paper relies on 24-h dietary recall data from a nationally representative sample of approximately 3350 students to analyze the dietary intakes of students. Most US students eat at least five times during the day, and nearly all eat at least three times per day. The average daily intake of vitamins and minerals at least meets the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs). Overall, students consume more food energy on average than recommended, suggesting that some may be at risk of consuming more food energy than is optimal. Students also consume more protein, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium than is recommended for good health. National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants' mean intakes of most nutrients at lunch meet the program goal of at least one-third of the RDA. NSLP participants, however, consume more fat, saturated fat, and sodium than is recommended. School Breakfast Program (SBP) participants' mean intakes of most nutrients at breakfast also exceed the program goal of one-fourth of the RDA. However, their breakfast intakes of saturated fat as a percentage of food energy, cholesterol, and sodium exceed dietary recommendations. PMID:7832167

Devaney, B L; Gordon, A R; Burghardt, J A

1995-01-01

162

High-speed dual-output-channel stage-selectable TDI CCD image sensor for high-resolution applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TDI sensors are a proven means of increasing the responsivity in a line scan imaging application. This paper describes the development of a family of high speed 96 stage TDI sensors. The sensor is available in a high resolution 2048 element version. A 512 element part will also be made. The number of TDI stages in the sensor can be selected in blocks of 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 stages thus providing optimum sensitivity and performance over a wide range of illumination conditions. The device is fabricated using double metal, triple poly, buried channel, NMOS CCD process. The imaging region is 4-phase, 2-poly for maximum charge storage and optimum MTF. The pixel pitch on the sensor is 13 micrometers . The sensor employs a dual channel, 2-phase, 2-poly output shift register for high speed read-out. This technique enables halving the driving clock frequency thus reducing the power consumption which can be a severe problem at large data rates. Another benefit of dual channels is that each horizontal CCD (HCCD) pixel corresponds to two vertical CCD (VCCD) registers. As a result the charge storage capacity of the HCCD is doubled without having to increase the register width. The developed sensor operates at a combined data rate of up to 40 MHz. The maximum line speeds are 32,000 and 14,000 lines/sec for the 512 and 2048 element parts respectively. Methods to reduce the fixed pattern noise resulting from transfer inefficiencies between the two HCCD channels have been implemented.

Agwani, Suhail; Dobson, David A.; Washkurak, William D.; Chamberlain, Savvas G.

1995-04-01

163

ESTIMATED DAILY AVERAGE PER CAPITA WATER INGESTION BY CHILD AND ADULT AGE CATEGORIES BASED ON USDA'S 1994-96 AND 1998 CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKES BY INDIVIDUALS (JOURNAL ARTICLE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Current water ingestion estimates are important for the assessment of risk to human populations of exposure to water-borne pollutants. This paper reports mean and percentile estimates of the distributions of daily average per capita water ingestion for 12 age range groups. The ...

164

Growth and metal accumulation response of Vigna radiata L. var PDM 54 (mung bean) grown on fly ash-amended soil: effect on dietary intake.  

PubMed

Plants of Vigna radiata L. var. PDM 54 (mung bean) were grown in soil amended with different amounts (10 and 25%) of fly ash (FA). Although total metal content increased with increasing FA amendment, DTPA-extractable metals were higher for 10% FA. Accumulation of metals by the plants increased with increasing FA amendment and was greater in shoots than in roots (except for Mn and Cu) and seeds (except Mn). The total daily intake (TDI) of all the tested metals in seeds was within the recommended dietary allowance (RDA)/provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) for adults, except for Cd, which was higher than recommended values. Principal-components analysis (PCA) based on studies of physicochemical properties, DTPA-extractable metals, and metal accumulation in the different parts of V. radiata showed that physicochemical properties such as cation-exchange capacity, organic carbon, and organic matter had significant positive effects on accumulation of Cd, Co, Ni, and Pb by the plant, whereas EC had a significant negative effect. Although addition of fly ash (10%) initially increased the rate of growth, toxic symptoms were observed for 25% FA. Results from analysis of antioxidants (carotenoids, ascorbic acid, non-protein thiol, and free proline) revealed that these increased more in plants grown in 10% FA than in those grown in garden soil. Cysteine and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased with increasing FA amendment. PCA also showed that all the antioxidants studied behaved similarly except cysteine, for which there was a close relationship with MDA content. Thus, the results obtained during this study revealed that V. radiata L. var. PDM 54 may be grown in 10% FA and/or contaminated agricultural soil. PMID:18668327

Gupta, Amit K; Sinha, Sarita

2008-07-31

165

Dietary PCB intake in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A food market-basket, representative for the general Belgian population, containing various meat, fish and dairy food products, was analysed for its polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content. Additionally, fast food samples were also investigated. Based on the measured PCB levels (sum of 23 congeners), an average daily dietary intake estimate of PCBs was calculated. Of all foods analysed, fish had the highest

Stefan Voorspoels; Adrian Covaci; Hugo Neels

2008-01-01

166

Nicotine intake by snuff users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured in 27 volunteers before and after taking snuff. Within 10 minutes after snuffing blood nicotine concentrations were comparable to those obtained after the 10 minutes or so that it takes to smoke a cigarette. Nicotine intake from snuffing was related to the experience of the snuffer. In daily and occasional snuffers increases in

M A Russell; M J Jarvis; G Devitt; C Feyerabend

1981-01-01

167

Elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts demonstrate energy and dietary intake deficiencies during periods of intense training.  

PubMed

This study determined dietary intake and energy balance of elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts during their preseason training. Forty rhythmic gymnasts and 40 sedentary age-matched females (10-12 yrs) participated in the study. Anthropometric profile and skeletal ages were determined. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed to estimate daily energy intake, daily energy expenditure, and resting metabolic rate. Groups demonstrated comparable height, bone age, pubertal development, resting metabolic rate. Gymnasts had lower body mass, BMI, body fat than age-matched controls. Although groups demonstrated comparable daily energy intake, gymnasts exhibited a higher daily energy expenditure resulting in a daily energy deficit. Gymnasts also had higher carbohydrate intake but lower fat and calcium intake. Both groups were below the recommended dietary allowances for fiber, water, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin intake. Gymnasts may need to raise their daily energy intake to avoid the energy deficit during periods of intense training. PMID:22109784

Michopoulou, Eleni; Avloniti, Alexandra; Kambas, Antonios; Leontsini, Diamanda; Michalopoulou, Maria; Tournis, Symeon; Fatouros, Ioannis G

2011-11-01

168

Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100 Finnish men consuming their habitual omnivorous diet, and measured the 24 h urinary excretion of plant

Tarja Nurmi; Jaakko Mursu; José L. Peñalvo; Henrik E. Poulsen; Sari Voutilainen

2010-01-01

169

Ad Libitum Water Intake by Neonatal Calves and Its Relationship to Calf Starter Intake, Weight Gain, Feces Score, and Season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water intakes and other experimental data over 3 yr encompassing 335 calves raised under an early weaning program at the Purina Research Farm were summar- ized. Water intake closely paralleled calf starter intake particularly during the last 2 wk of the 4-wk feeding period. Calves with weight gains below the median daily gain of 272 g had reduced water and

A. F. Kertz; L. F. Reutzel; J. H. Mahoney

1984-01-01

170

Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children  

PubMed Central

Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that in preschool children, when trying to maximize the benefit of fluoride in caries prevention and to minimize its risk, caution should be exercised when giving advice on the fluoride containing components of child's diet or prescribing fluoride supplements.

2011-01-01

171

Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men.  

PubMed

Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100 Finnish men consuming their habitual omnivorous diet, and measured the 24 h urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans to compare the intake and metabolism. Dietary determinants of lignan intake and their urinary excretion were also determined. The mean intake of lignans was 1224 (sd 539) mug/d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intake of water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and only 4 % by the intake of lariciresinol. Although the assessed intake of lignans corresponded well with the urinary excretion of lignans, the enterolactone production in the human body depended more on the dietary sources of lignans than the absolute intake of lignans. PMID:19811696

Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L; Poulsen, Henrik E; Voutilainen, Sari

2009-10-08

172

Maternal Calcium Intake and Offspring Blood Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods and Results—As part of the ongoing US prospective cohort study Project Viva, we analyzed 4091 Dinamap blood pressure measurements from 936 six-month-old infants whose mothers had completed food frequency questionnaires during the second trimester of pregnancy. We used mixed models to estimate effects of maternal calcium intake on offspring systolic blood pressure. MeanSD daily total maternal calcium intake was

Matthew W. Gillman; Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman; Ken P. Kleinman; Janet W. Rich-Edwards; Steven E. Lipshultz

2010-01-01

173

Comparison of the dietary cobalt intake in three different Australian diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in the dietary intake of cobalt were assessed for vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian Australians using food intake logs, and daily or average trend recall over three months. A significant decrease in cobalt intake was observed for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian population compared with the intake in vegans and omnivores. There is no RDI for cobalt, however, the cobalt intake of Australians

Bevan Hokin; Michelle Adams; John Ashton; Honway Louie

174

Two-dimensional tracking and TDI are consistent methods for evaluating myocardial longitudinal peak strain in left and right ventricle basal segments in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Myocardial contractility can be investigated using longitudinal peak strain. It can be calculated using the Doppler-derived TDI method and the non-Doppler method based on tissue tracking on B-mode images. Both are validated and show good reproducibility, but no comparative analysis of their results has yet been conducted. This study analyzes the results obtained from the basal segments of the

Laura Stefani; Loira Toncelli; Marco Gianassi; Paolo Manetti; Valentina Di Tante; Maria Robertina Concetta Vono; Andrea Moretti; Brunello Cappelli; Gianni Pedrizzetti; Giorgio Galanti

2007-01-01

175

Exercise Stress Echocardiography with Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) Detects Early Systolic Dysfunction in Beta-Thalassemia Major Patients without Cardiac Iron Overload  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate left and right myocardial performance at rest and after maximal exercise by conventional and Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) echocardiography. Background Iron Overload Cardiomyopathy (IOC) is the main cause of death in thalassemia major (TM) patients but conventional Echocardiography fails to predict early cardiac dysfunction. As TDI is able to demonstrate regional myocardial dysfunction and stress test may reveal abnormalities which are not evident at rest, we wondered if echocardiographic parameters may reveal abnormalities when applied first at rest and then after a physical effort. Methods We enrolled 46 consecutive beta-TM patients and 39 control subjects without evidence of cardiac disease; two echocardiograms, at baseline and at the end of maximal exercise on supine bicycle ergometer, were done. All TM patients had a liver iron assessment by SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) and a cardiac iron one by MRI (T2*) evaluation. Results 38 TM patients had no evidence of cardiac iron overload. Whereas TM patients did not shown diastolic dysfunction and all of them presented a good global response to exercise, TDI detected a reduced increase of the S’ waves of left ventricle basal segment during exercise. This finding seems to have some weak but interesting relations with iron overload markers. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PAPs) values were greater than in control subjects both at rest and after exercise Conclusions in our study, exercise stress TDI-echocardiography was able to demonstrate subtle systolic abnormalities that were missed by Conventional Echocardiography. Further studies are required to determine the meaning and the clinical impact of these results.

Barbero, Umberto; Destefanis, Paola; Pozzi, Roberto; Longo, Filomena; Piga, Antonio

2012-01-01

176

Intake of intense sweeteners in Germany.  

PubMed

The dietary intake of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin was evaluated in Germany (FRG) in 1988/89. In the first part of the study the sweetener intake was evaluated in a representative sample of the population. Complete 24-h records of the amount and type of all foods and drinks consumed were obtained from 2,291 individuals. The total daily intake was calculated for each person from the sweetener content of each product and was expressed in mg/kg body weight (bw). 35.9% of the participants ingested one or more sweeteners on the examination day. Cyclamate and saccharin were the prominent sweeteners because aspartame was at that time permitted only under special regulatory exemption, and products containing acesulfame were not yet available. For users of intense sweeteners the mean intakes of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were 0.15, 2.62, and 0.250 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. At the 90th percentile of intake, i.e., for the heavy consumer, the ingestion of cyclamate and saccharin was about 2.5 times higher. Persons who adhered to a diet (diabetes, weight control) did not ingest sweeteners in substantially higher amounts. Tabletop sweeteners and beverages were the most important sources of sweeteners, and they contributed more than 80% of the total intake. Consumption of sweeteners in excess of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) was rarely observed (saccharin: one person, cyclamate: 16 persons). In the second part of the study, the sweetener intake was further evaluated during a 7-day period in those subjects who in the 1-day study ingested any of the sweeteners in excess of 75% of the ADI. Complete 7-day food records were available from 40 out of the 41 subjects who fulfilled this criterium. In this selected subgroup in which 19 subjects were less than 19 years old, the mean daily intakes of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were 0.13, 4.53, and 0.42 mg/kg body weight (bw), respectively. These levels correspond to 0.33, 41 and 17% of the corresponding ADI values. No subject exceeded the ADI of aspartame or saccharin on any day of the study. For cyclamate, the mean daily intake over the 7-day period exceeded the ADI in 4 subjects. The results indicate that at the time of the study the then valid German sweetener regulation protected the consumer adequately, and that the sweetener intake was in 99.8% of all examined persons within recommended limits. PMID:1374988

Bär, A; Biermann, C

1992-03-01

177

Daily urinary excretion of bisphenol A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Concerns over dietary exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, have been raised because BPA is contained in\\u000a resins and plastics commonly used for the preservation of food and beverages. The purpose of the present study was to assess\\u000a daily intake levels of BPA in a group of male subjects by measuring total urinary BPA (free BPA plus BPA

Chikako Arakawa; Kayumi Fujimaki; Jun Yoshinaga; Hideki Imai; Shigeko Serizawa; Hiroaki Shiraishi

2004-01-01

178

Acceptable daily intake and the regulation of intense sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time there are four intense sweeteners that are available in a number of countries: acesulfame?K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin. Extensive toxicity databases are available on each sweetener and these have been assessed by both national and international regulatory authorities. This review considers briefly the critical toxicity of each sweetener that is the basis for establishing the no

A. G. Renwick

1990-01-01

179

NEW APPROACHES IN THE DERIVATION OF ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE (ADI)  

EPA Science Inventory

Current methods for estimating human health risks from exposure to threshold-acting toxicants in water or food, such as those established by the U.S. EPA, the FDA, the NAS, the WHO and the FAO, consider only chronic or lifetime exposure to individual chemicals. These methods gene...

180

Patterns in food intake correlate with body mass index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying eating behavior may give clues to both the physiological and behavioral mechanisms behind weight regulation. We analyzed year-long dietary records of 29 stable weight subjects. The records showed wide daily variations of food intake. We computed the temporal auto-correlation and skewness of food intake mass, energy, carbohydrate, fat and protein. We also computed the cross-correlation coefficient between intake mass

Vipul Periwal; Carson C. Chow

2006-01-01

181

Menstrual Cycle and Voluntary Food Intake in Young Chinese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of menstrual cycle phase on energy and macronutrients intakes was assessed in 20 university students (21·2±1·3 years) all of whom experienced ovulatory cycle as documented by a surge in urinary luteinizing hormone. Three-day food intake records, which consisted of one weekend day, were kept in both mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases. Mean daily energy intake was higher (p=0·02) in

ET LI; LBY TSANG; SSH LUI

1999-01-01

182

Reduction of heroin intake in baboons by an economic constraint.  

PubMed

Baboons earned their total food ration in a situation where they were periodically given an opportunity to choose between food and an intravenous infusion of heroin. As the number of daily choices was restricted, food intake remained relatively constant, while heroin intake decreased dramatically. PMID:7443742

Elsmore, T F; Fletcher, G V; Conrad, D G; Sodetz, F J

1980-11-01

183

Exposure to phthalates in 5-6 years old primary school starters in Germany--a human biomonitoring study and a cumulative risk assessment.  

PubMed

We determined the internal exposure of 111 German primary school starters by analyzing urinary metabolites of six phthalates: butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-iso-decylphthalate (DiDP). From the urinary metabolite levels, we calculated daily intakes and related these values to Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values. By introducing the concept of a relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum)) value, we tried to account for the cumulative exposure to several of the above-mentioned phthalates. The TDI(cum) was derived as follows: the daily intake (DI) calculated from the metabolite level was divided by the TDI for each phthalate; this ratio was multiplied by 100% indicating the TDI percentage for which the DI accounted. Finally the % TDIs of the different phthalates were totalled to get the TDI(cum). A TDI(cum) above 100% is a potential cause for concern. We confirmed the ubiquitous exposure of the children to all phthalates investigated. Exposures were within range of levels previously reported for GerES, albeit slightly lower. Regarding daily intakes, two children exceeded the TDI for DnBP, whereas one child closely approached the TDI for DEHP. 24% of the children exceeded the TDI(cum) for the three most critical phthalates: DEHP, DnBP and DiBP. Furthermore, 54% of the children had total exposures that used up more than 50% the TDI(cum). Therefore, the overall exposure to a number of phthalates, and the knowledge that these phthalates (and other anti-androgens) act in a dose-additive manner, urgently warrants a cumulative risk assessment approach. PMID:21371937

Koch, Holger M; Wittassek, Matthias; Brüning, Thomas; Angerer, Jürgen; Heudorf, Ursel

2011-03-02

184

Food Intake of Children with Short Stature Born Small for Gestational Age before and during a Randomized GH Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents of short children born SGA often report that their children have a serious lack of appetite and a low food intake. In this study we investigated food intake, by using a standardized 7-day food questionnaire, in 88 short SGA children before start of GH treatment. The intake was compared with the recommended daily intake (RDI) of age-matched children. We

V. H. Boonstra; N. J. T. Arends; T. Stijnen; W. F. Blum; O. Akkerman; A. C. S. Hokken-Koelega

2006-01-01

185

Arguments at Mealtime and Child Energy Intake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To examine how arguments at mealtimes relate to children's daily energy intake. Design: A cross-sectional study using data obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 (QLSCD), a representative sample of children born in 1998, in the province of Quebec, Canada. Setting: Face-to-face interviews,…

Burnier, Daniel; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

2011-01-01

186

Nicotine intake by snuff users.  

PubMed Central

Blood nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured in 27 volunteers before and after taking snuff. Within 10 minutes after snuffing blood nicotine concentrations were comparable to those obtained after the 10 minutes or so that it takes to smoke a cigarette. Nicotine intake from snuffing was related to the experience of the snuffer. In daily and occasional snuffers increases in plasma nicotine concentrations averaged 77.7 and 12.3 nmol/l (12.6 and 2.0 ng/ml) respectively, while the novices showed no appreciable increase. The increase shown by thea daily snuffers was comparable to the average increase of 62.3 nmol/l (10.1 ng/ml) obtained from a single cigarette by a group of heavy smokers. The peak nicotine concentrations in the daily snuffers were also similar to the peak values in 136 heavy smokers--222.6 and 226-3 nmol/l (36.1 and 36.7 ng/ml), respectively. Unusual multiple-dose snuffing produced massive increases in plasma nicotine to concentrations that have never been recorded in smokers. The similarity of the concentrations produced by regular daily snuffing and regular daily smoking suggests that the plasma nicotine concentration has some controlling influence over the self-regulation of these two quite different forms of tobacco use. The rapid absorption of nicotine from snuff confirms its potential as an acceptable and relatively harmless substitute for smoking.

Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Devitt, G; Feyerabend, C

1981-01-01

187

Dietary intake of macronutrients and fiber in Mediterranean patients on chronic hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Background: We aimed to measure the dietary intake of calories, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and fiber in patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) at 3 centers in 1 metropolitan and 2 urban areas of Italy, and to evaluate whether it met the dietary guidelines for cardiovascular risk reduction. Methods: Daily dietary intake was assessed through a 3-day diet diary in 128 HD patients at the hemodialysis units of the Catholic University of Rome, Hospital A. Murri of Jesi and Hospital Principe di Piemonte of Senigallia, Italy. Results: Mean dietary calorie and protein intakes were 22.9 ± 9.1 kcal/kg per day and 0.95 ± 0.76 g protein/kg per day, respectively. Daily carbohydrate and lipid intakes as a percentage of total calorie intake were 51.8% ± 8.9% and 32.1% ± 7.1%. Mean daily dietary cholesterol intake was 206.6 ± 173.6 mg. Mean daily dietary intakes of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were 0.49 ± 0.28 g and 5.1 ± 2.5 g, respectively, while the mean ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 intake was 11.5 ± 4.8. Forty-eighty percent of patients had an omega-6 to omega-3 ratio =10. Mean daily dietary intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 5.5 ± 3.3 g, 28.9 ± 9.1 g and 3.1 ± 1.7 g, respectively. Ninety-six percent of HD patients had an SFA intake <10% of total calories. Most unsaturated fatty acids intakes were under the value of =30%. Mean daily dietary fiber intake was 11.8 ± 6.1 g. Conclusion: In HD patients from a Mediterranean country (Italy), daily intakes of calories, proteins and fiber were lower than the recommended values, whereas the intake of lipids was closer to being adequate. PMID:23065914

Bossola, Maurizio; Leo, Alessandra; Viola, Antonella; Carlomagno, Giusy; Monteburini, Tania; Cenerelli, Stefano; Santarelli, Stefano; Boggi, Rolando; Miggiano, Giacinto; Vulpio, Carlo; Mele, Cristina; Tazza, Luigi

2012-10-08

188

The relationship between daily caffeine consumption and withdrawal symptoms: a questionnaire-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Daily caffeine intake was estimated to range from 0 to 500 mg day -1 . A significant increase in headache, fatigue, irritability, and sleepiness\\/drowsiness (P < 0.05) was reported by student's whose daily caffeine consumption was > 200 mg than by those whose daily caffeine consumption was < 200 mg. Conclusion: The data obtained show that Turkish university students

Nermin KÜÇER

2010-01-01

189

Variations of Prothrombin Time, Factor VII and Protein C with a Single Daily Dose of Acenocoumarol  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 11 patients on steady anticoagulation with a daily dose of acenocoumarol, prothrombin time, factor VII and protein C were measured 2 and 16 h after the daily intake of acenoumarol. Prothrombin time (expressed as International Normalised Ratio) increases significantly, factor VII and protein C decrease between the two samples. These results suggest that a daily dose of acenoumarol is

J. N. Fiessinger; J. F. Vitoux; M. Roncato; A. Dellinger; O. Dizien; M. Aiach

1989-01-01

190

Assessment of Intakes of Artificial Sweeteners in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the mean and maximum intake levels of the artificial sweeteners acesul- fame potassium, aspartame, cyclamate and sucralose in chil- dren with type 1 diabetes mellitus and to compare each intake level to respective acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels. Quantitative and qualitative estimates of foods consumed by 56 children (age: 2 years to

Lisa Devitt; Denis Daneman; Jennifer Buccino

2004-01-01

191

Dietary Energy Density Is Associated with Increased Intake in Free-Living Humans1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary energy density markedly influences the daily dietary intake of humans. The present study examined the relation of energy density to dietary intake and body size in 371 male and 581 female adults. The subjects were free-living and provided a detailed record of their everyday food and drink intake in 7-d food diaries. The reported diets were analyzed for the

John M. de Castro

192

Dietary intake estimate for perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluorocompounds (PFCs) in UK retail foods following determination using standard addition LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

The analysis of 252 food samples (UK-produced and imported) purchased from a variety of retail outlets in the UK was undertaken for the presence of perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and nine other perfluorocompounds (PFCs). A limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1 microg/kg was achieved for all target analytes, in all samples. Standard addition was used for quantification of PFC levels. All 11 of the targeted PFCs were detected in 75 individual food items. In 70% of the samples, including all meat other than offal, none of the analytes were present above the LOD. The highest levels found were 59 microg/kg perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) and 63 microg/kg total PFCs (SigmaPFCs) in an eel sample, and 40 microg/kg PFOS (62 microg/kg SigmaPFCs) in a whitebait sample. The highest level in an offal sample was 10 microg/kg, in a wild roe deer liver. There were six samples with SigmaPFCs >15 microg/kg (fish, shellfish, crustaceans), a further seven samples with SigmaPFCs ranging 11-15 microg/kg (including a liver), nine with SigmaPFCs ranging 6-10 microg/kg (fish and livers), 31 with SigmaPFCs in the range 2-5 microg/kg (including kidneys, popcorn and processed peas) and a further 22 with SigmaPFCs close to the LOD of 1 microg/kg (including eggs and potatoes). These concentrations indicate that UK consumers are being exposed to a low level of PFC contamination from food. The estimated upper bound dietary intake of 10 ng/kg bodyweight (bw)/day of PFOS for average adult consumers is well below the 0.15 microg (150 ng)/kg bw tolerable daily intake (TDI) set by the European Food Safety Authority. The lower bound adult dietary intake estimate of 1 ng/kg bw/day is similar to estimates undertaken and reported in countries such as Canada, Germany and Spain. PMID:20198525

Clarke, D B; Bailey, V A; Routledge, A; Lloyd, A S; Hird, S; Mortimer, D N; Gem, M

2010-04-01

193

Internet Daily Stock Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet Daily Stock Report contains a daily market recap and morning report on how Internet related stocks are faring. Provided by Internet World, it also contains an Internet stock index of over twenty companies, with names, stock symbols, and business type. Hypertext links to the home pages of those companies are provided.

194

Singularities in Daily Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The means of daily maximum temperatures using twenty years of record are obtained. The average of these means over n consecutive calendar days is used as a predictor of the daily maximum temperature one and more years in advance. Data from ten stations in the United States for the period 1905 to 1957 are analyzed in this fashion and a

Isadore Enger

1959-01-01

195

Potential intake of intense sweeteners in Brazil.  

PubMed

A survey of intense sweetener intakes was carried out in the winter of 1990 and summer of 1991 in Brazil. Data on the potential intake of the intense sweeteners aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin were generated, based on a representative sample of 673 individuals who completed a questionnaire designed to collect information on demographic details and habitual usage of sweetener-containing food and drinks. The respondents were randomly chosen among intense sweetener consumers living the cities of Campinas, São Paulo and Curitiba, Paraná. Potential daily intakes by individuals were calculated for each sweetener by combining each person's consumption of sweetener-containing food and beverages with information generated by the determination of the concentrations of the sweeteners used in these products. The data showed that 72% of the studied population consumed saccharin, 67% cyclamate and 40% aspartame. The main reasons alleged for the use of intense sweeteners were weight-control diet (36%), diabetes (35%) and weight loss (23%). Table-top sweeteners were the major source of sweeteners, followed by soft drinks. The median daily intake of aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin represented approximately 2.9, 15.5, and 16-4% of the corresponding ADI, respectively. Diabetics in general had a much higher intake within the studied population. PMID:8608854

Toledo, M C; Ioshi, S H

196

Does Lowering Fat Intake in Children's Diets Result in Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake?  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe the impact of CATCH on fruit and vegetable intake among the children in the trial.The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends 5 to 9 servings of fruits and vegetables daily for those over 2 years of age. Many school based programs that target fat, saturated fat, and sodium also suggest increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. Whether this

A. O. Garceau; C. L. Perry; L. A. Lytle; W. L. Baker; H. A. Feldman; T. A. Nicklas; E. J. Stone; S. H. Kelder; M. M. Zive

1997-01-01

197

Habitual dietary calcium intake and cortical bone loss in perimenopausal women: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  During an 8-year follow-up study, the effect of habitual dietary calcium intake on cortical bone loss in 154 healthy perimenopausal\\u000a women was examined. Dietary calcium intake, determined by the cross-check dietary history method, and cortical bone mineral\\u000a content of the radius were measured annually. Habitual dietary calcium intake was calculated as the mean of the estimated\\u000a daily dietary calcium intake

Emerentia C. H. van Beresteijn; Martin A. van't Hof; Gertjan Schaafsma; Hugo de Waard; Symen A. Duursma

1990-01-01

198

Tips for Daily Living  

MedlinePLUS

... and on ASA Facebook's #WhatWorksWednesdays! Tips For Daily Living Karen Dionne, hemorrhagic stroke survivor, shares her tips ... See how Rosanna Radding shares her tips for living re-abled. See how she chops an onion ...

199

Shaundra Bryant Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from Science City, Shaundra Bryant Daily, an electrical engineer, describes a software program she developed to help girls reflect on their emotions, and how her two passions—science and dance—are connected.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-09-18

200

Maternal Calcium Intake and Offspring Blood Pressure  

PubMed Central

Background Few data exist on the intergenerational influence of calcium intake during pregnancy on offspring blood pressure. Methods and Results As part of the ongoing US prospective cohort study Project Viva, we analyzed 4091 Dinamap blood pressure measurements from 936 six-month-old infants whose mothers had completed food frequency questionnaires during the second trimester of pregnancy. We used mixed models to estimate effects of maternal calcium intake on offspring systolic blood pressure. Mean±SD daily total maternal calcium intake was 1494±523 mg, consisting of 1230±486 mg from foods and 264±191 mg from supplements. Mean±SD 6-month blood pressure was 89.9±12.9 mm Hg. From bottom to top quartile of dietary calcium from foods adjusted for energy intake and measurement conditions, mean infant systolic blood pressures were 91.0, 90.2, 90.9, and 90.2 mm Hg (trend P=0.62). From calcium supplements only, the values were 91.5, 90.2, 90.4, and 88.4 mm Hg (trend P=0.006). After further adjustment for demographic, anthropometric, dietary, social, and economic variables, the decrease in 6-month systolic blood pressure was ?3.0 mm Hg (95% CI, ?4.9 to ?1.1) for each 500-mg increment of maternal supplemental calcium intake during pregnancy. We did not find evidence of effect modification by maternal vitamin D or potassium intake or by infant body mass index. First-trimester calcium intake was not associated with offspring blood pressure. Conclusions These observational data suggest that supplementing maternal midgestational calcium intake may lower offspring blood pressure, thus helping to prevent hypertension in the next generation.

Gillman, Matthew W.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Lipshultz, Steven E.

2007-01-01

201

Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental…

Texas Child Care, 1993

1993-01-01

202

Absorption, excretion, and retention of selenium from a high selenium yeast in men with a high intake of selenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of selenium (Se) from yeast given to humans with a habitual long-term daily intake at a supra-nutritional level. Methods: Twelve healthy males with a daily supplemental intake of 300 mg Se as selenised yeast over 10 weeks were supplemented with a single dose of 327

Susanne Bügel; Erik H. Larsen; Jens J. Sloth; Knut Flytlie; Kim Overvad; Lars C. Steenberg; Sven Moesgaard

2008-01-01

203

Total energy intake, adolescent discretionary behaviors and the energy gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To estimate total energy intake and the energy gap—the daily imbalance between energy intake and expenditure—associated with discretionary behaviors of adolescents, namely their leisure active behaviors (playing or participating in sports and heavy chores), leisure sedentary behaviors (television (TV) viewing and playing video and computer games), productive sedentary behaviors (reading or doing homework).Design:Prospective observational study.Participants:A total of 538 students (mean

K R Sonneville; S L Gortmaker

2008-01-01

204

Dietary Fiber and Phytate Intake of Strict Vegetarian Thai Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison is made between strict vegetarian (vegan) and non-vegetarian subjects in terms of their dietary fiber and phytate intakes. Duplicated meals were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. Estimation of dietary fiber intake in a vegetarian daily diet was in the order of 68.7 g. Vegetarian diets appeared to contain two times the dietary fiber content found in non-vegetarian

C. Chitchumroonchokchai

1995-01-01

205

EFFECTS OF ENERGY INTAKE ON ENERGETIC EFFICIENCY AND BODY COMPOSITION OF BEEF STEERS DIFFERING IN SIZE AT MATURITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereford and Charolais steers were fed at three levels of feed intake (low, medium or ad libitum) to similar weights within breed groups to evaluate effects of energy intake on energetic efficiency and body composition. Two methods were employed to partition metabolizable energy intake into use for maintenance and gain. Method one used an assumed daily fasting heat production of

W. N. Garrett

2010-01-01

206

Impact of food consumption habits on the pesticide dietary intake: Comparison between a French vegetarian and the general population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to compare the pesticide residue dietary intake of the French general population and the vegetarian population, separated into five specific diets: omnivorous (OMN), lacto-vegetarian (LV), ovo-lacto-vegetarian (OLV), pesco-lacto-vegetarian (PLV) and vegan (VG). Theoretical Maximum Daily Intakes (TMDIs) based on Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) were calculated as a percentage of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). Among the 421

Marieke Van Audenhaege; Fanny Héraud; Céline Menard; Juliette Bouyrie; Sophie Morois; Gloria Calamassi-Tran; Sébastien Lesterle; Jean-Luc Volatier; Jean-Charles Leblanc

2009-01-01

207

NOAA Daily Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

Center, Hydrometeorological P.

2011-01-01

208

Daily Radiation Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to provide students an understanding of the extent to which radiative energy heats and cools the surface of Earth on a daily basis. Students will learn to calculate the total amount of incoming and outgoing radiation over a day. They will learn to determine how balanced the radiative system is over a particular location and try to determine whether the surface is in radiative equilibrium.

209

Usual Energy Intake from Carbohydrates  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Home Diet Usual Dietary Intakes: Background The NCI Method Details of the NCI Method Food Intakes, US Population, 2001-04 Selected Intakes

210

Access to food outlets and children's nutritional intake in urban China: a difference-in-difference analysis  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years supermarkets and fast food restaurants have been replacing those “wet markets” of independent vendors as the major food sources in urban China. Yet how these food outlets relate to children’s nutritional intake remains largely unexplored. Method Using a longitudinal survey of households and communities in China, this study examines the effect of the urban built food environment (density of wet markets, density of supermarkets, and density of fast food restaurants) on children’s nutritional intake (daily caloric intake, daily carbohydrate intake, daily protein intake, and daily fat intake). Children aged 6–18 (n?=?185) living in cities were followed from 2004 to 2006, and difference-in-difference models are used to address the potential issue of omitted variable bias. Results Results suggest that the density of wet markets, rather than that of supermarkets, positively predicts children’s four dimensions of nutritional intake. In the caloric intake model and the fat intake model, the positive effect of neighborhood wet market density on children’s nutritional intake is stronger with children from households of lower income. Conclusion With their cheaper prices and/or fresher food supply, wet markets are likely to contribute a substantial amount of nutritional intake for children living nearby, especially those in households with lower socioeconomic status. For health officials and urban planners, this study signals a sign of warning as wet markets are disappearing from urban China’s food environment.

2012-01-01

211

Effect of Level of Protein Intake on Urinary and Fecal Calcium and Calcium Retention of Young Adult Males1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

When calcium and phosphorus intakes were maintained con stant at 1400 mg daily, increasing the protein intake of 18-to-20-year-old males from 48 to 141 g daily caused a highly significant increase in urinary calcium, the mean daily values being 175 and 338 mg, respectively. The apparent absorp tion of calcium was higher by 69 mg daily when the high protein

NANCY E. JOHNSON; EMERITA N. ALCANTARAÂ; HELLEN LINKSWILER

212

The Obsession with High Dietary Protein Intake in ESRD Patients on Dialysis: Is It Justified?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The belief that dialysis patients require a much higher intake of protein than the average person is widely held among nephrologists and a recent editorial review on the care of patients undergoing hemodialysis advised a protein intake of at least 1.5 g\\/kg\\/day in this population. In theory, the requirements for daily protein intake of dialysis patients should be the

J. Uribarri

2000-01-01

213

Is children’s knowledge of fruit and vegetable recommendations related to their intakes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low and medium SES children’s knowledge of the Australian Government’s recommendations for minimum daily intakes of fruit\\u000a and vegetables and their reported actual intakes were investigated. In total, 524 children and 123 parents from four Australian\\u000a primary schools responded to questionnaires on the topic of children’s fruit and vegetable preferences and intakes. Around\\u000a half the children could accurately state the

Simone Pettigrew; Melanie Pescud; Robert J. Donovan

2009-01-01

214

Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for feed intake and other traits in growing beef cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI), residual feed intake (RFI), average daily gain (ADG), mid-period body weight (MBW), gain to feed ratio (G:F) and flight speed (FS) were estimated using 1165 steers from a mixed-breed population using restricted maximum likelihood methodology applied to...

215

Energy, Fluids Intake and Beverages Consumption Pattern among Lactating Women in Tabriz, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: In current study, we determined daily mean intake of energy and fluids and also beverages consumption pattern in lactating mothers and the possible effects of some maternal factors on infants ' weight. Information on food and fluid intake was collected from 182 mothers. Weight and height of mothers and infants were measured and the body mass index (BMI)

Reza Mahdavi; Leila Nikniaz; Seyedrafie Arefhosseini

2009-01-01

216

High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during preg - nancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. Ob- jective. To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. Material and Methods. At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency in- take questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of

Diana Avendaño-Badillo; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila; Leticia Hernández-Cadena; Gabriela Rueda-Hernández; Maritsa Solano-González; Luis G Ibarra; Howard Hu; Martha M. Téllez-Rojo

2009-01-01

217

Nutritional status and food intake in adolescents living in Western Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review covers surveys of nutritional intake in adolescents living in several countries of Western Europe. Current definitions of nutritional status are discussed, with a special emphasis on adolescent years. It is generally observed that obesity rates are increasing (especially those of massive obesity) in young people, whereas declared energy intakes are decreasing. Average daily energy input seems adequate in

M-F Rolland-Cachera; F Bellisle; M Deheeger

2000-01-01

218

Physical activity, muscle strength, and calcium intake in fracture of the proximal femur in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular exercise and high calcium intake possibly help to preserve bone mass. Little is known, however, about their role in preventing hip fracture. The physical activity and calcium intake of 300 elderly men and women with hip fractures were compared with those of 600 controls matched for age and sex. In both sexes increased daily activity, including standing, walking, climbing

C. Cooper; D. J. Barker; C. Wickham

1988-01-01

219

Use of nutritional supplements by elite adult Portuguese athletes is not associated with nutritional intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to characterise the nutritional intake according the use of nutritional supplements (NS) by elite adult Portuguese athletes. Two hundred and two adult (23±4 years) athletes (78% males), representatives of Portugal in 13 sports, voluntarily filled a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire about the use of NS. The total nutritional daily intake did not consider the nutrients

M Sousa; M J Fernandes; P Moreira; V H Teixeira

2010-01-01

220

ESTIMATING HUMAN BREAST MILK ENERGY INTAKE IN 3-MONTH OLD INFANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several researchers have published equations to estimate caloric intake in exclusively breastfed (BF) infants. Our Beginnings study offers an opportunity to compare these estimates in a well-defined sample of healthy, BF infants (n=79, 38F, 41M) and contrast them to the Daily Reference Intake (DRI)...

221

Fruit and Vegetable Intakes among Elementary Schools' Pupils: Using Five-A-Day Educational Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Low fruit and vegetable intake is a major risk factor for cancer, coronary heart disease and stroke. The recommended intake of five portions per day would reduce death rates from these causes by 20%. In order to have reach fruit and vegetables in daily diet among students, this study examines a brief preventive intervention as for embedding schools action

Bashirian S. MSC; Moeini B

2008-01-01

222

Anabolic androgenic steroids affects alcohol intake, defensive behaviors and brain opioid peptides in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated whether a relationship exists between nandrolone decanoate and voluntary ethanol intake in laboratory rats. Animals were subjected to daily subcutaneous injections with nandrolone decanoate (15 mg\\/kg) during 2 weeks. One group of animals was tested for voluntary alcohol intake 1 week after the end of the 2-week treatment period and another group received alcohol 3 weeks

Pia Johansson; Ann-Sophie Lindqvist; Fred Nyberg; Claudia Fahlke

2000-01-01

223

Effects of Milk or Water on Lunch Intake in Preschool Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Sweden, milk and milk products are important sources of daily energy intake but the role of milk with preschool lunch meals has been debated frequently and water is often alternatively given today. We studied the effects of milk or water on lunch energy intake. Water or milk alternatively was served in a controlled, within-subject design on 12 occasions to

ANNA HÄGG; TOMMY JACOBSON; GERHARD NORDLUND; STEPHAN RÖSSNER

1998-01-01

224

Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle  

SciTech Connect

Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

Clarke, D.L.

1985-05-01

225

Energy and nutrient intakes in cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

The diets of 20 children with cystic fibrosis were analysed for energy and nutrient content with simultaneous measurement of energy losses in stools. Median energy intakes were in excess of the WHO estimated daily requirements (118.2%) when expressed as MJ/kg/24 hours, the excess almost accounted for by energy losses in the stools. When expressed as MJ/24 hours, however, median energy intakes were 98.7% of that estimated for normal children of median weight for age. Compared with recently published data for normal school children the fat content of the diet was reduced (30.0%) as were intakes of iron and zinc. Children whose whole milk intakes were high had the greatest amount of fat and energy in their diets and were able to absorb energy in excess of that recommended. We conclude that many children with cystic fibrosis are still on low fat diets and whole milk is the single most useful food for the provision of extra dietary fat and energy. PMID:2705801

Buchdahl, R M; Fulleylove, C; Marchant, J L; Warner, J O; Brueton, M J

1989-03-01

226

Energy and nutrient intakes in cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed Central

The diets of 20 children with cystic fibrosis were analysed for energy and nutrient content with simultaneous measurement of energy losses in stools. Median energy intakes were in excess of the WHO estimated daily requirements (118.2%) when expressed as MJ/kg/24 hours, the excess almost accounted for by energy losses in the stools. When expressed as MJ/24 hours, however, median energy intakes were 98.7% of that estimated for normal children of median weight for age. Compared with recently published data for normal school children the fat content of the diet was reduced (30.0%) as were intakes of iron and zinc. Children whose whole milk intakes were high had the greatest amount of fat and energy in their diets and were able to absorb energy in excess of that recommended. We conclude that many children with cystic fibrosis are still on low fat diets and whole milk is the single most useful food for the provision of extra dietary fat and energy.

Buchdahl, R M; Fulleylove, C; Marchant, J L; Warner, J O; Brueton, M J

1989-01-01

227

Evidence That Intermittent, Excessive Sugar Intake Causes Endogenous Opioid Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal was to determine whether withdrawal from sugar can cause signs of opioid dependence. Because palatable food stimulates neural systems that are implicated in drug addiction, it was hypothesized that intermittent, excessive sugar intake might create dependency, as indicated by withdrawal signs.Research Methods and Procedures: Male rats were food-deprived for 12 hours daily, including 4 hours in the

Carlo Colantuoni; Pedro Rada; Joseph McCarthy; Caroline Patten; Nicole M. Avena; Andrew Chadeayne; Bartley G. Hoebel

2002-01-01

228

Dietary PBDE intake: A market-basket study in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A food market-basket, representative for the general Belgian population, containing various meat, fish and dairy food products, was assembled and analysed for its polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) content. Additionally, fast food samples were also investigated. Based on the measured PBDE levels, an average daily dietary intake estimate of PBDEs was calculated. Of all foods analysed, fish had the highest average

Stefan Voorspoels; Adrian Covaci; Hugo Neels; Paul Schepens

2007-01-01

229

Supranormal Dietary Intake in Thermally Injured Hypermetabolic Patients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty-six extensively burned patients were treated with caloric intakes of 4,000 to 8,000 kilocalories per day by a combined intrvenously-enterally administered dietary program designed to provide calories in excess of the daily energy expenditure of the...

B. A. Pruitt D. W. Wilmore K. W. Spitzer M. E. Spitzer P. W. Curreli

1971-01-01

230

Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April

R. Raghunath; R. M. Tripathi; B. Suseela; Sunil Bhalke; V. K. Shukla; V. D. Puranik

2006-01-01

231

Epidemiology of chronic daily headache  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily or near-daily headache is a widespread problem in clinical practice. The general term of chronic daily headache (CDH)\\u000a encompasses those primary headaches presenting more than 15 days per month and lasting more than 4 hours per day. CDH includes\\u000a transformed migraine (TM), chronic tension-type headache (CTTH), new daily persistent headache (NDPH), and hemicrania continua\\u000a (HC). Around 40% of patients

Julio Pascual; Rafael Colás; Jesús Castillo

2001-01-01

232

Egypt Daily.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the World News network, Egypt Daily.com provides a wealth of links to frequently updated news stories dealing primarily with Egypt. From the homepage, users can click on any number of recent items gathered from a variety of different sources, including the BBC, ABC News, Arabic News, and CNN. The archive of news items stretches back several weeks, and news items are also arranged thematically into sections dealing with the economy, tourism, and technology on the site's main page. The site also features a number of helpful links, such as those leading to English-language news resources for the Arabic-speaking world and to online newspapers in Arabic. The site is rounded out by a list of online travel guides for those seeking to plan a trip to Egypt or other parts of North Africa.

233

New daily persistent headache  

PubMed Central

New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.

Tyagi, Alok

2012-01-01

234

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, CALCIUM INTAKE AND CHILDHOOD BONE MINERAL  

PubMed Central

Background We examined the relationships between childhood physical activity (PA), dietary calcium intake and bone size and density. Subjects and methods Children aged 4 years were recruited from the Southampton Women’s Survey. They underwent measurement of bone mass by DXA (Hologic, QDR 4000). Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry (Actiheart, Cambridge Neurotechnology Ltd, Cambridge, UK) for 7 continuous days. Results 422 children (212 boys) participated. After adjusting for gender, daily mean time (min/day) spent in moderate to very vigorous activity (MVPA) was positively related to hip bone area (p<0.001), mineral content (p<0.001), mineral density (p=0.001) and estimated volumetric density (p=0.01). Mean daily calcium intake positively predicted bone indices (p=0.002 with BMC) in those with a low calcium intake (<800 mg/day), but there was a much attenuated relationship in those above this threshold (p=0.229 with BMC). The relationships between MVPA and bone indices were stronger in children with higher calcium intakes (> 800mg/day) (For BMC and MVPA, p=0.121 below and p<0.001 above). Conclusions These results support the notion that adequate calcium intake may be required for optimal action of physical activity on bone development and that improving levels of physical activity and calcium intake in childhood may help to optimise accrual of bone mass.

Harvey, N. C.; Cole, Z. A.; Crozier, S. R.; Kim, M.; Goodfellow, L.; Robinson, S.M.; Inskip, H. M.; Godfrey, K. M.; Dennison, E. M.; Wareham, N.; Ekelund, U.; Cooper, C.

2013-01-01

235

COVERT MANIPULATION OF MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE HAS LITTLE IMPACT ON LONG TERM VOLUNTARY FOOD INTAKE AND MACRONUTRIENT SELECTION IN MEN.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a means to investigate the effect of daily macronutrient composition on food intake, twelve healthy normal weight men (79.9 ± 8.3 kg, 39 ± 9 yrs, 24.1 ± 1.4 kg/m2) were fed continuously for two 8-week periods. They were allowed cafeteria-style ad libitum access to a variety of foods of varying ma...

236

"Beer potomania" in non-beer drinkers: effect of low dietary solute intake.  

PubMed

A ovolactovegetarian patient presented with hyponatremia. She had maximally dilute urine and undetectable vasopressin levels. Dietary history revealed very low protein intake but no beer intake. We postulated that the very low intake of solute limited her water excretion and caused the hyponatremia despite only a modest increase in fluid intake. When protein intake was increased in a clinical research center setting, free water excretion increased and serum sodium normalized despite maintaining the water intake at 4 to 5 L daily. We discuss the role of dietary solute in water excretion. Previously described in beer drinkers, the phenomenon can occur in the absence of beer drinking. In this era of weight consciousness, hyponatremia because of low solute intake may be seen with increased frequency. PMID:9631849

Thaler, S M; Teitelbaum, I; Berl, T

1998-06-01

237

Nutrient intake and adherence to dietary recommendations among US workers  

PubMed Central

Objective Assess nutrient intake according to dietary guidelines among US worker groups. Methods Participants of 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed two 24-hour recall dietary interviews to assess daily intake of protein, carbohydrate, fat, cholesterol, calcium, sodium, and fiber. Employed participants (n=8,987) were classified as: (1) white collar, (2) service worker, (3) farmer, and (4) blue collar. Results Nutrient intake varied by occupational group, particularly for fiber, sodium, calories, and percentage of calories from protein, saturated fat, and carbohydrate. Adherence to recommendations was noted for saturated fat and cholesterol, but workers were poorly adherent to recommendations for all other nutrients, particularly fiber. Conclusions Workers display differences in nutrient intake across occupational groups with poor eating behaviors evident across all groups. Fiber is particularly poorly consumed, with less than 5% of all US workers meeting the recommendations.

Kachan, Diana; Lewis, John E.; Davila, Evelyn P.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; LeBlanc, William G.; Fleming, Lora E.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Lee, David J.

2011-01-01

238

Intake air heating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an intake air heating apparatus adapted to be positioned in the air intake passage of an intake manifold of an internal combustion engine. The apparatus comprises: a heater member of semiconductive ceramic material in the configuration of a grid having apertures for passing air therethrough between opposite sides thereof; spaced frame members supporting therebetween edge portions of the heater member; a pair of electric terminals fixed to at least one of the frame members; electrode lead members connected to the terminals and extending adjacent one side of the heater member; and metal plate members inserted between the heater member one side and the electrode lead members and making electrical contact therebetween.

Hori, M.; Nomura, E.; Niwa, H.; Mukai, H.; Tanaka, T.

1987-05-26

239

Annual Feedback Is an Effective Tool for a Sustained Increase in Calcium Intake among Older Women  

PubMed Central

We aimed to optimize calcium intake among the 2,000+ older women taking part in the Vital D study. Calcium supplementation was not included in the study protocol. Our hypothesis was that annual feedback of calcium intake and informing women of strategies to improve calcium intake can lead to a sustained increase in the proportion of women who consume adequate levels of the mineral. Calcium intake was assessed on an annual basis using a validated short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Supplemental calcium intake was added to the dietary estimate. Participants and their nominated doctor were sent a letter that the participant’s estimated daily calcium intake was adequate or inadequate based on a cutoff threshold of 800 mg/day. General brief statements outlining the importance of an adequate calcium intake and bone health were included in all letters. At baseline, the median daily consumption of calcium was 980 mg/day and 67 percent of 1,951 participants had calcium intake of at least 800 mg per day. Of the 644 older women advised of an inadequate calcium intake at baseline (<800 mg/day), 386 (60%) had increased their intake by at least 100 mg/day when re-assessed twelve months later. This desirable change was sustained at 24 months after baseline with almost half of these women (303/644) consuming over 800 mg calcium per day. This study devised an efficient method to provide feedback on calcium intake to over 2,000 older women. The improvements were modest but significant and most apparent in those with a low intake at baseline. The decreased proportion of these women with an inadequate intake of calcium 12- and 24-months later, suggests this might be a practical, low cost strategy to maintain an adequate calcium intake among older women.

Sanders, Kerrie M.; Stuart, Amanda L.; Kotowicz, Mark A.; Nicholson, Geoffrey C.

2010-01-01

240

[Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy adults in relation to current recommended intake].  

PubMed

The health benefits of n-3 PUFA and especially long-chain n-3 PUFA are well recognized and recommendation of their dietary intake for general population are elaborated However, there is still a need for assessment of LCn-3 PUFA intake in different population groups. The aim of this study was to assess intake of n-3 PUFA, particularly long-chain n-3PUFA (LCn-3 PUFA) and to identify their major sources in diets of healthy subjects. The studied group consisted of 182 adults, both men and women. Assessment of n-3 PUFA dietary intake was based on individual 3-day records. Data were analyzed using updated polish food composition tables and "Dieta 2" and "Dieta 4" Software. It was found, that more than 40% of studied subjects consumed daily less than 1 g ALA, about 50%--less than 100 mg LCn-3 PUFA and about 60% less than 10 mg DHA. PMID:22435293

Jab?onowska, Beata; D?uzniewska, Beata; Jarosz, Agnieszka; Nowicka, Grazyna

2011-01-01

241

Dietary Macronutrient Intake and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Women  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine associations between macronutrient and total energy intakes with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in women. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 2,060 women aged 30–79 years in the population-based Boston Area Community Health Survey (2002–2005). Data were collected by validated food frequency questionnaire and in-person interviews. Outcomes for multivariate logistic regression were moderate-to-severe total LUTS, storage, voiding, and post-micturition symptoms. Results Greater total energy intake was positively associated with LUTS, specifically among women with lower waist circumferences (<76 cm, P=0.005, pinteraction=0.01). Increased saturated fat intake was associated with post-micturition symptoms (Quintile 5 vs. 1, OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.57, 9.89, ptrend =0.04). High protein intake was positively associated with storage symptoms (ptrend =0.03), particularly nocturia. No consistent associations were observed for carbohydrate, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat intakes. Conclusions Among women with low waist circumferences, high total daily calorie intake was associated with moderate-to-severe LUTS. While greater saturated fat intake was linked to post-micturition symptoms, the possibility that post-micturition symptoms in women represent more extensive or severe conditions should be explored in future research. These novel results indicate that dietary contributors to LUTS in women are distinct from those in men and may depend on symptom subtype and body size.

Maserejian, Nancy N.; McVary, Kevin T.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; McKinlay, John B.

2011-01-01

242

Flavonoid intakes in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging  

PubMed Central

Major sources of flavonoids were identified, and mean intakes over several decades were reported, among 1638 participants (mean age 62.1 +/? 16.0 y), of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). Dietary data were collected using 7-day diet records during three time periods (1980s, 1990s and 2000-present), and the USDA flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and isoflavone databases were used to estimate dietary flavonoid intakes. Dietary intake data were divided according to decade of visit. Foods were matched with appropriate foods in the USDA databases. Mixed dishes were disaggregated to individual foods and a similar procedure was followed. Total flavonoids and five sub-classes of flavonoids, including flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanidins, were computed by summing appropriate compounds. The median intakes of flavonoids and the contributions of various foods to intakes were calculated by decade. Age and sex adjusted mean (SE) daily intakes of flavonoids increased from 250 (7.4) in the 1980s to 280 (9.9) mg in the 2000s. Top contributors of flavonoids were tea, apple/pear (and juices), citrus fruits (and juices), peaches, plums, grapes, nectarines (and juices) and chocolate. The data show an increase in the consumption of flavonoids over the three decades, which appears to be related to intake of fruit.

Maras, Janice E.; Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Qiao, Ning; Lyle, Barbara; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L.

2011-01-01

243

Flavonoid intakes in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.  

PubMed

Major sources of flavonoids were identified, and mean intakes over several decades were reported, among 1638 participants (mean age 62.1 +/- 16.0 y), of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). Dietary data were collected using 7-day diet records during three time periods (1980s, 1990s and 2000-present), and the USDA flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and isoflavone databases were used to estimate dietary flavonoid intakes. Dietary intake data were divided according to decade of visit. Foods were matched with appropriate foods in the USDA databases. Mixed dishes were disaggregated to individual foods and a similar procedure was followed. Total flavonoids and five sub-classes of flavonoids, including flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanidins, were computed by summing appropriate compounds. The median intakes of flavonoids and the contributions of various foods to intakes were calculated by decade. Age and sex adjusted mean (SE) daily intakes of flavonoids increased from 250 (7.4) in the 1980s to 280 (9.9) mg in the 2000s. Top contributors of flavonoids were tea, apple/pear (and juices), citrus fruits (and juices), peaches, plums, grapes, nectarines (and juices) and chocolate. The data show an increase in the consumption of flavonoids over the three decades, which appears to be related to intake of fruit. PMID:22228923

Maras, Janice E; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Qiao, Ning; Lyle, Barbara; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L

2011-12-01

244

Dietary Habits in Middle Age and Future Changes in Activities of Daily Living – NIPPON DATA80  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Almost no studies have investigated the relationship between food intake measured at middle age and future disability. Objective: To examine the association of meat, fish and egg intake with risk of subsequent mortality and\\/or future decline in activities of daily living (ADL) among the elderly. Methods: The cohort consisted of 2,316 Japanese individuals aged 47–60 at the baseline who

Yasuyuki Nakamura; Atsushi Hozawa; Tanvir Chowdhury Turin; Naoyuki Takashima; Tomonori Okamura; Takehito Hayakawa; Yoshikuni Kita; Akira Okayama; Katsuyuki Miura; Hirotsugu Ueshima

2009-01-01

245

POROUS DIKE INTAKE EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of a porous dike intake. A small-scale test facility was constructed and continuously operated for 2 years under field conditions. Two stone dikes of gabion construction were tested: one consisted of 7.5 cm stones; and the other, 20 cm st...

246

Beverage intake in low-income parent-child dyads.  

PubMed

Beverage consumption adds to daily energy intake and often exceeds the recommended amount for discretionary energy. Previous research has shown that children are consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in greater frequency and the relationship between parent-child dyads in beverage consumption is meaningful due to the parental influence on the development of beverage consumption behaviors. In particular, low-income families are at greater risk for obesity and higher levels of SSB consumption. The current investigation assessed habitual beverage intake among low-income parent-child dyads (N=95) with children between the ages of 9-17 years. The sample (46% African American; 45% Caucasian) had a mean body mass index (BMI) for the parents of 31.8±8.9 kg/m(2), while the mean BMI percentile for age and gender for the children was 70.3±31.3. Both parents and children consumed fewer nutrient-dense beverages and more energy-dense beverages than the recommended amount. The mean daily energy intake from beverages was 451±236 kcal for the parents and 457±237 kcal for the children. Correlations between parent-child dyad intake was also evident, identifying parents as potential role models and gatekeepers of the home food environment. Future interventions to prevent childhood obesity in low-income populations should address beverage intake, particularly SSB consumption, and determine the degree to which this behavior is learned behavior in the home. PMID:22051366

Pinard, Courtney A; Davy, Brenda M; Estabrooks, Paul A

2011-08-01

247

Magnetic Daily Variation at Koror  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of exhibiting the magnetic daily variations using contours based on running means can give a more precise indication of the seasonal changes in daily variation than conventional methods. This method is applied to the variations at Koror, which are of particular interest owing to Koror's location, almost exactly on the magnetic dip equator. The contour charts give new

1962-01-01

248

Dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent female aesthetic athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent girls competing in 3 aesthetic sports (artistic and rhythmic gymnastics and ballet). Because physiological demands of ballet training are similar to those in other aesthetic sports, ballet dancers were, for the purpose of this study, regarded as athletes. The sample consisted of 39 athletes (median age, 11 years, range 9-13) and 15 controls (median age, 11 years, range 10-12). Dietary intake was assessed using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and body composition, by means of anthropometry. There was no significant difference in total energy intake between groups, but there was a significant difference in energy substrate distribution. Artistic gymnasts reported significantly higher carbohydrate and lower fat contribution to total energy (57% +/- 6% and 29% +/- 5%, respectively) than rhythmic gymnasts (48% +/- 6% and 36% +/- 5%), ballet dancers (51% +/- 4% and 34% +/- 3%), or controls (51% +/- 5% and 34% +/- 4%). Relative to body weight, artistic gymnasts reported higher intake of carbohydrates (9.1 +/- 4.2 g/kg) than rhythmic gymnasts (5.6 +/- 3.1 g/kg), ballet dancers (6.6 +/- 2.5 g/kg), or controls (5.4 +/- 1.9 g/kg). Artistic gymnasts also had the lowest body-fat percentage among the groups. In all the groups mean reported daily intakes of most nutrients were higher than the current daily recommended intakes. The exceptions were dietary fiber and calcium. The proportion of athletes with an inadequate reported intake was highest for phosphorus (33%), followed by vitamin A and niacin (18%) and zinc (13%). PMID:18562778

Soric, Maroje; Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Pedisic, Zeljko

2008-06-01

249

Health risk assessment of ochratoxin A for all age-sex strata in a market economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to manage risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) in foods, we re-evaluated the tolerable daily intake (TDI), derived the negligible cancer risk intake (NCRI), and conducted a probabilistic risk assessment. A new approach was developed to derive ‘usual’ probabilistic exposure in the presence of highly variable occurrence data, such as encountered with low levels of OTA. Canadian occurrence data

T. Kuiper-Goodman; C. Hilts; S. M. Billiard; Y. Kiparissis; I. D. K. Richard; S. Hayward

2010-01-01

250

[Impact of salt intake on health: beliefs of the Swiss population].  

PubMed

Excessive salt intake increases the risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Sodium intake remains high both in developed and emerging countries. The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health has ordered a national survey on the salt intake in Switzerland, realized in different centers. This article presents the results of the awareness of the Swiss population concerning the relationship between excessive salt intake and health. This survey reveals a lack of knowledge regarding the association between high salt intake and cardiovascular disease, the sodium content of usual food, and the recommended daily value of sodium intake. Strategies to reduce salt consumption need to be reinforced by collaborations between health authorities and health care professionals. PMID:24073471

Ditisheim, Agnès; Muradbegovic, Edin; Bochud, Murielle; Burnier, Michel; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette

2013-09-11

251

Magnesium intake is associated with strength performance in elite basketball, handball and volleyball players.  

PubMed

Magnesium plays significant roles in promoting strength. Surveys of athletes reveal that intake of magnesium is often below recommended levels. We aimed to understand the impact of magnesium intake on strength in elite male basketball, handball, and volleyball players. Energy and nutrient intake were assessed from seven-day diet record. Strength tests included maximal isometric trunk flexion, extension, and rotation, handgrip, squat and countermovement Abalakov jump, and maximal isokinetic knee extension and flexion peak torques. Linear regression models were performed with significance at p<0.1. Mean magnesium intake was significantly lower than the recommended daily allowance. Regression analysis indicated that magnesium was directly associated with maximal isometric trunk flexion, rotation, and handgrip, with jumping performance tests, and with all isokinetic strength variables, independent of total energy intake. The observed associations between magnesium intake and muscle strength performance may result from the important role of magnesium in energetic metabolism, transmembrane transport and muscle contraction and relaxation. PMID:21983266

Santos, Diana Aguiar; Matias, Catarina Nunes; Monteiro, Cristina Paula; Silva, Analiza Mónica; Rocha, Paulo Manuel; Minderico, Cláudia Sofia; Bettencourt Sardinha, Luís; Laires, Maria José

2011-12-01

252

Potential Effects of Nutrient Profiles on Nutrient Intakes in the Netherlands, Greece, Spain, USA, Israel, China and South-Africa  

PubMed Central

Introduction Nutrient profiling is defined as the science of categorising foods based on their nutrient composition. The Choices Programme is a nutrient profile system with criteria that determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. The Daily Menu Method which has been developed to evaluate these criteria is described here. This method simulates the change in calculated nutrient intakes which would be the result of consumers changing their diets in favour of food products that comply with the criteria. Methods Average intakes of energy, trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids (SAFA), sodium, added sugar and fibre were derived from dietary intake studies and food consumption surveys of 7 countries: The Netherlands, Greece, Spain, the USA, Israel, China and South Africa. For each of the key nutrients, these average intakes were translated into three Typical Daily Menus per country. Average intakes based on these three menus were compared with average intakes from three Choices Daily Menus. To compose the Choices Menus, foods from the Typical Menus that did not comply with the Choices criteria were replaced with foods that did comply and are available on the market. Results Comparison of intakes from the Choices Menus with the survey data showed that calculated intakes of energy, SAFA, TFA, sodium and added sugar were reduced. Fibre intakes were increased. The size of the effect differed per country. Conclusion The Daily Menu Method is a useful means to predict the potential effects of nutrient profiles such as the Choices criteria, on daily nutrient intakes. The method can be applied internationally and confirms that the criteria of the Choices Programme are in line with the aim of the programme: to improve nutrient intakes in the direction of the recommendations.

Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; Schlatmann, Anke; Dotsch-Klerk, Mariska; Daamen, Robert; Dong, Jie; Guarro, Marta; Stergiou, Margarita; Sayed, Nazeeia; Ronoh, Eunice; Jansen, Leon; Seidell, Jacob C.

2011-01-01

253

Daily consumption of phenolics and total antioxidant capacity from fruit and vegetables in the American diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The daily intake of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidants in the American diet was estimated from the most common 34 fresh fruit and vegetables and their daily consumption data. Among 14 fruit and 20 vegetables, orange contributed the highest amount of total phenolics (117.1mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) person?1 day?1) and antioxidants (146.6mg vitamin C equivalents (VCE) person?1 day?1).

Ock Kyoung Chun; Dae-Ok Kim; Nancy Smith; David Schroeder; Jae Taek Han; Chang Yong Lee

2005-01-01

254

Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake.  

PubMed

The objective was to examine the effect of consuming breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Participants who habitually ate breakfast and those who skipped breakfast were recruited for two studies. Using a randomized crossover design, the first study examined the effect of having participants consume either (a) no breakfast, (b) a high carbohydrate breakfast (335 kcals), or (c) a high fiber breakfast (360 kcals) on three occasions and measured ad libitum intake at lunch. The second study again used a randomized crossover design but with a larger, normal carbohydrate breakfast consumed ad libtum. Intake averaged 624 kcals and subsequent food intake was measured throughout the day. Participants ate only foods served from the Cornell Human Metabolic Research Unit where all foods were weighed before and after consumption. In the first study, neither eating breakfast nor the kind of breakfast consumed had an effect on the amount consumed at lunch despite a reduction in hunger ratings. In the second study, intake at lunch as well as hunger ratings were significantly increased after skipping breakfast (by 144 kcal), leaving a net caloric deficit of 408 kcal by the end of the day. These data are consistent with published literature demonstrating that skipping a meal does not result in accurate energy compensation at subsequent meals and suggests that skipping breakfast may be an effective means to reduce daily energy intake in some adults. PMID:23672851

Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly R

2013-05-11

255

Oxytocin, water intake, and food sodium availability in male rats.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of subcutaneous administration of the neurohormone oxytocin on water intake of ad lib-fed (with or without sodium availability in the diet) and food-deprived animals. Results of the first experiment showed that oxytocin increased water intake and urine excretion in food-deprived but not in ad lib-fed animals. However, oxytocin treatment did not modify the reduced water "balance" (fluid intake minus urine volume) resulting from food deprivation or the daily food intake (Experiment 1). The dose-dependent polydipsic effect of oxytocin on food-deprived rats was always preceded by an increase in sodium and fluid urine excretion (Experiment 2). Oxytocin also increased the water intake of animals fed ad lib with a low sodium diet (Experiment 3). These results suggest that the effect of oxytocin on water intake is dependent on the presence or absence of sodium in the diet and that the excretion of sodium is the main mechanism of oxytocinergic polydipsia in food-deprived male rats. PMID:17559853

Bernal, A; Mahía, J; Puerto, A

2007-05-22

256

Salmon calcitonin reduces food intake through changes in meal sizes in male rhesus monkeys  

PubMed Central

Amylinergic mechanisms are believed to be involved in the control of appetite. This study examined the effects of the amylin agonist, salmon calcitonin, on food intake and meal patterns in adult male rhesus monkeys. Fifteen minutes before the onset of their 6-h daily feeding period, monkeys received intramuscular injections of various doses of salmon calcitonin (0.032, 0.056, 0.1, 0.32, and 1 ?g/kg) or saline. Salmon calcitonin dose dependently reduced total daily and hourly food intake, with significant decreases at the 0.1, 0.32, and 1 ?g/kg doses. Daily food intake was reduced by ?35%, 62%, and 96%, at these doses, respectively. An analysis of meal patterns revealed that size of the first meal was significantly reduced across the dose range of 0.056 to 1 ?g/kg, while average meal size was reduced with the 0.32 and 1 ?g/kg doses. Meal number was only affected at the 1 ?g/kg dose. Repeated 5-day administration of the 0.1 ?g/kg dose resulted in a reduction in daily food intake only on injection day 2, while significant reductions in food intake were observed on all five injection days with a 0.32 ?g/kg dose. Daily food intake was also reduced for 1 day after the termination of the 5-day injections of the 0.32 ?g/kg salmon calcitonin dose. These sustained reductions in intake were expressed through decreases in meal size. These data demonstrate that salmon calcitonin acutely and consistently decreases food intake mainly through reductions in meal sizes in nonhuman primates.

Bello, Nicholas T.; Kemm, Matthew H.; Moran, Timothy H.

2008-01-01

257

Intakes of whole grains, bran, and germ and the risk of coronary heart disease in men1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Previous studies have suggested that a daily intake of 3 servings of whole-grain foods is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, methods for the assess- ment of whole-grain intake differ. Furthermore, any additional ef- fectsofaddedbranandgerm,whicharecomponentsofwholegrains, have not been reported. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the association of whole- grain, bran, and germ intakes (with

Majken K Jensen; Pauline Koh-Banerjee; Frank B Hu; Mary Franz; Laura Sampson; Morten Grønbæk; Eric B Rimm

258

Food intake, nutrient utilization and water turnover in the lesser mouse-deer ( Tragulus javanicus) given lundai ( Sapium baccatum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voluntary food intake, digestibility and water turnover were determined in adult Malaysian lesser mouse-deer (Tragulus javanicus) given unlimited access to lundai foliage (Sapium baccatum). Daily dry matter (DM) intake was 42.4 g\\/kg metabolic live mass (M0.73) or 3.7% M. Digestible energy intake was 853 kJ\\/day (571 kJ metabolisable energy per M0.73), calculated to be used with 79% efficiency. Apparent digestibility

J. V. Nolan; J. B. Liang; N. Abdullah; H. Kudo; H. Ismail; Y. W. Ho; S. Jalaludin

1995-01-01

259

Pattern of herbage intake rate and bite dimensions of rotationally grazed dairy cows as sward height declines  

Microsoft Academic Search

To allow improved prediction of daily herbage intake of dairy cows in rotational grazing systems, intake beha- viour was assessed throughout the day in 24-h pad- docks. Herbage intake in 16 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows was assessed using the short-term (1-h) weight gain method at four predetermined natural meal times throughout the day (early morning, T1; late morning, T2; mid-afternoon, T3;

P. D. Barrett; A. S. Laidlaw; C. S. Mayne; H. Christie

2001-01-01

260

Day-to-Day Variation in Food Intake and Energy Expenditure in Healthy Women: The Dietitian II Study.  

PubMed

Because day-to-day food intake varies, we tested the hypothesis that ad libitum food intake and energy expenditure show corrective responses over periods of 1 to 10 days in healthy young women. Food intake and accelerometry measurements were collected daily for 17 days in 15 young women. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) using doubly labeled water was also measured. The daily deviations in macronutrient and energy intake and energy expenditure from the average values were compared with the deviations observed over succeeding intervals to estimate the corrective responses. The intraindividual coefficients of variation for energy intake averaged ±25%, ranging from 16% to 34%. TDEE had a coefficient of variation of 8.3%, and accelerometry had a coefficient of variation of 8.4% (range=4.6% to 16.4%). Energy expenditure by accelerometry (2,087±191 kcal/day) was not significantly different from TDEE (2,128±177 kcal/day), but reported daily energy intake was 20.4% lower (1,693±276 kcal/day). There were significant corrective responses in energy from fat and total energy intake. This occurred from Days 3 to 6, with a peak at Day 5 that disappeared when data were randomized within each subject. Human beings show corrective responses to deviations from average energy and macronutrient intakes with a lag time of 3 to 6 days, but not 1 to 2 days. These corrective responses are likely to play a role in bringing about weight stability. PMID:24021734

Champagne, Catherine M; Han, Hongmei; Bajpeyi, Sudip; Rood, Jennifer; Johnson, William D; Lammi-Keefe, Carol J; Flatt, Jean-Pierre; Bray, George A

2013-09-08

261

Sodium and potassium intake among U.S. adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2008  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommend Americans reduce sodium intake and choose foods that contain potassium to decrease the risk of hypertension and subsequent heart disease and stroke. We estimated the distributions of usual daily sodium and potassium intakes by sociodemographic and health charact...

262

Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years) (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665 ± 7.9?mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.045), whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P = 0.041), but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558 ± 6.2?mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r = 0.024, P = 0.049), but not with femur BMD (r = 0.021, P = 0.107). The currently recommended 1000–1500?mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients.

Szamosujvari, Pal; Dombai, Peter; Csore, Katalin; Mikofalvi, Kinga; Steindl, Timea; Streicher, Ildiko; Tarsoly, Julia; Zajzon, Gergely; Somogyi, Peter; Szamosujvari, Pal; Lakatos, Peter

2013-01-01

263

DailyChek QC Kit  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... DailyChek QC Kit. Applicant: American National Red Cross. ... (800) 835-4709. (301) 827-1800. ocod@fda.hhs.gov. Consumer Affairs Branch (CBER) ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

264

TV Producer Juggles Daily News.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Brennan discusses the daily activities required in the production of a television news show. In "The Not-So-Glamorous Life of a TV Reporter," Linda Yu describes the time and effort required to become a television reporter. (LS)|

Brennan, Bill

1989-01-01

265

Unravelling daily human mobility motifs.  

PubMed

Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These networks, called here motifs, are sufficient to capture up to 90 per cent of the population in surveys and mobile phone datasets for different countries. Each individual exhibits a characteristic motif, which seems to be stable over several months. Consequently, daily human mobility can be reproduced by an analytically tractable framework for Markov chains by modelling periods of high-frequency trips followed by periods of lower activity as the key ingredient. PMID:23658117

Schneider, Christian M; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C

2013-05-08

266

Iron intake of infants: the importance of infant cereals.  

PubMed Central

Since 1976 many baby foods have been reformulated and the iron used to fortify infant cereals has been changed to a more bioavailable form. Therefore, the dietary intake of iron by infants from 1 to 18 months of age was assessed in a longitudinal survey conducted in Toronto and Montreal between 1977 and 1979. Except in the 1st and 18th months the mean daily iron consumption of the infants was above that recommended in the Dietary Standard for Canada. The main source of this nutrient was infant cereals. Examination of the diets of the infants who did not have the recommended daily intake of iron showed that they did not consume sufficient amounts of infant cereals and other iron-rich foods. These results indicate that without such cereals it is difficult to provide infants with the amount of iron they need. Therefore, infants should receive these cereals during the first 2 years of life.

Yeung, D. L.; Pennell, M. D.; Leung, M.; Hall, J.; Anderson, G. H.

1981-01-01

267

A case of atrial tachycardia sensitive to increased caffeine intake.  

PubMed

A 33-year-old Japanese man with atrial tachycardia visited our clinic. He regularly consumed daily alcohol with cola, one cup of regular coffee, and a candy containing 0.7 mg of caffeine per tablet. After stopping his caffeine intake, his arrhythmia ameliorated. Since caffeine might be associated with his arrhythmia, a caffeine load test (equivalent to his daily intake of caffeine) was performed for 4 days. Atrial tachycardia time from a Holter recording was 44.2 minute/day before the caffeine load, compared with 215.2 minute/day during the caffeine load. Plasma caffeine concentration before and during caffeine loading was 3.1 mg/dL and 5.4 mg/dL, respectively. Caffeine use seemed to be an important factor for his atrial tachycardia, since his arrhythmia became worse during caffeine load testing and was ameliorated after the cessation of caffeine. PMID:22188716

Kinugawa, Toru; Kurita, Takashi; Nohara, Ryuji; Smith, Michael L

2011-01-01

268

Beverage intake in low-income parent–child dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beverage consumption adds to daily energy intake and often exceeds the recommended amount for discretionary energy. Previous research has shown that children are consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in greater frequency and the relationship between parent–child dyads in beverage consumption is meaningful due to the parental influence on the development of beverage consumption behaviors. In particular, low-income families are at greater

Courtney A. Pinard; Brenda M. Davy; Paul A. Estabrooks

2011-01-01

269

Predictors of fruit and vegetable intake in young adulthood  

PubMed Central

Few young adults meet national recommendations to consume at least two cups of fruit and two to three cups of vegetables daily. Effective strategies and messaging are needed to address this disparity, but research examining influences on fruit and vegetable intake during young adulthood has been limited and primarily cross-sectional. This study was conducted to identify five-year and 10-year longitudinal predictors of fruit and vegetable intake in young adulthood. The sample included 476 males and 654 females enrolled in a population-based cohort study (Projects EAT-I, II, and III). Participants completed surveys and food frequency questionnaires in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota high school classrooms in 1998–1999 (mean age=15.8, “adolescence”) and follow-up measures in 2003–2004 (mean age=20.4, “emerging adulthood”) and 2008–2009 (mean age=26.2, “young adulthood”). In young adulthood, average daily intake was 0.9 servings of fruit (excluding juice) and 1.8 servings of vegetables (excluding potatoes). Factors examined in adolescence and in emerging adulthood that were predictive of both fruit and vegetable intake in young adulthood included favorable taste preferences, fewer perceived time barriers to healthy eating, higher home availability of fruits and vegetables, and limited home availability of unhealthy foods. Analyses also identified additional factors that were specifically relevant to fruit (e.g., breakfast patterns) or vegetable intake (e.g., home food preparation) and of particular relevance during emerging adulthood (e.g., significant other’s healthy eating attitudes). Findings suggest individual and socio-environmental factors, particularly food preferences and home food availability, during adolescence and emerging adulthood may influence fruit and vegetable intake in young adulthood.

Laska, Melissa Nelson; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2012-01-01

270

NY Times Daily Lesson Plan: Sizing Up Servings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the growing concern over unhealthy eating habits in the US, this lesson plan from the New York Times Learning Network offers a timely and interesting look at the concept of serving size. The lesson helps students understand "the definition of a suggested serving size and re-define their daily food intake in terms of these recommended amounts." A recent New York Times article on the topic plus an extensive set of classroom activities form the basis of the lesson, which requires about one hour to complete. The site also offers homework ideas, links to Web resources, useful vocabulary words, extension activities, and more.

271

Hibernation and daily torpor minimize mammalian extinctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small mammals appear to be less vulnerable to extinction than large species, but the underlying reasons are poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that almost all (93.5%) of 61 recently extinct mammal species were homeothermic, maintaining a constant high body temperature and thus energy expenditure, which demands a high intake of food, long foraging times, and thus exposure to predators. In contrast, only 6.5% of extinct mammals were likely heterothermic and employed multi-day torpor (hibernation) or daily torpor, even though torpor is widespread within more than half of all mammalian orders. Torpor is characterized by substantial reductions of body temperature and energy expenditure and enhances survival during adverse conditions by minimizing food and water requirements, and consequently reduces foraging requirements and exposure to predators. Moreover, because life span is generally longer in heterothermic mammals than in related homeotherms, heterotherms can employ a ‘sit-and-wait’ strategy to withstand adverse periods and then repopulate when circumstances improve. Thus, torpor is a crucial but hitherto unappreciated attribute of small mammals for avoiding extinction. Many opportunistic heterothermic species, because of their plastic energetic requirements, may also stand a better chance of future survival than homeothermic species in the face of greater climatic extremes and changes in environmental conditions caused by global warming.

Geiser, Fritz; Turbill, Christopher

2009-10-01

272

Cokriging estimation of daily suspended sediment loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with daily river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated daily loads were compared with the daily measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated daily sediment

Zhongwei Li; You-Kuan Zhang; Keith Schilling; Mary Skopec

2006-01-01

273

Iodine intake and iodine deficiency in vegans as assessed by the duplicate-portion technique and urinary iodine excretion.  

PubMed

I intake and I deficiency were investigated in thirty vegans (eleven males and nineteen females) consuming their habitual diet. I intake was estimated using the chemical analysis of 4 d weighed duplicate diet collections. The probability of I-deficiency disorders (IDD) was judged from the measurement of urinary I excretion in 24 h urine specimens during the 4 d. There was wide variation in I intake. Mean I intake in males was lower than the reference nutrient intake (RNI; Department of Health, 1991) and mean intake in females was above the RNI, although 36% males and 63% females had I intakes below the lower RNI. Mean I intake in subjects who consumed seaweed (n 3) was in excess of the RNI, and approached the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives, 1989). The probability of IDD in the group investigated was moderate to severe: three of five subgroups were classified as moderate and two subgroups were classified as severe IDD possibility. The findings highlight that vegans are an 'at risk' group for I deficiency. The I status of vegans and the subclinical effects of low I intakes and infrequent high I intakes on thyroid function in this group should be further studied. Our work has also raised the question of adequate I intakes in groups where cow's milk is not consumed, and has exposed a need for more research in this area. PMID:10211051

Lightowler, H J; Davies, G J

1998-12-01

274

Effects of energy content and energy density of pre-portioned entrées on energy intake.  

PubMed

Pre-portioned entrées are commonly consumed to help control portion size and limit energy intake. The influence of entrée characteristics on energy intake, however, has not been well studied. We determined how the effects of energy content and energy density (ED, kcal/g) of pre-portioned entrées combine to influence daily energy intake. In a crossover design, 68 non-dieting adults (28 men and 40 women) were provided with breakfast, lunch, and dinner on 1 day a week for 4 weeks. Each meal included a compulsory, manipulated pre-portioned entrée followed by a variety of unmanipulated discretionary foods that were consumed ad libitum. Across conditions, the entrées were varied in both energy content and ED between a standard level (100%) and a reduced level (64%). Results showed that in men, decreases in the energy content and ED of pre-portioned entrées acted independently and added together to reduce daily energy intake (both P < 0.01). Simultaneously decreasing the energy content and ED reduced total energy intake in men by 16% (445 ± 47 kcal/day; P < 0.0001). In women, the entrée factors also had independent effects on energy intake at breakfast and lunch, but at dinner and for the entire day the effects depended on the interaction of the two factors (P < 0.01). Simultaneously decreasing the energy content and ED reduced daily energy intake in women by 14% (289 ± 35 kcal/day; P < 0.0001). Both the energy content and ED of pre-portioned entrées affect daily energy intake and could influence the effectiveness of such foods for weight management. PMID:22262161

Blatt, Alexandria D; Williams, Rachel A; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

2012-01-19

275

Estimation of total usual calcium and vitamin D intakes in the United States.  

PubMed

Our objective in this study was to estimate calcium intakes from food, water, dietary supplements, and antacids for U.S. citizens aged >or=1 y using NHANES 2003-2006 data and the Dietary Reference Intake panel age groupings. Similar estimates were calculated for vitamin D intake from food and dietary supplements using NHANES 2005-2006. Diet was assessed with 2 24-h recalls; dietary supplement and antacid use were determined by questionnaire. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate usual nutrient intake from dietary sources. The mean daily nutrient intake from supplemental sources was added to the adjusted dietary intake estimates to produce total usual nutrient intakes for calcium and vitamin D. A total of 53% of the U.S. population reported using any dietary supplement (2003-2006), 43% used calcium (2003-2006), and 37% used vitamin D (2005-2006). For users, dietary supplements provided the adequate intake (AI) recommendation for calcium intake for approximately 12% of those >or=71 y. Males and females aged 1-3 y had the highest prevalence of meeting the AI from dietary and total calcium intakes. For total vitamin D intake, males and females >or=71, and females 14-18 y had the lowest prevalence of meeting the AI. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher prevalence of groups meeting the AI for calcium and vitamin D. Monitoring usual total nutrient intake is necessary to adequately characterize and evaluate the population's nutritional status and adherence to recommendations for nutrient intake. PMID:20181782

Bailey, Regan L; Dodd, Kevin W; Goldman, Joseph A; Gahche, Jaime J; Dwyer, Johanna T; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Sempos, Christopher T; Picciano, Mary Frances

2010-02-24

276

Reduced serum cholecystokinin response to food intake in female athletes.  

PubMed

Strenuous training in women has been shown to cause menstrual dysfunction and decreased bone mineral density. These endocrine and metabolic complications are associated with an insufficient dietary intake and decreased body fat content in female athletes. The present investigation was undertaken to study serum levels of cholecystokinin (CCK), insulin, gastrin, and cortisol in 14 female long-distance runners and 15 sex- and age-matched control subjects during intake of a standardized meal (500 kcal). The athletes showed a decreased response of the "satiety peptide" CCK to the meal and reported increased hunger compared with the control group. Meal-related insulin response was also decreased in the athletes, whereas gastrin levels were comparable to those of controls. Basal levels of glucose were increased in the athletes, but there was no difference in postprandial levels between the groups. Cortisol levels were clearly elevated in the female runners. We conclude that insufficient food intake in female athletes cannot be explained by increased CCK secretion and satiety. Since the athletes reported a larger caloric intake of a normal daily breakfast than the control subjects, the decreased CCK response may instead be explained by an adaptation to increased food intake. The decreased meal-related insulin response may be a reflection of increased insulin sensitivity as an adaptation to physical exercise. However, an impaired peptide secretion cannot be excluded. The role of elevated cortisol levels in the gastrointestinal hormone response needs further investigation. PMID:8121305

Hirschberg, A L; Lindholm, C; Carlström, K; Von Schoultz, B

1994-02-01

277

National estimates of dietary fructose intake increased from 1977 to 2004 in the United States.  

PubMed

Our purpose was to conduct a new analysis to update and extend previously published trends of fructose availability and estimated fructose intake and food sources of dietary fructose from the 1977-1978 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) data. We estimated fructose usual intake with data from NHANES 1999-2004 for 25,165 individuals (1 y and older, excluding pregnant and lactating women and breast-fed infants) using the Iowa State C-SIDE software. We applied food group-specific conversion factors to individual measures of sugar intakes following the earlier study. Sweetener availability in the United States increased from 1978, peaked in 1999, and declined through 2005. The high-fructose corn syrup percentage of sweeteners increased from 16% in 1978 to 42% in 1998 and then stabilized. Since 1978, mean daily intakes of added and total fructose increased in all gender and age groups, whereas naturally occurring (N) fructose intake decreased or remained constant. Total fructose intake as percentage of energy and as percentage of carbohydrate increased 1 and 1.2%, whereas daily energy and carbohydrate intakes increased 18 and 41%, respectively. Similar to 1978 results, nonalcoholic beverages and grain products were the principal food sources of added fructose. Fruits and fruit products were the main dietary sources of N fructose in 2004; in 1978, grain products and vegetables were more predominant food sources. Although comparison of estimates of fructose intakes between data from the 1977-1978 NFCS and the NHANES 1999-2004 showed an increase, this increase was dwarfed by greater increases in total daily energy and carbohydrate intakes. PMID:19403716

Marriott, Bernadette P; Cole, Nancy; Lee, Ellen

2009-04-29

278

Estimated Nutrient Intakes from Food Generally Do Not Meet Dietary Reference Intakes among Adult Members of Pacific Northwest Tribal Nations1–3  

PubMed Central

Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1–4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001–2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34–37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11–12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001–2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases.

Fialkowski, Marie K.; McCrory, Megan A.; Roberts, Sparkle M.; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M.; Boushey, Carol J.

2010-01-01

279

Power plant intake entrainment analysis  

SciTech Connect

Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

2000-04-01

280

Physical activity, calcium intake and childhood bone mineral: a population-based cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In a free-living cohort of 4-year old children, mean daily time in moderate–vigorous physical activity and daily calcium intake\\u000a at 3 years, were positively related to hip bone size and density. Relationships between physical activity and bone indices\\u000a were stronger when calcium intake was above compared with below median (966 mg\\/day).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  We examined the cross-sectional relationships between childhood physical activity, dietary calcium

N. C. Harvey; Z. A. Cole; S. R. Crozier; M. Kim; G. Ntani; L. Goodfellow; S. M. Robinson; H. M. Inskip; K. M. Godfrey; E. M. Dennison; N. Wareham; U. Ekelund; C. Cooper

281

Association between Salt Intake and Albuminuria in Normotensive and Hypertensive Individuals  

PubMed Central

Background. There is a little published data regarding the association between salt intake and albuminuria as an important alarm for progression of cardiovascular and renal dysfunction. We aimed to assess this relationship to emphasize the major role of restricting salt intake to minimize albuminuria and prevent these life-threatening events. Methods. The study population comprised 820 individuals. Participants were assigned to groups as follows: normal albuminuria, slight albuminuria, and clinical albuminuria. Daily salt intake was assessed on the basis of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, since urinary sodium excretion largely equals sodium intake. Results. In normotensive participants, the mean level of urine albumin was higher in those who had higher amounts of salt intake with a significantly upward trend (the mean urinary albumin level in low-salt-diet group, in medium-salt-intake group, and in high-salt-intake group was 42.70 ± 36.42, 46.89 ± 38.91, and 53.38 ± 48.23, resp., (P = 0.017)). There was a significant positive correlation between 24-hour urinary sodium secretion and the level of urine albumin (beta = 0.130, P < 0.001). The amount of salt intake was significantly associated with urine albumin concentration (beta = 3.969, SE = 1.671, P = 0.018). Conclusion. High salt intake was shown to be associated with higher level of microalbuminuria even adjusted for potential underlying risk factors.

Khaledifar, Arsalan; Gharipour, Mojagn; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Khosravi, Alireza

2013-01-01

282

Caffeine levels in beverages from Argentina's market: application to caffeine dietary intake assessment.  

PubMed

The caffeine content of different beverages from Argentina's market was measured. Several brands of coffees, teas, mates, chocolate milks, soft and energy drinks were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. The highest concentration level was found in short coffee (1.38 mg ml(-1)) and the highest amount per serving was found in instant coffee (95 mg per serving). A consumption study was also carried out among 471 people from 2 to 93 years of age to evaluate caffeine total dietary intake by age and to identify the sources of caffeine intake. The mean caffeine intake among adults was 288 mg day(-1) and mate was the main contributor to that intake. The mean caffeine intake among children of 10 years of age and under was 35 mg day(-1) and soft drinks were the major contributors to that intake. Children between 11 and 15 years old and teenagers (between 16 and 20 years) had caffeine mean intakes of 120 and 240 mg day(-1), respectively, and mate was the major contributor to those intakes. Drinking mate is a deep-rooted habit among Argentine people and it might be the reason for their elevated caffeine mean daily intake. PMID:19680899

Olmos, V; Bardoni, N; Ridolfi, A S; Villaamil Lepori, E C

2009-03-01

283

Modeling of Daily Pan Evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily pan evaporation estimations are achieved by a suitable Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for the meteorological data recorded from Automated GroWheather meteorological station near Lake Egirdir which lies in the Lake District of western Turkey. In this station six meteorological variables are measured simultaneously, namely, air temperature, water temperature, solar radiation, air pressure, wind speed and relative humidity. Since

Özlem Terzi; M. Erol Keskin

2005-01-01

284

Daily efficiency of solar collectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the daily efficiency of flat-plate solar collectors working at constant flow rate can be evaluated with a simple algorithm when their structural features are known. It is also shown that long-term performances can be calculated starting from monthly values of global radiation.

Bartoli, B.; Cuomo, V.; Francesca, M.; Serio, C.; Barone, G.; Mattarelli, P.

1982-03-01

285

Stochastic Simulation of Daily Rainfall.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of many water resources projects requires knowledge of possible long-term rainfall patterns. A stochastic model based on a first order Markov chain was developed to simulate daily rainfall at a point. The model is applicable to any point in Ken...

D. M. Allen C. T. Haan D. Linton J. Street D. Jordan

1975-01-01

286

Usual Energy Intake from Total Fat  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Home Diet Usual Dietary Intakes: Background The NCI Method Details of the NCI Method Food Intakes, US Population, 2001-04 Selected Intakes

287

Usual Energy Intake from Monounsaturated Fat  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Home Diet Usual Dietary Intakes: Background The NCI Method Details of the NCI Method Food Intakes, US Population, 2001-04 Selected Intakes

288

Usual Energy Intake from Saturated Fat  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Home Diet Usual Dietary Intakes: Background The NCI Method Details of the NCI Method Food Intakes, US Population, 2001-04 Selected Intakes

289

Usual Energy Intake from Polyunsaturated Fat  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Home Diet Usual Dietary Intakes: Background The NCI Method Details of the NCI Method Food Intakes, US Population, 2001-04 Selected Intakes

290

Relation between urinary hydration biomarkers and total fluid intake in healthy adults  

PubMed Central

Background/objectives: In sedentary adults, hydration is mostly influenced by total fluid intake and not by sweat losses; moreover, low daily fluid intake is associated with adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to model the relation between total fluid intake and urinary hydration biomarkers. Subjects/methods: During 4 consecutive weekdays, 82 adults (age, 31.6±4.3 years; body mass index, 23.2±2.7?kg/m2; 52% female) recorded food and fluid consumed, collected one first morning urine (FMU) void and three 24-h (24hU) samples. The strength of linear association between urinary hydration biomarkers and fluid intake volume was evaluated using simple linear regression and Pearson's correlation. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modeled the association between fluid intake and 24hU hydration biomarkers. Results: Strong associations (|r|?0.6; P<0.001) were found between total fluid intake volume and 24hU osmolality, color, specific gravity (USG), volume and solute concentrations. Many 24hU biomarkers were collinear (osmolality versus color: r=0.49–0.76; USG versus color: r=0.46–0.78; osmolality versus USG: 0.86–0.97; P<0.001). Measures in FMU were not strongly correlated to intake. Multivariate PLS and simple linear regression using urine volume explained >50% of the variance in fluid intake volume (r2=0.59 and 0.52, respectively); however the error in both models was high and the limits of agreement very large. Conclusions: Hydration biomarkers in 24hU are strongly correlated with daily total fluid intake volume in sedentary adults in free-living conditions; however, the margin of error in the present models limits the applicability of estimating fluid intake from urinary biomarkers.

Perrier, E; Rondeau, P; Poupin, M; Le Bellego, L; Armstrong, L E; Lang, F; Stookey, J; Tack, I; Vergne, S; Klein, A

2013-01-01

291

Limits to sustained energy intake. XX. Body temperatures and physical activity of female mice during lactation.  

PubMed

Lactating animals consume greater amounts of food than non-reproductive animals, but energy intake appears to be limited in late lactation. The heat dissipation limit theory suggests that the food intake of lactating mice is limited by the capacity of the mother to dissipate heat. Lactating mice should therefore have high body temperatures (Tb), and changes in energy intake during lactation should be reflected by variation in Tb. To investigate these predictions, 26 mice (Mus musculus) were monitored daily throughout lactation for food intake, body mass, litter size and litter mass. After weaning, 21 days postpartum, maternal food intake and body mass were monitored for another 10 days. Maternal activity and Tb were recorded every minute for 23 h a day using implanted transmitters (vital view). Energy intake increased to a plateau in late lactation (days 13-17). Daily gain in pup mass declined during this same period, suggesting a limit on maternal energy intake. Litter size and litter mass were positively related to maternal energy intake and body mass. Activity levels were constantly low, and mice with the largest increase in energy intake at peak lactation had the lowest activity. Tb rose sharply after parturition and the circadian rhythm became compressed within a small range. Tb during the light period increased considerably (1.1°C higher than in baseline), and lactating mice faced chronic hyperthermia, despite their activity levels in lactation being approximately halved. Average Tb increased in relation to energy intake as lactation progressed, but there was no relationship between litter size or litter mass and the mean Tb at peak lactation. These data are consistent with the heat dissipation limit theory, which suggests performance in late lactation is constrained by the ability to dissipate body heat. PMID:23788704

Gamo, Y; Troup, C; Mitchell, S E; Hambly, C; Vaanholt, L M; Speakman, J R

2013-06-20

292

Nicotine intake in young smokers: longitudinal study of saliva cotinine concentrations.  

PubMed Central

Smoking habits and smoke intake were studied over three consecutive years in 197 girls, initially aged 11 to 14 years. Saliva cotinine concentrations in girls who were smokers throughout the three years increased over each year of the study, the greatest increase occurring during movement from occasional to daily smoking. Cigarette consumption also increased over the two years. For a group of continuing daily smokers (n = 23), inhalation of smoke per cigarette as indexed by the ratio of cotinine concentration to average daily cigarette consumption did not change over time. Cotinine concentrations in 16 girls who were smoking on a daily basis within a year of starting to smoke suggested the early development of inhalation. Our findings suggest that young smokers learn to inhale cigarette smoke very early in their smoking careers, that further increases in smoke intake mainly reflect increased cigarette consumption, and that the pharmacological effects of nicotine are already important in reinforcing their smoking.

McNeill, A D; Jarvis, M J; Stapleton, J A; West, R J; Bryant, A

1989-01-01

293

Baclofen reduces fat intake under binge-type conditions  

PubMed Central

The GABA-B agonist baclofen reduces drug self-administration in rats and has shown promise clinically in the treatment of substance abuse. Baclofen generally does not reduce food intake in non-binge feeding protocols. In this study, baclofen was tested in a fat-binge protocol. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups (B: binge; FM: fat-matched; C: chow). B received a bowl of vegetable shortening for 2 h on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday (MWF) and continuous access to powdered chow (regular chow) in all phases. FM had continuous access to a regular chow+shortening mixture (FM chow) that provided the same proportion of shortening and regular chow that the B rats consumed in all phases. In addition, FM had the following: phase 1: no separate bowl of shortening; phase 2: 2-h MWF access to a separate bowl of shortening; phase 3, daily 2-h access to a separate bowl of shortening; C rats had continuous access to the regular chow in all phases. In addition, C had the following: phase 1: no separate bowl of shortening; phase 2: 2-h MWF access to a separate bowl of shortening; in phase 3, daily 2-h access to a separate bowl of shortening. Baclofen (1.0, 1.8 mg/ kg, i.p.) reduced shortening intake regardless of access condition. Baclofen had no effect on, or stimulated, FM and regular chow intake. These results demonstrate that baclofen can reduce fat intake in rats under binge-type conditions. Furthermore, these results indicate that bingeing, as modeled in our protocol, is different from other forms of food intake and may share similarities with substance abuse.

Buda-Levin, Ariel; Wojnicki, Francis H.E.; Corwin, Rebecca L.

2006-01-01

294

Dietary intake of women runners.  

PubMed

One hundred and three women who were habitual distance runners and 74 age-matched physically inactive women provided three-day diet records. Intergroup differences in intakes of energy nutrients, micronutrients, cholesterol and fiber were evaluated via analysis of variance and, to assess qualitative differences, via analysis of covariance with total caloric intake entered as the covariate. Women runners reported consuming more carbohydrate (192.4 vs 165.0 g.d-1) and less fat (57.5 vs 66.1 g.d-1) than did the inactive women (p less than .05). After controlling for the non-significant intergroup difference in caloric intake, these differences persisted and protein intake was lower in the runners. Cholesterol and saturated fat intakes were lower and fiber intake was greater in the runners, with and without control for differences in caloric intake. These data suggest that female runners, when compared to inactive counterparts, tend to follow dietary practices that conform more closely to the current recommendations of health authorities. PMID:1962760

Pate, R R; Sargent, R G; Baldwin, C; Burgess, M L

1990-12-01

295

11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE COFFER DAM, OCTOBER 10, 1900. ONE OF THE HUBBELL COMPANY DREDGES IS AT WORK IN THE CENTER OF THE ILLUSTRATION, THE TIMBER FLOATING AROUND WAS PROBABLY FOR USE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF SIDE WALL RETAINING CRIBS. ONE OF THESE IS BEING CONSTRUCTED JUST TO THE LEFT AND TOWARDS THE VIEWER FROM THE DREDGES. (87) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

296

Supporting activities of daily living  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention provides a method for supporting operational activities in daily living by providing a combination of (a) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly DHA and/or EPA, and (b) nucleosides or nucleotides, particularly uridine or its equivalent. The operational activities comprise eating; walking; toileting; bathing; grooming; dressing; use of communication equipment; making conversations; keeping appointments; use of household appliances; cleaning dishes; preparation of meal or drink; writing; reading; independent housekeeping; transportation and shopping.

Groenendijk; Martine (Barendrecht, NL); de Wilde; Mattheus Cornelis (Elst, NL); Hageman; Robert Johan Joseph (Wageningen, NL); Kamphuis; Patrick Joseph Gerardus Hendrikus (Utrecht, NL)

2013-01-29

297

Awareness of Daily Life Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The well-publicized aging of Western societies has prompted a growing interest into technologies that support awareness in cross-generational families. The idea of supporting continual and partly automated flow of information between seniors living alone and their social intimates has been gaining ground among researchers but even among industries. It is anticipated that such an information flow can help bridge geographical distance, discrepant lifestyles, and daily routines, potentially providing peace of mind to both parties and feelings of being connected.

Metaxas, Georgios; Metin, Barbaros; Schneider, Jutta; Markopoulos, Panos; De Ruyter, Boris

298

Gender in Spanish Daily Newspapers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the portrayal of women and men in a Spanish daily newspaper and to find whether there\\u000a were gender differences among the authors of the articles in said newspaper. A content analysis was conducted of 4,060 articles\\u000a and advertisements from 24 issues of a randomly selected, large-circulation, Spanish newspaper. Men were found to

M. Pilar Matud; Carmen Rodríguez; Inmaculada Espinosa

2011-01-01

299

30 days in the life: daily nutrient balancing in a wild chacma baboon.  

PubMed

For most animals, the ability to regulate intake of specific nutrients is vital to fitness. Recent studies have demonstrated nutrient regulation in nonhuman primates over periods of one observation day, though studies of humans indicate that such regulation extends to longer time frames. Little is known about longer-term regulation in nonhuman primates, however, due to the challenges of multiple-day focal follows. Here we present the first detailed study of nutrient intake across multiple days in a wild nonhuman primate. We conducted 30 consecutive all day follows on one female chacma baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa. We documented dietary composition, compared the nutritional contribution of natural and human-derived foods to the diet, and quantified nutrient intake using the geometric framework of nutrition. Our focus on a single subject over consecutive days allowed us to examine daily dietary regulation within an individual over time. While the amounts varied daily, our subject maintained a strikingly consistent balance of protein to non-protein (fat and carbohydrate) energy across the month. Human-derived foods, while contributing a minority of the diet, were higher in fat and lower in fiber than naturally-derived foods. Our results demonstrate nutrient regulation on a daily basis in our subject, and demonstrate that she was able to maintain a diet with a constant proportional protein content despite wide variation in the composition of component foods. From a methodological perspective, the results of this study suggest that nutrient intake is best estimated over at least an entire day, with longer-term regulatory patterns (e.g., during development and reproduction) possibly requiring even longer sampling. From a management and conservation perspective, it is notable that nearly half the subject's daily energy intake derived from exotic foods, including those currently being eradicated from the study area for replacement by indigenous vegetation. PMID:23894645

Johnson, Caley A; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M; Clarke, David; Swedell, Larissa

2013-07-24

300

30 Days in the Life: Daily Nutrient Balancing in a Wild Chacma Baboon  

PubMed Central

For most animals, the ability to regulate intake of specific nutrients is vital to fitness. Recent studies have demonstrated nutrient regulation in nonhuman primates over periods of one observation day, though studies of humans indicate that such regulation extends to longer time frames. Little is known about longer-term regulation in nonhuman primates, however, due to the challenges of multiple-day focal follows. Here we present the first detailed study of nutrient intake across multiple days in a wild nonhuman primate. We conducted 30 consecutive all day follows on one female chacma baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa. We documented dietary composition, compared the nutritional contribution of natural and human-derived foods to the diet, and quantified nutrient intake using the geometric framework of nutrition. Our focus on a single subject over consecutive days allowed us to examine daily dietary regulation within an individual over time. While the amounts varied daily, our subject maintained a strikingly consistent balance of protein to non-protein (fat and carbohydrate) energy across the month. Human-derived foods, while contributing a minority of the diet, were higher in fat and lower in fiber than naturally-derived foods. Our results demonstrate nutrient regulation on a daily basis in our subject, and demonstrate that she was able to maintain a diet with a constant proportional protein content despite wide variation in the composition of component foods. From a methodological perspective, the results of this study suggest that nutrient intake is best estimated over at least an entire day, with longer-term regulatory patterns (e.g., during development and reproduction) possibly requiring even longer sampling. From a management and conservation perspective, it is notable that nearly half the subject’s daily energy intake derived from exotic foods, including those currently being eradicated from the study area for replacement by indigenous vegetation.

Johnson, Caley A.; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M.; Clarke, David; Swedell, Larissa

2013-01-01

301

Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)|

Brender, Jean D.; And Others

1985-01-01

302

Swallowing frequency in elderly people during daily life.  

PubMed

Disuse atrophy of swallowing-related organs due to an excessive decrease in swallowing frequency is suspected to occur in patients with poor oral intake, especially elderly people. However, swallowing frequency in daily life has not previously been examined in the elderly. This study examined swallowing frequency in elderly people and compared these findings to those in a younger population and differences in the degree of activity in daily life. (i) We compared swallowing frequency in 20 elderly people (82·0 ± 8·3 year) and 15 healthy young people (26·5 ± 3·5 year). (ii) 20 elderly people were divided into two groups according to the degree of activity in daily life: a semi-bedridden group and bedridden group; the swallowing frequency was compared between these groups. (i) The swallowing frequency in the elderly people was 2-19 times per hour and the mean was 9·4 ± 4·9, and that in the healthy young people was 16-76 times per hour and the mean was 40·7 ± 19·5. Swallowing frequency in elderly people was significantly lower than that in young healthy people (P < 0·0001). (ii) The swallowing frequency in bedridden group was 2-11 times per hour and the mean was 6·8 ± 3·3, and that in semi-bedridden group was 3-19 times per hour and the mean was 11·9 ± 5·1. Swallowing frequency in bedridden group was significantly lower than that in semi-bedridden group (P < 0·05). These results indicate that in daily life, elderly people tend to swallow less frequently than young people. In addition, swallowing frequency was lower in elderly subjects with a low degree of activity in daily life. PMID:23855718

Tanaka, N; Nohara, K; Kotani, Y; Matsumura, M; Sakai, T

2013-07-16

303

Calcium Intake and Body Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Five clinical studies of calcium intake, designed with a primary skeletal end point, were reevaluated to explore associations be- tween calcium intake and body weight. All subjects were women, clustered in three main age groups: 3rd, 5th, and 8th decades. Total sample,size was,780. Four of the studies,were,observational;,two were cross-sectional, in which body mass index was regressed against entry level

K. Michael Davies; Robert P. Heaney; Robert R. Recker; Joan M. Lappe; M. Janet Barger-lux; Karen Rafferty; Sharilyn Hinders

2000-01-01

304

Dietary Intake of Modernizing Samoans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To describe the dietary intake of American and Western Samoans, with emphasis on nutrients conventionally related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease.Design Cross-sectional dietary survey. Intake estimates were based on 24-hour recall interviews.Subject Community-based samples of 946 men and women (455 American Samoans, 491 Western Samoans) aged 25 to 55 years.Statistical analyses Tests of differences in means (t tests)

DANIEL J GALANIS; STEPHEN T McGARVEY; CHRISTINE QUESTED; BRENDA SIO; SALEI' AAFELE-FA'AMULI

1999-01-01

305

Baclofen-induced reductions in optional food intake depend upon food composition.  

PubMed

Baclofen reduces intake of some foods but stimulates intake or has no effect on others. The reasons for these differences are not known. The present study examined effects of baclofen when composition, energy density, preference, presentation and intake of optional foods varied. Semi-solid fat emulsions and sucrose products were presented for brief periods to non-food-deprived rats. In Experiment 1, fat and sucrose composition were varied while controlling energy density. In Experiment 2A, schedule of access and the number of optional foods were varied. In Experiment 2B, the biopolymer (thickener) was examined. Baclofen reduced intake of fat and/or sugar options with different energy densities (1.28-9kcal/g), when presented daily or intermittently, and when intakes were relatively high or low. However, the efficacy of baclofen was affected by the biopolymer used to thicken the options: baclofen had no effect when options were thickened with one biopolymer (3173), but reduced intake when options were thickened with another biopolymer (515). Baclofen failed to reduce intake of a concentrated sugar option (64% sucrose), regardless of biopolymer. Based upon these results, caution is urged when interpreting results obtained with products using different thickening agents. Systematic research is needed when designing products used in rat models of food intake. PMID:23321345

Wojnicki, F H E; Charny, G; Corwin, R L W

2013-01-12

306

Limits to sustained energy intake. XVI. Body temperature and physical activity of female mice during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of mammalian reproduction, and lactation performance may be affected by events during pregnancy. For example, food intake may be limited in late pregnancy by competition for space in the abdomen between the alimentary tract and fetuses. Hence, females may need to compensate their energy budgets during pregnancy by reducing activity and lowering body temperature. We explored the relationships between energy intake, body mass, body temperature and physical activity throughout pregnancy in the MF1 mouse. Food intake and body mass of 26 females were recorded daily throughout pregnancy. Body temperature and physical activity were monitored every minute for 23 h a day by implanted transmitters. Body temperature and physical activity declined as pregnancy advanced, while energy intake and body mass increased. Compared with a pre-mating baseline period, mice increased energy intake by 56% in late pregnancy. Although body temperature declined as pregnancy progressed, this served mostly to reverse an increase between baseline and early pregnancy. Reduced physical activity may compensate the energy budget of pregnant mice but body temperature changes do not. Over the last 3 days of pregnancy, food intake declined. Individual variation in energy intake in the last phase of pregnancy was positively related to litter size at birth. As there was no association between the increase in body mass and the decline in intake, we suggest the decline was not caused by competition for abdominal space. These data suggest overall reproductive performance is probably not constrained by events during pregnancy. PMID:23720802

Gamo, Yuko; Bernard, Amelie; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hambly, Catherine; Al Jothery, Aqeel; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

2013-06-15

307

Intakes of Vegetables and Fruits are Negatively Correlated with Risk of Stroke in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Stroke is a leading cause of death. Current therapeutic strategies have been unsuccessful. Several studies have reported benefits on reducing stroke risk and improving the poststroke associated functional declines in patients who ate foods rich in fruits and vegetables. Their potential protective effects may be due to their antioxidants, calcium, potassium, riboflavine, peridoxin, riboflavin contents. Folic acid, peridoxin, and riboflavin are all cofactors in hyperhomocysteinemia as a stroke risk factor.Studies suggest that oxidative stress plays important roles in pathogenesis of ischemic cerebral injury and higher intake of antioxidants has been associated with a lower stroke risk. The aim of this study was to examine if the dietary intake of vegetables and fruits in patients with stroke were comparatively worse than those in patients without stroke. Methods: In this case control study, 93 stroke patients admitted to Alzahra hospital were matched for age and sex with 60 patients who were not affected with acute cerebrovascular diseases and did not have a history of stroke. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire.Food intakes were compared between two groups and with recommended value. Results: Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits was more in male with stroke than male without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was higher in male with stroke.Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits were lower in women with stroke than women without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was lower in women with stroke Conclusions: Our findings suggest that increased vegetable and fruits intake may be associated with decreased risk of stroke

Hariri, Mitra; Darvishi, Leila; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Khorvash, Fariborz; Aghaei, Mahmud; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

2013-01-01

308

Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various organizations worldwide have made dietary recommendations for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fish intake that are primarily for coronary disease risk reduction and triglyceride (TG) lowering. Recommendations also have been made for DHA intake for pregnant women, infants, and vegetarians\\/vegans. A Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), specifically, an Adequate Intake (AI), has been set for ?-linolenic acid (ALA)

Penny M. Kris-Etherton; Jessica A. Grieger; Terry D. Etherton

2009-01-01

309

Exposure to phthalates in 5–6 years old primary school starters in Germany—A human biomonitoring study and a cumulative risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the internal exposure of 111 German primary school starters by analyzing urinary metabolites of six phthalates: butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-iso-decylphthalate (DiDP). From the urinary metabolite levels, we calculated daily intakes and related these values to Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values. By introducing the

Holger M. Koch; Matthias Wittassek; Thomas Brüning; Jürgen Angerer; Ursel Heudorf

2011-01-01

310

Replacing the Default Values of 10 With Data-Derived Values: A Comparison of Two Different Data-Derived Uncertainty Factors for Boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

A “safe” or sub-threshold dose is often estimated for oral toxicity of substances in order to protect humans from adverse health effects. This dose is referred to by several terms: reference dose (RfD), tolerable daily intake (TDI), and acceptable daily intake (ADI). Similarly, tolerable concentration (TC), and reference concentration (RfC) are commonly used terms for a “safe” concentration for inhalation.

Qiyu Zhao; Jason Unrine; Michael Dourson

1999-01-01

311

Food group intake patterns and nutrient intake vary across low-income Hispanic and African American preschool children in Atlanta: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The food group intake patterns of low income Hispanic and African American preschool children are not well documented. The aim of this study was to perform a food group intake analysis of low income minority preschool children and evaluate how macronutrient and micronutrient intake compares to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Methods A cross sectional study design using three-day food diaries analyzed by dietary analysis software (Nutrient Database System for Research) was used. Children were recruited from well-child clinics at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta at Hughes Spalding and North Dekalb Grady Satellite Clinic, Atlanta, GA. Low-income, African American and Hispanic preschool age children (n?=?291) were enrolled. A total of 105 completed and returned the 3-day food diaries. Chi-squared tests were used to assess demographic variables. The mean percentage of intake per day of specific food groups and sub-groups were obtained (servings of given food group/total daily servings). Food intake data and proportion of children meeting DRIs for macro- and micronutrients were stratified by race/ethnicity, nutritional status, and caloric intake, and were compared using t-tests. Regression models controlling for age, BMI and sex were obtained to assess the effect of total caloric intake upon the proportional intake of each studied food group. Results The mean age of African American children was 2.24?±?1.07?years and Hispanic children 2.84?±?1.12?years. African Americans consumed more kcal/kg/day than Hispanics (124.7?±?51 vs. 96.9?±?33, p?intake of fruits, fats and grains varied by total caloric intake, while no difference by total caloric intake was found for the dietary patterns of African Americans. Micronutrient intake also differed significantly between African American and Hispanic children. Conclusions Food group intake patterns among low-income children differ by ethnic group. There is a need for more research to guide program design and target nutritional interventions for this population.

2012-01-01

312

Studies on nitrogen metabolism in rats of different age fed on a protein-free diet. 2. The feed intake.  

PubMed

Changes in the intake of dry matter (DM) of the protein-free diet (PFD) fed ad libitum were studied on male rats in relation to the shrunk body mass (SB) and duration of protein-free feeding (t). The intake of DM and changes of SB were investigated on the same rats and during the same experimental periods. The mean intake of DM in relation to PFD feeding periods t = 3, 6, 9, 12, 16 days and the daily DM intake (DMd) in relation to the daily shrunk body mass (SBd) were calculated on logarithmical values according to a model of linear regression y = a + bx and to a model of multiple regression y = b0 + b1x1 + b2x2. The rate of DM intake in relation to the duration of PFD feeding (t) did not differ significantly between age groups (k = 14) but the ak differed significantly. The common coefficient bc = 0.871 +/- 0.012 was less than 1***. This relationship is described by the equation: DM intake = Ak X t0.871, where: DM intake = the sum of intake in the periods of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 16 days (in grams), k = age group, t = PFD feeding period. No significant correlation (P less than 0.05) was found between bk and the initial body mass (SBi) or age of rats (r = -0.21 and -0.02, respectively) but between ak and SBi or age the correlation was highly significant (r = 0.960 and 0.832). This indicates that the amount but not the rate of DM intake depended on the initial body mass or age. The relation between DMd and SBd, the latter increasing with age but decreasing with the duration of PFD feeding, is described by equation: DMd intake = Ad X SBd0.503, where: DMd intake in grams, d = day 1 to 15 of PFD feeding, SBd = daily shrunk body mass in kilograms. The values of Ad decreased with the duration of PFD feeding. The using of multiple regression permitted to describe DMd intake as a function of SBd and (d) by a common equation: DMd intake = 27.02 X SBd0.503 X d-0.103; R = 0.976. Thus the daily DM intake was closely positively correlated with SBd and negatively correlated with the duration of protein-free feeding regardless of the age of rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3767658

Beza, R

1986-07-01

313

Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake  

PubMed Central

Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors.

Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

2008-01-01

314

Low Water Intake and Risk for New-Onset Hyperglycemia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Water intake alters vasopressin secretion. Recent findings reveal an independent association between plasma copeptin, a surrogate for vasopressin, and risk of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were 3,615 middle-aged men and women, with normal baseline fasting glycemia (FG), who were recruited in a 9-year follow-up study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for the incidence of hyperglycemia (FG ?6.1 mmol/L or treatment for diabetes) were calculated according to daily water intake classes based on a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS During follow-up, there were 565 incident cases of hyperglycemia. After adjustment for confounding factors, ORs (95% CIs) for hyperglycemia associated with classes of water intake (<0.5 L, n = 677; 0.5 to <1.0 L, n = 1,754; and >1.0 L, n = 1,184) were 1.00, 0.68 (0.52–0.89), and 0.79 (0.59–1.05), respectively (P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS Self-reported water intake was inversely and independently associated with the risk of developing hyperglycemia.

Roussel, Ronan; Fezeu, Leopold; Bouby, Nadine; Balkau, Beverley; Lantieri, Olivier; Alhenc-Gelas, Francois; Marre, Michel; Bankir, Lise

2011-01-01

315

Dietary intake and nutritional status in Italian elderly subjects.  

PubMed

Dietary intake and nutritional status was assessed in a random sample of 190 Italians (70-75 years of age) participating in the Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly (EURONUT-SENECA). The daily energy intake as assessed by a Modified Dietary History, was 2208+/-562 Kcalories in men and 1742+/-527 Kcalories in women. The alcohol intake was significantly higher in men than in women (35. 9+/-32.5 g/day vs 14.7+/-15.4 g/day; p<0.0001). As for calcium, there was a high percentage of men (77%) and women (86%) with a lower intake than the recommended values. The subjects underweight (BMI<20) were only 4.1% men and 9.7% women, while the great part was normal (BMI= 20-24.9) and overweight (BMI=25-29.9). The body composition parameters showed a significant difference between two genders. Men had a Total Body Water (56.5+/-4.5% vs 51.3+/-5.4%; p<0. 001) and Fat-Free Mass (80.4+/-5.2% vs 70.9+/-6.8%; p<0.001) higher than women. Few subjects were at high risk of deficiency with regard to plasma levels of vitamins, haemoglobin and albumin. If we analyse the composition of the diet consumed, we can remark the characteristics of a typical Mediterranean diet. We conclude that the general nutritional status of our sample was fairly good. PMID:10842421

Inelmen, E M; Gimenez, G F; Gatto, M R; Miotto, F; Sergi, G; Marccari, T; Gonzalez, A M; Maggi, S; Peruzza, S; Pisent, C; Enzi, G

2000-01-01

316

[Painful menstruation and low intake of n-3 fatty acids].  

PubMed

Menstrual pain, dysmenorrhea, which is known to be prostaglandin mediated, can possibly be influenced by the dietary ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The prostaglandins derived from marine omega-3 fatty acids are normally less aggressive and therefore expected to be associated with milder menstrual symptoms. This hypothesis was surveyed in an epidemiological study in Danish women based upon self administered questionnaires concerning menstrual history, present symptoms, general health, socio-economic factors, and general dietary habits. Two prospective four-day dietary records were used to estimate average daily nutrient intake. The subjects were recruited by advertising, they were 20-45 years of age, not pregnant, and did not use oral contraceptives. No correlations were found between socioeconomic or anthropometric data and menstrual problems. However, certain dietary habits e.g. low intakes of animal and fish products, and low intakes of specific nutrients (omega-3 PUFA, B12 and omega-3/omega-6 ratio) were correlated with menstrual pain. The other nutrients in the diet were not significantly related to menstrual pain. The results were highly significant and mutually consistent and supported the hypothesis that a higher intake of marine, omega-3 fatty acids correlate with milder menstrual symptoms. PMID:8701537

Deutch, B

1996-07-15

317

The Daily Martian Weather Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science Team features the results of a detailed study of the Martian atmosphere in the form of a daily weather report and precise atmospheric measurements for the planet Mars. Atmospheric temperature and pressure profiles which have been archived with NASA's Planetary Data System are also available on this site. These profiles illustrate the vertical structure of the atmosphere of Mars. The site also includes links to many images of Martian atmospheric and weather phenomena (with captions) from the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MGS MOC), the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) and the Hubble Space Telescope.

Team, Mars G.; University, Stanford

318

Binge eating and satiety in bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder: Effects of macronutrient intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The current study tested the hypothesis that supplemental dietary protein would reduce binge eating frequency and test meal intake in women with bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED). Method: Eighteen women with BN or BED ingested high- carbohydrate or high-protein supplements (280 kcal) three times daily over two 2-week periods. On the morning after each period, participants

Janet D. Latner; G. Terence Wilson

2004-01-01

319

Effect of Feeding Whole Cottonseed on Intake, Body Weight, and Reticulorumen Development of Young Holstein Calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three rations were fed to newborn Holstein calves to determine the effect of whole cottonseed on feed intake, body weight, and development of the retic- ulorumen.-Ration s were: 1) concentrate and hay (control); 2) concentrate con- taining 25% whole cottonseed and hay; and 3) concentrate containing 25% whole cottonseed and no hay. Milk was fed at 2.8 liters daily. Morphometric

M. J. Anderson; M. Khoyloo; J. L. Walters

1982-01-01

320

Contribution of ‘noncore’ foods and beverages to the energy intake and weight status of Australian children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating is based on five core food groups and water. Foods or beverages that do not fit into these groups are considered extra or ‘noncore’. We tested the hypotheses that noncore foods and beverages make a greater proportional contribution to mean daily energy intakes of: (1) children, compared with other age groups; and (2) overweight

A C Bell; P J Kremer; A M Magarey; B A Swinburn; C Bell

2005-01-01

321

Effect of prebiotic supplementation and calcium intake on body mass index  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to assess the effects of a prebiotic supplement and usual calcium intake on body composition changes during pubertal growth. We measured anthropometry and body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptionmetry in 97 young adolescents who were randomized to receive either a daily prebiotic...

322

Food Sources, Dietary Behavior, and the Saturated Fat Intake of Latino Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies dietary patterns that distinguish children with higher and lower mean daily percentages of calories from saturated fat using data from mothers of 205 Latino children aged 4-7 years in New York City. Substituting low-fat for whole milk appears a key strategy for lowering saturated fat intake. (SLD)|

Basch, Charles E.; And Others

1992-01-01

323

Children's body mass index, participation in school meals, and observed energy intake at school meals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Data from a dietary-reporting validation study with fourth-grade children were analyzed to investigate a possible relationship of body mass index (BMI) with daily participation in school meals and observed energy intake at school meals, and whether the relationships differed by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). METHODS: Data were collected in 17, 17, and 8 schools during three school years. For

Suzanne Domel Baxter; James W Hardin; Caroline H Guinn; Julie A Royer; Alyssa J Mackelprang; Christina M Devlin

2010-01-01

324

Effect of Green Tea Catechins Intake on Brain Pattern of Certain Neurotransmitters in Stz Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: Present work aimed to illustrate the changes in neurotransmitters secretion mainly noradrenaline, serotonin and dopamine as re levant to ox idative stress that induced i n STZ r ats. This was followed by intake of green tea extract (Catechin) in a dose level 50mg\\/kg body weight daily for 10 weeks. Collected data showed a significant decrease in blood

Mohamed M. Elseweidy; Atef E. Abd El-Bak; Ahmed Abdullah

2009-01-01

325

CAFFEINE INTAKE AND URINE CAFFEINE CONCENTRATIONS AMONG THAI VOLUNTEERS LIVING IN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine is a psychoactive substance that is not legally regulated. Moreover, it is found in various forms of foodstuff. This study aimed to investigate caffeine intake and knowledge concerning caffeine health effects in a community of Thailand, Nakhonnayok province. A questionnaire was used to survey how people consumed caffeine-containing foodstuff daily. Urine caffeine concentrations analyzed by GC\\/NPD method were used

326

Calcium Retention in the Adult Human Male as Affected by Protein Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of level of protein intake on the excretion and reten tion of calcium in the adult human male was studied. Nine young men given 800 mg calcium daily were fed 47, 95 and 142 g protein each for 15 days. Sub jects retained an average of 12 and 1 mg calcium, respectively, when fed 47 and 95 g

RUTH M. WALKER; HELLEN M. LINKSWILER

327

Dietary Iron Intake and Iron Status of German Female Vegans: Results of the German Vegan Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: As shown in previous studies vegetarians and especially vegans are at risk for iron deficiency. Our study evaluated the iron status of German female vegans. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the dietary intakes of 75 vegan women were assessed by two 9-day food frequency questionnaires. The iron status was analyzed on the basis of blood parameters. Results: Mean daily

Annika Waldmann; Jochen W. Koschizke; Claus Leitzmann; Andreas Hahn

2004-01-01

328

Fluid intake patterns: an epidemiological study among children and adolescents in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Energy from liquids is one of the most important factors that could impact on the high prevalence of children and adolescents obesity around the world. There are few data on the liquid consumption in Brazil. The aim of this study is to evaluate the volume and quality of liquids consumed by Brazilian children and adolescents and to determine the proportion of their daily energy intake composed of liquids. Methods A multicenter study was conducted in five Brazilian cities; the study included 831 participants between 3 and 17 years of age. A four-day dietary record specific to fluids was completed for each individual, and the volume of and Kcal from liquid intake were evaluated. The average number of Kcal in each beverage was determined based on label information, and the daily energy intake data from liquids were compared with the recommendations of the National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária– ANVISA), the Brazilian food regulation authority, according to each subject’s age. Results As the children aged, the volume of carbonated beverages that they consumed increased significantly, and their milk intake decreased significantly. For children between the ages of 3 and 10, milk and dairy products contributed the greatest daily number of Kcal from liquids. Sugar sweetened beverages which included carbonated beverages, nectars and artificial beverages, accounted for 37% and 45% of the total Kcal from liquid intake in the 3- to 6-year-old and 7- to 10- year-old groups, respectively. Among adolescents (participants 11- to 17- years old), most of the energy intake from liquids came from carbonated beverages, which accounted for an average of 207 kcal/day in this group (42% of their total energy intake from liquids). Health professionals should be attentive to the excessive consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in children and adolescents. The movement toward healthier dietary patterns at the individual and population levels may help to improve programs for preventing overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Conclusion From childhood to adolescence the daily volume of liquid ingested increased reaching a total of 2.0 liters on average. Of this volume, the daily volume of milk ingested decreased while the carbonated drinks, sweetened, nectars and artificial beverages increased significantly. The proportion of water remained constant in about 1/3 of the total volume. From 3 to 17 years of age the energy intake from carbonated beverages increased by about 20%. The carbonated drinks on average corresponded to a tenth of the daily requirements of energy of adolescents.

2012-01-01

329

Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

2013-01-01

330

Daily cycles in coastal dunes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

Hunter, R. E.; Richmond, B. M.

1988-01-01

331

Once-daily aminoglycoside therapy.  

PubMed Central

The once-daily administration of aminoglycosides is an attractive concept. In animal experiments and clinical trials, there is either a reduction in or no influence on the risk of toxicity. Less frequent dosing reduces the contact time between host tissue binding sites and drug. Thanks to the PAE and perhaps other as-yet-unrecognized factors, the fall in the level in serum below the MIC does not appear to impair antibacterial efficacy; in fact, the higher peak level in serum may enhance drug efficacy early in a dosage interval. In neutropenic patients, the in vivo PAE may be lost or small-colony variants with a shorter PAE may be selected unless a concomitant beta-lactam is administered. Because it will be some time before data from clinical trials in the United States are available, because the results from the international trials are encouraging, and because there is potential benefit to patients, it seems reasonable for infectious diseases consultants to cautiously initiate the educational process necessary to implement once-daily aminoglycoside therapy in their institutions.

Gilbert, D N

1991-01-01

332

Coenzyme Q 10 in the diet-daily intake and relative bioavailability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coenzyme Q10 content of the average Danish diet was estimated from consumption data and from analysis of food items to be 3–5 mg coenzyme Q10 per day, primarily derived (64% of the total) from meat and poultry. To investigate if coenzyme Q10 was absorbed to any significant degree from a food item, a randomized cross-over study with single doses

Christine Weber; Anette Bysted; Gunhild Hølmer

1997-01-01

333

Isoflavone content of Italian soy food products and daily intakes of some specific classes of consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Western countries food products containing soybean proteins are primarily directed to some specific classes of consumers, in particular vegetarians, milk-intolerant or gluten-intolerant subjects, and hypercholesterolemic patients. The consumption of these products is associated with the presence of isoflavones, which recently have become a very controversial issue because their beneficial properties are counterbalanced by some undesirable effects. Taking into account

Sheila Morandi; Alessandra D’Agostina; Francesca Ferrario; Anna Arnoldi

2005-01-01

334

Phytoestrogens in Soy-Based Infant Foods: Concentrations, Daily Intake and Possible Biological Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to estrogenic compounds may pose a developmental hazard to infants. Soy products, which contain the phytoestrogens, genistein and daidzein, are becoming increasingly popular as infant foods. To begin to evaluate the potential of the phytoestrogens in these products to affect infants, we measured total genistein and daidzein contents of commercially-available soy-based infant formulae, infant cereals, dinners and rusks. We

C. H. G. Irvine; M. G. Fitzpatrick; S. L. Alexander

335

Evaluation of Daily Dietary Intake of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and Benzene Hexachloride (BHC) in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplicate samples of the diet of vegetarian adults were analyzed to estimate the residues of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and benzene hexachloride (BHC). The total food consumed by an adult per day was collected and categorized as fatty food, non-fatty food, water, and beverages. Fatty food was the main source of these chlorinated insecticides, and it contributed almost 50% of the total

Rekha Kashyap; L. R. Iyer; M. M. Singh

1994-01-01

336

Trace Metal Content and Estimated Daily Human Intake from Chicken Eggs in Ibadan, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 151 chicken eggs and 4 local chicken feeds purchased directly from the poultry farms, at the local markets, and along the roadsides of Ibadan, Nigeria, were analyzed for lead, cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, zinc, and cobalt by carbon graphite atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The authors found strong, positive correlations between the levels of metals in the feeds and

Sayo O. Fakayode; Iromidayo B. Olu-OWOLABI

2003-01-01

337

DAILY INTAKE ESTIMATES OF PBDES ASSOCIATED WITH CONSUMPTION OF CATFISH IN THE U.S.  

EPA Science Inventory

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in a wide variety of consumer products. Concerns surrounding these compounds are primarily due do their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as in human tissue, such as milk, coupled with evidence indi...

338

Methylmercury determination in fish and seafood products and estimated daily intake for the Spanish population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mercury content of 25 samples of fish and seafood products most frequently consumed in Spain was determined. A simple method comprising cold vapour and atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine separately inorganic and organic mercury. In all samples inorganic mercury content was below 50?µg?kg. There was wide variability, among not only the mercury levels of different fish species,

I. Sahuquillo; M. J. Lagarda; M. D. Silvestre; R. Farré

2007-01-01

339

Amounts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in German foods and evaluation of daily intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantities of the biologically active isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) – C18:2 c9t11 – in 139 German foods were\\u000a analysed by capillary gas chromatography (results are given as a % of all identified fatty acid methyl esters). The CLA content\\u000a ranged from 0.40% (Gouda) to 1.70% (Jurassic cheese, Old Emmentaler) in dairy products, from 0.11% (rabbit) to 1.20%

Jan Fritsche; Hans Steinhart

1998-01-01

340

FUMONISINS IN MAIZE IN GUATEMALA AND A PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE OF DAILY INTAKES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize samples were collected from highlands (>1700 m) and lowlands (<360 m) of Guatemala in 2000 to 2002. Samples were analyzed for fumonisin B1 (FB1) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 2000 and 2001 and by LC ion trap mass spectrometry (LCMSMS) in 2002. The detection limit for HPLC...

341

Safety assessment of ?-nitropropionic acid: a monograph in support of an acceptable daily intake in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several molds, Aspergillus, Penicillium and to a lesser extent, Arthrinium can produce ?-nitropropionic acid (NPA). The presence of NPA has been detected in at least four families of higher plants. Use of Aspergillus as an economic mould in the production of foods and the accidental contamination of foods provides for an historically lengthy and widespread exposure of humans to NPA.

George A Burdock; Ioana G Carabin; Madhusudan G Soni

2001-01-01

342

Total-diet study: dietary intakes of macro elements and trace elements in Italy.  

PubMed

The present study provides the dietary intakes of macro elements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P) and trace elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Se) from the Italian total diet. The contribution of the most representative food groups of the total diet (cereals and cereal products, vegetables, fruit, milk and dairy products, meat and meat products, fish) to the daily intakes of these nutrients was also evaluated. The Italian total diet was formulated following the 'market-basket' approach. Cereals represented the primary sources of Cu (35 %), Fe (30 %) and Mg (27 %). About 89 % of the total daily intake of Fe was derived from plant foods. The vegetables food group was the main source of dietary K (27 %). Most of the Ca (59 %) and P (27 %) was derived from the milk-and-dairy food group. Of the dietary Zn, 41 % was provided by meat, which, together with the fish food group, was the primary source of Se (20 %). The adequacy of the Italian total diet with respect to nutritional elements was assessed by comparing the daily intakes with the average requirement values of the Italian recommended dietary allowances. The present findings indicated that the dietary patterns of the Italian total diet were generally consistent with current Italian dietary recommendations for both macro and trace elements. The major concern was for Ca, for which daily intake was 76 % of the average recommendation for the Italian population. It should not be ruled out that there could be a potential risk of inadequate Fe intake in some segments of the population. PMID:14641971

Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Aguzzi, Altero; Cappelloni, Marsilio; Di Lullo, Giuseppe; Lucarini, Massimo

2003-12-01

343

Nutrient intake, adiposity, and diabetes.  

PubMed Central

To study the role of nutritional factors in the genesis of diabetes, estimations of blood sugar concentration, food intake, and adiposity (as body mass index; BMI) were carried out on three normal population samples--namely, 961 employees of Beecham Ltd, 1005 employees of the Greater London Council, and 1488 middle-aged male civil servants (Whitehall study). Blood sugar concentrations and indices of glucose tolerance correlated positively with the degree of adiposity but tended to be negatively correlated with total food energy intake and its component nutrients (total carbohydrate, sucrose, and fat). This inverse trend was largely accounted for by highly significant inverse correlations between food energy intake and adiposity, a relation found in both sexes and in all three population samples and which extended across the whole range of nutrient intake and BMI. These findings suggest that greater degrees of adiposity are associated with lower than average food energy intakes and hence lower total energy expenditures. The association of increased adiposity with low food energy consumption may indicate an underlying "low energy throughput" state, and it may be the mechanisms of this, as well as the obesity, that are responsible for disease.

Keen, H; Thomas, B J; Jarrett, R J; Fuller, J H

1979-01-01

344

Does stress induce salt intake?  

PubMed

Psychological stress is a common feature of modern day societies, and contributes to the global burden of disease. It was proposed by Henry over 20 years ago that the salt intake of a society reflects the level of stress, and that stress, through its effect on increasing salt intake, is an important factor in the development of hypertension. This review evaluates the evidence from animal and human studies to determine if stress does induce a salt appetite and increase salt consumption in human subjects. Findings from animal studies suggest that stress may drive salt intake, with evidence for a potential mechanism via the sympatho-adrenal medullary system and/or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. In contrast, in the few laboratory studies conducted in human subjects, none has found that acute stress affects salt intake. However, one study demonstrated that life stress (chronic stress) was associated with increased consumption of snack foods, which included, but not specifically, highly salty snacks. Studies investigating the influence of chronic stress on eating behaviours are required, including consumption of salty foods. From the available evidence, we can conclude that in free-living, Na-replete individuals, consuming Na in excess of physiological requirements, stress is unlikely to be a major contributor to salt intake. PMID:20416129

Torres, Susan J; Turner, Anne I; Nowson, Caryl A

2010-04-26

345

The Daily News - Free Internet Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Daily News - Free Internet Sources. A catalog of those sites on the Internet that provide significant business and economic news on a daily basis, without charge. Includes publications organized by geographic regions around the world.

1995-01-01

346

Daily Medicine Record for Your Child  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. Daily Medicine Record for Your Child Why should I keep a Daily Medicine Record for My Child? • To keep your child safe. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/resourcesforyou

347

Alzheimer's Care: Simple Tips for Daily Tasks  

MedlinePLUS

... be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Alzheimer's care: Simple tips for daily tasks By Mayo Clinic ... share your e-mail address Sign up Alzheimer's care: Simple tips for daily tasks Alzheimer's caregiving takes ...

348

Magnesium intake and its relevance with antioxidant capacity in Korean adults.  

PubMed

Recently, a study reported that magnesium played a part in the attack of chronic diseases, such as arteriosclerosis, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension. However, there are not even enough studies to evaluate magnesium intakes. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the magnesium intakes of 500 healthy adults. In addition, by selecting 50 targets, we examined the correlation between magnesium intake and antioxidant capacity biomarkers. In the age group of 19-29, the daily magnesium intake was 276.3 mg for males and 232.1 mg for females. In the age group of 30-49, it was 305.1 mg and 246.5 mg, respectively. In the age group of 50-64, the magnesium intake was 294.4 mg for males and 245.7 mg for females. As for the age group of 19-29, the magnesium intake per 4,187 kJ of energy intake was 129.8 mg, which was significantly lower than the 164.6 mg by the age group of 30-49 and 172.4 mg by the age group of 50-64. The ratio of magnesium intake to the recommended intake was 82.1% for those in the age group of 19-29, 87.7% for those in 30-49, and 86.1% for those in 50-64. The rate of the subjects with magnesium intakes lower than the estimated average requirement was 55.3% in the age group of 19-29, 52.4% in 30-49, and 54.2% in 50-64. The magnesium intake from food groups were in the descending order of vegetables, cereals, and fish for the subjects in the age group of 19-29, and vegetables, cereals, and beverages for the subjects in the age groups of 30-49 and 50-64. The source food items of magnesium intake were in the descending order of Kimchi, tofu, rice, and coffee in the age group of 19-29, coffee, Kimchi, tofu, and rice in 30-49, and coffee, Kimchi, rice, and tofu in 50-64. From the 50 targets aged 19-29, significant correlation was not indicated among magnesium intake, serum magnesium, and antioxidant capacity biomarkers. In conclusion, the magnesium intake status of some Korean adults is unsatisfactory. And it is suggested that this low intake of magnesium has no correlation with antioxidant capacity. PMID:20978866

Bae, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

2010-10-27

349

The Effect of Daily Stress, Personality, and Age on Daily Negative Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined whether stress reactivity becomes stronger or weaker with age. Daily stress and daily negative affect were modeled using 1,012 subjects from the National Study of Daily Events (NSDE), an 8-day daily diary study. Age ranged from 25 to 74. Data were modeled using within-person HLM techniques. Daily stress and neuroticism interacted in their effect on daily

Daniel K. Mroczek; David M. Almeida

2004-01-01

350

Nutrient Intake From Habitual Oral Diet in Patients With Severe Short Bowel Syndrome Living in the Southeastern United States  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Little data are published on habitual home oral diet of short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients living in the United States. Methods We assessed habitual macro-and micronutrient intake from oral food and beverages in 19 stable patients with severe SBS who live in the Southeastern United States. Intestinal absorption of energy, fat, nitrogen (N) and carbohydrate (CHO) was determined in a metabolic ward setting. Results We studied 12 women and 7 men, age 48±3 years (mean±SE) receiving chronic PN for 31±8 months following massive small bowel resection (118±25 cm residual small bowel). Patients had intact (N=5), partial (N=9), or no residual colon (N=5). The subjects demonstrated severe malabsorption of energy (59±3% of oral intake), fat (41±5%), N (42±5%) and CHO (76±3%). Average oral energy intake was 2656±242 kcal/day (39±3 kcal/kg/day) and oral protein intake was 1.4 ±0.1 g/kg/d. Oral food/beverage intake constituted 49±4% of total (enteral + parenteral) daily fluid intake, 66±4% of total daily kcal and 58±5% of total daily N intake. Oral fat intake averaged 92±11g/day (? 35% of total oral energy). Oral fluid intake averaged 2712±240 ml/d, primarily from water, soft drinks, sweet tea and coffee. Simple sugars comprised 42±3% of oral CHO intake. Usual dietary intake of multiple micronutrients were below the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in a large percentage of patients: vitamin A (47%), vitamin D (79%), vitamin E (79%), vitamin K (63%), thiamine (42%), vitamin B6 (68%), vitamin B12 (11%), vitamin C (58%), folate (37%), iron (37%), calcium (63%), magnesium (79%) and zinc (68%). Only 7 patients (37%) were taking oral multivitamin-mineral supplements and only 6 subjects (37%) were taking oral iron and calcium supplements, respectively. Conclusions In these SBS patients living in the Southeastern United States, oral diet provides a significant proportion of daily nutrient intake. However, the types of foods and fluids consumed are likely to worsen malabsorption and increase PN requirements. Oral intake of essential micronutrients was very low in a significant proportion of this cohort of SBS patients.

Fernandez-Estivariz, Concepcion; Luo, Menghua; Umeakunne, Kay; Bazargan, Niloofar; Galloway, John R.; Leader, Lorraine M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

2008-01-01

351

Total Maximum Daily Load Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides this informative resource on Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL). A term used to discuss water quality, TMDL refers to "a calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and still meet water quality standards." The TMDL Program Website offers background information on TMDLs (including FAQs), a National Overview of Impaired Waters in the US, and two standard presentations on TMDLs (HTML and Power Point). The heart of the site, however, is the interactive map of the US, which allows users access to each state's TMDL Program. Within each state, watershed names and maps, as well as source information (Water body, Parameter of Concern, Priority for TMDL Development), are provided.

352

SciTech Daily Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users wishing quick and easy access to some of the best writing online will want to examine this site. Scitech Daily Review, updated four days per week offers links to articles, new book notices and reviews, and essays and opinion pieces for the fields of science and technology. The site does not provide original content, but rather mines a wide array of online newspapers, journals, and other publications and offer links with very brief introductions to the "precious nuggets of real content" on the Web. In addition, the site provides a linked list of the publications and columnists used to glean the reports as well as an archive of past features. Certainly few users will find all of the pieces interesting or pertinent, but the quantity and variety of content and the frequency with which it is updated guarantee that there will be something for almost anyone.

1998-01-01

353

Fluoxetine attenuates alcohol intake and desire to drink.  

PubMed

Several serotonin uptake inhibitors, including the long-acting fluoxetine, have been found to decrease alcohol intake in moderately dependent alcoholics. While the mechanism of their effect is not fully elucidated, a previous study with citalopram indicated that decreased desire to drink may be an important factor. Therefore, we tested fluoxetine effects on alcohol intake and desire to drink in a placebo-controlled study. Subjects, recruited by advertisement, were mildly/moderately dependent alcoholics (12 male, four female, aged 19-59 years, healthy, non-depressed) who did not believe they had a drinking problem and were not requesting treatment. After a 1 week baseline they received, single-blind, 2 weeks placebo followed by 2 weeks fluoxetine 60 mg/day. As out-patients, subjects recorded daily standard drinks (13.6 g ethanol) and rated interest, desire, craving and liking for alcohol biweekly. Each out-patient period was immediately followed by a double-blind experimental drinking session. Out-patient daily drinks slightly decreased during fluoxetine to 6.6 +/- 0.9 (mean +/- S.E.M.) compared with during placebo (7.16 +/- 0.95, p = 0.07, N.S.) and baseline (7.18 +/- 1.0, p > 0.1, N.S.). Desire, interest and craving for alcohol decreased during fluoxetine vs placebo baseline (p < 0.05), but not vs placebo. Appetite loss and decrease in food intake (p < 0.01, fluoxetine vs placebo) correlated with each other (r = 0.91, p < 0.01) but neither correlated with decrease in alcohol intake (appetite: r = 0.26, N.S.; food intake: r = 0.22, N.S.). Weight loss occurred during fluoxetine (p < 0.05 vs placebo) but did not correlate with decrease in alcohol intake (r = 0.1, N.S.). In the experimental drinking sessions after placebo and fluoxetine treatments subjects rated their desire for each of 18 mini-drinks (each one-third of a standard drink) offered at 5 min intervals. Fluoxetine decreased desire to drink throughout the sessions; both mean and maximum desire ratings were lower after fluoxetine than after placebo (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Therefore, fluoxetine seems to have a robust effect on decreasing desire for alcohol. We propose that in the absence of intention by subjects to reduce drinking, their habitual drinking patterns mitigated against reduced consumption in the out-patient phase. However, fluoxetine could be a useful adjunct for patients in a treatment context who are motivated to reduce their drinking. PMID:7814825

Naranjo, C A; Poulos, C X; Bremner, K E; Lanctot, K L

1994-09-01

354

Influence of dietary intake and lasalocid on serum hormones and metabolites and visceral organ growth and morphology in wether lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four black face, crossbred wether lambs (32.4±6.1kg) were assigned to one of four treatments arranged in a 2×2 factorial. Individually penned wethers were fed a pelleted total mixed diet at low intake (LI; 60% of ad libitum) or high intake (HI; 95% of ad libitum); diets contained either low lasalocid (LL; 0mg per lamb daily) or high lasalocid (HL; 40mg

K. C. Swanson; L. P. Reynolds; J. S. Caton

2000-01-01

355

Effects of energy content and energy density of pre-portioned entr?es on energy intake  

PubMed Central

Pre-portioned entrées are commonly consumed to help control portion size and limit energy intake. The influence of entrée characteristics on energy intake, however, has not been well studied. We determined how the effects of energy content and energy density (ED, kcal/g) of pre-portioned entrées combine to influence daily energy intake. In a crossover design, 68 non-dieting adults (28 men and 40 women) were provided with breakfast, lunch, and dinner on one day a week for four weeks. Each meal included a compulsory, manipulated pre-portioned entrée followed by a variety of unmanipulated discretionary foods that were consumed ad libitum. Across conditions, the entrées were varied in both energy content and ED between a standard level (100%) and a reduced level (64%). Results showed that in men, decreases in the energy content and ED of pre-portioned entrées acted independently and added together to reduce daily energy intake (both P<0.01). Simultaneously decreasing the energy content and ED reduced total energy intake in men by 16% (445±47 kcal/d; P <0.0001). In women, the entrée factors also had independent effects on energy intake at breakfast and lunch, but at dinner and for the entire day the effects depended on the interaction of the two factors (P <0.01). Simultaneously decreasing the energy content and ED reduced daily energy intake in women by 14% (289±35 kcal/d; P<0.0001). Both the energy content and ED of pre-portioned entrées affect daily energy intake and could influence the effectiveness of such foods for weight management.

Blatt, Alexandria D.; Williams, Rachel A.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

2012-01-01

356

Dynamics of body protein deposition and changes in body composition after sudden changes in amino acid intake: I. Barrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the extent and dynamics of whole body protein deposition and changes in chemical and physical body composi- tion after a period of AA intake restriction in growing barrows with medium lean tissue growth potentials. Forty Yorkshire barrows (initial BW 14.4 ± 1.6 kg) were scale-fed at 75% of estimated voluntary daily DE intake up

H. R. Martinez-Ramirez; E. A. Jeaurond; C. F. M. de Lange

2008-01-01

357

No effect of 16 weeks flavor enhancement on dietary intake and nutritional status of nursing home elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of data to support the long-term effect of flavor enhancement on food intake and nutritional status. Our aim was to determine if daily addition of 700mg flavor and\\/or 300mg monosodium glutamate (MSG) to the animal protein part of the cooked meal for 16 weeks leads to an increase in energy intake and in body weight in

Natasja H. Essed; Wija A. van Staveren; Frans J. Kok; Cees de Graaf

2007-01-01

358

Intake of vitamin D by Finnish children aged 3 months to 3 years in relation to sociodemographic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To study the total daily intake of vitamin D from food and supplements among Finnish children aged 3 months to 3 years, the dietary sources of vitamin D and the association between vitamin D intake and sociodemographic factors.Subjects and methods:The subjects are participants in the Finnish Type I Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Nutrition Study born between October 1997 and October

M Räsänen; C Kronberg-Kippilä; S Ahonen; L Uusitalo; S Kautiainen; M Erkkola; R Veijola; M Knip; M Kaila; S M Virtanen

2006-01-01

359

Biomonitoring Equivalents for DDT\\/DDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration or range of concentrations of a chemical or its metabolite in a biological medium (blood, urine, or other medium) that is consistent with an existing health-based exposure guideline such as a reference dose (RfD) or tolerable daily intake (TDI). BE values can be used as a screening tool for the evaluation of

Christopher R. Kirman; Lesa L. Aylward; Sean M. Hays; Kannan Krishnan; Andy Nong

2011-01-01

360

Biomonitoring Equivalents for di-isononyl phthalate (DINP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration or range of concentrations of a chemical or its metabolite in a biological medium (blood, urine, or other medium) that is consistent with an existing health-based exposure guideline such as a reference dose (RfD) or tolerable daily intake (TDI). BE values can be used as a screening tool for the evaluation of

Sean M. Hays; Lesa L. Aylward; Christopher R. Kirman; Kannan Krishnan; Andy Nong

2011-01-01

361

Biomonitoring Equivalents for 2,2?,4,4?,5-pentabromodiphenylether (PBDE-99)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration or range of concentrations of a chemical or its metabolite in a biological medium (blood, urine, or other medium) that is consistent with an existing health-based exposure guideline such as a reference dose (RfD) or tolerable daily intake (TDI). BE values can be used as a screening tool for the evaluation of

Kannan Krishnan; Therese Adamou; Lesa L. Aylward; Sean M. Hays; Christopher R. Kirman; Andy Nong

2011-01-01

362

Dihydro-vitamin K1: primary food sources and estimated dietary intakes in the American diet.  

PubMed

Dihydro-vitamin K1 was recently identified as a dietary form of vitamin K produced during the hydrogenation of vitamin K1-rich vegetable oils. Dihydro-vitamin K1 is absorbed, with measurable levels in human plasma following dietary intake. To determine the primary food sources of dihydro-vitamin K1 in the American diet, 261 foods from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Total Diet Study (TDS) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Of these foods, 36 contained dihydro-vitamin K1. Fast-food items that were otherwise poor sources of vitamin K1, such as french fries and fried chicken, contained appreciable amounts of dihydro-vitamin K1 (36 and 18 micrograms/100 g, respectively). These nutrient values were then applied to the FDA TDS consumption model to determine average dietary intake of dihydro-vitamin K1 in 14 age-gender groups. With the exception of infants, all age-gender groups had estimated mean daily dihydro-vitamin K1 intakes of 12-24 micrograms, compared to mean daily vitamin K1 intakes of 24-86 micrograms. The vitamin K1 and dihydro-vitamin K1 intakes were summed, and the dietary contribution of dihydro-vitamin K1 was expressed as a percentage of total vitamin K intake. Children reported the highest intakes of dihydro-vitamin K1 (30% of total vitamin K intake), followed by a progressive decrease in percentage contribution with age. There are currently no data on the relative bioavailability of dihydro-vitamin K1 but given its abundance in the American diet, this hydrogenated form of vitamin K warrants further investigation. PMID:8827694

Booth, S L; Pennington, J A; Sadowski, J A

1996-07-01

363

Inadequate food intake among adults living with HIV.  

PubMed

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE The number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Brazil is between 600,000 and 890,000. Assessing the diet is important in planning healthcare actions and improving PLHIV's quality of life. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of inappropriate protein, total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, fiber, sodium, calcium and cholesterol intake among PVHIV on highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). DESIGN AND SETTING Cross-sectional study in nine Specialized STD/AIDS Healthcare Centers in São Paulo. METHODS Men and women aged 20 to 59 years, on HAART for at least three months, were included. Nutrient intake was assessed using 24-hour food recall applied in person and repeated among 30% of the population by telephone. The between and within-person variances were corrected. RESULTS 507 individuals were evaluated: 58% male, mean age 41.7 years (standard deviation, SD = 7.8). The mean time since HIV diagnosis was 6.6 years (SD = 4.1), and since HAART onset, 5.1 years (SD = 3.3). More than 20% of the population presented intake above the recommendations for saturated fat, cholesterol and/or sodium, and below the recommendations for fiber. The recommended maximum tolerable sodium level was exceeded by 99% of the sample, and 86% of men and 94% of women did not reach the daily recommendations for calcium. Protein, carbohydrate and total fat intakes were adequate for the majority of the population. CONCLUSIONS A significant portion of the population presented inappropriate intake of saturated fat, sodium, fiber and calcium. Interventions aimed at improving PLHIV's dietary quality are needed. PMID:23903262

Giudici, Kelly Virecoulon; Duran, Ana Clara Fonseca Leitao; Jaime, Patricia Constante

2013-01-01

364

Carbohydrate Intake and Overweight and Obesity among Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the dietary habits of people with optimal body weight in communities with high overweight and obesity prevalence. Objective To evaluate carbohydrate intake in relation to overweight and obesity in healthy, free-living adults. Design We used a cross-sectional analysis. Subjects/setting The Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 is a cross-sectional survey of Canadians conducted in 2004–2005. There were 4,451 participants aged 18 years and older with anthropometric and dietary data and no comorbid conditions in this analysis. Main outcome measures Outcome variables were body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m2) and overweight or obesity status (dichotomous) defined as BMI ?25 compared with BMI <25 based on measured height and weight. Diet was evaluated by 24-hour dietary recall based on the Automated Multi-Pass Method. Statistical analyses performed Weighted regression models with bootstrapping and cubic splines were used. Outcome variables were BMI and overweight or obesity, and predictors were daily nutrient intake. Adjustment for total energy intake, age, leisure time energy expenditure, sex, smoking, education, and income adequacy was performed. Results Risk of overweight and obesity was decreased in all quartiles of carbohydrate intake compared to the lowest intake category (multivariate odds ratio quartile 2=0.63; 95% confidence interval: 0.49 to 0.90; odds ratio quartile 3=0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.41 to 0.82; odds ratio quartile 4=0.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.42 to 0.85). Spline analyses revealed lowest risk among those consuming 290 to 310 g/day carbohydrates. Conclusions Consuming a low-carbohydrate (approximately <47% energy) diet is associated with greater likelihood of being overweight or obese among healthy, free-living adults. Lowest risk may be obtained by consuming 47% to 64% energy from carbohydrates.

MERCHANT, ANWAR T.; VATANPARAST, HASSANALI; BARLAS, SHAHZAIB; DEHGHAN, MAHSHID; SHAH, SYED MAHBOOB ALI; DE KONING, LAWRENCE; STECK, SUSAN E.

2011-01-01

365

Food Intakes by Preschool Children in Flanders Compared with Dietary Guidelines  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare food group intakes among preschool children with food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) and to determine the proportion of children meeting these guidelines. Food consumption of preschool children (2.5–6.5 years) living in Flanders (Belgium) were assessed in a cross-sectional study, using proxy reported 3d estimated dietary records (EDR) (n 696). Statistical modelling was used to account for within-individual variation in the 3d EDR. Mean daily intakes of most food groups (beverages, vegetables, fruit and milk) were below the minimum recommendations. Only ‘grains and potatoes’ and ‘meat products’ were in line with the recommendations and ‘bread and cereals’ showed borderline intakes. Mean intakes of energy-dense and low-nutritious foods, which are discouraged within a healthy diet (like snacks and sugared drinks), were high. Furthermore, the percentage of children complying with the different food-based dietary guidelines was for most food groups extremely low (ranging from approximately 4% for fluid and vegetable intakes up to 99% for potato intakes). Boys had in general higher mean intakes of the recommended food groups. In conclusion, preschool children in Flanders follow eating patterns that do not meet Flemish FBDG. Although the impact of these eating habits on preschooler’s current and future health should be further investigated, it is clear that nutrition education and intervention are needed among preschool children and their parents in Flanders.

Huybrechts, Inge; Matthys, Christophe; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Temme, Elisabeth HM; Van Oyen, Herman; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan

2008-01-01

366

Magnesium intake mediates the association between bone mineral density and lean soft tissue in elite swimmers.  

PubMed

Magnesium (Mg) deficiency has been associated with bone disorders. Physical activity is also crucial for bone mineralization. Bone mass loss has been observed to be accelerated in subjects with low Mg intake. We aim to understand if Mg intake mediates the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and lean soft tissue (LST) in elite swimmers. Seventeen elite swimmers (eight males; nine females) were evaluated. Bone mineral content, BMD, LST, and fat mass were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Energy and nutrient intake were assessed during a seven-day period and analyzed with Food Processor SQL. Males presented lower values than the normative data for BMD. Mg, phosphorus (P) and vitamin D intake were significantly lower than the recommended daily allowance. A linear regression model demonstrated a significant association between LST and BMD. When Mg intake was included, we observed that this was a significant, independent predictor of BMD, with a significant increase of 24% in the R(2) of the initial predictive model. When adjusted for energy, vitamin D, calcium, and P intake, Mg remained a significant predictor of BMD. In conclusion, young athletes engaged in low impact sports, should pay special attention to Mg intake, given its potential role in bone mineral mass acquisition during growth. PMID:23015157

Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Monteiro, Cristina P; Vasco, Ana M; Baptista, Fátima; Sardinha, Luís B; Laires, Maria J; Silva, Analiza M

367

The use of a commercial vegetable juice as a practical means to increase vegetable intake: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Recommendations for daily dietary vegetable intake were increased in the 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines as consumption of a diet rich in vegetables has been associated with lower risk of certain chronic health disorders including cardiovascular disease. However, vegetable consumption in the United States has declined over the past decade; consequently, the gap between dietary recommendations and vegetable intake is widening. The primary aim of this study is to determine if drinking vegetable juice is a practical way to help meet daily dietary recommendations for vegetable intake consistent with the 2005 Dietary Guidelines and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. The secondary aim is to assess the effect of a vegetable juice on measures of cardiovascular health. Methods We conducted a 12-week, randomized, controlled, parallel-arm study consisting of 3 groups of free-living, healthy volunteers who participated in study visits at the Ragle Human Nutrition Research Center at the University of California, Davis. All subjects received education on the DASH diet and 0, 8 or 16 fluid ounces of vegetable juice daily. Assessments were completed of daily vegetable servings before and after incorporation of vegetable juice and cardiovascular health parameters including blood pressure. Results Without the juice, vegetable intake in all groups was lower than the 2005 Dietary Guidelines and DASH diet recommendations. The consumption of the vegetable juice helped participants reach recommended intake. In general, parameters associated with cardiovascular health did not change over time. However, in the vegetable juice intervention groups, subjects who were pre-hypertensive at the start of the study showed a significant decrease in blood pressure during the 12-week intervention period. Conclusion Including 1-2 cups of vegetable juice daily was an effective and acceptable way for healthy adults to close the dietary vegetable gap. Increase in daily vegetable intake was associated with a reduction in blood pressure in subjects who were pre-hypertensive at the start of the trial. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01161706

2010-01-01

368

Effects of climate on oxygen consumption and energy intake of chromosomally divergent populations of the House Mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) from the island of Madeira (North Atlantic, Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. We explored the effects of climatic variables (mean altitude, mean daily winter tempera- ture, mean daily summer temperature, mean annual precipitation and days of precipitation per year) on energetic parameters (food intake and resting oxygen consumption) in six Robertsonian chromosomal races and hybrid populations of House Mice ( Mus musculus domesticus ) collected throughout the island of Madeira

M. L. MATHIAS; A. C. NUNES; C. C. MARQUES; J.-C. AUFFRAY; J. BRITTON-DAVIDIAN; G. GANEM; I. GUNDUZ; M. G. RAMALHINHO; J. B. SEARLE; J. R. SPEAKMAN

2006-01-01

369

Estimated fluoride intake of 6-month-old infants in four dietary regions of the United States.  

PubMed

Eleven composite food groups comprising the infant "market basket" food collections for 1977 or 1978 from each of four dietary regions of the United States were analyzed for their fluoride content. Based upon the determined fluoride content of each composite and Food and Drug Administration estimates of food consumption the daily fluoride intake of an average 6-month-old infant residing in each of the dietary regions was calculated. The daily fluoride intake varied from 0.207 mg/day in Grand Rapids, Mich. (north central dietary region) to 0.541 mg/day in Orlando, Fla. (south dietary region). Flouride intakes of 0.272 and 0.354 mg/day were calculated for Philadelphia, Pa. (northeast dietary region) and Los Angeles, Calif. (west dietary region), respectively. The fluoride content of the water supplies ranged from 0.37 ppm (Los Angeles) to 1.04 ppm (Grand Rapids). Drinking water, dairy products and substitutes (other than milk), and grain and cereal products contributed 44 to 80% of the daily fluoride intake. In three of the four dietary regions the daily fluoride intake was less than the optimum level of 0.05 mg/kg body weight. PMID:7355802

Ophaug, R H; Singer, L; Harland, B F

1980-02-01

370

Protein Intake: Effect of Timing  

Microsoft Academic Search

summary Differences in protein requirements for athletes and nonathletes, and different types of athletes (i.e., en- durance vs. strength\\/power) are well acknowledged. This has led many athletes to use protein supplements as a means of achieving required protein intakes. Recent research has begun to examine the importance of protein timing. Specifically, does it make a difference when the pro- tein

Jay R. Hoffman

2007-01-01

371

Amylin, Food Intake, and Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylin, also known as islet amyloid polypeptide, identified in 1987, is a naturally occurring hormone, released by the ? cells of the pancreas and consists of 37 amino acids. Amylin seems to decrease food intake through both central and peripheral mechanisms and indirectly by slowing gastric emptying. The mean basal amylin concentration is higher in obese than in lean human

Tarek K. Reda; Allan Geliebter; F. Xavier Pi-Sunyer

2002-01-01

372

Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

Amschler, Denise H.

1985-01-01

373

Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focus groups comprised of WIC participants were held to identify perceived barriers to fruit and vegetable (F\\/V) consumption, helpful practices for increasing F\\/V intake, and preferred educational methods. The University Human Subjects Approval Committee approved study procedures. Two focus groups were conducted in metropolitan areas and two were held in rural areas of the state. Each focus group included five

H. C. Reid

1999-01-01

374

Nutrient intake, adiposity, and diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the role of nutritional factors in the genesis of diabetes, estimations of blood sugar concentration, food intake, and adiposity (as body mass index; BMI) were carried out on three normal population samples--namely, 961 employees of Beecham Ltd, 1005 employees of the Greater London Council, and 1488 middle-aged male civil servants (Whitehall study). Blood sugar concentrations and indices of

H Keen; B J Thomas; R J Jarrett; J H Fuller

1979-01-01

375

Protein intake and bone health.  

PubMed

Adequate nutrition plays an important role in the development and maintenance of bone structures resistant to usual mechanical stresses. In addition to calcium in the presence of an adequate supply of vitamin D, dietary proteins represent key nutrients for bone health and thereby function in the prevention of osteoporosis. Several studies point to a positive effect of high protein intake on bone mineral density or content. This fact is associated with a significant reduction in hip fracture incidence, as recorded in a large prospective study carried out in a homogeneous cohort of postmenopausal women. Low protein intake (< 0.8 g/kg body weight/day) is often observed in patients with hip fractures and an intervention study indicates that following orthopedic management, protein supplementation attenuates post-fracture bone loss, tends to increase muscle strength, and reduces medical complications and rehabilitation hospital stay. There is no evidence that high protein intake per se would be detrimental for bone mass and strength. Nevertheless, it appears reasonable to avoid very high protein diets (i. e. more than 2.0 g/kg body weight/day) when associated with low calcium intake (i. e. less than 600 mg/day). In the elderly, taking into account the attenuated anabolic response to dietary protein with ageing, there is concern that the current dietary protein recommended allowance (RDA), as set at 0.8 g/kg body weight/day, might be too low for the primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. PMID:22139564

Bonjour, Jean-Philippe

2011-03-01

376

Effects of High Protein Intakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among other nutrients of breast milk, the amino acid pattern is considered normative throughout infancy. Exclusive breastfeeding by a healthy mother should be the standard from birth to 6 months. During the breastfeeding period the protein intake is low in the human being compared too many other animals. The protein content in breast milk is about 1 g\\/100 ml and

I. Axelsson

2006-01-01

377

Visual stimuli in daily life.  

PubMed

People of all ages, but especially children and adolescents, are increasingly exposed to visual stimuli. Typical environmental stimuli that can trigger epileptic seizures in susceptible persons are televisions (TVs), computers, videogames (VGs), discothèque lights, venetian blinds, striped walls, rolling stairs (escalators), striped clothing, and sunlight reflected from snow or the sea or interrupted by trees during a ride in a car or train. Less common stimuli are rotating helicopter blades, disfunctioning fluorescent lighting, welding lights, etc. New potentially provocative devices turn up now and then unexpectedly. During the last decades especially, displays have become increasingly dominant in many of our daily-life activities. We therefore focus mainly on the characteristics of artificial light and on current and future developments in video displays and videogames. Because VG playing has been shown also to have positive effects, a rating system might be developed for provocativeness to inform consumers about the content. It is important that patients with epilepsy be informed adequately about their possible visual sensitivity. PMID:14706037

Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée G A; van der Beld, Gerrit; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Groen, Paul

2004-01-01

378

Intake of phthalates and di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate: results of the Integrated Exposure Assessment Survey based on duplicate diet samples and biomonitoring data.  

PubMed

Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental chemicals with potential detrimental health effects. The purpose of our study was to quantify dietary intake of phthalates and of DEHA (Di-ethylhexyl adipate) using duplicate diet samples and to compare these data with the calculated data based on urinary levels of primary and secondary phthalate metabolites. 27 female and 23 male healthy subjects aged 14-60 years collected daily duplicate diet samples over 7 consecutive days. Overall, 11 phthalates were measured in the duplicates by GC/MS and LC/MS methods. Urinary levels of primary and secondary phthalate metabolites are also available. The median (95th percentile) daily intake via food was 2.4 (4.0) microg/kg b.w. (Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, DEHP), 0.3 (1.4) microg/kg b.w. (Di-n-butyl phthalate, DnBP), 0.6 (2.1) microg/kg b.w. (Di-isobutyl phthalate, DiBP) and 0.7 (2.2) microg/kg b.w. for DEHA. MEPH (Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) was detectable only in minor concentrations in the samples, thus conversion of DEHP to MEHP and dietary intake of MEHP were negligible. When comparing back-calculated intake data of the DEHP metabolites with dietary DEHP intake from the day before significant correlations were observed for most of the metabolites. No correlation was found for DnBP and only a weak but significant correlation for DiBP. The median and 95th percentile daily dietary intake of all target analytes did not exceed the recommended tolerable daily intake. Our data indicated that food was the predominant intake source of DEHP, whilst other sources considerably contributed to the daily intake of DnBP and DiBP in an adult population. PMID:17610953

Fromme, Hermann; Gruber, Ludwig; Schlummer, Martin; Wolz, Gerd; Böhmer, Sigrun; Angerer, Jürgen; Mayer, Richard; Liebl, Bernhard; Bolte, Gabriele

2007-07-03

379

Cokriging estimation of daily suspended sediment loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with daily river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated daily loads were compared with the daily measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated daily sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured daily values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating daily sediment loads with CK when daily discharge data is available. The estimated daily loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the daily S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge.

Li, Zhongwei; Zhang, You-Kuan; Schilling, Keith; Skopec, Mary

2006-08-01

380

Cokriging estimation of daily suspended sediment loads  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with daily river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated daily loads were compared with the daily measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated daily sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured daily values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating daily sediment loads with CK when daily discharge data is available. The estimated daily loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the daily S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Li, Z.; Zhang, Y. -K.; Schilling, K.; Skopec, M.

2006-01-01

381

Intake of chemical contaminants through fish and seafood consumption by children of Catalonia, Spain: health risks.  

PubMed

The intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated diphenylethers (PCDEs), hexachlorobenzene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons through fish and seafood consumption by children of Catalonia, Spain, was assessed. In 2005, samples of the 14 most consumed marine species in Catalonia were randomly acquired in various cities of the country. Analysis of the above chemical contaminants were determined according to the appropriate analytical techniques and the daily intakes were estimated. For most pollutants, intake was higher in boys than in girls. Average exposure of children to contaminants through fish and seafood consumption did not exceed the respective tolerable daily intake of those pollutants for which it has been already established (metals, PCDD/Fs plus dioxin-like PCBs, HCB, and PAHs). In relation to body weight, intake by children of most contaminants was higher than that found for other age groups of the general population of Catalonia. PMID:17559998

Martí-Cid, Roser; Bocio, Ana; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L

2007-05-03

382

[Food intake during the month of Ramadan in Moroccan patients with type 2 diabetes].  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the daily dietary intake of type 2 diabetes patients attending Mohamed VI hospital in Marrakech during Ramadan 2010. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected by interview, and qualitative and quantitative food intake, based on French nutritional tables, was assessed by a dietician. Of the 71 patients recruited, 55% were fasting. The average age of participants was 56.3 (SD 11,2) years. There were no statistically significant clinical differences between the fasting and nonfasting groups except for overweight/obesity and insulin dependence, which were more prevalent in the nonfasting group. The mean total daily caloric intake was significantly lower in the fasting than nonfasting group [1447.5 (SD 756.3) versus 1919.0 (SD 823.4) Kcal/d], as was the carbohydrate, lipid and protein intake. Carbohydrate intake was 57% and 56% of total calories. Overall during Ramadan the diet of the fasting group was calorie deficient and inadequate while for non-fasters it was excessive, which put them at risk of complications. Nutritional education may be needed for diabetic patients for Ramadan. PMID:23879080

Sebbani, M; El Ansari, N; El Mghari, G; Amine, M

2013-03-01

383

A new method for measuring meal intake in humans via automated wrist motion tracking.  

PubMed

Measuring the energy intake (kcal) of a person in day-to-day life is difficult. The best laboratory tool achieves 95 % accuracy on average, while tools used in daily living typically achieve 60-80 % accuracy. This paper describes a new method for measuring intake via automated tracking of wrist motion. Our method uses a watch-like device with a micro-electro-mechanical gyroscope to detect and record when an individual has taken a bite of food. Two tests of the accuracy of our device in counting bites found that our method has 94 % sensitivity in a controlled meal setting and 86 % sensitivity in an uncontrolled meal setting, with one false positive per every 5 bites in both settings. Preliminary data from daily living indicates that bites measured by the device are positively related to caloric intake illustrating the potential of the device to monitor energy intake. Future research should seek to further explore the relationship between bites taken and kilocalories consumed to validate the device as an automated measure of energy intake. PMID:22488204

Dong, Yujie; Hoover, Adam; Scisco, Jenna; Muth, Eric

2012-04-10

384

Nutrition practices and children's dietary intakes at 40 child-care centers in New York City.  

PubMed

Early childhood is a critical time to establish nutrition habits to prevent obesity. At least half of US children spend time in care outside of the home, where little is known about their dietary intakes and nutrition environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate nutrition practices of group child-care centers in New York City and to assess whether dietary intakes of children at these centers meet nutrition recommendations. In 2005 and 2006, student research assistants administered surveys to directors of 40 child-care centers in three underserved communities (Central Brooklyn, East/Central Harlem, South Bronx) and in Manhattan, gathered menus, and observed beverages and foods consumed by 240 3- and 4-year-old children. Almost all centers provided beverages and foods recommended by national guidelines, including reduced-fat milk, 100% fruit juice, and whole grains. Some centers also provided higher-fat milk and sugar-sweetened beverages, but no centers provided soda. Drinking water was available in classrooms at only half of the centers. From observations at meal and snack times between 8 AM to 2 PM, <50% of children ate at least half of the daily recommended intake for each of five main food groups, with only 17% of children eating at least half of the daily recommended intake for vegetables and only 5% of children eating at least half of the daily recommended intake for vitamin E. Although many centers provided healthful beverages and foods to children, further efforts are needed to make water available as a beverage throughout the day and to improve dietary intakes, especially of vegetables and vitamin E-containing foods. PMID:21872704

Erinosho, Temitope; Dixon, L Beth; Young, Candace; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Hayman, Laura L

2011-09-01

385

Milk intake of suckling kittens remains relatively constant from one to four weeks of age.  

PubMed

The daily milk intake of 14 domestic short-haired kittens (Felis catus) from five litters was estimated during wk 1-4 postpartum using the isotope dilution technique. Kittens received a single intraperitoneal injection of tritiated water, and blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein for radioactivity measurements at 2 and 96 h after injection. One kitten in each litter was used as a control to allow calculation of recycling of tritiated water. The mean (+/- SEM) biological half-life of tritiated water in the kittens increased from 2.4 +/- 0.1 d in wk 1 to 4.9 +/- 0.2 d in wk 4 postpartum. Recycling of tritiated water accounted for (mean +/- SEM) 5.9 +/- 0.8, 12.0 +/- 0.5, 7.7 +/- 1.3 and 10.0 +/- 1.3% of the kittens' daily water intake during postnatal wk 1-4, respectively. Daily milk intake of the kittens during wk 1-4 postpartum was 47.3 +/- 0.8, 47.4 +/- 1.5, 48.7 +/- 1.6 and 43.7 +/- 2.0 g, respectively. There was no effect of gender on milk intake. The daily metabolizable energy requirement of suckling kittens, estimated by multiple regression analysis, was 356 kJ/kg(0.75), whereas the metabolizable energy required per gram of gain was estimated to be 7. 8 kJ/d. The milk intake of suckling kittens remained relatively constant throughout the first 4 wk of lactation, and during this period, they seemed to have a lower energy requirement for maintenance. PMID:10613770

Hendriks, W H; Wamberg, S

2000-01-01

386

The economics of daily consumption controlling food- and water-reinforced responding1  

PubMed Central

In the first experiment, two rhesus monkeys earned their entire ration of food and water during daily sessions with no provisions to ensure constant daily intakes. Two variable-interval schedules of food presentations were concurrent with one variable-interval schedule of water presentations; the maximum rate of food presentations arranged by one food schedule was varied. As the rate of food presentations was increased, the absolute level of responding on the two food schedules combined decreased, while responding on the water schedule increased. The preference for the variable food schedule compared to the other food schedule approximately matched the proportion of reinforcers obtained from it. The preference for the variable food schedule compared to the water schedule did not match, but greatly decreased, as the proportion of reinforcers from the food schedule increased. When Experiment I was replicated, with provisions to ensure constant daily intakes of food and water (Experiment II), the absolute response rates under the two food schedules combined and under the water schedule no longer changed with increases in the rate of food during the sessions. On the other hand, choice between the two food schedules remained proportional to the distribution of obtained food pellets. These results were interpreted as indicating that behavior to obtain nonsubstitutable commodities, such as food and water, is strongly controlled by the economic conditions of daily consumption, while choice between substitutable commodities is independent of these factors.

Hursh, Steven R.

1978-01-01

387

Control of Food Intake in the Obese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food intake (eating) is a form of behavior that is subject to conscious control. In practice, many obese and weight-gaining individuals claim that their eating is out of (their) control. Mechanistic models describe the interplay of biological and environmental forces that control food intake. However, because human food intake is characterized by individuals intervening to adjust their own patterns of

John E. Blundell; Angela Gillett

2001-01-01

388

Dietary Fat Intake – A Global Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: The objective of this review was to collect data on the dietary intake of total fat and saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially linoleic (LA), ?-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids, in adults from various countries and to compare them with current recommendations for fat intake. Methods: Weighted mean intake data were collected from

I. Elmadfa; M. Kornsteiner

2009-01-01

389

Current Electrolyte Intakes of Infants and  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine how sodium, chloride, and potas- sium intakes of today's infants and toddlers compare with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) of these nutrients established recently by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Study design Population estimates of usual intake distri- butions of sodium, chloride (assumed to be equamolar to sodium), and potassium of 4-

Toddlers WILLIAM C. HEIRD; PAULA ZIEGLER; KATHLEEN REIDY; RONETTE BRIEFEL

390

Chronic intake of fermented floral nectar by wild treeshrews  

PubMed Central

For humans alcohol consumption often has devastating consequences. Wild mammals may also be behaviorally and physiologically challenged by alcohol in their food. Here, we provide a detailed account of chronic alcohol intake by mammals as part of a coevolved relationship with a plant. We discovered that seven mammalian species in a West Malaysian rainforest consume alcoholic nectar daily from flower buds of the bertam palm (Eugeissona tristis), which they pollinate. The 3.8% maximum alcohol concentration (mean: 0.6%; median: 0.5%) that we recorded is among the highest ever reported in a natural food. Nectar high in alcohol is facilitated by specialized flower buds that harbor a fermenting yeast community, including several species new to science. Pentailed treeshrews (Ptilocercus lowii) frequently consume alcohol doses from the inflorescences that would intoxicate humans. Yet, the flower-visiting mammals showed no signs of intoxication. Analysis of an alcohol metabolite (ethyl glucuronide) in their hair yielded concentrations higher than those in humans with similarly high alcohol intake. The pentailed treeshrew is considered a living model for extinct mammals representing the stock from which all extinct and living treeshrews and primates radiated. Therefore, we hypothesize that moderate to high alcohol intake was present early on in the evolution of these closely related lineages. It is yet unclear to what extent treeshrews benefit from ingested alcohol per se and how they mitigate the risk of continuous high blood alcohol concentrations.

Wiens, Frank; Zitzmann, Annette; Lachance, Marc-Andre; Yegles, Michel; Pragst, Fritz; Wurst, Friedrich M.; von Holst, Dietrich; Guan, Saw Leng; Spanagel, Rainer

2008-01-01

391

Impact of nutrition education on food and nutrient intake of pregnant women.  

PubMed

Researchers compared data on 33 pregnant women attending nutrition education classes regularly over a 13-week period (nutrition education group) with data on 33 other pregnant women who did not receive such education (controls) to examine the impact of nutrition education on the pregnant women's food and nutrient intake. The 66 pregnant women were selected from two hospitals and two urban family welfare centers in Ludhiana city, India. All were from the low socioeconomic group (i.e., per capita income of Rs. 369/month). A dietary survey was conducted at 20 weeks gestation and again at 36 weeks gestation. At 20 weeks, the two groups were not statistically different. The intake of cereals, pulses, green leafy vegetables, fats and oils, and sugar and jagger were lower than the recommended daily intake (RDI). On the other hand, intake was more than RDI for milk and milk products, other vegetables, and roots and tubers. Except thiamine and ascorbic acid, intake of nutrients was inadequate. In both the nutrition education group and the control group, nutrient intake was higher at 36 weeks than at 20 weeks due to the increased food requirements of pregnancy. Women in the nutrition education group were more likely than the control group to consume more protein, vitamin A, thiamine, folic acid, and vitamin C. This likely reflects a higher consumption of pulses, milk and milk products, fruits, and vegetables as well as adopting favorable nutritional practices (e.g., use of sprouted grains). Nevertheless, intake was below RDIs for many nutrients, even for women in the nutrition education group. These findings suggest that nutrition education for pregnant women does improve nutrient intake but also that more needs to be done to bring intake levels up even higher. PMID:12320377

Paramjit; Chawla, K; Puri, R

392

Pilot Study to Assess Isoflavone Intake in Middle-Aged Italian Subjects  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of isoflavone (IF) intake in Western populations is scarce, primarily because data about the content of these compounds in non-soy derived foods are incomplete or unavailable. The aims of this study were 1) to enrich the data available in literature about the IF content in traditional Italian foods, 2) to estimate daidzein (D) and genistein (G) intake in an Italian population sample. Eighteen Italian foods have been selected and analysed for IF content by GC-MS; the assessment of IF intake was performed in sixty healthy middle-aged Italian subjects after investigation of their dietary habits by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The mean IF intake was 171 ± 261 ?g/die (26-1415 ?g/die). The mean G intake was greater than D (98 ± 131 ?g/die vs 76 ± 131 ?g/die). As expected, soy products, even though poorly consumed (27%), resulted the main contributor to IF intake (IF intake was 473.4 ± 440 ?g/die vs 75 ± 38 ?g/die in soy consumers and non soy consumers respectively p<0.001). Among Mediterranean foods, the main contributor resulted fresh bread that is widely consumed (97%). The percentage contribution of the cereal group to mean IF intake was 91%; the legume, fruit and vegetables groups brought a low contribution (3%, 2% and 4% respectively). The total daily IF intake found was low and probably not sufficient to produce biological effects. However more studies are necessary to investigate whether low exposure to IF for a long time could have positive effects on human health.

Bertoli, Simona; Spadafranca, Angela; Ravelli, Laura; Foti, Paola; Erba, Daniela; Testolin, Giulio; Battezzati, Alberto

2008-01-01

393

Dietary fibers reduce food intake by satiation without conditioned taste aversion in mice.  

PubMed

It is well known that intake of dietary fiber (DF) potently decreases food intake and feelings of hunger and/or promotes satiety ratings. However, the mechanisms explaining these effects are not well characterized. This work was performed to determine which of satiation and/or satiety mechanisms provoke the decrease of food intake induced by DF in mice. We tested in an intra-group protocol a low-viscosity (LV, fructo-oligosaccharide), a viscous (VP, guar gum) and a high-viscosity (HV, mixture of guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharide) preload. These were given to mice by intra-gastric gavage. It appeared that viscous preloads such as VP and HV reduced the daily energy intake by 14% and 21% respectively. The strong effect of HV was mainly due to a large decrease of meal size (by 57%) and meal duration (by 65%) with no effect on ingestion rate during the first 30 min after administration. Therefore, the DF-induced decrease of energy intake was due to a satiation mechanism. This is further supported by a 3-fold increased sensitization of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract as observed by c-Fos protein immunolabelling. No compensation of food intake was observed during the rest of the day, a phenomenon that may be explained by the fact that metabolic rate remained high despite the lower food intake. We have also shown that the DF-induced inhibition of food intake was not paired with a conditioned taste aversion. To conclude, this work demonstrates that DF inhibits food intake by increasing satiation during ~1h after administration. PMID:23268328

Rasoamanana, Rojo; Even, Patrick C; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

2012-12-23

394

IMPACT OF WHEEL RUNNING ON CHRONIC ETHANOL INTAKE IN AGED SYRIAN HAMSTERS  

PubMed Central

Introduction Alcohol dependence in aging populations is seen as a public health concern, most recently because of the significant proportion of heavy drinking among “Baby Boomers.” Basic animal research on the effects of aging on physiological and behavioral regulation of ethanol (EtOH) intake is sparse, since most of this research is limited to younger models of alcoholism. Here, EtOH drinking and preference were measured in groups of aged Syrian hamsters. Further, because voluntary exercise (wheel-running) is a rewarding substitute for EtOH in young adult hamsters, the potential for such reward substitution was also assessed. Methods Aged (24 month-old) male hamsters were subjected to a three-stage regimen of free-choice EtOH (20% v/v) or water and unlocked or locked running wheels to investigate the modulatory effects of voluntary wheel running on EtOH intake and preference. Levels of fluid intake and activity were recorded daily across 60 days of experimentation. Results Prior to wheel running, levels of EtOH intake were significantly less than levels of water intake, resulting in a low preference for EtOH (30%). Hamsters with access to an unlocked running wheel had decreased EtOH intake and preference compared with hamsters with access to a locked running wheel. These group differences in EtOH intake and preference were sustained for up to 10 days after running wheels were re-locked. Discussion These results extend upon those of our previous work in young adult hamsters, indicating that aging dampens EtOH intake and preference. Voluntary wheel running further limited EtOH intake, suggesting that exercise could offer a practical approach for managing late-life alcoholism.

Brager, Allison J.; Hammer, Steven B.

2012-01-01

395

Effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance, nutrient intake, and digestibility in hair-breed sheep.  

PubMed

Twelve Dorper × Pelibuey wether lambs (26.8 ± 1.6 kg initial BW, 5 mo of age) were used to evaluate effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance, and effects of ZH and ZH supplementation period (15 and 30 d) on nutrient intake and digestibility. Lambs were blocked by initial BW, and assigned randomly within BW blocks to 1 of 2 treatments: i) control (no ZH), and ii) supplemented with ZH (10 mg ZH/wether lamb daily). Measurements of intake and digestibility were performed on d 9 to 15 and 24 to 30. Feedlot performance data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design, and nutrient intake and digestibility data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Final BW, ADG, total BW gain, and G:F were greater (P ? 0.04) for ZH than for control lambs. No treatment × feeding duration interaction for nutrient intake and apparent total tract digestibility were observed (P > 0.05). Intake of DM, OM, CP, and GE were less (P ? 0.03) for ZH than for control. Lambs fed for 30 d had greater (P ? 0.04) NDF and GE intake compared with those fed for 15 d. Total tract digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, and ADF (P ? 0.03) was less for ZH than control. Furthermore, calculated DE, ME, and TDN intake decreased (P < 0.01) with ZH supplementation. Also, DM, CP, and ether extract(EE) digestibility were greater (P < 0.01) for 30 d than for 15 d. Additionally, greater (P ? 0.01) DE, ME, and TDN intake was observed for 30 d compared with 15 d. In conclusion, ZH supplementation of wether lambs consuming feedlot diets resulted in improved feedlot performance and reduced the intake and digestibility of some nutrients. PMID:23345549

Macías-Cruz, U; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F D; Soto-Navarro, S A; Aguila-Tepato, E; Avendaño-Reyes, L

2013-01-23

396

Neighborhood Retail Food Environment and Fruit and Vegetable Intake in a Multiethnic Urban Population  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine relationships between the neighborhood food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in a multiethnic urban population. Design Analysis of cross-sectional survey and observational data. Setting 146 neighborhoods within three large geographic communities of Detroit, Michigan. Subjects Probability sample of 919 African-American, Latino, and White adults. Measures The dependent variable was mean daily fruit and vegetable servings measured using a modified Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. Independent variables included the neighborhood food environment: store availability (large grocery, specialty, convenience, liquor, small grocery), supermarket proximity (street-network distance to nearest chain grocer), and perceived and observed neighborhood fresh fruit and vegetable supply (availability, variety, quality, affordability). Analysis Weighted multilevel regression. Results Presence of a large grocery store in the neighborhood was associated with, on average, 0.69 more daily fruit and vegetable servings in the full sample. Relationships between the food environment and fruit and vegetable intake did not differ between Whites and African-Americans. However, Latinos compared with African-Americans with a large grocery store in their neighborhood consumed 2.20 more daily servings of fruits and vegetables. Presence of a convenience store in the neighborhood was associated with 1.84 fewer daily fruit and vegetable servings among Latinos than African-Americans. Conclusion The neighborhood food environment influences fruit and vegetable intake, and the size of this relationship may vary for different racial/ethnic subpopulations.

Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Kannan, Srimathi; Lachance, Laurie L.; Mentz, Graciela; Ridella, William

2012-01-01

397

Nutrient intake and plate waste from an Australian residential care facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine the plate waste, energy and selected-nutrient intake, from elderly residents living in a high-level care (HLC) and low-level care (LLC) facility.Design:Three, single, whole day assessments of plate waste, energy, and selected nutrients, using a visual rating plate waste scale.Setting:Long-term residential care establishment.Subjects:One hundred and sixty-nine (93 HLC and 76 LLC) individual daily intakes.Main findings:The mean energy wasted throughout

J A Grieger; C A Nowson

2007-01-01

398

Trends in energy intake among US children by eating location and food source, 1977-2006  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the impact of location of food consumption and preparation upon daily energy intake for children. Objective To examine trends in daily energy intake by children for foods eaten at home or away-from-home, by source of preparation, and for combined categories of eating location and food source. Subjects The analysis uses data from 29,217 children aged 2–18 years from the 1977–1978 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 1989–1991 and 1994–1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals, and 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Methods Nationally representative weighted percentages and means of daily energy intake by eating location were analyzed for trends from 1977 to 2006. Comparisons by food source were examined from 1994 to 2006. Analyses were repeated for 3 age groups: 2–6, 7–12, and 13–18 year olds. Difference testing was conducted using a t test. Results Increased energy intake (+179 kcal/d) by children from 1977–2006 was associated with a major increase in calories eaten away-from-home (+255 kcal/d). The percentage of kcal/d eaten away-from-home increased from 23.4% to 33.9% from 1977–2006. No further increase was observed from 1994–2006, but the sources of calories shifted. The percentage of calories from fast food increased to surpass intake from schools and become the largest contributor to foods prepared away-from-home for all age groups. For foods eaten away-from-home, the percentage of kcal/d from stores increased to become the largest source of calories eaten away-from-home. Fast food eaten at home and store-bought food eaten away-from-home increased significantly. Conclusion Eating location and food source significantly impact daily energy intake for children. Foods prepared away-from-home, including fast food eaten at home and store-prepared food eaten away-from-home, are fueling the increase in total calorie intake. However, further research using alternative data sources is necessary to verify that store-bought foods eaten away-from-home are increasingly store-prepared.

Poti, Jennifer M.; Popkin, Barry M.

2011-01-01

399

The effect of graded levels of exercise on energy intake and balance in free-living women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: We assessed the effect of graded increases in exercised-induced energy expenditure (EE) on appetite, daily energy intake (EI), total daily EE and body weight in six lean women using a within-subject, repeated measures design.Method: Subjects were each studied three times during 7 day treatments, corresponding to no-exercise (control; Nex; 0 MJ\\/day), medium exercise level (Mex; ?1.9 MJ\\/day) and high

RJ Stubbs; A Sepp; DA Hughes; AM Johnstone; N King; G Horgan; JE Blundell

2002-01-01

400

A STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORT ON INTAKE TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents an updated evaluation of mechanisms and intake designs for reducing the number of fish entrained and impinged at water intake facilities. These mechanisms consist of intake configurations, behavioral barriers for guiding fish past intake entrances, physical sc...

401

A pilot intervention to increase calcium intake in female collegiate athletes.  

PubMed

Calcium intake in adolescent and young adult female athletes often is inadequate to optimize peak bone mass, an important determinant of osteoporosis risk. The purpose of this study was to determine if calcium supplementation in eumenorrheic female collegiate athletes increases intake to recommended levels and promotes increases in bone mineral density (BMD). Forty-eight eumenorrheic female athletes from several college teams (15 soccer, 7 cross-country, 8 indoor track, and 18 basketball) were randomized at the beginning of a competitive season to receive either an oral calcium supplement (1000 mg calcium citrate/400 I.U. Vitamin D) or placebo daily throughout the training season (16 weeks). Self-reported daily pill intake was obtained every 2 weeks to assess adherence. Calcium intake was evaluated using the Rapid Assessment Method, and total body and leg BMD was measured at pre-, mid-, and postseason using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; Hologic QDR-2000). Pre-season calcium intake was lower than national recommendations for this age group (12), averaging 842 mg/d (SD = 719) and was lower in the placebo group compared to the supplemented group (649 +/- 268 vs. 1071 +/- 986 mg/d, respectively; p = .064). Adherence to supplementation was good, averaging 70% across the training season. Supplementation boosted total calcium intake to a mean of 1397 +/- 411 mg/d, which is consistent with recommended levels for this group (37). Supplementation did not influence BMD change during this 16-week intervention. Across teams, a small increase of 0.8% was observed in leg BMD. Change in total body BMD was modified by team, with a significant increase of 1.5% observed in basketball players. These results indicate that providing calcium supplements of 1000 mg/d is adequate to boost total intake to recommended levels during athletic training. Longer intervention trials are required to determine whether calcium supplementation has a positive effect on BMD. PMID:15129927

Mehlenbeck, Robyn S; Ward, Kenneth D; Klesges, Robert C; Vukadinovich, Christopher M

2004-02-01

402

Relationship between Milk and Calcium Intake and Lipid Metabolism in Female Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was conducted to determine the association between intake of milk and dairy products as well as calcium and biomarkers related to lipid metabolism in Korean female patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods A cohort of 509 female subjects (mean age: 59.0 years; range: 35-80 years) was recruited from Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul between 2005 and 2010. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of their daily intake of milk and dairy products [<50 g/day (0<50 g/day), 50-200 g/day, and >200 g/day (>200-1201 g/day)] and then further divided into two groups according to their daily calcium intake: below and above the estimated average requirement (EAR). Results After adjustment for age, body mass index, energy intake, exercise, use of nutritional supplements and cholesterol medication, the level of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly higher in subjects with milk and dairy products consumption of >200 g/day than in subjects in the other two groups. Those subjects with a milk and dairy products consumption of >200 g/day had significantly higher levels of apolipoprotein A-1 and a significantly lower atherogenic index than the other two groups. Patients with a calcium intake above the EAR exhibited a significantly greater serum HDL-cholesterol level than those with a calcium intake below the EAR. Conclusion Milk and dairy products, good sources of calcium, play a positive role in lipid profiles in female patients with type 2 diabetes.

Kim, JaeHee; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Ki Nam; Choi, Young-Ju

2013-01-01

403

Calculation of the intake of three intense sweeteners in young insulin-dependent diabetics.  

PubMed

In 1994, European Directive 94/35/CE authorised the use as food additives of five intense sweeteners for which Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADI) were established. The same directive stipulated that member states should organise a monitoring system to determine the consumption of these substances. Diabetic children are normally considered to constitute a group with a high consumption of sweeteners (European Commission, 1998. Report on Methodology for the Monitoring of Food Additives Intake across the European Union. Report of the Scientific Cooperation, Task 4.2 SCOOP/INT/REPORT/2. European Commission Directorate General III, Brussels.). A stepwise approach to the food additive intake in the general population had shown that three of the five authorised intense sweeteners (aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame K) are used at particularly high levels in sugar-free foods and are also very commonly utilised as table-top sweeteners. This paper presents the results of a food intake survey conducted in a group of French, insulin-dependent children in 1997, aimed at estimating the Theoretical Maximum Daily Intake (TMDI) for these three sweeteners and comparing this with the relevant ADI values. A 5-day diary questionnaire was used to estimate the intake of sugar-free, artificially sweetened foods and table-top sweeteners. When assessing the intake of each additive, all sugar-free products were assumed to be sweetened using a single sweetener at its maximum authorised level. This study was performed in five age groups, and based on the mean and 97.5th percentile of the distribution of consumption, demonstrated that it was unlikely that total exposure could rise above the ADI. PMID:11397521

Garnier-Sagne, I; Leblanc, J C; Verger, P

2001-07-01

404

[Energy protein intake during nutritional recovery and nutritional status achieved].  

PubMed

Thirty years ago malnourished Chilean children were recovered by CONIN; they were fed ad libitum and this may have favoured the appearance of overweight-obesity (SP/OB). The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between energy-calorie intake during nutritional recovery and the appearance of overweight-obesity (SP/OB). The design was a retrospective, analytical study of the universe formed by the 168 clinical records found, of children below 2 years of age, recovered by CONIN between 1977 and 1982. Nutritional status was assessed using the Sempé criteria (applied in the period evaluated) and those of WHO, (currently in use), on admission, after 4 month treatment and on discharge. By Sempé criteria, malnutrition on admission was classified 25% severe, 63% moderate and 12% mild; instead, using WHO standards these figures were 14.9%, 29.2% y 38.1%, respectively; the remaining children were well nourished. On discharge, there was no SP/OB by W/A (Sempé), but by W/H (WHO) 6% and 13.8% were SP/OB after 3 months and on discharge, respectively. Food intake, administered ad libitum, reached a mean of 148 kcals/ kg/d and 4 g prot/kg/d. SP/OB children had greater daily weight gain (30.3 vs 19.2 g/d) than the non-obese children and greater daily weight gain than the mean for age and sex (19.7 vs 8.2 g/dia). The prescribed feeding reached values considered high by currently used criteria; actual intake, administered ad-libitum, was significantly lower and was associated with 13.8% of children with overweight-obesity at the time of discharge. PMID:21090276

Gálvez, Patricia; Weisstaub, Gerardo; Araya, Magdalena

2010-03-01

405

Determinants of Vitamin D Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The objective of our chapter is to provide convincing evidence of how changes in food consumption patterns, judicious fortification\\u000a of food staples, and targeted supplementation of at-risk groups could be effective public health strategies to help increase\\u000a vitamin D intake, maintain bone health, and potentially prevent chronic disease. We demonstrate the limitations of the Canadian\\u000a and American food supply to

Mona S. Calvo; Susan J. Whiting

406

Fluoride intake from beverage consumption.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that fluoride is present in beverages prepared with fluoridated water. The purpose of this study was to determine the availability of fluoride from beverages consumed in adjacent fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities taking into account fluoride supplementation regimens. Children in grade six were invited to participate in recording of beverage intake in two cities in Alberta, Canada: Wetaskiwin, with water supplies fluoridated at 1.08 ppm F, and Camrose, non-fluoridated with water supplies at 0.23 ppm F. Three-day beverage intake records--"Drink Diaries"--were collected from 179 children in Wetaskiwin and 230 children in Camrose. Fluoride values, based on the analyses of Hargreaves, were assigned to the reported consumption of the children with the three highest and three lowest total beverage intakes in each community. A wide range of available fluoride was found. A substantial source of fluoride was shown to be available in the non-fluoridated community from beverages other than water, primarily from carbonated beverages commercially prepared with fluoridated water. Available beverages and actual consumption should be considered in the prescription of fluoride supplementation for children with minimal fluoride in their drinking water. PMID:3422610

Clovis, J; Hargreaves, J A

1988-02-01

407

Representative data of iodine intake and urinary excretion in Germany.  

PubMed

To evaluate the iodine supply of the German population, 2500 representative subjects older than 13 years were elected for answering a specific food questionnaire. In addition spot urine samples in 3 selected risk groups for iodine deficiency (574 adults aged 50-70 years, 769 conscripts, 886 pairs of mothers and newborns) from 26 representative regions were collected. Furthermore the circadian iodine excretion was measured in 24 h urine samples collected in 6 fractions per day in 4 subgroups (young and older males and females) of 91 controls and this 24 h iodine excretion related to iodine/creatinine ratio in these subgroups. Mean estimated iodine intake was 119 microg/d in adults aged 50-70 years, 137 microg/d in conscripts, and 162 microg/d in mothers at still birth. The mean iodine concentration (iodine/creatinine ratio) was 9.4 microg/dl in 566 adults aged 50-70 years, 8.3 microg/dl in 772 conscripts and 5.6 microg/dl in 739 breast fed newborns. The mean daily iodine excretion was 134 microg/d in 278 men aged 50-70 years, 117 microg/d in 288 women aged 50-70 years, 125 microg/d in 772 conscripts and 74 microg/d in 53 breast-feeding mothers not using iodine tablets. These results show, that iodine intake in Germany has increased over the last years. The deficit in iodine intake with significant regional differences and defined risk groups for iodine deficiency (e.g. breast feeding mothers without iodine deficiency prophylaxis) is estimated to be about 30% of the recommended iodine intake. PMID:11573130

Gärtner, R; Manz, F; Grossklaus, R

2001-01-01

408

Dietary intake based on physical activity level in Korean elementary school students  

PubMed Central

Prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing significantly worldwide due to energy imbalance perhaps stemming from undesirable dietary behavior and physical activity level. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of physical activity level on nutritional status in elementary school students. The subjects were comprised of 287 elementary school students between 4th and 6th grades in Seoul, Korea. The level of physical activity was scored with a modified Godin leisure-time exercise questionnaire and was categorized as active, moderately active, and sedentary. Dietary intakes were obtained using a 24-hour food recall method. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to test for global significant differences of nutrient intakes by physical activity level. Boys were more active than girls. Daily intakes of energy in moderately active boys were significantly higher than in the sedentary group, but intakes of calcium and iron in moderately active boys were lower than active boys. For girls, physical activity level did not affect nutrient density at all. Intakes of calcium, vitamin C, and folate for both boys and girls were below 50% of recommended intake. Physical activity did not affect nutrient density and our participants were exposed to nutritional imbalance. Therefore, the results suggest that nutrition education regarding balanced diet and optimum physical activity is required for children's health and growth.

Kim, Yeonsoo; Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Yuri

2010-01-01

409

Branched chain fatty acid content of United States retail cow's milk and implications for dietary intake.  

PubMed

Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) have recently been shown to be a major component of the normal human newborn gastrointestinal tract and have long been known to be a component of human milk. Ruminant food products are major sources of fat in the American diet, but there are no studies of milkfat BCFA content in retail milk. We report here the profile and concentrations of BCFA in a representative sampling of retail milk in the 48 contiguous United States (US), and their estimated intake in the American diet. Conventionally produced whole fluid milk samples were obtained from 56 processing plants across the contiguous 48 states. Retail milk samples contain exclusively iso- and anteiso-BCFA with 14-18 carbons. BCFA were 2.05 ± 0.14%, w/w of milkfat fatty acids (mean ± SD), and anteiso-BCFA comprised more than half this total. Based on these data and USDA food availability data, the average per capita BCFA intake of Americans is estimated to be about 220 mg/d from dairy; if current dietary recommendations were followed, BCFA intake would be about 400 mg/d. Adding intake from beef consumption, these estimates rise to approximately 400 and 575 mg/d, respectively. These results indicate that BCFA intake is a substantial fraction of daily fat intake, in amounts exceeding those of many bioactive fatty acids. PMID:21293946

Ran-Ressler, R R; Sim, D; O'Donnell-Megaro, A M; Bauman, D E; Barbano, D M; Brenna, J T

2011-02-04

410

Peripheral oxytocin treatment ameliorates obesity by reducing food intake and visceral fat mass  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that oxytocin (Oxt) is implicated in energy metabolism. We aimed to explore acute and sub-chronic effects of peripheral Oxt treatment via different routes on food intake and energy balance. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Oxt concentration-dependently decreased food intake in mice. Ip Oxt injection induced c-Fos expression in the hypothalamus and brain stem including arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Subcutaneous (sc) injection of Oxt suppressed food intake in normal and high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Daily sc injection of Oxt for 17 days in DIO mice reduced food intake for 6 days and body weight for the entire treatment period and additional 9 days after terminating Oxt. Oxt infusion by sc implanted osmotic minipumps for 13 days in DIO mice reduced food intake, body weight, and visceral fat mass and adipocyte size. Oxt infusion also decreased respiratory quotient specifically in light phase, ameliorated fatty liver and glucose intolerance, without affecting normal blood pressure in DIO mice. These results demonstrate that peripheral Oxt treatment reduces food intake and visceral fat mass, and ameliorates obesity, fatty liver and glucose intolerance. Peripheral Oxt treatment provides a new therapeutic avenue for treating obesity and hyperphagia.

Maejima, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Yamahara, Yui; Kodaira, Misato; Sedbazar, Udval; Yada, Toshihiko

2011-01-01

411

RELATIONS BETWEEN DAIRY FOOD INTAKE AND ARTERIAL STIFFNESS: PULSE WAVE VELOCITY AND PULSE PRESSURE  

PubMed Central

Modifiable risk factors, such as diet, are becomingly increasingly important in the management of cardiovascular disease, one of the greatest major causes of death and disease burden. Few studies have examined the role of diet as a possible means of reducing arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity, an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with measures of arterial stiffness including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. A cross-sectional analysis of a subset of the Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study sample was performed. A linear decrease in pulse wave velocity was observed across increasing intakes of dairy food consumption (ranging from never/rarely to daily dairy food intake). The negative linear relationship between pulse wave velocity and intake of dairy food was independent of demographic variables, other cardiovascular disease risk factors and nutrition variables. The pattern of results was very similar for pulse pressure, while no association between dairy food intake and lipid levels was found. Further intervention studies are needed to ascertain whether dairy food intake may be an appropriate dietary intervention for the attenuation of age-related arterial stiffening and reduction of cardiovascular disease risk.

Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrrill F.; Dore, Gregory A.; Abhayaratna, Walter P.; Robbins, Michael A.

2012-01-01

412

Stochastic Modelling of Daily Rainfall sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall series of different climatic regions were analysed with the aim of generating daily rainfall sequences. A survey of the data is given in I, 1. When analysing daily rainfall sequences one must be aware of the following points:a. Seasonality. Because of seasonal variation of features of the rainfall process the analysis is done for each month or season separately

T. A. Buishand

1977-01-01

413

How the Daily Press Looks at Hunger.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizing both content analysis of 139 editorials appearing in 19 United States daily newspapers and the results of a survey of 146 newspaper editors, a study asked three questions: (1) To what extent is hunger covered in the news and editorial columns of U.S. daily newspapers? (2) How is hunger defined as a problem in terms of its causes in those…

Robinson, Sondra G.

414

Downscaling daily extreme temperatures with genetic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A context-free genetic programming (GP) method is presented that simulated local scale daily extreme (maximum and minimum) temperatures based on large scale atmospheric variables. The method evolves simple and optimal models for downscaling daily temperature at a station. The advantage of the context-free GP method is that both the variables and constants of the candidate models are optimized and consequently

Paulin Coulibaly

2004-01-01

415

Techniques for Daily Living: Curriculum Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are specific guides concerning techniques for daily living which were developed by the child care staff at the Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School. The guides are designed for cottage parents of the children, who may have both visual and other handicaps, and show what daily living skills are necessary and appropriate for the…

Wooldridge, Lillian; And Others

416

How the Daily Press Looks at Hunger.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Utilizing both content analysis of 139 editorials appearing in 19 United States daily newspapers and the results of a survey of 146 newspaper editors, a study asked three questions: (1) To what extent is hunger covered in the news and editorial columns of U.S. daily newspapers? (2) How is hunger defined as a problem in terms of its causes in…

Robinson, Sondra G.

417

Watching The Daily Show in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global distribution of a popular American television programme – Jon Stewart's Daily Show – offers a rare opportunity to examine transnational contingencies of meaning in political satire. Drawing on focus group discussions in Kenya, this analysis shows how some East Africans appropriated and reinterpreted – indeed unexpectedly subverted – The Daily Show's political content, deriving from it insights that Stewart

Angelique Haugerud; Dillon Mahoney; Meghan Ference

2012-01-01

418

Daily Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows…

Einolf, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

419

Neurons and networks in daily rhythms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological pacemakers dictate our daily schedules in physiology and behaviour. The molecules, cells and networks that underlie these circadian rhythms can now be monitored using long-term cellular imaging and electrophysiological tools, and initial studies have already suggested a theme — circadian clocks may be crucial for widespread changes in brain activity and plasticity. These daily changes can modify the amount

Erik D. Herzog

2007-01-01

420

Daily Oral Language: Is It Effective?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the Daily Oral Language (DOL) program aimed at helping students learn mechanics of writing through daily editing exercises. This nine-month study sought to determine if DOL improved editing skills and actual writing skills of seventy fourth-grade students. While the results of this study did not statistically demonstrate the…

Whittingham, Jeff L.

2007-01-01

421

A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students.

Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

2013-01-01

422

Energy expenditure and dietary intake during high-volume and low-volume training periods among male endurance athletes.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of this study was to examine dietary intake in endurance-trained athletes during a week of high-volume and a week of low-volume training while measuring exercise energy expenditure (EEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). In addition, compliance with current American College of Sports Medicine/American Dietetic Association nutrition and performance recommendations for macronutrients was evaluated. Energy expenditure and dietary intake were measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 nonconsecutive weeks resembling a high-volume and a low-volume training period. Anthropometric measurements were taken and percentage body fat was determined at the beginning and end of each week of training. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was calculated by summing RMR, NEAT, and EEE. Dietary intake was assessed with an online food-frequency questionnaire completed at the end of each week of data collection. Despite significant differences between TDEE and energy intake, no difference in body composition between the beginning and end of either week of training was observed, suggesting underreporting of caloric intake. Further, no changes in total caloric intake or macronutrient intake occurred even though TDEE increased significantly during the high-volume training. Reported carbohydrate intake (4.5 g·kg(-1)) and fiber intake (25 g·day(-1)) were below recommendations, whereas fat intake (1.3 g·kg(-1)) was slightly above recommendations. In summary, no short-term dietary adjustments occurred in response to differences in training regimen. Because these athletes were generally consuming a Western diet, they may have required some support to achieve desirable intakes for health and performance. PMID:22360344

Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Pivarnik, James M

2012-02-23

423

Estimation of usual intake and food sources of choline and betaine in New Zealand reproductive age women.  

PubMed

Recently, choline has been associated with neurodevelopment, cognitive function and neural tube defect incidence. However, data on usual intakes are limited, and estimates of dietary intakes of choline and its metabolite betaine, are not available for New Zealanders. The objective of the present study was to determine usual intake and food sources of choline and betaine in a group of New Zealand reproductive age women. Dietary intake data were collected from a sample of 125 women, aged 18-40 years, by means of a 3-day weighed food record, and usual choline and betaine intake distributions were determined. The mean (SD) daily intakes of choline and betaine were 316 (66) mg and 178 (66) mg, respectively. The total choline intake relative to energy intake and body weight was 0.18 mg/kcal and 5.1 mg/kg, respectively. Only 16% of participants met or exceeded the Adequate Intake (AI) for adult women of 425 mg of choline. The top five major food contributors of choline were eggs, red meat, milk, bread and chicken; and of betaine were bread, breakfast cereal, pasta, grains and root vegetables (carrots, parsnips, beetroot, swedes). Our findings contribute towards the recent emergence of published reports on the range of dietary choline and betaine intakes consumed by free-living populations. In our sample of New Zealand women, few participants were meeting or exceeding the AI level. Given recent epidemiological evidence suggesting health benefits of increased choline and betaine intakes, recommendations should be made to encourage the consumption of choline and betaine-rich foods. PMID:23635379

Mygind, Vanessa L; Evans, Sophie E; Peddie, Meredith C; Miller, Jody C; Houghton, Lisa A

2013-01-01

424

A Quantitative Look at Fluorosis, Fluoride Exposure, and Intake in Children Using a Health Risk Assessment Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the United States has increased during the last 30 years. In this study, we used a mathematical model commonly employed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to estimate average daily intake of fluoride via all applicable exposure pathways contributing to fluorosis risk for infants and children living in hypothetical fluoridated and non- fluoridated communities.

Serap Erdal; Susan N. Buchanan

2004-01-01

425

Estimation of energy intake from heart rate and energy expenditure in sheep under confinement or grazing condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the feasibility of using heart rate (HR), or energy expenditure (EE), calculated as HR multiplied by O2 pulse – the amount of O2 delivered to the body at every heartbeat – to estimate individual intake of metabolisable energy (MEI) in lambs. HR was automatically recorded every 20 min during 48 h, and averaged daily (HRmean), in eight confined

D Barkai; S Landau; A Brosh; H Baram; G Molle

2002-01-01

426

Short-term consumption of phytoestrogen-rich foods in humans alters dietary macro- and micronutrient intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine how nutrient intake is affected by a short-term phytoestrogen-rich diet. Ten healthy volunteers consumed 100 g soya chunks, 150 g lentils, and 250 g kidney beans daily for 3 days. Urine was collected during the 2 days before, 3 intervention days, and 2 days after the intervention and analyzed for phytoestrogen status.

Jayne V. Woodside; Michael S. Morton; Alethea Cooper; Anthony J. C. Leathem

2006-01-01

427

Geographic Distribution of Liver and Stomach Cancers in Thailand in Relation to Estimated Dietary Intake of Nitrate, Nitrite, and Nitrosodimethylamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is our working hypothesis that the high rate of the liver and gastric cancers in North and Northeast Thailand is associated with increased daily dietary intake of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Samples of fresh and preserved Thai foods were systematically collected and analyzed from 1988 to 1996 and from 1998 to 2005. Consumption frequencies of various food items

Eugene J. Mitacek; Klaus D. Brunnemann; Maitree Suttajit; Lee S. Caplan; Claude E. Gagna; Kris Bhothisuwan; Sirithon Siriamornpun; Charles F. Hummel; Hiroshi Ohshima; Ranja Roy; Nimit Martin

2008-01-01