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Sample records for daily intake tdi

  1. New method for determining allowable daily intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Crump, K.S.

    1984-10-01

    The usual method for establishing allowable daily intake (ADI) for a chemical involves determining a no-observed-effect level (NOEL) and applying a safety factor. Even though this method has been used for many years, there appear to be no general guidelines or rules for defining a NOEL. The determination of a NOEL is particularly uncertain for lesions which occur naturally in untreated animals. NOELs also have shortcomings in that smaller experiments tend to give larger values (this should be reversed because larger experiments can provide greater evidence of safety) and that the steepness of the dose response in the dose range where effects occur plays little or no role in the determination of a NOEL. This paper proposes and illustrates the use of a benchmark dose (BD) as an alternative to a NOEL. A BD is a statistical lower confidence limit to a dose producing some predetermined increase in response rate such as 0.01 or 0.1. The BD is calculated using a mathematical dose-response model. This approach makes appropriate use of sample size and the shape of the dose-response curve. The BD normally will not depend strongly upon the mathematical model used because the method does not involve extrapolation far below the experimental range. Thus the method sidesteps much of the model dependency often associated with extrapolation of carcinogenicity data to low doses. The method can be applied to either quantal data in which only the presence or absence of an effect is recorded, or continuous data in which the severity of the effect is also noted.

  2. Assessment of the daily intake of 62 polychlorinated biphenyls from dietary exposure in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Min-Hui; Kim, Jun-Tae; Park, Hyokeun; Kim, Meehye; Paek, Ock-Jin; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2012-11-01

    The dietary intake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was estimated using the sum of 62 PCB congeners (∑(62)PCBs), including seven indicator PCBs and 12 dioxin-like PCBs, in the South Korea. In this study, 200 individual food samples belonging to 40 different foodstuffs were investigated to estimate the distribution of PCB congeners in five sampling cities. PCB exposure was estimated using Korean dietary habits as established by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The PCB concentrations in rice, the most frequently consumed food in Korea, was relatively low in whole food samples. The mean PCB levels measured in fish were the highest in this study, but each fish is consumed in relatively small amounts by the general population. Therefore, the daily dietary intake should also be considered with regard to human exposure to PCBs, especially with the consumption of contaminated foods. Dioxin-like PCB levels were also calculated using TEF values that were established in 2005. The average levels (pg TEQ/g) were 0.0002 for rice and 0.0098 for fish. The dioxin-like PCBs accounted for a relatively small percentage of the total PCBs, compared to previous studies. According to our research, the health risks associated with exposure to PCBs could be estimated using the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of the general population. PMID:22874429

  3. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake.

    PubMed

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel; Clementini, Chiara; Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra; Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania; Guerranti, Cristiana; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2016-02-15

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). PMID:26674688

  4. Inorganic arsenic in the Japanese diet: daily intake and source.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Tao, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of arsenic (As) species in 19 food composites prepared from 159 food items purchased in Shizuoka city, Japan, were determined (1) to estimate total daily intake of inorganic As (InAs) and some organic As species and (2) to determine food contributing to total daily InAs intake. As analysis included extraction of As species with a synthetic gastric juice (0.07 mol/L HCl + 0.01 % pepsin) from food composite and high-performance liquid chromatography-high efficiency photo-oxidation-hydride generation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. InAs was detected in 9 of 19 food composites at a concentration of 0.423-450 ng As/g fresh-weight. Daily intake of InAs from cereals was greatest (13 μg/person/day) followed by algae (5.7 μg/person/day), and the intake from the two categories constituted 90 % of the total daily InAs intake of adults (21 μg/person/day on a bioaccessible-fraction basis and 24 μg/person/day on a content basis). Analysis of individual food items showed that rice and hijiki contributed virtually 100 % of InAs from cereals and algae, respectively. The present survey indicated that InAs from rice and hijiki consumption contributed to total daily InAs intake and consequently to significant cancer risk of the general Japanese population. Daily intake of some organic forms of As and their contributing food categories was also estimated. PMID:23949604

  5. Determination of several elements in duplicate meals from catering establishments using closed vessel microwave digestion with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection: estimation of daily dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Noël, L; Leblanc, J C; Guérin, T

    2003-01-01

    An estimation of the dietary exposure of French consumers to 21 essential and non-essential mineral elements using duplicate meals (breakfast and lunch) purchased from catering establishments was investigated after digestion by a closed vessel microwave procedure and quantification by ICP-MS. Daily dietary exposure estimates for metals and minerals were compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intakes (PTWI), the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) or the Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADI), as established by the FAO/WHO to estimate the risk of toxicity, and the US Recommended Daily Allowances (US RDA) or the Estimate Safe & Adequate Daily Dietary Intakes (ESADDI). Moreover, comparisons were made with those from previous French studies as well as those from other countries. The estimated mean daily intakes were 11 microgram for lithium, 3.42 g for sodium, 192 mg for magnesium, 2.03 mg for aluminium, 3.64 g for potassium, 642 mg for calcium, 154 microgram for chromium, 12.3 mg for iron, 2.15 mg for manganese, 4 microgram for cobalt, 74 microgram for nickel, 925 microgram for copper, 10.2 mg for zinc, 147 microgram for arsenic, 66 microgram for selenium, 112 microgram for molybdenum, 3.6 microgram for cadmium, 2.32 mg for tin, 3 microgram for antimony, 9 microgram for mercury and 34 microgram for lead. For the non-essential (toxic) elements, aluminium, tin, antimony, cadmium, arsenic, mercury and lead, the daily intake estimates were far below tolerable limits; and similar or somewhat lower than their respective PTWI, ADI, TDI, ESADDI and US RDA for individual minerals and essential trace elements, with good agreement with other country studies. The performance of the multi-elemental ICP-MS technique was also evaluated. PMID:12519718

  6. Daily Magnesium Intake and Serum Magnesium Concentration among Japanese People

    PubMed Central

    Akizawa, Yoriko; Koizumi, Sadayuki; Itokawa, Yoshinori; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Tamura, Tarou; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2008-01-01

    Background The vitamins and minerals that are deficient in the daily diet of a normal adult remain unknown. To answer this question, we conducted a population survey focusing on the relationship between dietary magnesium intake and serum magnesium level. Methods The subjects were 62 individuals from Fukui Prefecture who participated in the 1998 National Nutrition Survey. The survey investigated the physical status, nutritional status, and dietary data of the subjects. Holidays and special occasions were avoided, and a day when people are most likely to be on an ordinary diet was selected as the survey date. Results The mean (standard deviation) daily magnesium intake was 322 (132), 323 (163), and 322 (147) mg/day for men, women, and the entire group, respectively. The mean (standard deviation) serum magnesium concentration was 20.69 (2.83), 20.69 (2.88), and 20.69 (2.83) ppm for men, women, and the entire group, respectively. The distribution of serum magnesium concentration was normal. Dietary magnesium intake showed a log-normal distribution, which was then transformed by logarithmic conversion for examining the regression coefficients. The slope of the regression line between the serum magnesium concentration (Y ppm) and daily magnesium intake (X mg) was determined using the formula Y = 4.93 (log10X) + 8.49. The coefficient of correlation (r) was 0.29. A regression line (Y = 14.65X + 19.31) was observed between the daily intake of magnesium (Y mg) and serum magnesium concentration (X ppm). The coefficient of correlation was 0.28. Conclusion The daily magnesium intake correlated with serum magnesium concentration, and a linear regression model between them was proposed. PMID:18635902

  7. Caffeine daily intake from dietary sources in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, M C; Toledo, M C; Farah, H G

    1999-02-01

    A survey on the potential intake of caffeine was carried out in Campinas, SP, Brazil, in the summer of 1993. The survey was based on a representative sample of 600 individuals, 9-80 years old, who were asked about their habitual usage of coffee, tea, chocolate products and carbonated beverages. Caffeine levels in the products were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with a UV-visible detector at 254 nm. Individual daily intakes (mg/kg b.w.) of caffeine were calculated from the consumption data generated by the survey and the caffeine content of the analysed products. Of all those interviewed, 81% consumed soft drinks regularly, 75% coffee, 65% chocolate products and 37% tea. Of the analysed products, coffee showed the highest amount of caffeine. The average and median potential daily intake of caffeine by the studied population were, respectively, 2.74 and 1.85 mg/kg b.w. Coffee, tea, chocolate products and carbonated beverages accounted for median individual daily intakes of 1.90, 0.32, 0.19, and 0.19 mg/kg b.w., respectively. These data show that coffee is the most important vehicle for caffeine intake within the studied population. PMID:10435077

  8. Meal timing influences daily caloric intake in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Kathryn J.; Baron, Kelly G.; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2016-01-01

    The role that meal pattern plays in weight regulation is a popular topic of scientific and common debate. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between meal timing with caloric intake and body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that latemeal timing and eating closer to sleep onset time would be associated with greater energy intake and higher BMI. Participants included 59 individuals recruited from the community. Rest/activity patterns were assessed using seven days of wrist actigraphy, and caloric intake was evaluated using seven days of diet logs. Results demonstrated that the timing of meals was associated with overall energy intake but not with BMI. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, gender, sleep duration, and timing; eating more frequently, later timing of the last meal, and a shorter duration between last meal and sleep onset predicted higher total caloric intake. In a mediational model, eating frequency explained the relationship between eating closer to sleep onset and total caloric intake. Results suggest that later relative timing of meals, particularly eating close to sleep, could lead to weight gain due to a greater number of eating occasions and higher total daily caloric intake. These findings have important implications for the development of novel, time-based interventions for weight management. PMID:25439026

  9. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece.

    PubMed

    Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake. PMID:24779693

  10. New approaches in the derivation of acceptable daily intake (ADI)

    SciTech Connect

    Dourson, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Current methods for estimating human health risks from exposure to threshold-acting toxicants in water or food, such as those established by the U.S. EPA, the FDA, the NAS, the WHO and the FAO, consider only chronic or lifetime exposure to individual chemicals. These methods generally estimate a single, constant daily intake rate which is low enough to be considered safe or acceptable. The intake rate is termed the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Two problems with the approach have been recognized. The first problem is that the method does not readily account for the number of animals used to determine the appropriate 'no-observed-effect-level' (NOEL). The second problem with the current approach is that the slope of the dose-response curve of the critical toxic effect is generally ignored in estimating the ADI. The report illustrates both a revised approach to estimate ADIs with all toxicity data which includes methods for partial lifetime assessment, and novel methods for ADI estimation with quantal or continuous toxicity data. The latter method addresses to a degree the common problems with the current approach.

  11. Daily intake of trace metals through coffee consumption in India.

    PubMed

    Suseela, B; Bhalke, S; Kumar, A V; Tripathi, R M; Sastry, V N

    2001-02-01

    The trace element contents of five varieties of instant coffee powder available in the Indian market have been analysed. Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sr, Zn and Pb, Cd, Cu have been determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, respectively. The metal levels in the coffee powders observed in this study are comparable with those reported for green coffe beans (Arabica and Robusta variety) reported worldwide with the exception of Sr and Zn, which were on the lower side of the reported values. Concentrations of these metals have been converted into intake figures based on coffee consumption. The daily intakes of the above metals through ingestion of coffee are 1.4 mg, 1.58 microg, 124 microg, 41.5 mg, 4.9 mg, 17.9 microg, 2.9 microg, 3.8 microg, 12.5 microg, 0.2 microg, 0.03 microg and 15.5 microg, respectively. The values, which were compared with the total dietary, intake of metals through ingestion by the Mumbai population, indicate that the contribution from coffee is less than or around 1% for most of the elements except for Cr and Ni which are around 3%. PMID:11288908

  12. Copper content in foods of Java Island and estimation of daily copper intake

    SciTech Connect

    Rivai, I.F.; Suzuki, S.; Koyama, H.; Hyodo, K.; Djuangsih, N.; Soemarwoto, O.

    1988-07-01

    The purpose of this study was first to determine copper content in soil, foodstuff and feces of villagers, and estimate the daily copper intake of the villagers and a guest. The data obtained may help clarify the relationships of copper content in the soil-plant (food)-daily intake-feces in Indonesia. Secondly, the percentage of copper contribution of food groups was calculated to determine the influence of the food patterns of villagers and a guest on daily copper intake. Finally, evaluation was made of daily copper intake of villagers in terms of estimated daily copper requirement by WHO.

  13. Bromism from daily over intake of bromide salt.

    PubMed

    Frances, C; Hoizey, G; Lamiable, D; Millart, H; Trenque, T

    2003-01-01

    Bromide intoxication today is an infrequent disease, but preparations containing bromide are still available in nonprescription compounds, on the French market. We report a casewith bromide intoxication due to daily over intake (approximately 20 tablets per day; i.e. total elemental bromide intake approximately 6 g/day) of calcium bromo-galactogluconate (Calcibronat) for 1.5 months. A 30-year-old woman with a long history of psychotropic drug abuse was hospitalized in a psychiatric department for neuropsychological manifestations. She presented a seriously disturbed mental status with confusion, disorientation, auditory and visual hallucinations, and loss of short-time memory. A markedly increased serum bromide level of 1717 mg/L (21.5 mEq/L) measured on the first day after her admission confirmed the diagnosis of chronic bromism suspected based on her symptomatology. During her hospitalization, bromide plasma concentrations were measured and monitored using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, a sensitive and very specific method. After withdrawal of the drug, the symptoms improved within 8 days. Serial bromide concentrations gradually declined throughout nearly 2 months of monitoring, until she was discharged from the hospital. We found an elimination half-life of bromide in blood of approximately of 10 days. This case demonstrates that, while today bromism occurs infrequently, it should still be included in the differential diagnosis of neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:12733857

  14. Zeaxanthin: Review of Toxicological Data and Acceptable Daily Intake.

    PubMed

    Edwards, James A

    2016-01-01

    Zeaxanthin is a nutritional carotenoid with a considerable amount of safety data based on regulatory studies, which form the basis of its safety evaluation. Subchronic OECD guideline studies with mice and rats receiving beadlet formulations of high purity synthetic zeaxanthin in the diet at dosages up to 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, and in dogs at over 400 mg/kg bw/day, produced no adverse effects or histopathological changes. In developmental toxicity studies, there was no evidence of fetal toxicity or teratogenicity in rats or rabbits at dosages up to 1000 or 400 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Formulated zeaxanthin was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a series of in vitro and in vivo tests for genotoxicity. A 52-week chronic oral study in Cynomolgus monkeys at doses of 0.2 and 20 mg/kg bw/day, mainly designed to assess accumulation and effects in primate eyes, showed no adverse effects. In a rat two-generation study, the NOAEL was 150 mg/kg bw/day. In 2012, this dosage was used by EFSA (NDA Panel), in association with a 200-fold safety factor, to propose an Acceptable Daily Intake equivalent to 53 mg/day for a 70 kg adult. The requested use level of 2 mg/day was ratified by the EU Commission. PMID:26885380

  15. Zeaxanthin: Review of Toxicological Data and Acceptable Daily Intake

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Zeaxanthin is a nutritional carotenoid with a considerable amount of safety data based on regulatory studies, which form the basis of its safety evaluation. Subchronic OECD guideline studies with mice and rats receiving beadlet formulations of high purity synthetic zeaxanthin in the diet at dosages up to 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, and in dogs at over 400 mg/kg bw/day, produced no adverse effects or histopathological changes. In developmental toxicity studies, there was no evidence of fetal toxicity or teratogenicity in rats or rabbits at dosages up to 1000 or 400 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Formulated zeaxanthin was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a series of in vitro and in vivo tests for genotoxicity. A 52-week chronic oral study in Cynomolgus monkeys at doses of 0.2 and 20 mg/kg bw/day, mainly designed to assess accumulation and effects in primate eyes, showed no adverse effects. In a rat two-generation study, the NOAEL was 150 mg/kg bw/day. In 2012, this dosage was used by EFSA (NDA Panel), in association with a 200-fold safety factor, to propose an Acceptable Daily Intake equivalent to 53 mg/day for a 70 kg adult. The requested use level of 2 mg/day was ratified by the EU Commission. PMID:26885380

  16. The toxicity of the daily intake of nitrite and dimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Garca Roch, M; Ballenilla, T; Castillo, A; Silva, V; Cabrera, Y

    1983-01-01

    It is known that sodium nitrite and dimethylamine are toxic compounds, which may react to form dimethylnitrosamine in the gastro-intestinal tract, a much more toxic compound and a powerful cancerogen. The aim of the present work is the investigation of toxicity in young rats, caused by daily intake of sodium nitrite, administered together with dimethylamine during 30 days. The indicators examined were: histopathological analysis of the liver and kidney, transaminase in blood serum, variations in body weight and relation of weight liver/body weight. The method of analysis used to determine transaminase was that reported by Reintman and Frankel in 1957. The statistical method employed was the test of multiple comparisons based on the total ranges of Cruskal-Wallis. The results show that either significant differences were found (alpha = 0,05) among the groups (including the control), nor was necrosis observed or forming of tumors in the organs under investigation. Therefore, the doses administered does not seem to be toxic under the conditions of the experiment. Some signs of toxicity found in the group which was severely treated (10 mg of sodium nitrite and 20 mg of dimethylamine) appeared only in a few animals and it is necessary to verify the same in experiments with more animals and over a longer period of treatment. PMID:6669176

  17. Risk assessment of coumarin using the bench mark dose (BMD) approach: children in Norway which regularly eat oatmeal porridge with cinnamon may exceed the TDI for coumarin with several folds.

    PubMed

    Fotland, T Ø; Paulsen, J E; Sanner, T; Alexander, J; Husøy, T

    2012-03-01

    Coumarin is a naturally occurring flavouring substance in cinnamon and many other plants. It is known that coumarin can cause liver toxicity in several species, and it is considered a non-genotoxic carcinogen in rodents. By using the bench mark dose approach we re-assessed coumarin toxicity and established a new TDI for coumarin of 0.07 mg/kg bw/day. Oral intake of coumarin is related to consumption of cinnamon-containing foods and food supplements. Cinnamon is a widely used spice in Norway, and can be used as topping on oatmeal porridge. Based on analyses of coumarin in Norwegian foods, intake calculations for children and adults were conducted, and a risk assessment of coumarin in the Norwegian population was performed. Intake estimates of coumarin show that small children eating oatmeal porridge several times a week sprinkled with cinnamon could have a coumarin intake of 1.63 mg/kg bw/day and may exceeding the TDI with several folds. Adults drinking cinnamon-based tea and consuming cinnamon supplements also can exceed TDI. The coumarin intake could exceed the TDI by 7- to 20-fold in some intake scenarios. Such large daily exceedances of TDI, even for a limited time period of 1-2 weeks, cause concern of adverse health effects. PMID:22178604

  18. Validity and Reliability of an Estimated Daily Intake Scale for Fat

    PubMed Central

    Privitera, Gregory J.; Freeman, Chanel S.

    2012-01-01

    The reliability and validity of an Estimated Daily Intake Scale for Fat (EDIS-F) used to measure daily intake of fat in a participant’s diet was tested. A Cronbach’s alpha was used to determine the reliability of the EDIS-F. To determine the validity of this scale, scores on this scale were correlated with known factors related to daily intake of fat (e.g., ratings of liking for a high fat food and the body mass index score of participants). A 13-item EDIS-F was shown to be reliable, and scores on the EDIS-F significantly correlated with ratings of liking for a high fat cream cheese cracker and BMI, but not with gender, consistent with the assertion that this scale measures daily intake of fat. Implications for using this scale are discussed. PMID:22980149

  19. Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

  20. Daily polyphenol intake in France from fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Brat, Pierre; Georgé, Stéphane; Bellamy, Annick; Du Chaffaut, Laure; Scalbert, Augustin; Mennen, Louise; Arnault, Nathalie; Amiot, Marie Josèphe

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to create a French database on the polyphenol content of fruit and vegetables as uncooked fruits and vegetables and then to evaluate polyphenol intake through fruit and vegetable consumption in France. To achieve this, we used the Folin-Ciocalteu method adapted to fruit and vegetable polyphenol quantitation (1). Vegetables with the highest polyphenol concentration were artichokes, parsley, and brussels sprouts [>250 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh edible portion (FEP)]; fruits with the highest concentrations were strawberries, lychees, and grapes (>180 mg of GAE/100 g FEP). Conversely, melons (Cantaloupe cv.) and avocados had the lowest polyphenol concentration for fruits and vegetables, respectively. Based on fruit consumption data, apples and strawberries are the main sources of polyphenols in the French diet, whereas potatoes, lettuces, and onions are the most important vegetable sources. Total polyphenol intake from fruit is about 3 times higher than from vegetables, due to the lower polyphenol concentration in vegetables. The calculation of polyphenol intake, based on both assessment methods used [(Société d'Etudes de la Communication, Distribution et Publicité (SECODIP) and Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SUVIMAX)], showed that apples and potatoes provide approximatively half of the total polyphenol intake from fruit and vegetables in the French diet. PMID:16920856

  1. [Comparative assessment of vitamin C content and evaluation of energy intake in children daily food rations].

    PubMed

    Hamułka, Jadwiga; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Uznańska, Małgorzata

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was comparative assessment of content of vitamin C in daily food rations orphans children aged 1-6 years by using two methods--analytical and calculation and evaluation of energy intake by calculation. The levels of energy and vitamin C intake in daily food rations were calculated using menu data and data of food composition tables and compared with the recommended dietary intake (RDI). In addition vitamin C was determined in daily food rations by high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC). Differences between two methods for evaluation of content of vitamin C were not statistically significant. Contribution of energy to individual meals and share of main nutritive components in supply of energy to daily food rations did not correspond with recommendations. Beyond this daily food rations orphans children were plentiful, monotonous and uniform without using seasonal products. PMID:14755856

  2. Estimation of daily mercury intake from seafood in Japanese women: Akita cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yoko; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Nakai, Kunihiko; Oka, Tomoko; Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Satoh, Hiroshi; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2003-06-01

    We estimated daily mercury intakes from seafood in 154 mothers residing in several cities and towns in Akita, Japan, to address the relationships between the reference dose (RfD of 0.1 microg/kg body weight per day, derived by US EPA) and daily mercury intakes, combined with hair mercury levels. The frequency and volume of seafood ingested by them were examined using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with 25 kinds of full-scale pictures including fish and shellfish items. Hair mercury concentrations in the mothers were also determined. The geometric means in the mothers were 15.3 (2.65-48.4) microg/day for daily mercury intakes from seafood, calculated on the basis of the references on mercury contents, and 1.73 (0.49-5.82) microg/g for hair mercury concentrations. The daily mercury intake was significantly correlated with hair mercury concentrations (Spearman rank correlation coefficient rs=0.335, p<0.001). No significant differences in mercury intakes were found either between mothers residing in fishing and non-fishing areas or between those in cities and towns (p>0.05). Assuming the methylmercury content rate of 75% in seafood mercury and body weight of 55 kg, the mothers were estimated to ingest methylmercury of 0.21 microg/kg body weight per day. It is suggested that daily mercury intakes, calculated by the FFQ, reflect hair mercury levels, and there is no interregional difference in the daily mercury intake unless any special circumstance exists. Daily methylmercury intake in more than 90% of Japanese women may exceed the RfD, and it therefore seems to be far from the present state of Japanese dietary lives. PMID:12962403

  3. Cadmium content in rice and its daily intake in various countries

    SciTech Connect

    Rivai, Ida Farida; Koyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Shosuke )

    1990-06-01

    Man ingests cadmium daily from foods and beverages. The major source of cadmium intake is rice for rice eating countries. Cadmium in rice comes from soil via rice plant roots. Rice may thus be the best indicator for the environmental monitoring of cadmium especially in rice eating countries. It is also easy to sample, transport and conserve. Several recent surveys on cadmium content in rice and daily cadmium intake have been reported. However, little data are available on geographical differences in daily cadmium intake from rice. The tolerable weekly intake for cadmium as proposed by FAO/WHO is 400-500 micrograms/person or 57-71 micrograms/day/person weighing 70 kg. Ninety two percent of world rice production is from the Asia-Pacific region, from which samples were obtained for the present study. The following countries were included: India, China, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Japan, and Korea. This study was conducted to determine cadmium content in rice from the above countries and based on the data obtained, daily cadmium intake from rice and the total daily cadmium intake were calculated.

  4. Daily salt intake estimated by overnight urine collections indicates a high cardiovascular disease risk in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Nedsuwan, Supalert; Moolphate, Saiyud; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Tsutomu; Minematsu, Kazuo; Tanimura, Susumu; Marui, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study (February 2012 to March 2013) was conducted to estimate daily salt intake and basic characteristics among 793 community-dwelling participants at high risk of cardiovascular disease (Framingham risk score >15%), who had visited diabetes or hypertension clinics at health centres in the Muang district, Chiang Rai, Thailand. We performed descriptive analysis of baseline data and used an automated analyser to estimate the average of 24-hour salt intake estimated from 3 days overnight urine collection. Participants were divided into two groups based on median estimated daily salt intake. Mean age and proportion of males were 65.2 years and 37.6% in the higher salt intake group (>=10.0 g/day, n=362), and 67.5 years and 42.7% in the lower salt intake group (<10.0 g/day, n=431), respectively (p=0.01, p<0.01). The higher salt intake group comprised more patients with a family history of hypertension, antihypertensive drug use, less ideal body mass index (18.5-24.9), higher exercise frequency (>=2 times weekly) and lower awareness of high salt intake. Among higher salt intake participants, those with lower awareness of high salt intake were younger and more often had a family history of hypertension, relative to those with more awareness. Our data indicated that families often share lifestyles involving high salt intake, and discrepancies between actual salt intake and awareness of high salt intake may represent a need for salt reduction intervention aiming at family level. Awareness of actual salt intake should be improved for each family. PMID:26965760

  5. Average daily nitrate and nitrite intake in the Belgian population older than 15 years.

    PubMed

    Temme, E H M; Vandevijvere, S; Vinkx, C; Huybrechts, I; Goeyens, L; Van Oyen, H

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite in Belgium. The nitrate content of processed vegetables, cheeses and meat products was analysed. These data were completed by data from non-targeted official control and from the literature. In addition, the nitrite content of meat products was measured. Concentration data for nitrate and nitrite were linked to food consumption data of the Belgian Food Consumption Survey. This study included 3245 respondents, aged 15 years and older. Food intakes were estimated by a repeated 24-h recall using EPIC-SOFT. Only respondents with two completed 24-h recalls (n=3083) were included in the analysis. For the intake assessment, average concentration data and individual consumption data were combined. Usual intake of nitrate/nitrite was calculated using the Nusser method. The mean usual daily intake of nitrate was 1.38 mg kg(-1) bodyweight (bw) day(-1) and the usual daily intake at the 97.5 percentile was 2.76 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1). Exposure of the Belgian population to nitrate at a mean intake corresponded to 38% of the ADI (while 76% at the 97.5 percentile). For the average consumer, half of the intake was derived from vegetables (especially lettuce) and 20% from water and water-based drinks. The average daily intake of nitrate and nitrite from cheese and meat products was low (0.2% and 6% of the ADI at average intake, respectively). Scenario analyses with a higher consumption of vegetables or a higher nitrate concentration in tap water showed a significant higher intake of nitrate. Whether this is beneficial or harmful must be further assessed. PMID:21728895

  6. Influence of salty food preference on daily salt intake in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Takamura, Kazuhiro; Okayama, Masanobu; Takeshima, Taro; Fujiwara, Shinji; Harada, Masanori; Murakami, Junichi; Eto, Masahiko; Kajii, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A salt preference questionnaire may be a convenient and cost-effective method for predicting salt intake; however, the influence of salt preference on daily salt intake is unclear. This study aimed at revealing the effectiveness of the salt preference question in determining the daily salt intake in primary care outpatients. Patients and methods This cross-sectional study included 1,075 outpatients (men, n=436, 40.6%) at six primary care institutions in Japan. Primary outcomes included a salty food preference assessed by using one question and a daily salt intake, assessed using early morning second urine samples. Multivariate analyses determined the relationships between the salt intake and the two salt preference levels. Results The mean age was 67.6±14.6 years, and 594 (55.3%) preferred salty foods. The daily salt intake was 12.3±4.0 g per day and 11.4±3.7 g per day in the salt preference and nonsalt preference groups, respectively (P<0.001). A salt intake <10 g per day was consumed by 169 (28.5%) and 181 (37.6%) patients (P=0.001), respectively, and <6 g salt per day was consumed by 28 (4.7%) and 26 (5.4%) patients (P=0.606), respectively. The patients who preferred salty foods consumed a significantly larger amount of salt per day than those who did not prefer salty foods (β coefficient, 0.621; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.146–1.095). There was no difference in the number of patients who consumed <10 g salt per day (adjusted odds ratio [ad-OR], 1.29; 95% CI, 0.99–1.69) or <6 g salt per day (ad-OR, 1.39; 0.90–1.69) between the groups. Conclusion Preference for salty foods was positively associated with daily salt intake. However, daily salt intake was not always appropriate, even in the patients who did not prefer salty foods. Behavioral interventions for salt restriction after an assessment of daily salt intake are necessary for primary care patients, regardless of their preference for salty foods. PMID:24790467

  7. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Angela M; Yeung, Lorraine F; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003-2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19-39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL. PMID:27043623

  8. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Angela M.; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003–2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19–39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL. PMID:27043623

  9. Estimated daily intake of phenolics and antioxidants from green tea consumption in the Korean diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bong Han; Nam, Tae Gyu; Park, Na Young; Chun, Ock K; Koo, Sung I; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2016-05-01

    To estimate daily intake of total phenolics and flavonoids from green tea and the contribution of green tea to the antioxidant intake from the Korean diet, 24 commercial brands of green tea were selected and analyzed. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 and 2011 indicate that the green tea consumption in these 2 years was 2.8 g/tea drinker/day and 2.9 g/tea drinker/day, respectively. Based on data derived from direct measurements of green tea phenolics and the dataset of the 2008 KNHANES, we estimated the daily per tea drinker phenolics intake to be 172 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE), the total flavonoids to be 43 mg catechin equivalents (CE) and the total antioxidants to be 267 mg vitamin C equivalents (VCE; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and 401 mg VCE (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay). In 2011, we estimated the daily per tea drinker total phenolics intake to be 246 mg GAE, the total flavonoids to be 60 mg CE and the antioxidants to be 448 mg VCE (DPPH assay) and 630 mg VCE (ABTS assay). The daily intake of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidants from green tea consumption increased from 2008 to 2011. PMID:26940374

  10. Exposure assessment of metal intakes from drinking water relative to those from total diet in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Koichi; Ishikawa, Kohei; Kurosawa, Yuki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2010-01-01

    Daily intakes of 17 metals (boron, aluminium, chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, lead, uranium, magnesium, calcium, and iron) via drinking water and total diet were investigated in six cities in Japan. The daily metal intakes were estimated and compared with tolerable daily intake (TDI) values proposed by the WHO or Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for toxic metals and with recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate intake (AI) values proposed for essential metals by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Among the 13 toxic metals, mean dietary intakes of 10 (except arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum) were less than 50% of TDI, suggesting that for these 10 metals the allocation of intake to drinking water in establishing guidelines or standards could possibly be increased from the normal allocation of 10-20% of TDI. For the 13 toxic metals, the contribution of drinking water to TDI was 2% or less in all six cities. Mean dietary intakes of the essential elements magnesium, calcium, and iron were less than the RDA or AI values. Drinking water did not contribute much to essential metal intake, accounting for less than 10% of RDA or AI. PMID:21099058

  11. Daily Copper and Manganese Intakes and Their Relation to Blood Pressure in Normotensive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeon-Kyung; Lyu, Eun-Soon; Oh, Se-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Ro, Hee-Kyong; Heo, Young-Ran; Hyun, Taisun

    2015-01-01

    Although it has been proposed that trace minerals have anti-oxidative functions and are related to the control of blood pressure, only a limited number of studies directly address the issue. Thus, the purpose of our study was to assess the intake of copper and manganese, which are trace minerals, and to clarify their relation to blood pressure. In a cross-sectional study, the blood pressure of 640 normotensive adults, from 19 to 69 year-old (320 males and 320 females), was measured, and its correlation with the intake of copper and manganese was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall method. The average value of the blood pressure was 126.4/80.2 mmHg for the males and 117.8/75.8 mmHg for the females. The daily copper intake was 1.3 mg/day for the males and 1.2 mg/day for the females. For manganese, the daily intake was 4.2 mg/day for the males and 4.1 mg/day for the females. Although the copper intake of all subjects showed a positive correlation with the systolic and diastolic blood pressures, there was no significant correlation when the potential confounding factors were adjusted. The manganese intake of the male subjects had a significantly negative correlation with the systolic blood pressure after adjusting for gender, age, body mass index, and energy intake. In conclusion, the daily manganese intake of the normotensitve adults showed a significantly negative correlation with the systolic blood pressure indicating a possibility of a positive effect of manganese on blood pressure. PMID:26566521

  12. Uranium daily intake and urinary excretion: a preliminary study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Galletti, M; D'Annibale, L; Pinto, V; Cremisini, C

    2003-08-01

    An estimate was made of daily uranium intake in Italy through human diet and drinking water. The uranium concentration was determined in food, drinking water, and other beverages. Uranium concentration was also determined in a "total diet" sampled in 1999. The total daily dietary intake was estimated to be in the range 2.9-4.8 microg d(-1). The contribution of drinking water to the total uranium intake is sometimes significant as the uranium concentration range in 29 analyzed tap and bottled "mineral" waters is 0.04-5.86 microg L(-1) and the drinking water consumption about 1 L d(-1) or more. Data obtained in this study were compared with data from literature on the uranium daily intake in other countries. Urine samples were collected from 24 male and 14 female occupationally unexposed subjects, 20-50 y of age, living and working in the district of Rome (Italy). The mean concentration found was 10 +/- 7.0 ng L(-1); the inter-subject variability and the daily variability was evaluated. Analyses were performed using ICP-MS. PMID:12938971

  13. [Intake of nutrients in daily nutritional ratios by opiate dependent persons during methadone maintenance therapy].

    PubMed

    Szpanowska-Wohn, Agnieszka; Kolarzyk, Emilia; Pach, Dorota; Targosz, Dorota

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of the nutritional habits of the opiates dependent persons before and during methadone maintenance treatment. We examined 48 persons (36 males and 12 females) three times: first time before the methadone treatment, then after 2 months of treatment, and third time after 9 months of treatment. During each examination we performed 24-hour recall four times. Collected data were processed by author's software in order to get information about daily supply of main nutrients (proteins, fat, fatty acids, carbohydrates, dietary fibre, cholesterol), minerals (calcium, iron, phosphorus, zinc, sodium) and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, niacin, C). The changes between the results of following examinations were tested by using the t-Student test. The results were compared with daily norms recommended on the safe level of intake for each age and gender group. In the majority of cases the diet of examined persons was quite reach in protein, but we noticed too low daily intake of fats, essential fatty acids, some minerals (calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc) and vitamins B1, B2 and C. After 2 months of methadone treatment the daily intake of fats, saturated fatty acids, essential fatty acids, cholesterol, dietary fibre, some minerals and vitamins decreased in men group, but in the last examination we noticed renewed growth in quantity of those nutrients in daily diet of examined persons. We did not observe it in the group of women. PMID:15521596

  14. Estimated daily intake and seasonal food sources of quercetin in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishimuro, Haruno; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Sato, Midori; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Matsunaga, Izumi; Naito, Shigehiro; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Oike, Hideaki; Nagata, Tadahiro; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Kobori, Masuko

    2015-04-01

    Quercetin is a promising food component, which can prevent lifestyle related diseases. To understand the dietary intake of quercetin in the subjects of a population-based cohort study and in the Japanese population, we first determined the quercetin content in foods available in the market during June and July in or near a town in Hokkaido, Japan. Red leaf lettuce, asparagus, and onions contained high amounts of quercetin derivatives. We then estimated the daily quercetin intake by 570 residents aged 20-92 years old in the town using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The average and median quercetin intakes were 16.2 and 15.5 mg day(-1), respectively. The quercetin intakes by men were lower than those by women; the quercetin intakes showed a low correlation with age in both men and women. The estimated quercetin intake was similar during summer and winter. Quercetin was mainly ingested from onions and green tea, both in summer and in winter. Vegetables, such as asparagus, green pepper, tomatoes, and red leaf lettuce, were good sources of quercetin in summer. Our results will help to elucidate the association between quercetin intake and risks of lifestyle-related diseases by further prospective cohort study and establish healthy dietary requirements with the consumption of more physiologically useful components from foods. PMID:25849945

  15. Estimated Daily Intake and Seasonal Food Sources of Quercetin in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishimuro, Haruno; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Sato, Midori; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Matsunaga, Izumi; Naito, Shigehiro; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Oike, Hideaki; Nagata, Tadahiro; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Kobori, Masuko

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin is a promising food component, which can prevent lifestyle related diseases. To understand the dietary intake of quercetin in the subjects of a population-based cohort study and in the Japanese population, we first determined the quercetin content in foods available in the market during June and July in or near a town in Hokkaido, Japan. Red leaf lettuce, asparagus, and onions contained high amounts of quercetin derivatives. We then estimated the daily quercetin intake by 570 residents aged 20–92 years old in the town using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The average and median quercetin intakes were 16.2 and 15.5 mg day−1, respectively. The quercetin intakes by men were lower than those by women; the quercetin intakes showed a low correlation with age in both men and women. The estimated quercetin intake was similar during summer and winter. Quercetin was mainly ingested from onions and green tea, both in summer and in winter. Vegetables, such as asparagus, green pepper, tomatoes, and red leaf lettuce, were good sources of quercetin in summer. Our results will help to elucidate the association between quercetin intake and risks of lifestyle-related diseases by further prospective cohort study and establish healthy dietary requirements with the consumption of more physiologically useful components from foods. PMID:25849945

  16. Zinc, copper & iron contents in cooked foods & estimates of their daily intakes in young hostel residents.

    PubMed

    Chiplonkar, S A; Agte, V V; Gokhale, M K

    1993-12-01

    Dietary zinc, copper and iron intakes of 19 men and 11 women (aged 18-25 yr) were determined during three periods of five consecutive days each, using, weighment method and atomic absorption analysis of food samples. Daily zinc, copper and iron intakes of men ranged from 13.1 +/- 1.2 to 15.3 +/- 1.4 mg/d, 1.62 +/- 0.15 to 1.84 +/- 0.17 mg/d and 20.5 +/- 2.8 to 29.1 +/- 4.5 mg/d and of women 8.8 +/- 2.0 to 9.0 +/- 1.6, 1.42 +/- 0.23 to 1.69 +/- 0.62, and 10.0 +/- 2.4 to 14.7 +/- 2.6 mg/d respectively. Cereals provided 67.7 per cent of dietary zinc, 47.7 per cent copper and 62 per cent iron in men and 60 per cent of Zn, 44 per cent of Cu and 59 per cent of Fe in women, suggesting lower contribution of cereals to Cu intakes than Zn and Fe. Men had mineral intakes close to the recommended allowances for Indians, whereas the intakes of women were 30 to 60 per cent lower. When expressed as mg/1000 kcal, lower calorie intakes of women were responsible for their low mineral intakes. Intra-individual variation in mineral intakes was higher (18.39%) than that of energy intakes (14-17%) in both men and women. Phytate: Zn molar ratios were > 15 indicating risk of zinc deficiency in these students. PMID:8132231

  17. Performance of calves fed milk replacer once daily at various fluid intakes and dry matter concentrations.

    PubMed

    Jenny, B F; Van Dijk, H J; Grimes, L W

    1982-12-01

    Ninety-six Holstein calves were fed 1 of 12 liquid diets once daily under two feeding options. Diets consisted of milk replacer (22% crude protein, 10% fat) fed at fluid intakes of 6, 8, and 10% body weight and dry matter concentrations of 10, 13, 16, and 19%. Feeding options consisted of calculating fluid intake and dry matter concentration based on initial weight and holding this constant through weaning or adjusting weekly according to change in body weight. Water and a complete calf starter (minimum 15% crude protein) were available ad libitum. Calves were weaned abruptly at 4 wk of age and observed until 6 wk of age for immediate postweaning performance. Fluid intake and dry matter concentration had a positive effect on weight gain during wk 0 to 4. However, during the immediate postweaning period, gain decreased in calves previously fed replacer at the higher intake. Overall gain (wk 0 to 6) was not affected by fluid intake or dry matter concentration. Starter intake decreased with increasing fluid intake or dry matter concentration during wk 4 and wk 0 to 4. Total intakes of dry matter were not affected by treatment. Incidence of scours increased linearly with dry matter concentration, and both fluid intake and dry matter concentration had a positive linear effect on fecal score and duration of scours. Feeding option had no effect on any measures. Calves fed replacer containing between 10 and 13% dry matter and offered at 8% body weight had fewer intestinal disturbances during the replacer feeding period and obtained recommended gains over the entire 6 wk. PMID:7161432

  18. Impacts of daily intakes on the isomeric profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guoqiang; Wang, Zhi; Zhou, Lianqiu; Du, Pin; Luo, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Qiannian; Zhu, Lingyan

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been well studied in human daily intake for assessment of potential health risks. However, little is known about the isomeric compositions of PFASs in daily intake and their impacts on isomeric profiles in humans. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of PFASs with isomeric analysis in various human exposure matrices including foodstuffs, tap water and indoor dust. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and/or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were predominant in these exposure matrices collected in Tianjin, China. In fish and meat, linear (n-) PFOA was enriched with a percentage of 92.2% and 99.6%, respectively. Although n-PFOS was higher in fish (84.8%) than in technical PFOS (ca. 70%), it was much lower in meat (63.1%) and vegetables (58.5%). Dietary intake contributed >99% of the estimated daily intake (EDI) for the general population. The isomeric profiles of PFOA and PFOS in human serum were predicted based on the EDI and a one-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model. The isomeric percentage of n-PFOA in the EDI (98.6%) was similar to that in human serum (predicted: 98.2%, previously measured: 99.7%) of Tianjin residents. The results suggest direct PFOA intake plays an important role in its isomeric compositions in humans. For PFOS, the predicted n-PFOS (69.3%) was much higher than the previously measured values (59.2%) in human serum. This implies that other factors, such as indirect exposure to PFOS precursors and multiple excretion pathways, may contribute to the lower percentage of n-PFOS in humans than of technical PFOS. PMID:26826363

  19. Average daily respiratory intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air determined by capillary gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, H.; Kashimoto, T.

    1985-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is well used for the quantitative analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in environmental samples with high sensitivity. However, it has a lower separation efficiency in comparison with capillary gas chromatography (GC). This paper describes the comparison of the GC method with the HPLC method by measuring the PAH in air particulate matter; and average daily respiratory intake (ADI) of them in ambient air by man is presented here.

  20. Comparison of three methods to reduce energy density. Effects on daily energy intake.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rachel A; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2013-07-01

    Reductions in food energy density can decrease energy intake, but it is not known if the effects depend on the way that energy density is reduced. We investigated whether three methods of reducing energy density (decreasing fat, increasing fruit and vegetables, and adding water) differed in their effects on energy intake across the day. In a crossover design, 59 adults ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for 4 weeks. Across conditions, the entrées were either standard in energy density or were reduced in energy density by 20% using one of the three methods. Each meal included a manipulated entrée along with unmanipulated side dishes, and all foods were consumed ad libitum. Reducing the energy density of entrées significantly decreased daily energy intake compared to standard entrées (mean intake 2667 ± 77 kcal/day; 11,166 ± 322 kJ/day). The mean decrease was 396 ± 44 kcal/day (1658 ± 184 kJ/day) when fat was reduced, 308 ± 41 kcal/day (1290 ± 172 kJ/day) when fruit and vegetables were increased, and 230 ± 35 kcal/day (963 ± 147 kJ/day) when water was added. Daily energy intake was lower when fat was decreased compared to the other methods. These findings indicate that a variety of diet compositions can be recommended to reduce overall dietary energy density in order to moderate energy intake. PMID:23523752

  1. Comparison of three methods to reduce energy density: effects on daily energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rachel A.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Reductions in food energy density can decrease energy intake, but it is not known if the effects depend on the way that energy density is reduced. We investigated whether three methods of reducing energy density (decreasing fat, increasing fruit and vegetables, and adding water) differed in their effects on energy intake across the day. In a crossover design, 59 adults ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for four weeks. Across conditions, the entrées were either standard in energy density or were reduced in energy density by 20% using one of the three methods. Each meal included a manipulated entrée along with unmanipulated side dishes, and all foods were consumed ad libitum. Reducing the energy density of entrées significantly decreased daily energy intake compared to standard entrées (mean intake 2667±77 kcal/day; 11,166±322 kJ/day). The mean decrease was 396±44 kcal/day (1658±184 kJ/day) when fat was reduced, 308±41 kcal/day (1290±172 kJ/day) when fruit and vegetables were increased, and 230±35 kcal/day (963±147 kJ/day) when water was added. Daily energy intake was lower when fat was decreased compared to the other methods. These findings indicate that a variety of diet compositions can be recommended to reduce overall dietary energy density in order to moderate energy intake. PMID:23523752

  2. Daily Dietary Selenium Intake in a High Selenium Area of Enshi, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yang; Wang, Quanxin; Gao, Jin; Lin, Zhiqing; Bañuelos, Gary S.; Yuan, Linxi; Yin, Xuebin

    2013-01-01

    Enshi is a high selenium (Se) region in Hubei, China, where human selenosis was observed between 1958 and 1963. This study investigated the daily dietary Se intake of residents in Shadi, a town located 72 km northeast of Enshi City, to assess the risk of human selenosis in the high Se area. Foods consumed typically by the local residents and their hair samples were analyzed for total Se concentration. Concentrations of Se in different diet categories were as follows: cereals: 0.96 ± 0.90 mg kg−1 DW in rice and 0.43 ± 0.55 mg kg−1 DW in corn; tuber: 0.28 ± 0.56 mg kg−1 in potato and 0.36 ± 0.12 mg kg−1 in sweet potato; vegetables: ranging from 0.23 ± 1.00 mg kg−1 in carrot to 1.57 ± 1.06 mg kg−1 in kidney bean; animal proteins: 1.99 ± 1.11 mg kg−1 in chicken and egg. Based on the food Se concentrations and the daily per-capita consumption, the estimated daily Se intake in Shadi was 550 ± 307 µg per capita. Moreover, the Se concentrations in the hairs of local adult residents were 3.13 ± 1.91 mg kg−1 (n = 122) and 2.21 ± 1.14 mg kg−1 (n = 122) for females and males, respectively, suggesting that females might be exposed to higher levels of Se from daily cooking. Although there was no human selenosis occurrence in recent years, the high level of the daily Se intake suggested that the potential risk of selenosis for local residents, especially females, might be a matter of concern. PMID:23462585

  3. Estimated daily intake of benzoic acid through food additives in adult population of South East Serbia.

    PubMed

    Lazarević, Konstansa; Stojanović, Dusica; Rancić, Natasa

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate dietary intake of benzoic acid and its salts through food additives in adult population of South East Serbia. Information on dietary intake among 620 adults (aged 18-65) was collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and 748 food samples were analyzed. The mean estimated intake of benzoic acid -0.32 mg/kg of body weight (bw) per day was below acceptable daily intake (ADI). Dietary exposure to benzoic acid (0.36 mg/kg of bw/day; 7.2% ADI) (consumer only), also did not exceed ADI. The main contributors of benzoic acid to dietary intake were non alcoholic beverages (43.1%), ketchup and tomato products (36.1%), and domestic pickled vegetables (19.4%). The results of this study indicate that dietary exposure to benzoic acid and its salts through food preservatives does not represent a public health risk for the adult population of South East Serbia. PMID:22432399

  4. Monitoring oxidative damage in patients with liver cirrhosis and different daily alcohol intake.

    PubMed Central

    Clot, P; Tabone, M; Aric, S; Albano, E

    1994-01-01

    This study looked at the possible association between alcohol abuse and free radical mediated oxidative injury by examining the presence of oxidative damage, as monitored by erythrocyte malonildialdehyde and plasma lipid hydroperoxides, in patients with liver cirrhosis and different lifetime daily alcohol intake. All patients with an alcohol intake above 100 g/day (ALC) showed concentrations of malonildialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxide on average four to fivefold higher than cirrhotic patients with alcohol intake below 100 g/day (NAC) or healthy controls. Further subgrouping of ALC patients showed that those with alcohol intake ranging between 100 and 200 g/day (ALC1) had malonildialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxide concentrations significantly lower than those with an intake higher than 200 g/day (ALC2). These differences were not related to the extent of liver injury or to the liver derangement as assessed by Child's classification. The increase in lipid peroxidation markers in ALC cirrhotic patients was associated with a decrease in, respectively, plasma alpha-tocopherol and erythrocyte glutathione concentrations. Significant differences were also seen between ALC1 and ALC2 groups in plasma alpha-tocopherol, but not in erythrocyte glutathione concentrations. The concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and glutathione in the blood of NAC patients were in contrast not substantially different from those of healthy controls. The close association between oxidative damage and alcohol abuse suggested that free radical intermediates produced during ethanol metabolism might be responsible for causing oxidative damage. PMID:7828989

  5. Daily intake of manganese by local population around Kylleng Pyndengsohiong Mawthabah (Domiasiat), Meghalaya in India.

    PubMed

    Gothankar, S S; Jha, S K; Lenka, P; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2009-04-01

    Present work is carried out adjacent to world's highest rainfall area Kylleng Pyndengsohiong (KP) Mawthabah (Domiasiat), Meghalaya in India to establish the baseline value of manganese intake through dietary route by the local tribe population in view of proposed uranium mining. The locally available food items collected from villages surrounding the proposed uranium mining site at KP Mawthabah (Domiasiat) were analysed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Technique. The manganese concentration in different food categories varies from 2.76-12.50 mg kg(-1) in cereals, 1.8-4.20 mg kg(-1) in leafy vegetables, 0.30-13.50 mg kg(-1) in non leafy vegetables, 0.50-15.30 mg kg(-1) in roots and tubers, 0.70-1.50 mg kg(-1) in fruits and 0.12-0.96 mg kg(-1) in flesh food. The mean dietary intake of Mn was found to be 3.83+/-0.25 mg d(-1) compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) of 2-5 mg d(-1). The daily intake of Manganese by the local tribe population is comparable with the value (3.7 mg d(-1)) recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for reference man and lower than the intake value observed for Indian and other Asian population. PMID:19193395

  6. International project on human daily dietary intake of minor and trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, V.

    1986-01-01

    A coordinate research program on dietary intake of nutrient and other elements initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is currently under way. The purpose of the core program of this project is to obtain reliable data on the average daily intakes of several important minor and trace elements in diets consumed in a number of developed and developing countries such as Brazil, Canada, China, Iran, Italy, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Thailand, and Turkey. In the core program which will be collected for determination of the nutrient elements such as calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, iodine, selenium, and zinc, among others. The project also provides for the measurement of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in view of the biological significance of these elements as toxicants in the diet and includes estimation of the energy, phytate, and fiber components of the diet.

  7. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China. PMID:26727195

  8. Daily menus can result in suboptimal nutrient intakes, especially calcium, of adolescents living in dormitories.

    PubMed

    Kresić, Greta; Simundić, Borislav; Mandić, Milena L; Kendel, Gordana; Zezelj, Sandra Pavicić

    2008-03-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate daily menus in Croatian dormitories and to assess the overall intake of dairy products among resident adolescents. For this purpose, 168 daily menus were chosen for nutritional evaluation by random sampling. In addition, 227 adolescents (133 girls and 94 boys) participated in a questionnaire focused on food intake in addition to the meals supplied in dormitories with the aim to assess the amount and the type of dairy products consumed. The results showed that only 35% of the daily menus were nutritionally balanced. Most of the menus provided an excess of energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated fat, phosphorus, riboflavin, and vitamin A. The levels of calcium and magnesium in the menus were suboptimal. The menus offered to adolescents provided approximately 2 servings of dairy products per day. Milk was the most often supplied dairy product (1.1 servings per day), whereas yogurt had the lowest frequency of serving (0.2 servings per day). The most preferred dairy-based snack for both sexes was milk. Dairy-based snacks provided about 1 serving per day for both sexes and contributed to about 30% of the recommended dietary allowances for calcium. Adolescents who regularly consumed dairy-based snacks meet the recommendations (3.2 servings of dairy products per day and about 98% recommended dietary allowances for calcium). We conclude that the institutional menu planning should be improved because the intake of dairy snacks will continue to be a problem for achieving a healthy diet in adolescences. PMID:19083403

  9. Estimation of daily dietary fluoride intake: 3-d food diary v. 2-d duplicate plate.

    PubMed

    Omid, N; Maguire, A; O'Hare, W T; Zohoori, F V

    2015-12-28

    The 3-d food diary method (3-d FD) or the 2-d duplicate plate (2-d DP) method have been used to measure dietary fluoride (F) intake by many studies. This study aimed to compare daily dietary F intake (DDFI) estimated by the 3-d FD and 2-d DP methods at group and individual levels. Dietary data for sixty-one healthy children aged 4-6 years were collected using 3-d FD and 2-d DP methods with a 1-week gap between each collection. Food diary data were analysed for F using the Weighed Intake Analysis Software Package, whereas duplicate diets were analysed by an acid diffusion method using an F ion-selective electrode. Paired t test and linear regression were used to compare dietary data at the group and individual levels, respectively. At the group level, mean DDFI was 0·025 (sd 0·016) and 0·028 (sd 0·013) mg/kg body weight (bw) per d estimated by 3-d FD and 2-d DP, respectively. No statistically significant difference (P=0·10) was observed in estimated DDFI by each method at the group level. At an individual level, the agreement in estimating F intake (mg/kg bw per d) using the 3-d FD method compared with the 2-d DP method was within ±0·011 (95 % CI 0·009, 0·013) mg/kg bw per d. At the group level, DDFI data obtained by either the 2-d DP method or the 3-d FD method can be replaced. At an individual level, the typical error and the narrow margin between optimal and excessive F intake suggested that the DDFI data obtained by one method cannot replace the dietary data estimated from the other method. PMID:26568435

  10. Gastro-duodenal injury associated with intake of 100-325 mg aspirin daily.

    PubMed Central

    Oren, R.; Ligumsky, M.; Lysy, J.; Gonzales, J.; Zimmerman, J.

    1993-01-01

    During the year 1991, 43 patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and one with severe epigastric pain associated with intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were admitted for emergency endoscopy to our unit. Fourteen patients (33%) had been treated with 100-325 mg aspirin daily, 11 of them for at least one year. The mean age of this group was 71. Only two patients had a previous history of peptic ulcer. Five patients used anticoagulants or antiplatelet drugs concomitantly with aspirin. The endoscopic diagnosis of the sources of bleeding was erosive gastritis in eight patients, gastric ulcer in four, duodenal ulcer in five and oesophageal ulcer in one. Our results support findings by other groups, showing that doses of aspirin as low as 75 mg daily should be used in the management of elderly patients with thrombo-embolic disease. PMID:8255837

  11. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093

  12. Daily intake of lead in Wistar rats at different ages: Biochemical, genotoxic and physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Cássia Regina Bruno; Martinez, Claudia Bueno Dos Reis

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the daily intake of feed containing lead (2.0mg Pb kg(-1)) were evaluated in 45 (Pb45) and 90 (Pb90)-day-old Wistar female rats. Compared to the respective control groups, Pb45 rats consumed more feed and showed greater weight gain, but these parameters returned to control values in Pb90 rats. Higher blood glucose levels were observed in both Pb groups, whereas plasma insulin concentrations were higher in Pb45 but lower in the Pb90 group. Liver glycogen content was lower only in the Pb90 rats. There were no changes in plasma cortisol and acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain. Hematological alterations were observed only in Pb90 rats, which showed lower hemoglobin levels. In the liver, Pb45 rats showed decreased catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and increased glutathione reductase activity, but in the Pb90 group, glutathione levels were higher. Increased hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the lymphocytes were observed in both Pb groups. These results indicate that the daily intake of Pb for different periods results in metabolic changes and in the establishment of oxidative and genotoxic damage in female rats. PMID:26694652

  13. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093

  14. Human metabolic, mineral, and microbiota fluctuations across daily nutritional intake visualized by a data-driven approach.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Takuma; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Daily intake information is important for an understanding of the metabolic fluctuation of humans exposed to environmental stimuli. However, little investigation has been performed on the variations in dietary intake as an input and the relationship with human fecal, urinary, and salivary metabolic fluctuations as output information triggered by daily dietary intake. In the present study, we describe a data-driven approach for visualizing the daily intake information on a nutritional scale and for evaluating input-output responses under uncontrolled diets in a human study. For the input evaluation of nutritional intake, we collected information about daily dietary intake and converted this information to numeric data of nutritional elements. Furthermore, for the evaluation of output metabolic, mineral, and microbiota responses, we characterized the metabolic, mineral, and microbiota variations of noninvasive human samples of feces, urine, and saliva. The data-driven approach captured significant differences in the fluctuation of intestinal microbiota and some metabolites caused by a high-protein and a high-fat diet in daily life. This approach should contribute to the metabolic assessment of humans affected by environmental and nutritional factors under unlimited and uncontrolled diets. PMID:25626911

  15. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Markwald, Rachel R.; Melanson, Edward L.; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to −0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity. PMID:23479616

  16. Phytoestrogens in soy-based infant foods: concentrations, daily intake, and possible biological effects.

    PubMed

    Irvine, C H; Fitzpatrick, M G; Alexander, S L

    1998-03-01

    Exposure to estrogenic compounds may pose a developmental hazard to infants. Soy products, which contain the phytoestrogens, genistein and daidzein, are becoming increasingly popular as infant foods. To begin to evaluate the potential of the phytoestrogens in these products to affect infants, we measured total genistein and daidzein contents of commercially available soy-based infant formulas, infant cereals, dinners, and rusks. We also assayed phytoestrogens in dairy-based formulas and in breast milk from omnivorous or vegetarian mothers. In most cases, the glucoside forms of the phytoestrogens were hydrolyzed before separation by HPLC. Mean (+/-SEM) total genistein and daidzein contents in four soy infant formulas were 87+/-3 and 49+/-2 microg/g, respectively. The phytoestrogen content of cereals varied with brand, with genistein ranging from 3-287 microg/g and daidzein from 2-276 microg/g. By contrast, no phytoestrogens were detected in dairy-based infant formulas or in human breast milk, irrespective of the mother's diet (detection limit = 0.05 microg/ml). When fed according to the manufacturer's instruction, soy formulas provide the infant with a daily dose rate of total isoflavones (i.e., genistein + daidzein) of approximately 3 mg/kg body weight, which is maintained at a fairly constant level between 0-4 months of age. Supplementing the diet of 4-month-old infants with a single daily serving of cereal can increase their isoflavone intake by over 25%, depending on the brand chosen. This rate of isoflavone intake is much greater than that shown in adult humans to alter reproductive hormones. Since the available evidence suggests that infants can digest and absorb dietary phytoestrogens in active forms and since neonates are generally more susceptible than adults to perturbations of the sex steroid milieu, we suggest that it would be highly desirable to study the effects of soy isoflavones on steroid-dependent developmental processes in human babies. PMID:9492332

  17. Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. P.; Kennedy, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate ingested may be an important risk factor in the development of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Reliable food tables listing the oxalate content of foods are currently not available. The aim of this research was to develop an accurate and reliable method to measure the food content of oxalate. METHODS: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) were compared as direct techniques for the estimation of the oxalate content of foods. Foods were thoroughly homogenized in acid, heat extracted, and clarified by centrifugation and filtration before dilution in water for analysis. Five individuals consuming self-selected diets maintained food records for three days to determine their mean daily oxalate intakes. RESULTS: Both techniques were capable of adequately measuring the oxalate in foods with a significant oxalate content. With foods of very low oxalate content (<1.8 mg/100 g), IC was more reliable than CE. The mean daily intake of oxalate by the five individuals tested was 152 +/- 83 mg, ranging from 44 to 352 mg/day. CONCLUSIONS: CE appears to be the method of choice over IC for estimating the oxalate content of foods with a medium (>10 mg/100 g) to high oxalate content due to a faster analysis time and lower running costs, whereas IC may be better suited for the analysis of foods with a low oxalate content. Accurate estimates of the oxalate content of foods should permit the role of dietary oxalate in urinary oxalate excretion and stone formation to be clarified. Other factors, apart from the amount of oxalate ingested, appear to exert a major influence over the amount of oxalate excreted in the urine.

  18. Heavy metal content in various types of candies and their daily dietary intake by children.

    PubMed

    Devi, Parmila; Bajala, Vandana; Garg, V K; Mor, Suman; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-02-01

    Children are vulnerable to heavy metal contamination through consumption of candies and chocolates. Considering this representative samples (69) of candies and chocolates based on cocoa, milk and sugar were analyzed for selected heavy metals by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The average concentration of Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd was found to be 2.52 ± 2.49, 2.0 ± 1.20, 0.84 ± 1.35, and 0.17 ± 0.22 μg/g respectively. Results indicate that cocoa-based candies have higher metal content than milk- or sugar-based candies. The daily dietary intake of metals for children eating candies and chocolates was also calculated, and results indicated highest intake of Pb and Zn followed by Ni, Cd, and Cu. Comparison of the current study results with other studies around the globe shows that the heavy metal content in candies and chocolates is lower in India than reported elsewhere. However, to reduce the further dietary exposure of heavy metals through candies and chocolates, their content should be monitored regularly and particularly for Pb as children are highly susceptible to its toxicity. PMID:26759032

  19. Evaluation of estimated daily intake (EDI) of cadmium and lead for rice (Oryza sativa L.) in calcareous soils

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The excessive amounts of cadmium and lead in food chain can cause health problems for humans and ecosystem. Rice is an important food in human diet. Therefore this study was conducted in order to investigate cadmium and Lead concentrations in seed rice (Oryza saliva) of paddy fields in southwest of Iran. A total of 70 rice seed samples were collected from paddy fields in five regions of Khuzestan province, Southwest Iran, during harvesting time. In the samples cadmium and Lead concentrations were measured. To assess the daily intake of Cadmium and Lead by rice, daily consumption of rice was calculated. The results showed that average concentrations of Cadmium and Lead in rice seeds were 273.6 and 121.8 μg/kg, respectively. Less than 72% of rice seed samples had Cadmium concentrations above 200 μg/kg (i.e. Guide value for cadmium); and less than 3% had Lead concentrations above 150 μg/kg (i.e. Guide value for Lead). The estimated daily intakes of cadmium by the local population was calculated to 0.59 μg/day kg bw, which corresponds to 59% of the tolerable daily intakes (i.e. 1 μg/day kg bw). Eleven out of 70 samples (15.71%) exceed the tolerable daily intakes. The dietary intakes for Lead in the local population ranged from 0.22 to 0.47 μg/day kg bw. Tolerable daily intakes for Lead is 3.6 μg/day kg bw. As a whole, long term consumption of the local rice may bear high risk of heavy metal exposure to the consumer in the study region. PMID:23566692

  20. Selenium content in selected foods from the Greek market and estimation of the daily intake.

    PubMed

    Pappa, Eleni C; Pappas, Athanasios C; Surai, Peter F

    2006-12-15

    The total selenium content of foods purchased from the North West part of Greece was determined using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. The results of this study were within the range from other countries. The overall mean average of selenium concentration of the foods examined, in decreasing order, was found in sesame seeds (783.1 ng g(-1)), fish (246 ng g(-1)), legumes (162.5 ng g(-1)), eggs (123 ng g(-1)), bread (91.9 ng g(-1)), meat (71.7 ng g(-1)), cheese (69.8 ng g(-1)), yoghurt (23.6 ng g(-1)), nuts (19.6 ng g(-1)), milk (15.4 ng g(-1)), vegetables (6.5 ng g(-1)) and fruits (3.4 ng g(-1)). Considering the average daily individual consumption of these foods by Greeks, the average daily dietary intake of selenium supplied by this source is 39.3 microg per capita. PMID:16959300

  1. Daily milk intake improves vitamin B-12 status in young vegetarian Indians: an intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic Indian lacto vegetarians, who make up more than half of the Indian population in different geographic regions, have distinctly low vitamin B-12 concentrations than non- vegetarians. Vegetarians consume milk but it seems that the amount is not enough to improve vitamin B-12 status or vitamin B-12 concentration in milk itself may be low. The aim of this study was to determine if daily milk consumption can improve vitamin B-12 status. Methods Fifteen male and 36 female, young healthy post-graduate volunteers participated. Blood from ten participants (4 males and 6 females) was collected (day-1). They continued their regular diet for next fourteen days and on day-15, blood of all 51 participants was collected, plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was measured and were divided into two groups; Normal (vitamin B-12 >148 pmol/L, n?=?22) and Vitamin B-12 deficient (<148 pmol/L, n?=?29), the remaining plasma was stored. All participants consumed 600ml. of non-enriched buffalo milk (200 3) during the day along with their usual diet. Next day blood was collected for plasma holotranscobalamin II measurement. Subjects from deficient group continued to drink 400ml of milk daily for next 14days and blood was collected on day-30. Plasma holotranscoabalamin II (day-1, 15, 16, 30), vitamin B-12, folate, total homocysteine, creatinine and hematoloical parameters (day-1, 15, 30), and milk vitamin B-12 concentrations (day-15, 16, 30) were measured. Results Fifty seven per cent of the participants were vitamin B-12 deficient and 65% were hyperhomocysteinemic. No significant difference in biomarkers was observed when there was no intervention. Plasma holotranscobalamin II concentration increased from 19.6 to 22.27 pmol/L (p?intake in vitamin B-12 deficient subjects. Conclusions Regular intake of milk improved vitamin B-12 status of vitamin B-12 deficient vegetarians indicating a potential dietary strategy to improve the vitamin status. PMID:24107225

  2. Effects of metabolizable energy intake on tympanic temperature and average daily gain of steers finished in southern Chile during wintertime

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 24 Angus x Hereford steers (BW = 479.8 ± 4.48) were used to assess the effect of Metabolizable Energy Intake (MEI) on Average Daily Gain (ADG) and Tympanic Temperature (TT) during the wintertime in southern Chile. The study was conducted at the experimental field of the Catholic Universit...

  3. Daily intake of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc from drinking water: the Seattle study of trace metal exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Sharrett, A.R.; Carter, A.P.; Orheim, R.M.; Feinleib, M.

    1982-08-01

    The daily intake of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc from drinking water is estimated for men, women, and children living in Seattle based on their reported water consumption and the metal concentrations in water from their homes. Metal concentrations were closely associated with the type of plumbing in the home, which was found to be accurately reported by the subjects. Residents of homes with copper plumbing consumed a substantial proportion of their daily required copper from their drinking water, an important finding in view of the possible suboptimal copper levels in American diets. Lead intake levels from water in new homes was comparable to estimated U.S. dietary intakes, but was low relative to levels thought to be toxic. The results suggest practical methods for assessing the associations of chronic diseases with long-term, low-level exposures to these metals.

  4. Contribution of aluminum from packaging materials and cooking utensils to the daily aluminum intake.

    PubMed

    Müller, J P; Steinegger, A; Schlatter, C

    1993-10-01

    Migration of aluminum (Al) from packaging materials and cooking utensils into foods and beverages was determined at intervals during cooking or during storage by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. High amounts of Al migrated into acidic products such as mashed tomatoes during normal processing in normal, non-coated Al pans. After 60 min cooking an Al content of 10-15 mg/kg was measured in tomato sauce. Surprisingly, the Al concentration was also increased up to 2.6 mg/L after boiling tap water for 15 min in Al pans. Storage of Coca-Cola in internally lacquered Al cans resulted in Al levels below 0.25 mg/L. In contrast, non-coated Al camping bottles containing lime blossom tea acidified with lemon juice released up to 7 mg Al/L within 5 days. The Al concentration in coffee was lower than that of the tap water used in its preparation, even if prepared in Al heaters. In Switzerland, where most pans nowadays are made of stainless steel or teflon-coated Al, the average contribution for the use of Al utensils to the daily Al intake of 2-5 mg from the diet is estimated to be less than 0.1 mg. PMID:8249476

  5. Urinary excretion of arsenicals following daily intake of various seafoods during a two weeks intervention.

    PubMed

    Molin, M; Ulven, S M; Dahl, L; Goessler, W; Fliegel, D; Holck, M; Sloth, J J; Oshaug, A; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Ydersbond, T A

    2014-04-01

    The excretion pattern of arsenic (As) species after seafood intake varies widely depending on species ingested and individual handling. We have previously reported the 72 h urinary excretion of arsenicals following a single dose of seafood. Here, we report the excretion patterns in the same 37 subjects following 15 days daily consumption of either 150 g cod, salmon, blue mussels or potato (control), followed by a 72 h period with a low-As diet. In all seafood groups, total As (tAs) in plasma and urinary excretion of tAs, arsenobetaine (AB) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) increased significantly after the intervention. Confirming the single dose study AB and DMA excreted were apparently endogenously formed from other arsenicals ingested. Total tAs excretion was 1386, 763 and 303 μg in the cod, blue mussel and salmon groups, respectively; about twice the amounts after the single dose study indicating accumulation of arsenicals. In the cod group, rapid excretion after the single dose was associated with lower total As in blood and less accumulation after two weeks with seafood indicating lower accumulation. In the blue mussels group only, inorganic As (iAs) excretion increased significantly, whilst methylarsonate (MA) strongly increased, indicating a possible toxicological concern of repeated mussel consumption. PMID:24468672

  6. Energy supplementation and herbage allowance effects on daily intake in lactating mares.

    PubMed

    Collas, C; Dumont, B; Delagarde, R; Martin-Rosset, W; Fleurance, G

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about how to manage grazing horses, including the thresholds under which energy supplementation is required. Here we investigated the effects of daily herbage allowance (DHA) and energy supplementation (ES) on daily herbage intake in lactating mares of light breeds grazing high-quality regrowth during summer. Three contrasting DHA, low (LOW), medium (MED), and high (HIGH), that is, 35.0, 52.5, and 70.0 g DM?kg BW(-1)?d(-1), respectively, were obtained by adjusting pasture strip width. Eighteen Anglo-Arab and French Saddle lactating mares were either supplemented with 2.6 kg DM barley/d (SUP group; n= 9) or left nonsupplemented (NSUP group; n = 9) throughout the experiment. For 3 successive 2-wk periods, 3 groups of SUP mares (n = 3) and 3 groups of NSUP mares (n = 3) grazed each DHA according to a 3 3 Latin square design. Pregrazing sward surface height (SSH) was similar between treatments (26.6 cm), but postgrazing SSH differed significantly between each DHA (2.9, 4.4, and 5.7 cm for LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively; P < 0.001). Herbage DMI (HDMI) increased linearly from 18.5 to 23.4 g DM?kg BW(-1)?d(-1) with increasing DHA (i.e., 0.13 kg DM eaten/kg DM of herbage offered; P < 0.001) independently of ES and with no significant ES DHA interaction. This increase in HDMI resulted from an increase in grazing time between LOW (961 min/d) and MED and HIGH (1,021 min/d; P < 0.01) and from an increase in intake rate between LOW and MED (11.8 g DM/min) and HIGH (13.6 g DM/min; P < 0.01). Total digestible DMI (TDDMI) and NE intake (NEI) increased linearly from 12.3 to 15.2 g DM?kg BW?(-1)d(-1) and from 136.6 to 165.8 kJ?kg BW(-1)?d (-1)with increasing DHA (P < 0.001), respectively. Total digestible DMI and NEI were significantly lower for NSUP than for SUP mares: 12.5 vs. 14.9 g DM?kg BW(-1)?d(-1) (P < 0.01) and 134.6 vs. 166.5 kJ?kg BW(-1)?d(-1) (P < 0.001), respectively. Whereas SUP mares always met their energy requirements, NSUP mares no longer met theirs when DHA fell below 66 g DM?kg BW(-1)?d(-1) (i.e., 39 kg DM?mare(-1)?d(-1)). PMID:26020347

  7. Effects of daily consumption of one or varied peanut flavors on acceptance and intake.

    PubMed

    Jones, Joshua B; Provost, Marion; Keaver, Laura; Breen, Claire; Ludy, Mary-Jon; Mattes, Richard D

    2014-11-01

    To realize the health benefits associated with peanut consumption, it is important that they remain acceptable with regular intake. Peanuts are marketed with various flavorings so that consumers will not become fatigued by frequent consumption of any single flavor. This study sought to determine whether liking of peanuts or compliance to a peanut feeding intervention would differ based on receiving an individual flavor or a variety of flavors. Participants (n=151) were directed to consume 42 g peanuts/d for 12 weeks as 14-g servings of 3 different flavors (n=50) or a single flavor (n=25-26/group). The trial was randomized, with a parallel-group design. Neither the peanut flavor consumed nor the presence of variety had an impact on liking of the peanuts or compliance with the study protocol (p>0.05). Men had significantly greater compliance and liking ratings than women (p<0.05), but liking declines did not differ based on sex. Eating attitudes and dietary restraint did not correlate with liking or compliance. Peanuts were generally well-liked in the study, with a mean liking of 69 on a 100-mm visual analogue scale and a decrease of less than 15% over 12 weeks. Overall compliance to the protocol was 96.9%, suggesting participants were able to incorporate peanuts into their diet on a daily basis. These findings suggest a recommendation to regularly consume peanuts would be well-tolerated, facilitating their contribution to a healthy diet. The study was conducted between February 2010 and May 2012 at Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01886326. PMID:25064672

  8. The daily rhythm of milk synthesis is dependent on the timing of feed intake in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Rottman, L. Whitney; Ying, Yun; Zhou, Kan; Bartell, Paul A.; Harvatine, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Regulation of the daily rhythm of milk synthesis is important to production animals and breastfeeding, but is difficult to observe in nursing animals. The rate of food intake varies over the day and is expected to create a daily rhythm of nutrient absorption. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of food intake entrains a daily pattern of milk synthesis. Seventeen Holstein cows were used in a crossover design. Treatments were ad libitum feeding of a total mixed ration once daily (1× fed) or fed in four equal meals every 6 h (4× fed). Cows were milked every 6 h the last 7 days of each period. There was a treatment by time of day interaction for milk and milk component yield and concentration. Milk fat and protein concentration and yield exhibited a daily rhythm and the amplitude of the rhythm was reduced in 4× fed. In addition, milk fat percent was higher in 4× fed than 1× fed at three of the four milking intervals (0.22–0.45% higher) and 4× fed increased daily milk fat yield. Treatment by time of day interactions were detected for plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen. These variables also fit a cosine function with a 24 h period and the amplitudes of plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen rhythms were decreased by 4× feeding. In conclusion, there is a circadian pattern of milk synthesis in the dairy cow that is responsive to the timing of food intake. PMID:24963033

  9. Temporal trends in daily dietary intakes of DDTs and HCHs in urban populations from Beijing and Shenyang, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanxin; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Cao, Jun; Wong, Minghong; Tao, Shu

    2013-06-01

    The temporal trends in daily dietary exposure of the populations in Beijing and Shenyang, China to DDTs and HCHs through consumption of various food categories and the associated health risks were investigated in this work. The estimated dietary intakes of DDTs and HCHs in 2005/2007 were almost one and two orders of magnitude lower than those in 1992 and in the 1970s, respectively, revealing the historical decrease of DDT and HCH in Chinese foods after their applications were banned. The relative contributions of different foodstuffs to the overall intakes of DDTs and HCHs in the 1970s and in 1992 were very different from those in 2005/2007, mainly due to the remarkable concentration variance in foodstuffs and changes in diet habit of population. According to the hazard guidelines, it is concluded that intakes of these two pesticides in 2005/2007 may not exert adverse effects on human health. PMID:23427859

  10. Breakfast skipping and breakfast type are associated with daily nutrient intakes and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Seokhwa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Emerging evidence shows that eating breakfast and breakfast types may be associated with health outcomes and dietary intakes in various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between breakfast types in Korean adults with their daily nutrient intakes and health outcomes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 11,801 20- to 64-year-old adults (age 42.9 ± 11.8 yrs [mean ± standard error of the mean]; male 41.1%, female 58.9%) in 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data were divided into 5 groups based on breakfast types in a 24-hr dietary recall: rice with 3 or more side dishes (Rice3+, 35.3%), rice with 0-2 side dishes (Rice0-2, 34.73%), noodles (1.56%), bread and cereal (6.56%), and breakfast skipping (21.63%). Daily nutrient intakes and the risk of metabolic syndrome were compared among five groups. RESULTS Compared with Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake levels, the breakfast-skipping group showed the lowest intake level in most nutrients, whereas the Rice3+ group showed the highest. Fat intake was higher in the bread and noodle groups than in the other groups. When compared with the Rice3+ group, the odds ratios for the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome were increased in the breakfast skipping, Rice0-2, and noodle groups after controlling for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS The rice-based breakfast group showed better nutritional status and health outcomes when eating with 3 or more side dishes. Nutrition education is needed to emphasize both the potential advantage of the rice-based, traditional Korean diet in terms of nutritional content and the importance of food diversity. PMID:26060541

  11. Consuming More of Daily Caloric Intake at Dinner Predisposes to Obesity. A 6-Year Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Simona; Musso, Giovanni; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Fadda, Maurizio; Fedele, Debora; Gambino, Roberto; Gentile, Luigi; Durazzo, Marilena; Ghigo, Ezio; Cassader, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives It has been hypothesized that assuming most of the caloric intake later in the day leads to metabolic disadvantages, but few studies are available on this topic. Aim of our study was to prospectively examine whether eating more of the daily caloric intake at dinner leads to an increased risk of obesity, hyperglycemia, metabolic syndrome, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Subjects/Methods 1245 non-obese, non-diabetic middle-aged adults from a population-based cohort underwent a 3-day food record questionnaire at enrollment. Anthropometric values, blood pressure, blood metabolic variables, and estimated liver fat were measured at baseline and at 6-year follow-up. Design Prospective cohort study. Results Subjects were divided according to tertiles of percent daily caloric intake at dinner. A significant increase in the incidence rate of obesity (from 4.7 to 11.4%), metabolic syndrome (from 11.1 to 16.1%), and estimated NAFLD (from 16.5 to 23.8%) was observed from the lower to higher tertile. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for multiple covariates, subjects in the highest tertile showed an increased risk of developing obesity (OR = 2.33; 95% CI 1.17–4.65; p = 0.02), metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.52; 95% CI 1.01–2.30; p = 0.04), and NAFLD (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.10–2.22; p = 0.01). Conclusions Consuming more of the daily energy intake at dinner is associated with an increased risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD. PMID:25250617

  12. Daily polyphenol intake from fresh fruits in Portugal: contribution from berry fruits.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Paula; Cardoso, Susana; Pimpão, Rui Carlos; Tavares, Lucélia; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Santos, Cláudia Nunes

    2013-12-01

    Fresh fruits, particularly berries, are rich in polyphenols. These bioactive compounds are important in the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to assess polyphenol intake from fresh fruit in Portugal and the relative contribution of berries to overall intake, using an online semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of processed berry products was also studied. Mean fresh fruit consumption was 365.6 ± 8.2 g/day. Berries accounted for 9% of total fresh fruit intake, from which 80% were due to strawberries. Total polyphenol intake from fresh fruits was 783.9 ± 31.7 mg of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) per day, from which 14% were from berries. Within berries, strawberries accounted for 11% of total polyphenol intake, with the other consumed berries accounting for 3% of the total polyphenol intake per day. Main reasons reported for relative low consumption of berries were market availability and price. The most consumed processed berry product was yogurt. PMID:23862729

  13. Differential effects of daily snack food intake on the reinforcing value of food in obese and nonobese women123

    PubMed Central

    Bulkley, Alison M; Badawy, Rebecca L; Krause, Nicole; McCann, Sarah; Epstein, Leonard H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Food reinforcement, ie, motivation to obtain food, is associated with energy intake and obesity. Finding ways to decrease the reinforcing value of unhealthy foods may help with adherence to diets and maintenance of weight loss. Our previous study in nonobese adults showed that daily consumption of the same snack food (food consumed apart from meals) for 14 d significantly decreased its reinforcing value. Objectives: The aims of this study were to replicate and extend these findings to obese individuals and to examine the effects of different portion sizes of snack foods on food reinforcement. Design: Food reinforcement and liking were tested in 31 obese and 27 nonobese women at baseline and after 2 wk of daily consumption of 0, 100, or 300 kcal/d of the same snack food. Results: We found a significant interaction of phase, portion size, and body mass index on the pattern of operant responding for food. Obese women had a significant increase in food reinforcement after consuming the 300-kcal portion of food for 2 wk, whereas nonobese women had the opposite response. No significant differences were found on the reinforcing value with the 0- and 100-kcal portion-size conditions. Women in the 300-kcal group (obese and nonobese) reported a significant decrease in snack food liking from baseline to after daily intake. Conclusions: These findings suggest that obese and nonobese women respond differently to the daily intake of a snack food and that this may not be a viable mechanism for reducing food reinforcement in obese women. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00837694. PMID:19458018

  14. Naltrexone treatment produces dose-related effects on food and water intake but daily alcohol consumption is not affected.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Jorge; Barrios De Tomasi, Eliana

    2008-08-01

    There is evidence that naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, affects alcohol and food consumption. Though food intake is inherently involved when naltrexone effects on alcohol consumption have been studied, the differential effect of this opioid antagonist on both food and alcohol intake has not yet been reported. The present study analyzed the effect of a single daily dose of naltrexone on alcohol, food and water intake when these substances were available on a continuous basis. Wistar male rats were treated with s.c. injections of either naltrexone (2 or 10 mg/kg/day/rat) or a saline solution, 0.2 ml/day/rat for 7 days. This period was followed by a lapse of 7 days with no treatment (PT period), and this sequence of naltrexone or saline treatment followed by a period without treatment was repeated four times. Neither 2 mg/kg nor 10 mg/kg of naltrexone affected alcohol consumption, though the higher dose of naltrexone (10 mg/kg) increased food intake with respect to both the PT periods and the saline group and decreased water consumption with respect to the corresponding PT periods. Naltrexone at 2 mg/kg produced a decrease in food intake but only with respect to the PT periods. These results suggest that the effects of a single dose of naltrexone on alcohol consumption may not be evident when 24-h access to alcohol is assessed; however, naltrexone may produce different dose-related effects on food and water intake, suggesting that they may be mediated by distinct opioid system mechanisms. PMID:18681987

  15. Betel quid chewing as a source of manganese exposure: total daily intake of manganese in a Bangladeshi population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Methods Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Results Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 μg L-1) compared to non-chewers (0.62 μg L-1). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg-1 (range 26 -518 mg kg-1). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg-1 (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. Conclusion We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity. PMID:21299859

  16. Daily dry matter intake to sustain body weight of mature, nonlactating, nonpregnant cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To quantify the relationship between DM consumption, the ability to sustain weight per unit of DMI and days to reach weight equilibrium among diverse cattle breeds, weight and DM intake data were recorded for mature, non-pregnant and non-lactating cows sampled from Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Heref...

  17. Daily fluid intake and outcomes in kidney recipients: post hoc analysis from the randomized ABCAN trial.

    PubMed

    Weber, M; Berglund, D; Reule, S; Jackson, S; Matas, A J; Ibrahim, H N

    2015-03-01

    Generous and even excessive fluid intake is routinely recommended to kidney transplant recipients despite minimal evidence to support this practice. We hypothesized that increased fluid intake, ascertained by 24-h urine volume output, may adversely affect graft outcomes as it would impose an extra workload on a limited number of nephrons. Kidney transplant recipients who were randomized to losartan vs. placebo in the Angiotensin II Blockade for Chronic Allograft Nephropathy (ABCAN) trial (n = 153) underwent baseline, five-yr biopsies, and annual iothalamate glomerular filtration rate assessment. Recipients with higher urine volume at randomization had higher urinary sodium and also higher urinary protein. The proportion using diuretics or CNI based regimens were similar across urinary volume tertiles. The highest urinary volume tertile (>2.56 L/d) did not predict the development of interstitial volume doubling or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (OR = 3.52, 95% CI 0.4, 31.24, p = 0.26), interstitial volume doubling or all-cause ESRD (OR = 7.04, 95% CI 0.66, 74.87, p = 0.11), and was not associated with the conventional endpoint of doubling serum creatinine, all-cause ESRD, or death (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.21, 3.71, p = 0.87). These results suggest that the current practice of liberal fluid intake may not be beneficial in low risk and mostly Caucasian transplant recipients. PMID:25619874

  18. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I–VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496

  19. Recommendations for fluoride limits in drinking water based on estimated daily fluoride intake in the Upper East Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Craig, Laura; Lutz, Alexandra; Berry, Kate A; Yang, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Both dental and skeletal fluorosis caused by high fluoride intake are serious public health concerns around the world. Fluorosis is particularly pronounced in developing countries where elevated concentrations of naturally occurring fluoride are present in the drinking water, which is the primary route of exposure. The World Health Organization recommended limit of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1), which is also the upper limit for fluoride in drinking water for several other countries such as Canada, China, India, Australia, and the European Union. In the United States the enforceable limit is much higher at 4 mg F(-) L(-1), which is intended to prevent severe skeletal fluorosis but does not protect against dental fluorosis. Many countries, including the United States, also have notably lower unenforced recommended limits to protect against dental fluorosis. One consideration in determining the optimum fluoride concentration in drinking water is daily water intake, which can be high in hot climates such as in northern Ghana. The results of this study show that average water intake is about two times higher in Ghana than in more temperate climates and, as a result, the fluoride intake is higher. The results also indicate that to protect the Ghanaian population against dental fluorosis, the maximum concentration of fluoride in drinking water for children under 6-8 years should be 0.6 mg F(-) L(-1) (and lower in the first two years of life), and the limit for older children and adults should be 1.0 mg F(-) L(-1). However, when considering that water treatment is not cost-free, the most widely recommended limit of 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1) - which is currently the limit in Ghana--may be appropriate for older children and adults since they are not vulnerable to dental fluorosis once the tooth enamel is formed. PMID:26058000

  20. Higher stimulus control is associated with less cigarette intake in daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Stuart G; Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael; Schüz, Natalie

    2016-03-01

    It is well established that environmental stimuli influence smoking in light, and to a lesser degree, heavy smokers. A 2-factor model of dependence suggests that the influence of stimulus control is masked among heavier smokers who primarily smoke for nicotine maintenance. The current study aimed to assess the influence of stimulus control across a range of moderate to heavy daily smokers. Furthermore, as local tobacco control policies may change the role of stimulus control, the study aimed to replicate previous U.S. findings on stimulus control in an Australian setting marked by strong tobacco control policies. In 2 Ecological Momentary Assessment studies, 420 participants monitored antecedents of smoking and nonsmoking situations. In a set of idiographic logistic regression analyses, situational antecedents were used to predict smoking occasions within each individual's data. Linear regression analysis was used to test for the association between stimulus control and smoking rate, and to test for differences between the 2 samples. Daily smokers' smoking was under considerable stimulus control, which was weaker at higher smoking rates. Overall, there was greater stimulus control in the Australian sample. Daily smokers also experience a degree of stimulus control, which is less influential in heavier smokers. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26766542

  1. Diel feeding patterns and daily food intake of juvenile stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Takeshi; Katayama, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shoji, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pleuronectid flatfish are considered visual day feeders, but their ability to feed at night has not been examined in the field. Juvenile (age-0) stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus were collected, and their stomach contents were investigated in situ every 4 h over a 24-h period in an estuarine habitat to elucidate diel feeding periodicity. The weight of juvenile stomach contents was usually the highest around dusk and the main prey was bivalve siphons. To reveal whether juveniles feed only at particular times during the day or throughout a 24-h period, we conducted 24-h cage experiments in which 10 juveniles with empty stomachs were held in a cage for approximately 4 h (six trials). This experiment was carried out three times during different moon phases. Juveniles primarily ingested prey during the day, but 30% of fish that were caged at night also ingested prey. The number of successful captures by the caged fish was much greater during the day than that at night. These results indicate that stone flounder generally feed during the day and they may only feed at night under unusual situations, although they have the ability to capture prey at night. The mean daily ration estimated by diel changes in stomach content weight varied from 3.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.8%) to 13.2% (11.0-15.6%) of body weight between survey dates, indicating that daily food consumption by fish estimated from a single survey may be strongly biased.

  2. Effect of differential gastric evacuation and multispecies prey items on estimates of daily energy intake in juvenile Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolak, A.S.; Rondorf, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The caloric density of stomach contents in juvenile chinook salmon,Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, was not affected by gastric evacuation, suggesting a constant caloric density of stomach contents during evacuation. Differences in the caloric density of prey consumed did affect caloric density of stomach contents over a 24-h period. Consumption of the amphipodCorophium sp. was associated with reduced caloric densities of stomach contents. During periods whenCorophium contributed more than 4% of the stomach contents, average caloric density declined from 5.56 to 5.33 kcal g−1. Despite this difference, estimates of daily energy intake of juvenile chinook salmon were only 3%, greater when developed from the mean caloric density of stomach contents excludingCorophium.

  3. Effects of restricted feed intake on finishing pigs weighing between 68 and 114 kilograms fed twice or 6 times daily.

    PubMed

    Schneider, J D; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Dritz, S S; Derouchey, J M; Sulabo, R C

    2011-10-01

    In a previous study with limit-fed gestating gilts, we observed that gilts fed 6 times/d had greater ADG than those fed the same amount over 2 feedings. To confirm these earlier responses, we used finishing pigs as a model in two 42-d trials and two 28-d trials to evaluate the effects of restricted feed intake and feeding frequency (2 vs. 6 times/d, floor fed) on pig performance between 68 and 114 kg. In all experiments, pigs (10/pen) were housed in 1.8 × 3.1 m pens with a half-solid, half-slatted concrete floor. Pigs were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet formulated to 1.15% standardized ileal digestible Lys and 3,294 kcal of ME/kg. In Exp. 1 to 3, energy and Lys were supplied to pigs according to NRC (1998) calculations to target an ADG of 0.80 kg. In Exp. 4, the diet was supplied to pigs to target an ADG of 0.80 kg (low feed intake) or 0.95 kg (high feed intake) to determine if the amount of energy above the maintenance requirement and feeding frequency affected pig performance. Pigs were fed by dropping similar amounts of feed onto the solid concrete floor either 2 (0700 or 1400 h) or 6 times (3 meals within 2 h at the morning and afternoon feedings) per day with an Accu-Drop Feed Dispenser (AP Systems, Assumption, IL). In Exp. 1 and 2, pigs fed 6 times daily had increased (P < 0.02) ADG and G:F compared with pigs fed 2 times per day. Greater feeding frequency increased (P < 0.05) the duration of time spent feeding and standing and reduced the lying time. In Exp. 3, a third treatment was included to determine whether the improvements in performance were due to decreased feed wastage. This treatment was designed to minimize feed wastage by dropping feed closer to the floor for pigs fed 2 times per day. Pigs fed 6 times daily had improved (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F compared with pigs in either treatment fed 2 times per day. No difference (P > 0.05) in performance was observed between pigs fed 2 times per day when feed was dropped from the feed drop or by the modified method. In Exp. 4, increasing the feeding frequency from 2 to 6 times per day improved (P < 0.01) ADG and G:F for pigs fed the low feed intake and tended to increase (P < 0.06) ADG and improved (P < 0.05) G:F for pigs fed the high feed intake. In limit-feeding situations, increasing the frequency of feeding from 2 to 6 times per day improved pig performance, which confirmed our earlier findings in gestating gilts. PMID:21934028

  4. Technical Data Interoperability (TDI) Pathfinder Via Emerging Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, Mike; Gill, Paul; Hill, Bradley; Ibach, Brandon; Jones, Corey; Ungar, David; Barch, Jeffrey; Ingalls, John; Jacoby, Joseph; Manning, Josh; Bengtsson, Kjell; Falls, Mark; Kent, Peter; Heath, Shaun; Kennedy, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The TDI project (TDI) investigates trending technical data standards for applicability to NASA vehicles, space stations, payloads, facilities, and equipment. TDI tested COTS software compatible with a certain suite of related industry standards for capabilities of individual benefits and interoperability. These standards not only esnable Information Technology (IT) efficiencies, but also address efficient structures and standard content for business processes. We used source data from generic industry samples as well as NASA and European Space Agency (ESA) data from space systems.

  5. [Iodine prophylaxis in Poland in light of the WHO recommendation on reduction of the daily salt intake].

    PubMed

    Szybiński, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    Iodine prophylaxis started in Poland in 1935, was suspended in periods of time 1939-1945 and 1980-1988. In 1991 Polish Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (PCCIDD) was established and epidemiological survey performed in 1992-1993, defined Poland as an area with moderated - at seaside part as light - severity of iodine deficiency. In 1996 the Minister of Health introduced disposition on obligatory iodization of household salt with 30+/-10 mg KJ/kg and neonates formula with 10 ug/100 ml. Additionally supplementation the pregnant and breast feeding women with daily dose of iodides 100-150 ug was recommended. This very effective model resulted with eradication of endemic goiter in schoolchildren 6-12-years-old, decrease of prevalence of goiter in adults and pregnant women decrease of frequency of the elevated TSH concentration in neonates blood and decrease of dynamic of increasing an incidence rate of differentiated thyroid cancer and its follicular fraction. Poland has been defined by WHO and ICCIDD as a country with sufficient iodine prophylaxis and WHO collaborating Centre for Nutrition has been established at the Department of Endocrinology CMUJ in Krakow. WHO in 2006 and 2007 formulated recommendation on reduction of daily salt intake and additional new carriers of iodine are recommended: milk and natural mineral water containing known concentration of iodide (100-200 ug/l). The coordinating organization for iodine prophylaxis in Poland is PCCIDD as executive body of the National Program for Elimination of Iodine Deficiency financed by the Ministry of Health. PMID:19772817

  6. 41 CFR 301-1.2 - What is an “employee” for purposes of TDY allowances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 1-APPLICABILITY § 301... Government service as an expert or consultant and paid on a daily when-actually-employed (WAE) basis; or (c) An individual serving without pay or at $1 a year (also referred to as “invitational traveler”)....

  7. 41 CFR 301-1.2 - What is an “employee” for purposes of TDY allowances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 1-APPLICABILITY § 301... Government service as an expert or consultant and paid on a daily when-actually-employed (WAE) basis; or (c) An individual serving without pay or at $1 a year (also referred to as “invitational traveler”)....

  8. Polybrominated biphenyl ethers in breast milk and infant formula from Shanghai, China: temporal trends, daily intake, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Kaiqiong; Yang, Dan; Ma, Li; Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhou, Jing; Fang, Xiangming; Yu, Yingxin

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the temporal trend of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk and assess the risks to breast- and formula-fed infants, breast milk and infant formula samples were collected from Shanghai, China. The PBDE concentrations decreased from 14.8 to 4.85 pmol/g lipid weight during 2006-2012, with a rate of decrease by half approximately every four years. Although there were no significant correlations between the total PBDEs in breast milk and age, parity, and pre-pregnant BMI of mothers, there were significant differences between primiparous and multiparous mothers for tri- to hepta-BDEs. PBDEs in breast milk were much higher than those in infant formula (equivalent to 91.9 vs. 5.25 pg/mL). Among the different brand infant formulas, there were no significant differences in their PBDE concentrations. The estimated daily intake of PBDEs by breast- and formula-fed infants suggested that breast-fed infants are exposed to much more PBDEs than formula-fed ones (12.9 vs. 0.72 ng/kg-bw/day). However, the hazard quotient values were much smaller than one, indicating that the ingested PBDEs did not exert obvious adverse effects on both breast- and formula-fed infants considering non-carcinogenic effect endpoint. This is the first report on temporal trend of PBDEs in breast milk from China. PMID:25155891

  9. Blood, breast milk and urine: potential biomarkers of exposure and estimated daily intake of ochratoxin A: a review.

    PubMed

    Soto, Julia Bellver; Ruiz, Mara-Jos; Manyes, Lara; Juan-Garca, Ana

    2016-02-01

    The purposes of this review are to study potential biomarkers of exposure for ochratoxin A (OTA) in biological fluids (blood, urine and breast milk) for the period 2005-14, calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) of OTA by using database consumption for the Spanish population, and, finally, to correlate OTA levels detected in blood and EDI values calculated from food products. The values of OTA detected in potential biomarkers of exposure for blood, breast milk and urine ranged from 0.15 to 18.0, from 0.002 to 13.1, and from 0.013 to 0.2ngml(-1), respectively. The calculated EDI for OTA in plasma ranged from 0.15 to 26 ngkg(-1) bwday(-1), higher than that obtained in urine (0.017-0.4ngkg(-1) bwday(-1)). All these values are correlated with the range of EDI for OTA calculated from food products: 0.0001-25.2ngkg(-1) bwday(-1). PMID:26565760

  10. The estrogenicity of methylparaben and ethylparaben at doses close to the acceptable daily intake in immature Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Libei; Yu, Tong; Guo, Jilong; Zhang, Zhaobin; Hu, Ying; Xiao, Xuan; Sun, Yingli; Xiao, Han; Li, Junyu; Zhu, Desheng; Sai, Linlin; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The estrogenicity of parabens at human exposure levels has become a focus of concern due to the debate over whether the estrogenicity of parabens is strong enough to play a role in the increased incidence of breast cancer. In this study, the uterotrophic activities of methylparaben (MP) and ethylparaben (EP) at doses close to the acceptable daily intake as allocated by JECFA were demonstrated in immature Sprague-Dawley rats by intragastric administration, and up-regulations of estrogen-responsive biomarker genes were found in uteri of the rats by quantitative real-time RT–PCR (Q-RT-PCR). At the same time, the urinary concentrations of MP and EP, as measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in rats that received the same doses of MP and EP, were found to be near the high urinary levels reported in human populations in recent years. These results show the in vivo estrogenicity of MP and EP at human exposure levels, and indicate that populations exposed to large amounts of MP and EP may have a high burden of estrogenicity-related diseases. In addition, a molecular docking simulation showed interaction between the parabens and the agonist-binding pocket of human estrogen receptor α (hERα). PMID:27121550

  11. The estrogenicity of methylparaben and ethylparaben at doses close to the acceptable daily intake in immature Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Libei; Yu, Tong; Guo, Jilong; Zhang, Zhaobin; Hu, Ying; Xiao, Xuan; Sun, Yingli; Xiao, Han; Li, Junyu; Zhu, Desheng; Sai, Linlin; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The estrogenicity of parabens at human exposure levels has become a focus of concern due to the debate over whether the estrogenicity of parabens is strong enough to play a role in the increased incidence of breast cancer. In this study, the uterotrophic activities of methylparaben (MP) and ethylparaben (EP) at doses close to the acceptable daily intake as allocated by JECFA were demonstrated in immature Sprague-Dawley rats by intragastric administration, and up-regulations of estrogen-responsive biomarker genes were found in uteri of the rats by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR). At the same time, the urinary concentrations of MP and EP, as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in rats that received the same doses of MP and EP, were found to be near the high urinary levels reported in human populations in recent years. These results show the in vivo estrogenicity of MP and EP at human exposure levels, and indicate that populations exposed to large amounts of MP and EP may have a high burden of estrogenicity-related diseases. In addition, a molecular docking simulation showed interaction between the parabens and the agonist-binding pocket of human estrogen receptor α (hERα). PMID:27121550

  12. Low-Dose Daily Intake of Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone-7) Improves Osteocalcin γ-Carboxylation: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Naoko; Sato, Toshiro; Yamashita, Takatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin K is essential for bone health, but the effects of low-dose vitamin K intake in Japanese subjects remain unclear. We investigated the effective minimum daily menaquinone-7 dose for improving osteocalcin γ-carboxylation. Study 1 was a double-blind, randomized controlled dose-finding trial; 60 postmenopausal women aged 50-69 y were allocated to one of four dosage group and consumed 0, 50, 100, or 200 μg menaquinone-7 daily for 4 wk, respectively, with a controlled diet in accordance with recommended daily intakes for 2010 in Japan. Study 2 was a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial based on the results of Study 1; 120 subjects aged 20-69 y were allocated to the placebo or MK-7 group and consumed 0 or 100 μg menaquinone-7 daily for 12 wk, respectively. In both studies, circulating carboxylated osteocalcin and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured. The carboxylated osteocalcin/undercarboxylated osteocalcin ratio decreased significantly from baseline in the 0 μg menaquinone-7 group, in which subjects consumed the recommended daily intake of vitamin K with vitamin K1 and menaquinone-4 (Study 1). Menaquinone-7 increased the carboxylated osteocalcin/undercarboxylated osteocalcin ratio dose dependently, and significant effects were observed in both the 100 and 200 μg groups compared with the 0 μg group. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin concentrations decreased significantly, and the carboxylated osteocalcin/undercarboxylated osteocalcin ratio increased significantly in the 100 μg menaquinone-7 group compared with the placebo group (Study 2). Daily menaquinone-7 intake ≥100 μg was suggested to improve osteocalcin γ-carboxylation. PMID:26875489

  13. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  14. Beneficial effects of citrus juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on atopic dermatitis: results of daily intake by adult patients in two open trials

    PubMed Central

    HARIMA-MIZUSAWA, Naomi; KAMACHI, Keiko; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; NOZAKI, Daisuke; UETAKE, Tatsuo; YOKOMIZO, Yuji; NAGINO, Takayuki; TANAKA, Akira; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; NAKAMURA, Shinichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether daily intake of citrus juice containing heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132-fermented juice) alleviates symptoms of atopic dermatitis. This was a natural extension of our previous study in which LP0132 was shown to enhance IL-10 production in vitro and LP0132-fermented juice was found to alleviate symptoms and enhance quality of life (QOL) in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In two open trials, Trial 1 and Trial 2, 32 and 18 adult patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis consumed LP0132-fermented juice for 8 weeks. Skin conditions and QOL were subjectively evaluated using Skindex-16 before intake of the juice (Pre-treatment), 8 weeks after starting intake (Treatment) and 8 weeks after termination of intake (Post-treatment). Blood parameters were also analyzed. Comparison of the Treatment and Post-treatment time points with the Pre-treatment time point revealed significant reductions in the Skindex-16 overall score and the 3 domain subscores (symptoms, emotions, and functioning domains) in both trials. Moreover, blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgEs for Japanese cedar and cypress pollen were significantly attenuated in Trial 2. The findings suggest that daily intake of citrus fermented juice containing heat-killed LP0132 has beneficial effects on symptoms and QOL in patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis due to an immunomodulatory effect via attenuation of IgE and ECP. PMID:26858928

  15. Changes to daily feed intake during the laying period alters embryonic MSTN and MYOG gene expression in genetically fat and lean lines of chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Shan, A S; Hu, J W; Zheng, Y B; Xu, L M; Chen, Z H

    2013-01-01

    1. Broiler breeders are unable to self-regulate feed intake to a level that permits reproductive function and restricted feeding is normal for broiler parent stock. The aim of this study was to determine whether myostatin (MSTN) and myogenin (MYOG) mRNA expression could be altered in relation to differences in body composition of the embryos and the hen's diet. 2. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with two dietary intake levels (100% and 75% of nutrition recommendation) and two broiler genotypes (Fat line and Lean line). Hens (384 of each line) were randomly divided at 23 weeks of age into 4 treatments, with each treatment represented by 12 replicates of 16 birds each. The experiment started when the rate of lay reached 5% and continued until 54 weeks of age. 3. There were significant effects of line and dietary intake, and interactions between them on MSTN and MYOG mRNA expression levels in embryonic tissues. The trend in MSTN mRNA expression level over the embryonic period was similar between lines. Low daily feed intake did not alter the trend in MSTN mRNA expression levels in either line, but significantly changed the peak values. MYOG mRNA expression varied by line and over time, with a delay in the Lean line. Low daily feed intake influenced the trend in MYOG mRNA expression levels in both lines and delayed its onset. PMID:24397509

  16. Beneficial effects of citrus juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on atopic dermatitis: results of daily intake by adult patients in two open trials.

    PubMed

    Harima-Mizusawa, Naomi; Kamachi, Keiko; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Nozaki, Daisuke; Uetake, Tatsuo; Yokomizo, Yuji; Nagino, Takayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Miyazaki, Kouji; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether daily intake of citrus juice containing heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132-fermented juice) alleviates symptoms of atopic dermatitis. This was a natural extension of our previous study in which LP0132 was shown to enhance IL-10 production in vitro and LP0132-fermented juice was found to alleviate symptoms and enhance quality of life (QOL) in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In two open trials, Trial 1 and Trial 2, 32 and 18 adult patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis consumed LP0132-fermented juice for 8 weeks. Skin conditions and QOL were subjectively evaluated using Skindex-16 before intake of the juice (Pre-treatment), 8 weeks after starting intake (Treatment) and 8 weeks after termination of intake (Post-treatment). Blood parameters were also analyzed. Comparison of the Treatment and Post-treatment time points with the Pre-treatment time point revealed significant reductions in the Skindex-16 overall score and the 3 domain subscores (symptoms, emotions, and functioning domains) in both trials. Moreover, blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgEs for Japanese cedar and cypress pollen were significantly attenuated in Trial 2. The findings suggest that daily intake of citrus fermented juice containing heat-killed LP0132 has beneficial effects on symptoms and QOL in patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis due to an immunomodulatory effect via attenuation of IgE and ECP. PMID:26858928

  17. Exposure estimates to Fusarium mycotoxins through cereals intake.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Ruiz, María José; Font, Guillermina; Berrada, Houda

    2013-11-01

    Mycotoxins are harmful substances produced by fungi in several commodities with a widespread presence in foodstuffs. Human exposure to mycotoxins occurs mainly by contaminated food. The quantitation of mycotoxins in cereal-based food, highly consumed by different age population, is of concern. In this survey, 159 cereal-based samples classified as wheat, maize and rice-based, have been evaluated for the occurrence of patulin, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, nivalenol, neosolaniol, HT-2, T-2 and zearalenone by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Intakes were calculated for average consumers among adults, children and infants and compared with the tolerable daily intakes (TDI). Data obtained were used to estimate the potential exposure levels. 65.4% of the samples were contaminated with at least one mycotoxin and 15.7% of the analyzed samples showed co-occurrence of mycotoxin. The dietary exposure to HT-2 and T-2 toxins was estimated as 0.010 and 0.086 μg kg(-1) bw d(-1), amounting to 10% and 86% of the TDI, for adults and infants respectively. These results back up the necessity to take a vigilant attitude in order to minimize human intake of mycotoxins. PMID:24012140

  18. Human health risks from metals and metalloid via consumption of food animals near gold mines in Tarkwa, Ghana: estimation of the daily intakes and target hazard quotients (THQs).

    PubMed

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Akoto, Osei; Baidoo, Elvis; Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal and metalloid contamination in food resulting from mining is of major concern due to the potential risk involved. Food consumption is the most likely route of human exposure to metals. This study was therefore to assess metals in different organs and different animal species near gold mines used for human consumption (free-range chicken, goat and sheep) in Tarkwa, Ghana, and to estimate the daily intake and health risk. The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were measured with an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and Hg analysis was done using the mercury analyzer. Principal component analysis of the results showed a clear separation between chicken, grouped on one side, and the ruminants clustered on another side in both offal and muscle. Interestingly, As, Cd, Hg, Mn and Pb made one cluster in the offal of chicken. Chicken muscle also showed similar distribution with As, Hg and Pb clustered together. The daily intake of metals (μg/kg body weight/day) were in the following ranges; As [0.002 (kidneys of goat and sheep)-0.19 (chicken gizzard)], Cd [0.003 (chicken muscle)-0.55 (chicken liver)], Hg [0.002 (goat muscle)-0.29 (chicken liver)], Pb [0.01 (muscles and kidneys of goat and sheep)-0.96 (chicken gizzard)] and Mn [0.13 (goat kidney)-8.92 (sheep liver)]. From the results, daily intakes of As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Mn in these food animals were low compared to the provisional tolerable daily intake guidelines. The THQs although less than one, indicated that contributions of chicken gizzard and liver to toxic metal exposure in adults and especially children could be significant. PMID:25450929

  19. In vitro antifungal activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against Aspergillus parasiticus and Penicillium expansum and evaluation of the AITC estimated daily intake.

    PubMed

    Manyes, L; Luciano, F B; Mañes, J; Meca, G

    2015-09-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are natural compounds derived from cruciferous vegetables produced by enzymatic conversion of metabolites called glucosinolates. They are potentially useful antimicrobial compounds for food applications have been shown to be promising agents against cancer in human cell culture, animal models, and in epidemiological studies. In this study, the antifungal activity of the allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) was evaluated on two mycotoxigenic fungi as Aspergillus parasiticus and Penicillium expnsum, aflatoxins (AFs) and patulin (PAT) producers, employing an assay on solid medium. Also an approximation of the risk evaluation associated to the intake of food treated with the AITC to reduce the risk of fungi spoilage has been evaluated. On solid medium and after 20 days incubation the strain of Penicillium expansum was inhibited with AITC quantities highest than 50 mg, whereas the strain of A. parasiticus was sensible to AITC doses highest than 5 mg. The analysis of the risk assessment associated to the intake of several food classes treated with the bioactive compound AITC to prevent fungi spoilage evidenced that this product can be considered as safe due that the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) are always lower than the AITC Admissible Daily intake (ADI). PMID:26140951

  20. Perchlorate in indoor dust and human urine in China: contribution of indoor dust to total daily intake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Xiaojia; Wang, Dou; Li, Rudan; Ma, Yufang; Mo, Weiwen; Sun, Hongwen; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-02-17

    Perchlorate is used in fireworks and China is the largest fireworks producer and consumer in the world. Information regarding human exposure to perchlorate is scarce in China, and exposure via indoor dust ingestion (EDI indoor dust) has rarely been evaluated. In this study, perchlorate was found in indoor dust (detection rate: 100%, median: 47.4 μg/g), human urine (99%, 26.2 ng/mL), drinking water (100%, 3.99 ng/mL), and dairy milk (100%, 12.3 ng/mL) collected from cities that have fireworks manufacturing areas (Yueyang and Nanchang) and in cities that do not have fireworks manufacturing industries (Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Yuxi and Guilin) in China. In comparison with perchlorate levels reported for other countries, perchlorate levels in urine samples from fireworks sites and nonfireworks sites in China were higher. Median indoor dust perchlorate concentrations were positively correlated (r = 0.964, p < 0.001) with outdoor dust perchlorate levels reported previously. The total daily intake (EDI total) of perchlorate, estimated based on urinary levels, ranged from 0.090 to 27.72 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day for all studied participants; the percentage of donors who had EDI total exceeding the reference dose (RfD) recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) was 79%, 48%, and 25% for toddlers (median: 1.829 μg/kg bw/day), adults (0.669 μg/kg bw/day), and children (median: 0.373 μg/kg bw/day), respectively. Toddlers (0.258 μg/kg bw/day) had the highest median EDI indoor dust, which was 2 to 5 times greater than the EDI indoor dust calculated for other age groups (the range of median values: 0.044 to 0.127 μg/kg bw/day). Contribution of indoor dust to EDItotal was 26%, 28%, and 7% for toddlers, children, and adults, respectively. Indoor dust contributed higher percentage to EDI total than that by dairy milk (0.5-5%). PMID:25587720

  1. Selenium in groundwater and its contribution towards daily dietary Se intake under different hydrogeological zones of Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, Karaj S.; Dhillon, Surjit K.

    2016-02-01

    More than 750 groundwater samples collected from different hydrological zones of Punjab state in India were analysed for selenium and some quality parameters to determine suitability of groundwater for irrigation and drinking purpose. Selenium content varied from 0.01 to 35.6 μg L-1. Average Se content in groundwater was the highest in Northeastern Siwalik foothill zone (NSFZ) followed by Central zone (CZ) and Southwestern zone (SWZ). Majority of the water samples contained <10 μg Se L-1 - the safe limit for drinking purpose except one location each in SWZ and CZ and three locations in NSFZ. Only at one location, water contained >20 μg Se L-1 which is considered unsuitable for irrigation of crops. On the basis of pH, 42% of the samples were unfit for drinking in SWZ, 41% in CZ and 6% in NSFZ. Only in SWZ, 24% of the samples with high total dissolved salts were unfit for drinking and 18% unfit for irrigation purpose due to high EC. Selenium content in groundwater was inversely related to depth of water and the degree of relationship was higher for NSFZ (r = -0.342∗∗) followed by CZ (r = -0.157∗) and SWZ (r = -0.126∗). Depending on the amount of water consumed from 2 to 5 L, average Se intake varied from 1.66 to 6.39 μg d-1 and its contribution towards the recommended daily Se allowance ranged from 3.0% to 11.6% for women and 2.4% to 9.1% for men. Among the grain samples, 94% of wheat and 46% of rice contained Se above the deficiency limit of 100 μg kg-1. Thus, the residents in the study area primarily consuming wheat grains and drinking groundwater are getting adequate supply of Se. Among the materials tested for decreasing Se from drinking waters, scrap iron fillings showed potential for commercial use.

  2. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure, or employed adequate assessment methods for energy and macronutrient intake. Conclusions We found no consistent evidence that increased physical activity or exercise effects energy or macronutrient intake. PMID:24454704

  3. Daily Manganese Intake Status and Its Relationship with Oxidative Stress Biomarkers under Different Body Mass Index Categories in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bu, So-Young

    2012-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for human and plays an important role as a cofactor for several enzymes involving fatty acid synthesis, hepatic gluconeogenesis, and oxidative stresses. Also, Mn intake status has been reported to have beneficial effects in reversing metabolic dysfunction including obesity and nonalcoholic steatosis which is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses, however, information on dietary Mn intake in Koreans are limited. Hence we investigated the relationship between dietary Mn intake and antioxidant defense factors in healthy and obese subjects. Total of 333 healthy subjects were recruited in the study and were assigned to one of three study groups: a normal group (18.5-22.9), a overweight group (23-24.9), and a obesity group (>25) according to their body mass index (BMI). We assessed Mn intakes (24-hr recall method) and several indicators for antioxidative defenses such as glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and urinary malonaldehyde (MDA). Results showed that body weight and blood pressure of study subjects were increased in dependent of their BMI (p < 0.01). However dietary Mn intakes and oxidative stress biomarkers (GSH, GPx, and MDA) were not significantly different by groups defined by BMI. In correlation analysis adjusting for age, sex and energy intake, dietary Mn intake of the subjects in different BMI categories were not significantly correlated with GSH, GPx, MDA and showed a weak or no association with these oxidative stress markers. In conclusion dietary Mn intake at least in this study has a little or no influence on markers of oxidative status in both healthy and obese subjects. PMID:23431039

  4. Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach.

    PubMed

    Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, P<0.001) and a quadratic trend (β=0.02, P<0.01) over time, but no group difference (β=-0.23, P=0.08). Analysis of the 365 days of self-reported body weight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (β=-0.01, P<0.01). Overall compliance to daily tracking was 76%±5%. Daily self-monitoring of weight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits. PMID:22709772

  5. Quantification of total and hexavalent chromium in lager beers: variability between styles and estimation of daily intake of chromium from beer.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Elsa; Soares, M Elisa; Kozior, Marta; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Bastos, M Lourdes

    2014-09-17

    A survey of the presence of total and hexavalent chromium in lager beers was conducted to understand the variability between different styles of lager beer packaged in glass or cans and to estimate daily intake of total Cr and hexavalent chromium from beer. Graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy using validated methodologies was applied. Selective extraction of hexavalent chromium was performed using a Chromabond NH2/500 mg column and elution with nitric acid. The detection limits were 0.26 and 0.68 μg L(-1) for total Cr and Cr(VI), respectively. The mean content of total Cr ranged between 1.13 μg L(-1) in canned pale lager and 4.32 μg L(-1) in low-alcohol beers, whereas the mean content of Cr(VI) was <2.51 μg L(-1). Considering an intake of 500 mL of beer, beer consumption can contribute approximately 2.28-8.64 and 1.6-6.17% of the recommended daily intake of chromium for women and men, respectively. PMID:25175906

  6. Relationships between patient knowledge and the severity of side effects, daily nutrient intake, psychological status, and performance status in lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Tian, J.; Jia, L.N.; Cheng, Z.C.

    2015-01-01

    Aim We aimed to assess the relationships of patient education with the severity of treatment-induced side effects, daily calorie and protein intake, psychological status, and performance status in patients with lung cancer. Methods The study patients were divided into an intervention (n = 62) and a control group (n = 110). The patients in the intervention group were provided with information about treatment, diet, and rehabilitation during chemotherapy. The patients in the control group were not specially provided with that information. Results We observed significant differences between the intervention and control groups with respect to low daily protein intake (54.84% vs. 70.00%, p = 0.046), prevalence of depression (51.61% vs. 70.91%, p = 0.011), prevalence of severe side effects of treatment (14.52% vs. 37.27%, p = 0.002), and good performance status (75.81% vs. 55.45%, p = 0.008). Conclusions Our results suggest that educating patients about cancer treatment and rehabilitation can lead to increased protein intake, a lower prevalence of depression, lesser side effects from cancer treatments, and improved performance status. PMID:26300675

  7. Daily consumption of a synbiotic yogurt decreases energy intake but does not improve gastrointestinal transit time: a double-blind, randomized, crossover study in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Probiotic and synbiotic products are widely marketed to healthy individuals, although potential benefits for these individuals are rarely studied. This study investigated the effect of daily consumption of a synbiotic yogurt on gastrointestinal (GI) function in a sample of healthy adults. Subjects/Methods In a randomized crossover double-blind study, 65 healthy adults consumed 200 g/day of yogurt with (synbiotic) or without (control) added probiotics (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12, Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Lactobacillus casei CRL431) and 4 g inulin for two 15-day treatment periods, each preceded by a 6-week washout period. GI transit time (GTT), duration of colour (DOC), GI symptoms and dietary intake were assessed and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA, including PRE-treatment GTT as a covariate. Participants were grouped as short GTT (STT, n = 50, ≤32.7 h) or long GTT (LTT, n = 15, >32.7 h) based on their PRE-treatment GTT assessment. Results POST-treatment GTT and DOC were not different between synbiotic and control, and did not change from PRE-treatment, within the STT or LTT groups. There were no changes in GI symptom ratings, indicating that both yogurts were well tolerated. In STT, energy, fat and protein intakes were decreased from baseline with synbiotic (p = 0.055, p = 0.059 and p = 0.005, respectively) and dietary fibre intake was higher POST-treatment with synbiotic versus control (p = 0.0002). In LTT, decreases in energy and fat intakes with synbiotic were not significant (p = 0.14 and p = 0.18, respectively) and there were no differences in dietary fibre intake. Conclusion Consuming 200 g/day of synbiotic yogurt did not significantly alter GTT in healthy adults, but was well tolerated and helped to reduce overall energy intake. PMID:23787118

  8. Decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Vendl, Catharina; Clauss, Marcus; Stewart, Mathew; Leggett, Keith; Hummel, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Michael; Munn, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested using a chopped lucerne hay (alfalfa) diet. Body mass-specific absolute CH4 production resembled values previously reported in wallabies and non-ruminant herbivores such as horses, and did not differ with food intake level, although there was no concomitant proportionate decrease in fibre digestibility with higher food intake. In contrast, CH4 yield decreased with increasing intake, and was intermediate between values reported for ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores. These results correspond to those in ruminants and other non-ruminant species where increased intake (and hence a shorter digesta retention in the gut) leads to a lower CH4 yield. We hypothesize that rather than harbouring a fundamentally different microbiome in their foregut, the microbiome of macropods is in a particular metabolic state more tuned towards growth (i.e. biomass production) rather than CH4 production. This is due to the short digesta retention time in macropods and the known distinct 'digesta washing' in the gut of macropods, where fluids move faster than particles and hence most likely wash out microbes from the forestomach. Although our data suggest that kangaroos only produce about 27% of the body mass-specific volume of CH4 of ruminants, it remains to be modelled with species-specific growth rates and production conditions whether or not significantly lower CH4 amounts are emitted per kg of meat in kangaroo than in beef or mutton production. PMID:26538176

  9. Essential and toxic metals in taros (Colocasia esculenta) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain): evaluation of content and estimate of daily intake.

    PubMed

    Luis-González, Gara; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Ángel; González-Weller, Dailos; Revert, Consuelo; Hardisson, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Taros are a staple in the diet of many people around the world, and they are an excellent source of minerals. Monitoring the levels of metals in food provides basic information that is useful from the perspectives of safety, regulation, and nutrition. Forty-two samples of taros were randomly obtained from supermarkets, vegetable markets, and farmer's plots on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determine the contents of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The levels of Cr, Ni, Cd, and Pb were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Mean concentrations (mg/kg) were 565.6 Na, 2947 K, 231.4 Ca, 364.5 Mg, 1.224 Cu, 3.818 Fe, 1.408 Mn, 2.242 Zn, 0.044 Cr, 0.021 Ni, 0.003 Cd, and 0.006 Pb. The mean concentrations of Cd and Pb were well below the accepted European Commission limits (0.1 mg/kg weight for both metals, respectively). Daily consumption of taro (10.41 g taro/person/day) contributes to the dietary intake of essential metals and trace elements, mainly Mg (1.265% in adult women and 1.084% in adult men) and Cu (1.182% for adult men and women). The average daily intakes of Cd (0.031 μg/day) and Pb (0.062 μg/day) from taro were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes (TWIs). Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat based on their metal concentrations and legislated allowable intakes. PMID:25412891

  10. Genetic variance and covariance components for feed intake, average daily gain, and postweaning gain in growing beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed is the single most expensive cost related to a beef cattle production enterprise. Data collection to determine feed efficient animals is also costly. Currently a 70 d performance test is recommended for accurate calculation of efficiency. Previous research has suggested intake tests can be l...

  11. ESTIMATES OF GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR DAILY GAIN, FEED INTAKE, AND BEHAVIOR TRAITS IN RAM LAMBS OF A COMPOSITE POPULATION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data were recorded from 11 to 17 wk of age on 1,241 ram lambs of a terminal sire composite population. Individual feeding events (length and intake) of each lamb were recorded in a group situation. Estimates of (co)variance components were obtained using MTDFREML. Heritabilities were estimated fo...

  12. Ready To Eat Cereal (RTEC) Consumption Positively Affects Total Daily Nutrient Intakes in Hispanic Children and Adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the impact of breakfast meal pattern on nutrient intake status of Hispanic children and adolescents (N=3220), we compared breakfast skippers (S), RTEC, and other breakfast consumers using 24-hour recall data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our data ind...

  13. Anion Coordination Interactions in Solvates with the Lithium Salts LiDCTA and LiTDI

    SciTech Connect

    McOwen, Dennis W.; Delp, Samuel A.; Paillard, Elie; Herriot, Cristelle; Han, Sang D.; Boyle, Paul D.; Sommer, Roger D.; Henderson, Wesley A.

    2014-04-17

    Lithium 4,5-dicyano-1,2,3-triazolate (LiDCTA) and lithium 2-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazole (LiTDI) are two salts proposed for lithium battery electrolyte applications, but little is known about the manner in which the DCTA- and TDI- anions coordinate Li+ cations. To explore this in-depth, crystal structures are reported here for two solvates with LiDCTA: (G2)1:LiDCTA and (G1)1:LiDCTA with diglyme and monoglyme, respectively, and seven solvates with LiTDI: (G1)2:LiTDI, (G2)2:LiTDI, (G3)1:LiTDI, (THF)1:LiTDI, (EC)1:LiTDI, (PC)1:LiTDI and (DMC)1/2:LiTDI with monoglyme, diglyme, triglyme, tetrahydrofuran, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate, respectively. These latter solvate structures are compared with the previously reported acetonitrile (AN)2:LiTDI structure. The solvates indicate that the LiTDI salt is much less associated than the LiDCTA salt and that the ions in LiTDI, when aggregated in solvates, have a very similar TDI-...Li+ cation mode of coordination through both the anion ring and cyano nitrogen atoms. Such coordination facilitates the formation of polymeric ion aggregates, instead of dimers. Insight into such ion speciation is instrumental for understanding the electrolyte properties of aprotic solvent mixtures with these salts.

  14. Information-Efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor With Tdi

    DOEpatents

    Rienstra, Jeffrey L.; Gentry, Stephen M.; Sweatt, William C.

    2004-01-13

    A programmable optical filter for use in multispectral and hyperspectral imaging employing variable gain time delay and integrate arrays. A telescope focuses an image of a scene onto at least one TDI array that is covered by a multispectral filter that passes separate bandwidths of light onto the rows in the TDI array. The variable gain feature of the TDI array allows individual rows of pixels to be attenuated individually. The attenuations are functions of the magnitudes of the positive and negative components of a spectral basis vector. The spectral basis vector is constructed so that its positive elements emphasize the presence of a target and its negative elements emphasize the presence of the constituents of the background of the imaged scene. This system provides for a very efficient determination of the presence of the target, as opposed to the very data intensive data manipulations that are required in conventional hyperspectral imaging systems.

  15. Health risk assessment of Chinese consumers to nickel via dietary intake of foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Zhang, Zhiheng; Yang, Guiling; Wang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment was carried out to characterise the health risk from nickel (Ni) via dietary exposure for Chinese consumers. Ni contamination in foods was investigated by conducting a survey and a literature review. The daily diet of the public was categorised into nine food groups and the consumption data for each group were obtained from a nationwide survey. Deterministic and probabilistic methods were applied to calculate the target hazard quotients (THQs) by comparing the estimated dietary Ni intake with respect to the tolerable daily intake (TDI). The average estimated daily Ni intake (?g kg(-1) bw day(-1)) for men, women, 2-3-year-old children and 4-17-year-old children were 7.2, 7.3, 17.1 and 10.0, respectively. The consumption of cereals, beans, vegetables and marine products contributed significantly to the total daily intake of Ni. The mean THQ values (95% confidence interval) and the probability of dietary Ni exposure higher than the TDI were 0.60 (0.58-0.62) and 8.2% for men, 0.61 (0.59-0.63) and 8.4% for women, 1.35 (1.32-1.39) and 72.0% for 2-3-year-old children, and 0.87 (0.82-0.91) and 28.5% for 4-17-year-old children, respectively. This study showed a potential health risk from Ni via dietary exposure for Chinese consumers, especially among children. PMID:25215469

  16. High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: influence of contaminated fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, C C; Lin, W T; Liao, P C; Su, H J; Chen, H L

    2006-05-01

    An abandoned pentachlorophenol plant and nearby area in southern Taiwan was heavily contaminated by dioxins, impurities formed in the PCP production process. The investigation showed that the average serum PCDD/Fs of residents living nearby area (62.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) was higher than those living in the non-polluted area (22.5 and 18.2 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) (P<0.05). In biota samples, average PCDD/F of milkfish in sea reservoir (28.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g) was higher than those in the nearby fish farm (0.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g), and Tilapia and shrimp showed the similar trend. The average daily PCDD/Fs intake of 38% participants was higher than 4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day suggested by the world health organization. Serum PCDD/F was positively associated with average daily intake (ADI) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status. In addition, a prospective cohort study is suggested to determine the long-term health effects on the people living near factory. PMID:16213641

  17. Restricting night-time eating reduces daily energy intake in healthy young men: a short-term cross-over study.

    PubMed

    LeCheminant, James D; Christenson, Ed; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A

    2013-12-14

    Few experimental data are available to support the notion that reducing night-time eating changes total daily energy intake (EI) or body weight in healthy adults. The present study primarily examined the short-term effect of night eating restriction (NER) on daily EI in healthy young men. It secondarily examined body weight and moods associated with NER. Using a cross-over design, twenty-nine men (20·9 (sd 2·5) years; 24·4 (sd 2·5) kg/m²) initiated a 2-week NER intervention (elimination of EI from 19.00 to 06.00 hours) and a 2-week control condition, counterbalanced and separated by a 1-week washout period. EI and macronutrient intake were assessed using computerised, multiple-pass 24 h food recalls, body weight via a digital scale and mood using the Profile of Mood States survey. Of the twenty-nine participants, twenty-seven (93 %) completed all aspects of the study. During the NER condition, the participants consumed less total energy per d than during the control condition (10 125 v. 11 146 kJ/d; F= 6·41; P= 0·018). During the NER condition, no energy was reported consumed between 19.00 and 06.00 hours; however, during the control condition, the energy intake of participants was 2920 (sd 1347) kJ/d between 19.00 and 06.00 hours. There was a significant difference in weight change between the NER (-0·4 (sd 1·1) kg) and control (+0·6 (sd 0·9) kg) conditions (F= 22·68; P< 0·001). Differences in total mood score or mood subscales between the NER and control conditions were not apparent (P>0·05). These findings provide support for NER decreasing short-term EI in healthy young men. PMID:23702187

  18. The assessment of daily dietary intake reveals the existence of a different pattern of bioaccumulation of chlorinated pollutants between domestic dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Rial, Cristian; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; González, Maira Almeida; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-10-15

    Pet dogs and cats have been proposed as sentinel species to assess environmental contamination and human exposure to a variety of pollutants, including POPs. However, some authors have reported that dogs but not cats exhibit intriguingly low levels of some of the most commonly detected POPs, such as DDT and its metabolites. This research was designed to explore these differences between dogs and cats. Thus, we first determined the concentrations of 53 persistent and semi-persistent pollutants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in samples of the most consumed brands of commercial feed for dogs and cats, and we calculated the daily dietary intake of these pollutants in both species. Higher levels of pollutants were found in dog food and our results showed that the median values of intake were about twice higher in dogs than in cats for all the three groups of pollutants (ΣPAHs: 274.8 vs. 141.8; ΣOCPs: 233.1 vs. 83; ΣPCBs: 101.8 vs. 43.8 (ng/kg bw/day); respectively). Additionally, we determined the plasma levels of the same pollutants in 42 and 35 pet dogs and cats, respectively. All these animals lived indoors and were fed on the commercial brands of feed analyzed. As expected (considering the intake), the plasma levels of PAHs were higher in dogs than in cats. However, for organochlorines (OCPs and PCBs) the plasma levels were much higher in cats than in dogs (as much as 23 times higher for DDTs), in spite of the higher intake in dogs. This reveals a lower capacity of bioaccumulation of some pollutants in dogs, which is probably related with higher metabolizing capabilities in this species. PMID:26026408

  19. Children’s Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers

    PubMed Central

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.; Langer, Sarka; Callesen, Michael; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2013-01-01

    Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child’s home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw) and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw). For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDIcum), which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDIcum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child’s total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values. PMID:23626820

  20. Comparison of the ISU, NCI, MSM, and SPADE Methods for Estimating Usual Intake: A Simulation Study of Nutrients Consumed Daily.

    PubMed

    Laureano, Greice H C; Torman, Vanessa B L; Crispim, Sandra P; Dekkers, Arnold L M; Camey, Suzi A

    2016-01-01

    Various methods are available for estimating usual dietary intake distributions. Hence, there is a need for simulation studies to compare them. The methods Iowa State University (ISU), National Cancer Institute (NCI), Multiple Source Method (MSM) and Statistical Program to Assess Dietary Exposure (SPADE) were previously compared in another study, but some results were inconclusive due to the small number of replications used in the simulation. Seeking to overcome this limitation, the present study used 1000 simulated samples for 12 different scenarios to compare the accuracy of estimates yielded by the aforementioned methods. The focus is on scenarios that exhibited the most uncertainty in the conclusions of the mentioned study above, i.e., scenarios with small sample sizes, skewed intake distributions, and large ratios of the between- and within-person variances. Bias was used as a measure of accuracy. For scenarios with small sample sizes (n = 150), the ISU, MSM and SPADE methods generally achieved more accurate estimates than the NCI method, particularly for the 10th and 90th percentiles. The differences between methods became smaller with larger sample sizes (n = 300 and n = 500). With few exceptions, the methods were found to perform similarly. PMID:26999193

  1. Comparison of the ISU, NCI, MSM, and SPADE Methods for Estimating Usual Intake: A Simulation Study of Nutrients Consumed Daily

    PubMed Central

    Laureano, Greice H. C.; Torman, Vanessa B. L.; Crispim, Sandra P.; Dekkers, Arnold L. M.; Camey, Suzi A.

    2016-01-01

    Various methods are available for estimating usual dietary intake distributions. Hence, there is a need for simulation studies to compare them. The methods Iowa State University (ISU), National Cancer Institute (NCI), Multiple Source Method (MSM) and Statistical Program to Assess Dietary Exposure (SPADE) were previously compared in another study, but some results were inconclusive due to the small number of replications used in the simulation. Seeking to overcome this limitation, the present study used 1000 simulated samples for 12 different scenarios to compare the accuracy of estimates yielded by the aforementioned methods. The focus is on scenarios that exhibited the most uncertainty in the conclusions of the mentioned study above, i.e., scenarios with small sample sizes, skewed intake distributions, and large ratios of the between- and within-person variances. Bias was used as a measure of accuracy. For scenarios with small sample sizes (n=150), the ISU, MSM and SPADE methods generally achieved more accurate estimates than the NCI method, particularly for the 10th and 90th percentiles. The differences between methods became smaller with larger sample sizes (n = 300 and n = 500). With few exceptions, the methods were found to perform similarly. PMID:26999193

  2. Optimal vitamin D3 daily intake of 2000IU inferred from modeled solar exposure of ancestral humans in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Krzyścin, Janusz W; Guzikowski, Jakub; Rajewska-Więch, Bonawentura

    2016-06-01

    Recently, high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (~110nmol/L) was found in the Hadza tribe still keeping ancient hunter-gather life style. This level could serve as optimal vitamin D level that was built during millennia of human evolution. The personal vitamin D3 effective solar exposures of the Hadza adults are estimated using radiative model simulations with input from the satellite observations over lake Eyasi (3.7°S, 35.0°E). The calculations are carried out assuming the Hadza typical clothing habits and specific scenarios of the out-door activity comprising early morning and late afternoon working time in sun and prolonged midday siesta in the shade. The modeled doses received by the Hadza are converted to the vitamin D3 effective daily doses pertaining to the lighter skinned persons. We propose a novel formula to get adequate vitamin D level - exposure of 1/3 MED around local noon to 1/3 part of the whole body during warm sub-period of the year in the low- and mid-latitude regions. Such daily solar exposure is equivalent to ~2000IU of vitamin D3 taken orally. For many contemporary humans with limited out-door activity habit achieving such daily norm requires vitamin D3 supplementation of 2000IU throughout the whole year. PMID:27043260

  3. 75 FR 63184 - Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services... of agencies subject to the FTR to enhance travel cost savings and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This guidance will improve management of agency travel programs, save money on travel costs,...

  4. 2,4-/2,6-Toluene diisocyanate mixture (TDI)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - / 2,6 - Toluene diisocyanate mixture ( TDI ) ; CASRN 26471 - 62 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Haz

  5. Mercury levels and estimated total daily intakes for children and adults from an electronic waste recycling area in Taizhou, China: Key role of rice and fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Cheng, Jinping; Zhao, Wenchang; Wang, Wenhua

    2015-08-01

    In order to assess the potential health risks of Hg pollution, total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in air, dust, surface soil, crops, poultry, fish and human hair samples from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area in Taizhou, China. High concentrations of T-Hg and MeHg were found in these multiple matrices, and the mean concentration was 30.7 ng/m(3) of T-Hg for atmosphere samples, 3.1 μg/g of T-Hg for soil, 37.6 μg/g of T-Hg for dust, 20.3 ng/g of MeHg for rice and 178.1 ng/g of MeHg for fish, suggesting that the e-waste recycling facility was a significant source of Hg. The inorganic Hg (I-Hg) levels (0.84 μg/g) in hair samples of e-waste workers were much higher than that in the reference samples. Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that strong positive correlations (p<0.01) between hair I-Hg and time staying in industrial area (r=0.81) and between MeHg and fish consumption frequency (r=0.91), imply that workers were mainly exposed to Hg vapor through long-time inhalation of contaminated air and dust, while other population mainly exposed to MeHg through high-frequency fish consumption. The estimated daily intakes of Hg showed that dietary intake was the major Hg exposure source, and Hg intakes from rice and fish were significantly higher than from any other foods. The estimated total daily intakes (TDIs) of MeHg for both children (696.8 ng/(kg·day)) and adults (381.3 ng/(kg·day)) greatly exceeded the dietary reference dose (RfD) of 230 ng/(kg·day), implying greater health risk for humans from Hg exposures around e-waste recycling facilities. PMID:26257353

  6. A Review of Mycotoxins in Food and Feed Products in Portugal and Estimation of Probable Daily Intakes.

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, Luís; Morales, Héctor; Soares, Célia; Calado, Thalita; Vila-Chã, Ana Sofia; Pereira, Martinha; Venâncio, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that occur naturally in agricultural commodities worldwide. Aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisins, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and ergot alkaloids are presently the most important for food and feed safety. These compounds are produced by several species that belong to the Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps genera and can be carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, cytotoxic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, estrogenic, and immunosuppressant. Human and animal exposure to mycotoxins is generally assessed by taking into account data on the occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed as well as data on the consumption patterns of the concerned population. This evaluation is crucial to support measures to reduce consumer exposure to mycotoxins. This work reviews the occurrence and levels of mycotoxins in Portuguese food and feed to provide a global overview of this issue in Portugal. With the information collected, the exposure of the Portuguese population to those mycotoxins is assessed, and the estimated dietary intakes are presented. PMID:24987806

  7. [Intake of folic acid in the total daily diet--effect of food preparation on its folic acid content].

    PubMed

    Müller, H

    1995-03-01

    The folic acid content of total daily diet was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contents of tetrahydrofolic acid (THF), 5-methyl-THF and 5-formyl-THF were differentiated. The mean of the folic acid content of the total daily diet samples determined analytically was 205 +/- 60 micrograms and the mean of the individual ingredients of the samples was 401 +/- 78 micrograms, which implies that about 50% of folic acid is destroyed by common household food preparation methods. If the contents of pteroylglutamic acid (PteGlu) and 10-formyl-PteGlu (which cannot be determined analytically) are added, it can be assumed that the folic acid content with only be reduced by about 40%. THF and 5-methyl-THF proved to be less stable than 5-formyl-THF. The monoglutamate portion of the total folat content was higher in the total diet samples than in the individual foodstuffs as a consequence of the action of the enzyme "deconjugase" which is released when the matrix of food-stuffs is destroyed. PMID:7785346

  8. Reasons for raising the maximum acceptable daily intake of EDTA and the benefits for iron fortification of foods for children 6-24 months of age.

    PubMed

    Wreesmann, Carel Theo Jozef

    2014-10-01

    The current maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of 1.9 mg day(-1) per kilogram bodyweight (mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) ) limits the daily intake of iron as iron EDTA [ferric sodium EDTA; sodium iron(III) EDTA] to approximately 2-2.5 mg day(-1) for children 6-24 months of age. This limit was defined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1973 based on data from an animal-feed study published in 1963. Other animal studies indicate that this limit can be raised to 4.4 or possibly up to 21.7 mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) , which is 2.3-11.4 times higher than the current value. For nearly 50 years, iron EDTA has been used in France in medicinal syrup for infants 1-6 months of age. The maximum recommended dosage of this drug is 37 times higher than the maximum ADI of EDTA. No adverse health effects have been reported as a result of this medicinal consumption of iron EDTA. Raising the maximum ADI of EDTA to only 4.4 mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) would enable iron EDTA, an iron fortificant with proven bioavailability in phytate-rich meals, to be added in adequate amounts to cereal-based meals for children 6-24 months of age, who are at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:24521261

  9. Reasons for raising the maximum acceptable daily intake of EDTA and the benefits for iron fortification of foods for children 6-24 months of age.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Wreesmann CT

    2014-10-01

    The current maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of 1.9 mg day(-1) per kilogram bodyweight (mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) ) limits the daily intake of iron as iron EDTA [ferric sodium EDTA; sodium iron(III) EDTA] to approximately 2-2.5 mg day(-1) for children 6-24 months of age. This limit was defined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1973 based on data from an animal-feed study published in 1963. Other animal studies indicate that this limit can be raised to 4.4 or possibly up to 21.7 mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) , which is 2.3-11.4 times higher than the current value. For nearly 50 years, iron EDTA has been used in France in medicinal syrup for infants 1-6 months of age. The maximum recommended dosage of this drug is 37 times higher than the maximum ADI of EDTA. No adverse health effects have been reported as a result of this medicinal consumption of iron EDTA. Raising the maximum ADI of EDTA to only 4.4 mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) would enable iron EDTA, an iron fortificant with proven bioavailability in phytate-rich meals, to be added in adequate amounts to cereal-based meals for children 6-24 months of age, who are at risk of iron deficiency.

  10. Reasons for raising the maximum acceptable daily intake of EDTA and the benefits for iron fortification of foods for children 6–24 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Wreesmann, Carel Theo Jozef

    2014-01-01

    The current maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of 1.9 mg day−1 per kilogram bodyweight (mg day−1 kgbw−1) limits the daily intake of iron as iron EDTA [ferric sodium EDTA; sodium iron(III) EDTA] to approximately 2–2.5 mg day−1 for children 6–24 months of age. This limit was defined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1973 based on data from an animal-feed study published in 1963. Other animal studies indicate that this limit can be raised to 4.4 or possibly up to 21.7 mg day−1 kgbw−1, which is 2.3–11.4 times higher than the current value. For nearly 50 years, iron EDTA has been used in France in medicinal syrup for infants 1–6 months of age. The maximum recommended dosage of this drug is 37 times higher than the maximum ADI of EDTA. No adverse health effects have been reported as a result of this medicinal consumption of iron EDTA. Raising the maximum ADI of EDTA to only 4.4 mg day−1 kgbw−1 would enable iron EDTA, an iron fortificant with proven bioavailability in phytate-rich meals, to be added in adequate amounts to cereal-based meals for children 6–24 months of age, who are at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:24521261

  11. Evaluation of content and estimation of daily intake of cadmium and lead in several varieties of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Luis, G; Rubio, C; González-Weller, D; Gutiérrez, A J; Revert, C; Hardisson, A

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring the metal content in foods such as potatoes is an important aspect of food safety and regulation. Samples of nine varieties of potatoes (73 samples of local potatoes and 77 samples of imported potatoes) were randomly obtained from supermarkets, farmers markets, and farmer plots in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis because Spaniards traditionally eat only peeled potatoes. Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd concentrations ranged from 0.006 mg/kg in the Cara and Negra varieties to 0.019 mg/kg in the Bonita variety, and Pb concentrations ranged from 0.007 mg/kg in the Up-to-date variety to 0.023 mg/kg in the Recara variety. The mean concentrations of Cd (0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.014 mg/kg) were below the limits established by European regulations for potatoes (0.1 mg/kg of wet weight for each metal). Based on a mean consumption of 143.2 g of potato per person per day for the Canary Islands population, the mean daily intakes of Cd (0.015 mg/day) and Pb (0.023 mg/day) were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes. Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat with regard to the metal concentrations found. PMID:24680081

  12. Daily intake of Jeju groundwater improves the skin condition of the model mouse for human atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akane; Jung, Kyungsook; Matsuda, Akira; Jang, Hyosun; Kajiwara, Naoki; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Ahn, Ginnae; Ohmori, Keitaro; Kang, Kyung-goo; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Drinking water is an important nutrient for human health. The mineral ingredients included in drinking water may affect the physical condition of people. Various kinds of natural water are in circulation as bottled water in developed countries; however, its influence on clinical conditions of patients with certain diseases has not been fully evaluated. In this study, effects of the natural groundwater from Jeju Island on clinical symptoms and skin barrier function in atopic dermatitis (AD) were evaluated. NC/Tnd mice, a model for human AD, with moderate to severe dermatitis were used. Mice were given different natural groundwater or tap water for 8 weeks from 4 weeks of age. Clinical skin severity scores were recorded every week. Scratching analysis and measurement of transepidermal water loss were performed every other week. The pathological condition of the dorsal skin was evaluated histologically. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed for cytokine expression in the affected skin. The epidermal hyperplasia and allergic inflammation were reduced in atopic mice supplied with Jeju groundwater when compared to those supplied with tap water or other kinds of natural groundwater. The increase in scratching behavior with the aggravation of clinical severity of dermatitis was favorably controlled. Moreover, transepidermal water loss that reflects skin barrier function was recovered. The early inflammation and hypersensitivity in the atopic skin was alleviated in mice supplied with Jeju groundwater, suggesting its profitable potential on the daily care of patients with skin troubles including AD. PMID:23294459

  13. Track Filtering via Iterative Correction of TDI Topology

    PubMed Central

    Aydogan, Dogu Baran; Shi, Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new technique to clean outlier tracks from fiber bundles reconstructed by tractography. Previous techniques were mainly based on computing pair-wise distances and clustering methods to identify unwanted tracks, which relied heavy upon user inputs for parameter tuning. In this work, we propose the use of topological information in track density images (TDI) to achieve a more robust filtering of tracks. There are two main steps of our iterative algorithm. Given a fiber bundle, we first convert it to a TDI, then extract and score its critical points. After that, tracks that contribute to high scoring loops are identified and removed using the Reeb graph of the level set surface of the TDI. Our approach is geometrically intuitive and relies only on a single parameter that enables the user to decide on the length of insignificant loops. In our experiments, we use our method to reconstruct the optic radiation in human brain using the multi-shell HARDI data from the human connectome project (HCP). We compare our results against spectral filtering and show that our approach can achieve cleaner reconstructions. We also apply our method to 215 HCP subjects to test for asymmetry of the optic radiation and obtain statistically significant results that are consistent with post-mortem studies. PMID:26798847

  14. A CMOS TDI image sensor for Earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, Joseph E.; Stefanov, Konstantin D.; Holland, Andrew D.; Endicott, James; Mayer, Frederic; Barbier, Frederic

    2015-09-01

    Time Delay and Integration (TDI) is used to increase the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) in image sensors when imaging fast moving objects. One important TDI application is in Earth observation from space. In order to operate in the space radiation environment, the effect that radiation damage has on the performance of the image sensors must be understood. This work looks at prototype TDI sensor pixel designs, produced by e2v technologies. The sensor is a CCD-like charge transfer device, allowing in-pixel charge summation, produced on a CMOS process. The use of a CMOS process allows potential advantages such as lower power consumption, smaller pixels, higher line rate and extra on-chip functionality which can simplify system design. CMOS also allows a dedicated output amplifier per column allowing fewer charge transfers and helping to facilitate higher line rates than CCDs. In this work the effect on the pixels of radiation damage from high energy protons, at doses relevant to a low Earth orbit mission, is presented. This includes the resulting changes in Charge Transfer inefficiency (CTI) and dark signal.

  15. Determination of total vanadium and vanadium(V) in groundwater from Mt. Etna and estimate of daily intake of vanadium(V) through drinking water.

    PubMed

    Arena, Giovanni; Copat, Chiara; Dimartino, Angela; Grasso, Alfina; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-06-01

    Vanadium(V) can be found in natural waters in the form of V(IV) and V(V) species, which have different biological properties and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of total V and V(V) in groundwater from the area of Mt. Etna and to assess the estimated daily intake (EDI) of V(V) of adults and children through drinking water. Water was sampled monthly at 21 sites in 2011. Total vanadium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and speciation by ion chromatography-ICP-MS (IC-ICP-MS). The concentration of V(V) species ranged from 62.8 to 98.9% of total V, with significantly higher concentrations in samples from the S/SW slope of Mt. Etna. The annual mean concentrations of total V exceeded the Italian legal limit of 140 μg/L at four sites on the S/SW slope. In the absence of thresholds for V(V) intake, only the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has calculated a reference dose. Children's EDI of V(V) at the sites with the higher V concentrations exceeded EPA thresholds (9 μg/kg/day). In particular, we found in Camporotondo, Mascalucia, Ragalna and San Pietro Clarenza sites children's EDIs of 11, 9.3, 11 and 9.9, respectively. The EDI of V(V) was significantly higher than the literature range (0.09-0.34 μg/kg/day). PMID:26042983

  16. No evidence of dehydration with moderate daily coffee intake: a counterbalanced cross-over study in a free-living population.

    PubMed

    Killer, Sophie C; Blannin, Andrew K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-01-01

    It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3-6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na(+) excretion was higher in C than W (p = 0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

  17. The daily fluorine and arsenic intake for residents with different dietaries and fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area, Yunnan, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Luo, Kun-Li; Tang, Yue-Gang; Liu, Yong-Lin

    2015-02-01

    The daily fluorine (F)/arsenic (As) intake (DFI/DAsI) for residents at different ages with different dietaries and dietary changes was investigated to analyze the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area in Yunnan, Southwest China. The DFI for residents with a dietary of roasted corn and roasted chili was 5.06, 9.60, and 14.38 mg for age groups 3-7, 8-15, and over 15 years, respectively. Over 90 % of DFI was from roasted foodstuffs. The DFI for residents of the same age group living on rice and roasted chili was 1.94, 3.50, and 4.95 mg, respectively, which were less than that for the former dietary type, and 65 % of DFI was from roasted chili. The main sources for their DFI are roasted foodstuffs. Both were higher than the dietaries with non-roasted foodstuffs and the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for USA and China at different levels. The DAsI for all residents ranged from 25 to 135 μg, and at this level of DAsI, it would not influence human health. However, As pollution of roasted foodstuffs might have an important influence for the fluorosis. Residents are changing their staple food from roasted corn to rice, and especially, younger people are more focused on quality life. However, even if residents change their staple food, the habit of eating chili will not change, which also may cause them getting fluorosis. Developing economy, changing dietary types, and changing the habit of drying and keeping chili will help to reduce the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area of Southwest China. PMID:25167821

  18. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95% CI [0.14, 0.83]). Conclusion Interventions aimed at improving fruit and vegetable intake need to consider where individuals’ purchase food and the availability within stores as a behavioral and environmental strategy. PMID:23360547

  19. CMOS-TDI detector technology for reconnaissance application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckardt, Andreas; Reulke, Ralf; Jung, Melanie; Sengebusch, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    The Institute of Optical Sensor Systems (OS) at the Robotics and Mechatronics Center of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has more than 30 years of experience with high-resolution imaging technology. This paper shows the institute's scientific results of the leading-edge detector design CMOS in a TDI (Time Delay and Integration) architecture. This project includes the technological design of future high or multi-spectral resolution spaceborne instruments and the possibility of higher integration. DLR OS and the Fraunhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems (IMS) in Duisburg were driving the technology of new detectors and the FPA design for future projects, new manufacturing accuracy and on-chip processing capability in order to keep pace with the ambitious scientific and user requirements. In combination with the engineering research, the current generation of space borne sensor systems is focusing on VIS/NIR high spectral resolution to meet the requirements on earth and planetary observation systems. The combination of large-swath and high-spectral resolution with intelligent synchronization control, fast-readout ADC (analog digital converter) chains and new focal-plane concepts opens the door to new remote-sensing and smart deep-space instruments. The paper gives an overview of the detector development status and verification program at DLR, as well as of new control possibilities for CMOS-TDI detectors in synchronization control mode.

  20. A new architecture of current-mode CMOS TDI Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Cheng; Chen, Yongping

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, CMOS sensors still suffer from the problem of low SNR, especially in the stage of low illumination and high relative scanning velocity. Lots of methods have been develop to overcome this problem. Among these researches, TDI (Time Delay Integration) architecture is a more natural choice, which is natively supported by CCD sensors. In this paper a new kind of proposed current-mode sensor is used to achieve TDI operation in analog domain. The circuit is composed of three main parts. At first, a current-type pixel is proposed, in which the active MOSFET is operated in the triode region to ensure the output current is linearly dependent on the gate voltage and avoid the reduction of threshold voltage in the traditional voltage mode pixels, such as 3T, 4T which use the source followers as its active part. Then a discrete double sampling (DDS) unit, which is operated in the form of currents is used to efficiently reduce the fixed pattern noise (FPN) and make the output is independent of reset voltage of pixels. For accumulation, an improved current mirror adder under controlled of timing circuits is proposed to overcome the problem of saturation suffered in voltage domain. Some main noise sources, especially come from analog sample and holds capacitors and switches is analyzed. Finally, simulation results with CSMC 0.5um technology and Cadence IC show that the proposed method is reasonable and efficient to improve the SNR.

  1. Once-daily milking during late lactation in pasture-fed dairy cows has minor effects on feed intake, body condition score gain, and hepatic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Grala, T M; Handley, R R; Roche, J R; Walker, C G; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K

    2016-04-01

    Milking cows once daily (1×) is a management practice occasionally used during mid/late lactation in pasture-based systems. It has been postulated that 1× milking will reduce dry matter intake (DMI) and increase body condition score (BCS) gain; however, this has not been quantified. Lactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=52) were allocated to either 1× or twice-daily (2×) milking in mid-January (summer, 175d in milk). To obtain accurate DMI measurements, cows underwent 4 periods in a Calan gate indoor feeding facility, interspersed with grazing outdoors. Milk production, body weight (BW), and BCS were recorded 2 wk before treatment start (-2 wk) and weekly thereafter. Blood variables were recorded at -2 wk and weekly when indoors. Liver was biopsied at -2, 2, and 10 wk, and hepatic gene expression measured using quantitative PCR. Milking cows 1× tended to lower DMI (17.8 vs. 18.2kg of dry matter), but increased BCS gain (0.36 vs. 0.13 BCS units) and BW (546 vs. 533kg) at wk 12 relative to 2×. The greater BCS and BW of cows milked 1× compared with 2× were reflected in lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and lower transcription of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids, indicating reduced release and processing of fatty acids. Cows milked 1× produced 20% less milk, and although milk fat and protein concentrations were increased relative to cows milked 2×, yields of fat and protein were 14 and 17% less, respectively. The reduction in milk production with 1× milking (14.1 vs. 16.8kg/cow per d energy-corrected milk) was accompanied by increases in blood concentrations of glucose and insulin, with a concurrent decrease in the transcription of the insulin receptor and gluconeogenic genes. These results indicate a coordinated response to reduce glucose production due to decreased mammary demand. Expression of 2 genes linked to inflammation and adipokine signaling was reduced in cows milked 1× and may indicate a lower inflammatory state in the liver of cows milked 1× in late lactation. No effect was found of milking frequency during late lactation on milk production in the subsequent lactation. In summary, although 1× milking tended to reduce DMI and increase BCS in late lactation, these effects were lower than what is commonly supposed in pasture-based dairy systems. The modest BCS gains need to be considered with the reduced milk production when adopting 1× milking as a management strategy. PMID:26851848

  2. Compared with daily, weekly n-3 PUFA intake affects the incorporation of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid into platelets and mononuclear cells in humans.

    PubMed

    Browning, Lucy M; Walker, Celia G; Mander, Adrian P; West, Annette L; Gambell, Joanna; Madden, Jackie; Calder, Philip C; Jebb, Susan A

    2014-05-01

    Consumption of oily fish is sporadic, whereas controlled intervention studies of n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids usually provide capsules containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a daily dose. This methodologic study explored whether there are differences in the short-, medium-, and long-term incorporation of EPA and DHA into blood plasma and cells with the provision of identical amounts of EPA and DHA, equivalent to 2 oily fish servings per week (or 6.54 g/wk EPA and DHA), either intermittently (i.e., 1 portion twice per week) or continuously (i.e., divided into daily amounts). The study was part of a randomized, double-blind controlled intervention lasting 12 mo, with participants stratified by age and sex. There were 5 intervention groups, 2 of which are reported here: the 2 intermittent portions (2I) and 2 continuous portions (2C) groups. EPA and DHA were measured in plasma phosphatidylcholine, platelets, and blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) at 9 time points. Sixty-five participants completed the study (2I group, n = 30, mean age of 49.2 y; 2C group, n = 35, mean age of 50.6 y). The incorporation pattern over the 12-mo intervention was different between the 2 groups in all samples (P < 0.0001, time × treatment interaction). At the end of the 12-mo intervention, the 2C group had higher EPA, DHA, and EPA + DHA in platelets (all P < 0.01) and higher EPA and EPA + DHA in MNCs (both P < 0.05) compared with the 2I group. No significant differences were shown for plasma phosphatidylcholine EPA (P = 0.1), DHA (P = 0.15), EPA + DHA (P = 0.07), or MNC DHA (P = 0.06). In conclusion, the pattern of consumption does affect the incorporation of EPA and DHA into cells used as biomarkers of intake. The differences identified here need to be considered in the design of studies and when extrapolating results from continuous capsule-based intervention studies to dietary guidelines for oily fish consumption. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN48398526. PMID:24647395

  3. Phthalate intake by infants calculated from biomonitoring data.

    PubMed

    Völkel, Wolfgang; Kiranoglu, Mandy; Schuster, Ralph; Fromme, Hermann

    2014-03-01

    Urine samples (n=207) of 47 infants between 1- and 5-month of age were quantitated for 12 metabolites of 7 phthalates and compared with samples collected from the mothers of the infants at different time points. Median and 95-percentile were lower for all metabolites in urine samples of infants compared to mothers. For di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) the 95-percentile daily intake was 23.3μg/kg b.w. for mothers and 5.4μg/kg b.w. for infants and for di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) 10.1μg/kg b.w. and 8.5μg/kg b.w. Some values exceeded the corresponding tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DiBP for infants and mothers and for DEHP and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) only for mothers. Both, infants and mothers are able to efficiently form phase II metabolites but infants with a slightly lower degree. Therefore, a distinguished risk assessment with respect to the formed toxic metabolites of phthalates would be necessary in combination with a reduction of the most toxic phthalates. PMID:24374175

  4. Serum-mediated relaxant response to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in isolated guinea-pig bronchi.

    PubMed

    Boschetto, P; Jovine, L; Chitano, P; De Marzo, N; Plebani, M; Faggian, D; Fabbri, L M; Mapp, C E

    2001-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate whether pre-incubation with serum, obtained from both control and toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-immunized guinea-pigs, modified the contractile response to TDI in isolated guinea-pig bronchial rings. Guinea-pigs were anaesthetized and the main bronchi dissected in two rings. Bronchial rings were incubated with normal or immune serum (100 microl ml(-1) for 2 h) and dose-response curves to TDI (0.03-1000 microM) were studied isometrically. Before serum incubation, in eight bronchial rings, epithelium was removed by rubbing the luminal surface gently with a gauze. In control rings, TDI produced a concentration-dependent contraction, whereas in rings pre-incubated with either normal or TDI-immune serum, it produced a concentration-dependent relaxation. Relaxation was 101.4 (SEM 17.4)% and 94.9 (SEM 21)% of the relaxation induced by isoproterenol (1 mM) respectively with normal and TDI-immune serum. Similarly to the pre-incubation with serum, pre-incubation with albumin produced a concentration-dependent relaxation to TDI. Serum-induced relaxant response to TDI was not affected by capsaicin desensitization, it was only partially inhibited by an NK1-tachykinin antagonist, whereas it was blocked by indomethacin. In bronchial rings without epithelium, pre-incubated with serum, TDI caused contraction at highest doses, while it still induced relaxation at the lowest doses. This study shows that one or more components of the serum modify the contractile response to TDI in isolated guinea-pig bronchi. In bronchial rings without epithelium serum was able to inhibit the contration induced by low doses of TDI. PMID:11392576

  5. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) disposition and co-localization of immune cells in hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Ajay P; Hettick, Justin M; Siegel, Paul D; Anderson, Stacey E; Long, Carrie M; Green, Brett J; Beezhold, Donald H

    2014-08-01

    Diisocyanates (dNCOs) are potent chemical allergens utilized in various industries. It has been proposed that skin exposure to dNCOs produces immune sensitization leading to work-related asthma and allergic disease. We examined dNCOs sensitization by using a dermal murine model of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposure to characterize the disposition of TDI in the skin, identify the predominant haptenated proteins, and discern the associated antigen uptake by dendritic cells. Ears of BALB/c mice were dosed once with TDI (0.1% or 4% v/v acetone). Ears and draining lymph nodes (DLNs) were excised at selected time points between 1 h and 15 days post-exposure and were processed for histological, immunohistochemical, and proteomic analyses. Monoclonal antibodies specific for TDI-haptenated protein (TDI-hp) and antibodies to various cell markers were utilized with confocal microscopy to determine co-localization patterns. Histopathological changes were observed following exposure in ear tissue of mice dosed with 4% TDI/acetone. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated TDI-hp localization in the stratum corneum, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands. TDI-hp were co-localized with CD11b(+) (integrin αM/Mac-1), CD207(+) (langerin), and CD103(+) (integrin αE) cells in the hair follicles and in sebaceous glands. TDI-hp were also identified in the DLN 1 h post-exposure. Cytoskeletal and cuticular keratins along with mouse serum albumin were identified as major haptenated species in the skin. The results of this study demonstrate that the stratum corneum, hair follicles, and associated sebaceous glands in mice are dendritic cell accessible reservoirs for TDI-hp and thus identify a mechanism for immune recognition following epicutaneous exposure to TDI. PMID:24798378

  6. CellTracks TDI: an image cytometer for cell characterization.

    PubMed

    Scholtens, Tycho M; Schreuder, Frederik; Ligthart, Sjoerd T; Swennenhuis, Joost F; Tibbe, Arjan G J; Greve, Jan; Terstappen, Leon W M M

    2011-03-01

    Characterization of rare cells usually requires high sensitivity quantification of multiple parameters. Detection of morphological features of these cells is highly desired when routinely identifying circulating tumor cells (CTC) in blood of patients. We have designed an image cytometer intended for fast and sensitive routine analysis of CTC. After an initial scan, prospective events can be revisited for more detailed analysis. The image cytometer features: 375, 491, and 639 nm laser lines, a 40×/0.6NA objective, a CCD camera operating in TDI mode, servo stages to move the sample in two dimensions and a piëzo microscope objective positioner to move the objective in the third dimension. ImageJ is used for dedicated image analysis. A homogeneous illumination area, measuring 180 × 180 μm(2) , was created by the use of a rotating diffuser in combination with two micro-lens arrays. For feed-forward automatic focusing of the sample during a scan, a 3D spline was fitted through 30 predetermined focus positions before scanning the sample. Continuous signal acquisition is made possible by using a CCD operating in TDI mode synchronized to the movement of two servo scan stages. The limit of fluorescence sensitivity is 120 PE molecules on a bead with a diameter of 6.8 μm, at a scanning speed of 1.0 mm s(-1) . The resolution of the imaging system is 0.76 μm in the TDI scan direction at a wavelength of 580 nm. Identification of cells is facilitated by scatter plots of the fluorescent parameters in which each individual event can be viewed for its morphological features by fluorescence as well as bright field. The image cytometer measures quantitative fluorescence and morphological features at a high sensitivity, high resolution, and with minimal overhead time. It has the ability torelocate events of interest for further detailed analysis. The system can be used for routine identification and characterization of rare cells. PMID:21337699

  7. 76 FR 43236 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Chapter 301 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice... Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) in an effort to streamline travel policies, increase travel efficiency and... pertain to Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances that include special conveyances, per diem and...

  8. Prevalence of Dental Caries in relation to Body Mass Index, Daily Sugar Intake, and Oral Hygiene Status in 12-Year-Old School Children in Mathura City: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To correlate the prevalence of dental caries to body mass index, daily sugar intake, and oral hygiene status of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and included 100 school children aged 12 years (n = 50 boys and n = 50 girls) who were randomly selected from two schools based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. Body weight/height was recorded and BMI was calculated and plotted on CDC-BMI for age growth charts/curves for boys and girls to obtain percentile ranking. Dental caries was recorded using WHO criteria. Oral hygiene status of the study subjects was assessed using oral hygiene index-simplified. Data regarding the daily sugar intake was recorded using 24-hour recall diet frequency chart. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS version 11.5 for windows. Result. Only 27 subjects were affected by caries. The mean DMFT/dmft was 0.37 ± 0.79 and 0.12 ± 0.60, respectively. Statistical analysis by means of a logistic regression model revealed that only oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence (OR = 5.061, P = 0.004), whereas daily sugar intake and body mass index had no significant effect. Conclusion. From the analysis, it was concluded that oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city. PMID:24688550

  9. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) regulates haem oxygenase-1/ferritin expression: implications for toluene diisocyanate-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S-H; Choi, G-S; Ye, Y-M; Jou, I; Park, H-S; Park, S M

    2010-01-01

    Diisocyanate is a leading cause of occupational asthma (OA). Diisocyanate-induced OA is an inflammatory disease of the airways that is associated with airway remodelling. Although the pathogenic mechanisms are unclear, oxidative stress may be related to the pathogenesis of diisocyanate-induced OA. In our previous report, we observed that the expression of ferritin light chain (FTL) was decreased in both of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum of patients with diphenyl-methane diisocyanate (MDI)-induced OA compared to those of asymptomatic exposed controls and unexposed healthy controls. In this study of toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-OA, we found identical findings with increased transferrin and decreased ferritin levels in the serum of patients with TDI-OA. To elucidate whether diisocyanate suppresses FTL synthesis directly, we tested the effect of TDI on the FTL synthesis in A549 cells, a human airway epithelial cell line. We found that haem oxygenase-1 as well as FTL was suppressed by treatment with TDI in dose- and time-dependent manners. We also found that the synthesis of other anti-oxidant proteins such as thioredoxin-1, glutathione peroxidase, peroxiredoxin 1 and catalase were suppressed by TDI. Furthermore, TDI suppressed nuclear translocation of Nrf2 through suppressing the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs); extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2); p38; and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonists, 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 and rosiglitazone rescued the effect of TDI on HO-1/FTL expression. Collectively, our findings suggest that TDI suppressed HO-1/FTL expression through the MAPK–Nrf2 signalling pathway, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of TDI-induced OA. Therefore, elucidating these observations further should help to develop the therapeutic strategies of diisocyanate-induced OA. PMID:20345975

  10. Estimated dietary intake and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from fish consumption in the Korean general population.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Su; Kim, Jongchul; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kang, Young-Woon; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in samples from various fish species available at food markets in nine Korean cities. The estimated dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated from the raw concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in each sample and from the food consumption of the Korean general population, and a comparison was made with the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The average daily dietary exposure and the 95th percentile of intake of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 0.21 and 0.49 pg WHO05-toxic equivalents (TEQ) kg(-1) body weight d(-1) representing 5.27% and 12.26%, respectively, of the Korean tolerable daily intake (TDI). We applied the monthly fish consumption limits to the evaluation of improved risk assessment and concluded that unlimited consumption of most fish species does not contribute to the elevated cancer risk. This investigation was the first such large-scale study in Korea, and incorporated 37 species, including a species of whale, and 480 samples. The major aims of this study were to demonstrate the health risks associated with fish intake and to ensure food safety through total analysis of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). PMID:26741547

  11. High-stage analog accumulator for TDI CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianxin, Li; Fujun, Huang; Yong, Zong; Jing, Gao

    2016-02-01

    The impact of the parasitic phenomenon on the performance of the analog accumulator in TDI CMOS image sensor is analyzed and resolved. A 128-stage optimized accumulator based on 0.18-μm one-poly four-metal 3.3 V CMOS technology is designed and simulated. A charge injection effect from the top plate sampling is employed to compensate the un-eliminated parasitics based on the accumulator with a decoupling switch, and then a calibration circuit is designed to restrain the mismatch and Process, Voltage and Temperature (PVT) variations. The post layout simulation indicates that the improved SNR of the accumulator upgrades from 17.835 to 21.067 dB, while an ideal value is 21.072 dB. In addition, the linearity of the accumulator is 99.62%. The simulation results of two extreme cases and Monte Carlo show that the mismatch and PVT variations are restrained by the calibration circuit. Furthermore, it is promising to design a higher stage accumulator based on the proposed structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404090, 61434004).

  12. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of MDI and TDI polyurethane polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Urquhart, S.G.; Smith, A.P.; Ade, H.W.; Hitchcock, A.P.; Rightor, E.G.; Lidy, W.

    1999-06-03

    The sensitivity of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) to differences in key chemical components of polyurethane polymers is presented. Carbon is NEXAFS spectra of polyurethane polymers made from 4,4{prime}-methylene di-p-phenylene isocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) isocyanate monomers illustrate that there is an unambiguous spectroscopic fingerprint for distinguishing between MDI-based and TDI-based polyurethane polymers. NEXAFS spectra of MDI and TDI polyurea and polyurethane models show that the urea and carbamate (urethane) linkages in these polymers can be distinguished. The NEXAFS spectroscopy of the polyether component of these polymers is discussed, and the differences between the spectra of MDI and TDI polyurethanes synthesized with polyether polyols of different molecular composition and different molecular weight are presented. These polymer spectra reported herein provide appropriate model spectra to represent the pure components for quantitative microanalysis.

  13. TDI imaging and scanning moiré for online defect detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajan, M. R.; Tay, C. J.; Shang, H. M.; Asundi, A.

    1997-09-01

    This paper explains the application of scanning moiré in association with TDI (Time Delay and Integration) imaging for complete peripheral inspection of cylindrical objects. Based on the structured light technique, a grating pattern modulated by deformations, such as dents on the surface of a rotating cylindrical object, is recorded using a TDI camera. The illumination system consists of an intensity modulated, line generating laser diode aligned at an angle to the camera axis. By using the TDI option for recording every nth line, an online scanning moiré pattern is generated. After providing a simple explanation of the scanning moiré, the effects of object rotation speed and TDI scan speed on the fringe pattern are discussed and demonstrated. The techniques presented here offer low cost solutions to industrial machine vision tasks related to peripheral imaging and inspection of cylindrical objects.

  14. InSb 288*32 FPA with digital TDI for low background application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishko, V. F.; Kasatkin, I. L.; Lopukhin, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    32*288 format FPA based on InSb two dimension arrays (IDA) of photodiodes with function of digital TDI were investigated at low background flow. Dark currents of TDA photodiodes in wide temperature region, spectral noise distribution and threshold power with TDI simulation are investigated. It was established that at T=77K dark current is (I - 3)*10-11A at optimal negative bias and decreases in the order of magnitude at T=65K. Threshold power at T=77K at integration time Ti=6 ms is not more 2*10 -14 W/pixel and is limited commonly by dark current noise. Modeling of digital TDI showed that not more than twenty TDI stages are effective because of the presence of 1/f noise and threshold power would be at about 3*10 -15 W/pixel.

  15. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  16. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),

  17. Iron absorption is more closely related to iron status than to daily iron intake in 12- to 48-mo-old children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have evaluated iron absorption in small children after the first year of life. Our objective was to examine the relations among iron intake, iron absorption, and iron status in a group of healthy children. We studied 28 children, ages 12 to 48 mo, after a 7-d home adaptation to a diet re...

  18. [Relationship between the number of daily meals and the energy and nutrient intake in the elderly. Effect on various cardiovascular risk factors].

    PubMed

    Ortega, R M; Redondo, M R; Zamora, M J; López-Sobaler, A M; Quintas, M E; Andrés, P; Gaspar, M J; Requejo, A M

    1998-01-01

    The metabolic consequences of the consumption of a diet depend, in part, on the frequency and distribution of meals. The aim of the present study was to examine the number of meals taken per day by elderly persons, and to analyse the relationship between the number of meals per day on the intake of energy and nutrients, the incidence of obesity/overweight, and different cardiovascular risk factors. Food intake was monitored for five consecutive days using 'precise individual weighing' for institutionalised subjects (n = 58), and by means of a 'food intake record' for independent subjects (n = 92). The number of meals taken per day was recorded, along with anthropometric data, blood pressure and serum lipid and lipoprotein levels. No subject took only one meal per day, 7.3% took two, 56.7% took three, 33.3% took four and 2.7% took five. Only 10% of subjects took a mid-morning meal. Breakfast and merienda (a light evening snack) were the meals most frequently omitted. A positive, significant relationship was found to exist between the number of meals taken per day and the intake of fibre (r = 0.2737), thiamin (r = 0.1671), pyridoxine (r = 0.2060), magnesium (r = 0.2423) and the percentage of energy provided by carbohydrates (r = 0.2144). Women subjects who took 2-3 meals per day showed greater body mass indices and a greater proportion were overweight/obese compared to those who took 4-5 meals per day. Subjects who took 4-5 meals per day showed higher levels of HDL-cholesterol and lower levels of LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol and cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol than did those who took fewer meals per day. Inverse, significant relationships were also found between the number of meals per day and serum cholesterol (r = 0.2297) and LDL-cholesterol levels (r = 0.1984). Taking into account energy and nutrient intakes, the incidence of obesity/overweight and serum lipid and lipoprotein levels, the consumption of 4-5 meals per day would seem more advisable for the elderly than the taking of fewer meals. PMID:9780751

  19. Determination of PCDD/Fs in breast milk of women living in the vicinities of Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (Vietnam) and estimation of the infant's daily intake.

    PubMed

    Hue, N T M; Nam, V D; Thuong, N V; Huyen, N T; Phuong, N T H; Hung, N X; Tuan, N H; Son, L K; Minh, N H

    2014-09-01

    Seventeen toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in breast milks using the high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method. Twenty seven breast milk samples were collected from primiparae who have lived over 5 years in wards namely Chinh Gian, An Khe, Khue Trung, and Hoa Thuan Tay which are located near the Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (the AO/Dioxin hot spot). The samples were then analyzed for PCDD/F residues in order to assess the human exposure to dioxins from the AO/Dioxin hot spot, especially health risk to the breast-fed infants. The average TEQ levels in the four studied cohorts ranged from 8.1 to 26 pg/g lipid, with the highest level up to 51 pg TEQ/g lipid found in the An Khe ward. The TEQ level was correlated with geographical position and ranking in the order of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe. The mean estimated PCDD/Fs infant's daily intake in the cohort of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe was about 41, 122, 124, and 134 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, respectively, which are much higher than the tolerable daily intake proposed by the World Health Organization (4 pg TEQ/kg bw/day). PMID:24613651

  20. Validity and Reproducibility of a Self-Administered Semi-Quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Usual Daily Fat, Fibre, Alcohol, Caffeine and Theobromine Intakes among Belgian Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bolca, Selin; Huybrechts, Inge; Verschraegen, Mia; De Henauw, Stefaan; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2009-01-01

    A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d) estimated diet records (EDR, n 64) and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79). Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47–0.94; weighted κ 0.25–0.66) and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71–0.87) with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted κ 0.33–0.80). In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population. PMID:19440274

  1. Leptin concentrations in finishing beef steers and heifers and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Tait, R G; Keisler, D H; Hales, K E; Freetly, H C

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition measures of finishing beef steers and heifers and to determine if multiple sampling time points improve the associations of plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition traits. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) and ADG were determined for 84 d using steers and heifers (n = 127 steers and n = 109 heifers). Blood was collected on day 0, day 42, and day 83 for determination of plasma leptin concentrations. Leptin concentrations were greater in heifers than those in steers on day 0 (P < 0.001 for sex by day interaction), and leptin concentrations increased in both sexes but were not different from each other on day 83. Leptin concentrations at all 3 time points and the mean were shown to be positively associated with DMI (P ≤ 0.006), whereas the mean leptin concentration explaining 8.3% of the variance of DMI. Concentrations of leptin at day 42, day 83, and the mean of all 3 time points were positively associated with ADG (P ≤ 0.011). Mean leptin concentration was negatively associated with gain:feed ratio and positively associated with residual feed intake (RFI), indicating that more efficient cattle had lower leptin concentrations. However, leptin concentrations explained very little of the variation in residual feed intake (≤3.2% of the variance). Leptin concentrations were positively associated with body fat measured by ultrasonography at the 12th rib and over the rump (P < 0.001), with the mean leptin concentration explaining 21.9% and 12.7% of the variance in 12th rib and rump fat thickness, respectively. The same trend was observed with carcass composition where leptin concentrations were positively associated with 12th rib fat thickness, USDA-calculated yield grade (YG), and marbling score (P ≤ 0.006) and mean leptin concentration explained 16.8, 18.2, and 4.6% of the variance for 12th rib fat thickness, yield grade, and marbling score, respectively. Given these and previous results, it appears that leptin physiology could be a candidate for mechanisms that contribute to feed intake and feed efficiency variation in beef cattle. PMID:26851619

  2. Characterization of polyurethane systems which contain low levels of free TDI

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, R.L.; Thomas, E.V.

    1995-04-01

    EN-7, EN-8, and EN-9 are polyurethane systems that are used in numerous applications in the Department of Energy complex. These systems contain high levels of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Currently, TDI is being treated as a suspect human carcinogen within the Department of Energy complex. This report documents the results of a material characterization study of three polyurethane systems that contain low levels of free (potentially airborne) TDI. The characterization has been accomplished by performing a set of statistically designed experiments. The purpose of these experiments is to explore the effects of formulation and cure schedule on various material properties. In general, the material properties (pot life, glass transition temperature, hardness, and tear strength) were relatively insensitive to variation in the cure schedule. On the other hand, variation in curative level had measurable effects on material properties for the polyurethane systems studied. Furthermore, the material properties of the three low-free-TDI polyurethane systems were found to be comparable or superior (for certain curative levels) to commonly-used polyurethane systems. Thus, these low-free-TDI systems appear to be viable candidates for applications where a polyurethane is needed.

  3. TDI and clock noise removal for the split interferometry configuration of LISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Markus; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    2012-10-01

    Laser phase noise is the dominant noise source in the on-board measurements of the space-based gravitational wave detector LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna). A well-known data analysis technique, the so-called time-delay interferometry (TDI), provides synthesized data streams free of laser phase noise. At the same time, TDI also removes the next largest noise source: phase fluctuations of the on-board clocks which distort the sampling process. TDI needs precise information about the spacecraft separations, sampling times and differential clock noise between the three spacecrafts. These are measured using auxiliary modulations on the laser light. Hence, there is a need for algorithms that account for clock noise removal schemes combined with TDI while preserving the gravitational wave signal. In this paper, we will present the mathematical formulation of the LISA-like data streams and discuss a compliant algorithm that corrects for both clock and laser noise in the case of a rotating, non-breathing LISA constellation. In contrast to previous papers, we consider the current optical bench design (split interferometry configuration), i.e. the test mass readout is done by the local oscillators only, instead of reflecting the weak inter-spacecraft light off the test mass. Furthermore, the absolute order of laser frequencies is taken into account and it can be shown that the TDI equations remain invariant. This is a crucial issue and was, up to now, completely neglected in the analysis.

  4. The characteristic analysis and optimization design for HgCdTe TDI infrared detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Mei-feng; Chen, Xing; Qiu, Guang-yin; Xie, Xiao-hui

    2011-08-01

    Time Delay Integration (TDI) is an effective approach for high sensitive infrared detectors. According to the principle of the TDI, the central distance of pixel along the time delay integral direction is closely linked with the specific application requirements. So the optimization design, such as the area of pixels and their distance, plays an important role to improve the performance of TDI detectors. The crosstalk between pixels is a crucial factor that results in the decline of detector Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), and then affects the imaging quality. In this paper the optimization design rule for the arrangement of pixel has been investigated. The results show that the main method to appreciate it is reducing the crosstalk between pixels and enhancing detectivity. Chips of which pixel areas and edge intervals are different but with same distance were designed for the experiments. The optical and electrical measurements were carried out for these chips and the optimized structure was obtained. In addition, relationships between the crosstalk and parameters of material, pixel structure were analyzed based on the experiment data. According to the comprehensive analysis of the measurement data, we obtained the optimum design for specific HgCdTe TDI infrared detector. Meanwhile it is also a well reference for other HgCdTe TDI detector structure design.

  5. Daily intake of rosehip extract decreases abdominal visceral fat in preobese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Nagatomo, Akifumi; Nishida, Norihisa; Fukuhara, Ikuo; Noro, Akira; Kozai, Yoshimichi; Sato, Hisao; Matsuura, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity has become a great problem all over the world. We repeatedly screened to find an effective food to treat obesity and discovered that rosehip extract shows potent anti-obesity effects. Investigations in mice have demonstrated that rosehip extract inhibits body weight gain and decreases visceral fat. Thus, the present study examined the effect of rosehip extract on human body fat in preobese subjects. Methods We conducted a 12-week, single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 32 subjects who had a body mass index of ≥25 but <30. The subjects were assigned to two random groups, and they received one tablet of placebo or rosehip that contained 100 mg of rosehip extract once each day for 12 weeks with no dietary intervention. Abdominal fat area and body fat percent were measured as primary outcomes. The other outcomes were body weight and body mass index. Results Abdominal total fat area, abdominal visceral fat area, body weight, and body mass index decreased significantly in the rosehip group at week 12 compared with their baseline levels (P<0.01) after receiving the rosehip tablet intake, and the decreases in these parameters were significantly higher when compared with those in the placebo group. Additionally, body fat percent tended to decrease compared with the placebo group and their baseline level. Moreover, the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was significantly lower in the rosehip group than in the placebo group at week 12 after the initiation of intake (P<0.05). In addition, there were no abnormalities, subjective symptoms, and findings that may indicate clinical problems during the study period. Conclusion These results suggest that rosehip extract may be a good candidate food material for preventing obesity. PMID:25834460

  6. Power capability of LiTDI-based electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillet, Sabrina; Schmidt, Gregory; Ladouceur, Sébastien; Fréchette, Joël; Barray, Francis; Clément, Daniel; Hovington, Pierre; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Vijh, Ashok; Cayrefourcq, Ian; Zaghib, Karim

    2015-10-01

    We report results obtained with lithium 4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl) imidazolide (LiTDI), which we believe is a promising lithium salt for electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. This "Hückel"- type salt has high charge delocalizations which contribute to good lithium-ion dissociation. In addition, it has high thermal stability and safer degradation products compared to LiPF6, which were identified by TGA-MS. It also does not corrode but passivate the aluminum current collector. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed a stability up to 4.5 V, which is sufficient for use with standard cathode materials. The power capability of half cells containing LiTDI in EC/DEC was evaluated with standard cathodes used in lithium-ion batteries: LFP, NMC, LCO and LMO. Two LiTDI concentrations were investigated: 1 M and 0.6 M and compared with a reference electrolyte: 1 M LiPF6. In spite of a slightly lower conductivity than the LiPF6, LiTDI (1 M and 0.6 M) shows similar power capability up to 2C with LFP (84% of specific capacity recovered), 10C with NMC (61% of specific capacity recovered), and up to 20C for LMO (88% of specific capacity recovered). Furthermore, better power capability was obtained with 0.6 M LiTDI with LCO, which yielded 82% of specific capacity recovered at 1C (67% for 1 M LiTDI and 1 M LiPF6).

  7. 41 CFR 301-30.4 - When an illness or injury occurs on TDY, what expenses may be allowed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... injury occurs on TDY, what expenses may be allowed? 301-30.4 Section 301-30.4 Public Contracts and... TRAVEL EXPENSES 30-EMERGENCY TRAVEL § 301-30.4 When an illness or injury occurs on TDY, what expenses may... incapacitating illness or injury for a reasonable period of time (generally 14 calendar days). However,...

  8. Realization of the FPGA based TDI algorithm in digital domain for CMOS cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Shuping; Jin, Guang; Zhang, Xuyan; Qu, Hongsong

    2012-10-01

    In order to make the CMOS image sensors suitable for space high resolution imaging applications, a new method realizing TDI in digital domain by FPGA is proposed in this paper, which improves the imaging mode for area array CMOS sensors. The TDI algorithm accumulates the corresponding pixels of adjoining frames in digital domain, so the gray values increase by M times, where M is for the integration number, and the image's quality in signal-to-noise ratio can be improved. In addition, the TDI optimization algorithm is discussed. Firstly, the signal storage is optimized by 2 slices of external RAM, where memory depth expanding and the table tennis operation mechanism are used. Secondly, the FIFO operation mechanism reduces the reading and writing operation on memory by M×(M-1) times, It saves so much signal transfer time as is proportional to the square of integration number M2, that the frame frequency is able to increase greatly. At last, the CMOS camera based on TDI in digital domain is developed, and the algorithm is validated by experiments on it.

  9. 76 FR 46216 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... (GSA) published a notice in the Federal Register on July 20, 2011 (76 FR 43236), announcing a public..., 2011, in FR Doc. 2011-18305 (76 FR 43236), the following corrections are made: 1. On page 43237, in the... ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Chapter 301 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances:...

  10. 76 FR 32340 - Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Parts 301-11, 302-2, 302-3, and 302-17 RIN 3090-AI95 Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances (Taxes) AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide... amend the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) by incorporating recommendations of the...

  11. A configurable distributed high-performance computing framework for satellite's TDI-CCD imaging simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Bo; Mao, Bingjing; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang

    2010-11-01

    This paper renders a configurable distributed high performance computing(HPC) framework for TDI-CCD imaging simulation. It uses strategy pattern to adapt multi-algorithms. Thus, this framework help to decrease the simulation time with low expense. Imaging simulation for TDI-CCD mounted on satellite contains four processes: 1) atmosphere leads degradation, 2) optical system leads degradation, 3) electronic system of TDI-CCD leads degradation and re-sampling process, 4) data integration. Process 1) to 3) utilize diversity data-intensity algorithms such as FFT, convolution and LaGrange Interpol etc., which requires powerful CPU. Even uses Intel Xeon X5550 processor, regular series process method takes more than 30 hours for a simulation whose result image size is 1500 * 1462. With literature study, there isn't any mature distributing HPC framework in this field. Here we developed a distribute computing framework for TDI-CCD imaging simulation, which is based on WCF[1], uses Client/Server (C/S) layer and invokes the free CPU resources in LAN. The server pushes the process 1) to 3) tasks to those free computing capacity. Ultimately we rendered the HPC in low cost. In the computing experiment with 4 symmetric nodes and 1 server , this framework reduced about 74% simulation time. Adding more asymmetric nodes to the computing network, the time decreased namely. In conclusion, this framework could provide unlimited computation capacity in condition that the network and task management server are affordable. And this is the brand new HPC solution for TDI-CCD imaging simulation and similar applications.

  12. Review and evaluation of TDI diesel generator owner's group program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This report documents a review, performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), of the Transamerica Delaval, Inc. (TDI) Diesel Generator Owner's Group Program Plan. This report was prepared as part of the technical support PNL is providing to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Division of Licensing, on matters pertaining to the reliability of TDI diesel generators as emergency power sources for safety-related nuclear systems. The report presents the comments and conclusions reached by PNL, with the advice and counsel of five diesel engine consultants, on the principal elements of the Owners' Group Plan: Generic Problem Resolution, Design Review/Quality Revalidation, and Engine Testing and Inspection. Also included are PNL's comments on the related issues of Surveillance and Maintenance, and Administrative Controls. The conclusions drawn from PNL's evaluation of these issues form the basis for two additional topics addressed in the report: Critical Elements Required to Establish Diesel Engine Operability and Reliability, and Considerations for Interim Licensing.

  13. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  14. Determination of phthalates in raw bovine milk by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS) and dietary intakes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Meekyung; Yun, Seon Jong; Chung, Gab-Soo

    2009-01-01

    Low levels of phthalates, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), in raw bovine milk were determined using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). A fast and convenient process of sample treatment combined with TOF-MS analysis (medium resolution >5000), yielded good recoveries (85-125%) and low limits of detection (<0.002 mg kg(-1)). The most commonly used phthalate, DEHP, was found in 15 out of 30 samples monitored in this study. DEHP concentrations in raw milk ranged from not detected to 0.154 mg kg(-1), and the mean concentration was 0.057 mg kg(-1). The dietary intake of DEHP was about 0.004 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) if a child (24 months, 13 kg body weight) drinks 1 L day(-1) of milk that contains the mean concentration of DEHP found in raw milk. The estimated dietary intake corresponded to 8% of the European Union tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.05 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1). Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were found from two and 20 samples, respectively, at low levels. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were not found in any of the samples. PMID:19680881

  15. Implementation of pixel level digital TDI for scanning type LWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, Omer; Kayahan, Huseyin; Yazici, Melik; Afridi, Sohaib; Shafique, Atia; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2014-07-01

    Implementation of a CMOS digital readout integrated circuit (DROIC) based on pixel level digital time delay integration (TDI) for scanning type LWIR focal plane arrays (FPAs) is presented. TDI is implemented on 8 pixels with over sampling rate of 3. Analog signal integrated on integration capacitor is converted to digital domain in pixel, and digital data is transferred to TDI summation counters, where contributions of 8 pixels are added. Output data is 16 bit, where 8 bits are allocated for most significant bits and 8 bits for least significant bits. Control block of the ROIC, which is responsible of generating timing diagram for switches controlling the pixels and summation counters, is realized with VerilogHDL. Summation counters and parallel-to-serial converter to convert 16 bit parallel output data to single bit output are also realized with Verilog HDL. Synthesized verilog netlists are placed&routed and combined with analog under-pixel part of the design. Quantization noise of analog-to-digital conversion is less than 500e-. Since analog signal is converted to digital domain in-pixel, inaccuracies due to analog signal routing over large chip area is eliminated. ROIC is fabricated with 0.18μm CMOS process and chip area is 10mm2. Post-layout simulation results of the implemented design are presented. ROIC is programmable through serial or parallel interface. Input referred noise of ROIC is less than 750 rms electron, while power consumption is less than 30mW. ROIC is designed to perform in cryogenic temperatures.

  16. MTF measurements of a frame transfer CCD operating in TDI mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeff, Peter; Gondoin, Philippe A.

    1992-08-01

    A simulation set-up radiometrically representative of a high resolution Earth observation condition from a geosynchronous spinning spacecraft has been built. This simulation set-up is used to verify the performance of a commercially matrix CCD (THOMSON-CSF type TH7864) when operating in time delay and integration (ThI) mode. MTF measurements results of this TDI operating CCD are presented in this paper and are compared with M''TF values of the same CCD operating in a conventional staring mode. 1.

  17. Computational imaging from non-uniform degradation of staggered TDI thermal infrared imager.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Liu, Jian Guo; Shi, Yan; Chen, Wangli; Qin, Qianqing; Zhang, Zijian

    2015-09-21

    For the Time Delay Integration (TDI) staggered line-scanning thermal infrared imager, a Computational Imaging (CI) approach is developed to achieve higher spatial resolution images. After a thorough analysis of the causes of non-uniform image displacement and degradation for multi-channel staggered TDI arrays, the study aims to approach one-dimensional (1D) sub-pixel displacement estimation and superposition of images from time-division multiplexing scanning lines. Under the assumption that a thermal image is 2D piecewise C(2) smooth, a sparse-and-smooth deconvolution algorithm with L1-norm regularization terms combining the first and second order derivative operators is proposed to restore high frequency components and to suppress aliasing simultaneously. It is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated, with simulation and airborne thermal infrared images, that this is a state-of-the-art practical CI method to reconstruct clear images with higher frequency components from raw thermal images that are subject to instantaneous distortion and blurring. PMID:26406660

  18. Daily Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... online tool. Community Resource Finder ® Locate dementia resources, programs and services in your ... daily life . Help the person remain as independent as possible. Offer opportunities for choice. Establish a ...

  19. Time delay and integration array (TDI) using charge transfer device technology. Phase 2, volume 1: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The 20x9 TDI array was developed to meet the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper Requirements. This array is based upon a self-aligned, transparent gate, buried channel process. The process features: (1) buried channel, four phase, overlapping gate CCD's for high transfer efficiency without fat zero; (2) self-aligned transistors to minimize clock feedthrough and parasitic capacitance; and (3) transparent tin oxide electrode for high quantum efficiency with front surface irradiation. The requirements placed on the array and the performance achieved are summarized. This data is the result of flat field measurements only, no imaging or dynamic target measurements were made during this program. Measurements were performed with two different test stands. The bench test equipment fabricated for this program operated at the 8 micro sec line time and employed simple sampling of the gated MOSFET output video signal. The second stand employed Correlated Doubled Sampling (CDS) and operated at 79.2 micro sec line time.

  20. Temporal and Spatial Comparison of Gridded TMY, TDY, and TGY Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Lopez, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2014-02-01

    Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) data sets provide industry standard resource information for building designers and are commonly used by the solar industry to estimate photovoltaic and concentrating solar power system performance. Historically, TMY data sets were only available for certain station locations, but current TMY data sets are available on the same grid as the National Solar Radiation Database data and are referred to as the gridded TMY. In this report, a comparison of TMY, typical direct (normal irradiance) year (TDY), and typical global (horizontal irradiance) year (TGY) data sets were performed to better understand the impact of ancillary weather variables upon them. These analyses identified geographical areas of high and low temporal and spatial variability, thereby providing insight into the representativeness of a particular TMY data set for use in renewable energy as well as other applications.

  1. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

  2. 41 CFR 301-11.15 - What expenses may be considered part of the daily lodging cost when I rent on a long-term basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What expenses may be considered part of the daily lodging cost when I rent on a long-term basis? 301-11.15 Section 301-11.15 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY)...

  3. ESTIMATED DAILY AVERAGE PER CAPITA WATER INGESTION BY CHILD AND ADULT AGE CATEGORIES BASED ON USDA'S 1994-96 AND 1998 CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKES BY INDIVIDUALS (JOURNAL ARTICLE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current water ingestion estimates are important for the assessment of risk to human populations of exposure to water-borne pollutants. This paper reports mean and percentile estimates of the distributions of daily average per capita water ingestion for 12 age range groups. The ...

  4. A Fixed-Pattern Noise Correction Method Based on Gray Value Compensation for TDI CMOS Image Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenwang; Xu, Jiangtao; Wang, Xinlei; Nie, Kaiming; Jin, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    In order to eliminate the fixed-pattern noise (FPN) in the output image of time-delay-integration CMOS image sensor (TDI-CIS), a FPN correction method based on gray value compensation is proposed. One hundred images are first captured under uniform illumination. Then, row FPN (RFPN) and column FPN (CFPN) are estimated based on the row-mean vector and column-mean vector of all collected images, respectively. Finally, RFPN are corrected by adding the estimated RFPN gray value to the original gray values of pixels in the corresponding row, and CFPN are corrected by subtracting the estimated CFPN gray value from the original gray values of pixels in the corresponding column. Experimental results based on a 128-stage TDI-CIS show that, after correcting the FPN in the image captured under uniform illumination with the proposed method, the standard-deviation of row-mean vector decreases from 5.6798 to 0.4214 LSB, and the standard-deviation of column-mean vector decreases from 15.2080 to 13.4623 LSB. Both kinds of FPN in the real images captured by TDI-CIS are eliminated effectively with the proposed method. PMID:26389917

  5. A modified echocardiographic protocol with intrinsic plausibility control to determine intraventricular asynchrony based on TDI and TSI

    PubMed Central

    Dreger, Henryk; Borges, Adrian C; Ismer, Bruno; Schattke, Sebastian; Stegemann, Berthold; Baumann, Gert; Melzer, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Background Established methods to determine asynchrony suffer from high intra- and interobserver variability and failed to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Thus, there is a need for easy and robust approaches to reliably assess cardiac asynchrony. Methods and Results We performed echocardiography in 100 healthy subjects and 33 patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). To detect intraventricular asynchrony, we combined two established methods, i.e., tissue synchronization imaging (TSI) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). The time intervals from the onset of aortic valve opening (AVO) to the peak systolic velocity (S') were measured separately in six basal segments in the apical four-, two-, and three-chamber view. Color-coded TSI served as an intrinsic plausibility control and helped to identify the correct S' measuring point in the TDI curves. Next, we identified the segment with the shortest AVO-S' interval. Since this segment most likely represents vital and intact myocardium it served as a reference for other segments. Segments were considered asynchronous when the delay between the segment in question and the reference segment was above the upper limit of normal delays derived from the control population. Intra- and interobserver variability were 7.0% and 7.7%, respectively. Conclusion Our results suggest that combination of TDI and TSI with intrinsic plausibility control improves intra- and interobserver variability and allows easy and reliable assessment of cardiac asynchrony. PMID:19781060

  6. Growth and metal accumulation response of Vigna radiata L. var PDM 54 (mung bean) grown on fly ash-amended soil: effect on dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit K; Sinha, Sarita

    2009-08-01

    Plants of Vigna radiata L. var. PDM 54 (mung bean) were grown in soil amended with different amounts (10 and 25%) of fly ash (FA). Although total metal content increased with increasing FA amendment, DTPA-extractable metals were higher for 10% FA. Accumulation of metals by the plants increased with increasing FA amendment and was greater in shoots than in roots (except for Mn and Cu) and seeds (except Mn). The total daily intake (TDI) of all the tested metals in seeds was within the recommended dietary allowance (RDA)/provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) for adults, except for Cd, which was higher than recommended values. Principal-components analysis (PCA) based on studies of physicochemical properties, DTPA-extractable metals, and metal accumulation in the different parts of V. radiata showed that physicochemical properties such as cation-exchange capacity, organic carbon, and organic matter had significant positive effects on accumulation of Cd, Co, Ni, and Pb by the plant, whereas EC had a significant negative effect. Although addition of fly ash (10%) initially increased the rate of growth, toxic symptoms were observed for 25% FA. Results from analysis of antioxidants (carotenoids, ascorbic acid, non-protein thiol, and free proline) revealed that these increased more in plants grown in 10% FA than in those grown in garden soil. Cysteine and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased with increasing FA amendment. PCA also showed that all the antioxidants studied behaved similarly except cysteine, for which there was a close relationship with MDA content. Thus, the results obtained during this study revealed that V. radiata L. var. PDM 54 may be grown in 10% FA and/or contaminated agricultural soil. PMID:18668327

  7. Dietary lead intake of preschool children.

    PubMed Central

    Bander, L K; Morgan, K J; Zabik, M E

    1983-01-01

    A nationwide, seven-day food consumption survey of 371 preschool children between the ages of birth and five years indicated that a direct linear relationship existed between age and increased dietary lead intake from foods consumed. Daily dietary lead intake averaged 62 micrograms and ranged from 15 micrograms to 234 micrograms. The various levels of lead intake were attributed to frequency of consumption of food items, quantity of food consumed, and the lead content of particular food items. To account for variation in the quantity of food consumed by the various children, average lead intake per 500 kilocalories consumed and per 500 g of food consumed was calculated. When these standardization procedures were followed, an equalization in the average daily dietary lead intake values was observed among the various aged children. PMID:6602559

  8. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that in preschool children, when trying to maximize the benefit of fluoride in caries prevention and to minimize its risk, caution should be exercised when giving advice on the fluoride containing components of child's diet or prescribing fluoride supplements. PMID:21974798

  9. Nutritional intake of elite football referees.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Gonçalves, Liliana; Meneses, Tiago; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4.4% and 34.6 ± 4.1% of the DEI. Carbohydrate intakes before, during and after exercise were 66 ± 42, 7 ± 15 and 120 ± 62 g. Daily carbohydrate, fibre, polyunsaturated fat and water intakes were below recommendations, while fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intakes were above recommended values. The prevalence of inadequate intake was high for vitamin E (96%), folate (74%), vitamin A (61%), vitamin C (39%), magnesium (26%) and calcium (22%). Carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise were far from achieving the minimum recommended values. Most referees demonstrated a negligent behaviour of hydration during exercise. Referees would benefit from dietary education in order to optimise performance and health. PMID:24784464

  10. Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Paul, David R; Kramer, Matthew; Rhodes, Donna G; Rumpler, William V

    2005-01-01

    Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To investigate these effects, 12 men were provided with an ad libitum cafeteria-style diet for 16 weeks. The macronutrient composition of the diets were covertly modified with drinks containing 2.1 MJ of predominantly carbohydrate (Hi-CHO), protein (Hi-PRO), or fat (Hi-FAT). Total energy expenditure was measured for seven days on two separate occasions (doubly labeled water and physical activity logs). Results Preprandial ghrelin concentrations were not affected by macronutrient intake, energy expenditure or energy intake (all P > 0.05). In turn, daily energy intake was significantly influenced by energy expenditure, but not ghrelin. Conclusion Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Similarly, ghrelin does not appear to affect acute or chronic energy intake under free-living conditions. PMID:15745452

  11. Dietary PCB intake in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Voorspoels, Stefan; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2008-03-01

    A food market-basket, representative for the general Belgian population, containing various meat, fish and dairy food products, was analysed for its polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content. Additionally, fast food samples were also investigated. Based on the measured PCB levels (sum of 23 congeners), an average daily dietary intake estimate of PCBs was calculated. Of all foods analysed, fish had the highest average sum of PCB levels (7.1ng/g ww), with a high variation between the investigated species, followed by dairy products and eggs (3.2ng/g ww), fast food (1.9ng/g ww) and meat products (0.62ng/g ww). One fresh salmon filet had the highest total concentration of PCBs (36ng/g ww or 200ng/g lw), whereas levels in steak and chicken breast were the lowest of all foods analysed. PCB intake calculations were based on the average daily food consumption in Belgium and were estimated between 404 and 535ng/day of total PCBs (lower and upper bound). This value is in accordance with what was previously reported for diets from geographical distinct areas. Although it is only a minor constituent of the Belgian diet, fish is the major contributor to the total daily PCB intake (around 50%) due to the high PCB levels in this type of food. Meat products account for around 20% of the total dietary intake of PCBs, while dairy products and eggs contribute to a lesser degree (less than 20%). PMID:21783856

  12. Estimation of choline intake from 24 h dietary intake recalls and contribution of egg and milk consumption to intake among pregnant and lactating women in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Erin D; Subhan, Fatheema B; Bell, Rhonda C; McCargar, Linda J; Curtis, Jonathan M; Jacobs, René L; Field, Catherine J

    2014-07-14

    Despite recommendations for higher choline intakes during pregnancy and lactation, there is limited research regarding maternal intake during these important periods. In the present study, we estimated dietary choline intake during pregnancy and lactation in a population of Albertan women and the contribution of egg and milk consumption to intake. Dietary intake data were collected from the first 600 women enrolled in a prospective cohort study carried out in Alberta, Canada. During the first and/or second trimester, the third trimester and 3 months postpartum, 24 h dietary intake recall data were collected. A database was constructed including foods consumed by the cohort and used to estimate dietary choline intake. The mean total choline intake value during pregnancy was 347 (SD 149) mg/d, with 23% of the participants meeting the adequate intake (AI) recommendation. During lactation, the mean total choline intake value was 346 (SD 151) mg/d, with 10% of the participants meeting the AI recommendation. Phosphatidylcholine was the form of choline consumed in the highest proportion and the main dietary sources of choline were dairy products, eggs and meat. Women who consumed at least one egg in a 24 h period had higher (P< 0·001) total choline intake and were eight times more likely (95% CI 5·2, 12·6) to meet choline intake recommendations compared with those who did not consume eggs during pregnancy. Women who reported consuming ≥ 500 ml of milk in a 24 h period were 2·8 times more likely (95 % CI 1·7, 4·8) to meet daily choline intake recommendations compared with those consuming < 250 ml of milk/d during pregnancy. Choline intake is below the recommendation levels in this population and the promotion of both egg and milk consumption may assist in meeting the daily choline intake recommendations. PMID:24708921

  13. Derivation of daily values used for nutrition labeling.

    PubMed

    Pennington, J A; Hubbard, V S

    1997-12-01

    Daily Values (DVs) are the daily dietary intake standards used for nutrition labeling. Information on the derivation of DVs is important for dietetics professionals and nutrition educators who use DVs to educate and instruct patients and students about diet planning and evaluation and about adherence to modified diets. The first daily intake standards for nutrition labeling were established in 1973 and were referred to as the US Recommended Daily Allowances (US RDAs). They were based on the 1968 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) developed by the National Academy of Sciences. These intake standards were mandatory for 8 and optional for 12 food components on nutrition labels. Regulations revising the daily intake standards for nutrition labeling were published in 1993. The new standards included Reference Daily Intakes (RDIs) for 19 food components and Daily Reference Values (DRVs) for 8 food components. The RDIs were based on the 1973 US RDAs, and the DRVs were based on consensus recommendations. On the nutrition label, the RDIs and DRVs are referred to as DVs. Percent DVs are mandatory on nutrition labels for 10 food components and optional for 16 food components. In 1995, DVs were established by regulation for 6 additional food components; these DVs are optional for nutrition labels. The DVs established in 1995 were based on information from the 1980 and 1989 revisions of the RDAs and Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intakes. Currently, percent DVs are mandatory on nutrition labels for 10 food components and optional for 22. Optional percent DVs become mandatory if claims are made about the food components or if the food components are added to the food through fortification or as food additives. PMID:9404338

  14. NEW APPROACHES IN THE DERIVATION OF ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE (ADI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current methods for estimating human health risks from exposure to threshold-acting toxicants in water or food, such as those established by the U.S. EPA, the FDA, the NAS, the WHO and the FAO, consider only chronic or lifetime exposure to individual chemicals. These methods gene...

  15. Obesity = physical activity + dietary intake + sleep stages + light exposure.

    PubMed

    Partonen, Timo

    2014-08-01

    Daily levels of physical activity and calories from dietary intake have been the focus of obesity prevention measures. Recent findings have made a twist in the line of thinking. The timing of physical exercise and that of dietary intake are also important to obesity prevention. Night-time sleep and exposure to light are therefore important targets of intervention. PMID:25088724

  16. Breakfast intake among adults with type 2 diabetes: is bigger better?

    PubMed Central

    Jarvandi, Soghra; Schootman, Mario; Racette, Susan B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between breakfast energy and total daily energy intake among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Design Cross-sectional study. Daily energy intake was computed from a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the association between daily energy intake (dependent variable) and quartiles of energy intake at breakfast (independent variable) expressed as either absolute or relative (% of total daily energy intake) terms. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts were used to test for linear and quadratic trends. Models were controlled for sex, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, physical activity and smoking. In addition, we used separate multiple regression models to test the effect of quartiles of absolute and relative breakfast energy on intake at lunch, dinner, and snacks. Setting The 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Subjects Participants aged ≥ 30 years with self-reported history of diabetes (N = 1,146). Results Daily energy intake increased as absolute breakfast energy intake increased (linear trend, P < 0.0001; quadratic trend, P = 0.02), but decreased as relative breakfast energy intake increased (linear trend, P < 0.0001). In addition, while higher quartiles of absolute breakfast intake had no associations with energy intake at subsequent meals, higher quartiles of relative breakfast intake were associated with lower energy intake during all subsequent meals and snacks (P < 0.05). Conclusions Consuming a breakfast that provided less energy or comprised a greater proportion of daily energy intake was associated with lower total daily energy intake in adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25529061

  17. Arguments at Mealtime and Child Energy Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnier, Daniel; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine how arguments at mealtimes relate to children's daily energy intake. Design: A cross-sectional study using data obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 (QLSCD), a representative sample of children born in 1998, in the province of Quebec, Canada. Setting: Face-to-face interviews,

  18. Arguments at Mealtime and Child Energy Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnier, Daniel; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine how arguments at mealtimes relate to children's daily energy intake. Design: A cross-sectional study using data obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 (QLSCD), a representative sample of children born in 1998, in the province of Quebec, Canada. Setting: Face-to-face interviews,…

  19. Nicotine intake by snuff users.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Devitt, G; Feyerabend, C

    1981-01-01

    Blood nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured in 27 volunteers before and after taking snuff. Within 10 minutes after snuffing blood nicotine concentrations were comparable to those obtained after the 10 minutes or so that it takes to smoke a cigarette. Nicotine intake from snuffing was related to the experience of the snuffer. In daily and occasional snuffers increases in plasma nicotine concentrations averaged 77.7 and 12.3 nmol/l (12.6 and 2.0 ng/ml) respectively, while the novices showed no appreciable increase. The increase shown by thea daily snuffers was comparable to the average increase of 62.3 nmol/l (10.1 ng/ml) obtained from a single cigarette by a group of heavy smokers. The peak nicotine concentrations in the daily snuffers were also similar to the peak values in 136 heavy smokers--222.6 and 226-3 nmol/l (36.1 and 36.7 ng/ml), respectively. Unusual multiple-dose snuffing produced massive increases in plasma nicotine to concentrations that have never been recorded in smokers. The similarity of the concentrations produced by regular daily snuffing and regular daily smoking suggests that the plasma nicotine concentration has some controlling influence over the self-regulation of these two quite different forms of tobacco use. The rapid absorption of nicotine from snuff confirms its potential as an acceptable and relatively harmless substitute for smoking. PMID:6794710

  20. [Effect water intake on body weight].

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, Klaudia; Kurowska, Ewa; Okręglicka, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Water is essential for life. There wouldn't be the proper functioning of body processes without it. An inadequate water intake relative to recommendation contributes to the decline in physical capacity and adversely effects on cognitive function and mood. On the other hand, an adequate water intake helps maintain the balance between total energy intake and daily energy expenditure and determines the correct rate of fat oxidation. This might be useful and commonly used in weight reduction and thus might favorably affect on body composition in overweight and obese people by increasing the total body water and lean muscle mass and might contribute to a decrease in body fat. Research results indicate clearly that drinking water instead of caloric beverages might be an effective way to reduce daily total energy consumption and in this way might may contribute to the reduction of weight, body circumferences and body fat. PMID:25764787

  1. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  2. Alcohol intake in a healthy elderly population.

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, J S; Sanchez, C J; Thomas, P; Hunt, C; Garry, P J; Goodwin, J M

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between amount of alcohol consumption and social, psychological, and cognitive status was examined in 270 healthy, independently living men and women over age 65. Forty-eight per cent of the sample recorded some alcohol intake during a three-day diet record, with 8 per cent drinking 30 or more grams of alcohol daily. Alcohol intake was positively associated with male gender, income, and amount of education and negatively associated with age. Alcohol intake was not associated with any changes in social or psychological status, but was positively associated with several measurements of cognitive status. These correlations were weak, however, and tended to disappear after controlling for income, education, gender, and age. Past alcohol intake was not associated with any indicators of present social, psychological, or cognitive functioning. PMID:3799856

  3. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kaganov, Boris; Caroli, Margherita; Mazur, Artur; Singhal, Atul; Vania, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population. PMID:25984741

  4. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kaganov, Boris; Caroli, Margherita; Mazur, Artur; Singhal, Atul; Vania, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population. PMID:25984741

  5. Sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children - United States, 2009-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A national health objective is to reduce average U.S. sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily to help prevent high blood pressure, a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Identifying common contributors to sodium intake among children can help reduction efforts. Average sodium intake, sodium consumed p...

  6. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake ≥ 75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P = 0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health consequences, interventions involving parents and school environment to promote water consumption seem pertinent. PMID:24964803

  7. A Newly Identified Frontal Path from Fornix in Septum Pellucidum with 7.0T MRI Track Density Imaging (TDI) – The Septum Pellucidum Tract (SPT)

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Zang-Hee; Chi, Je-Geun; Choi, Sang-Han; Oh, Se-Hong; Park, Sung-Yeon; Paek, Sun Ha; Park, Chan-Woong; Calamante, Fernando; Kim, Young-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The high anatomical contrast achieved with the newly emerging MRI tractographic technique of super-resolution track density imaging (TDI) encouraged us to search for a new fiber tract in the septum pellucidum. Although this septum pellucidum tract (SPT) has been observed previously, its connections were unclear due to ambiguity and limited resolution of conventional MRI images. It is now possible to identify detailed parts of SPT with the increased resolution of TDI, which involves diffusion MRI imaging, whole-brain tractography, and voxel subdivision using the track-count information. Four healthy male subjects were included in the study. The experiment was performed with 7.0T MRI, following the guidelines of the institute’s institutional review board. Data were processed with the super-resolution TDI technique to generate a tractographic map with 0.18 mm isotropic resolution. The SPT was identified in all subjects. Based on additional seed tracking method with inter-axis correlation search, we have succeeded in identifying a new frontal lobe pathway in the SPT. We hypothesize that the tract is connected as a superior dorsal branch of the fornix that leads to the prefrontal cortex. PMID:26640429

  8. Dietary intakes of age-group swimmers.

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, J A; Williams, M M

    1991-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to collect information regarding the dietary habits of male and female age-group swimmers and report the energy consumptions of these athletes in relation to their daily training demands. Twenty competitive swimmers, who were training 6000 m per day 6 days a week, recorded all fluid and food consumed during a 4-day period. Dietary analysis revealed that 11 swimmers (55%) had calcium intakes below recommended dietary allowances (RDA), while 13 (65%) had iron intakes lower than RDA. Despite identical training loads and body mass, male swimmers had significantly greater (P = 0.004) daily mean (s.d.) energy consumption (3072(732) kcal, 12.9(3.1) MJ) than females (2130(544) kcal, 8.9(2.3) MJ) and were maintaining energy balance. Although the contribution of carbohydrate to total daily energy intake was the same for male (55%) and female swimmers (56%), the females ingested significantly less (P = 0.011) carbohydrate (292(87) g) than the males (404(88) g) and could be considered deficient in dietary carbohydrate with respect to their daily training demands. PMID:1777785

  9. Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

  10. Chronic daily headaches

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Fayyaz; Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Khalil, Modar

    2012-01-01

    Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches. PMID:23024563

  11. Changes in dietary intakes with age.

    PubMed

    Vincent, D; Lauque, S; Lanzmann, D; Vellas, B; Albarede, J L

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe changes in dietary intakes with age in subjects aging normally within the Toulouse study. Daily caloric intakes were constant in both sexes and in the three age classes considered. Energy distributions among the meals were rather clearly modified in men: the contribution of breakfast and afternoon snacks increased while those of lunch and dinner decreased. Observations among women were less consistent but the contribution of dinner also decreased with age (from 33.3 to 30.7%). This decreased contribution from dinner was due to a change in its nutrient composition (fewer lipids and more carbohydrates) which change the nutrient constitution of the entire daily diet, and also from a change in structure (reduced contribution by the main dish and increased role of desserts). These results pose questions concerning the reasons behind this change (loss of appetite, more pronounced taste for sweets?) and requires additional study. PMID:10995079

  12. Should Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Technologists Estimate Dietary Calcium Intake at the Time of DXA?

    PubMed

    McKenna, Malachi J; McKenna, Mary Clare S; van der Kamp, Susan

    2016-04-01

    Adequate calcium intake is essential for bone health. Calcium is obtained from dietary sources and supplementation. Knowing the daily dietary calcium intake is helpful in deciding on the need for supplementation. Dietary calcium intake can be estimated quickly and accurately using an approach recommended by the National Osteoporosis Foundation. We sought to evaluate the usefulness of estimating dietary calcium intake by a technologist at the time of attendance for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. We conducted a retrospective survey of results on estimated dietary calcium intake in adults attending our DXA unit over 2 years (n = 5569). We assessed intake with reference to the specifications of the Institute of Medicine according to sex and age. The average intake was 736 mg daily: Young adults had higher intakes than older adults (p < 0.001), and men had higher intakes than women (p = 0.017). According to Institute of Medicine's specification, we estimate that nearly 45% of Irish women need supplemental intake of 500 mg daily but <4% need supplemental intake of 1000 mg daily. Younger adults are apt to have intakes within, or higher than, the requirement. Having DXA technologists estimate dietary calcium intake at the time of DXA scanning may provide helpful information to the referring clinicians about the need for supplementation. PMID:25934029

  13. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Caroline M.; Black, Lucinda J.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements. PMID:24424459

  14. Energy and macronutrient intakes of professional football (soccer) players.

    PubMed Central

    Maughan, R J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the dietary habits of professional soccer players at two Scottish Premier League clubs during the competitive season. METHODS: A study of the dietary intake of 51 professional soccer players with two different clubs was carried out by the seven day weighed intake method. RESULTS: Physical characteristics of the two groups of players were similar, with only small differences in age and body mass but no difference in height and body fat. Mean (SD) daily energy intake for club A was 11.0 (2.6) MJ, and for club B 12.8 (2.2) MJ. The higher energy intake at club B was largely accounted for by a higher (P < 0.005) fat intake (118 v 93 g d-1): there was no difference in the absolute amounts of protein, carbohydrate, or alcohol consumed. When expressed as a fraction of total energy intake, mean protein intake was higher (P < 0.05) and fat intake lower (P < 0.01) at club A. CONCLUSIONS: The mean energy intake of these players was not high compared with athletes in endurance sports. Fractional contribution of the macronutrients to total energy intake was broadly similar to that of the general population. PMID:9132211

  15. Increased energy and nutrient intake during training and competition improves elite triathletes' endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Frentsos, J A; Baer, J T

    1997-03-01

    Dietary habits were evaluated in 6 elite triathletes (4 male, 2 female). Analysis of 7-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except zinc chromium, which did not meet 66% of recommended amounts. Individualized nutrition intervention using the Diabetic Food Exchange System to support performance during training and competition was provided. To improve dietary intake, subjects consumed fortified nutrition supplements (Reliv, Inc.) before and after daily training. Follow-up 7-day diet records showed that average energy intake and percentage of energy from carbohydrate increased, as did intakes of zinc and chromium. Triathletes' performance in a short course triathlon was improved compared to a similar competition completed prior to the nutrition intervention. Following the intervention, triathletes were able to meet recommended daily energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes and improve endurance performance. PMID:9063765

  16. Tips for Daily Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... chapter Join our online community Tips for Daily Life Coping skills will help you handle day-to- ... challenges, maximize your independence and live a meaningful life with your diagnosis. Accepting changes Creating a coping ...

  17. Tips for Daily Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stroke Heroes Among Us Tips for Daily Living Library A stroke can make every day activities challenging. ... and one-side neglect challenges. This volunteer-powered library gathers tips and ideas from stroke survivors, caregivers ...

  18. Energy intake highs and lows: how much does consistency matter in weight control?

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Diane L; Schumacher, Leah M; Schaumberg, Katherine; Piers, Amani D; Gaspar, Monika E; Lowe, Michael R; Forman, Evan M; Butryn, Meghan L

    2016-06-01

    Behavioural weight control programmes recommend adherence to daily energy intake goals, yet also allow for flexibility in intake across days. Evidence is lacking as to whether intake consistency is important for weight control. The current study explored the relation between day-to-day intake consistency and weight loss in the context of behavioural weight loss treatment and examined the relationship between variability in intake and several factors known to be associated with weight control success. Participants (N =  283) enrolled in a 12-month behavioural weight loss programme completed 24-h recalls of dietary intake and psychological measures. At the end of treatment, low intake variability and greater weight loss were associated, but variability was not predictive of weight loss independent of mean intake in continuous analyses. Interestingly, participants who met the programme goal of ≥10% weight loss had less intake variability compared to those who lost <10%, although groups did not differ significantly on mean intake. Results suggest that daily intake consistency may facilitate successful weight loss for some. Additionally, autonomous motivation for weight management and cognitive dietary restraint were inversely related to end-of-treatment intake variability. Additional research is needed to examine whether recommendations to limit intake variability during behavioural weight loss treatment improve long-term weight control. PMID:27020845

  19. Problem Behavior, Victimization, and Soda Intake in High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M.; Sherry, Bettylou; Foti, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of problem behaviors and victimization with nondiet soda intake among a national sample of 16,188 US high school students. Methods We used the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The outcome measure was daily nondiet soda intake. Results Smoking, having any sex partners, not always wearing a seat belt, being bullied/threatened/injured on school property, and being physically hurt by their boyfriend/girlfriend were significantly associated with daily nondiet soda intake after adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and weight status. Conclusions Our findings suggest a need to examine why nondiet soda intake is associated with these behaviors to understand potential mechanisms. PMID:23985188

  20. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Adolescent Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    LEE, MATTHEW T.; VETA, PAIGE S.; JOHNSON, BYRON R.; PAGANO, MARIA E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore changes in belief orientation during treatment and the impact of increased daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on adolescent treatment response. One-hundred ninety-five adolescents court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment program were assessed at intake and discharge. Forty percent of youth who entered treatment as agnostic or atheist identified themselves as spiritual or religious at discharge. Increased DSE was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence, increased prosocial behaviors, and reduced narcissistic behaviors. Results indicate a shift in DSE that improves youth self-care and care for others that may inform intervention approaches for adolescents with addiction. PMID:25525291

  1. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  2. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. Objectives: This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. Patients and Methods: A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Results: Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. Conclusions: The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable. PMID:26199684

  3. Contribution of daily and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and daily rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and daily rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal daily rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.

  4. Adults Meeting Fruit and Vegetable Intake Recommendations - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Moore, Latetia V; Thompson, Frances E

    2015-07-10

    Eating more fruits and vegetables adds nutrients to diets, reduces the risk for heart disease, stroke, and some cancers, and helps manage body weight when consumed in place of more energy-dense foods. Adults who engage in <30 minutes of moderate physical activity daily should consume 1.5-2.0 cup equivalents of fruit and 2-3 cups of vegetables daily.* However, during 2007-2010, half of the total U.S. population consumed <1 cup of fruit and <1.5 cups of vegetables daily; 76% did not meet fruit intake recommendations, and 87% did not meet vegetable intake recommendations. Although national estimates indicate low fruit and vegetable consumption, substantial variation by state has been observed (3). Fruit and vegetable intake information from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is the sole source of dietary surveillance information for most states, but frequency of intake captured by BRFSS is not directly comparable to federal intake recommendations, which are expressed in cup equivalents. CDC analyzed median daily frequency of fruit and vegetable intake based on 2013 BRFSS data for the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and applied newly developed prediction equations to BRFSS to calculate the percentage of each state's population meeting fruit and vegetable intake recommendations. Overall, 13.1% of respondents met fruit intake recommendations, ranging from 7.5% in Tennessee to 17.7% in California, and 8.9% met vegetable recommendations, ranging from 5.5% in Mississippi to 13.0% in California. Substantial new efforts are needed to build consumer demand for fruits and vegetables through competitive pricing, placement, and promotion in child care, schools, grocery stores, communities, and worksites. PMID:26158351

  5. Dietary intake of advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T D; Bowman, K B; Jackson, G P

    1983-02-01

    A state registered dietitian assessed the voluntary dietary intake of 13 advanced cancer inpatients on one ward of St. Christopher's Hospice for five consecutive days. There were 11 females, two males; median age 74 years (range 56 to 83). Two patients died on the fourth day of the study. A partially individualised weighed technique was used. Standard sized scoops and spoons were used to serve the food in small, medium or large standard portions (depending on appetite) and were weighed as served. Individual plate waste (by weight) was subtracted to give estimated individual intake. Foods provided by visitors was not included. The median and range of individual mean daily intakes (estimated) were: energy 5760 (938-8945) kJ, 1376 (224-2137) kcal; protein 44 (11-86) g; fat 52 (9-93) g; carbohydrate 169 (21-194) g; calcium 748 (268-1457) mg; iron 4.8 (0.5-21.0) mg; dietary fibre 5.0 (0.5-21.0) g. Compared to recommended amounts, energy, iron and dietary fibre intakes were low; calcium intake was high. Nutritional status may affect prognosis and/or subjective well-being in advanced cancer. The value of nutritional supplementation and the role of appetite stimulants in improving nutritional status needs investigation. PMID:6841131

  6. Wall Painting Investigation by Means of Non-invasive Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI): Inspection of Subsurface Structures Buried in Historical Plasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-02-01

    Characterization of subsurface features of wall paintings is important in conservation and technical art history as well as in building archaeology and architecture fields. In this study, an area of the apsidal wall painting of Nebbelunde Church (Rødby, Denmark) has been investigated by means of terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). Subsurface structures have been detected at different depths inside the lime-based plaster of the wall painting until approximately 1 cm from the surface. The surface morphology of the buried structures has been 3D imaged in detail, providing a substantial contribution in their characterization.

  7. Analysis of a seventeenth-century panel painting by reflection terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI): contribution of ultrafast optics to museum collections inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch Dandolo, Corinna L.; Filtenborg, Troels; Skou-Hansen, Jacob; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2015-11-01

    Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz -TDI) has been applied for nondestructive visualization of a hidden painting and other subsurface composition layers of a seventeenth-century panel painting belonging to the National Gallery of Denmark. Plan-type and cross-sectional scans realized by THz have been compared with images obtained by X-radiography, thus helping in a deep understanding of the strengths and limitations of this technique for art diagnostic purposes and in defining its rule among the other complementary investigation tools for nondestructive inspection of art pieces.

  8. Development of a respiratory sensitization/elicitation protocol of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in Brown Norway rats to derive an elicitation-based occupational exposure level.

    PubMed

    Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI), a known human asthmagen, was investigated in skin-sensitized Brown Norway rats for its concentration×time (C×t)-response relationship on elicitation-based endpoints. The major goal of study was to determine the elicitation inhalation threshold dose in sensitized, re-challenged Brown Norway rats, including the associated variables affecting the dosimetry of inhaled TDI-vapor in rats and as to how these differences can be translated to humans. Attempts were made to duplicate at least some traits of human asthma by using skin-sensitized rats which were subjected to single or multiple inhalation-escalation challenge exposures. Two types of dose-escalation protocols were used to determine the elicitation-threshold C×t; one used a variable C (Cvar) and constant t (tconst), the other a constant C (Cconst) and variable t (tvar). The selection of the "minimal irritant" C was based an ancillary pre-studies. Neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) were considered as the endpoint of choice to integrate the allergic pulmonary inflammation. These were supplemented by physiological measurements characterizing nocturnal asthma-like responses and increased nitric oxide in exhaled breath (eNO). The Cconst×tvar regimen yielded the most conclusive dose-response relationship as long C was high enough to overcome the scrubbing capacity of the upper airways. Based on ancillary pre-studies in naïve rats, the related human-equivalent respiratory tract irritant threshold concentration was estimated to be 0.09ppm. The respective 8-h time-adjusted asthma-related human-equivalent threshold C×t-product (dose), in 'asthmatic' rats, was estimated to be 0.003ppm. Both thresholds are in agreement of the current ACGIH TLV(®) of TDI and published human evidence. In summary, the findings from this animal model suggest that TDI-induced respiratory allergy is likely to be contingent on two interlinked, sequentially occurring mechanisms: first, dermal sensitizing encounters high enough to cause systemic sensitization. Second, when followed by inhalation exposure(s) high enough to initiate and amplify an allergic airway inflammation, then a progression into asthma may occur. This bioassay requires an in-depth knowledge on respiratory tract dosimetry and irritation of the involved test substance to clearly understand the dosimetry causing C- and/or C×t-dependent respiratory tract irritation and eventually asthma. PMID:24572447

  9. Once-daily therapies.

    PubMed

    Carey, Dianne

    2003-02-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy is now standard treatment for HIV infection. However, adherence to these treatment regimens remains a formidable barrier, owing to their complex and demanding nature and the severity of the associated toxicities. As suboptimal adherence increases the risk of treatment failure, the need for simpler and safer regimens is imperative. A number of strategies have been used to simplify dosing regimens and reduce pill burdens. At present, several antiretroviral drugs can be used once daily, while others have demonstrated pharmacokinetic potential for once-daily dosing and a number of compounds are in clinical development. It is possible that in the future, once-daily dosing will become the standard. PMID:12840708

  10. Removing Potatoes from Children's Diets May Compromise Potassium Intake.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A; Liu, Yan; Islam, Noemi; O'Neil, Carol E

    2016-01-01

    White potatoes are a forgotten source of nutrients. The goal of this study was to identify the nutritional implications of replacing a composite of white potatoes with a composite of vegetables commonly consumed by children aged 2-18 y (n = 3460) in a nationally representative sample. The NHANES 2005-2012 24-h dietary recall data were used to determine nutrient intake. Two replacement models were developed: one for potato consumers and another for those consuming vegetables other than potatoes. Analyses focused on 1) mean nutrient contributions per 1 cup equivalent vegetable composite (VC)/potato composite (PC) consumed by participants, and 2) mean daily nutrient intake when the nutrients per 1 cup equivalent PC replaced the nutrients per 1 cup equivalent VC. Covariate adjusted analysis was tested for statistical significance (P < 0.002). When 1 cup equivalent VC replaced 1 cup equivalent PC, significantly lower mean intakes were found for 20 of the 23 nutrients studied and higher mean intakes of total sugars, folate, and calcium. Differences were found including higher total intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids and potassium and lower total intakes of vitamins A and K. The percentage contribution of the PC to total daily nutrient intake was 6% for total energy, 8% for total fat, 5% for saturated fatty acids, 13% for dietary fiber, 4% for sodium, and 11% for potassium. Both composites contributed a variety of nutrients to the total diet; the consumption of white potatoes may be an important strategy to help meet the potassium recommendation. PMID:26773033

  11. Ad libitum water intake by neonatal calves and its relationship to calf starter intake, weight gain, feces score, and season.

    PubMed

    Kertz, A F; Reutzel, L F; Mahoney, J H

    1984-12-01

    Water intakes and other experimental data over 3 yr encompassing 335 calves raised under an early weaning program at the Purina Research Farm were summarized. Water intake closely paralleled calf starter intake particularly during the last 2 wk of the 4-wk feeding period. Calves with weight gains below the median daily gain of 272 g had reduced water and starter intake. Scouring, due apparently to rotavirus infection, peaked at the end of the 1st wk. Water intake did not change appreciably prior to or after peak scouring. Season of year had minor effect on both water and starter intake. In a feeding study with 41 calves, weight gain was reduced by 38% and starter intake by 31% for calves deprived of water. Extent and duration of scouring did not differ between treatments. Calf feeding and management systems should include ad libitum water to maximize starter intake and weight gain. There is no evidence that scouring will be affected negatively by water intake. PMID:6530492

  12. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

  13. Influence of estrus on dry matter intake, water intake and BW of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Reith, S; Pries, M; Verhülsdonk, C; Brandt, H; Hoy, S

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze whether dry matter intake (DMI), water intake (WI) and BW were influenced by estrus. A second objective was to determine whether correlations exist among these traits in non-estrous days. Data collection included 34 Holstein-Friesian cows from the research farm 'Haus Riswick' of the Agricultural Chamber North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. On an individual basis, daily DMI and daily WI were measured automatically by a scale in the feeding trough and a WI monitoring system, respectively. BW was determined by a walk-through scale fitted with two gates - one in front and one behind the scale floor. Data were analyzed around cow's estrus with day 0 (the day of artificial insemination leading to conception). Means during the reference period, defined as days -3 to -1 and 1 to 3, were compared with the means during estrus (day 0). DMI, WI and BW were affected by estrus. Of all cows, 85.3% and 66.7% had reduced DMI and WI, respectively, on day 0 compared with the reference period. Lower BW was detected in 69.2% of all cows relative to the reference period. During the reference period, average DMI, WI and BW were 23.0, 86.6 and 654.8 kg. A minimum DMI of 20.4 kg and a minimum BW of 644.2 kg were detected on the day of estrus, whereas the minimum WI occurred on the day before estrus. After estrus, DMI, WI and BW returned to baseline values. Intake of concentrated feed did not seem to be influenced by estrus. Positive correlations existed between daily DMI and daily WI (r=0.63) as well as between cows' daily BW and daily WI (r=0.23). The results warrant further investigations to determine whether monitoring of DMI, WI and BW may assist in predicting estrus. PMID:24739351

  14. Hoover Dam Intake Towers

    Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

  15. Inhomogeneities in daily data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, Victor; Aguilar, Enric; Auchmann, Renate; Auer, Ingeborg; Brandsma, Theo; Chimani, Barbara; Gilabert, Alba; Mestre, Olivier; Toreti, Andrea; Vertacnik, Gregor

    2015-04-01

    Daily datasets have become a focus of climate research because they are essential for studying the variability and extremes in weather and climate. However, long observational climate records are usually affected by changes due to nonclimatic factors, resulting in inhomogeneities in the time series. Looking at the known physical causes of these inhomogeneities, one may expect that the tails of the distribution are especially affected. Although the number of national and regional homogenized daily temperature datasets is increasing, inhomogeneities affecting the tails of the distribution are often not or insufficiently taken into account. In this literature review we investigate the physical causes of inhomogeneities and how they affect the distribution with respect to its mean and its tails. We review what is known about changes in the distribution from existing historical parallel measurements. We discuss effects of the state-of-the-art homogenization methods on the temperature distribution. Finally, we provide an overview of the quality of available daily datasets that are often used for studies on changes in extremes and additionally describe well-homogenized regional datasets. As expected, this review provides evidence that the tails of the distribution are generally more affected by non-climatic changes than the means. This is a problem because the question to which extent daily homogenization methods can reduce those effects is insufficiently studied and most available methods are focused on temperature only. More specifically, it is advised to study whether the current deterministic correction methods should be succeeded by stochastic methods. Concerning the large scale available daily datasets, many of them are not homogenized (with respect to the distribution), whereas the number of national and regional homogenized datasets is strongly growing. Given the strong interest in studying changes in weather variability and extremes and the existence of often large inhomogeneities in the raw data, the homogenization of daily data and the development of better methods should have a high research priority. This research would be much facilitated by a global reference database with parallel measurements. The climate community, and especially those involved in homogenization, bias correction and the evaluation of uncertainties, should take an active role to foster the compilation of such a reference database. We have started an initiative collecting parallel datasets, which is an expert team of the International Surface Temperature Initiative. Its aims will be explained and its progress will be presented.

  16. Access to food outlets and children's nutritional intake in urban China: a difference-in-difference analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years supermarkets and fast food restaurants have been replacing those “wet markets” of independent vendors as the major food sources in urban China. Yet how these food outlets relate to children’s nutritional intake remains largely unexplored. Method Using a longitudinal survey of households and communities in China, this study examines the effect of the urban built food environment (density of wet markets, density of supermarkets, and density of fast food restaurants) on children’s nutritional intake (daily caloric intake, daily carbohydrate intake, daily protein intake, and daily fat intake). Children aged 6–18 (n = 185) living in cities were followed from 2004 to 2006, and difference-in-difference models are used to address the potential issue of omitted variable bias. Results Results suggest that the density of wet markets, rather than that of supermarkets, positively predicts children’s four dimensions of nutritional intake. In the caloric intake model and the fat intake model, the positive effect of neighborhood wet market density on children’s nutritional intake is stronger with children from households of lower income. Conclusion With their cheaper prices and/or fresher food supply, wet markets are likely to contribute a substantial amount of nutritional intake for children living nearby, especially those in households with lower socioeconomic status. For health officials and urban planners, this study signals a sign of warning as wet markets are disappearing from urban China’s food environment. PMID:22748026

  17. Reproducibility of ad libitum energy intake with the use of a computerized vending machine system123

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, Susanne B; Franks, Paul W; Krakoff, Jonathan; Salbe, Arline D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Accurate assessment of energy intake is difficult but critical for the evaluation of eating behavior and intervention effects. Consequently, methods to assess ad libitum energy intake under controlled conditions have been developed. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of ad libitum energy intake with the use of a computerized vending machine system. Design: Twelve individuals (mean ± SD: 36 ± 8 y old; 41 ± 8% body fat) consumed a weight-maintaining diet for 3 d; subsequently, they self-selected all food with the use of a computerized vending machine system for an additional 3 d. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from the actual weight of foods consumed and expressed as a percentage of weight-maintenance energy needs (%WMEN). Subjects repeated the study multiple times during 2 y. The within-person reproducibility of energy intake was determined through the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between visits. Results: Daily energy intake for all subjects was 5020 ± 1753 kcal during visit 1 and 4855 ± 1615 kcal during visit 2. There were no significant associations between energy intake and body weight, body mass index, or percentage body fat while subjects used the vending machines, which indicates that intake was not driven by body size or need. Despite overconsumption (%WMEN = 181 ± 57%), the reproducibility of intake between visits, whether expressed as daily energy intake (ICC = 0.90), %WMEN (ICC = 0.86), weight of food consumed (ICC = 0.87), or fat intake (g/d; ICC = 0.87), was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Although ad libitum energy intake exceeded %WMEN, the within-person reliability of this intake across multiple visits was high, which makes this a reproducible method for the measurement of ad libitum intake in subjects who reside in a research unit. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00342732. PMID:19923376

  18. Usual coffee intake in Brazil: results from the National Dietary Survey 2008-9.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Alessandra Gaspar; da Costa, Teresa Helena Macedo

    2015-05-28

    Coffee is central to the economy of many developing countries, as well as to the world economy. However, despite the widespread consumption of coffee, there are very few available data showing the usual intake of this beverage. Surveying usual coffee intake is a way of monitoring one aspect of a population's usual dietary intake. Thus, the present study aimed to characterise the usual daily coffee intake in the Brazilian population. We used data from the National Dietary Survey collected in 2008-9 from a probabilistic sample of 34,003 Brazilians aged 10 years and older. The National Cancer Institute method was applied to obtain the usual intake based on two nonconsecutive food diaries, and descriptive statistical analyses were performed by age and sex for Brazil and its regions. The estimated average usual daily coffee intake of the Brazilian population was 163 (SE 2.8) ml. The comparison by sex showed that males had a 12% greater usual coffee intake than females. In addition, the highest intake was recorded among older males. Among the five regions surveyed, the North-East had the highest usual coffee intake (175 ml). The most common method of brewing coffee was filtered/instant coffee (71%), and the main method of sweetening beverages was with sugar (87%). In Brazil, the mean usual coffee intake corresponds to 163 ml, or 1.5 cups/d. Differences in usual coffee intake according to sex and age differed among the five Brazilian regions. PMID:25851731

  19. Evaluating daily exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish oil supplements.

    PubMed

    Ashley, J T F; Ward, J S; Schafer, M W; Stapleton, H M; Velinsky, D J

    2010-08-01

    Fish oil supplements have become a popular means of increasing one's dietary intake of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, there is growing concern that the levels and potential health effects of lipophilic organic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may diminish some of the health benefits associated with the daily consumption of fish oil supplements. In this study, ten over-the-counter fish oil supplements available in the United States were analysed for PCBs and PBDEs and daily exposures calculated. Based on manufacturers' recommended dosages, daily intakes of PCBs and PBDEs ranged from 5 to 686 ng day(-1) and from 1 to 13 ng day(-1), respectively. Daily consumption of fish oil supplements expose consumers to PCBs and PBDEs. However, in comparison with fish ingestion, fish supplements may decrease daily PCB exposure and provide a safer pathway for individuals seeking to maintain daily recommended levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:20496249

  20. Energy and nutrient intakes in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Buchdahl, R M; Fulleylove, C; Marchant, J L; Warner, J O; Brueton, M J

    1989-01-01

    The diets of 20 children with cystic fibrosis were analysed for energy and nutrient content with simultaneous measurement of energy losses in stools. Median energy intakes were in excess of the WHO estimated daily requirements (118.2%) when expressed as MJ/kg/24 hours, the excess almost accounted for by energy losses in the stools. When expressed as MJ/24 hours, however, median energy intakes were 98.7% of that estimated for normal children of median weight for age. Compared with recently published data for normal school children the fat content of the diet was reduced (30.0%) as were intakes of iron and zinc. Children whose whole milk intakes were high had the greatest amount of fat and energy in their diets and were able to absorb energy in excess of that recommended. We conclude that many children with cystic fibrosis are still on low fat diets and whole milk is the single most useful food for the provision of extra dietary fat and energy. PMID:2705801

  1. The Beverage Intake Questionnaire: Initial Validity and Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of energy-containing beverages may lead to weight gain, yet research investigating this issue is limited. An easily-administered beverage intake assessment tool could facilitate research on this topic. The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to determine the validity and reliability of a self-administered beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ), which estimates mean daily intake of beverages consumed (g, kcals) across 19 beverage categories. Participants (n=105; aged 392 yrs) underwent assessments of height, weight, body mass index, and dietary intake using 4-day food intake records (FIR) from June, 2008-June, 2009. The BEVQ was completed at two additional visits (BEVQ1, BEVQ2). Urine samples were collected to objectively determine total fluid intake and encourage accurate self-reporting. Validity was assessed by comparing BEVQ1 with FIR results; reliability was assessed by comparing BEVQ1 and BEVQ2. Analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, paired samples t-tests, and independent samples t-tests. Self-reported water and total beverage intake (g) were not different between the BEVQ1 and FIR (mean difference: 12977g [P=0.096] and 61106g [P=0.567], respectively). Total beverage and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) energy intake were significantly different, although mean differences were small (63 and 44 kcal, respectively). Daily consumption (g) of water (r=0.53), total beverages (r=0.46), and SSB (r=0.49) determined by the BEVQ1 were correlated with reported intake determined by the FIR, as was energy from total beverages (r=0.61) and SSB (r=0.59) (all P<0.001). Reliability was demonstrated, with correlations (P<0.001) detected between BEVQ1 and BEVQ2 results. The BEVQ is a valid, reliable, and rapid self-administered dietary assessment tool. PMID:20656099

  2. Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.L.

    1985-05-01

    Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

  3. Analysis of food intake profile among women from the oasis of southeastern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bidi, Amina; El Bouhali, Bachir; Nasri, Issad; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional status is the best indicator of the global well-being of women and food intake is known to reflect a healthy diet. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of socioeconomic status on the food intake in women living in the southeastern oasis of Morocco by exploring their nutritional intake through 24-h dietary recall (n=387). Analysis of the relationship between food intake and the socioeconomic characteristics in women showed a positive correlation between daily vegetable, cereals, red and white meat intake and region of residence (p<0.001, p=0.005, p=0.001 and p=0.04 respectively). The number of persons living at home showed a positive significant correlation with the daily intake of vegetables (p=0.01) and beverage (p=0.004). For fish and cereals, a positive significant correlation with the occupation variable has been shown (p=0.04 and p<0.001 respectively). In addition, a positive correlation has been noticed between the daily intake of vegetables, cereals, white meat, and dairy product and family status in housing (p=0.03, p=0.02, p=0.03 and p=0.04 respectively). In conclusion, the level of education, family size and occupation influence the daily intake of food in this region. PMID:26246164

  4. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for feed intake and other traits in growing beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI), residual feed intake (RFI), average daily gain (ADG), mid-period body weight (MBW), gain to feed ratio (G:F) and flight speed (FS) were estimated using 1165 steers from a mixed-breed population using restricted maximum likelihood methodology applied to...

  5. [Chromium content in foods and dietary intake estimation in the Northwest of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Grijalva Haro, M I; Ballesteros Vázquez, M N; Cabrera Pacheco, R M

    2001-03-01

    Chromium is an indispensable nutrient for the carbohydrates and lipids metabolism. In this study the chromium content in the twenty main foods of the diet from Northwestern Mexico was determined, as well as the daily mean intake which was estimated based on the food intake basket of this region. Chromium content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using the graphite furnace technique and previous digestion of foods in microwave oven. The chromium mean intake was estimated considering the chromium daily mean intake for person per day and the chromium content of the foods analyzed in this study. The range chromium content in the foods analyzed was between 0.0004 and 0.1641 microgram/g dry weight. White cheese showed the highest chromium content followed by pasta soup, wheat tortilla, bread and meat. The main foods chromium contributors in the diet were: wheat tortilla (20%), white cheese (11%), corn tortilla (11%), pasta soup (10%), milk (10%), meat (9%) and white bread (8%). The daily chromium intake was 30.43 +/- 1.6 micrograms/d. Chromium values obtained in the food analyzed are considered low. Moreover, chromium intake obtained from the diet is not enough to meet the safety and adequate daily chromium intake. Therefore, the population from the Northwestern Mexico has a suboptimal dietary chromium intake. PMID:11515227

  6. Administering the Test of Adult Basic Education at Intake: A Biased Marker of Offender Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccone, Jason E.

    2006-01-01

    Incarceration is an anxiety- and depression-inducing experience. These states are maximal at prison intake, when the offender is struggling to adjust to dramatic changes in daily life. At intake, offenders undergo a wide array of assessments, many of which determine the services and treatment that they will receive. In the Commonwealth of…

  7. ESTIMATING HUMAN BREAST MILK ENERGY INTAKE IN 3-MONTH OLD INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several researchers have published equations to estimate caloric intake in exclusively breastfed (BF) infants. Our Beginnings study offers an opportunity to compare these estimates in a well-defined sample of healthy, BF infants (n=79, 38F, 41M) and contrast them to the Daily Reference Intake (DRI)...

  8. An Evaluation of Residual Feed Intake Estimates Obtained with Computer Models Versus Empirical Regression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data on individual daily feed intake, bi-weekly BW, and carcass composition were obtained on 1,212 crossbred steers, in Cycle VII of the Germplasm Evaluation Project at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Within animal regressions of cumulative feed intake and BW on linear and quadratic days on fe...

  9. Bermudagrass intake and efficiency of utilization in Katahdin, Suffolk, and reciprocal-cross lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daily intake of fresh common bermudagrass was estimated using 12 spring-born Katahdin, Suffolk, and reciprocal-cross ewe lambs (n=3 per breed group) individually fed fresh harvested forage in pens in each of three years. Two 24-h estimates of intake were measured for each week of the study from June...

  10. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-12-01

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols' health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183-4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake. PMID:26690212

  11. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183–4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake. PMID:26690212

  12. Estimated nutrient intakes from food generally do not meet dietary reference intakes among adult members of Pacific Northwest tribal nations.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-05-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases. PMID:20237069

  13. Two-dimensional tracking and TDI are consistent methods for evaluating myocardial longitudinal peak strain in left and right ventricle basal segments in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Laura; Toncelli, Loira; Gianassi, Marco; Manetti, Paolo; Di Tante, Valentina; Vono, Maria Robertina Concetta; Moretti, Andrea; Cappelli, Brunello; Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Galanti, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    Background Myocardial contractility can be investigated using longitudinal peak strain. It can be calculated using the Doppler-derived TDI method and the non-Doppler method based on tissue tracking on B-mode images. Both are validated and show good reproducibility, but no comparative analysis of their results has yet been conducted. This study analyzes the results obtained from the basal segments of the ventricular chambers in a group of athletes. Methods 30 regularly-trained athletes were submitted to an echocardiography at rest and after handgrip. Starting from the four-chamber view, overall myocardial function and regional velocities were evaluated. The images obtained were processed to determine strain in left and right ventricle basal segments. Strain was calculated using the TDI method and a validated "speckle tracking" or, more correctly, "feature tracking" algorithm. The statistical analysis included a Student's t-test (p < 0.05). Results The range of strain values obtained is in agreement with the data reported in the literature. In the left ventricle (LV) the average strain values of the basal segments calculated with TDI on IVS and LW at rest and after stress were: -21.05 ± 3.31; -20.41 ± 2.99 and -20.05 ± 2.61; -21.20 ± 2.37, respectively. In the right ventricle (RV) the same method gave IVS and LW strain values at rest of -22.22 ± 2.58 ; -24.42 ± 5.84, and after HG of -22.02 ± 5.20 ;-23.93 ± 6.34. The values obtained using feature tracking were: LV at rest -20.48 ± 2.65 for IVS, and -21.25 ± 2.85 for LW; LV after HG: -19.48 ± 3 for IVS and -21.69 ± 3.85 for LW. In RV at rest: -21.46 ± 3.25 for IVS and -24.13 ± 5.86 for LW; RV after HG: -24.79 ± 7.9 for IVS and -24.13 ± 7.0 for LW. Tissue Doppler and "feature tracking" methods showed the respective consistency of the results in the basal segments of myocardial ventricle walls. Conclusion Provided that echographic imaging is good, strain can be computed in athletes by both Doppler-derived and tracking methods. It is technically feasible to use both -interchangeably, at least in basal segments. PMID:17286850

  14. Factors associated with feed intake of Angus steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimates of variance components were obtained from 475 records of average (AFI) and residual feed intake (RFI). Covariates in various (8) models included average daily gain (G), age (A) and weight (W) on test, and slaughter (S) and ultrasound (U) carcass measures (fat thickness, ribeye area and ma...

  15. Residual feed intake and temperament breed differences among Florida heifers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate residual feed intake, average daily gain, chute temperament score, and exit velocity of Brahman (B),Angus (A), and Romosinuano (R) (n = 40, 19, and 26, respectively)and F1 (n = 7, 8, and 12 for BA, RA, and RB, respectively) heifers. One month after weaning ...

  16. Caffeine Intake Among Adolescents in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Gera, Mridul; Kalra, Swati; Gupta, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    Background: Availability and advertising of caffeinated drinks is on the rise in Indian market. Excess caffeine intake may have deleterious effects on health. Objective: To estimate the daily consumption of caffeine among urban school-going adolescents from Delhi. Materials and Methods: A school-based survey was conducted to determine the amount and pattern of caffeine consumption among students of classes 9-12, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of 300 participants (median age 15 year, 174 boys), 291 (97%) were consuming caffeine [mean (SD): 121.0 (98.2) mg/day]. Nineteen (6%) students were consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine per day. Tea/coffee contributed to more than 50% of the caffeine intake. The rest was derived from cola beverages, chocolates, and energy drinks. Conclusion: Average caffeine consumption among school-going adolescents from Delhi is high. The findings of this preliminary survey need to be confirmed in larger data sets. PMID:27051091

  17. Optimization of Novel Aza-benzimidazolone mGluR2 PAMs with Respect to LLE and PK Properties and Mitigation of CYP TDI.

    PubMed

    Pero, Joseph E; Rossi, Michael A; Kelly, Michael J; Lehman, Hannah D G F; Layton, Mark E; Garbaccio, Robert M; O'Brien, Julie A; Magliaro, Brian C; Uslaner, Jason M; Huszar, Sarah L; Fillgrove, Kerry L; Tang, Cuyue; Kuo, Yuhsin; Joyce, Leo A; Sherer, Edward C; Jacobson, Marlene A

    2016-03-10

    Investigation of a novel amino-aza-benzimidazolone structural class of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) identified [2.2.2]-bicyclic amine 12 as an intriguing lead structure due to its promising physicochemical properties and lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE). Further optimization led to chiral amide 18, which exhibited strong in vitro activity and attractive pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. Hypothesis-driven target design identified compound 21 as a potent, highly selective, orally bioavailable mGluR2 PAM, which addressed a CYP time-dependent inhibition (TDI) liability of 18, while maintaining excellent drug-like properties with robust in vivo activity in a clinically validated model of antipsychotic potential. PMID:26985321

  18. Experimental methods for measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF) for time-delay-and-integrate (TDI) charge coupled device (CCD) image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Bruce M.; Harbold, Jeffrey M.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we report experimental measurements of the wavelength-dependent Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) for a commercial Time-Delay-and-Integrate Charge Coupled Device (TDI-CCD) image sensor. The modulation transfer function provides a measure of the maximum spatial resolution achievable by an electro-optic (EO) image sensor. Charge diffusion and electronic crosstalk mechanisms inherent to all EO sensors will degrade the image quality and deleteriously affect the MTF; therefore measurement of the MTF for an EO image sensor provides a powerful tool for probing these mechanisms. The focus of this work will be toward describing, in detail, the unique experimental apparatus and techniques, developed at The Aerospace Corporation, that enable these measurements. Furthermore, the experimentally measured MTF will be compared to the analytical Blouke-Robinson diffusion MTF model for CCD image sensors.

  19. Energy and Nutrient Intake From Pizza in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Binh T.; Dietz, William H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pizza consumption is a top contributor to children’s and adolescents’ caloric intake. The objective of this study was to examine children’s and adolescents’ pizza consumption patterns and its impact on their energy and nutrient intake. METHODS: Twenty-four–hour dietary recall data for children aged 2 to 11 and adolescents aged 12 to 19 were drawn from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We tested changes in consumption patterns, including by race/ethnicity, income, meal occasion, and source. Individual-level fixed effects regression models estimated the impact of pizza consumption on total energy intake (TEI) and intakes of sugar, saturated fat, and sodium. RESULTS: From 2003–2004 to 2009–2010, overall energy intake from pizza declined 25% among children (110 to 83 kcal, P ≤ .05). Among adolescents, although caloric intake from pizza among those who consumed pizza fell (801 to 624 kcal, P ≤ .05), overall pizza intake remained unchanged due to slightly higher pizza consumption prevalence. For children and adolescents, pizza intake fell (P ≤ .05) at dinner time and from fast food. For children and adolescents, respectively, pizza consumption was significantly associated with higher net daily TEI (84 kcal and 230 kcal) and higher intakes of saturated fat (3 g and 5 g) and sodium (134 mg and 484 mg) but not sugar intake, and such affects generally did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Pizza consumption as a snack or from fast-food restaurants had the greatest adverse impact on TEI. CONCLUSIONS: The adverse dietary effects of pizza consumption found in this study suggest that its consumption should be curbed and its nutrient content improved. PMID:25601973

  20. Street foods and dietary intakes of Nigerian urban market women.

    PubMed

    Oguntona, C R; Tella, T O

    1999-11-01

    The food and nutrient intake of 197 market women aged 19-66 years (mean 41 years) have been determined using questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recall. The contributions of street foods (SF) to total intake of food and nutrients were determined in order to quantify the importance of SF as a source of food and nutrients for these women. Eighty-three of the women were of child-bearing age (< 49 years), Group I, while 114 were not (> 49 years). Overall, SF provided 63% of the weight of total food consumed. The mean energy intake was 11.5 MJ with the older women Group II consuming significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the younger age group (Group I). The contribution of SF to energy intake was similar (59%) for both groups. The older women (Group II) also consumed significantly (P < 0.05) more total protein than the younger women (110 vs 80 g) although SF contributed similar percentages (58 vs 59%). Mean calcium intake was high for the subjects (618 mg) but no significant differences were found between the two age cohorts. The proportion of calcium intake supplied by SF was 79% for Group I and 81% for Group II. There was a wide variation (8.1-16.5 mg) in total daily iron intake. Overall SF provided 57% of the pooled mean intake (12 mg). Mean iron intake for Group II was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of Group I. The contribution of SF to the intakes of vitamins was above 50% except for thiamin (47%) in the younger age cohort and vitamin A (46%) in the older age group. The results suggest therefore that street foods constitute the major sources of dietary energy and other nutrients for market women in Nigeria. PMID:10719578

  1. New daily persistent headache

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Alok

    2012-01-01

    New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. PMID:23024565

  2. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

  3. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

  4. Flavonoid intakes in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Maras, Janice E.; Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Qiao, Ning; Lyle, Barbara; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Major sources of flavonoids were identified, and mean intakes over several decades were reported, among 1638 participants (mean age 62.1 +/− 16.0 y), of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). Dietary data were collected using 7-day diet records during three time periods (1980s, 1990s and 2000-present), and the USDA flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and isoflavone databases were used to estimate dietary flavonoid intakes. Dietary intake data were divided according to decade of visit. Foods were matched with appropriate foods in the USDA databases. Mixed dishes were disaggregated to individual foods and a similar procedure was followed. Total flavonoids and five sub-classes of flavonoids, including flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanidins, were computed by summing appropriate compounds. The median intakes of flavonoids and the contributions of various foods to intakes were calculated by decade. Age and sex adjusted mean (SE) daily intakes of flavonoids increased from 250 (7.4) in the 1980s to 280 (9.9) mg in the 2000s. Top contributors of flavonoids were tea, apple/pear (and juices), citrus fruits (and juices), peaches, plums, grapes, nectarines (and juices) and chocolate. The data show an increase in the consumption of flavonoids over the three decades, which appears to be related to intake of fruit. PMID:22228923

  5. Dietary Macronutrient Intake and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Women

    PubMed Central

    Maserejian, Nancy N.; McVary, Kevin T.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; McKinlay, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine associations between macronutrient and total energy intakes with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in women. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 2,060 women aged 3079 years in the population-based Boston Area Community Health Survey (20022005). Data were collected by validated food frequency questionnaire and in-person interviews. Outcomes for multivariate logistic regression were moderate-to-severe total LUTS, storage, voiding, and post-micturition symptoms. Results Greater total energy intake was positively associated with LUTS, specifically among women with lower waist circumferences (<76 cm, P=0.005, pinteraction=0.01). Increased saturated fat intake was associated with post-micturition symptoms (Quintile 5 vs. 1, OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.57, 9.89, ptrend =0.04). High protein intake was positively associated with storage symptoms (ptrend =0.03), particularly nocturia. No consistent associations were observed for carbohydrate, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat intakes. Conclusions Among women with low waist circumferences, high total daily calorie intake was associated with moderate-to-severe LUTS. While greater saturated fat intake was linked to post-micturition symptoms, the possibility that post-micturition symptoms in women represent more extensive or severe conditions should be explored in future research. These novel results indicate that dietary contributors to LUTS in women are distinct from those in men and may depend on symptom subtype and body size. PMID:21421330

  6. A review of the dietary intakes of chemical contaminants*

    PubMed Central

    Gorchev, H. Galal; Jelinek, Charles F.

    1985-01-01

    Data on the dietary intakes of certain contaminants have been received from eleven collaborating centres participating in the Joint FAO/WHO Food Contamination Monitoring Programme. The data cover the period from 1971 to 1983 and include information on the intakes of a series of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, cadmium, lead, and aflatoxins. When compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) or provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of the pesticides/contaminants in question, the data indicate that, in some countries, the exposure to certain organochlorine pesticides may constitute a significant portion ofthe ADI. Because of the concentration of these compounds in the fatty portions of food, a high animal fat intake will increase the dietary exposure to organochlorine compounds Dietary intakes of cadmium and lead constitute an appreciable percentage oft he PTWI for these two contaminants. As the intakes of cadmium and lead per kilogram of body weight are highest for infants and children, every effort should be made to reduce the levels of these two contaminants in the food supply. PMID:3879207

  7. Correlation of food intake in lambs with adipocyte glucose metabolism and NEFA release

    PubMed Central

    Mears, G. J.; Mendel, V. E.

    1974-01-01

    1. Experiments were conducted with lambs to determine the correlation between food intake, rate of glucose incorporation into CO2 and lipids, and rate of lipid mobilization by their isolated omental adipocytes. 2. During the interval between weaning and slaughter average daily dry matter (ADDM) intakes of the individual lambs were significantly correlated with average daily gains; however, the ratio of ADDM intake to body wt.¾ was similar in all individuals. 3. The average size of adipocytes for each lamb, as determined by lipid: protein ratios, was not significantly correlated with food intake. 4. Oxidation of glucose to CO2 and the total measured glucose incorporation by the adipocytes were significantly and negatively correlated with lamb ADDM intakes at low levels of glucose (0·1 mg/ml.), whereas rates of lipogenesis from glucose were similar for all intake levels. 5. Insulin-induced increases in glucose utilization were positively and significantly correlated with ADDM intakes to the extent that insulin had over twice the effect on the adipocytes from high-intake lambs as it had on those from low-intake lambs. The minimum effective dose of insulin necessary to significantly increase glucose utilization by the adipocytes was also positively and significantly correlated with the ADDM intakes of the lambs. 6. Basal NEFA release rates were higher for adipocytes from low-intake lambs. Epinephrine significantly increased NEFA release rates, independent of lamb intakes. 7. A larger number of adipocytes in the high-intake lambs means that they would have a greater total potential to lower blood glucose, particularly when they are under the effects of normal circulating levels of insulin. The amount of glucose removed from the glucose pool could be the feed-back signal which results in a high long-term food intake. PMID:4412650

  8. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

  9. Seasonal Variation in the Voluntary Food Intake of Domesticated Cats (Felis Catus)

    PubMed Central

    Serisier, Samuel; Feugier, Alexandre; Delmotte, Sébastien; Biourge, Vincent; German, Alexander James

    2014-01-01

    There are numerous reports about seasonal cycles on food intake in animals but information is limited in dogs and cats. A 4-year prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted to assess differences in food intake in 38 ad-libitum-fed adult colony cats, of various breeds, ages and genders. Individual food intake was recorded on a daily basis, and the mean daily intake for each calendar month was calculated. These data were compared with climatic data (temperature and daylight length) for the region in the South of France where the study was performed. Data were analysed using both conventional statistical methods and by modelling using artificial neural networks (ANN). Irrespective of year, an effect of month was evident on food intake (P<0.001), with three periods of broadly differing intake. Food intake was least in the summer months (e.g. June, to August), and greatest during the months of late autumn and winter (e.g. October to February), with intermediate intake in the spring (e.g. March to May) and early autumn (e.g. September). A seasonal effect on bodyweight was not recorded. Periods of peak and trough food intake coincided with peaks and troughs in both temperature and daylight length. In conclusion, average food intake in summer is approximately 15% less than food intake during the winter months, and is likely to be due to the effects of outside temperatures and differences in daylight length. This seasonal effect in food intake should be properly considered when estimating daily maintenance energy requirements in cats. PMID:24759851

  10. An overview of the contribution of dairy and cheese intakes to nutrient intakes in the Irish diet: results from the National Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Emma L; Nugent, Anne P; Mc Nulty, Breige; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Eileen R

    2016-02-01

    Dairy products are important contributors to nutrient intakes. However, dairy intakes are reportedly declining in developed populations, potentially due to concerns regarding Na and SFA in dairy foods, particularly cheese. This could impact other nutrient intakes. The present study used data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) to (1) examine dairy intakes, with a specific focus on cheese, and (2) to examine the contribution of cheese to population nutrient intakes. The NANS captured detailed dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample (n 1500) between 2008 and 2010 using 4-d semi-weighed food diaries; 99·9 % of the population reported dairy intake. Mean daily population dairy intake was 290·0 (sd 202·1) g. Dairy products provided 8·7 % of the population intake of reported dietary Na, 19·8 % SFA, 39 % Ca, 34·5 % vitamin B12 and 10·5 % Mg. Cheese alone provided 3·9 % Na intake, 9·1 % Ca, 12·6 % retinol, 8·3 % SFA, 3·7 % protein, 3·4 % vitamin B12 and 3·2 % riboflavin. High dairy consumers had greater Ca and Mg intakes per 10 MJ, greater total energy intake, greater percentage of energy from carbohydrate and SFA and lower Na intakes compared with low dairy consumers. Similar trends were observed for high consumers of cheese for most nutrients except Na. These results demonstrate that dairy and cheese are important contributors to nutrient intakes of public health interest, such as Ca and B12. Our analysis also demonstrated that food-based dietary guidelines recommending lower-fat versions of dairy products are warranted. PMID:26675882

  11. Soda Consumption During Ad Libitum Food Intake Predicts Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Bundrick, Sarah C.; Thearle, Marie S.; Venti, Colleen A.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index [BMI] 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20%) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=–0.27, P=0.0001), and choosing low-fat foods (r=−0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain. PMID:24321742

  12. Once-daily dose regimen of ribavirin is interchangeable with a twice-daily dose regimen: randomized open clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Balk, Jiska M; Haenen, Guido RMM; Koc, Özgür M; Peters, Ron; Bast, Aalt; van der Vijgh, Wim JF; Koek, Ger H

    2015-01-01

    Background The combination of ribavirin (RBV) and pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) is effective in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection. Reducing the frequency of RBV intake from twice to once a day will improve compliance and opens up the opportunity to combine RBV with new and more specific direct-acting agents in one pill. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of RBV in a once-daily to twice-daily regimen. The secondary aim was to determine tolerability as well as the severity and differences in side effects of both treatment regimens. Methods In this randomized open-label crossover study, twelve patients with chronic type 1 hepatitis C infection and weighing more than 75 kg were treated with 180 µg of PEG-IFN weekly and 1,200 mg RBV daily for 24 weeks. The patients received RBV dosed as 1,200 mg once-daily for 12 weeks followed by RBV dosed as 600 mg twice-daily for 12 weeks, or vice versa. In addition to the pharmacokinetic profile, the hematological profile and side effects were recorded. The RBV concentrations in plasma were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results Eight of twelve patients completed the study. Neither the time taken for RBV to reach peak plasma concentration nor the AUC0-last (adjusted for difference in dose) was significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05). Furthermore, the once-daily regimen did not give more side effects than the twice-daily regimen (P>0.05). No significant differences in the hematological profile were observed (P>0.05). Conclusion The standard twice-daily RBV regimen is interchangeable with the once-daily regimen. The once-daily regimen will improve compliance and opens the opportunity to combine RBV with other drugs dosed once a day, in a single pill. PMID:26445557

  13. Estimation of Apple Intake for the Exposure Assessment of Residual Chemicals Using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Database

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop strategies and algorithms of calculating food commodity intake suitable for exposure assessment of residual chemicals by using the food intake database of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In this study, apples and their processed food products were chosen as a model food for accurate calculation of food commodity intakes uthrough the recently developed Korea food commodity intake calculation (KFCIC) software. The average daily intakes of total apples in Korea Health Statistics were 29.60 g in 2008, 32.40 g in 2009, 34.30 g in 2010, 28.10 g in 2011, and 24.60 g in 2012. The average daily intakes of apples by KFCIC software was 2.65 g higher than that by Korea Health Statistics. The food intake data in Korea Health Statistics might have less reflected the intake of apples from mixed and processed foods than KFCIC software has. These results can affect outcome of risk assessment for residual chemicals in foods. Therefore, the accurate estimation of the average daily intake of food commodities is very important, and more data for food intakes and recipes have to be applied to improve the quality of data. Nevertheless, this study can contribute to the predictive estimation of exposure to possible residual chemicals and subsequent analysis for their potential risks. PMID:27152299

  14. Estimation of Apple Intake for the Exposure Assessment of Residual Chemicals Using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Database.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bumsik; Baek, Min-Seok; Lee, Yongmin; Paik, Jean Kyung; Chang, Moon-Ik; Rhee, Gyu-Seek; Ko, Sanghoon

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study were to develop strategies and algorithms of calculating food commodity intake suitable for exposure assessment of residual chemicals by using the food intake database of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In this study, apples and their processed food products were chosen as a model food for accurate calculation of food commodity intakes uthrough the recently developed Korea food commodity intake calculation (KFCIC) software. The average daily intakes of total apples in Korea Health Statistics were 29.60 g in 2008, 32.40 g in 2009, 34.30 g in 2010, 28.10 g in 2011, and 24.60 g in 2012. The average daily intakes of apples by KFCIC software was 2.65 g higher than that by Korea Health Statistics. The food intake data in Korea Health Statistics might have less reflected the intake of apples from mixed and processed foods than KFCIC software has. These results can affect outcome of risk assessment for residual chemicals in foods. Therefore, the accurate estimation of the average daily intake of food commodities is very important, and more data for food intakes and recipes have to be applied to improve the quality of data. Nevertheless, this study can contribute to the predictive estimation of exposure to possible residual chemicals and subsequent analysis for their potential risks. PMID:27152299

  15. A Culture-Specific Nutrient Intake Assessment Instrument in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Frediani, Jennifer K.; Tukvadze, Nestani; Sanikidze, Ekaterina; Kipiani, Maia; Hebbar, Gautam; Easley, Kirk A.; Shenvi, Neeta; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Tangpricha, Vin; Blumberg, Henry M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim To develop and evaluate a culture-specific nutrient intake assessment tool for use in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Tbilisi, Georgia. Methods We developed an instrument to measure food intake over 3 consecutive days using a questionnaire format. The tool was then compared to 24 hour food recalls. Food intake data from 31 subjects with TB were analyzed using the Nutrient Database System for Research (NDS-R) dietary analysis program. Paired t-tests, Pearson correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess the agreement between the two methods of dietary intake for calculated nutrient intakes. Results The Pearson correlation coefficient for mean daily caloric intake between the 2 methods was 0.37 (P = 0.04) with a mean difference of 171 kcals/day (p = 0.34). The ICC was 0.38 (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.64) suggesting the within-patient variability may be larger than between-patient variability. Results for mean daily intake of total fat, total carbohydrate, total protein, retinol, vitamins D and E, thiamine, calcium, sodium, iron, selenium, copper, and zinc between the two assessment methods were also similar. Conclusions This novel nutrient intake assessment tool provided quantitative nutrient intake data from TB patients. These pilot data can inform larger studies in similar populations. PMID:23541173

  16. Frequency of Fish Intake and Diabetes among Adult Indians

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Millett, Christopher; Subramanian, S. V.; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Recent studies have shown that the choice of foods plays a role in diabetes prevention. However, little empirical evidence on this association exists in developing countries. We aimed to examine the association between frequency of fish intake and self-reported diabetes status among adult men and women in India. Methods: Analysis of cross-sectional data from participants in India's third National Family Health Survey conducted during 2005–2006 was performed. Associations between fish intake, determined by frequency of consumption (daily, weekly, occasionally, and never), and self-reported diabetes were estimated using multivariable-adjusted models in 99,574 women, 56,742 men, and 39,257 couples aged 20–49 years after adjusting for frequency of consumption of other food items, body mass index (BMI) status, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, watching television, age, education, living standard of the household, and place of residence. Results: After adjustment for other dietary, lifestyle, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, odds of diabetes were 2 times higher (odds ratio [OR]: 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59–2.57; p < 0.0001) among those who reported consuming fish daily compared to those who never consumed fish. Weekly fish intake was also associated with a higher odds of having diabetes (OR: 1.55; 95% CI, 1.25–1.93; p < 0.0001). The adjusted effect of daily fish intake on diabetes was greater among men (OR: 2.46; 95% CI, 1.66–3.65) than among women (OR: 1.72; 95% CI, 1.26–2.33). In cross-spousal sensitivity analysis, the odds of a husband having diabetes was also associated with wife's daily/weekly consumption of fish (OR: 1.36; 95% CI, 0.92–2.01) and the odds of a wife having diabetes was also associated with husband's daily/weekly consumption of fish (OR: 1.21; 95% CI, 0.87–1.68). Conclusions: In a large nationally representative sample of adult men and women in India, daily or weekly fish intake was positively associated with the presence of diabetes. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. More epidemiological research with better measures of food intake and clinical measures of diabetes is needed in a developing country setting to validate the findings. PMID:24870294

  17. Diet, nutrition intake, and metabolism in populations at high and low risk for colon cancer. Nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Calkins, B M; Whittaker, D J; Nair, P P; Rider, A A; Turjman, N

    1984-10-01

    A 3-day diary with portion sizes weighed by the subject and a 24-h recall were obtained on 50 sets of subjects: Seventh-day Adventist lacto-ovo-vegetarians and nonvegetarians, and general population nonvegetarians, matched on age (+/- 5 yr), sex, marital status, education, type of milk preferred, and an index of the frequency of dairy and egg product use. An additional 18 unmatched persons who follow a pure vegetarian dietary pattern (use no meat, fish, fowl, dairy, or egg products) were recruited into the study. The rational for the dietary methods used is presented and details of each of the methods used are given. The results of the nutrient analysis of the 24-h recall and 3-day diary are presented. The 3-day nutrient intake means for the four groups are compared to the sex-specific recommended daily allowance both with and without supplements. The contribution of nutritional supplements to the nutrient intake is discussed. All groups show adequate or excess intake levels of calories, protein, and fat when either the 24-h recall or the 3-day diary values are considered. The higher intake of calories noted among nonvegetarians can be explained by a higher intake of both fat and protein in these groups. A, B, and C vitamin levels (3-day dairy estimates) are adequate both with and without supplements. Calcium intake is much below recommended levels for pure vegetarian females. Iron intake is low for all females. A heme iron source does not improve the intake levels for nonvegetarian females. A comparison of these results with prior reports of nutrient intake among Seventh-day Adventists is presented. PMID:6486098

  18. Dietary Protein Intake in Dutch Elderly People: A Focus on Protein Sources

    PubMed Central

    Tieland, Michael; Borgonjen-Van den Berg, Karin J.; Van Loon, Luc J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the consumption of protein sources as well as the distribution of protein sources over the day in community-dwelling, frail and institutionalized elderly people. Methods: Habitual dietary intake was evaluated using 2- and 3-day food records collected from various studies involving 739 community-dwelling, 321 frail and 219 institutionalized elderly people. Results: Daily protein intake averaged 71 ± 18 g/day in community-dwelling, 71 ± 20 g/day in frail and 58 ± 16 g/day in institutionalized elderly people and accounted for 16% ± 3%, 16% ± 3% and 17% ± 3% of their energy intake, respectively. Dietary protein intake ranged from 10 to 12 g at breakfast, 15 to 23 g at lunch and 24 to 31 g at dinner contributing together over 80% of daily protein intake. The majority of dietary protein consumed originated from animal sources (≥60%) with meat and dairy as dominant sources. Thus, 40% of the protein intake in community-dwelling, 37% in frail and 29% in institutionalized elderly originated from plant based protein sources with bread as the principle source. Plant based proteins contributed for >50% of protein intake at breakfast and between 34% and 37% at lunch, with bread as the main source. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, with meat as the dominant source. Conclusion: Daily protein intake in these older populations is mainly (>80%) provided by the three main meals, with most protein consumed during dinner. More than 60% of daily protein intake consumed is of animal origin, with plant based protein sources representing nearly 40% of total protein consumed. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, while during breakfast and lunch a large proportion of protein is derived from plant based protein sources. PMID:26610565

  19. Importance of milk replacer intake and composition in rearing orphan foals

    PubMed Central

    Cymbaluk, Nadia F.; Smart, Marion E.; Bristol, Frank M.; Pouteaux, Victor A.

    1993-01-01

    Effects of milk replacer composition and intake on the growth of orphan foals were evaluated. Twenty foals were assigned to four treatments: 1) mare-nursed, 2) commercial foal milk replacer at recommended intakes (standard), 3) commercial foal milk replacer at high intakes (high), and 4) acidified replacer at recommended intakes (acidified). Foals fed milk replacer diets were weaned at 12-24 hours postpartum and fed milk replacer for 50 days. Mare-nursed foals were weaned between 52 and 56 days of age. Foals fed replacer diets gained 12% to 28% less weight than mare-nursed foals up to two weeks of age. However, by four months of age, weights of replacer-fed foals were similar to those of mare-nursed foals and 32 other mare-nursed foals at the farm weaned between three and four months postparium. Foals drank 10 to 12 L/100 kg body weight (BW) in fluid replacer daily over the trial period. During the first week, high intake foals consumed 26% more replacer (p<0.05) than foals fed acidified or standard diets. This higher intake resulted in diarrhea earlier (6-11 days vs 11-22 days) and for a longer time (6.3 days vs 2.5-3.6 days) than in foals fed recommended amounts. Mare-nursed foals developed “foal heat scours” in the second week postpartum. After the first week, foals fed high replacer diet voluntarily consumed the same volume of fluid replacer as foals fed the standard intake. Foals ate less than 1 kg grain mix/100 kg BW daily to one month of age, then increased intake to 1.5-2 kg/ 100 kg BW to weaning. Water intake was 20-40% of daily fluid intake and was correlated (r = 0.85) to dry matter intake. Foals in the high intake group ate less (p<0.05) solid feed and drank less water than foals fed the standard and acidified diets. The foal's stomach capacity appears to limit meal size and thus replacer intake. If recommended feeding intervals are used, replacer intakes by foals are less than 15% BW daily. High volume intakes appeared to prolong diarrhea. Normal growth rates occur when replacer and good-quality feeds are fed concurrently. PMID:17424268

  20. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  1. Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake.

    PubMed

    Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly R

    2013-07-01

    The objective was to examine the effect of consuming breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Participants who habitually ate breakfast and those who skipped breakfast were recruited for two studies. Using a randomized crossover design, the first study examined the effect of having participants consume either (a) no breakfast, (b) a high carbohydrate breakfast (335 kcals), or (c) a high fiber breakfast (360 kcals) on three occasions and measured ad libitum intake at lunch. The second study again used a randomized crossover design but with a larger, normal carbohydrate breakfast consumed ad libtum. Intake averaged 624 kcals and subsequent food intake was measured throughout the day. Participants ate only foods served from the Cornell Human Metabolic Research Unit where all foods were weighed before and after consumption. In the first study, neither eating breakfast nor the kind of breakfast consumed had an effect on the amount consumed at lunch despite a reduction in hunger ratings. In the second study, intake at lunch as well as hunger ratings were significantly increased after skipping breakfast (by 144 kcal), leaving a net caloric deficit of 408 kcal by the end of the day. These data are consistent with published literature demonstrating that skipping a meal does not result in accurate energy compensation at subsequent meals and suggests that skipping breakfast may be an effective means to reduce daily energy intake in some adults. PMID:23672851

  2. Dietary intake of free-living elderly in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Grammatikopoulou, Maria G; Papadopoulou, Sousana K; Zakas, Athanasios; Mylona, Anna; Kapsalis, Ioannis

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the nutrient intake of a non-institutionalized Greek elderly population. Dietary intake and anthropometric data were investigated in 100 elderly subjects from Grevena, Greece, all belonging to the race of "Hasiotes." According to BMI classification, 48% of the subjects are considered overweight and 20% obese. WHR for women and men was 0.91 and 0.98, respectively. Both genders presented insufficient energy intake (7.27 +/- 3.49MJ/d) in 3 +/- 0.9 feeding sessions daily. Mean protein and fiber intake was 0.82 +/- 0.43 and 0.29 +/- 0.2g/kg BW, respectively. The diet presented insufficient amounts of vitamins A, B6, D, E, K, Biotin, Pantothenic acid, Cu, I, Mg, Mn, and Zn. Female subjects exhibited low dietary intake of vitamins B2, B3 and Ca. The diet had many characteristics of the traditional Mediterranean diet and comprised of a high intake of goat-milk yoghurt, olive oil, goat cheese, traditional alcohol drinks, pies, legumes, fruits and meat. The majority of the sample (70%), reported fasting on Orthodox celebrations. Further research should assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the use of scores and compare diet characteristics to other regions in Greece, in order to present regional differences in Greek diet variations. PMID:17890208

  3. Comparison of the dietary cobalt intake in three different Australian diets.

    PubMed

    Hokin, Bevan; Adams, Michelle; Ashton, John; Louie, Honway

    2004-01-01

    Differences in the dietary intake of cobalt were assessed for vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian Australians using food intake logs, and daily or average trend recall over three months. A significant decrease in cobalt intake was observed for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian population compared with the intake in vegans and omnivores. There is no RDI for cobalt, however, the cobalt intake of Australians was similar to that reported in other countries. Microflora above the terminal ileum have been shown to produce significant amounts of biologically available vitamin B12. This study was unable to demonstrate a correlation between elemental cobalt intake and serum vitamin B12 concentrations in humans, as has been shown in vitro. PMID:15331342

  4. Oral intake of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, nickel, manganese and zinc in the university student's diet.

    PubMed

    Barberá, R; Farré, R; Mesado, D

    1993-01-01

    A duplicate diet meal study was carried out with a group of university students living in a hostel, in order to estimate the intake of Zn, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb. Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and Cd, Co and Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry after a nitric acid wet digestion procedure. The estimated intake values from the contents of breakfast, lunch, dinner and drinks were compared with the values of the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) in the case of Cd and Pb, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) of Co, Fe and Zn and Estimated Safe and Adequate Dietetic Daily Intake (ESADDI) of Cu and Mn. Neither excessive intake of Pb and Cd nor deficiencies in Zn, Co, Fe, Mn or Ni were observed, but Cu intake was lower than the ESADDI. PMID:8361527

  5. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension. PMID:25767289

  6. Inhibition of food intake.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Over 100 publications, principally from five groups, describe an effect of amylin and amylin analogs in inhibition of food intake in animals and humans. The major groups contributing to this area are those of the following: Chance and Balasubramaniam (Balasubramaniam et al., 1991a,b; Chance et al., 1991a,b, 1992a,b, 1993). Morley, Flood, and Edwards (Edwards and Morley, 1992; Flood and Morley, 1992; Macintosh et al., 2000; Morley and Flood, 1991, 1994; Morley et al., 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997). Lutz, Geary, and others (Barth et al., 2003; Del Prete et al., 2002; Lutz et al., 1994, 1995a,b, 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998a,b,c, 2000a,b, 2001a,b,c, 2003; Mollet et al., 2001, 2003a,b, 2004; Riediger et al., 2002, 2004; Rushing et al., 2000a,b, 2001, 2002). Workers at Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc., or their collaborators (Bhavsar et al., 1995, 1996, 1997a, 1998; Birkemo et al., 1995; Chapman et al., 2004a,b; Edwards et al., 1998; Feinle et al., 2002; Mack et al., 2003; Riediger et al., 1999; Roth et al., 2004; Watkins et al., 1996; Weyer et al., 2004; Young, 1997; Young and Bhavsar, 1996). Arnelo, Reidelberger, and others (Arnelo et al., 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998, 2000; Fruin et al., 1997; Granqvist et al., 1997; Reidelberger et al., 2001, 2002, 2004). The magnitude of amylin inhibition of food intake, and its potency for this effect when delivered peripherally, suggests a physiological role in satiogenesis. Increases in food intake following disruption of amylin signal-signaling (e.g., with amylin receptor blockade, or with amylin gene knock-out mice) further support a role of endogenous amylin to tonically restrict nutrient intake. In addition, synergies with other endogenous satiety agents may be present, and convey greater physiological importance than is conveyed by single signals. The anorectic effect of amylin is consistent with a classic amylin pharmacology. The anorectic effect of peripheral amylin appears principally due to a direct action at the area postrema/nucleus tractus solitarius, and is not merely a consequence of gastric fullness, for example. Circulating amylin appears to physiologically inhibit secretion of ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide from the stomach. In contrast to the actions of many other anorexigens, amylin appears to stimulate drinking. This disposgenic effect is likely mediated via amylin-sensitive neurones in the subfornical organ, a circumventricular structure, that like the area postrema does not present a blood-brain barrier. Amylin's dipsogenic effect may explain prandial drinking, which has heretofore been regarded as a learned behavior. PMID:16492542

  7. Energy and nutrient intakes of young children in the UK: findings from the Gemini twin cohort.

    PubMed

    Syrad, H; Llewellyn, C H; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Johnson, L; Jebb, S A; Wardle, J

    2016-05-01

    Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK Gemini twin cohort completed 3-d diet diaries in 2008/2009. Family background information was obtained from questionnaires completed 8 months after birth. Mean total daily intakes of energy, macronutrients (g and %E) and micronutrients from food and beverages, including and excluding supplements, were derived. Comparisons with UK dietary reference values (DRV) were made using t tests and general linear regression models, respectively. Daily energy intake (kJ), protein (g) and most micronutrients exceeded DRV, except for vitamin D and Fe, where 96 or 84 % and 70 or 6 % of children did not achieve the reference nutrient intake or lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI), respectively, even with supplementation. These findings reflect similar observations in the smaller sample of children aged 18-36 months in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. At a population level, young children in the UK are exceeding recommended daily intakes of energy and protein, potentially increasing their risk of obesity. The majority of children are not meeting the LRNI for vitamin D, largely reflecting inadequate use of the supplements recommended at this age. Parents may need more guidance on how to achieve healthy energy and nutrient intakes for young children. PMID:27093345

  8. Warmer daily temperatures since 1951

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-09-01

    Days and nights have indeed become warmer over the past 60 years, a new study finds. Although several observation-based studies have shown that daily average temperatures as well as daily maximum and minimum temperatures have increased over the past few decades, controversy has remained as to how the observed trends in extreme and average temperatures are related to each other: Are the warming trends in extreme temperatures a result of a shifting mean climate, or have temperatures become more variable? Using a global observational data set of daily temperatures, Donat and Alexander compared the probability distributions of daily maximum and minimum temperatures over two 30-year periods, 1951-1980 and 1981-2010. The authors show that the maximum and minimum daily temperatures all over the globe have significantly shifted toward higher values during the latter period. They further show that the distributions have become skewed toward the hotter part of the distribution; changes are greater for daily minimum (nighttime) temperatures than for the daily maximum (daytime) temperatures. The authors conclude that the distribution of global daily temperatures has indeed become “more extreme” compared to the middle of the twentieth century. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2012GL052459, 2012)

  9. Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Szamosujvári, Pál; Dombai, Péter; Csóré, Katalin; Mikófalvi, Kinga; Steindl, Tímea; Streicher, Ildikó; Tarsoly, Júlia; Zajzon, Gergely; Somogyi, Péter; Szamosújvári, Pál; Lakatos, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years) (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665 ± 7.9 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.045), whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P = 0.041), but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558 ± 6.2 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r = 0.024, P = 0.049), but not with femur BMD (r = 0.021, P = 0.107). The currently recommended 1000–1500 mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients. PMID:23737777

  10. Protein intake but not feed intake affects dietary energy for finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Moehn, S; Levesque, C L; Ball, R O

    2013-02-01

    The effects of dietary protein and feeding levels on dietary metabolizable (ME) and net energy (NE) content were determined in 24 pigs, each offered two diets at 2.0 times the energetic maintenance requirement or for ad libitum intake between 55 and 95 kg body weight. Within feeding levels, pigs received, in random order, low-protein (LP; 11.2% CP, 0.61% lysine) or high-protein (HP; 20.2% CP, 0.61% lysine) diets of similar digestible energy content. Dietary NE was calculated from heat production based on 24-h indirect calorimetry following a 7-day N-balance period. Feed intake was greater for LP than HP when fed for ad libitum intake (p = 0.001). Protein level did not affect daily gain (p > 0.1) but HP improved gain: feed (p = 0.003). Dietary ME and NE were not significantly affected by feeding level but were decreased by high protein intake (p < 0.07). Reducing dietary protein reduced urinary energy losses and increased energy retention but did not affect heat production. The effect of dietary protein restriction was already evident on the ME level and carried over to a similar degree to the NE level because the utilization of ME was not affected by protein level. Dietary ME and NE decreased by 0.012 MJ/kg (p = 0.014) and 0.018 MJ/kg (p = 0.062), respectively, for each gram per day N intake. The results suggest that although there was an effect of protein level on NE, the greatest effect occurred at the level of ME. However, the prediction of both ME and NE may be improved by adopting energy values for dietary protein that changes with dietary protein content. PMID:22168230

  11. Sodium and potassium intake among U.S. adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommend Americans reduce sodium intake and choose foods that contain potassium to decrease the risk of hypertension and subsequent heart disease and stroke. We estimated the distributions of usual daily sodium and potassium intakes by sociodemographic and health charact...

  12. Effect of varying water intake on renal function in healthy preterm babies.

    PubMed Central

    Coulthard, M G; Hey, E N

    1985-01-01

    Renal control of water and electrolyte homeostasis was studied in 10 healthy babies (gestation 29 to 34 weeks; birthweight 1.19 to 2.19 kg) while water intake was varied. Glomerular filtration rate and urine flow were estimated daily from spot plasma and urine samples for six days using a constant inulin infusion, and simultaneous sodium, potassium, osmolar, and free water clearances were calculated. The infusion was started at an average age of 14 hours. Each baby received a total fluid intake of 96 ml/kg daily on study days 1, 2, and 5, and about 200 ml/kg on study days 3, 4, and 6. Daily sodium intake was kept constant at 3 mmol/kg. At the end of the first study day the babies were undergoing a diuresis, but thereafter their estimated daily water balances remained stable regardless of intake. Glomerular filtration remained stable; alterations in urine flow reflected a change in the percentage of filtrate excreted. Plasma electrolytes and osmolality were stable throughout, and on study days 2 to 6 the urinary excretion rates of sodium, potassium, and other osmoles remained the same regardless of urine flow. The delivery of sodium to the distal tubule was estimated to be between 17 and 20% of the filtered load. Well preterm babies can cope with daily water intakes between 96 and 200 ml/kg from the third day of life. PMID:4026356

  13. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and between-person variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account time-varying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices. PMID:25239402

  14. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and betweenperson variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account timevarying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices. PMID:25239402

  15. Carbohydrate intake and obesity.

    PubMed

    van Dam, R M; Seidell, J C

    2007-12-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly worldwide and the importance of considering the role of diet in the prevention and treatment of obesity is widely acknowledged. This paper reviews data on the effects of dietary carbohydrates on body fatness. Does the composition of the diet as related to carbohydrates affect the likelihood of passive over-consumption and long-term weight change? In addition, methodological limitations of both observational and experimental studies of dietary composition and body weight are discussed. Carbohydrates are among the macronutrients that provide energy and can thus contribute to excess energy intake and subsequent weight gain. There is no clear evidence that altering the proportion of total carbohydrate in the diet is an important determinant of energy intake. However, there is evidence that sugar-sweetened beverages do not induce satiety to the same extent as solid forms of carbohydrate, and that increases in sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption are associated with weight gain. Findings from studies on the effect of the dietary glycemic index on body weight have not been consistent. Dietary fiber is associated with a lesser degree of weight gain in observational studies. Although it is difficult to establish with certainty that fiber rather than other dietary attributes are responsible, whole-grain cereals, vegetables, legumes and fruits seem to be the most appropriate sources of dietary carbohydrate. PMID:17992188

  16. Iron intake of infants: the importance of infant cereals.

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, D. L.; Pennell, M. D.; Leung, M.; Hall, J.; Anderson, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1976 many baby foods have been reformulated and the iron used to fortify infant cereals has been changed to a more bioavailable form. Therefore, the dietary intake of iron by infants from 1 to 18 months of age was assessed in a longitudinal survey conducted in Toronto and Montreal between 1977 and 1979. Except in the 1st and 18th months the mean daily iron consumption of the infants was above that recommended in the Dietary Standard for Canada. The main source of this nutrient was infant cereals. Examination of the diets of the infants who did not have the recommended daily intake of iron showed that they did not consume sufficient amounts of infant cereals and other iron-rich foods. These results indicate that without such cereals it is difficult to provide infants with the amount of iron they need. Therefore, infants should receive these cereals during the first 2 years of life. PMID:7332896

  17. Voluntary sodium intake during effort in hot environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohar, E.; Adar, R.; Hershco, A.

    1982-01-01

    The factors that influence the amount of salt that a person adds to his food at mealtime, and the part played by the general requirement for salt in the daily diet stemming from the coluntary input of salt are studied. Careful measurements of salt intake and outflow were performed on ten marchers in a high temperature environment who were given individual salt shakers that were weighed before and after each meal. Some marchers were told to add salt to their meals on specific days. No parallelity was found between the voluntary sodium intake and the general sodium intake, the excretion of sodium in the urine or the environmental heat stress. Individual food habit was found to be the most important factor.

  18. Maternal intake of vitamin E and birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2005

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Lee, Kyung A.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Traven, Flavia K.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Correa, Adolfo; Boyle, Coleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In a recent study, high maternal periconceptional intake of vitamin E was found to be associated with risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). To explore this association further, we investigated the association between total daily vitamin E intake and selected birth defects. Methods We analyzed data from 4,525 controls and 8,665 cases from the 1997–2005 National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We categorized estimated periconceptional energy-adjusted total daily vitamin E intake from diet and supplements into quartiles (referent, lowest quartile). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted vitamin E intake and selected birth defects were adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and nutritional factors. Results We observed a statistically significant association with the third quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.01 – 1.35) and all CHDs combined. Among CHD sub-types, we observed associations with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction defects, and its sub-type, coarctation of the aorta and the third quartile of vitamin E intake. Among defects other than CHDs, we observed associations between anorectal atresia and the third quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.01 – 2.72) and hypospadias and the fourth quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.09 – 1.87). Conclusions Selected quartiles of energy-adjusted estimated total daily vitamin E intake were associated with selected birth defects. However, because these few associations did not exhibit exposure-response patterns consistent with increasing risk associated with increasing intake of vitamin E, further studies are warranted to corroborate our findings. PMID:24740457

  19. Nutrient intakes of infants with atopic dermatitis and relationship with feeding type

    PubMed Central

    Han, Youngshin; Lee, Youngmi; Park, Haeryun; Park, Sunyoung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in infants is increasing worldwide. However, the nutrient intake status of infants with atopic dermatitis has not been studied properly. This study was conducted to compare the nutrient intake status of infants in the weaning period with atopic dermatitis by feeding type. MATERIALS/METHODS Feeding types, nutrient intake status and growth status of 98 infants with atopic dermatitis from age 6 to 12 months were investigated. Feeding types were surveyed using questionnaires, and daily intakes were recorded by mothers using the 24-hour recall method. Growth and iron status were also measured. RESULTS The result showed that breastfed infants consumed less energy and 13 nutrients compared to formula-fed or mixed-fed infants (p < 0.001). The breastfed group showed a significantly lower intake rate to the Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans than the other two groups (p < 0.001). In addition, they consumed less than 75% of the recommended intakes in all nutrients, except for protein and vitamin A, and in particular, iron intake was very low, showing just 18.7% of the recommended intake. There was no significant difference in growth by feeding type, but breastfed infants showed a significantly higher rate of iron deficiency anemia (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Continuous management programs should be prepared for breastfed infants with atopic dermatitis, who are in a period when rapid growth takes place and proper nutrient intake is essential. PMID:25671069

  20. Predictors of fruit and vegetable intake in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-08-01

    Few young adults meet national recommendations to consume at least 2 c fruit and 2 to 3 c vegetables daily. Effective strategies and messaging are needed to address this disparity, but research examining influences on fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake during young adulthood has been limited and primarily cross-sectional. This study was conducted to identify 5-year and 10-year longitudinal predictors of F/V intake in young adulthood. The sample included 476 male and 654 female participants enrolled in a population-based cohort study (Projects EAT-I, II, and III [Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults]). Participants completed surveys and food frequency questionnaires in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, high school classrooms in 1998-1999 (mean age=15.8 years, adolescence) and follow-up measures in 2003-2004 (mean age=20.4 years, emerging adulthood) and 2008-2009 (mean age=26.2 years, young adulthood). In young adulthood, average daily intake was 0.9 servings of fruit (excluding juice) and 1.8 servings of vegetables (excluding potatoes). Factors examined in adolescence and in emerging adulthood that were predictive of F/V intake in young adulthood included favorable taste preferences, fewer perceived time barriers to healthy eating, higher home availability of F/V, and limited home availability of unhealthy foods. Analyses also identified additional factors that were specifically relevant to fruit (eg, breakfast patterns) or vegetable intake (eg, home food preparation) and of particular relevance during emerging adulthood (eg, significant other's healthy eating attitudes). Findings suggest individual and socioenvironmental factors, particularly food preferences and home food availability, during adolescence and emerging adulthood may influence F/V intake in young adulthood. PMID:22698924

  1. COVERT MANIPULATION OF MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE HAS LITTLE IMPACT ON LONG TERM VOLUNTARY FOOD INTAKE AND MACRONUTRIENT SELECTION IN MEN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a means to investigate the effect of daily macronutrient composition on food intake, twelve healthy normal weight men (79.9 ± 8.3 kg, 39 ± 9 yrs, 24.1 ± 1.4 kg/m2) were fed continuously for two 8-week periods. They were allowed cafeteria-style ad libitum access to a variety of foods of varying ma...

  2. TV Producer Juggles Daily News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Bill

    1989-01-01

    Brennan discusses the daily activities required in the production of a television news show. In "The Not-So-Glamorous Life of a TV Reporter," Linda Yu describes the time and effort required to become a television reporter. (LS)

  3. MyPlate Daily Checklist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved Eating on a Budget Create a Grocery Game Plan Shop Smart to Fill Your Cart Prepare Healthy Meals Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for ... are here Home / Online Tools MyPlate Daily Checklist ...

  4. Unravelling daily human mobility motifs.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Christian M; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C

    2013-07-01

    Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These networks, called here motifs, are sufficient to capture up to 90 per cent of the population in surveys and mobile phone datasets for different countries. Each individual exhibits a characteristic motif, which seems to be stable over several months. Consequently, daily human mobility can be reproduced by an analytically tractable framework for Markov chains by modelling periods of high-frequency trips followed by periods of lower activity as the key ingredient. PMID:23658117

  5. Publishing Daily on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, George

    1997-01-01

    Relates how a 16,000 circulation daily newspaper publishes on the Web. Discusses lessons learned about audience, content, design, interactivity, and making money. Muses about the effect new media will have on print. (PA)

  6. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  7. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

    2000-04-01

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

  8. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris intake on cadmium detoxification in rats fed cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, You Jin; Kwon, Sanghee

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary Chlorella vulgaris (chlorella) intake would be effective on cadmium (Cd) detoxification in rats fed dietary Cd. Fourteen-week old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighing 415.0 ± 1.6 g were randomly divided into two groups and fed slightly modified American Institute of Nutrition-93 Growing (AIN-93G) diet without (n=10) or with (n=40) dietary Cd (200 ppm) for 8 weeks. To confirm alteration by dietary Cd intake, twenty rats fed AIN-93G diet without (n=10) and with (n=10) dietary Cd were sacrificed and compared. Other thirty rats were randomly blocked into three groups and fed slightly modified AIN-93G diets replacing 0 (n=10), 5 (n=10) or 10% (n=10) chlorella of total kg diet for 4 weeks. Daily food intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight (liver, spleen, and kidney), perirenal fat pad and epididymal fat pad weights were measured. To examine Cd detoxification, urinary Cd excretion and metallothonein (MT) concentrations in kidney and intestine were measured. Food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight and fat pad weights were decreased by dietary Cd intake. Urinary Cd excretion and MT concentrations in kidney and small intestine were increased by dietary Cd. After given Cd containing diet, food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weights and fat pad weights were not influenced by dietary chlorella intake. Renal MT synthesis tended to be higher in a dose-dependent manner, but not significantly. And chlorella intake did not significantly facilitate renal and intestinal MT synthesis and urinary Cd excretion. These findings suggest that, after stopping cadmium supply, chlorella supplementation, regardless of its percentage, might not improve cadmium detoxification from the body in growing rats. PMID:20016707

  9. Reducing Sodium Intake in Children: A Public Health Investment.

    PubMed

    Appel, Lawrence J; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Callahan, Emily A; Sinaiko, Alan; Van Horn, Linda; Whitsel, Laurie

    2015-09-01

    The antecedents of elevated blood pressure (BP) and its major consequences (cardiovascular disease and stroke) begin in childhood. Higher levels of BP early in life track into adulthood and are associated with subclinical target organ damage in children and adults. Diet behaviors, including the choice of high sodium containing foods, are established during childhood. On average, children, ages 2-19, consume more than 3,100 mg of sodium per day, with substantially greater sodium intakes in boys than girls. Importantly, studies show that lowering sodium intake in children lowers blood pressure. In view of this evidence, U.S. Dietary Guidelines recommend a reduced sodium intake in children. Current federal nutrition standards include a step-wise reduction in the sodium levels of school meals. The ultimate goal is to help children achieve daily sodium intakes that do not exceed upper levels recommended by the Institute of Medicine and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. In summary, available data are sufficiently strong to recommend a lower sodium intake beginning in early in life as an effective and well-tolerated approach to reducing BP in children. Current efforts to weaken nutrition standards for school meals undermine an effective strategy aimed at improving the health of our children and our nation. PMID:26346989

  10. GRAZING BEHAVIOR OF RUMINANTS AND DAILY PERFORMANCE FROM WARM-SEASON GRASSES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An estimate of the animal-production potential of pastures can be assessed by knowing the daily dry matter (DM) intake of the grazing animal and the digestibility of the DM consumed. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationships between pasture canopy characteristics, ingestive behavi...

  11. Purine-rich foods intake and recurrent gout attacks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqing; Chen, Clara; Choi, Hyon; Chaisson, Christine; Hunter, David; Niu, Jingbo; Neogi, Tuhina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine and quantify the relation between purine intake and the risk of recurrent gout attacks among gout patients. Methods The authors conducted a case-crossover study to examine associations of a set of putative risk factors with recurrent gout attacks. Individuals with gout were prospectively recruited and followed online for 1 year. Participants were asked about the following information when experiencing a gout attack: the onset date of the gout attack, clinical symptoms and signs, medications (including antigout medications), and presence of potential risk factors (including daily intake of various purine-containing food items) during the 2-day period prior to the gout attack. The same exposure information was also assessed over 2-day control periods. Results This study included 633 participants with gout. Compared with the lowest quintile of total purine intake over a 2-day period, OR of recurrent gout attacks were 1.17, 1.38, 2.21 and 4.76, respectively, with each increasing quintile (p for trend <0.001). The corresponding OR were 1.42, 1.34, 1.77 and 2.41 for increasing quintiles of purine intake from animal sources (p for trend <0.001), and 1.12, 0.99, 1.32 and 1.39 from plant sources (p=0.04), respectively. The effect of purine intake persisted across subgroups by sex, use of alcohol, diuretics, allopurinol, NSAIDs and colchicine. Conclusions The study findings suggest that acute purine intake increases the risk of recurrent gout attacks by almost fivefold among gout patients. Avoiding or reducing amount of purine-rich foods intake, especially of animal origin, may help reduce the risk of gout attacks. PMID:22648933

  12. Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Calcium and Vitamin D Intake in Adolescent Girls with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Catherine; Lamparello, Brooke; Kruczek, Kimberly; Anderson, Ellen J.; Hubbard, Jane; Misra, Madhusmita

    2009-01-01

    Background Assessing calcium and vitamin D intake becomes important in conditions associated with low bone density such as anorexia nervosa (AN). Food records (FR) that assess intake over a representative time period are used in research and sometimes clinical settings. However, compliance in adolescents can be suboptimal. Objectives This study was undertaken to determine the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for assessing calcium and vitamin D intake in adolescent AN and healthy girls compared to a validated FR assessing intake over a four-day period, the hypothesis being that intake would be adequately predicted by the FFQ. Design Thirty-six girls with AN and 39 healthy girls 12–18 years old completed both the FR and the FFQ. An additional 31 subjects (20 AN, 11 controls) completed the FFQ, but not the FR, and one AN girl completed the FR, but not the FFQ. Results Subjects demonstrated greater compliance with the FFQ (99%) than the FR (71%). Daily calcium and vitamin D intake calculated using the FR and FFQ did not differ, although the FFQ tended to under-report vitamin D intake corrected for energy intake. Using quartile analysis, no gross misclassification was noted of calcium or vitamin D intake calculated using the FR or FFQ in AN. Strong correlations were observed of daily vitamin D intake derived from the FFQ versus the FR, particularly in AN (r=0.78, p<0.0001). Less robust correlations were observed for calcium intake (r=0.65, p<0.0001). Conclusion The FFQ used in this study can be effectively used to assess daily calcium and vitamin D intake in adolescent girls suffering from AN PMID:19248866

  13. Sex and race differences in caloric intake during sleep restriction in healthy adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Dinges, David F; Goel, Namni

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence indicates that men and African Americans may be more susceptible to weight gain resulting from sleep loss than women and whites, respectively. Increased daily caloric intake is a major behavioral mechanism that underlies the relation between sleep loss and weight gain. Objective: We sought to assess sex and race differences in caloric intake, macronutrient intake, and meal timing during sleep restriction. Design: Forty-four healthy adults aged 21–50 y (mean ± SD: 32.7 ± 8.7 y; n = 21 women, n = 16 whites) completed an in-laboratory protocol that included 2 consecutive baseline nights [10 or 12 h time in bed (TIB)/night; 2200–0800 or 2200–1000] followed by 5 consecutive sleep-restriction nights (4 h TIB/night; 0400–0800). Caloric intake and meal-timing data were collected during the 2 d after baseline sleep and the first 3 d after sleep restriction. Results: During sleep restriction, subjects increased daily caloric intake (P < 0.001) and fat intake (P = 0.024), including obtaining more calories from condiments, desserts, and salty snacks (Ps < 0.05) and consumed 532.6 ± 295.6 cal during late-night hours (2200–0359). Relative to women, men consumed more daily calories during baseline and sleep restriction, exhibited a greater increase in caloric intake during sleep restriction (d = 0.62), and consumed a higher percentage of daily calories during late-night hours (d = 0.78, Ps < 0.05). African Americans and whites did not significantly differ in daily caloric intake, increased caloric intake during sleep restriction, or meal timing. However, African Americans consumed more carbohydrates, less protein, and more caffeine-free soda and juice than whites did during the study (Ps < 0.05). Conclusions: Men may be more susceptible to weight gain during sleep loss than women due to a larger increase in daily caloric intake, particularly during late-night hours. These findings are relevant to the promotion of public health awareness by highlighting nutritional risk factors and modifiable behaviors for weight gain related to sleep-wake timing. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02128737 and NCT02130791. PMID:24965304

  14. [Estimation of the daily nutrients distribution in the Spanish standard diet].

    PubMed

    Moreno Rojas, Rafael; Fernández Torres, Angela; García Pereda, Javier; Cámara Martos, Fernando; Amaro López, Manuel A; Ros Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez de Victoria Muñoz, Emilio; Martínez de Victoria Carazo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Based on the raw data from the Spanish intake, have made the necessary changes and groupings to establish nutritional content per serving as percentages, regarding the total daily intake of each individual surveyed (n = 3000). Also, it was found the effect of the rating factors (sex, age and location) on the distribution of these percentages. The result indicates that individuals below 25 year should be considered as different groups, front those above that age; and locality effect (treated as random factor rather than fixed) causes differences in the distribution of nutrients between food daily intakes. However, the sex was was not relevant to the anecdotal footage found in statistically significant differences. Percentage distribution of individual nutrients between different food outlets is proposed. PMID:26040379

  15. [Dietary fiber intake and intake patterns among the general population in Aomori, calculated using modified Southgate and Prosky methods].

    PubMed

    Nakaji, S; Sakamoto, J; Sugawara, K; Iwane, S; Ohta, M; Mori, B

    1993-06-01

    Based on the result of the Aomori Nutrition Survey, we have calculated daily dietary fiber (DF) intake using modified Southgate and Prosky methods. Result obtained were as follows: DF intake in Aomori was 23.7 +/- 8.4g by the modified Southgate method, and 22.2 +/- 8.5g by the modified Prosky method. As for supply sources of DF, 32.3% was from grains; 22.7%, vegetables; 15.6%, beans; and 7.8%, fruits calculated by the modified Southgate method, and 31.3%, vegetables; 19.0%, grains; 18.0%, beans; and 11.6%, fruits by the modified Prosky method. As to types of DF, intake of hemicellulose was 11.5 +/- 4.2g, cellulose 7.8 +/- 3.0g and lignin 4.4 +/- 2.3g. In the group with DF intake below 10.0g, DF came mainly from grains and fruits, while the group with DF intake above 30.0g took DF from various foods. PMID:8393118

  16. Calcium and vitamin D intake by postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in Spain: an observational calcium and vitamin D intake (CaVIT) study

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Tao; Nocea, Gonzalo; Modi, Ankita; Stokes, Leah; Sen, Shuvayu S

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporotic fractures are important causes of morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. However, the risk of osteoporotic fractures can be decreased, with clinical studies supporting the use of calcium and vitamin D supplements to promote bone health. Vitamin D insufficiency is widespread, particularly among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, and this indicates that dietary intake is suboptimal, even though vitamin D supplements are widely available. Methods We conducted an observational study, using telephone surveys, to estimate vitamin D and calcium intake and the use of prescription osteoporosis medications in Spanish women aged ≥ 50 years with osteoporosis. Results Among the study participants, mean dietary calcium intake was 1239 mg/day and generally appeared sufficient in terms of the recommended daily intake guidance documents. Participants aged ≥ 75 years had a significantly lower mean dietary calcium intake (988 mg/day), thus one-half were below the level advised by the World Health Organization. Daily calcium intake was also lower in participants who were not taking prescription medications for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake was 167 IU/day, which is well below both the established target dose (400 IU/day) and the more recent, higher guideline recommended for postmenopausal women (800–1300 IU/day). Dietary vitamin D intake was even lower for participants aged ≥ 75 years (120 IU/day) and was not related to the use of bone health prescription medications. Conclusion These results support the need for greater promotion of the benefits of higher vitamin D intake in Spanish women with osteoporosis. PMID:23818767

  17. Measurement of milk intake: tracer-to-infant deuterium dilution method.

    PubMed

    Butte, N F; Wong, W W; Klein, P D; Garza, C

    1991-01-01

    The tracer-to-infant deuterium dilution method for the measurement of milk intake was evaluated in twenty breast-fed and twenty formula-fed infants. The isotope method was compared with conventional direct-weighing techniques. Human milk intake was assessed by 5 d test-weighing. Intakes of formula, supplemental foods, and water were determined by pre- and post-weighing of feeding bottles. An oral dose of 200 mg 2H2O/kg body-weight was given to each infant, and urine was sampled daily for 14 d. 2H enrichment of the urine was measured by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Milk intakes estimated from the deuterium dilution method were consistently higher than those from direct-weighing; the mean difference between methods was 106 (SD 47) g/d or 14% for the breast-fed group and 70 (SD 155) g/d or 8% for the formula-fed group. Estimates of intake for some infants varied substantially between the two methods of measurement. When the estimated values of human milk intake were corrected for environmental water influx and insensible water loss during breast-feeding, the relative bias decreased to 5%. Correction of the estimated values of formula intake for environmental water influx decreased the relative bias to 1-2%. The acceptability of the deuterium dilution method to determine milk intake depends on the goals and the tolerance for error in group and individual intake estimates of a given study. PMID:1997129

  18. Preliminary investigation of thiamine and alcohol intake in clinical and healthy samples.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Phillip S; Sullivan, Karen A

    2004-06-01

    Insufficient thiamine intake during heavy alcohol dependence has been well established as a precursor to alcohol-related brain damage, including Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. This study compared the alcohol and thiamine intakes of 35 alcohol-dependent patients upon admission for detoxification with 49 healthy young undergraduates. Subjects were interviewed using a retrospective diary that recorded alcohol and food and vitamin consumption for the previous seven days. As predicted, the clinical group consumed significantly less thiamine than the healthy group, and well below the minimum safe daily intakes. Findings have implications for the prevention of alcohol-related brain damage and public health policy. PMID:15217037

  19. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  20. Daily management systems in medicine.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Lane F

    2014-01-01

    "Lean" (continuous improvement) organizations make use of daily management systems (DMS) that are designed so that problems can be quickly identified, front-line staff are empowered to fix the problems that they can, and problems that the front-line staff cannot fix are escalated and countermeasures created quickly. Key components of a DMS include leadership standard work, visual controls, and a daily accountability process, as well as discipline involving each of these three components. The author's organization recently had the opportunity to open a new, nonreplacement hospital, allowing the incorporation of continuous improvement principles into the hospital's design and operations. One high-priority task was the creation of a DMS, which was structured as a tiered "huddle" system. All of the front-line clinical areas, as well as all clinical and nonclinical ancillary support areas, conduct morning huddles. Problems identified at these huddles and needing escalation are then brought to a patient flow huddle and an integrated huddle. All of these huddles occur daily and have a standard format with three clearly defined components: metrics-goal review, daily readiness assessment, and problem accountability reporting. The huddles also provide a daily opportunity to see and converse with the people with whom one needs to discuss certain issues. The process of bringing people together for these huddles can contribute significantly to team formation, coordination of efforts, and development of a culture of trust. PMID:24617697

  1. Intake, site, and extent of nutrient digestion of lactating cows grazing pasture.

    PubMed

    Berzaghi, P; Herbein, J H; Polan, C E

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine intake and site and extent of nutrient digestion of lactating cows grazing pasture with or without energy supplementation. Four dual-cannulated (rumen and proximal duodenum) cows were randomly assigned to two groups to graze mixed cool season grass legume pasture with either no supplement or with 6.4 kg of cracked corn and mineral mix daily in a switchback design with three 2-wk periods. Markers (Cr2O3 and Co-EDTA) were used to estimate intake, duodenal flow, fecal output, and fractional rates of passage from the rumen. Daily OM intake was similar between diets, but OM intake of pasture was lower when cows were fed corn. Apparent OM and NDF digestibilities in the rumen and total digestive tract were lower when cows were supplemented with corn than when they consumed pasture only. Supplemental corn decreased ruminal NH3 N (22 vs. 17 mg/dl) and increased N recovery at the duodenum (86% vs. 75% of N intake). Nonammonia, nonmicrobial N flowing to the duodenum was 67% of the total NAN flow. Corn increased energy intake of grazing cows, but decreased herbage intake and digestibility. PMID:8899524

  2. Dietary PBDE intake: a market-basket study in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Voorspoels, Stefan; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo; Schepens, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A food market-basket, representative for the general Belgian population, containing various meat, fish and dairy food products, was assembled and analysed for its polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) content. Additionally, fast food samples were also investigated. Based on the measured PBDE levels, an average daily dietary intake estimate of PBDEs was calculated. Of all foods analysed, fish had the highest average sum of PBDE levels (BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and 183; 460 pg/g ww), followed by dairy products and eggs (260 pg/g ww), fast food (86 pg/g ww) and meat products (70 pg/g ww). One fresh salmon filet had the highest total concentration of PBDEs (2360 pg/g ww), whereas levels in steak and chicken breast were the lowest of all foods analysed. BDE 209 was never found above LOQ in any food. PBDE intake calculations were based on the average daily food consumption in Belgium and were estimated between 23 and 48 ng/day of total PBDEs (lower and upper bound). This value is in accordance with what was previously reported for diets from geographical distinct areas, such as Canada, Finland, Spain, Sweden and the UK. Although it is only a minor constituent of the Belgian diet, fish is the major contributor to the total daily PBDE-intake (around 40%) due to the high PBDE levels in this type of food. Although low contaminated, meat products account for around 30% of the total dietary intake of PBDEs. Dairy products and eggs contribute to a lesser degree (less than 30%). PMID:16979759

  3. Effects of Life-long Fluoride Intake on Bone Measures of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Levy, S.M.; Warren, J.J.; Phipps, K.; Letuchy, E.; Broffitt, B.; Eichenberger-Gilmore, J.; Burns, T.L.; Kavand, G.; Janz, K.F.; Torner, J.C.; Pauley, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Controversy persists concerning the impact of community water fluoridation on bone health in adults, and few studies have assessed relationships with bone at younger ages. Ecological studies of fluoride’s effects showed some increase in bone mineral density of adolescents and young adults in areas with fluoridated water compared with non-fluoridated areas. However, none had individual fluoride exposure measures. To avoid ecological fallacy and reduce bias, we assessed associations of average daily fluoride intake from birth to age 15 yr for Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members with age 15 yr dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone outcomes (whole body, lumbar spine, and hip), controlling for known determinants (including daily calcium intake, average daily time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, and physical maturity). Mean (SD) daily fluoride intake was 0.66 mg (0.24) for females and 0.78 mg (0.30) for males. We found no significant relationships between daily fluoride intake and adolescents’ bone measures in adjusted models (for 183 females, all p values ≥ .10 and all partial R2 ≤ 0.02; for 175 males, all p values ≥ .34 and all partial R2 ≤ 0.01). The findings suggest that fluoride exposures at the typical levels for most US adolescents in fluoridated areas do not have significant effects on bone mineral measures. PMID:24470542

  4. 11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopied August 1978. INTAKE LOOKING NORTH AT UPPER INTAKE COFFER DAM, OCTOBER 10, 1900. ONE OF THE HUBBELL COMPANY DREDGES IS AT WORK IN THE CENTER OF THE ILLUSTRATION, THE TIMBER FLOATING AROUND WAS PROBABLY FOR USE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF SIDE WALL RETAINING CRIBS. ONE OF THESE IS BEING CONSTRUCTED JUST TO THE LEFT AND TOWARDS THE VIEWER FROM THE DREDGES. (87) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  5. Baclofen reduces fat intake under binge-type conditions

    PubMed Central

    Buda-Levin, Ariel; Wojnicki, Francis H.E.; Corwin, Rebecca L.

    2006-01-01

    The GABA-B agonist baclofen reduces drug self-administration in rats and has shown promise clinically in the treatment of substance abuse. Baclofen generally does not reduce food intake in non-binge feeding protocols. In this study, baclofen was tested in a fat-binge protocol. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups (B: binge; FM: fat-matched; C: chow). B received a bowl of vegetable shortening for 2 h on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday (MWF) and continuous access to powdered chow (regular chow) in all phases. FM had continuous access to a regular chow+shortening mixture (FM chow) that provided the same proportion of shortening and regular chow that the B rats consumed in all phases. In addition, FM had the following: phase 1: no separate bowl of shortening; phase 2: 2-h MWF access to a separate bowl of shortening; phase 3, daily 2-h access to a separate bowl of shortening; C rats had continuous access to the regular chow in all phases. In addition, C had the following: phase 1: no separate bowl of shortening; phase 2: 2-h MWF access to a separate bowl of shortening; in phase 3, daily 2-h access to a separate bowl of shortening. Baclofen (1.0, 1.8 mg/ kg, i.p.) reduced shortening intake regardless of access condition. Baclofen had no effect on, or stimulated, FM and regular chow intake. These results demonstrate that baclofen can reduce fat intake in rats under binge-type conditions. Furthermore, these results indicate that bingeing, as modeled in our protocol, is different from other forms of food intake and may share similarities with substance abuse. PMID:16140347

  6. Renal function associates with energy intake in elderly community-dwelling men.

    PubMed

    Luis, Desiree; Huang, Xiaoyan; Sjögren, Per; Risérus, Ulf; Ärnlöv, Johan; Lindholm, Bengt; Cederholm, Tommy; Carrero, Juan Jesus

    2014-06-28

    Energy intake and renal function decrease with age. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), spontaneous food intake decreases in parallel with the loss of renal function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a possible relationship between renal dysfunction and energy intake in elderly community-dwelling men. A cross-sectional study including 1087 men aged 70 years from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) community-based cohort was carried out. Dietary intake was assessed using 7 d food records, and glomerular filtration rate was estimated from serum cystatin C concentrations. Energy intake was normalised by ideal body weight, and macronutrient intake was energy-adjusted. The median normalised daily energy intake was 105 (interquartile range 88-124) kJ, and directly correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as determined by univariate analysis. Across the decreasing quartiles of eGFR, a significant trend of decreasing normalised energy intake was observed (P = 0·01). A multivariable regression model including lifestyle factors and co-morbidities was used for predicting total energy intake. In this model, regular physical activity (standardised β = 0·160; P = 0·008), smoking (standardised β = -0·081; P = 0·008), hypertension (standardised β = -0·097; P = 0·002), hyperlipidaemia (standardised β = -0·064; P = 0·037) and eGFR (per sd increase, standardised β = 0·064; P = 0·04) were found to be independent predictors of energy intake. Individuals with manifest CKD (eGFR < 60 ml/min per 1·73 m²) were more likely to have lower energy intake than those without. In conclusion, there was a direct and independent correlation between renal function and energy intake in a population-based cohort of elderly men. We speculate on a possible link between renal dysfunction and malnutrition in the elderly. PMID:24636006

  7. Dynamic photoelasticity by TDI imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asundi, Anand K.; Sajan, M. R.

    2001-06-01

    High speed photographic system like the image rotation camera, the Cranz Schardin camera and the drum camera are typically used for the recording and visualization of dynamic events in stress analysis, fluid mechanics, etc. All these systems are fairly expensive and generally not simple to use. Furthermore they are all based on photographic film recording system requiring time consuming and tedious wet processing of the films. Digital cameras are replacing the conventional cameras, to certain extent in static experiments. Recently, there is lots of interest in development and modifying CCD architectures and recording arrangements for dynamic scenes analysis. Herein we report the use of a CCD camera operating in the Time Delay and Integration mode for digitally recording dynamic photoelastic stress patterns. Applications in strobe and streak photoelastic pattern recording and system limitations will be explained in the paper.

  8. Dynamic photoelasticity using TDI imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asundi, Anand; Sajan, M. R.; Tong, Liu

    2002-07-01

    High-speed photographic systems are necessary for recording and visualization of dynamic events in stress analysis, fluid mechanics, etc. Current imaging systems are fairly expensive and generally not simple to use. Furthermore, most are based on photographic film recording systems requiring time consuming and tedious wet processing of the films. Recently, there is lot of interest in developing and modifying CCD architectures and recording arrangements for dynamic scene analysis. Herein we report the use of a CCD camera operating in the time delay and integration mode for digitally recording dynamic photoelastic stress patterns. Applications in strobe and streak photoelastic pattern recording and system limitations will be explained in the paper. In addition, a scheme for dynamic phase shifting using is also explained.

  9. Hoover Dam Intake Towers Panorama

    Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

  10. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  11. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  12. Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Lehmann, Sune; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-10-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness) to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.

  13. Daily Physical Activity Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the Daily Physical Activity (DPA) Survey was to gather school-level information from teachers and principals regarding their perceptions of DPA, thus providing a greater understanding of DPA implementation in grades 1 to 9. This study aimed to help identify the many variables that influence the attainment of the DPA outcomes and…

  14. Antioxidant Vitamin Intake and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Paganini-Hill, Annlia; Kawas, Claudia H.; Corrada, María M.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between antioxidant vitamin intake and all-cause mortality in older adults, we examined these associations using data from the Leisure World Cohort Study, a prospective study of residents of the Leisure World retirement community in Laguna Hills, California. In the early 1980s, participants (who were aged 44–101 years) completed a postal survey, which included details on use of vitamin supplements and dietary intake of foods containing vitamins A and C. Age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted (for factors related to mortality in this cohort—smoking, alcohol intake, caffeine consumption, exercise, body mass index, and histories of hypertension, angina, heart attack, stroke, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer) hazard ratios for death were calculated using Cox regression for 8,640 women and 4,983 men (median age at entry, 74 years). During follow-up (1981–2013), 13,104 participants died (median age at death, 88 years). Neither dietary nor supplemental intake of vitamin A or vitamin C nor supplemental intake of vitamin E was significantly associated with mortality after multivariate adjustment. A compendium that summarizes previous findings of cohort studies evaluating vitamin intake and mortality is provided. Attenuation in the observed associations between mortality and antioxidant vitamin use after adjustment for confounders in our study and in previous studies suggests that such consumption identifies persons with other mortality-associated lifestyle and health risk factors. PMID:25550360

  15. Protein leverage and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Gosby, A K; Conigrave, A D; Raubenheimer, D; Simpson, S J

    2014-03-01

    Increased energy intakes are contributing to overweight and obesity. Growing evidence supports the role of protein appetite in driving excess intake when dietary protein is diluted (the protein leverage hypothesis). Understanding the interactions between dietary macronutrient balance and nutrient-specific appetite systems will be required for designing dietary interventions that work with, rather than against, basic regulatory physiology. Data were collected from 38 published experimental trials measuring ad libitum intake in subjects confined to menus differing in macronutrient composition. Collectively, these trials encompassed considerable variation in percent protein (spanning 8-54% of total energy), carbohydrate (1.6-72%) and fat (11-66%). The data provide an opportunity to describe the individual and interactive effects of dietary protein, carbohydrate and fat on the control of total energy intake. Percent dietary protein was negatively associated with total energy intake (F = 6.9, P < 0.0001) irrespective of whether carbohydrate (F = 0, P = 0.7) or fat (F = 0, P = 0.5) were the diluents of protein. The analysis strongly supports a role for protein leverage in lean, overweight and obese humans. A better appreciation of the targets and regulatory priorities for protein, carbohydrate and fat intake will inform the design of effective and health-promoting weight loss diets, food labelling policies, food production systems and regulatory frameworks. PMID:24588967

  16. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    PubMed

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20% of calories from fat) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain. PMID:24321742

  17. Effects of deoxynivalenol in naturally contaminated wheat on feed intake and health status of horses.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Anna-Katharina; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven; Coenen, Manfred; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the short-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), administered at two different concentrations via a feed preparation using naturally contaminated wheat, on feed intake, liver and kidney metabolism and immunomodulatory properties in horses. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 21 days. DON was provided via naturally contaminated wheat (14.6 ± 6.5 mg DON/kg dry matter). The daily feed intake was adjusted to 4 kg of wheat and 1.7 kg of silage per 100 kg of body weight (BW). Horses were fed one of the following diets: control wheat with 0% contaminated wheat (CON), wheat mixture containing 53 ± 2% of DON-contaminated wheat [low DON intake (LDI)] or wheat mixture containing 78 ± 4% of DON-contaminated wheat [high DON intake (HDI)]. CON, LDI and HDI corresponded to a targeted daily DON intake via the complete ration of <5, 50 and 75 μg/kg BW, respectively. None of the horses demonstrated any clinical signs commonly associated with the intake of DON such as colic or depression. HDI was associated with lower daily wheat intake on day 21. Serum DON concentrations increased with higher DON intake. The non-toxic DON metabolite, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) was only detected on day 21 of the DON feeding period. No changes in haematological and serum parameters or serum globulins or in the ex vivo proliferation response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed. These results suggest that horses are less sensitive to DON exposure than other domestic species, for example, swine. Therefore, the European Commission guidance value for critical DON concentrations in swine feed (complete diet) of 0.9 mg/kg could be safely applied for rations intended for feeding adult horses as well. PMID:26420605

  18. Dietary protein intake is associated with lean body mass in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Geirsdottir, Olof G; Arnarson, Atli; Ramel, Alfons; Jonsson, Palmi V; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-08-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) is important to maintain physical function during aging. We hypothesized that dietary protein intake and leisure-time physical activity are associated with LBM in community-dwelling older adults. To test the hypothesis, participants (n = 237; age, 65-92 years) did 3-day weighed food records and reported physical activity. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Protein intake was 0.98 0.28 and 0.95 0.29 g/kg body weight in male and female participants, respectively. Protein intake (in grams per kilogram of body weight) was associated with LBM (in kilograms); that is, the differences in LBM were 2.3 kg (P < .05) and 2.0 kg (P = .054) between the fourth vs the first and the fourth vs the second quartiles of protein intake, respectively. Only a minor part of this association was explained by increased energy intake, which follows an increased protein intake. Our study shows that dietary protein intake was positively associated with LBM in older adults with a mean protein intake higher than the current recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg per day. Leisure-time physical activity, predominantly consisting of endurance type exercises, was not related to LBM in this group. PMID:23890349

  19. The dietary intake of added and natural sugars in 405 English adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rugg-Gunn, A J; Hackett, A F; Appleton, D R; Moynihan, P J

    1986-04-01

    A number of reports have urged a reduction in sugars intake. Implementing this advice depends upon knowledge of sugars intake by target groups. This paper reports the added and natural sugars intake by one target group--young adolescents. The diet of 405 children was recorded using a 3-day diary with interview repeated five times between September 1979 and July 1981. Food tables (Paul & Southgate, 1978) were used and the values for the sugars content of the food items altered to provide both added sugars and natural sugars concentration. The mean daily intake of added and natural sugars respectively, for the 193 boys was 85 g (s.d. 22), 39 g (s.d. 12), and for the 212 girls was 78 g (s.d. 24), 35 g (s.d. 12). Added sugars contributed, on average, 69 per cent of total sugars and 15 per cent of energy intake. Confectionery, table sugar and soft drinks together contained 71 per cent of the added sugars intake, while milk, fruit and their products provided the majority of the natural sugars. It is considered that major reductions of sugars intake would be possible in these children by restricting the intake of a small number of groups of foods of low nutrient density. Food labelling of sugars content would enable consumers to make sensible choices of foods. PMID:3700136

  20. Baclofen-induced reductions in optional food intake depend upon food composition.

    PubMed

    Wojnicki, F H E; Charny, G; Corwin, R L W

    2013-05-01

    Baclofen reduces intake of some foods but stimulates intake or has no effect on others. The reasons for these differences are not known. The present study examined effects of baclofen when composition, energy density, preference, presentation and intake of optional foods varied. Semi-solid fat emulsions and sucrose products were presented for brief periods to non-food-deprived rats. In Experiment 1, fat and sucrose composition were varied while controlling energy density. In Experiment 2A, schedule of access and the number of optional foods were varied. In Experiment 2B, the biopolymer (thickener) was examined. Baclofen reduced intake of fat and/or sugar options with different energy densities (1.28-9kcal/g), when presented daily or intermittently, and when intakes were relatively high or low. However, the efficacy of baclofen was affected by the biopolymer used to thicken the options: baclofen had no effect when options were thickened with one biopolymer (3173), but reduced intake when options were thickened with another biopolymer (515). Baclofen failed to reduce intake of a concentrated sugar option (64% sucrose), regardless of biopolymer. Based upon these results, caution is urged when interpreting results obtained with products using different thickening agents. Systematic research is needed when designing products used in rat models of food intake. PMID:23321345

  1. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVI. Body temperature and physical activity of female mice during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Yuko; Bernard, Amelie; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hambly, Catherine; Al Jothery, Aqeel; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of mammalian reproduction, and lactation performance may be affected by events during pregnancy. For example, food intake may be limited in late pregnancy by competition for space in the abdomen between the alimentary tract and fetuses. Hence, females may need to compensate their energy budgets during pregnancy by reducing activity and lowering body temperature. We explored the relationships between energy intake, body mass, body temperature and physical activity throughout pregnancy in the MF1 mouse. Food intake and body mass of 26 females were recorded daily throughout pregnancy. Body temperature and physical activity were monitored every minute for 23 h a day by implanted transmitters. Body temperature and physical activity declined as pregnancy advanced, while energy intake and body mass increased. Compared with a pre-mating baseline period, mice increased energy intake by 56% in late pregnancy. Although body temperature declined as pregnancy progressed, this served mostly to reverse an increase between baseline and early pregnancy. Reduced physical activity may compensate the energy budget of pregnant mice but body temperature changes do not. Over the last 3 days of pregnancy, food intake declined. Individual variation in energy intake in the last phase of pregnancy was positively related to litter size at birth. As there was no association between the increase in body mass and the decline in intake, we suggest the decline was not caused by competition for abdominal space. These data suggest overall reproductive performance is probably not constrained by events during pregnancy. PMID:23720802

  2. Predictors of dietary intake in a functionally dependent elderly population in the community.

    PubMed Central

    Payette, H; Gray-Donald, K; Cyr, R; Boutier, V

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The aim of this study was to describe dietary intake and identify predictors of energy and protein intake in a group of high-risk elderly people. METHODS. All elderly persons receiving publicly financed home care services in the area of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, were eligible. Subjects (n = 145) 60 to 94 years of age from three home care programs were interviewed to measure sociodemographic, health, and food-related behavior variables. Three nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls were used to describe usual dietary intake. Independent predictors of energy and protein intake were derived from multiple regression analyses. RESULTS. Very low mean energy intakes were observed in this functionally dependent population. More than 50% of the study subjects did not meet the recommended levels of daily protein intake (0.8 g/kg body weight). Significant independent determinants of intake were burden of disease, stress, poor appetite, and vision. CONCLUSIONS. Results suggest that community-living elderly people with loss of autonomy may have more nutritional problems than healthy elderly individuals. Surveillance of predictors of dietary intake may enable early detection and prevention of nutritional deficits. PMID:7733428

  3. Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Isoniemi, Merja; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Finglas, Paul; Plumb, Jenny; Tuominen, Pirkko; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) among Finnish consumers. The estimated average intake of estragole was 0.20mg/d, of trans-anethole 1.15mg/d, of rosmarinic acid 0.09mg/d, of p-coumaric acid 0.0068mg/d, of kaempferol 0.0034mg/d, of luteolin 0.0525μg/d, of quercetin 0.0246mg/d, of matairesinol 0.0066μg/d and of lignans 0.0412μg/d. The intakes of kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, matairesinol and lignans from PFS were low in comparison with their dietary supply. The intake of estragole was usually moderate, but a heavy consumption of PFS may lead to a high intake of estragole. The intake of trans-anethole did not exceed the acceptable daily intake, but PFS should be taken into account when assessing the total exposure. To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations. PMID:26471600

  4. Daily Feeding of Fructooligosaccharide or Glucomannan Delays Onset of Senescence in SAMP8 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshitake; Tanabe, Kenichi; Kawahashi-Tokuhisa, Miho; Yui, Katsuyuki; Miyakoda, Mana; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that daily intake of nondigestible saccharides delays senescence onset through the improvement of intestinal microflora. Here, we raised senescence accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) on the AIN93 diet (CONT), with sucrose being substituted for 5% of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) or 5% of glucomannan (GM), 15 mice per group. Ten SAMR1 were raised as reference of normal aging with control diet. Grading of senescence was conducted using the method developed by Hosokawa, and body weight, dietary intake, and drinking water intake were measured on alternate days. Following 38 weeks of these diets we evaluated learning and memory abilities using a passive avoidance apparatus and investigated effects on the intestinal microflora, measured oxidative stress markers, and inflammatory cytokines. Continuous intake of FOS and GM significantly enhanced learning and memory ability and decelerated senescence development when compared with the CONT group. Bifidobacterium levels were significantly increased in FOS and GM-fed mice. Urinary 8OHdG, 15-isoprostane, serum TNF-α, and IL-6 were also lower in FOS-fed mice, while IL-10 in FOS and GM groups was higher than in CONT group. These findings suggest that daily intake of nondigestible saccharides delays the onset of senescence via improvement of intestinal microflora. PMID:24987410

  5. Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-01-01

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors. PMID:18514747

  6. Intakes of Vegetables and Fruits are Negatively Correlated with Risk of Stroke in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Mitra; Darvishi, Leila; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Khorvash, Fariborz; Aghaei, Mahmud; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a leading cause of death. Current therapeutic strategies have been unsuccessful. Several studies have reported benefits on reducing stroke risk and improving the poststroke associated functional declines in patients who ate foods rich in fruits and vegetables. Their potential protective effects may be due to their antioxidants, calcium, potassium, riboflavine, peridoxin, riboflavin contents. Folic acid, peridoxin, and riboflavin are all cofactors in hyperhomocysteinemia as a stroke risk factor.Studies suggest that oxidative stress plays important roles in pathogenesis of ischemic cerebral injury and higher intake of antioxidants has been associated with a lower stroke risk. The aim of this study was to examine if the dietary intake of vegetables and fruits in patients with stroke were comparatively worse than those in patients without stroke. Methods: In this case control study, 93 stroke patients admitted to Alzahra hospital were matched for age and sex with 60 patients who were not affected with acute cerebrovascular diseases and did not have a history of stroke. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire.Food intakes were compared between two groups and with recommended value. Results: Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits was more in male with stroke than male without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was higher in male with stroke.Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits were lower in women with stroke than women without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was lower in women with stroke Conclusions: Our findings suggest that increased vegetable and fruits intake may be associated with decreased risk of stroke PMID:23776742

  7. Beverage Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient and Caloric Intake from Beverages in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Venci, Brittany; Hodac, Nicole; Lee, Seung-Yeon; Shidler, Marcelle; Krikorian, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine total water intake and patterns of beverage consumption, and its contribution to total daily micronutrients and calories in older adults with mild memory decline. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was used with 60 independent community-dwelling older adults (71.7 ± 5.4 years) with mild cognitive impairment, who were mostly female, well-educated, and white. Three-day food records were analyzed using the Nutrition Data Systems for Research. Descriptive statistics were conducted for a summary of demographics, the average intakes of beverages, and the contribution of beverages to total calorie and micronutrient intakes. Total daily water intake was 53.6 ± 26.7 fl oz and milk, plain water, and tea/coffee were beverages consumed most frequently. Beverage consumption contributed substantially to the intake of vitamin D (29.4%), calcium (26.4%), riboflavin (22.0%), magnesium (18.9%), and vitamin C (18.1%), but constituted only ∼12.5% of total energy. These findings suggest that nutrient-dense beverages play a fundamental role in overall micronutrient intake, despite comprising a small component of daily caloric intake. Incorporating adequate amounts of such beverages in meals and snacks may help older adults meet their nutrient recommendations. PMID:26571357

  8. The sodium and potassium intake of 3 to 5 year olds.

    PubMed Central

    Allison, M E; Walker, V

    1986-01-01

    The sodium intake of preschool children in their home environment was investigated and the major sources of sodium other than added table salt identified. Thirty five children from a Southampton general practice were studied. Twenty four hour urinary sodium excretion was measured as a reliable indicator of daily total sodium intake. The daily intake of sodium other than that from added table salt, and of potassium and other nutrients, was also calculated from three day dietary diaries collected using the household measures method. Median excretion of sodium was 62 mmol/24h (range 28-105, 28 urine collections) and of potassium was 25 mmol/24 h (range 14-46). The sodium:potassium ratio was 2.7 (1.4-5.2). From the diaries, the average daily intake of sodium was 68 mmol (32-98) and of potassium was 47 mmol (24-95), and the sodium:potassium ratio was 1.4 (0.5-2.7) (median and ranges, 35 children). Foods contributing more than 30 mmol sodium to one day's intake were mainly processed convenience foods. PMID:3954440

  9. Dietary intake of essential minor and trace elements from Asian diets.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, G Venkatesh; Kawamura, Hisao; Parr, Robert M; Miah, Farin K; Wang, Ji-xian; Dang, Harminder S; Djojosubroto, Harjojoto; Cho, Seung-Yeon; Akher, Perveen; Natera, Erlinda S; Nguyen, Mong Sinh; Nguy, Mong Sinh

    2002-09-01

    In view of the limited data available from the Asian region on the daily intake of nutritionally essential trace elements, a study was taken up, as part of a coordinated research project of the International Atomic Energy Agency, to estimate the daily dietary intake and organ content of some selected trace elements of importance in radiation protection, and also in nutrition. Nine Asian countries--Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Vietnam--which represented more than 50% of the world's population, participated in this study. Analysis of about 700 diet samples was carried out for four minor (calcium, potassium, magnesium, and sodium) and eight trace (chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, iodine, manganese, selenium, and zinc) elements using nuclear and other sensitive analytical methods employing neutron activation analysis (NAA), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) techniques. These samples consisted of the total cooked diet, market basket, duplicate diets, and 225 staple foods. Emphasis was placed on the quality assurance and harmonization of the sampling techniques to ensure quality data. Significant inter- and intra-country variations in daily dietary intake of various trace elements were observed. The maximum inter-country variation was observed for iodine intake (factor of more than 45), being highest for Japan and lowest for Pakistan. For iron, an important trace element, the variation between the intakes was by a factor of four being lowest for Vietnam and highest for Pakistan. PMID:12362779

  10. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study)

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M. M.; van den Bergh, Joop P. W.; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2014-01-01

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition. PMID:24959951

  11. Energy, macro- and micronutrient intake among a true longitudinal group of South African adolescents at two interceptions (2000 and 2003)

    PubMed Central

    MacKeown, Jennifer M; Pedro, Titilola M; Norris, Shane A

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study reports on the energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes of a true longitudinal group of 143 urban black South African children from the Birth-to-Twenty (Bt20) study at two interceptions (2000 and 2003) when they were 10 and 13 years old, respectively. Methods Subjects resided in the urban Johannesburg/Soweto area of the Gauteng Province in South Africa. Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The coded data were analysed using SAS. Results Mean daily intake of energy, all six macronutrients and most micronutrients (17/19) increased from 2000 to 2003. Of the 19 micronutrients investigated, the mean daily intake of eight (calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin A, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid and biotin) fell below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) at both interceptions. More than 70% of the children consumed less than the RDA for these same eight nutrients. From 2000 to 2003, there was a decrease in the percentage of children falling below the RDA for energy (from 73 to 59%), but an increase in the percentage of children falling below the RDA for most of the micronutrients. There was a positive percentage change in mean daily intake for all 26 macro- and micronutrients from 2000 to 2003. Conclusion Mean daily intake of nutrients increased from 2000 to 2003, but intakes for most micronutrients were still below the RDA at both interceptions for a large percentage of the children. The study has provided valuable information on the nutrient intake and change in intake over time among a longitudinal group of South African adolescents. PMID:17381923

  12. First quantification of calcium intake from calcium-dense dairy products in Dutch fracture patients (the Delft cohort study).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M M; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2014-06-01

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition. PMID:24959951

  13. Observability of market daily volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  14. 30 days in the life: daily nutrient balancing in a wild chacma baboon.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Caley A; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M; Clarke, David; Swedell, Larissa

    2013-01-01

    For most animals, the ability to regulate intake of specific nutrients is vital to fitness. Recent studies have demonstrated nutrient regulation in nonhuman primates over periods of one observation day, though studies of humans indicate that such regulation extends to longer time frames. Little is known about longer-term regulation in nonhuman primates, however, due to the challenges of multiple-day focal follows. Here we present the first detailed study of nutrient intake across multiple days in a wild nonhuman primate. We conducted 30 consecutive all day follows on one female chacma baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa. We documented dietary composition, compared the nutritional contribution of natural and human-derived foods to the diet, and quantified nutrient intake using the geometric framework of nutrition. Our focus on a single subject over consecutive days allowed us to examine daily dietary regulation within an individual over time. While the amounts varied daily, our subject maintained a strikingly consistent balance of protein to non-protein (fat and carbohydrate) energy across the month. Human-derived foods, while contributing a minority of the diet, were higher in fat and lower in fiber than naturally-derived foods. Our results demonstrate nutrient regulation on a daily basis in our subject, and demonstrate that she was able to maintain a diet with a constant proportional protein content despite wide variation in the composition of component foods. From a methodological perspective, the results of this study suggest that nutrient intake is best estimated over at least an entire day, with longer-term regulatory patterns (e.g., during development and reproduction) possibly requiring even longer sampling. From a management and conservation perspective, it is notable that nearly half the subject's daily energy intake derived from exotic foods, including those currently being eradicated from the study area for replacement by indigenous vegetation. PMID:23894645

  15. Food Sources, Dietary Behavior, and the Saturated Fat Intake of Latino Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Studies dietary patterns that distinguish children with higher and lower mean daily percentages of calories from saturated fat using data from mothers of 205 Latino children aged 4-7 years in New York City. Substituting low-fat for whole milk appears a key strategy for lowering saturated fat intake. (SLD)

  16. Effect of prebiotic supplementation and calcium intake on body mass index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to assess the effects of a prebiotic supplement and usual calcium intake on body composition changes during pubertal growth. We measured anthropometry and body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptionmetry in 97 young adolescents who were randomized to receive either a daily prebiotic...

  17. Estimation of copper intake in moderate wine consumers in croatia.

    PubMed

    Tariba, Blanka; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Pizent, Alica

    2011-09-01

    To estimate Cu exposure level from wine consumption and to assess possible health risk for moderate wine consumers, wine samples were collected from different wine-growing areas of Croatia. Median concentrations were 180 μg L-1, range (76 to 292) μg L-1, in commercial wines and 258 μg L-1, range (115 to 7600) μg L-1, in homemade wines (P>0.05). Maximum permitted level of 1000 μg L-1 was exceeded in three homemade wines. However, daily intake of Cu from wine (in the range from 0.02 mg d-1 to 1.52 mg d-1) estimated from Cu concentration in all wine samples is lower than the tolerable upper intake level of 5 mg d-1 proposed by the EU Scientific Committee on Food and does not present a risk to moderate wine consumers. PMID:21971106

  18. Fluid intake patterns: an epidemiological study among children and adolescents in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Energy from liquids is one of the most important factors that could impact on the high prevalence of children and adolescents obesity around the world. There are few data on the liquid consumption in Brazil. The aim of this study is to evaluate the volume and quality of liquids consumed by Brazilian children and adolescents and to determine the proportion of their daily energy intake composed of liquids. Methods A multicenter study was conducted in five Brazilian cities; the study included 831 participants between 3 and 17 years of age. A four-day dietary record specific to fluids was completed for each individual, and the volume of and Kcal from liquid intake were evaluated. The average number of Kcal in each beverage was determined based on label information, and the daily energy intake data from liquids were compared with the recommendations of the National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária– ANVISA), the Brazilian food regulation authority, according to each subject’s age. Results As the children aged, the volume of carbonated beverages that they consumed increased significantly, and their milk intake decreased significantly. For children between the ages of 3 and 10, milk and dairy products contributed the greatest daily number of Kcal from liquids. Sugar sweetened beverages which included carbonated beverages, nectars and artificial beverages, accounted for 37% and 45% of the total Kcal from liquid intake in the 3- to 6-year-old and 7- to 10- year-old groups, respectively. Among adolescents (participants 11- to 17- years old), most of the energy intake from liquids came from carbonated beverages, which accounted for an average of 207 kcal/day in this group (42% of their total energy intake from liquids). Health professionals should be attentive to the excessive consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in children and adolescents. The movement toward healthier dietary patterns at the individual and population levels may help to improve programs for preventing overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Conclusion From childhood to adolescence the daily volume of liquid ingested increased reaching a total of 2.0 liters on average. Of this volume, the daily volume of milk ingested decreased while the carbonated drinks, sweetened, nectars and artificial beverages increased significantly. The proportion of water remained constant in about 1/3 of the total volume. From 3 to 17 years of age the energy intake from carbonated beverages increased by about 20%. The carbonated drinks on average corresponded to a tenth of the daily requirements of energy of adolescents. PMID:23167254

  19. Calorie and nutrient intakes of elderly and young subjects measured under identical conditions.

    PubMed

    Wurtman, J J; Lieberman, H; Tsay, R; Nader, T; Chew, B

    1988-11-01

    The calorie and nutrient intakes of elderly and young healthy males and females were monitored for four days at the MIT Clinical Research Center. Subjects were free to select foods for meals and snacks from among a variety of high protein and high carbohydrate foods; when necessary, fat was added to make the foods isocaloric. The elderly subjects consumed significantly fewer calories, carbohydrates, and fat than the young subjects, both absolutely and when adjusted for differences in body weight (p less than .001). Mealtime protein intake when adjusted for body weight was similar among males of both age groups and significantly greater than the intakes of both young and elderly females (p less than .001). However, young males consumed more protein from snacks than young females or older adults and thus exhibited the highest daily protein intakes. The two age groups differed significantly in their pattern of food intake from meals and snacks. Elderly adults consumed almost 85% of their total calories from meals, whereas the younger adults consumed about 72% (p less than .001) from meals. Both groups snacked mainly on carbohydrate-rich foods. The elderly subjects consumed significantly fewer snacks than the young; their daily average consumption was 2.2 and that of the young, 4.5 (p less than .001). The persistence of different patterns of food intake between young and elderly individuals when measured under identical clinical conditions suggests that age per se, in addition to age-associated lifestyle changes, may affect eating behavior. PMID:3183304

  20. Growth rates and energy intake of hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bell, K M; Rutherfurd, S M; Morton, R H

    2012-04-01

    Growth rate is an important factor in neonatal survival. The aim of this study was to determine growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs in South Africa fed a prescribed energy intake, calculated for growth in the domestic cat. Growth was then compared with previously published data from hand-reared cubs in North America and the relationship between growth and energy intake explored. Daily body weight (BW) gain, feed and energy intake data was collected from 18 hand-reared cheetah cubs up to 120 days of age. The average pre-weaning growth rate was 32 g/day, which is lower than reported in mother-reared cubs and hand-reared cubs in North American facilities. However, post-weaning growth increased to an average of 55 g/day. Growth was approximately linear prior to weaning, but over the entire age range it exhibited a sigmoidal shape with an asymptotic plateau averaging 57 kg. Energy intake associated with pre-weaning growth was 481 kJ ME/kg BW(0.75). Regression analysis described the relationship between metabolic BW, metabolisable energy (ME) intake, and hence daily weight gain. This relationship may be useful in predicting energy intake required to achieve growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs similar to those observed for their mother-reared counterparts. PMID:21429043

  1. Emphasized warning reduces salt intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pinjuh Markota, Nina; Rumboldt, Mirjana; Rumboldt, Zvonko

    2015-03-01

    Excessive salt intake is a major cardiovascular risk factor. At variance to the developed countries, the main source of sodium in transitional and developing countries is salt added while cooking and/or at the table. The objective of this trial was to examine the impact of warning labels placed on home salt containers on daily salt intake.A sample of treated hypertensives (n = 150) was randomized in two subgroups, one receiving just a leaflet about the harmful effects of excessive salt intake (control; n = 74), and the other one receiving in addition warning stickers for household salt containers (intervention; n = 76). Arterial blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (Na24) were measured in all the subjects at the start of the trial, and 1 month and 2 months later. The average starting Na24 was 207 ± 71 mmol in the control group and 211 ± 85 mmol in the intervention group (P = .745). One month and 2 months later, a significant decrease was observed in the intervention group (to 183 ± 63 mmol and 176 ± 55 mmol; P < .0001), as opposed to the control group (203 ± 60 mmol and 200 ± 58 mmol; P = .1466). Initial BP was 143.7/84.1 mm Hg in the control, and 142.9/84.7 mm Hg in the intervention group (P = .667). One month and 2 months later, a significant drop in BP, by 5.3/2.9 mm Hg, was observed in the intervention group as opposed to the control group (0.4/0.9 mm Hg). Decrease in Na24 positively correlated to BP lowering (r(2) = 0.5989; P < .0001). A significant reduction in 24Na and BP is achieved with warning labels on harmful effects of excessive salt intake. Decreasing daily salt input by 35 mmol may result in an extra BP lowering by some 5-6/2-3 mm Hg. PMID:25659228

  2. DAILY INTAKE ESTIMATES OF PBDES ASSOCIATED WITH CONSUMPTION OF CATFISH IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in a wide variety of consumer products. Concerns surrounding these compounds are primarily due do their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as in human tissue, such as milk, coupled with evidence indi...

  3. Daily dietary selenium intake and hair selenium content in a high selenium area of Enshi, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium is essential to humans and is widely distributed within the human body. Its content in blood, urine, hair and nails are important indicators to evaluate Se level in the human body. In China (Shadi, Enschi city), human selenosis of residents is reported to occur in high numbers. In this stud...

  4. Dietary sources and sodium intake in a sample of Australian preschool children

    PubMed Central

    O'Halloran, Siobhan A; Grimes, Carley A; Lacy, Kathleen E; Nowson, Caryl A; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess dietary sodium intake and the food sources of sodium in a sample of Australian preschool children. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Mothers were followed up when children were approximately 3.5 years of age after participating in a cluster randomised controlled trial: the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program. Participants 251 Australian children aged 3.5±0.19 (SD) years. Primary and secondary outcome measures The average daily sodium intake was determined using three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The contributions of food groups, core, discretionary and processed foods to daily sodium intake were assessed. Results The average sodium intake was 1508±495 (SD) mg/day, (salt equivalent 3.9±1.3 (SD) g/day) and 87% of children exceeded the Australian Upper Level of Intake (UL) for sodium of 1000 mg/day (salt equivalent 2.6 g/day). Main food sources of sodium were cereal/cereal products (25%), milk products (19%), meat, poultry/game (17%) and cereal-based products (15%). Core foods contributed 65%, and discretionary foods 35% of total daily sodium intake, and within the total diet, minimally processed, processed, processed culinary ingredient and ultraprocessed foods contributed 16%, 35%, 1% and 48% of sodium, respectively. Conclusions Within this sample, most children exceeded the recommended UL for sodium. Core and ultraprocessed foods were key sources of sodium which suggests that reductions in the sodium content of these foods are required to reduce sodium intake in young children. These data also provide further support for public health campaigns that seek to reduce consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. PMID:26846894

  5. Leptin modulates the daily rhythmicity of blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Grosbellet, Edith; Dumont, Stephanie; Schuster-Klein, Carole; Guardiola-Lemaitre, Beatrice; Pevet, Paul; Criscuolo, Franois; Challet, Etienne

    2015-06-01

    Leptin may affect central and/or peripheral timing, in addition to its well-known regulatory effects on metabolism. Here, we investigated whether leptin can impact rhythmicity of blood glucose and lipids. For that purpose, daily variations of blood glucose and lipids were compared between mice lacking functional leptin receptor (db/db) or deficient for leptin (ob/ob) and controls (db/+ and ob/+, respectively). Next, we investigated whether timed treatment with exogenous leptin in ob/ob mice could modulate blood glucose rhythm. Mice with defective leptin signaling (db/db and ob/ob) have the same phase-opposed timing in glycemia (11 and 9?h shift, respectively) compared to respective controls. By contrast, the phase of plasma lipids rhythms (e.g. triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acid - NEFA, high density lipoprotein - HDL, low density lipoprotein - LDL) remained essentially unchanged, whatever the genotype. Daily injections of leptin (1?mg/kg) in ob/ob mice during nighttime or daytime led to 1-2?h phase-advances of blood glucose rhythm and glucose arrhythmicity, respectively. These injections induced additional phase-dependent shifts of feeding rhythm (ranging from 2.6?h phase-delays to 2.6?h advances). The present study reveals a chronomodulatory role of leptin, and highlights that rhythmic leptin can be a determinant of daily variations of blood glucose and food intake, though not for lipids. PMID:26035479

  6. Daily lifestyles in the fog and haze weather

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Dong-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background China is being plagued by a large-scaled lasting fog and haze, under which people have to work and live. Therefore, it matters to do what we can to minimize the adverse impact of the fog and haze on individual health on a daily basis. Methods Relative literatures on the fog and haze have been searched and reviewed. Particular attention has been paid to the literatures on the adverse impact of the fog and haze on the people’s health and on the ways minimizing this impact. Results Coming across the weather of fog and haze, appropriate measures taken can minimize its adverse impact on individuals on a daily basis. The measures included vitamin intake, water drinking, air cleaning indoors, stay-at-home, and mask wearing outdoors. These measures are simple and proven effective. Conclusions Simple and effective measures seem to be sufficient to minimizing the adverse impact of the fog and haze on the individual’s health on a daily basis. Lifestyle changes, awareness of environment protection, energy conservation, and new and clean energy use are ultimate ways to curb the air pollution and reduce the occurrence of the fog and haze. PMID:26904256

  7. Caffeine intake is related to successful weight loss maintenance.

    PubMed

    Icken, D; Feller, S; Engeli, S; Mayr, A; Müller, A; Hilbert, A; de Zwaan, M

    2016-04-01

    The effect of caffeine intake on weight loss maintenance has not been examined in humans. We compared the daily consumption of coffee and caffeinated beverages between 494 weight loss maintainers and 2129 individuals from the general population controlling for sociodemographic variables, body mass index and physical activity level. Weight loss maintainers reported to consume significantly more cups of coffee and caffeinated beverages compared with the participants in the general population sample. Thus, consumption of caffeinated beverages might support weight loss maintenance. Further studies should investigate possible mechanisms. PMID:26554757

  8. [Inflammation markers in daily practice].

    PubMed

    Le Roy, F; Barbier, S; Passos, E Martin; Godin, M

    2003-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases and infections remain the first mortality causes in ESRD patients. European recommendations for good clinical practice in the hemodialysis field advocate to use the inflammation markers in daily practice. These markers foretell both cardiovascular and global mortality. They also enable to detect the silent infections (parodontitis, Heliobacter pilory infection, shunt infection in PTFE), to make sure of the dialysis biocompatibility (microbiological quality of the dialysate, use of biocompatible membrane). The C-reactive protein is the most current and used marker. Its use, combined with the procalcitonin measurement, specific marker for bacterial infection, would enable the diagnostic and therapeutic strategy improvement. PMID:14650745

  9. Dietary and supplementary intake of nutrients by patients with gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Harju, E

    1986-12-01

    The dietary and supplementary intake of food, energy, and nutrients were examined in 54 patients after various gastrointestinal operations and in 33 patients with gastritis, peptic ulcer, or undefined abdominal pain. Forty-six of the operated and 21 of the nonoperated patients had to avoid certain foods (p less than 0.001, chi 2-test), mainly milk, beans, cabbage and other vegetables, bread, and fried foods. Only a few patients got discomfort from coffee, fatty foods, and meat. The intake of energy was at the level of light physical work. The dietary intake of iron, vitamin A, and niacin did not reach the level of the recommended daily allowance (RDA). One-half of the patients used vitamins and supplements, which increased their intake over the level of RDA. It is important to inform patients before operations about the possibility of persistent abdominal symptoms after the operation. PMID:3805666

  10. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking

  11. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  12. Genetic regulation of prepartum dry matter intake in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Shonka, B N; Tao, S; Dahl, G E; Spurlock, D M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI) in prepartum nonlactating and in lactating Holstein cows. Measurements were recorded on cows from Iowa State University (ISU) and the University of Florida (UF) dairy herds. Individual feed intake data were recorded daily at ISU from approximately 30 d prepartum through 150 d in milk (DIM). Individual intakes from cows at UF were recorded for approximately 42 d pre- and postpartum. Prepartum DMI traits were defined as DMI on d -15 (multiparous) or d -8 (primiparous) relative to calving date (DRYDMI), DMI on d -1 before parturition (CALVEDMI), and the negative of the slope of a regression line fitted through the last 14 (multiparous) or 7 (primiparous) days before calving (DEC). Lactation DMI traits were defined as DMI at 30 DIM (DMI30) and 100 DIM (DMI100; ISU data only). The final data set included 245 primiparous and 221 multiparous cows from ISU, and 125 multiparous cows from UF. Heritability estimates were 0.43, 0.64, 0.32, and 0.62 for DRYDMI, CALVEDMI, DEC, and DMI30, respectively. The estimate of heritability for DMI100 (ISU only) was 0.52. The genetic correlation between DRYDMI and DMI30 was 0.97. Thus, DMI prepartum is a moderately heritable trait that is highly correlated with intake during early lactation. Genetic correlations between DEC and DMI during lactation were lower and similar to standard error estimates (-0.24 ± 0.22 for DEC and DMI30 for combined data, and -0.13 ± 0.27 for DEC and DMI100 in ISU data). Thus, selection for altered DMI during lactation may not dramatically affect the depression in intake that occurs before parturition. PMID:26319760

  13. Canadian infants' nutrient intakes from complementary foods during the first year of life

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Complementary feeding is currently recommended after six months of age, when the nutrients in breast milk alone are no longer adequate to support growth. Few studies have examined macro- and micro-nutrient intakes from complementary foods (CF) only. Our purpose was to assess the sources and nutritional contribution of CF over the first year of life. Methods In July 2003, a cross-sectional survey was conducted on a nationally representative sample of mothers with infants aged three to 12 months. The survey was administered evenly across all regions of the country and included a four-day dietary record to assess infants' CF intakes in household (tablespoon) measures (breast milk and formula intakes excluded). Records from 2,663 infants were analyzed for nutrient and CF food intake according to 12 categories. Mean daily intakes for infants at each month of age from CF were pooled and compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the respective age range. Results At three months of age, 83% of infants were already consuming infant cereals. Fruits and vegetables were among the most common foods consumed by infants at all ages, while meats were least common at all ages except 12 months. Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes from CF generally increased with age. All mean nutrient intakes, except vitamin D and iron, met CF recommendations at seven to 12 months. Conclusions Complementary foods were introduced earlier than recommended. Although mean nutrient intakes from CF at six to 12 months appear to be adequate among Canadian infants, further attention to iron and vitamin D intakes and sources may be warranted. PMID:20565759

  14. Dietary intake and food sources of added sugar in the Australian population.

    PubMed

    Lei, Linggang; Rangan, Anna; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies in Australian children/adolescents and adults examining added sugar (AS) intake were based on now out-of-date national surveys. We aimed to examine the AS and free sugar (FS) intakes and the main food sources of AS among Australians, using plausible dietary data collected by a multiple-pass, 24-h recall, from the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey respondents (n 8202). AS and FS intakes were estimated using a previously published method, and as defined by the WHO, respectively. Food groups contributing to the AS intake were described and compared by age group and sex by one-way ANOVA. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups. Usual intake of FS (as percentage energy (%EFS)) was computed using a published method and compared with the WHO cut-off of <10 %EFS. The mean AS intake of the participants was 60·3 (sd 52·6) g/d. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for the greatest proportion of the AS intake of the Australian population (21·4 (sd 30·1) %), followed by sugar and sweet spreads (16·3 (sd 24·5) %) and cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (15·7 (sd 24·4) %). More than half of the study population exceeded the WHO's cut-off for FS, especially children and adolescents. Overall, 80-90 % of the daily AS intake came from high-sugar energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. To conclude, the majority of Australian adults and children exceed the WHO recommendation for FS intake. Efforts to reduce AS intake should focus on energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. PMID:26794833

  15. Higher dietary folate intake reduces the breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, P; Li, C; Li, X; Li, J; Chu, R; Wang, H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many epidemiological studies have investigated the association between folate intake, circulating folate level and risk of breast cancer; however, the findings were inconsistent between the studies. Methods: We searched the PubMed and MEDLINE databases updated to January, 2014 and performed the systematic review and meta-analysis of the published epidemiological studies to assess the associations between folate intake level, circulating folate level and the overall risk of breast cancer. Results: In all, 16 eligible prospective studies with a total of 744?068 participants and 26?205 breast cancer patients and 26 casecontrol studies with a total of 16?826 cases and 21?820 controls that have evaluated the association between folate intake and breast cancer risk were identified. Pooled analysis of the prospective studies and casecontrol studies suggested a potential nonlinearity relationship for dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk. Prospective studies indicated a U-shaped relationship for the dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk. Women with daily dietary folate intake between 153 and 400??g showed a significant reduced breast cancer risk compared with those <153??g, but not for those >400??g. The casecontrol studies also suggested a significantly negative correlation between the dietary folate intake level and the breast cancer risk. Increased dietary folate intake reduced breast cancer risk for women with higher alcohol intake level, but not for those with lower alcohol intake. No significant association between circulating folate level and breast cancer risk was found when the results of 8 identified studies with 5924 participants were pooled. Conclusions: Our studies suggested that folate may have preventive effects against breast cancer risk, especially for those with higher alcohol consumption level; however, the dose and timing are critical and more studies are warranted to further elucidate the questions. PMID:24667649

  16. Dietary sodium intake in young Korean adults and its relationship with eating frequency and taste preference.

    PubMed

    Shim, Eugene; Ryu, Ha-Jung; Hwang, Jinah; Kim, Soo Yeon; Chung, Eun-Jung

    2013-06-01

    Dietary sodium intake is considered one of the major causal factors for hypertension. Thus, to control the increase of blood pressure and reduce the risk of hypertension-related clinical complications, a reduction in sodium intake is recommended. The present study aimed at determining the association of dietary sodium intake with meal and snack frequency, snacking time, and taste preference in Korean young adults aged 20-26 years, using a 125-item dish-frequency questionnaire. The mean dietary sodium intakes of men and women were 270.6 mmol/day and 213.1 mmol/day, which were approximately 310% and 245% of the daily sodium intake goal for Korean men and women, respectively. Dietary sodium intake was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure in the total group, and BMI in the total and men-only groups. In the total and men-only groups, those who consumed meals more times per day consumed more dietary sodium, but the number of times they consumed snacks was negatively correlated with dietary sodium intake in the total, men-only, and women-only groups. In addition, those who consumed snacks in the evening consumed more sodium than those who did so in the morning in the men-only group. The sodium intake was also positively associated with preference for salty and sweet taste in the total and women-only groups. Such a high intake of sodium in these young subjects shows that a reduction in sodium intake is important for the prevention of hypertension and related diseases in the future. PMID:23766880

  17. Measurement error and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Carroll, R J; Freedman, L S; Kipnis, V

    1998-01-01

    This chapter reviews work of Carroll, Freedman, Kipnis, and Li (1998) on the statistical analysis of the relationship between dietary intake and health outcomes. In the area of nutritional epidemiology, there is some evidence from biomarker studies that the usual statistical model for dietary measurements may break down due to two causes: (a) systematic biases depending on a person's body mass index; and (b) an additional random component of bias, so that the error structure is the same as a one-way random effects model. We investigate this problem, in the context of (1) the estimation of the distribution of usual nutrient intake; (2) estimating the correlation between a nutrient instrument and usual nutrient intake; and (3) estimating the true relative risk from an estimated relative risk using the error-prone covariate. While systematic bias due to body mass index appears to have little effect, the additional random effect in the variance structure is shown to have a potentially important impact on overall results, both on corrections for relative risk estimates and in estimating the distribution usual of nutrient intake. Our results point to a need for new experiments aimed at estimation of a crucial parameter. PMID:9781387

  18. 75 FR 3182 - Intake Screening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons 28 CFR Part 522 RIN 1120-AB47 Intake Screening AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Bureau of Prisons (Bureau... to the Rules Unit, Office of General Counsel, Bureau of Prisons, 320 First Street, NW.,...

  19. Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amschler, Denise H.

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

  20. Protein intake and bone health.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe

    2011-03-01

    Adequate nutrition plays an important role in the development and maintenance of bone structures resistant to usual mechanical stresses. In addition to calcium in the presence of an adequate supply of vitamin D, dietary proteins represent key nutrients for bone health and thereby function in the prevention of osteoporosis. Several studies point to a positive effect of high protein intake on bone mineral density or content. This fact is associated with a significant reduction in hip fracture incidence, as recorded in a large prospective study carried out in a homogeneous cohort of postmenopausal women. Low protein intake (< 0.8 g/kg body weight/day) is often observed in patients with hip fractures and an intervention study indicates that following orthopedic management, protein supplementation attenuates post-fracture bone loss, tends to increase muscle strength, and reduces medical complications and rehabilitation hospital stay. There is no evidence that high protein intake per se would be detrimental for bone mass and strength. Nevertheless, it appears reasonable to avoid very high protein diets (i. e. more than 2.0 g/kg body weight/day) when associated with low calcium intake (i. e. less than 600 mg/day). In the elderly, taking into account the attenuated anabolic response to dietary protein with ageing, there is concern that the current dietary protein recommended allowance (RDA), as set at 0.8 g/kg body weight/day, might be too low for the primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. PMID:22139564

  1. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  2. Daily cycles in coastal dunes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

  3. Changes in nutrients and food groups intakes following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gary D.; Norris, Amber; Fernandez, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/Purpose Serial changes in dietary intake, including specific food groups and nutrients during the first year following RYGB is of interest due to surgically-induced alterations in meal size, food intolerances present after surgery, and potential nutrient deficiencies. To help improve the nutritional health of surgical patients, this study's purpose was to examine changes in macro- and micronutrients, food groups, and selected foods during 12-months of follow-up in post RYGB individuals. Materials and Methods RYGB patients (n=17) completed four-day food records at baseline (prior to surgery) and then at 3-wks, 3-mos, 6-mos, and 12-mos after surgery. Mean daily intake was determined at each time for energy intake, macro- and micronutrients, food groups, and selected foods in targeted food groups. Results A dramatic decrease in mean (±SEM) daily energy intake occurred: 2,150±165 kcals at baseline vs. 649±40 kcals at 3-wks; energy intake continually increased to a high of 1307±129 kcals by 12-mos. More than 50% of patients had low intake of vitamins D, E, C, folate, and calcium, magnesium, and potassium at 12-months. Servings from vegetables, grains, fats, and sweetened beverages were lower, whereas, meats, dairy, fruits, and sweets showed only small, transient changes following surgery. Conclusions The reduction in energy intake following RYGB is from selected food groups and not solely a reduction in portion sizes across the diet. The lower intake of micronutrients indicates potential risk for deficiencies unless supplements are used. These findings can help in the clinical management of surgical patients to improve nutritional health. PMID:24748474

  4. Some effects of nicotine on food and water intake in undeprived rats.

    PubMed

    Clarke, P B; Kumar, R

    1984-05-01

    Undeprived rats were tested in their home cages for intake of water and powered food, starting 15 min after subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of (-)-nicotine bitartrate or 0.9% w/v NaCl solution (saline). In the first 2 h, nicotine (0-0.4 mg kg-1 base) markedly reduced water intake in a dose-related way, leaving food intake unchanged. Food and water intake up to 24 h after injection was unaffected. Rats (n = 6 per group) were then injected daily with nicotine (0.4 mg kg-1 base, s.c.) or saline for one month. Intermittent tests with saline (in place of nicotine) during this period did not reveal any signs of abstinence. A dose-response study similar to the first was then carried out, and little or no tolerance was found to the hypodipsic action of nicotine. Nicotine also reduced food intake, irrespective of chronic treatment. Subsequently, daily injections were discontinued, and spontaneous intake did not differ in rats previously maintained on nicotine, relative to control animals. Mecamylamine (0.3, 1.5 mg kg-1, s.c.) prevented nicotine-induced hypodipsia, whereas chlorisondamine (0.02, 0.1 mg kg-1 s.c.) was ineffective. Both ganglion blockers reduced food intake. Nicotine did not reduce drinking in rats preloaded with a hypertonic saline solution. It is suggested that nicotine reduces water intake in undeprived rats, probably by acting centrally. Since this action changes little with repeated testing, it may provide a useful index of one or more central actions of the drug. PMID:6539631

  5. Jodina rhombifolia leaves lyophilized aqueous extract decreases ethanol intake and preference in adolescent male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Roberto Teves, Mauricio; Wendel, Graciela Haydée; Pelzer, Lilian Eugenia

    2015-11-01

    The leaves of Jodina rhombifolia (Hook. & Arn.) Reissek (Santalaceae) are utilized as anti-alcoholic in Argentine folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the anti-alcohol properties in adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 29; 83-105 g of weight). We utilized the "self-administration model", which ethanol was offered in the standard home-cage through two-bottle free-choice regimen between an ethanolic solution (20% in tap water, v/v) and tap water with unlimited access for 24h per day for 10 consecutive days. The results obtained show that repeated administration of J. rhombifolia lyophilized extract, markedly reduced ethanol voluntary intake on dose dependent bases. The magnitude in reduction of daily ethanol intake was approximately 29%, 44% and 68%, for the rat groups treated with 62.5, 125 and 250 mg/kg of extract, respectively. Ethanol preference (proportion of ethanol intake versus total fluid intake) was significantly reduced: 21.37% ± 0.79 (0 mg/kg); 15.83% ± 0.93 (62.5 mg/kg); 15.22% ± 1.30 (125 mg/kg) and 9.38% ± 0.57 (250 mg/kg). Daily food intake was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the group treated with 250 mg/kg of JRLE in comparison with vehicle-dose group; the reduction in ethanol intake was associated with a compensatory increase in food intake, probably because in the control group animals a part of the total caloric intake was supplied by ethanol. Treatment was very well tolerated by all animals and without apparent side-effects. These results contribute to the scientific validation of the antialcoholic indication of this botanic species in Argentine folk medicine. PMID:26253580

  6. Dietary intake of four artificial sweeteners by Irish pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; Nugent, Anne P; McNulty, Breige A; O'Reilly, Emer; Tlustos, Christina; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    In spite of rigorous pre- and post-market reviews of safety, there remains a high level of debate regarding the use of artificial sweeteners in foods. Young children are of particular interest when assessing food chemical exposure as a result of their unique food consumption patterns and comparatively higher exposure to food chemicals on a body weight basis when compared with the general population. The present study examined the intakes of four intense sweeteners (acesulfame K, aspartame, saccharin, sucralose) in the diets of children aged 1-4 years using food consumption and sweetener presence data from the Irish National Pre-school Nutrition Survey (2010-11) and analytical data for sweetener concentration in foods obtained from a national testing programme. Four exposure assessment scenarios were conducted using the available data on sweetener occurrence and concentration. The results demonstrated that the mean daily intakes for all four sweeteners were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) (17-31%), even considering the most conservative assumptions regarding sweetener presence and concentration. High consumer intakes (P95) were also below the ADI for the four sweeteners when more realistic estimates of exposure were considered. Both sweetener occurrence and concentration data had a considerable effect on reducing the estimated intake values, with a combined reduction in intakes of 95% when expressed as a proportion of the ADI. Flavoured drinks were deemed to be a key contributor to artificial sweetener intakes in this population cohort. It was concluded that there is no health risk to Irish pre-school children at current dietary intake levels of the sweeteners studied. PMID:26939625

  7. Food items contributing most to variation in antioxidant intake; a cross-sectional study among Norwegian women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fruit and vegetable intake has been found to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer and diabetes mellitus. It is possible that antioxidants play a large part in this protective effect. However, which foods account for the variation in antioxidant intake in a population is not very clear. We used food frequency data from a population-based sample of women to identify the food items that contributed most to the variation in antioxidant intake in Norwegian diet. Methods We used data from a study conducted among participants in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP), the national program which invites women aged 50–69 years to mammographic screening every 2 years. A subset of 6514 women who attended the screening in 2006/2007 completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Daily intake of energy, nutrients and antioxidant intake were estimated. We used multiple linear regression analysis to capture the variation in antioxidant intake. Results The mean (SD) antioxidant intake was 23.0 (8.5) mmol/day. Coffee consumption explained 54% of the variation in antioxidant intake, while fruits and vegetables explained 22%. The twenty food items that contributed most to the total variation in antioxidant intake explained 98% of the variation in intake. These included different types of coffee, tea, red wine, blueberries, walnuts, oranges, cinnamon and broccoli. Conclusions In this study we identified a list of food items which capture the variation in antioxidant intake among these women. The major contributors to dietary total antioxidant intake were coffee, tea, red wine, blueberries, walnuts, oranges, cinnamon and broccoli. These items should be assessed in as much detail as possible in studies that wish to capture the variation in antioxidant intake. PMID:24433390

  8. Caffeine intake and endogenous sex steroid levels in postmenopausal women. The Rancho Bernardo Study.

    PubMed

    Ferrini, R L; Barrett-Connor, E

    1996-10-01

    Caffeine intake has been associated with risk of osteoporosis, breast cancer, endometriosis, and fibrocystic breast disease and has been hypothesized to exert its effects through alteration of endogenous hormone levels. This study examined the cross-sectional association of caffeine intake with endogenous androgens, estrogens, and sex hormone-binding globulin in 728 white postmenopausal women aged 42-90 years in the Rancho Bernardo community-based study in 1984-1987. Caffeine intake was inversely associated with age and waist/hip ratio and positively associated with alcohol consumption. Significant inverse associations were noted between caffeine intake and bioavailable testosterone, which persisted after adjustment for age, waist/hip ratio, body mass index, alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, and physical activity (r = -0.10, p = 0.02). At high doses (equivalent to more than 2 cups of coffee or four cans of caffeinated soda daily), caffeine intake was positively associated with plasma estrone before and after adjustment for confounders (r = 0.26, p = 0.05). Sex hormone-binding globulin levels were positively associated with increasing caffeine intake (adjusted r = 0.09, p = 0.03). The positive association of caffeine with estrone and its inverse association with bioavailable testosterone suggest that caffeine's reported association with several chronic conditions may be mediated by an effect on endogenous sex steroids. PMID:8823059

  9. Food and macronutrient intake of male adolescent Kalenjin runners in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Dirk L; Van Hall, Gerrit; Hambraeus, Leif

    2002-12-01

    A nutritional survey based on twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in Kenya during a 2-week field study was carried out in order to determine the composition of their diet and make a comparison with macronutrient recommendations for athletes. Food samples were collected for analysis of macronutrient distribution and energy content from main meals and the macronutrient distribution and energy content of additional food intake were based on the information of a 24 h recall interview and estimated from food tables. The diet of the Kalenjin runners was very high in carbohydrate (71 % 8.7 g/kg body weight per d) and very low in fat (15 %). Intake of total protein (13 %; 1.6 g/kg body weight per d) was above the daily intake recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU), while essential amino acid intake was estimated to be in the borderline-to-low range based on FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations for children <12 years and adults. The energy intake was mainly derived from vegetable sources (90 %) with maize and kidney beans as the staple food (81 %). The diet of the Kalenjin runners met recommendations for endurance athletes for total protein and most essential amino acid intake as well as carbohydrate intake even though it was based on a small range of food items. PMID:12493093

  10. Food Intakes by Preschool Children in Flanders Compared with Dietary Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Huybrechts, Inge; Matthys, Christophe; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Temme, Elisabeth HM; Van Oyen, Herman; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare food group intakes among preschool children with food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) and to determine the proportion of children meeting these guidelines. Food consumption of preschool children (2.56.5 years) living in Flanders (Belgium) were assessed in a cross-sectional study, using proxy reported 3d estimated dietary records (EDR) (n 696). Statistical modelling was used to account for within-individual variation in the 3d EDR. Mean daily intakes of most food groups (beverages, vegetables, fruit and milk) were below the minimum recommendations. Only grains and potatoes and meat products were in line with the recommendations and bread and cereals showed borderline intakes. Mean intakes of energy-dense and low-nutritious foods, which are discouraged within a healthy diet (like snacks and sugared drinks), were high. Furthermore, the percentage of children complying with the different food-based dietary guidelines was for most food groups extremely low (ranging from approximately 4% for fluid and vegetable intakes up to 99% for potato intakes). Boys had in general higher mean intakes of the recommended food groups. In conclusion, preschool children in Flanders follow eating patterns that do not meet Flemish FBDG. Although the impact of these eating habits on preschoolers current and future health should be further investigated, it is clear that nutrition education and intervention are needed among preschool children and their parents in Flanders. PMID:19190355

  11. Sugar intake, obesity, and diabetes in India.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-12-01

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing "epidemic" of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

  12. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

  13. Efficacy and safety of coadministration of once-daily indacaterol and glycopyrronium versus indacaterol alone in COPD patients: the GLOW6 study

    PubMed Central

    Vincken, Walter; Aumann, Joseph; Chen, Hungta; Henley, Michelle; McBryan, Danny; Goyal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Background Addition of a second bronchodilator from a different pharmacological class may benefit patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) whose symptoms are insufficiently controlled by bronchodilator monotherapy. GLOW6 evaluated the efficacy and safety of once-daily coadministration of the long-acting β2-agonist indacaterol (IND) and the long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrronium (GLY) versus IND alone in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Materials and methods In this randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, 12-week study, patients were randomized 1:1 to IND 150 μg and GLY 50 μg daily (IND + GLY) or IND 150 μg daily and placebo (IND + PBO) (all delivered via separate Breezhaler® devices). The primary objective was to demonstrate the superiority of IND + GLY versus IND + PBO for trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at week 12. Other end points included trough FEV1 at day 1, FEV1 area under the curve from 30 minutes to 4 hours (AUC30min–4h), peak FEV1, inspiratory capacity and trough forced vital capacity (FVC) at day 1 and week 12, and transition dyspnea index (TDI) focal score, COPD symptoms, and rescue medication use over 12 weeks. Results A total of 449 patients were randomized (IND + GLY, 226; IND + PBO, 223); 94% completed the study. On day 1 and at week 12, IND + GLY significantly improved trough FEV1 versus IND + PBO, with treatment differences of 74 mL (95% CI 46–101 mL) and 64 mL (95% CI 28–99 mL), respectively (both P<0.001). IND + GLY significantly improved postdose peak FEV1, FEV1 AUC30min–4h, and trough FVC at day 1 and week 12 versus IND + PBO (all P<0.01). TDI focal score and COPD symptoms (percentage of days able to perform usual daily activities and change from baseline in mean daytime respiratory score) were significantly improved with IND + GLY versus IND + PBO (P<0.05). The incidence of adverse events was similar for the two treatment groups. Conclusion In patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, once-daily coadministration of IND and GLY provides significant and sustained improvement in bronchodilation versus IND alone from day 1, with significant improvements in patient-centered outcomes. PMID:24596459

  14. The use of a commercial vegetable juice as a practical means to increase vegetable intake: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recommendations for daily dietary vegetable intake were increased in the 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines as consumption of a diet rich in vegetables has been associated with lower risk of certain chronic health disorders including cardiovascular disease. However, vegetable consumption in the United States has declined over the past decade; consequently, the gap between dietary recommendations and vegetable intake is widening. The primary aim of this study is to determine if drinking vegetable juice is a practical way to help meet daily dietary recommendations for vegetable intake consistent with the 2005 Dietary Guidelines and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. The secondary aim is to assess the effect of a vegetable juice on measures of cardiovascular health. Methods We conducted a 12-week, randomized, controlled, parallel-arm study consisting of 3 groups of free-living, healthy volunteers who participated in study visits at the Ragle Human Nutrition Research Center at the University of California, Davis. All subjects received education on the DASH diet and 0, 8 or 16 fluid ounces of vegetable juice daily. Assessments were completed of daily vegetable servings before and after incorporation of vegetable juice and cardiovascular health parameters including blood pressure. Results Without the juice, vegetable intake in all groups was lower than the 2005 Dietary Guidelines and DASH diet recommendations. The consumption of the vegetable juice helped participants reach recommended intake. In general, parameters associated with cardiovascular health did not change over time. However, in the vegetable juice intervention groups, subjects who were pre-hypertensive at the start of the study showed a significant decrease in blood pressure during the 12-week intervention period. Conclusion Including 1-2 cups of vegetable juice daily was an effective and acceptable way for healthy adults to close the dietary vegetable gap. Increase in daily vegetable intake was associated with a reduction in blood pressure in subjects who were pre-hypertensive at the start of the trial. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01161706 PMID:20849620

  15. Comparison of the dietary intakes of new parents, second-time parents, and nonparents: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nasuti, Gabriella; Blanchard, Chris; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Warburton, Darren E R; Benoit, Cecilia; Symons Downs, Danielle; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the dietary intake profiles of first-time parents, second-time parents, and couples without children; once during pregnancy, then at 6- and 12-months postpartum. This was an observational, longitudinal, cohort study. Participants were a community-based sample of 153 couples aged 25 to 40 years. Data were collected between 2007 and 2011. Dietary intake was recorded using 3-day dietary recall. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to compare the dietary intakes of groups (ie, parent, sex, and couple days) over time. Percentage of participants per group meeting recommended daily dietary guidelines was also analyzed, as were variables that influenced meeting overall recommended guidelines using a multivariate analysis of variance. First-time mothers had higher overall energy, fat, sugar, fruit, and milk intake compared with women without children, and longitudinally first-time mothers decreased their fruit intake. Second-time mothers had higher overall energy, fat, sugar, and fruit intake compared with nonparent women, and longitudinally second-time mothers increased their meat intake. First-time fathers had overall higher bread intake compared with second-time fathers and men without children, and first-time fathers consumed less sugar than second-time fathers. Longitudinally, first-time fathers increased their fiber intake. At any stage of data collection, from pregnancy to 12-months postpartum, only 2% to 16% of all mothers met recommended overall daily dietary guidelines. The only variable investigated that influenced meeting overall daily dietary guidelines at baseline was parent status. PMID:24161367

  16. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation: state of the art for daily practice

    PubMed Central

    van der Velde, Robert Y.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; Geusens, Piet P.; Lems, Willem F.; van den Bergh, Joop P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Calcium and vitamin D play an essential role in bone metabolism but deficiency and/or inadequate intake are common. Objectives To describe a practical approach based on the literature regarding clinically important aspects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Methods A systematic evaluation of relevant literature in Medline was conducted. We included physiological studies, publications on relevant guidelines, meta-analysis, randomized clinical trials, and cohort studies. Results An adequate calcium intake and vitamin D supplementation is recommended in most guidelines xon fracture prevention. Daily supplementation with 800 IU is advocated in most guidelines, appears to be safe, and with this approach it is generally not necessary to determine vitamin D levels. There are no data on additional effects of loading doses of vitamin D on fracture or fall prevention. Calcium supplementation should be tailored to the patient’s need: usually 500 mg per day is required. The intestinal absorption of calcium citrate is approximately 24% better than that of calcium carbonate independent of intake with meals. Data on difference between calcium absorption with calcium carbonate compared to calcium citrate with simultaneous use of proton pump inhibitors are lacking. Concern has arisen about a possible link between calcium supplementation and an increased risk of myocardial infarction. Probably only well-designed prospective randomized controlled trials will be able to allow definite conclusions on this subject. Conclusion Daily supplementation with 800 IU vitamin D is a practical and safe strategy without the need for prior determination of vitamin D levels. Calcium supplementation should be tailored to the patient’s need based on total daily dietary calcium intake. In most patients 500 mg per day is required to achieve a total intake of 1,200 mg, or in some 1,000 mg per day. More calcium is absorbed from calcium citrate compared to calcium carbonate. PMID:25147494

  17. Association, effects and validation of polymorphisms within the NCAPG - LCORL locus located on BTA6 with feed intake, gain, meat and carcass traits in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In a previously reported genome-wide association study based on a high-density bovine SNP genotyping array, 8 SNP were nominally associated (Pdaily gain (ADG) and 3 of these were also associated (Pdaily feed intake (ADFI) in a population of c...

  18. Estimated fluoride intake of 6-month-old infants in four dietary regions of the United States.

    PubMed

    Ophaug, R H; Singer, L; Harland, B F

    1980-02-01

    Eleven composite food groups comprising the infant "market basket" food collections for 1977 or 1978 from each of four dietary regions of the United States were analyzed for their fluoride content. Based upon the determined fluoride content of each composite and Food and Drug Administration estimates of food consumption the daily fluoride intake of an average 6-month-old infant residing in each of the dietary regions was calculated. The daily fluoride intake varied from 0.207 mg/day in Grand Rapids, Mich. (north central dietary region) to 0.541 mg/day in Orlando, Fla. (south dietary region). Flouride intakes of 0.272 and 0.354 mg/day were calculated for Philadelphia, Pa. (northeast dietary region) and Los Angeles, Calif. (west dietary region), respectively. The fluoride content of the water supplies ranged from 0.37 ppm (Los Angeles) to 1.04 ppm (Grand Rapids). Drinking water, dairy products and substitutes (other than milk), and grain and cereal products contributed 44 to 80% of the daily fluoride intake. In three of the four dietary regions the daily fluoride intake was less than the optimum level of 0.05 mg/kg body weight. PMID:7355802

  19. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A.; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. Objective To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Design Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). Results In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (− 2 to 2). Conclusions Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered. PMID:27014577

  20. Higher dietary lycopene intake is associated with longer cardiac event-free survival in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Biddle, Martha; Moser, Debra; Song, Eun Kyeung; Heo, Seongkum; Payne-Emerson, Heather; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Pressler, Susan; Lennie, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Background The antioxidant lycopene may be beneficial for patients with heart failure (HF). Processed tomato products are a major source of lycopene, although they are also high in sodium. Increased sodium intake may counter the positive antioxidant effect of lycopene. Methods This was a prospective study of 212 patients with HF. Dietary intake of lycopene and sodium was obtained from weighted 4-day food diaries. Patients were grouped by the median split of lycopene of 2471 μg/day and stratified by daily sodium levels above and below 3 g/day. Patients were followed for 1 year to collect survival and hospitalization data. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to compare cardiac event-free survival between lycopene groups within each stratum of sodium intake. Results Higher lycopene intake was associated with longer cardiac event-free survival compared with lower lycopene intake (p = 0.003). The worst cardiac event-free survival was observed in the low lycopene intake group regardless of sodium intake (> 3 g/day HR = 3.01; p = 0.027 and ≤ 3 g/day HR= 3.34; p = 0.023). Conclusion These findings suggest that increased lycopene intake has the potential to improve cardiac event-free survival in patients with HF independent of sodium intake. PMID:23076979

  1. The Daily Practices of Successful Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.

    2011-01-01

    While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in daily practice. "The Daily Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of daily practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators

  2. Once-daily aminoglycoside therapy: potential ototoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, C; Smith, C; Krieff, D

    1996-01-01

    Current data indicate that once-daily aminoglycoside therapy is as efficacious as traditional multiple daily dosing and equally or less toxic. Our experience with once-daily gentamicin, 6 mg/kg of body weight led to a 10% (3 of 33 patients) occurrence of documented ototoxicity after prolonged aminoglycoside exposure. PMID:8878610

  3. The Daily Practices of Successful Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.

    2011-01-01

    While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in daily practice. "The Daily Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of daily practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…

  4. [Nutrition behavior in adolescent students (15-19 years of age) in the Nancy metropolitan area. A comparison with the recommended nutritional intake of the French population].

    PubMed

    Michaud, C; Musse, N; Kahn, J P; Grebert, M; Burlet, C; Mejean, L

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the food behavior of 495 adolescents (15-19 years old) sample living in Nancy (France). The results are compared with the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for French adolescent population. The RDA are not satisfied for important percentages of girls for the daily energy intake (26.3% of girls have allowances less than 30% RDA), for the calcium intake (28.7% of girls have allowances less than 40% RDA), and for the protein intake (17.6% of girls have allowances less than 20% RDA). Lipids consumption is excessive (19.9% of boys and 23.4% of girls have allowances greater than 20% RDA) and energy intake from breakfast are low (25% of adolescents provide less 10% of daily energy intake by breakfast) for all these teen-agers. These results confirm the data observed in two others studies concerning the food behavior of French adolescents. PMID:2772360

  5. Heavy metal and metalloids intake risk assessment in the diet of a rural population living near a gold mine in the Peruvian Andes (Cajamarca).

    PubMed

    Barenys, Marta; Boix, Nuria; Farran-Codina, Andreu; Palma-Linares, Imma; Montserrat, Roser; Curto, Ariadna; Gomez-Catalan, Jesus; Ortiz, Pedro; Deza, Nilton; Llobet, Juan M

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates the diet composition of a rural population near a gold mine in the Cajamarca district of Peru. The main consumed items by this population were tubers and cereals, and the mean energy intake (1990 kcal) was shown not to cover the recommended intake values for the male population. The concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Zn, Al, Cr and, Cu in drinking water and food samples of items contributing to 91% of this diet (145 samples, 24 different items) were determined and used to calculate their daily intakes for risk assessment. The As, Cd and Pb daily intakes exceeded the limit values established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), entailing serious concerns for the population's health. Moreover, the intake values of As and Pb were shown to be higher, the closer to the gold mine the studied population was. PMID:24994564

  6. Fluid deprivation increases isotonic NaCl intake, but not hypertonic salt intake, under normal and heated conditions in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Omouessi, S T; Lemamy, G J; Kiki-Mvouaka, S; Fernette, B; Falconetti, C; Ndeboko, B; Mouecoucou, J; Thornton, S N

    2016-02-01

    In the course of exposure to fluid deprivation and heated environment, mammals regulate their hydromineral balance and body temperature by a number of mechanisms including sweating, water and salt intakes. Here we challenged obese Zucker rats, known to have a predisposition to hypertension, with 0.9%NaCl alone or with 2%NaCl solution + water to drink under fluid deprivation and heated conditions. Food and fluid intakes, body weight, diuresis and natriuresis were measured daily throughout. Serum aldosterone levels and Na(+) concentration were also analyzed. Data showed that obese and lean rats presented similar baseline measurements of food, 0.9%NaCl and fluid intakes, diuresis and fluid balance; whereas hypertonic 2%NaCl consumption was almost absent. Before and during fluid deprivation animals increased isotonic but not hypertonic NaCl intake; the obese showed significant increases in diuresis and Na(+) excretion, whereas, total fluid intake was similar between groups. Heat increased isotonic NaCl intake and doubled natriuresis in obese which were wet on their fur and displayed a paradoxical increase of fluid gain. Fluid deprivation plus heat produced similar negative fluid balance in all groups. Body weight losses, food intake and diuresis reductions were amplified under the combined conditions. Animals exposed to 2%NaCl showed higher circulating levels of aldosterone and obese were lower than leans. In animals which drank 0.9%NaCl, obese showed higher serum levels of Na(+) than leans. We conclude that in spite of their higher sensitivity to high salt and heat obese Zucker rats can control hydromineral balance in response to fluid deprivation and heat by adjusting isotonic NaCl preference with sodium balance and circulating levels of aldosterone. This suggests a key hormonal role in the mechanisms underlying thermoregulation, body fluid homeostasis and sodium intake. PMID:26621332

  7. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    An, Ruopeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Methods: Data came from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Results: Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Conclusion: Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting. PMID:27153083

  8. A New Method for Measuring Meal Intake in Humans via Automated Wrist Motion Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yujie; Scisco, Jenna; Muth, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the energy intake (kcal) of a person in day-to-day life is difficult. The best laboratory tool achieves 95 % accuracy on average, while tools used in daily living typically achieve 60–80 % accuracy. This paper describes a new method for measuring intake via automated tracking of wrist motion. Our method uses a watch-like device with a micro-electro-mechanical gyroscope to detect and record when an individual has taken a bite of food. Two tests of the accuracy of our device in counting bites found that our method has 94 % sensitivity in a controlled meal setting and 86 % sensitivity in an uncontrolled meal setting, with one false positive per every 5 bites in both settings. Preliminary data from daily living indicates that bites measured by the device are positively related to caloric intake illustrating the potential of the device to monitor energy intake. Future research should seek to further explore the relationship between bites taken and kilocalories consumed to validate the device as an automated measure of energy intake. PMID:22488204

  9. Chronic intake of fermented floral nectar by wild treeshrews

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, Frank; Zitzmann, Annette; Lachance, Marc-André; Yegles, Michel; Pragst, Fritz; Wurst, Friedrich M.; von Holst, Dietrich; Guan, Saw Leng; Spanagel, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    For humans alcohol consumption often has devastating consequences. Wild mammals may also be behaviorally and physiologically challenged by alcohol in their food. Here, we provide a detailed account of chronic alcohol intake by mammals as part of a coevolved relationship with a plant. We discovered that seven mammalian species in a West Malaysian rainforest consume alcoholic nectar daily from flower buds of the bertam palm (Eugeissona tristis), which they pollinate. The 3.8% maximum alcohol concentration (mean: 0.6%; median: 0.5%) that we recorded is among the highest ever reported in a natural food. Nectar high in alcohol is facilitated by specialized flower buds that harbor a fermenting yeast community, including several species new to science. Pentailed treeshrews (Ptilocercus lowii) frequently consume alcohol doses from the inflorescences that would intoxicate humans. Yet, the flower-visiting mammals showed no signs of intoxication. Analysis of an alcohol metabolite (ethyl glucuronide) in their hair yielded concentrations higher than those in humans with similarly high alcohol intake. The pentailed treeshrew is considered a living model for extinct mammals representing the stock from which all extinct and living treeshrews and primates radiated. Therefore, we hypothesize that moderate to high alcohol intake was present early on in the evolution of these closely related lineages. It is yet unclear to what extent treeshrews benefit from ingested alcohol per se and how they mitigate the risk of continuous high blood alcohol concentrations. PMID:18663222

  10. Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Carole E.; Vivian, Wendy J.; Oddy, Wendy H.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Mori, Trevor A.; O’Sullivan, Therese A.

    2012-01-01

    Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01). Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01). Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01), due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health. PMID:23363991

  11. Effect of 2-hydroxyestradiol on binge intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Babbs, R K; Wojnicki, F H E; Corwin, R L W

    2011-07-01

    One conundrum of binge eating is that women are more likely to suffer from binge-related disorders, even though estradiol decreases food intake. 2-hydroxyestradiol (2OHE2), an estrogen metabolite, may account for the contradiction, due to possible interference with DA signaling. We hypothesized that 2OHE2 would enhance bingeing in a rodent model. Two cohorts (1 male, 1 female) of 34 non-food-deprived rats were separated into daily control (D) (received an optional source of dietary fat for 20 min every day) or bingeing (INT) groups (received fat intermittently, i.e. 20 min on Mon, Weds, Fri). During the 5-week binge induction period, shortening intakes escalated significantly faster in females than in males, such that males consumed significantly less fat/kg body mass than did females after 5 weeks. This result is consistent with the idea that biological differences contribute to sex differences in bingeing. Rats were then injected with 2OHE2 (1.0, 3.0, and 10.0 μg/kg intraperitoneally), vehicle, or 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) immediately prior to fat access. Fat intake was significantly stimulated by 2OHE2 only in the INT rats (p<0.03). Furthermore, this effect seemed to be more subtle in females than in males. Thus, 2OHE2 appears to exacerbate binge size. These data suggest a novel biological mechanism for sex differences in the risk of eating disorders. PMID:21497615

  12. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Schweitzer, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  13. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S; Fulgoni, Victor L; Schweitzer, Cindy M

    2015-06-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003-2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey's reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth "mixed dishes" group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%-20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%-25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  14. A STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORT ON INTAKE TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents an updated evaluation of mechanisms and intake designs for reducing the number of fish entrained and impinged at water intake facilities. These mechanisms consist of intake configurations, behavioral barriers for guiding fish past intake entrances, physical sc...

  15. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study

    PubMed Central

    Chouet, Justine; Ferland, Guylaine; Fart, Catherine; Rolland, Yves; Presse, Nancy; Boucher, Kariane; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ?65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 g/day versus the other two thirds combined). Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS). Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64), those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better) mean MMSE score (22.0 5.7 versus 19.9 6.2, p = 0.024) and lower (i.e., better) FBRS score (1.5 1.2 versus 1.9 1.3, p = 0.042). In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted ? = 1.66, p = 0.013) and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted ? = ?0.33, p = 0.037). Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = ?0.24, p = 0.001). Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults. PMID:26274973

  16. Dietary fibers reduce food intake by satiation without conditioned taste aversion in mice.

    PubMed

    Rasoamanana, Rojo; Even, Patrick C; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2013-02-17

    It is well known that intake of dietary fiber (DF) potently decreases food intake and feelings of hunger and/or promotes satiety ratings. However, the mechanisms explaining these effects are not well characterized. This work was performed to determine which of satiation and/or satiety mechanisms provoke the decrease of food intake induced by DF in mice. We tested in an intra-group protocol a low-viscosity (LV, fructo-oligosaccharide), a viscous (VP, guar gum) and a high-viscosity (HV, mixture of guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharide) preload. These were given to mice by intra-gastric gavage. It appeared that viscous preloads such as VP and HV reduced the daily energy intake by 14% and 21% respectively. The strong effect of HV was mainly due to a large decrease of meal size (by 57%) and meal duration (by 65%) with no effect on ingestion rate during the first 30 min after administration. Therefore, the DF-induced decrease of energy intake was due to a satiation mechanism. This is further supported by a 3-fold increased sensitization of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract as observed by c-Fos protein immunolabelling. No compensation of food intake was observed during the rest of the day, a phenomenon that may be explained by the fact that metabolic rate remained high despite the lower food intake. We have also shown that the DF-induced inhibition of food intake was not paired with a conditioned taste aversion. To conclude, this work demonstrates that DF inhibits food intake by increasing satiation during ~1h after administration. PMID:23268328

  17. Dietary intake of lutein and diabetic retinopathy in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Sahli, Michelle W.; Mares, Julie A.; Meyers, Kristin J.; Klein, Ronald; Brady, William E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Donahue, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypothesis that dietary intake of lutein is inversely associated with prevalence of diabetic retinopathy due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and its location within the retina. Methods We used logistic regression to examine the association between prevalent DR and energy-adjusted lutein intake [by quartile (Q)] using data collected from 1,430 ARIC study participants with diabetes (n=994 White and n=508 Black). DR was assessed using a 45-degree nonmydriatic retinal photograph from one randomly chosen eye taken at visit 3 (1993–95). Dietary lutein intake was estimated using a 66-item food frequency questionnaire at visit 1(1987–89). Results The median estimated daily lutein intake was 1,370 μg/1000 kcals and the prevalence of DR was ~21%. We found a crude association between lutein and DR [OR (95% CI) for Q4 (high intake) vs. Q1 (low intake) =2.11 (1.45–3.09); p for trend<0.0001] which was attenuated after adjustment for race, duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, field center and energy intake [1.41 (0.87–2.28); p for trend=0.01]. In analyses limited to persons with a short duration of diabetes (<6 years), the association no longer persisted [0.94 (0.31–2.16); p for trend=0.72] as compared to the association in those with a longer duration of diabetes (≥6 year) [1.58 (0.91–2.75); p for trend=0.01]. Conclusion Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the odds of higher lutein intake were greater among those with DR than those without DR. However, after adjusting for confounders, intake of lutein was not associated with DR. PMID:26949989

  18. Development of an approach for estimating usual nutrient intake distributions at the population level.

    PubMed

    Guenther, P M; Kott, P S; Carriquiry, A L

    1997-06-01

    Assessment of the dietary intake of a population must consider the large within-person variation in daily intakes. A 1986 report by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), commissioned by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), marked an important milestone in the history of this issue. Since that time, USDA has been working cooperatively with statisticians at Iowa State University (ISU), who have further developed the measurement error model approach proposed by NAS. The method developed by the ISU statisticians can be used to estimate usual dietary intake distributions for a population but not for specific individuals. It is based on the assumption that an individual can more accurately recall and describe the foods eaten yesterday than foods eaten at an earlier time. The method requires as few as two independent days of nutrient intake information or three consecutive days for at least a subsample of the individuals. It removes biases of subsequent reporting days compared with the first day, and temporal effects such as day-of-the-week and seasonal effects can be easily removed. The method developed at ISU is described conceptually and applied to data collected in the 1989-91 USDA Continuing Survey of Food intakes by individuals to estimate the proportion of men and women age 20 y and older having "usual" (long-run average) intakes below 30% of energy from fat, below the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances for vitamin A and folate, and above 1000 micrograms for folate. These results were compared with the results from the distributions of 1-d intakes and of 3-d mean intakes to demonstrate the effect of within-person variation and asymmetry on usual nutrient intakes in a population. PMID:9187624

  19. Mate Intake and Risk of Breast Cancer in Uruguay: a Case- Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Stefani, Eduardo De; Mendoza, Beatriz; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Vazquez, Alvaro; Abbona, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Regarding 'mate' intake (infusion of Ilex paraguariensis herb, a staple beverage in temperate South American regions), most epidemiologic studies showed positive associations with risk of some cancers, (e.g. upper aerodigestive tract), but evidence on breast cancer (BC) risk is limited to a previous multi-site study, which reported a non significant odds ratio [OR]=0.85, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.67-1.09, p for trend=0.31) for the highest quartile of intake. The present study was conducted in order to further assess associations of 'mate' intake with BC risk. We combined two databases of women belonging to public and private healthcare hospitals. The sample included 572 BC incident cases and 889 controls interviewed with a specific questionnaire featured by socio-demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, and a food frequency questionnaire of 64 items, also analyzing 'mate' intake (consumer status, daily intake, age at start, age at quit, duration of habit, intensity of intake). ORs and their 95%CI were calculated through unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant potential confounders. The highest quartile of 'mate' intake was inversely associated with BC risk (OR=0.40, 95%CI 0.26-0.57, p for trend <0.001). Stratified analyses also displayed strong significant inverse associations for 'mate' in frequent tea drinkers (OR=0.22), high energy intake (OR=0.23), high body mass index (OR=0.29) and in postmenopausal women (OR=0.36), among other results. As conclusions, we found evidence of a significant inverse association for 'mate' intake and BC risk. PMID:27039789

  20. Estimation of Total and Inorganic Arsenic Intake from the Diet in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mi-Na; Lee, Seul-Gi; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Jeongseon; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kim, Heon; Choi, Byung-Sun; Yu, Il-Je; Park, Jung-Duck

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a major environmental pollutant and a known human carcinogen that is widely distributed in the air, soil, and water. General population is mainly exposed to As through drinking water and food from the contaminated water and soil. Arsenic in drinking water is generally well controlled now. This study was performed to estimate total and inorganic As intake and to determine the major contributing source in the Korean adult diet. The study subjects were 2117 healthy adults (922 males and 1195 females) who had not been occupationally exposed to As. Total dietary intake was studied using the 24-h recall method, which included 138 specific food items. The estimates of total As and inorganic As intake were based on total and inorganic As contents in each food item consumed during the last 24 h. Daily dietary intake was estimated to be 1373.6 g. Total As intake was estimated to be 145.4 µg As/day. Total dietary As intake was correlated with consumption of fish/shellfish, seaweeds, and grains. Approximately 87 % of total dietary As intake was attributed to seafood, such as 105.5 µg As/day from fish/shellfish and 20.5 µg As/day from seaweeds. Inorganic As intake was estimated to be 10.4 µg As per day. Inorganic As intake was mainly provided by grains (6.4 µg As/day), followed by seaweeds and fish/shellfish. Our results indicate that seafood and grains are the main As dietary sources in Korean adults and that dietary As exposure may be associated with individual dietary habits and environmental As contamination among countries. PMID:26706926

  1. FLUORIDE INTAKE FROM DRINKING WATER AND DENTIFRICE BY CHILDREN LIVING IN A TROPICAL AREA OF BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Omena, Leila Maria F.; Silva, Milton F. de A.; Pinheiro, Cleone Calheiros; Cavalcante, Jairo C.; Sampaio, Fábio Correia

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess fluoride (F-) intake from water and toothpaste by children aged 18 to 36 months and to monitor the F- concentrations in the drinking water system in a tropical city of Brazil. Methods: Children (n=58) aged 18-36 months, all lifetime residents of Penedo, state of Alagoas, Brazil, participated in this study. Water F- analyses were carried out in 7 different occasions at least a week apart. For 2 days all the water drunk by each child was accounted for. Fluoride intake from water for each child was estimated using the mean F- concentration of water in 7 different occasions. Fluoride intake from toothpaste was estimated by subtracting the recovered post-brushing F- from the original amount placed in the toothbrush. The F- intake from water and toothpaste was estimated by dividing the total amount of F- ingested by the weight of each child. Results: The mean F- concentration in the drinking water was 0.94 ppm (mean range 0.78-1.1 ppm), which is above the 0.7 ppm recommended for this area of Brazil. Mean total F- intake from water and toothpaste was 0.128 mg F-/Kg Body Weight/day. The daily means of F- intake from water and toothpaste were 0.021 and 0.107 mg F-/Kg Body Weight, respectively. Ninety six percent of children showed F- intake above 0.07 mg F-/Kg Body Weight/day. Conclusions: Children in Penedo are at risk for developing dental fluorosis due to high F- intake from fluoridated toothpastes. Water fluoridation showed low contribution to the total F- intake. However, high water F- concentrations in the water indicate the need of surveillance of the artificial water fluoridation system. PMID:19089062

  2. Intake of Key Chronic Disease–Related Nutrients among Baby Boomers

    PubMed Central

    King, Dana E.; Xiang, Jun; Brown, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The dietary habits of baby boomers (people born between 1946 and 1964) undoubtedly will have a substantial impact on their future health; however, dietary information regarding the intake of key chronic disease–related nutrients is lacking for this generation. The objective of this study was to compare the dietary intake of key chronic disease–related nutrients of the baby boomer generation with the previous generation of middle-aged adults. Methods National cross-sectional study comparison analyzing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) including NHANES III (1988–1994) and the NHANES for 2007–2010, focused on adult respondents ages 46 to 64 years who were not institutionalized at the time of each survey. The two cohorts were compared with regard to dietary intake of key nutritional components. The main outcome measures were intake of total calories, sodium, cholesterol, fat, fruits, vegetables, vitamin C, water, and fiber. Results The baby boomers’ average daily intake of nutrients exceeded that of the previous generation of middle-aged adults for total calories (2118/1999), total fat (82/76 g), sodium (3513/3291 mg), and cholesterol (294/262 g; all P < 0.001). The intake of vitamin C (105/89 g), water (1208/1001 g), and vegetables (199/229 g) was less than that of the previous generation (P < 0.001), and the dietary intake of fruit and fiber was unchanged. In regression analyses, dietary changes remained significant after controlling for age, race, sex, and socioeconomic status (all P < 0.01). Conclusions The study findings document higher dietary intake of key chronic disease–related nutrients along with reduced vegetable intake among baby boomers compared with the previous generation of middle-aged adults. These findings are indicative of a diet that may contribute to increased rates of chronic disease among individuals in this age group. PMID:24945165

  3. Pilot Study to Assess Isoflavone Intake in Middle-Aged Italian Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bertoli, Simona; Spadafranca, Angela; Ravelli, Laura; Foti, Paola; Erba, Daniela; Testolin, Giulio; Battezzati, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of isoflavone (IF) intake in Western populations is scarce, primarily because data about the content of these compounds in non-soy derived foods are incomplete or unavailable. The aims of this study were 1) to enrich the data available in literature about the IF content in traditional Italian foods, 2) to estimate daidzein (D) and genistein (G) intake in an Italian population sample. Eighteen Italian foods have been selected and analysed for IF content by GC-MS; the assessment of IF intake was performed in sixty healthy middle-aged Italian subjects after investigation of their dietary habits by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The mean IF intake was 171 261 ?g/die (26-1415 ?g/die). The mean G intake was greater than D (98 131 ?g/die vs 76 131 ?g/die). As expected, soy products, even though poorly consumed (27%), resulted the main contributor to IF intake (IF intake was 473.4 440 ?g/die vs 75 38 ?g/die in soy consumers and non soy consumers respectively p<0.001). Among Mediterranean foods, the main contributor resulted fresh bread that is widely consumed (97%). The percentage contribution of the cereal group to mean IF intake was 91%; the legume, fruit and vegetables groups brought a low contribution (3%, 2% and 4% respectively). The total daily IF intake found was low and probably not sufficient to produce biological effects. However more studies are necessary to investigate whether low exposure to IF for a long time could have positive effects on human health. PMID:23675065

  4. Effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance, nutrient intake, and digestibility in hair-breed sheep.

    PubMed

    Macías-Cruz, U; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F D; Soto-Navarro, S A; Aguila-Tepato, E; Avendaño-Reyes, L

    2013-04-01

    Twelve Dorper × Pelibuey wether lambs (26.8 ± 1.6 kg initial BW, 5 mo of age) were used to evaluate effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance, and effects of ZH and ZH supplementation period (15 and 30 d) on nutrient intake and digestibility. Lambs were blocked by initial BW, and assigned randomly within BW blocks to 1 of 2 treatments: i) control (no ZH), and ii) supplemented with ZH (10 mg ZH/wether lamb daily). Measurements of intake and digestibility were performed on d 9 to 15 and 24 to 30. Feedlot performance data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design, and nutrient intake and digestibility data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Final BW, ADG, total BW gain, and G:F were greater (P ≤ 0.04) for ZH than for control lambs. No treatment × feeding duration interaction for nutrient intake and apparent total tract digestibility were observed (P > 0.05). Intake of DM, OM, CP, and GE were less (P ≤ 0.03) for ZH than for control. Lambs fed for 30 d had greater (P ≤ 0.04) NDF and GE intake compared with those fed for 15 d. Total tract digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, and ADF (P ≤ 0.03) was less for ZH than control. Furthermore, calculated DE, ME, and TDN intake decreased (P < 0.01) with ZH supplementation. Also, DM, CP, and ether extract(EE) digestibility were greater (P < 0.01) for 30 d than for 15 d. Additionally, greater (P ≤ 0.01) DE, ME, and TDN intake was observed for 30 d compared with 15 d. In conclusion, ZH supplementation of wether lambs consuming feedlot diets resulted in improved feedlot performance and reduced the intake and digestibility of some nutrients. PMID:23345549

  5. Intake of essential fatty acids in Indonesian children: secondary analysis of data from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Neufingerl, Nicole; Djuwita, Ratna; Otten-Hofman, Anke; Nurdiani, Reisi; Garczarek, Ursula; Sulaeman, Ahmad; Zock, Peter L; Eilander, Ans

    2016-02-28

    Essential fatty acids (EFA) such as α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) are needed for healthy growth and development of children. Worldwide, reliable intake data of EFA are often lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate dietary intake of EFA in Indonesian children. Dietary intake data of 4-12-year-old children (n 45,821) from a nationally representative Indonesian survey were used to estimate median intake and distribution of population fatty acid intake. Missing data on individual fatty acids in the Indonesian food composition table were complemented through chemical analyses of national representative food samples and imputation of data from the US nutrient database. Nutrient adequacy ratios were calculated as a percentage of FAO/WHO intake recommendations. The medians of total fat intake of the children was 26·7 (10th-90th percentile 11·2-40·0) percentage of total daily energy (%E). Intakes of fatty acids were 4·05 (10th-90th percentile 1·83-7·22) %E for total PUFA, 3·36 (10th-90th percentile 1·14-6·29) %E for LA and 0·20 (10th-90th percentile 0·07-0·66) %E for ALA. Median intake of PUFA was 67 % and that of ALA 40 % of the minimum amounts recommended by FAO/WHO. These data indicate that a majority of Indonesian children has intakes of PUFA and specifically ALA that are lower than recommended intake levels. Total fat and LA intakes may be suboptimal for a smaller yet considerable proportion of children. Public health initiatives should provide practical guidelines to promote consumption of PUFA-rich foods. PMID:26824732

  6. Dietary intake of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc by children from the German North Sea island Amrum.

    PubMed

    Schrey, P; Wittsiepe, J; Budde, U; Heinzow, B; Idel, H; Wilhelm, M

    2000-03-01

    The dietary intake of metals was studied in seven male and seven female children at the age of 1.5 to 5.3 years living in a remote area of Germany, the North Sea island Amrum. The dietary intake of lead and cadmium was measured by a seven-day-duplicate study using atomic absorption spectrometry. The dietary intake of copper and zinc were calculated from food diaries. The median lead and cadmium intakes were 2.1 micrograms/(kgbw x week) [range: 0.63-5.1 micrograms/(kgbw x week)] and 2.7 micrograms/(kgbw x week) [range: 1.7-4.4 micrograms/(kgbw x week)]. The median daily intake of copper and zinc were 1.1 mg/d (range: 0.54-2.5 mg/d) and 5.7 mg/d (range: 2.7-14 mg/d). Compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 25 micrograms/(kgbw x week) proposed by the WHO the dietary intake of lead was low. The median amounted to 8.5% and the maximum to 20% of the PTWI. The cadmium intake was comparatively high. The median amounted to 39% and the maximum to 63% of the PTWI [7 micrograms/(kgbw x week)]. The median intake of copper was in the range of the values recommended by the German Society of Nutrition (0.7-1.0 mg/d and 1.0-1.5 mg/d for children at the age of 1-< 4 years and 4-< 7 years). Twenty-three percent of the calculated intakes were below these values. The median intake of zinc however did not reach the recommended dietary intake of 7 and 10 mg/d for children at the age of 1-< 4 years and 4-< 7 years. PMID:10956583

  7. [Energy protein intake during nutritional recovery and nutritional status achieved].

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Patricia; Weisstaub, Gerardo; Araya, Magdalena

    2010-03-01

    Thirty years ago malnourished Chilean children were recovered by CONIN; they were fed ad libitum and this may have favoured the appearance of overweight-obesity (SP/OB). The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between energy-calorie intake during nutritional recovery and the appearance of overweight-obesity (SP/OB). The design was a retrospective, analytical study of the universe formed by the 168 clinical records found, of children below 2 years of age, recovered by CONIN between 1977 and 1982. Nutritional status was assessed using the Sempé criteria (applied in the period evaluated) and those of WHO, (currently in use), on admission, after 4 month treatment and on discharge. By Sempé criteria, malnutrition on admission was classified 25% severe, 63% moderate and 12% mild; instead, using WHO standards these figures were 14.9%, 29.2% y 38.1%, respectively; the remaining children were well nourished. On discharge, there was no SP/OB by W/A (Sempé), but by W/H (WHO) 6% and 13.8% were SP/OB after 3 months and on discharge, respectively. Food intake, administered ad libitum, reached a mean of 148 kcals/ kg/d and 4 g prot/kg/d. SP/OB children had greater daily weight gain (30.3 vs 19.2 g/d) than the non-obese children and greater daily weight gain than the mean for age and sex (19.7 vs 8.2 g/dia). The prescribed feeding reached values considered high by currently used criteria; actual intake, administered ad-libitum, was significantly lower and was associated with 13.8% of children with overweight-obesity at the time of discharge. PMID:21090276

  8. Association between alcohol calorie intake and overweight and obesity in English adults.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Nicola Jane; Knott, Craig S

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the contribution of alcohol-derived calories to the alcohol-obesity relation. Adult alcohol calorie intake was derived from consumption volume and drink type in the Health Survey for England 2006 (n = 8864). We calculated the odds of obesity with survey-adjusted logistic regression. Mean alcohol calorie consumption was 27% of the recommended daily calorie intake in men and 19% in women on the heaviest drinking day in the last week, with a positive association between alcohol calories and obesity. Alcohol calories may be a significant contributor to the rise in obesity. PMID:24524529

  9. Does nutritional intake differ between children with autism spectrum disorders and children with typical development?

    PubMed

    Herndon, Alison C; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Johnson, Susan L; Leiferman, Jenn; Reynolds, Ann

    2009-02-01

    Consumption of macro- and micronutrients and food group servings by children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; n = 46) and typical development (n = 31) were compared using 3-day diet records. Children with ASDs consumed significantly more vitamin B6 and E and non-dairy protein servings, less calcium, and fewer dairy servings (p < .05). The significantly lower dairy serving intake persisted after controlling for child age and sex and parental dietary restrictions, and excluding children on the gluten-free casein-free (GFCF) diet. Large proportions of children in both groups did not meet national recommendations for daily intake of fiber, calcium, iron, vitamin E, and vitamin D. PMID:18600441

  10. Association Between Alcohol Calorie Intake and Overweight and Obesity in English Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Nicola Jane; Knott, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the contribution of alcohol-derived calories to the alcohol–obesity relation. Adult alcohol calorie intake was derived from consumption volume and drink type in the Health Survey for England 2006 (n = 8864). We calculated the odds of obesity with survey-adjusted logistic regression. Mean alcohol calorie consumption was 27% of the recommended daily calorie intake in men and 19% in women on the heaviest drinking day in the last week, with a positive association between alcohol calories and obesity. Alcohol calories may be a significant contributor to the rise in obesity. PMID:24524529

  11. The effect of frozen grass silage on the feed intake and feeding behavior of pregnant ewes.

    PubMed

    Bøe, K E; Dønnem, I

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of frozen grass silage on the feed intake, feed preferences, and feeding behavior of ewes. Two experiments were conducted, each involving 8 pregnant ewes in a Latin square design with 4 treatments: 1) frozen silage; 2) partly frozen silage; 3) frozen, chopped silage; 4) and unfrozen silage (control). In Exp. 2, the ewes in square 1 were fed grass silage with low DM content (LDM) and in square 2 the ewes were fed grass silage with high DM content (HDM). In both experiments, each treatment period lasted for 14 d. A feed preference test was conducted, where the ewes could choose between 2 of the experimental feed treatments for 1 d in a changeover design so that they were exposed to all pairwise combinations of the 4 treatments. On the last day of each experimental period in Exp. 1, the feeding behavior was scored by direct observation for 4 h. In Exp. 1 ( < 0.0001) and in Exp. 2 ( = 0.03), feed intake in the first 4 h after feeding was lowest on the frozen silage treatment and highest on the control treatment. The DMI in the first 4 h after feeding was higher ( = 0.005) in the HDM treatment than in the LDM treatment. The total daily feed intake in Exp. 1 was lowest on the frozen, chopped silage treatment and highest on the unfrozen silage treatment ( = 0.02). In Exp. 2, daily feed intake did not differ ( = 0.32) among treatments. Total daily feed intake was higher ( < 0.0001) in the LDM treatment than in the HDM treatment but there was no difference in the DMI. There was no difference in the preference for the different feed treatments, when considering either the first 4 h ( = 0.12 to = 0.86) or the whole 24-h period ( = 0.25 to = 0.53). Time spent eating normally was longer on the control treatment and shorter on the frozen silage treatments ( < 0.0001) whereas time spent eating by tearing off feed from the frozen block followed the opposite pattern ( < 0.0001). We conclude that intake of frozen silage was lower for the first 4 h but that frozen silage had a very moderate effect on daily feed intake. Partly thawing or chopping improved the feed intake. Treatment had no significant effect on feed preferences. Feeding frozen silage increased time spent tearing off feed from frozen block, but total time eating was moderately increased. PMID:26523575

  12. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  13. Relationship between Milk and Calcium Intake and Lipid Metabolism in Female Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, JaeHee; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Ki Nam; Choi, Young-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to determine the association between intake of milk and dairy products as well as calcium and biomarkers related to lipid metabolism in Korean female patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods A cohort of 509 female subjects (mean age: 59.0 years; range: 35-80 years) was recruited from Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul between 2005 and 2010. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of their daily intake of milk and dairy products [<50 g/day (0<50 g/day), 50-200 g/day, and >200 g/day (>200-1201 g/day)] and then further divided into two groups according to their daily calcium intake: below and above the estimated average requirement (EAR). Results After adjustment for age, body mass index, energy intake, exercise, use of nutritional supplements and cholesterol medication, the level of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly higher in subjects with milk and dairy products consumption of >200 g/day than in subjects in the other two groups. Those subjects with a milk and dairy products consumption of >200 g/day had significantly higher levels of apolipoprotein A-1 and a significantly lower atherogenic index than the other two groups. Patients with a calcium intake above the EAR exhibited a significantly greater serum HDL-cholesterol level than those with a calcium intake below the EAR. Conclusion Milk and dairy products, good sources of calcium, play a positive role in lipid profiles in female patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23549807

  14. Individual and familial factors associated with fruit and vegetable intake among 11- to 14-year-old Romanian school children.

    PubMed

    Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Tutui, Iulia

    2015-09-01

    The healthy nutrition guidelines proposed by international research institutes and the World Health Organization recommend a daily intake of fruit and vegetables of at least 400 g, representing five servings a day (each serving contains around 80 g). Moreover, the recommendations stress the importance of consuming both fruit and vegetables daily, preferably at least two portions of fruit and three portions of vegetables per day. To efficiently develop interventions for promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among children, it is essential to identify and understand the factors that influence these behaviours. The present study aims at identifying the individual and familial factors which influence fruit and vegetable consumption among Romanian children. A cross-sectional survey by means of anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 361 school children, aged 11-14, from Cluj-Napoca, Romania (April-May 2011). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake. The results show that 44.6% of the children met the recommendations regarding fruit intake, while 9.1% of the children declared eating the daily recommended portions of vegetables. Knowledge regarding the recommended number of daily servings and higher self-efficacy concerning the intake of fruit and vegetables every day were positively associated with higher consumption of fruit and vegetables. Fruit preference also influenced positively the consumption of fruit. The familial factor associated with vegetable intake was the perceived behaviour of the mother, while fruit intake was higher among children who declared higher fruit availability at home. Hence, it is necessary to develop in Romania nutrition interventions addressing the determinants of fruit and vegetable intake as identified by this study; these interventions should target both children and parents. PMID:25323566

  15. Effect of dam factors on milk intake and performance of Belgian Blue suckling calves.

    PubMed

    Fiems, L O; Van Caelenbergh, W; De Campeneere, S; De Brabander, D L

    2008-01-01

    Milk intake data were collected at 4-week intervals from Belgian Blue double-muscled (BBDM) suckling calves up to 16 weeks after birth. Dams were fed at 100%, 90%, 80% or 70% of their energy requirements during a 140-day indoor period from the beginning of December to the end of April (restriction period). Afterwards, cows were turned out on pasture (re-alimentation period). Mean calving date was 3 June, but parturitions were spread over the year. A total of 521 individual milk intake (IMI) and 120 average daily milk intake (AMI, mean of IMI) records were collected. IMI amounted to 7.0 ± 2.2 kg/day and was not affected by energy level during the indoor period. It was highest in May and June. Calves born out of multiparous cows consumed more milk than those born out of primiparous cows (7.4 v. 6.2 kg per day; P = 0.001), while intake tended to be higher in female than in male calves (7.2 v. 6.8 kg per day; P = 0.044). Dam age at calving, parity, post partum weight and body condition were only weakly correlated with AMI (r 0.4). AMI was correlated with pre-weaning live-weight gain (r = 0.807) and weaning weight (r = 0.783), with a slightly higher correlation for male than for female calves. Daily live-weight gain during the suckling period was increased by 79 g per extra kg daily milk intake on average, and by 86 and 74 g, respectively, for male and female calves. Calf solid feed intake was low, even when milk intake was low. In terms of net energy intake, milk was only substituted for solid feed by 29%. It can be concluded from the calf intake that milk production in BBDM cows is comparable with that of cows from other beef breeds, but its variation is considerable, complicating an accurate estimation. PMID:22444972

  16. Consumer clusters in Denmark based on coarse vegetable intake frequency, explained by hedonics, socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle factors. A cross-sectional national survey.

    PubMed

    Beck, Tove K; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, Sonni Hansen; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kidmose, Ulla

    2015-08-01

    Vegetable intake seems to play a protective role against major lifestyle diseases. Despite this, the Danish population usually eats far less than the recommended daily intake. The present study focused on the intake of 17 coarse vegetables and the potential barriers limiting their intake. The present study drew upon a large Danish survey (n = 1079) to study the intake of coarse vegetables among Danish consumers. Four population clusters were identified based on their intake of 17 different coarse vegetables, and profiled according to hedonics, socio-demographic, health, and food lifestyle factors. The four clusters were characterized by a very low intake frequency of coarse vegetables ('low frequency'), a low intake frequency of coarse vegetables; but high intake frequency of carrots ('carrot eaters'), a moderate coarse vegetable intake frequency and high intake frequency of beetroot ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects, 'beetroot eaters' were characterized as traditional food consumers, and 'high frequency' were individuals with a strong food engagement and high vegetable liking. 'Low frequency' identified more barriers than other consumer clusters and specifically regarded low availability of pre-cut/prepared coarse vegetables on the market as a barrier. Across all clusters a low culinary knowledge was identified as the main barrier. PMID:25916624

  17. Controlling the Intake of Calories With the Intake of Food

    PubMed Central

    Broomes, E. L. C.

    1987-01-01

    The author presents a dietary program for weight reduction based not on the substitution of a low calorie meal for a high calorie meal, but on the pre-meal ingestion of low calorie bulk beverages that are pleasant to taste and space filling, thereby compromising the capacity of the stomach to accommodate much of the higher calorie foods of the regular meals. This method makes any form of fasting unnecessary, as the intake of calories is already limited. Because of this method, few changes need to be made in food selection for regular meals. PMID:3508220

  18. Caffeine increases food intake while reducing anxiety-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Patrick; Levack, Russell; Watters, Jared; Xu, Zhenping; Yang, Yunlei

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different doses of caffeine on appetite and anxiety-related behavior. Additionally, we sought to determine if withdrawal from chronic caffeine administration promotes anxiety. In this study, we utilized rodent open field testing and feeding behavior assays to determine the effects of caffeine on feeding and anxiety-related behavior (n = 8 mice; 4-8 weeks old). We also measured 2 h and 24 h food intake and body-weight during daily administration of caffeine (n = 12 mice; 4-8 weeks old). To test for caffeine withdrawal induced anxiety, anxiety-related behavior in rodents was quantified following withdrawal from four consecutive days of caffeine administration (n = 12 mice; 4-8 weeks old). We find that acute caffeine administration increases food intake in a dose-dependent manner with lower doses of caffeine more significantly increasing food intake than higher doses. Acute caffeine administration also reduced anxiety-related behaviors in mice without significantly altering locomotor activity. However, we did not observe any differences in 24 h food intake or body weight following chronic caffeine administration and there were no observable differences in anxiety-related behaviors during caffeine withdrawal. In conclusion, we find that caffeine can both increase appetite and decrease anxiety-related behaviors in a dose dependent fashion. Given the complex relationship between appetite and anxiety, the present study provides additional insights into potential caffeine-based pharmacological mechanisms governing appetite and anxiety disorders, such as bulimia nervosa. PMID:26972351

  19. Intracerebroventricular capsaicin and food intake in the rat.

    PubMed

    Falchi, M; Ferrara, F; Gharib, C; Dib, B

    2001-01-01

    To investigate whether capsaicin affected food intake and body weight and/or interfered with the mechanisms regulating the body temperature, capsaicin was administered intracerebroventricularly to rats at a daily dose of 25 micrograms of 5 microliters of vehicle for 10 consecutive days. The vehicle consisted of 5% ethanol plus 5% Tween 80 in isotonic saline. The ambient temperature (Ta) was 22 degrees C. Two control groups were used: the first group was treated with the vehicle but its concentration was lowered 10 times in order to avoid the wellknown brain toxicity of Tween 80; the second group was injected with NaCl 0.9% alone. The subsequent observation period lasted 38 days and the rats were exposed to a Ta of 22, 32, 35, 10 and 22 degrees C for different times. Food intake and body weight showed a remarkable decrease during the treatment period in both the capsaicin- and vehicle-treated groups. During the observation period, food intake behavior and body weight evolution were different among the three groups of treated rats. The influence of Ta was most apparent in the capsaicin-treated rats that showed a long-lasting deficit in their body weight and a clear inability to regulate their body temperature (Tb) in a warm environment (Ta 35 degrees C). However, the capsaicin-treated rats began to recover from the weight loss when they were finally housed at Ta 22 degrees C. Tween 80-treated rats began to recover from the weight loss earlier, the pretreatment body weight having been reached during Ta 32 degrees C exposure, i.e., 12 days after the end of the treatment. Since capsaicin did not reduce food intake for a long time during the recovery process, the effect of capsaicin on Ta and body weight seems to be related to metabolic processes. Under the conditions of the present study, neither capsaicin nor Tween 80 seem to have permanently impaired the animals' energy balance regulation. PMID:11392055

  20. Reducing portion size reduces food intake and plate waste.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Marjorie R; Brochado, Carolina

    2010-09-01

    As portion size (PS) increases, so does food intake. The effect of decreasing PS on food intake in a nonlaboratory setting is unknown. This 5-week study sought to determine whether decreasing PS resulted in decreased intake of the same food, and if so, at what point further PS reductions might lack benefit. It also assessed effects of PS reduction on food production and waste in a university all-you-can-eat dining facility (DF). Subjects were primarily freshmen who regularly ate lunch at the DF, and self-selected French fries (FF) presented in individual paper bags, portioned originally at 88 g, and decreased approximately 15 g/week for 3 weeks. Diners were covertly observed choosing one or more bags. Total FF production and plate waste (PW) were determined daily. Decreasing PS resulted in significant decreases in consumption per diner (P < 0.05) and PW (P < 0.05), and nonsignificant decreases in total FF consumption and production. PS was positively correlated with consumption per diner (r = 0.897, P = 0.001) and PW (r = 0.852, P = 0.001), but inversely correlated with number of diners choosing >or=2 bags (r = -0.809, P = 0.003). Total FF production was positively correlated with PW (r = 0.728, P = 0.011). This study shows that reducing PS of a particular item in an all-you-can-eat environment results in reduced intake of that food for most individuals, and that reducing PS reduces PW and food production. PMID:20035274

  1. Effect of portion size information on food intake.

    PubMed

    Ueland, Oydis; Cardello, Armand V; Merrill, Ellen P; Lesher, Larry L

    2009-01-01

    The term portion size is used differently by food manufacturers, regulatory agencies, and consumers. As such, it is unclear how information about portion size may influence perceived satiety and intake of foods by consumers. The objective of this study was to examine how portion size information influences satiety and intake, and how consumers interpret the term portion size. A randomized controlled design was used in which subjects were served a lunch meal consisting of a preload of pasta followed by ad libitum servings of the same pasta. In each of three separate sessions the subjects were told that the preload meal constituted 1/2, 1, or 1 1/2 portions of pasta. Thirty-three normal-weight subjects (22 males and 11 females) were recruited from a 250-member volunteer employee panel at Natick Research, Development, and Engineering Center during January 2005. Main measures were pre- and post-preload hunger/fullness ratings, liking ratings, amount consumed of the pasta after the preload, and Likert ratings of statements about different definitions of portion size. Results showed that portion size information did not influence satiety ratings or total intake. Consumers associated portion size more with daily nutrient requirements than with an ideal quantity for a satiating meal (P<0.01). Information about portion size may not be a good tool to manipulate food-intake behavior. Consumers' concept of portion size is associated more with objective measures of food than with personal experience about the amount that would be appropriate to eat. PMID:19103332

  2. Dietary acrylamide intake is not associated with gastrointestinal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hogervorst, Janneke G F; Schouten, Leo J; Konings, Erik J M; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2008-11-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that was detected in several heat-treated foods, such as French fries and crisps, in 2002. Prospective studies are needed on acrylamide and human cancer risk. We prospectively investigated the association between acrylamide and gastrointestinal cancer risk. In 1986, 120,852 men and women (aged 55-69 y) were included in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. At baseline, a random subcohort of 5000 participants was selected for a case-cohort approach. Acrylamide intake was assessed with a FFQ at baseline and was based on acrylamide analyses in relevant Dutch foods. After 13.3 y of follow-up, 2190, 563, 349, and 216 cases of colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, and esophageal cancer, respectively, were available for analysis. The daily acrylamide intake of the subcohort was (mean +/- SD) 21.7 +/- 12.1 microg. A 10-microg/d increment of acrylamide intake was associated with multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard rate ratios (HR) (95% CI) of 1.00 (0.96-1.06), 1.02 (0.94-1.10), 1.06 (0.96-1.17), and 0.96 (0.85-1.09) for colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, and esophageal cancer, respectively. For former or never-smokers, the corresponding HR were: 1.03 (0.94-1.12), 1.09 (0.98-1.22), 1.07 (0.93-1.24), and 0.92 (0.76-1.11). There were some significantly increased risks within subgroups stratified by obesity, nonoccupational physical activity, and age, factors that were a priori selected based on their capacity to modify cytochrome P4502E1 activity. Overall, acrylamide intake was not associated with colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, and esophageal cancer risk, but some subgroups deserve further attention. PMID:18936224

  3. Calcium intake increases risk of prostate cancer among Singapore Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Lesley M.; Wong, Alvin S.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of dairy products, the primary source of calcium in Western diets, has been found to be positively associated with prostate cancer. In an Asian diet, non-dairy foods are the major contributors of calcium. Thus, a study of dietary calcium and prostate cancer in Asians can better inform on whether calcium, as opposed to other dairy components is responsible for the dairy foods-prostate cancer association. We examined calcium intake and prostate cancer risk among 27,293 men of the Singapore Chinese Health Study that was established between 1993 and 1998. As of December 31, 2007, 298 incident prostate cancer cases had been diagnosed among the cohort members. Diet was assessed at baseline with a validated 165-item food frequency questionnaire. It is hypothesized that there is greater net absorption of calcium in smaller individuals. Therefore, the calcium-prostate cancer association was also assessed in stratified analyses by median body mass index (BMI). Vegetables were the largest contributor of daily calcium intake in the study population. Overall, we observed a modest, statistically nonsignificant 25% increase in prostate cancer risk for the 4th (median = 659 mg/day) versus 1st (median=211 mg/day) quartiles of calcium intake after adjustment for potential confounders. The association became considerably stronger and achieved statistical significance (hazard ratio=2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.34; P for trend=0.01) for men with below median (22.9 kg/m2) BMI. Dietary calcium may be a risk factor for prostate cancer even at relatively low intake. PMID:20516117

  4. Choline and betaine food sources and intakes in Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Chu, Da-Ming; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yeh, Nai-Hua; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2012-01-01

    Choline and betaine are involved in several similar health-relevant metabolic pathways, but the foods sources are different. We have assessed their intakes (individual, sums and ratios) from a dominantly Chinese food cultural point of view. A representative free-living Taiwanese population aged 13-64 years was drawn from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 1993-1996. Food intake was derived from interviews as 24-hour recalls. The USDA database, with adaptations for Taiwan, provided choline and betaine food compositions. Major food contributors of these nutrients were identified and compared with data from the US Framingham offspring study. Mean and variance reduced median nutrient intakes were calculated. Top ten major food contributors of choline in Taiwan were eggs, pork, chicken, fish, soybean and its products, dark leafy vegetables, dairy, fruit, wheat products and light leafy vegetables in sequence. For betaine, the top ten were dark leafy vegetables, wheat products, fish, pork, bread, chicken, cake/cookies, grain-based alcoholic beverages, rice and its products and sauces. The main contributors of choline in Taiwan and the USA were, respectively, eggs and red meat; and for betaine, greens were similarly best contributor. The rankings of the main food contributors of choline and betaine differed substantially between Taiwan and the USA. The total daily intakes (mean±SE, mg) in Taiwan for choline were 372±19 (median=348) in men and 265±9 (median 261) for women; for betaine, values were 101±3 (median 93) in men and 78±8 (median 76) for women. These allow for health outcome considerations. PMID:23017313

  5. Patrol Officer Daily Noise Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, Lynn R; Vosburgh, Donna J H

    2015-01-01

    Previous research shows that police officers are at a higher risk for noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). Little data exists on the occupational tasks, outside of the firing range, that might lead to the increased risk of NIHL. The current study collected noise dosimetry from patrol officers in a smaller department and a larger department in southern Wisconsin, United States. The noise dosimeters simultaneously measured noise in three virtual dosimeters that had different thresholds, criterion levels, and exchange rates. The virtual dosimeters were set to: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hearing conservation criteria (OSHA-HC), the OSHA permissible exposure level criteria (OSHA-PEL), and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). In addition to wearing a noise dosimeter during their respective work days, officers completed a log form documenting the type of task performed, the duration of that task, if the task involved the use of a siren, and officer characteristics that may have influenced their noise exposure, such as the type of dispatch radio unit worn. Analysis revealed that the normalized 8-hour time weighted averages (TWA) for all officers fell below the recommended OSHA and ACGIH exposure limits. The tasks involving the use of the siren had significantly higher levels than the tasks without (p = 0.005). The highest noise exposure levels were encountered when patrol officers were assisting other public safety agencies such as a fire department or emergency medical services (79 dBA). Canine officers had higher normalized 8-hr TWA noise exposure than regular patrol officers (p = 0.002). Officers with an evening work schedule had significantly higher noise exposure than the officers with a day or night work schedule (p = 0.023). There were no significant differences in exposure levels between the two departments (p = 0.22). Results suggest that this study population is unlikely to experience NIHL as established by the OSHA or ACGIH occupational exposure levels from the daily occupational tasks that were monitored. PMID:26011417

  6. Oxytocin knockout mice demonstrate enhanced intake of sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Rinaman, Linda; Vollmer, Regis R; Amico, Janet A

    2007-05-01

    Oxytocin knockout (OT KO) mice display enhanced intake of nutritive and nonnutritive sweet solutions (i.e., sucrose and saccharin) compared with wild-type (WT) mice of the same C57BL/6 background strain. The present study further investigated the differential behavioral response of OT KO and WT mice to sucrose solutions and also examined intake preferences of OT KO and WT mice for palatable but nonsweet isocaloric solutions of carbohydrate and fat. A progressive ratio operant licking procedure demonstrated that OT KO and WT mice display a similar motivational drive to consume 10% sucrose. A series of two-bottle intake tests revealed that OT KO mice consume significantly larger amounts of both sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions (i.e., sucrose, Polycose, and cornstarch) compared with WT cohorts. Intake pattern analyses revealed that OT KO mice overconsume carbohydrate solutions by initiating more drinking bouts compared with WT mice; bout sizes did not differ between the genotypes. In contrast, OT KO and WT mice did not differ in their intake of Intralipid, a palatable soybean oil emulsion. These findings indicate that the absence of OT in mice does not affect their appetitive drive to consume palatable sucrose solutions. Instead, the absence of OT may increase daily intake of palatable sweet and nonsweet solutions of carbohydrate (but not fat) by selectively blunting or masking processes that contribute to postingestive satiety. PMID:17272659

  7. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese

    PubMed Central

    Huang, De-Jia; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. PMID:26950871

  8. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese.

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Jia; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. PMID:26950871

  9. Comparison of Various Databases for Estimation of Dietary Polyphenol Intake in the Population of Polish Adults

    PubMed Central

    Witkowska, Anna M.; Zujko, Małgorzata E.; Waśkiewicz, Anna; Terlikowska, Katarzyna M.; Piotrowski, Walerian

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to estimate the consumption of polyphenols in a population of 6661 subjects aged between 20 and 74 years representing a cross-section of the Polish society, and the second objective was to compare the intakes of flavonoids calculated on the basis of the two commonly used databases. Daily food consumption data were collected in 2003–2005 using a single 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of total polyphenols was estimated using an online Phenol-Explorer database, and flavonoid intake was determined using following data sources: the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) database combined of flavonoid and isoflavone databases, and the Phenol-Explorer database. Total polyphenol intake, which was calculated with the Phenol-Explorer database, was 989 mg/day with the major contributions of phenolic acids 556 mg/day and flavonoids 403.5 mg/day. The flavonoid intake calculated on the basis of the USDA databases was 525 mg/day. This study found that tea is the primary source of polyphenols and flavonoids for the studied population, including mainly flavanols, while coffee is the most important contributor of phenolic acids, mostly hydroxycinnamic acids. Our study also demonstrated that flavonoid intakes estimated according to various databases may substantially differ. Further work should be undertaken to expand polyphenol databases to better reflect their food contents. PMID:26569297

  10. Nutrient intakes of individuals from food-insufficient households in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, D; Oliveira, V

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Understanding the nutritional consequences of food insufficiency is important for informed policy-making that addresses the problem of domestic hunger. This study estimated the extent to which individuals from food-insufficient households were likely to have low intakes of energy and 14 other nutrients. METHODS: The diets of pre-schoolers, adult women, and the elderly were analyzed with 24-hour recall data from the 1989 through 1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the association of self-reported household food insufficiency with nutrient intakes below 50% of the recommended daily allowance. RESULTS: For adult women, food insufficiency was significantly associated with low intakes of eight nutrients, including energy, magnesium, and vitamins A, E, C, and B6. Elderly individuals in the food-insufficient group were also more likely to have low intakes of eight nutrients, including protein, calcium, and vitamins A and B6. Household food insufficiency was not significantly associated with low intakes among preschoolers. CONCLUSIONS: The results validate the use of self-reported hunger measures in nutritional surveillance and highlight nutrients of concern for food assistance and nutrition education efforts targeted at individuals from food-insufficient households. PMID:9431283

  11. RELATIONS BETWEEN DAIRY FOOD INTAKE AND ARTERIAL STIFFNESS: PULSE WAVE VELOCITY AND PULSE PRESSURE

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrrill F.; Dore, Gregory A.; Abhayaratna, Walter P.; Robbins, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors, such as diet, are becomingly increasingly important in the management of cardiovascular disease, one of the greatest major causes of death and disease burden. Few studies have examined the role of diet as a possible means of reducing arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity, an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with measures of arterial stiffness including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. A cross-sectional analysis of a subset of the Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study sample was performed. A linear decrease in pulse wave velocity was observed across increasing intakes of dairy food consumption (ranging from never/rarely to daily dairy food intake). The negative linear relationship between pulse wave velocity and intake of dairy food was independent of demographic variables, other cardiovascular disease risk factors and nutrition variables. The pattern of results was very similar for pulse pressure, while no association between dairy food intake and lipid levels was found. Further intervention studies are needed to ascertain whether dairy food intake may be an appropriate dietary intervention for the attenuation of age-related arterial stiffening and reduction of cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:22431583

  12. Comparison of Various Databases for Estimation of Dietary Polyphenol Intake in the Population of Polish Adults.

    PubMed

    Witkowska, Anna M; Zujko, Małgorzata E; Waśkiewicz, Anna; Terlikowska, Katarzyna M; Piotrowski, Walerian

    2015-11-01

    The primary aim of the study was to estimate the consumption of polyphenols in a population of 6661 subjects aged between 20 and 74 years representing a cross-section of the Polish society, and the second objective was to compare the intakes of flavonoids calculated on the basis of the two commonly used databases. Daily food consumption data were collected in 2003-2005 using a single 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of total polyphenols was estimated using an online Phenol-Explorer database, and flavonoid intake was determined using following data sources: the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) database combined of flavonoid and isoflavone databases, and the Phenol-Explorer database. Total polyphenol intake, which was calculated with the Phenol-Explorer database, was 989 mg/day with the major contributions of phenolic acids 556 mg/day and flavonoids 403.5 mg/day. The flavonoid intake calculated on the basis of the USDA databases was 525 mg/day. This study found that tea is the primary source of polyphenols and flavonoids for the studied population, including mainly flavanols, while coffee is the most important contributor of phenolic acids, mostly hydroxycinnamic acids. Our study also demonstrated that flavonoid intakes estimated according to various databases may substantially differ. Further work should be undertaken to expand polyphenol databases to better reflect their food contents. PMID:26569297

  13. Relations between dairy food intake and arterial stiffness: pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrrill F; Dore, Gregory A; Abhayaratna, Walter P; Robbins, Michael A

    2012-05-01

    Modifiable risk factors, such as diet, are becomingly increasingly important in the management of cardiovascular disease, one of the greatest major causes of death and disease burden. Few studies have examined the role of diet as a possible means of reducing arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity, an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with measures of arterial stiffness, including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. A cross-sectional analysis of a subset of the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study sample was performed. A linear decrease in pulse wave velocity was observed across increasing intakes of dairy food consumption (ranging from never/rarely to daily dairy food intake). The negative linear relationship between pulse wave velocity and intake of dairy food was independent of demographic variables, other cardiovascular disease risk factors, and nutrition variables. The pattern of results was very similar for pulse pressure, whereas no association between dairy food intake and lipid levels was found. Further intervention studies are needed to ascertain whether dairy food intake may be an appropriate dietary intervention for the attenuation of age-related arterial stiffening and reduction of cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:22431583

  14. A systematic review of behavioral interventions to promote intake of fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Ravia, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake in the United States remains below recommended levels despite evidence of the health benefits of regular consumption. Efforts to increase F/V intake include behavior-based interventions. A systematic review of MEDLINE PubMed and PsycINFO databases (2005-2010) was conducted to identify behavior-based intervention trials designed to promote F/V intake. Using predetermined limits and selection criteria, 34 studies were identified for inclusion. Behavior-based interventions resulted in an average increase in F/V intake of +1.13 and +0.39 servings per day in adults and children, respectively. Interventions involving minority adults or low-income participants demonstrated average increases in daily F/V consumption of +0.97 servings/day, whereas worksite interventions averaged +0.8 servings/day. Achieving and sustaining F/V intake at recommended levels of intake across the population cannot be achieved through behavior-based interventions alone. Thus, efforts to combine these interventions with other approaches including social marketing, behavioral economics approaches, and technology-based behavior change models should be tested to ensure goals are met and sustained. PMID:21963019

  15. Dietary intake of non-nutritive sweeteners in type 1 diabetes mellitus children.

    PubMed

    Dewinter, Louise; Casteels, Kristina; Corthouts, Karen; Van de Kerckhove, Kristel; Van der Vaerent, Katrien; Vanmeerbeeck, Kelly; Matthys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current cross-sectional study were (1) to assess the intake of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-k, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, sucralose, saccharin, steviol glycosides and neotame among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D); (2) to compare the obtained intakes with the respective acceptable daily intake (ADI) values; and (3) to conduct a scenario analysis to obtain practical guidelines for a safe consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) among children with T1D. T1D patients of the Paediatrics Department of the University Hospitals Leuven were invited to complete a food frequency questionnaire designed to assess NNS intake using a tier 2 and tier 3 exposure assessment approach. A scenario analysis was conducted by reducing the P95 consumption of the most contributing food categories in order to reach a total sweetener intake lower than or equal to the ADI. Estimated total intakes higher than ADIs were only found for the P95 consumers only of acesulfame-k, cyclamate and steviol glycosides (tier 2 and tier 3 approach). Scenario analysis created dietary guidelines for each age category for diet soda, bread spreads and dairy drinks. There is little chance for T1D children to exceed the ADI of the different NNS, however diabetes educators and dieticians need to pay attention regarding the use of NNS. PMID:26523968

  16. Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R.; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light–dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light–dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high‐amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light–dark cycle. PMID:25263204

  17. Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions.

    PubMed

    Bououda, Hanan; Achaban, Mohamed R; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pvet, Paul

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light-dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light-dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high-amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light-dark cycle. PMID:25263204

  18. Effects of menstrual phase on intake of nicotine, caffeine, and alcohol and nonprescribed drugs in women with late luteal phase dysphoric disorder.

    PubMed

    Marks, J L; Hair, C S; Klock, S C; Ginsburg, B E; Pomerleau, C S

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the possibility that cigarette smoking and other drug use are affected by menstrual phase in smokers with Late Luteal Phase Dysphoric Disorder (LLPDD), we examined daily diaries rating menstrual symptomatology, smoking, alcohol and nonprescription drug use, and caffeine intake in nine female smokers meeting criteria for LLPDD. Menstrual symptomatology peaked during the premenstrual phase. Smoking, alcohol, and nonprescription drug intake were increased during menses; caffeine intake was unaffected by phase. No systematic intrasubject correlation between symptomatology and smoking was detected. It was concluded that in women with LLPDD, smoking and alcohol and nonprescription drug intake appear to vary as a function of menstrual phase. The lack of intrasubject correlations between symptomatology and intake, and the failure of peak intake to coincide with peak symptomatology, however, indicate that these effects cannot be explained simply as "self-medication" of acute episodes of dysphoric mood. PMID:7804022

  19. Local food environments are associated with girls’ energy, sugar-sweetened beverage and snack-food intakes

    PubMed Central

    Deierlein, Andrea L; Galvez, Maida P; Yen, Irene H; Pinney, Susan M; Biro, Frank M; Kushi, Lawrence H; Teitelbaum, Susan; Wolff, Mary S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe availability and frequency of use of local snack-food outlets and determine whether reported use of these outlets was associated with dietary intakes. Design Data were cross-sectional. Availability and frequency of use of three types of local snack-food outlets were reported. Daily dietary intakes were based on the average of up to four 24 h dietary recalls. Multivariable linear regression models estimated average daily intakes of energy, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and snack foods/sweets associated with use of outlets. Setting Multi-site, observational cohort study in the USA, 2004–2006. Subjects Girls aged 6–8 years (n 1010). Results Weekly frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increased with number of available types of outlets. Girls with access to only one type of outlet reported consuming food/beverage items less frequently than girls with access to two or three types of outlets (P < 0·001). Girls’ daily energy, SSB and snack foods/ sweets intakes increased with greater use of outlets. Girls who reported using outlets >1 to 3 times/week consumed 0·27 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·40) servings of SSB more daily than girls who reported no use. Girls who reported using outlets >3 times/week consumed 449·61 (95 % CI 134·93, 764·29) kJ, 0·43 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·58) servings of SSB and 0·38 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·65) servings of snack foods/sweets more daily than those who reported no use. Conclusions Girls’ frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increases with the number of available types of outlets and is associated with greater daily intakes of energy and servings of SSB and snack foods/sweets. PMID:24821228

  20. Weighing everyday matters: Daily weighing improves weight loss and adoption of weight control behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Dori M; Bennett, Gary G; Askew, Sandy; Tate, Deborah F

    2015-01-01

    Background Daily weighing is emerging as the recommended self-weighing frequency for weight loss. This is likely because it improves adoption of weight control behaviors. Objective Examine whether weighing everyday is associated with greater adoption of weight control behaviors compared to less frequent weighing. Design Longitudinal analysis of a previously conducted 6-month randomized-controlled trial. Participants/setting Overweight men and women in Chapel Hill, NC in the Intervention arm (N=47). Intervention The intervention focused on daily weighing for weight loss using an e-scale that transmitted weights to a study website, along with weekly e-mailed lessons and tailored feedback on daily weighing adherence and weight loss progress. Main outcome measures We gathered objective data on self-weighing frequency from e-scales. At baseline and 6 months, weight change was measured in clinic, and weight control behaviors (total items = 37), dietary strategies, and caloric expenditure from physical activity were assessed via questionnaires. Caloric intake was assessed using an online 24-hour recall tool. Statistical analyses We used chi-square tests to examine variation in discrete weight control behaviors and linear regression models to examine differences in weight, dietary strategies, and calorie intake and expenditure by self weighing frequency. Results Fifty-one percent of participants weighed everyday (n= 24) over 6 months. The average self-weighing frequency among those weighing less than daily (n=23) was 5.4±1.2 days per week. Daily weighers lost significantly more weight compared to those weighing less than daily (mean difference, −6.1kg; 95% CI −10.2, −2.1; p=.004). The total number of weight control behaviors adopted was greater among daily weighers (17.6 ± 7.6 vs. 11.2 ± 6.4; p=.004). There were no differences by self-weighing frequency in dietary strategies, caloric intake, or caloric expenditure. Conclusions Weighing everyday led to greater adoption of weight control behaviors and produced greater weight loss compared to weighing most days of the week. This further indicates daily weighing as an effective weight loss tool. PMID:25683820

  1. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535

  2. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Shahril, Mohd Razif; Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535

  3. A study of fluid intake from beverages in a sample of healthy French children, adolescents and adults

    PubMed Central

    Bellisle, F; Thornton, S N; Hébel, P; Denizeau, M; Tahiri, M

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To assess the intake of fluid in healthy French children, adolescents, adults and seniors, considering amounts, types of beverages, time and place of consumption. Subjects/Methods: Data regarding fluid intake were extracted and analyzed from the National Intake Survey, which was conducted in quota samples of the French population (Comportement et Consommations Alimentaires en France study). Seven-day questionnaires were administered to free-living individuals in 2002–2003. A total of 566 children (aged 6–11 years), 333 adolescents (aged 12–19 years), 831 adults (aged 20–54 years) and 443 seniors (aged ⩾55 years) were included in this study. Results: The average total intake of fluid was 1–1.3 l per day depending on age groups. Water accounted for about one-half of daily fluid intake. The contribution of other types of beverages varied with age (for example, dairy drinks in children and adolescents; alcoholic drinks in adults and seniors). Intake of sodas (including regular and light) was highest in adolescents (169 ml a day). Beverages were mainly consumed at home during meals. Conclusions: This is the first description of fluid intake in French children, adolescents, adults and seniors, considering amounts, types of beverages, time and place of intake. It shows that water is the main source of fluid in all age groups. Selection of various types of beverages is different according to age. PMID:20160751

  4. Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

  5. Daily feeding regimen impacts pig growth and behavior.

    PubMed

    Colpoys, Jessica D; Johnson, Anna K; Gabler, Nicholas K

    2016-05-15

    A primary swine production goal is to increase efficiency of lean tissue gains. While many swine production systems currently utilize ad libitum feeding, recent research suggests that altering feeding patterns may impact feed efficiency. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare two feeding patterns and evaluate their impact on whole body tissue accretion, feeding behavior and activity in growing pigs. Forty eight individually housed gilts (55.9±5.2kg on test BW) were assigned into one of two feeding treatments: 1) Free access to the feeder (Free Access) or 2) twice daily access where gilts were allowed to eat ad libitum between 08:00-09:00h and again from 17:00-18:00h (2×). Pig performance was recorded weekly for 55days and average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain:feed (G:F) was calculated. Body composition was assessed in 12 gilts per treatment using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at day -3 and 55 of treatment, and tissue accretion rates were calculated. Gilt behaviors were assessed via video analysis during week 7 and included time spent eating, feeding rate, enrichment interaction, postural changes, standing, sitting, and lying behaviors. Gilts fed 2× had lower ADG and ADFI compared to Free Access gilts (P≤0.01); however, no treatment difference in G:F was observed (P=0.83). At day 55 gilts fed 2× had a lower fat:protein compared to Free Access gilts (P=0.05). Fat, lean, and protein accretion rates were lower in gilts fed 2× compared to those fed Free Access (P=0.01). Gilts fed 2× ate less frequently and for a shorter duration of time, interacted with enrichment more frequently (P≤0.005), and tended to have less frequent postural changes compared to Free Access gilts (P=0.08). No treatment differences were observed in duration of time spent standing, sitting, or lying (P≥0.39). Although feed regimen did not alter feed efficiency, these data indicate that twice daily feeding reduced gilt adiposity and growth without altering the pig's behavioral expression of hunger. Therefore, twice daily feeding may be a method of increasing percent of lean tissue without negatively impacting gilt welfare. PMID:26957037

  6. Validity of a self-administered diet history questionnaire for estimating vitamin D intakes of Japanese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Murayama, Ryoko; Kitanaka, Sachiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    Maternal vitamin D status is important for fetal development and the prevention of pregnancy complications. Mothers require both sufficient intakes and skin production of this vitamin. We investigated the validity and test-retest reliability of a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) to establish a method of assessing vitamin D intakes of Japanese pregnant women, using a serum marker. A total of 245 healthy pregnant women in the second trimester, who were not taking vitamin D supplements, were recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo between June 2010 and July 2011. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were measured as an indicator of vitamin D status. To assess the test-retest reliability of the DHQ, 58 pregnant women completed it twice within a 4-5-week interval. Significant positive correlations between intakes and serum concentrations of vitamin D were found (r = 0.266 for daily intakes and r = 0.249 for energy-adjusted intakes). In the winter investigation in which the serum 25(OH)D concentrations were less likely to be affected by sunlight exposure, the correlation coefficients were 0.304 for both daily and energy-adjusted intakes. After excluding participants with pregnancy-associated nausea, the coefficients increased. The intraclass correlation coefficient between vitamin D intakes estimated from the two-time DHQ was 0.638. The DHQ provides an acceptable validity and reliability of the vitamin D intake of Japanese pregnant women. However, the data of women with nausea should be interpreted with caution. We believe that the DHQ is a useful questionnaire to grasp and improve vitamin D intakes during pregnancy. PMID:24118748

  7. Diet intervention methods to reduce fat intake: nutrient and food group composition of self-selected low-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Buzzard, I M; Asp, E H; Chlebowski, R T; Boyar, A P; Jeffery, R W; Nixon, D W; Blackburn, G L; Jochimsen, P R; Scanlon, E F; Insull, W

    1990-01-01

    A multicentered pilot study was conducted to test an intervention protocol designed to reduce fat intake to 15% of energy intake. Eligible subjects were postmenopausal women with stage II breast cancer whose baseline fat intake was more than 30% of energy intake. The low-fat diet intervention protocol consisted of bi-weekly individual counseling sessions with emphasis on substitution of lower-fat foods for high-fat foods and maintenance of nutritional adequacy. Nutrient intakes were calculated from 4-day food records collected at baseline and after 3 months of diet intervention. Mean daily fat intake for the 17 patients on the low-fat diet dropped significantly from 38.4 +/- 4.3% of energy intake at baseline to 22.8 +/- 7.8% at 3 months (p less than .001). A 25% reduction in mean energy intake, from 1,840 +/- 419 kcal at baseline to 1,365 +/- 291 kcal at 3 months, was accompanied by significant increases in protein and carbohydrate as percent of energy intake. A mean weight loss of 2.8 kg and a 7.7% reduction in serum cholesterol were observed; both changes were significant at the p less than .01 level. Absolute intakes of zinc and magnesium were significantly reduced. However, mean intake on the low-fat diet for 14 vitamins and minerals, including zinc and magnesium, exceeded two-thirds of the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). When expressed as nutrient density (i.e., amount of nutrient per 1,000 kcal), increases were observed for all micronutrients. These results support the hypothesis that a nutritionally adequate low-fat diet can be successfully implemented in a highly motivated, free-living population. PMID:2404049

  8. Whole grain intakes in the diets of Irish children and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Niamh F C; McNulty, Breige A; Gibney, Michael J; Thielecke, Frank; Smith, Hayley; Nugent, Anne P

    2013-07-28

    A growing body of evidence supports the inclusion of whole grain foods in the diet to help prevent certain chronic diseases. Although much of the research has been conducted in adult cohorts, it is thought that younger populations may also benefit from whole-grain-rich diets. The aim of the present study was to quantify the intake of whole grain in Irish children and teenagers, and assess the major sources of intake. Data used in the present study were from the National Children's Food Survey and the National Teens' Food Survey, which used 7 d food diaries to collect data on habitual food and beverage consumption in representative samples of Irish children and teenagers. Results showed that over 90 % of children (5-12 years) and over 86 % of teenagers (13-17 years) are consumers of whole grain, with mean daily intakes of 18·5 and 23·2 g/d, respectively. Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals made the greatest contribution to whole grain intakes for both children and teenagers (59·3 and 44·3 %), followed by bread (14·4 and 26·5 %), with wheat being the major source of intake, accounting for over 65 % of all whole grains consumed. Whole grain consumers had significantly higher intakes of fibre, P and Mg in comparison with non-consumers of whole grain, even though whole grain intakes in this sample were well below the recommendation of three servings or 48 g/d. The present study characterises, for the first time, the patterns of whole grain consumption in Irish children and teenagers and shows whole grain intake to be low. PMID:23228207

  9. Nutrient and nontraditional food intakes by Zambian children in a controlled feeding trial

    PubMed Central

    Schmaelzle, Samantha; Kaliwile, Chisela; Arscott, Sara A.; Gannon, Bryan; Masi, Cassim; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many programs aim to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Biofortification is an approach to improve provitamin A carotenoid concentrations of staple crops in some developing countries. In rural Zambia, maize accounts for the majority of energy intake. Provitamin A–biofortified (orange) maize has been released in Zambia. Objective This study quantified food intake of Zambian children from records collected in a feeding trial in 2012 in order to compare adoption of orange maize and a new vegetable (green beans) with white maize and traditional foods. Methods One hundred thirty-six children with a mean age of 71.5 ± 6.9 months were fed three meals a day for 6 days a week for 15 weeks at four feeding centers. Breakfast consisted of maize porridge, and lunch and dinner were stiff porridge (nshima) with various side dishes (relishes). There were three treatment groups, which received orange maize and placebo oil, white maize and placebo oil, or white maize and a daily vitamin A supplement. Food was weighed before and after consumption. Nutritionists were trained to interview the children’s caregivers about the previous day’s intake using dietary recalls. Nine dietary recalls for each child were recorded and analyzed. Results Total food intake did not differ among the groups (p = .31) and energy intakes on Sundays (<880 kcal) were below recommendations. Nshima intake was lower in the orange-maize group (p = .008), largely due to a genotype effect. Intakes of relish, green bean, and porridge did not differ among the groups (p > .19). Dietary recalls revealed that children living in sites closer to the main road consumed more on Sundays than children living about 8 km from the main road, but less in the evenings when children were off site. Conclusions The intakes of energy of these Zambian children suggest inadequacy. Implementation and adoption of new and biofortified foods is possible with promotion. PMID:24791580

  10. A Small-Changes Approach Reduces Energy Intake in Free-Living Humans

    PubMed Central

    Stroebele, Nanette; de Castro, John M.; Stuht, Jennifer; Catenacci, Vicki; Wyatt, Holly R.; Hill, James O.

    2010-01-01

    Objective America On the Move (AOM) is a national weight gain prevention initiative that promotes small lifestyle changes by increasing walking by 2000 steps/day and reducing energy intake by about 100 kcal/day. The study’s intent was to determine the impact of these small changes recommendations on steps/day and energy intake. Methods In this cross-sectional study, food and fluid intake and physical activity in 116 healthy overweight adults (BMI: 25–36 kg/m2; age: 18–60y) was compared between a non-intervention and an intervention week using diet diaries and pedometers. The major outcomes were steps/day, daily caloric intake, macronutrient intake and meal size. Within subject ANOVAs were conducted to compare results between intervention and non-intervention weeks. Results Total energy intake was lower during intervention week than non-intervention week (P < .01), including macronutrient contents (all P’s < .01), meal size (P < .01), consumption of sugar (P < .01), sugared sodas (P < .01) and sodium (P < .01). Steps/day were higher during intervention week than non-intervention week (P < .01). Conclusions The results support previous research showing that the message to increase steps/day results in an increase in physical activity. The results demonstrate for the first time that the message to reduce intake by 100 kcal/day does actually result in a lower intake in the short term. People seem to be able to make positive changes in diet and physical activity in response to these messages. If these small changes can be sustained, this approach could be effective in preventing further weight gain in the population. PMID:19571162

  11. Association of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Nawata, Kiyoko; Yamauchi, Mika; Takaoka, Shin; Yamaguchi, Toru; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2013-08-01

    n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 fatty acids) have been shown to have a beneficial effect on bone in animal studies, although little is known about their role in bone metabolism in humans. We investigated the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and daily n-3 fatty acid intake. This cross-sectional, community-based, epidemiologic study was conducted among 205 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 63.5years, range 46-79). We examined BMD, serum N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), urinary type-I collagen cross-linked-N-telopeptide (uNTX), total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Nutrient intake was calculated using a food-frequency questionnaire. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Simple regression analysis showed that intake of neither n-3 fatty acid nor n-6 fatty acid was associated with age or lipid metabolism indices. However, simple regression analysis showed that n-3 fatty acid intake was positively associated with both lumbar spine BMD and femoral neck BMD. n-6 fatty acid intake was positively associated with femoral neck BMD but not lumbar spine BMD. Multiple regression analysis showed that n-3 fatty acid intake was positively associated with lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, BMI, duration of menopausal state, grip strength, PINP, uNTX, and intakes of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, and n-6 fatty acid. In conclusion, n-3 fatty acid intake was positively associated with lumbar spine BMD independent of bone resorption and serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in postmenopausal women. PMID:23708886

  12. Salt intake of children and adolescents in South London: consumption levels and dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods. PMID:24614217

  13. Maternal dietary fat intake during pregnancy is associated with infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Hanna C; Kuzava, Sierra E; Werner, Elizabeth A; Monk, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Research with rodents and nonhuman primates suggests that maternal prenatal dietary fat intake is associated with offspring behavioral functioning indicative of risk for psychopathology. The extent to which these findings extend to humans remains unknown. The current study administered the Automated Self-Administered 24 hr Dietary Recall Questionnaire three times in pregnancy (n = 48) to examine women's dietary fat intake in relation to infant temperament assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire at 4-months old. The amount of saturated fat that the mother consumed was considered as a moderator of the association between total fat intake and child temperament. Results from a series of multiple linear regressions indicate that greater total fat intake was associated with poorer infant regulation and lower surgency. However, this second effect was moderated by maternal saturated fat intake, such that total fat intake was only related to infant surgency when mothers consumed above the daily recommended allowance of saturated fat. Under conditions of high total fat and high saturated fat, infants were rated as lower on surgency; under conditions of low total fat yet high saturated fat, infants were rated as higher on surgency. There were no associations between maternal prenatal fat intake and infant negative reactivity. These findings provide preliminary evidence that pregnant women's dietary fat intake is associated with infants' behavioral development, though future research is needed to address this report's limitations: a relatively small sample size, the use of self-report measures, and a lack of consideration of maternal and infant postnatal diet. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 528-535, 2016. PMID:26709151

  14. Association Between 100% Juice Consumption and Nutrition Intake and Weight of Children Aged 2 to 11 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to investigate the associations between 4 categories of daily 100% juice consumption (0 fl oz, greater than 0 to less than or equal to 6 fl oz; greater than 6 to less than 12 fl oz; and greater than or equal to 12 fl oz) and nutrient and food group intake and weight in...

  15. Chronic intake of honey, sugar and high fructose corn syrup exert equivalent effects on glucose and insulin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of nutritive sweeteners is high with ‘added sugars’ intake from the WWEIA (2009-2010) survey in all individuals = 2 yr at 76.2 g or 295 kcal daily. Controversy continues regarding the metabolic effects of the source of sweetener. Our goal was to evaluate the glycemic and insulin effect o...

  16. The use of a commercial vegetable juice as a practical means to increase vegetable intake: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recommendations for daily dietary vegetable intake were increased in the 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines, as consumption of a diet rich in vegetables has been associated with lower risk of certain chronic health disorders including cardiovascular disease. However, vegetable consumption in the United St...

  17. Floating intake reduces pump damage

    SciTech Connect

    Kronig, A.

    1993-12-31

    The solution to a costly sand erosion problem at the Grande Dixence hydroelectric project in Switzerland turned out to be as simple as a floating pump. The 726-MW Grande Dixence project drains a 350-square-kilometer reach of the Zermatt and Herens valleys in the southwestern Swiss Alps. About half of the drainage area is covered by active glaciers. Because the glaciers in Zermatt Valley are so low in altitude, their water is collected in Z`mutt Reservoir at the base of the Matterhorn, then pumped up 500 meters for transport to the main Grande Disence Reservoir near Sion. The glacier water is heavily laden with sand. In spite of a gravel pass and a desilter, the 700,000-acubic-meter Z`mutt Reservoir receives large quantities of sand. The sand tends to remain in solution because of the low water temperatures (1 to 2 degrees Centigrade). In the original intake system, the sand would be sucked into the pump intakes, causing extensive erosion to the pump wheels and an expensive yearly program of repair. (Pump damage averaged 200,000 Swiss Francs ($284,000 U.S.) per year between 1980 and 1985.)

  18. U.S. Food Guide Pyramid food group intake by Asian Indian immigrants in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, S S; Diwan, S; Cohen, D L

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the food group intake and the dietary quality of middle-aged and older Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants (45 years or older) living in two urban metropolitan areas in the U.S. Participants (90 men, 99 females) completed a 24-hour dietary recall, which was used to determine if they met the daily food group intake guidelines of the U.S. Food Guide Pyramid. The overall quality of their reported dietary intake was determined using the Healthy Eating Index based on their nutrient and food group intake. Both men and women met the daily number of servings recommendations for the grains (men: 9.3 servings/day; women: 6.9 servings/day) and vegetables (men: 4.5 servings/day; women: 3.6 servings/day) groups, but did not meet the recommendations for fruits, dairy and meats groups. The total score on the Healthy Eating Index of the diets of these participants was 73, indicative of a dietary intake that does not meet the established U.S. dietary guidelines. These immigrants should be educated about appropriate food choices (ethnic and non-ethnic) within each of the U.S. Food Guide Pyramid food groups to improve the overall quality of their dietary intakes. PMID:15980923

  19. Training response inhibition to food is associated with weight loss and reduced energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Natalia S.; O'Sullivan, Jamie; Parslow, David; Javaid, Mahmood; Adams, Rachel C.; Chambers, Christopher D.; Kos, Katarina; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The majority of adults in the UK and US are overweight or obese due to multiple factors including excess energy intake. Training people to inhibit simple motor responses (key presses) to high-energy density food pictures reduces intake in laboratory studies. We examined whether online response inhibition training reduced real-world food consumption and weight in a community sample of adults who were predominantly overweight or obese (N = 83). Participants were allocated in a randomised, double-blind design to receive four 10-min sessions of either active or control go/no-go training in which either high-energy density snack foods (active) or non-food stimuli (control) were associated with no-go signals. Participants' weight, energy intake (calculated from 24-h food diaries), daily snacking frequency and subjective food evaluations were measured for one week pre- and post-intervention. Participants also provided self-reported weight and monthly snacking frequency at pre-intervention screening, and one month and six months after completing the study. Participants in the active relative to control condition showed significant weight loss, reductions in daily energy intake and a reduction in rated liking of high-energy density (no-go) foods from the pre-to post-intervention week. There were no changes in self-reported daily snacking frequency. At longer-term follow-up, the active group showed significant reductions in self-reported weight at six months, whilst both groups reported significantly less snacking at one- and six-months. Excellent rates of adherence (97%) and positive feedback about the training suggest that this intervention is acceptable and has the potential to improve public health by reducing energy intake and overweight. PMID:26122756

  20. Association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes among adult men and women in India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is postulated that a diet high in legumes may be beneficial in preventing diabetes. However, little empirical evidence on this association exists in developing countries. We aimed to examine the association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes status in adult men and women in India. Methods The analysis is based on a population-based cross sectional study of 99,574 women and 56,742 men aged 2049 years included in Indias third National Family Health Survey conducted in 200506. Association of legume intake, determined by the frequency of consumption of pulses and beans (daily, weekly and occasionally or never), with the reported prevalence of diabetes were estimated using multiple logistic regression after adjusting for frequency of consumption of other food items, BMI status, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, watching television, age, education, living standard of the household, residence and geographic regions. Results Daily (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.590.87; p=0.001) and weekly (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.540.80; p<0.001) legumes intake were associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of diabetes among adult Indian women even after controlling for the effects of potentially confounding factors, whereas non-significant inverse associations were observed in men. Conclusion Daily or weekly intake of legumes was inversely associated with presence of diabetes in the Indian population. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. More epidemiological research with better measures of legumes intake and clinical measures of diabetes is needed to clarify this relationship. PMID:23915141

  1. Increasing dietary pectin level reduces utilization of digestible threonine intake, but not lysine intake, for body protein deposition in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, C L; Rademacher, M; de Lange, C F M

    2005-05-01

    Two N balance studies were conducted to investigate the effects of feeding graded levels of pectin (a soluble nonstarch polysaccharide, NSP) on the utilization of ileal digestible threonine (Thr; Thr study) and lysine (Lys; Lys study) intake for body protein deposition (PD) in growing pigs. In each study, eight Yorkshire barrows with an average initial BW of 17.2 +/- 1.3 (Thr study) and 14.3 +/- 1.4 kg (Lys study) were fed each of five experimental diets during five subsequent experimental periods, according to a crossover design. Pigs were fed twice daily at 2.6 times maintenance energy requirements. The soybean- and cornstarch-based diets, in which either Thr or Lys was the first-limiting nutrient, were formulated to contain (as-fed basis) 0, 4, 8