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Sample records for daily performances associations

  1. Lactation traits associated with short- and long-term once-daily milking performance in New Zealand crossbred dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Davis, S R; Turner, S-A; Obolonkin, V; Tiplady, K; Spelman, R J; Phyn, C V C

    2015-09-01

    The main objectives of this study were to establish the relative value of milk yields under twice-daily milking (TDM) as a predictor of yield and yield loss under once-daily milking (ODM), and to understand the role of residual milk and udder storage capacity-related traits in regulating yield and yield loss during ODM. A Holstein-Friesian × Jersey crossbred herd was established over 2 seasons (years), as 2 individual cohorts on the same farm, managed on a pasture-based system over 4 lactations. Short-term (1-wk) ODM studies, with a starting total of 690 cows, were undertaken in mid- and late-lactation in lactation 2 and in mid-lactation in lactation 3 for each cohort. A 10-wk study of ODM performance began in mid-lactation in lactation 3, whereas lactation 4 was a full-lactation assessment of ODM. In the short-term studies, milk yield under ODM was well predicted (R(2)=0.7 to 0.8 in 5 of 6 studies) by the daily yield under TDM in the week before ODM. Yield loss (kg/d) increased with increasing milk yield and with increasing somatic cell count (SCC), although predictions were relatively poor (R(2)=0.09 to 0.30). Yield loss (%) decreased with increasing TDM yield in 3 of the 6 studies and was positively correlated with SCC during ODM. Nevertheless, ODM yield loss, in absolute or percentage terms, was a poorly repeatable trait in grazing cows. Part of the variation in yield loss percentage (30%) was positively associated with residual milk (%), measured pretrial, during measurement of functional udder capacity in lactation 3. Total production (kg of milk) over the full-lactation ODM study in lactation 4 was correlated with total production in the 10-wk trial in lactation 3 (r=0.72 and 0.63 for cohorts 1 and 2, respectively). Identifying the highest- and lowest-producing 10% of animals during the full lactation of ODM indicated that poor production was associated with high yields of residual milk (measured in lactation 3) and, conversely, high production was

  2. The Associations Between Executive Functions' Capacities, Performance Process Skills, and Dimensions of Participation in Activities of Daily Life Among Children of Elementary School Age.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Limor

    2015-01-01

    Effective executive functions (EFs) are crucial for efficient daily functioning. Daily functioning or involvement in life situations is defined as "participation" (International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health [ICF]; World Health Organization, 2001). Yet associations between them have been inadequately studied for children. The present study aimed to explore the associations between EFs and child participation. Participants were 60 typically developing children aged 6 to 9 years old and their parents. The children were individually evaluated using five EF cognitive tests. The parents completed three questionnaires: the Children Participation Questionnaire, the Process Skills (the observed executive performance) Questionnaire, and the Environmental Restrictions Questionnaire. Most of the EF scores were associated with the child's age. A unique contribution of executive capacities was found for the "independence" aspect of child participation, though the quantum of contribution was limited compared with the other predictors' process skills and environmental restrictions. In the context of child participation, EFs should be studied through multivariate analysis, as otherwise, the unique contribution of executive capacities measured by neuropsychological cognitive tests are likely to be ignored. Process skills are crucial for a child's independence and autonomy in daily functioning. These findings are supported by the capacity-performance distinction suggested by the ICF model. PMID:25072941

  3. Prevalence, intensity and extent of Oral Impacts on Daily Performances associated with self-perceived malocclusion in 11-12-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2007-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence, intensity and extent of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances associated with self-perceived malocclusion among Peruvian schoolchildren. Methods Eight hundred and five children aged 11 to 12 years attending 4 of 7 randomly selected schools linked to a Health Centre in Lima, Peru, participated in the study. The Spanish (Peru)Child-OIDP was used to assess the prevalence, intensity and extent of oral impacts on 8 daily performances (eating, speaking, teeth cleaning, sleeping, smiling, studying, emotion and social contact). Self-perceived malocclusion included complaints about position of teeth, spacing of teeth and deformity of mouth or face. The prevalence of oral impacts was compared by covariables using the Chi-square test, whereas the intensity and extent of oral impacts were compared by covariables through the Mann-Whitney test. Results Only 15.5% of children reported impacts associated with self-perceived malocclusion during the last 3 months. Of them, 18.4% reported impacts of severe or very severe intensity and 76.0% reported impacts on only one daily performance. Psychosocial activities such as smiling, emotion and social contact were the most frequently and severely impacted everyday activities. Conclusion Impacts of self-perceived malocclusion primarily affected psychological and social everyday activities. These findings provide further evidence to support the importance of psychological and social components of oral health on children's lives. PMID:17506880

  4. [Daily difficulties associated with full conventional dentures].

    PubMed

    Machado, Flávia Christiane de Azevedo; da Costa, Anna Paula Serêjo; Pontes, Anna Lepríncia Bezerra; Lima, Kenio Costa; Ferreira, Maria Ângela Fernandes

    2013-10-01

    The effectiveness of health services can be evaluated from the quality of life (QOL) standpoint. Thus, this study evaluated rehabilitation services using full conventional dentures (FCD) of Specialized Dental Care Centers (SDCC) in Rio Grande do Norte (RN) regarding daily difficulties associated with these dentures made between 2007 and 2009. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 138 users of these FCD, collecting data by clinical examination and a questionnaire based on the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index. The Fisher and chi-square tests were used to test the association between the variables. The result was that 42% of users reported difficulties in executing oral activities due to FCDs. These difficulties were more frequent and intense in the activities of eating, speaking and smiling. In general, 58.7% of users did not have functional teeth. In relation to the clinical evaluation of FCDs, 57.2% of upper and 9.2% of lower FCDs were satisfactory. There was an association between difficulty and the absence of functional teeth, but not with inadequate FCDs. Thus, the SDCCs were effective in upper FCD rehabilitation, since the difficulties encountered are within the standard limitations of this type of rehabilitation. On the other hand, the cost-benefit of rehabilitation of lower FCDs must be evaluated. PMID:24061036

  5. Individual differences in vagal regulation moderate associations between daily affect and daily couple interactions.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Lisa M; Hicks, Angela M; Otter-Henderson, Kimberly D

    2011-06-01

    Previous research suggests that cardiac vagal regulation (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia, or RSA) provides a physiological substrate for affect regulation, which presumably underlies adaptive interpersonal functioning.The authors tested these associations in the context of daily interactions between 68 cohabiting couples. Participants underwent a laboratory assessment of RSA during rest and also during a series of psychological stressors. Subsequently, they kept daily measures of affect and interaction quality for 21 days. Individual differences in baseline and stress levels of RSA moderated within-person associations between daily affect and the quality of couple interactions. The pattern of results differed for women versus men. Men with lower vagal tone or higher vagal reactivity had stronger associations between daily negative affect and daily negative interactions, and men with higher vagal tone had more positive daily interactions overall. Women with higher vagal tone had stronger associations between daily positive affect and daily positive interactions. PMID:21393615

  6. Associations of Subjective Social Status with Nondaily and Daily Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Nguyen, Nga; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To explore associations between subjective social status (SSS) and smoking level among 2274 adult current smokers. Methods Associations were investigated using a covariate-adjusted proportional odds cumulative logit model. Moderation (via race/ethnicity or sex) and mediation (via depressive symptoms, social/emotional support, or life satisfaction) were explored in additional models. Results Higher SSS was associated with greater likelihood of nondaily versus light daily or moderate/ heavy daily smoking (p = .017). Life satisfaction partially mediated the association of SSS and smoking level (p = .003). Conclusions Higher SSS was associated with greater likelihood of nondaily relative to light daily or moderate to heavy smoking, potentially via greater life satisfaction. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24629553

  7. Increased mortality in Philadelphia associated with daily air pollution concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.; Dockery, D.W. )

    1992-03-01

    Cause-specific deaths by day for the years 1973 to 1980 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, were extracted from National Center for Health Statistics mortality tapes. Death from accidents (International Classification of Disease, Revision 9 greater than or equal to 800) and deaths outside of the city were excluded. Daily counts of deaths were regressed using Poisson regression on total suspended particulate (TSP) and/or SO2 on the same day and on the preceding day, controlling for year, season, temperature, and humidity. A significant positive association was found between total mortality (mean of 48 deaths/day) and both TSP (second highest daily mean, 222 micrograms/m3) and SO2 (second highest daily mean, 299 micrograms/m3). The strongest associations were found with the mean pollution of the current and the preceding days. Total mortality was estimated to increase by 7% (95% CI, 4 to 10%) with each 100-micrograms/m3 increase in TSP, and 5% (95% CI, 3 to 7%) with each 100-micrograms/m3 increase in SO2. When both pollutants were considered simultaneously, the SO2 association was no longer significant. Mortality increased monotonically with TSP. The effect of 100 micrograms/m3 TSP was stronger in subjects older than 65 yr of age (10% increase) compared with those younger than 65 yr of age (3% increase). Cause-specific mortality was also associated with a 100-micrograms/m3 increase in TSP: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ICD9 490-496), +19% (95% CI, 0 to 42%), pneumonia (ICD9 480-486 and 507), +11% (95% CI, -3 to +27%), and cardiovascular disease (ICD9 390-448), +10% (95% CI, 6 to 14%). These results are somewhat higher than previously reported associations, and they add to the body of evidence showing that particulate pollution is associated with increased daily mortality at current levels in the United States.

  8. Methods to improve neural network performance in daily flows prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. L.; Chau, K. W.; Li, Y. S.

    2009-06-01

    SummaryIn this paper, three data-preprocessing techniques, moving average (MA), singular spectrum analysis (SSA), and wavelet multi-resolution analysis (WMRA), were coupled with artificial neural network (ANN) to improve the estimate of daily flows. Six models, including the original ANN model without data preprocessing, were set up and evaluated. Five new models were ANN-MA, ANN-SSA1, ANN-SSA2, ANN-WMRA1, and ANN-WMRA2. The ANN-MA was derived from the raw ANN model combined with the MA. The ANN-SSA1, ANN-SSA2, ANN-WMRA1 and ANN-WMRA2 were generated by using the original ANN model coupled with SSA and WMRA in terms of two different means. Two daily flow series from different watersheds in China (Lushui and Daning) were used in six models for three prediction horizons (i.e., 1-, 2-, and 3-day-ahead forecast). The poor performance on ANN forecast models was mainly due to the existence of the lagged prediction. The ANN-MA, among six models, performed best and eradicated the lag effect. The performances from the ANN-SSA1 and ANN-SSA2 were similar, and the performances from the ANN-WMRA1 and ANN-WMRA2 were also similar. However, the models based on the SSA presented better performance than the models based on the WMRA at all forecast horizons, which meant that the SSA is more effective than the WMRA in improving the ANN performance in the current study. Based on an overall consideration including the model performance and the complexity of modeling, the ANN-MA model was optimal, then the ANN model coupled with SSA, and finally the ANN model coupled with WMRA.

  9. Associations among Fluid and Crystallized Cognition and Daily Stress Processes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Robert S.; Mogle, Jacqueline A.; Sliwinski, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined associations among fluid and crystallized cognition, and daily stress processes in older adults. Older adults (N=107) completed measures of daily stressors, and affect on six occasions over two weeks, as well as measures of fluid and crystallized cognition. Higher crystallized cognition was associated with a greater likelihood of exposure to daily stressors, including arguments and avoided arguments. Higher fluid cognition was associated with diminished emotional reactivity to daily stressors for negative but not positive affect. Discussion focuses on the roles of fluid and crystallized cognition for understanding daily stress processes, daily activity and lifestyle, and health. PMID:22946522

  10. Associations between daily chronic pain intensity, daily anger expression, and trait anger expressiveness: An ecological momentary assessment study

    PubMed Central

    Bruehl, Stephen; Liu, Xiaoxia; Burns, John W.; Chont, Melissa; Jamison, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Links between elevated trait anger expressiveness (anger-out) and greater chronic pain intensity are well documented, but pain-related effects of expressive behaviors actually used to regulate anger when it is experienced have been little explored. This study used ecological momentary assessment methods to explore prospective associations between daily behavioral anger expression and daily chronic pain intensity. Forty-eight chronic low back pain (LBP) patients and 36 healthy controls completed electronic diary ratings of momentary pain and behavioral anger expression in response to random prompts 4 times daily for 7 days. Across groups, greater trait anger-out was associated with greater daily behavioral anger expression (P < 0.001). LBP participants showed higher levels of daily anger expression than controls (P < 0.001). Generalized estimating equation analyses in the LBP group revealed a lagged main effect of greater behavioral anger expression on increased chronic pain intensity in the subsequent assessment period (P < 0.05). Examination of a trait × situation model for anger-out revealed prospective associations between elevated chronic pain intensity and later increases in behavioral anger expression that were restricted largely to individuals low in trait anger-out (P < 0.001). Trait × situation interactions for trait anger suppression (anger-in) indicated similar influences of pain intensity on subsequent behavioral anger expression occurring among low anger-in persons (P < 0.001). Overlap with trait and state negative affect did not account for study findings. This study for the first time documents lagged within-day influences of behavioral anger expression on subsequent chronic pain intensity. Trait anger regulation style may moderate associations between behavioral anger expression and chronic pain intensity. PMID:22940462

  11. Reciprocal Associations between Family and Peer Conflict in Adolescents' Daily Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Grace H.; Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Using a daily diary method, this study assessed daily episodes of family and peer conflict among 578 adolescents in the 9th grade to examine potential bidirectional associations between the family and peer domains. Adolescents completed a daily diary checklist at the end of each day over a 14-day period to report events of conflict and their…

  12. Low-intensity daily walking activity is associated with hippocampal volume in older adults.

    PubMed

    Varma, Vijay R; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Harris, Gregory C; Tan, Erwin J; Carlson, Michelle C

    2015-05-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is associated with memory impairment and dementia and serves as a key biomarker in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity, one of the most promising behavioral interventions to prevent or delay cognitive decline, has been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume; specifically increased aerobic activity and fitness may have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus. The majority of older adults, however, are sedentary and have difficulty initiating and maintaining exercise programs. A modestly more active lifestyle may nonetheless be beneficial. This study explored whether greater objectively measured daily walking activity was associated with larger hippocampal volume. We additionally explored whether greater low-intensity walking activity, which may be related to leisure-time physical, functional, and social activities, was associated with larger hippocampal volume independent of exercise and higher-intensity walking activity. Segmentation of hippocampal volumes was performed using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain's Software Library (FSL), and daily walking activity was assessed using a step activity monitor on 92, nondemented, older adult participants. After controlling for age, education, body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the Mini Mental State Exam, we found that a greater amount, duration, and frequency of total daily walking activity were each associated with larger hippocampal volume among older women, but not among men. These relationships were specific to hippocampal volume, compared with the thalamus, used as a control brain region, and remained significant for low-intensity walking activity, independent of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity and self-reported exercise. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to explore the relationship between objectively measured daily walking activity and hippocampal volume in an older adult population. Findings

  13. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City.

    PubMed

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007-2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0-15 years old). Middle-aged people (16-65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8-1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place. PMID:26815039

  14. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007–2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0–15 years old). Middle-aged people (16–65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8–1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place. PMID

  15. Differential Associations and Daily Smoking of Adolescents: The Importance of Same-Sex Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nofziger, Stacey; Lee, Hye-Ryeon

    2006-01-01

    This article examines whether the importance of parents, siblings, best friends, and romantic interests are sex-specific in predicting daily juvenile smoking. Juveniles who smoke daily are strongly influenced by prosmoking attitudes and behaviors of same-sex family members. However, peers remain the most important associations in predicting daily…

  16. Early to Rise? The Effect of Daily Start Times on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Finley

    2012-01-01

    Local school districts often stagger daily start times for their schools in order to reduce busing costs. This paper uses data on all middle school students in Wake County, NC from 1999 to 2006 to identify the causal effect of daily start times on academic performance. Using variation in start times within schools over time, the effect is a two…

  17. Daily Associations among Anger Experience and Intimate Partner Aggression within Aggressive and Nonaggressive Community Couples

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Testa, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Anger is an empirically established precipitant to aggressive responding toward intimate partners. The current investigation examined the effects of anger, as experienced by both partners, as well as gender and previous aggression, on in vivo intimate partner aggression using a prospective daily diary methodology. Participants (N = 118 couples) individually provided 56 consecutive, daily reports of affective experience and partner aggression. Multilevel models were estimated using the Actor Partner Interdependence Model framework to analyze the daily associations between anger and partner aggression perpetration among male and female participants as moderated by aggression history. Results revealed that both Actor and Partner anger were generally associated with subsequently reported daily conflict. Further, increases in daily Partner anger were associated with corresponding increases in partner aggression among females who reported high anger and males, regardless of their own anger experience. Increases in Actor anger were associated with increases in daily partner aggression only among previously aggressive females. Previously aggressive males and females consistently reported greater perpetration than their nonaggressive counterparts on days of high Actor anger experience. Results emphasize the importance of both Actor and Partner factors in partner aggression and suggest that female anger may be a stronger predictor of both female-to-male and male-to-female partner aggression than male anger, when measured at the daily level. PMID:24866529

  18. Dopamine system genes associated with parenting in the context of daily hassles.

    PubMed

    van IJzendoorn, M H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M J; Mesman, J

    2008-06-01

    The current study examined the molecular genetic foundations of sensitive parenting in humans and is the first to test the interaction between genes and environment in modulating parental sensitive responses to children. In a community sample of 176 Caucasian, middle class mothers with their 23-month-old toddlers at risk for externalizing behavior problems, the association between daily hassles and sensitive parenting was investigated. We tested whether two dopamine-related genes, dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms, modulate parents' vulnerability to the negative influence of daily hassles on sensitive parenting behavior to their offspring. Sensitive parenting was observed in structured settings, and parents reported on their daily hassles through a standard questionnaire. In parents with the combination of genes leading to the least efficient dopaminergic system functioning (COMT val/val or val/met, DRD4-7Repeat), more daily hassles were associated with less sensitive parenting, and lower levels of daily hassles were associated with more sensitive parenting d = 1.12. The other combinations of COMT and DRD4 polymorphisms did not show significant associations between daily hassles and maternal sensitivity, suggesting differential susceptibility to hassles depending on parents' dopaminergic system genes. It is concluded that the study of (multiple) gene-environment interactions (in the current case: gene by gene by environment interaction, G x G x E) may explain why some parents are more and others less impacted by daily stresses in responding sensitively to their offspring's signals. PMID:17973921

  19. Characterization of the visual performance with soft daily wear disposable contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Pons, A M; Lorente, A; Albarrán, C; Montés, R; Artigas, J M

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the visual performance associated with adaptation to a daily wear soft contact lens on the human eye. For this purpose, we used four parameters, one of which was an objective parameter, while the rest were subjective parameters. The objective parameter was a single quality parameter, a Merit function (Mf) derived from the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the overall [eye + contact lens] system The subjective parameters were the visual acuity (VA), the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and the standard adaptation criterion of Terry et al. (1993). The normality criterion for the MTF was determined by evaluating the fluctuations of the Mf over a day in five emmetropic observers. Fluctuations with no statistically significant differences in the merit function (p > 0.05) and their standard deviation (8%) defined our standard criterion. The CSF and the VA were similarly measured (for emmetropic observers). The results obtained with emmetropic observers allowed us to establish a standard criterion for the evaluation parameters we propose. When this criterion is applied to daily soft wear disposable contact lenses, their performance proves to be good, since both the objective (MTF) and the subjective parameters (CSF, VA, adaptation criterion) always lie within the range defined by our criterion. PMID:9666909

  20. Wooden hutch space allowance influences male Holstein calf health, performance, daily lying time, and respiratory immunity.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; Hulbert, L E; Fowler, A L; Louie, A; Gershwin, L J; Pinkerton, K E; Ballou, M A; Klasing, K C; Mitloehner, F M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy calves in the western United States are commonly raised individually in wooden hutches with a space allowance of 1.23m(2)/calf. Recent legislative initiatives in California and across the United States were passed regarding concern over space allowance for farm animals. The objective of this study was to determine if rearing male Holstein calves in wooden hutches modified to increase space allowance would influence measures of performance, lying time per day, health, and respiratory immunocompetence. At 4d of age, 60 calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3housing treatments: (1) conventional housing (CONV; 1.23m(2)/calf), (2) 1.5 × CONV (MOD; 1.85m(2)/calf), or (3) 3 × CONV (MAX; 3.71m(2)/calf). Intakes of milk and solid feed were recorded daily and body weight was measured at 0, 3, 6, 10, and 12 wk of age. For the first 3 wk of the trial, calves were scored daily for fecal consistency, hydration, and hide cleanliness. In addition, calves were scored for respiratory health (i.e., nasal and eye discharge, ear position) until 7 wk of age. The total lying duration per day was recorded using data loggers at 3, 6, and 10 wk of age. Eight clinically healthy calves from each treatment were sensitized with subcutaneous ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with aerosolized OVA to assess calf respiratory immunity at 11 wk of age. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 4d after the OVA challenge and analyzed for leukocyte differentials and OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, IgA, and IgE. Calf average daily gain and body weight were positively associated with space allowance at approximately 3 wk before weaning and throughout postweaning, respectively. A greater space allowance decreased lying time after 46d. Space allowance did not influence fecal consistency, but there was a tendency for MAX calves to take 1d longer to recover from loose feces than MOD calves. The MAX calves had the fewest (%) observations with feces on their body compared with CONV or MOD. At 3 wk of

  1. The grateful are patient: Heightened daily gratitude is associated with attenuated temporal discounting.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Leah; DeSteno, David

    2016-06-01

    Past research has regularly linked the experience of affect to increased impatience and, thereby, decreased self-control. Given emerging work identifying the emotion gratitude as a fairly unique affective state capable of enhancing, rather than inhibiting, patience, the present study examined the association between chronically elevated gratitude and individual differences in temporal discounting. Participants' levels of gratitude were assessed in response to a standardized lab induction and then over a 3-week period prior to measurement of their financial patience in the form of an incentivized delay discounting task. Analyses revealed a strong relation between lab-based and naturally occurring gratitude levels, thereby confirming the validity of the daily online measures. Of import, mean levels of daily gratitude were significantly associated with increased patience in the form of decreased temporal discounting. As expected, no similar relation emerged for daily levels of happiness, thereby confirming the relative specificity of the positive state of gratitude. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27018609

  2. Client-centered home modifications improve daily activity performance of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Susan; Landsbaum, Amanda; Palmer, Janice; Somerville, Emily K.; Morris, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Remaining at home is a high priority for many older adults, but the capacity to “age in place” often is threatened by environmental barriers. Purpose To describe a client-centered occupational therapy, home modification intervention program and examine the impact of the intervention on daily activity performance over time. Methods Using a competence-environmental press framework, a client-centered home modification program for older adults was implemented. In this quasi-experimental, single group prospective study, participants’ subjective ratings of daily activity performance were evaluated before and after the intervention (baseline/post/post). Findings After home modification, participants’ perception of their daily activity performance at home improved significantly and was maintained 2 years post-modification. Implications Home modification may benefit older adults attempting to age in place. PMID:19757729

  3. Associations of Low-Income Working Mothers' Daily Interactions with Supervisors and Mother-Child Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated associations of low-income working mothers' daily interactions with supervisors and their interactions with children. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children were asked to report on their interactions with their supervisors at work and their interactions with children for 2 weeks (N = 520 workdays). Results show…

  4. Empathic accuracy for happiness in the daily lives of older couples: Fluid cognitive performance predicts pattern accuracy among men.

    PubMed

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Rauers, Antje; Schade, Hannah; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2016-08-01

    Correctly identifying other's emotional states is a central cognitive component of empathy. We examined the role of fluid cognitive performance for empathic accuracy for happiness in the daily lives of 86 older couples (mean relationship length = 45 years; mean age = 75 years) on up to 42 occasions over 7 consecutive days. Men performing better on the Digit Symbol test were more accurate in identifying ups and downs of their partner's happiness. A similar association was not found for women. We discuss the potential role of fluid cognitive performance and other individual, partner, and situation characteristics for empathic accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362351

  5. Daily changes in oxygen saturation and pulse rate associated with particulate air pollution and barometric pressure.

    PubMed

    Dockery, D W; Pope, C A; Kanner, R E; Martin Villegas, G; Schwartz, J

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have linked fine particulate air pollution with increases in morbidity and mortality rates from cardiopulmonary complications. Although the underlying biologic mechanisms responsible for this increase remain largely unknown, potential pathways include transient declines in blood oxygenation and changes in pulse rate following exposures to particulate air pollution episodes. This study evaluated potential associations between daily measures of respirable particulate matter (PM) with pulse rate and oxygen saturation of the blood. Pulse rate and oxygen saturation (Spo2) using pulse oximetry were measured daily in 90 elderly subjects living near air pollution monitors during the winter of 1995-96 in Utah Valley. We also evaluated potential associations of oxygen saturation and pulse rate with barometric pressure. Small but statistically significant positive associations between day-to-day changes in Spo2 and barometric pressure were observed. Pulse rate was inversely associated with barometric pressure. Exposure to particulate pollution was not significantly associated with Spo2 except in male participants 80 years of age or older. Increased daily pulse rate, as well as the odds of having a pulse rate 5 or 10 beats per minute (bpm) above normal (normal is defined as the individual's mean pulse rate throughout the study period), were significantly associated with exposure to particulate pollution on the previous 1 to 5 days. The medical or biologic relevance of these increases in pulse rate following exposure to particulate air pollution requires further study. PMID:10192116

  6. Daily activity level buffers stress-glycemia associations in older sedentary NIDDM patients.

    PubMed

    Aikens, K S; Aikens, J E; Wallander, J L; Hunt, S

    1997-08-01

    Examined glycemic associations with medical variables, activity, daily stress, and mood state in 72 older patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). On three occasions over a 2-week observation period, subjects provided measures of everyday life stress, negative mood state, and daily activities. At the end of this period, fructosamine was assayed to measure glycemic control throughout the assessment period. After controlling for medical variables (age, illness duration, body mass index, caloric intake, and activity) and the main effects of psychological factors (stress; anxious, angry, and depressed mood states), stress interacted with activity such that glycemic elevation was positively associated with stress for subjects below the activity median but not for those above the median. This was unattributable to any overall activity-related differences in fructosamine, stress, or mood. None of the mood states interacted with activity. The findings suggest that extremely low levels of activity may strengthen life stress-glycemia associations in NIDDM. PMID:9298436

  7. Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Impairment Is Associated with Increased Amyloid Burden

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Gad A.; Olson, Lauren E.; Frey, Meghan T.; Maye, Jacqueline; Becker, J. Alex; Rentz, Dorene M.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) impairment in Alzheimer's disease has been associated with global amyloid deposition in postmortem studies. We sought to determine whether IADL impairment is associated with increased cortical Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) retention. Methods Fifty-five subjects (19 normal older controls, NC, and 36 with mild cognitive impairment, MCI) underwent clinical assessments and dynamic PiB positron emission tomography imaging. Results A linear multiple regression model showed that greater IADL impairment was associated with greater global PiB retention in all subjects (R2 = 0.40; unstandardized partial regression coefficient, β = 5.8; p = 0.0002) and in MCI subjects only (R2 = 0.28; β = 6.1; p = 0.003), but not in NC subjects only. Conclusion These results suggest that daily functional impairment is related to greater amyloid burden in MCI. PMID:21778725

  8. Prevalence and associated factors for episodic and chronic daily headache in the Colombian population.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Sánchez, M; Díaz-Martínez, L A

    2008-03-01

    There are multiple risk factors for chronic daily headache (CDH), but they are usually assessed in an isolated form without an adequate control for confounders. CDH is considered a variant of episodic headache, but studies have not gathered enough evidence to evaluate simultaneously CDH and episodic in the same population. We set out to establish simultaneously the factors associated with chronic daily or episodic headache in a population setting, using a cross-sectional survey in a random sample of 1505 adult urban inhabitants (Bucaramanga, Colombia). The survey asked questions about headache, family and personal history of disease, and consumption or abuse of caffeine, alcohol, hypnotics and analgesics. The association among independent variables and CDH or episodic headache was made with multinomial logistic regression. Female gender, arterial hypertension or cranial trauma history, and a high score in the depression scale are associated with episodic headache and CDH. Parents with CDH, the complaint of multiple arousals during sleep and use of hypnotics are associated with CDH, but not with episodic headache. Age <36 years, alcoholism and snoring are factors associated only with episodic headache. Chronic daily headache and episodic headache have several common risk factors, but there are other factors not shared by both conditions. PMID:18254892

  9. Associations Between Fine Particulate Matter Components and Daily Mortality in Nagoya, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Kayo; Yamagami, Makiko; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Hisatsune, Kunihiro; Nitta, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Seasonal variation and regional heterogeneity have been observed in the estimated effect of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass on mortality. Differences in the chemical compositions of PM2.5 may cause this variation. We investigated the association of the daily concentration of PM2.5 components with mortality in Nagoya, Japan. Methods We combined daily mortality counts for all residents aged 65 years and older with concentration data for PM2.5 mass and components in Nagoya from April 2003 to December 2007. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to examine the association of daily mortality with PM2.5 mass and each component (chloride, nitrate, sulfate, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, ammonium, elemental carbon [EC], and organic carbon [OC]). Results We found a stronger association between mortality and PM2.5 mass in transitional seasons. In analysis for each PM2.5 component, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, potassium, EC, and OC were significantly associated with mortality in a single-pollutant model. In a multi-pollutant model, an interquartile range increase in the concentration of sulfate was marginally associated with an increase in all-cause mortality of 2.1% (95% confidence interval, −0.1 to 4.4). Conclusions These findings suggest that some specific PM components have a more hazardous effect than others and contribute to seasonal variation in the health effects of PM2.5. PMID:26686882

  10. Saharan Dust and Associations between Particulate Matter and Daily Mortality in Rome, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mallone, Sandra; Faustini, Annunziata; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Marconi, Achille; Forastiere, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Background: Outbreaks of Saharan-Sahel dust over Euro-Mediterranean areas frequently induce exceedances of the Europen Union's 24-hr standard of 50 μg/m3 for particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤ than 10 μm (PM10). Objectives: We evaluated the effect of Saharan dust on the association between different PM fractions and daily mortality in Rome, Italy. Methods: In a study of 80,423 adult residents who died in Rome between 2001 and 2004, we performed a time-series analysis to explore the effects of PM2.5, PM2.5–10, and PM10 on natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory mortality. We defined Saharan dust days by combining light detection and ranging (LIDAR) observations and analyses from operational models. We tested a Saharan dust–PM interaction term to evaluate the hypothesis that the effects of PM, especially coarse PM (PM2.5–10), on mortality would be enhanced on dust days. Results: Interquartile range increases in PM2.5–10 (10.8 μg/m3) and PM10 (19.8 μg/m3) were associated with increased mortality due to natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory causes, with estimated effects ranging from 2.64% to 12.65% [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18–25.42%] for the association between PM2.5–10 and respiratory mortality (0- to 5-day lag). Associations of PM2.5–10 with cardiac mortality were stronger on Saharan dust days (9.73%; 95% CI, 4.25–15.49%) than on dust-free days (0.86%; 95% CI, –2.47% to 4.31%; p = 0.005). Saharan dust days also modified associations between PM10 and cardiac mortality (9.55% increase; 95% CI, 3.81–15.61%; vs. dust-free days: 2.09%; 95% CI, –0.76% to 5.02%; p = 0.02). Conclusions: We found evidence of effects of PM2.5–10 and PM10 on natural and cause-specific mortality, with stronger estimated effects on cardiac mortality during Saharan dust outbreaks. Toxicological and biological effects of particles from desert sources need to be further investigated and taken into account in air quality

  11. Daily marijuana use is not associated with brain morphometric measures in adolescents or adults.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Barbara J; Thayer, Rachel E; Depue, Brendan E; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E

    2015-01-28

    Recent research has suggested that marijuana use is associated with volumetric and shape differences in subcortical structures, including the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in a dose-dependent fashion. Replication of such results in well controlled studies is essential to clarify the effects of marijuana. To that end, this retrospective study examined brain morphology in a sample of adult daily marijuana users (n = 29) versus nonusers (n = 29) and a sample of adolescent daily users (n = 50) versus nonusers (n = 50). Groups were matched on a critical confounding variable, alcohol use, to a far greater degree than in previously published studies. We acquired high-resolution MRI scans, and investigated group differences in gray matter using voxel-based morphometry, surface-based morphometry, and shape analysis in structures suggested to be associated with marijuana use, as follows: the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum. No statistically significant differences were found between daily users and nonusers on volume or shape in the regions of interest. Effect sizes suggest that the failure to find differences was not due to a lack of statistical power, but rather was due to the lack of even a modest effect. In sum, the results indicate that, when carefully controlling for alcohol use, gender, age, and other variables, there is no association between marijuana use and standard volumetric or shape measurements of subcortical structures. PMID:25632127

  12. Daily Marijuana Use Is Not Associated with Brain Morphometric Measures in Adolescents or Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Rachel E.; Depue, Brendan E.; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that marijuana use is associated with volumetric and shape differences in subcortical structures, including the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in a dose-dependent fashion. Replication of such results in well controlled studies is essential to clarify the effects of marijuana. To that end, this retrospective study examined brain morphology in a sample of adult daily marijuana users (n = 29) versus nonusers (n = 29) and a sample of adolescent daily users (n = 50) versus nonusers (n = 50). Groups were matched on a critical confounding variable, alcohol use, to a far greater degree than in previously published studies. We acquired high-resolution MRI scans, and investigated group differences in gray matter using voxel-based morphometry, surface-based morphometry, and shape analysis in structures suggested to be associated with marijuana use, as follows: the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum. No statistically significant differences were found between daily users and nonusers on volume or shape in the regions of interest. Effect sizes suggest that the failure to find differences was not due to a lack of statistical power, but rather was due to the lack of even a modest effect. In sum, the results indicate that, when carefully controlling for alcohol use, gender, age, and other variables, there is no association between marijuana use and standard volumetric or shape measurements of subcortical structures. PMID:25632127

  13. Assessing confounding, effect modification, and thresholds in the association between ambient particles and daily deaths.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, J

    2000-01-01

    I examined the relationship between daily deaths and airborne particles in 10 U.S. cities with varying climatic conditions and seasons in which particle concentrations were high. Airborne particles were associated with significant increases in daily deaths [0.67% increase for a 10 microg/m(3) increase in particles; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.52-0.81%]. This association was the same in summer and winter. To examine potential confounding by other pollutants, I regressed city- and season-specific effect sizes against the relationship between airborne particles and other pollutants. Controlling for other pollutants did not substantially (or significantly) change the estimated effect of airborne particles. Socioeconomic differences between cities likewise did not modify the effect. The increase in daily deaths that occurred out of hospitals (0.89% per 10 microg/m(3); CI, 0.67-1.10%) was substantially greater than the increase in deaths in hospitals (0. 49%; CI, 0.31-0.68%). This is consistent with results previously reported in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and suggests that the particle-associated deaths are not just being brought forward by a few days. It is also consistent with recent animal and human studies of the mechanisms of particle toxicity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10856032

  14. Oral impacts affecting daily performance in a low dental disease Thai population.

    PubMed

    Adulyanon, S; Vourapukjaru, J; Sheiham, A

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the study was to measure incidence of oral impacts on daily performances and their related features in a low dental disease population. 501 people aged 35-44 years in 16 rural villages in Ban Phang district, Khon Kaen, Thailand, were interviewed about oral impacts on nine physical, psychological and social aspects of performance during the past 6 months, and then had an oral examination. The clinical and behavioural data showed that the sample had low caries (DMFT = 2.7) and a low utilization of dental services. 73.6% of all subjects had at least one daily performance affected by an oral impact. The highest incidence of performances affected were Eating (49.7%), Emotional stability (46.5%) and Smiling (26.1%). Eating, Emotional stability and Cleaning teeth performances had a high frequency or long duration of impacts, but a low severity. The low frequency performances; Physical activities, Major role activity and Sleeping were rated as high severity. Pain and discomfort were mainly perceived as the causes of impacts (40.1%) for almost every performance except Smiling. Toothache was the major causal oral condition (32.7%) of almost all aspects of performance. It was concluded that this low caries people have as high an incidence of oral impacts as industrialized, high dental disease populations. Frequency and severity presented the paradoxical effect on different performances and should both be taken into account for overall estimation of impacts. PMID:9007354

  15. Sleep and affect in older adults: using multilevel modeling to examine daily associations

    PubMed Central

    McCRAE, CHRISTINA S.; McNAMARA, JOSEPH P. H.; ROWE, MEREDETH A.; DZIERZEWSKI, JOSEPH M.; DIRK, JUDITH; MARSISKE, MICHAEL; CRAGGS, JASON G.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The main objective of the present study was to examine daily associations (intraindividual variability or IIV) between sleep and affect in older adults. Greater understanding of these associations is important, because both sleep and affect represent modifiable behaviors that can have a major influence on older adults’ health and well-being. We collected sleep diaries, actigraphy, and affect data concurrently for 14 days in 103 community-dwelling older adults. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the sleep–affect relationship at both the group (between-persons) and individual (within-person or IIV) levels. We hypothesized that nights characterized by better sleep would be associated with days characterized by higher positive affect and lower negative affect, and that the inverse would be true for poor sleep. Daily associations were found between affect and subjective sleep, only and were in the hypothesized direction. Specifically, nights with greater reported awake time or lower sleep quality ratings were associated with days characterized by less positive affect and more negative affect. Gender was not a significant main effect in the present study, despite previous research suggesting gender differences in the sleep–affect relationship. The fact that self-ratings of sleep emerged as the best predictors of affect may suggest that perceived sleep is a particularly important predictor. Finally, our results suggest exploration of affect as a potential intervention target in late-life insomnia is warranted. PMID:18275554

  16. Daily Online Testing in Large Classes: Boosting College Performance while Reducing Achievement Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Pennebaker, James W.; Gosling, Samuel D.; Ferrell, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    An in-class computer-based system, that included daily online testing, was introduced to two large university classes. We examined subsequent improvements in academic performance and reductions in the achievement gaps between lower- and upper-middle class students in academic performance. Students (N = 901) brought laptop computers to classes and took daily quizzes that provided immediate and personalized feedback. Student performance was compared with the same data for traditional classes taught previously by the same instructors (N = 935). Exam performance was approximately half a letter grade above previous semesters, based on comparisons of identical questions asked from earlier years. Students in the experimental classes performed better in other classes, both in the semester they took the course and in subsequent semester classes. The new system resulted in a 50% reduction in the achievement gap as measured by grades among students of different social classes. These findings suggest that frequent consequential quizzing should be used routinely in large lecture courses to improve performance in class and in other concurrent and subsequent courses. PMID:24278176

  17. Momentary Affective States Are Associated with Momentary Volume, Prospective Trends, and Fluctuation of Daily Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kanning, Martina K.; Schoebi, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Several interventions aiming to enhance physical activity in everyday life showed mixed effects. Affective constructs are thought to potentially support health behavior change. However, little is known about within-subject associations between momentary affect and subsequent physical activity in everyday life. This study analyzed the extent to which three dimensions of affective states (valence, calmness, and energetic arousal) were associated with different components of daily activity trajectories. Sixty-five undergraduates’ students (Age: M = 24.6; SD = 3.2; females: 57%) participated in this study. Physical activity was assessed objectively through accelerometers during 24 h. Affective states assessments were conducted randomly every 45 min using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was especially designed for ambulatory assessment. We conducted three-level multi-level analyses to investigate the extent to which momentary affect accounted for momentary volume, prospective trends, and stability vs. fluctuation of physical activity in everyday life. All three affect dimensions were significantly associated with momentary activity volumes and prospective trends over 45 min periods. Physical activity didn’t fluctuate freely, but featured significant autocorrelation across repeated measurements, suggesting some stability of physical activity across 5-min assessments. After adjusting for the autoregressive structure in physical activity assessments, only energetic arousal remained a significant predictor. Feeling energized and awake was associated with an increased momentary volume of activity and initially smaller but gradually growing decreases in subsequent activity within the subsequent 45 min. Although not related to trends in physical activity, higher valence predicted lower stability in physical activity across subsequent 45 min, suggesting more short-term fluctuations in daily activity the more participants reported positive affective valence. The

  18. Examining the associations between daily caregiving discontinuity and children's social-emotional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Le, Vi-Nhuan; Schaack, Diana; Setodji, Claude Messan

    2015-05-01

    Many child care centers temporarily move children and teachers in and out of their assigned classrooms throughout the day. Such practices create frequent discontinuity in children's experiences in child care, including discontinuity in their peer and teacher relationships. This study examined the prevalence and patterns of teacher and child movement between classrooms, the characteristics of teachers and children who were more likely to move between classrooms on a daily basis, and the associations between children's and teachers' rate of daily movement between classrooms with children's social-emotional outcomes. A moderate to high prevalence of child and teacher movement between classrooms was observed (29% and 83%, respectively). Children who were younger, considered solitary, and who had been enrolled in their classroom for shorter periods of time were less likely to transition between classrooms. Children's rate of movement was a positive predictor of teachers' perceived conflict with children in their care, and a negative predictor of teachers' perceived closeness. In addition, the more frequently teachers moved, the less children were inclined to indicate liking their teachers or centers. However, the more frequently children moved, the more likely children were to indicate liking their peers and for their peers to indicate liking them. Results are interpreted in light of additional research avenues that can inform sensible daily teacher continuity practices. PMID:25822893

  19. Higher stimulus control is associated with less cigarette intake in daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Stuart G; Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael; Schüz, Natalie

    2016-03-01

    It is well established that environmental stimuli influence smoking in light, and to a lesser degree, heavy smokers. A 2-factor model of dependence suggests that the influence of stimulus control is masked among heavier smokers who primarily smoke for nicotine maintenance. The current study aimed to assess the influence of stimulus control across a range of moderate to heavy daily smokers. Furthermore, as local tobacco control policies may change the role of stimulus control, the study aimed to replicate previous U.S. findings on stimulus control in an Australian setting marked by strong tobacco control policies. In 2 Ecological Momentary Assessment studies, 420 participants monitored antecedents of smoking and nonsmoking situations. In a set of idiographic logistic regression analyses, situational antecedents were used to predict smoking occasions within each individual's data. Linear regression analysis was used to test for the association between stimulus control and smoking rate, and to test for differences between the 2 samples. Daily smokers' smoking was under considerable stimulus control, which was weaker at higher smoking rates. Overall, there was greater stimulus control in the Australian sample. Daily smokers also experience a degree of stimulus control, which is less influential in heavier smokers. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26766542

  20. Examining the Associations between Daily Caregiving Discontinuity and Children’s Social-Emotional Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Le, Vi-Nhuan; Schaack, Diana; Setodji, Claude Messan

    2015-01-01

    Many child care centers temporarily move children and teachers in and out of their assigned classrooms throughout the day. Such practices create frequent discontinuity in children’s experiences in child care, including discontinuity in their peer and teacher relationships. This study examined the prevalence and patterns of teacher and child movement between classrooms, the characteristics of teachers and children who were more likely to move between classrooms on a daily basis, and the associations between children’s and teachers’ rate of daily movement between classrooms with children’s social-emotional outcomes. A moderate to high prevalence of child and teacher movement between classrooms was observed (29% and 83%, respectively). Children who were younger, considered solitary, and who had been enrolled in their classroom for shorter periods of time were less likely to transition between classrooms. Children’s rate of movement was a positive predictor of teachers’ perceived conflict with children in their care, and a negative predictor of teachers’ perceived closeness. In addition, the more frequently teachers moved, the less children were inclined to indicate liking their teachers or centers. However, the more frequently children moved, the more likely children were to indicate liking their peers and for their peers to indicate liking them. Results are interpreted in light of additional research avenues that can inform sensible daily teacher continuity practices. PMID:25822893

  1. Eccentric Viewing Training in the Home Environment: Can It Improve the Performance of Activities of Daily Living?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukicevic, Meri; Fitzmaurice, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Macular degeneration has a severe impact on a person's ability to perform activities of daily living. This study investigated the impact of in-home training in eccentric viewing on near acuity and performance of activities of daily living. The results suggest that eccentric viewing can ameliorate the impact of the loss of vision that is due to…

  2. Performance of daily activities by older adults with dementia: the role of an assistive robot.

    PubMed

    Begum, Momotaz; Wang, Rosalie; Huq, Rajibul; Mihailidis, Alex

    2013-06-01

    Older adults with cognitive impairment often have difficulties in remembering the proper sequence of activities of daily living (ADLs) or how to use the tools necessary to perform ADLs. They, therefore, require reminders in a timely fashion while performing ADLs. This is a very stressful situation for the caregivers of people with dementia. In this paper we describe a pilot study where a tele-operated assistive robot helps a group of older adults with dementia (OAwD) to perform an ADL, namely making a cup of tea in the kitchen. Five OAwD along with their caregivers participated in this study which took place in a simulated-home setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and usability of a robotic system in assisting the OAwD to perform ADL in a home setting. The findings from this study will contribute to achieve our ultimate goal of designing a full-fledged assistive robot that assists OAwD aging in their own homes. The assistive robots designed for people with dementia mostly focus on companionship. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first attempt to design an assistive robot which will provide step-by-step guidance to people with dementia in their activities of daily living. PMID:24187224

  3. Hydraulic performance of compacted clay liners under simulated daily thermal cycles.

    PubMed

    Aldaeef, A A; Rayhani, M T

    2015-10-01

    Compacted clay liners (CCLs) are commonly used as hydraulic barriers in several landfill applications to isolate contaminants from the surrounding environment and minimize the escape of leachate from the landfill. Prior to waste placement in landfills, CCLs are often exposed to temperature fluctuations which can affect the hydraulic performance of the liner. Experimental research was carried out to evaluate the effects of daily thermal cycles on the hydraulic performance of CCLs under simulated landfill conditions. Hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted on different soil specimens after being exposed to various thermal and dehydration cycles. An increase in the CCL hydraulic conductivity of up to one order of magnitude was recorded after 30 thermal cycles for soils with low plasticity index (PI = 9.5%). However, medium (PI = 25%) and high (PI = 37.2%) plasticity soils did not show significant hydraulic deviation due to their self-healing potential. Overlaying the CCL with a cover layer minimized the effects of daily thermal cycles, and maintained stable hydraulic performance in the CCLs even after exposure to 60 thermal cycles. Wet-dry cycles had a significant impact on the hydraulic aspect of low plasticity CCLs. However, medium and high plasticity CCLs maintained constant hydraulic performance throughout the test intervals. The study underscores the importance of protecting the CCL from exposure to atmosphere through covering it by a layer of geomembrane or an interim soil layer. PMID:26241932

  4. Associations between daily mortality in London and combined oxidant capacity, ozone and nitrogen dioxide.

    PubMed

    Williams, M L; Atkinson, R W; Anderson, H R; Kelly, F J

    2014-01-01

    Both nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) are powerful oxidants in ambient air that are intimately linked through atmospheric chemistry and which continuously interchange over very short timescales. Based upon atmospheric chemistry alone, there is a strong, a priori, reason for considering O3 and NO2 together in epidemiological studies, rather than either of the two pollutants separately in single-pollutant models. This paper compares two approaches to this, using Ox, defined as O3 + NO2, as a single metric and also using O3 and NO2 together in two-pollutant models. We hypothesised that the magnitude of the association between Ox and daily mortality would be greater than for NO2 and O3 individually. Using collocated hourly measurements for O3 and NO2 in London, from 2000 to 2005, we carried out a time series analysis of daily mortality. We investigated O3, NO2 and Ox individually in single-pollutant Poisson regression models and NO2 and O3 jointly in two-pollutant models in both all-year and season-specific analyses. We observed larger associations for mean 24-h concentrations of Ox (1.30 % increase in mortality per 10 ppb) than for O3 (0.87 %) and NO2 (0 %) individually. However, when analysed jointly in two-pollutant models, associations for O3 (1.54 %) and NO2 (1.07 %) were comparable to the Ox association. Season-specific analyses broadly followed this pattern irrespective of whether the Ox concentrations were driven by O3 production (summer) or depletion (winter). This novel approach in air pollution epidemiology captures the simultaneous impact of both oxidants whilst avoiding many of the statistical issues associated with two-pollutant models and potentially simplifies health impact calculations. PMID:25431629

  5. Particulate matter modifies the association between airborne pollen and daily medical consultations for pollinosis in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Shoko; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Stickley, Andrew; Nishihata, Shinichi; Shinsugi, Chisa; Ueda, Kayo; Takami, Akinori; Watanabe, Chiho

    2014-11-15

    Pollen from Japanese cedar (sugi) and cypress (hinoki) trees is responsible for the growing prevalence of allergic rhinitis, especially pollinosis in Japan. Previous studies have suggested that air pollutants enhance the allergic response to pollen in susceptible individuals. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study to examine the potential modifying effects of PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM) on the association between pollen concentration and daily consultations for pollinosis. A total of 11,713 daily pollinosis cases (International Classification of Diseases, ICD-10, J30.1) from January to May, 2001-2011, were obtained from a clinic in Chiyoda, Tokyo. Daily pollen counts and the daily mean values of air pollutants (PM2.5, SPM, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3) were collected from monitoring stations across Tokyo. The effects of pollen were stratified by the level of PM2.5 and SPM to examine the interaction effect of pollen and particulate pollutants. We found a statistically significant interaction between pollen concentration and PM2.5/SPM. On days with a high level of PM2.5 (>95th percentile), an interquartile increase in the mean cumulative pollen count (an average of 28 pollen grains per cm(2) during lag-days 0 to 5) corresponded to a 10.30% (95%CI: 8.48%-12.16%) increase in daily new pollinosis cases, compared to 8.04% (95%CI: 7.28%-8.81%) on days with a moderate level of PM2.5 (5th-95th percentile). This interaction persisted when different percentile cut-offs were used and was robust to the inclusion of other air pollutants. A similar interaction pattern was observed between SPM and pollen when a less extreme cut-off for SPM was used to stratify the effect of pollen. Our study showed the acute effect of pollen was greater when the concentration of air particulate pollutant, specifically PM2.5 and SPM, was higher. These findings are consistent with the notion that particulate air pollution may act as an adjuvant that promotes allergic disease (i

  6. Addition of Bevacizumab to Standard Radiation Therapy and Daily Temozolomide Is Associated With Minimal Toxicity in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Vredenburgh, James J.; Desjardins, Annick; Kirkpatrick, John P.; Reardon, David A.; Peters, Katherine B.; Herndon, James E.; Marcello, Jennifer; Bailey, Leighann; Threatt, Stevie; Sampson, John; Friedman, Allan; Friedman, Henry S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the safety of the addition of bevacizumab to standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods and Materials: A total of 125 patients with newly diagnosed GBM were enrolled in the study, and received standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide. All patients underwent a craniotomy and were at least 2 weeks postoperative. Radiation therapy was administered in 1.8-Gy fractions, with the clinical target volume for the primary course treated to a dose of 45 to 50.4 Gy, followed by a boost of 9 to 14.4 Gy, to a total dose of 59.4 Gy. Patients received temozolomide at 75 mg/m{sup 2} daily throughout the course of radiation therapy. Bevacizumab was given at 10 mg/kg intravenously every 14 days, beginning a minimum of 4 weeks postoperatively. Results: Of the 125 patients, 120 (96%) completed the protocol-specified radiation therapy. Five patients had to stop the protocol therapy, 2 patients with pulmonary emboli, and 1 patient each with a Grade 2 central nervous system hemorrhage, Grade 4 pancytopenia, and wound dehiscence requiring surgical intervention. All 5 patients ultimately finished the radiation therapy. After radiation therapy, 3 patients had progressive disease, 2 had severe fatigue and decreased performance status, 1 patient had a colonic perforation, and 1 had a rectal fissure; these 7 patients therefore did not proceed with the protocol-specified adjuvant temozolomide, bevacizumab, and irinotecan. However, 113 patients (90%) were able to continue on study. Conclusions: The addition of bevacizumab to standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide was found to be associated with minimal toxicity in patients newly diagnosed with GBM.

  7. Higher daily physical activity is associated with higher osteocalcin levels in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Saydi E.; Frohnert, Brigitte I.; Thomas, William; Kelly, Aaron S.; Nathan, Brandon M.; Polgreen, Lynda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise stimulates bone remodeling and improves insulin sensitivity (Si), even without associated weight loss. Osteocalcin (OCN), a bone-derived protein, is associated with improved Si. Purpose We examined how daily physical activity is associated with OCN and Si. Methods Physical activity was measured through questionnaires completed in Minneapolis from 2010 to 2012. A physical activity score (PAQsum) was calculated to quantify physical activity (range 1–5). OCN and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured by ELISA. Si was measured by the insulin modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test. Results The mean PAQsum value was 2.4 ± 0.8 in 47 participants (12–17.9 years old). PAQsum was positively associated with OCN (p = 0.006). Participants with PAQsum <  2 had significantly lower OCN levels compared to participants with PAQsum >  2 (p < 0.02). Obesity did not modify the association between PAQsum and OCN. There was no statistically significant association between PAQsum and Si or between OCN and Si, even after adjustment for percent body fat. Conclusions OCN is higher in more physically active individuals. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between OCN, physical activity and Si. PMID:26236583

  8. The association of sexual interest and sexual behaviors among adolescent women: A daily diary perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Hensel, Devon J.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical linkages of adult women’s sexual interest and sexual behaviors are relatively well-established, but few data address similar issues in adolescent women. This paper reviews data from published reports of associations of adolescent women’s sexual interest and various sexual behaviors. All of the papers reported data collected from a single longitudinal cohort of young women. The primary source of data collection was daily diaries, allowing close temporal pairing of sexual interest with sexual behaviors. Young women’s sexual interest on a given day was consistently and independently associated with sexual activity on that day, whether the behavior was first lifetime coitus, coitus, fellatio, cunnilingus, anal intercourse, or coitus during menses. We also found no evidence of influence of hormonal contraceptives on young women’s sexual interest. Taken together, these data demonstrate the relevance of sexual interest as a key factor in young women’s sexuality and sexual behavior. PMID:21397605

  9. Daily Associations Between Drinking and Sex Among College Students: A Longitudinal Measurement Burst Design

    PubMed Central

    Maggs, Jennifer L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2015-01-01

    Daily links between alcohol use and sexual behaviors were examined in a longitudinal study of college students. Hierarchical linear models predicted sexual behaviors by characteristics of persons (N=731; Level 3), semesters (N=4,345, Level 2), and days (N=56,372, Level 1). On a given day, consuming more drinks and binge drinking were associated with greater odds of kissing, touching, oral sex, and penetrative sex. Consistent with alcohol myopia and expectancy theories, associations between binge drinking and sexual behaviors were stronger for students not in romantic relationships, for students with stronger alcohol-sex expectancies, and for oral and penetrative sex. Findings suggest that within-day links between alcohol use and sexual behaviors are evident across college, with variations based on individual and relationship factors. PMID:26052189

  10. Breakfast consumption and physical activity in adolescents: daily associations and hourly patterns123

    PubMed Central

    van Sluijs, Esther MF; Ridgway, Charlotte L; Steele, Rebekah M; Prynne, Celia J; Stephen, Alison M; Bamber, Diane J; Dunn, Valerie J; Goodyer, Ian M; Ekelund, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association between breakfast consumption and physical activity (PA) is inconclusive. Objective: We aimed to investigate daily associations and hourly patterns of PA and breakfast consumption in British adolescents. Design: Daily PA [accelerometry-derived moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA)] and breakfast consumption (diet diary) were measured simultaneously over 4 d in 860 adolescents (boys: 43.4%; mean ± SD age: 14.5 ± 0.5 y). Associations between MVPA and breakfast consumption were assessed by using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression separately by sex and for weekends and weekdays. Hourly patterns of MVPA by breakfast consumption status were displayed graphically, and differences were tested by using ANOVA. Multilevel linear regression was used to investigate differences in log MVPA on days when 570 inconsistent breakfast consumers ate or skipped breakfast. Results: On weekends, boys and girls with higher MVPA were more likely to eat breakfast [OR (95% CI): boys, 1.78 (1.30, 2.45) (P < 0.001); girls, 2.30 (1.66, 3.08) (P < 0.001)] when adjusted for socioeconomic status, percentage of body fat, and total energy intake. Peak hourly MVPA differed for breakfast consumers compared with nonconsumers on weekends (P < 0.001). Inconsistent breakfast consumers did more MVPA on days when they ate breakfast [exponentiated β coefficients (95% CIs): 1.2 (1.0, 1.5) on weekdays and 1.4 (1.1, 1.8) on weekends for boys and 1.6 (1.3, 2.1) on weekends for girls; all P < 0.03]. Conclusions: Eating breakfast was associated with higher MVPA on weekends. The time of peak MVPA differed between breakfast consumers and nonconsumers on weekends. Breakfast consumption at weekends is worth additional investigation to potentially inform PA promotion in adolescents. PMID:24284440

  11. Building high-performance system for processing a daily large volume of Chinese satellites imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Huawu; Huang, Shicun; Wang, Qi; Pan, Zhiqiang; Xin, Yubin

    2014-10-01

    The number of Earth observation satellites from China increases dramatically recently and those satellites are acquiring a large volume of imagery daily. As the main portal of image processing and distribution from those Chinese satellites, the China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CRESDA) has been working with PCI Geomatics during the last three years to solve two issues in this regard: processing the large volume of data (about 1,500 scenes or 1 TB per day) in a timely manner and generating geometrically accurate orthorectified products. After three-year research and development, a high performance system has been built and successfully delivered. The high performance system has a service oriented architecture and can be deployed to a cluster of computers that may be configured with high end computing power. The high performance is gained through, first, making image processing algorithms into parallel computing by using high performance graphic processing unit (GPU) cards and multiple cores from multiple CPUs, and, second, distributing processing tasks to a cluster of computing nodes. While achieving up to thirty (and even more) times faster in performance compared with the traditional practice, a particular methodology was developed to improve the geometric accuracy of images acquired from Chinese satellites (including HJ-1 A/B, ZY-1-02C, ZY-3, GF-1, etc.). The methodology consists of fully automatic collection of dense ground control points (GCP) from various resources and then application of those points to improve the photogrammetric model of the images. The delivered system is up running at CRESDA for pre-operational production and has been and is generating good return on investment by eliminating a great amount of manual labor and increasing more than ten times of data throughput daily with fewer operators. Future work, such as development of more performance-optimized algorithms, robust image matching methods and application

  12. Genome-wide association study identifies QTLs for EBV of backfat thickness and average daily gain in Duroc pigs.

    PubMed

    Long, Y; Ruan, G R; Su, Y; Xiao, S J; Zhang, Z Y; Ren, J; Ding, N S; Huang, L S

    2015-03-01

    Backfat thickness (BFT) and average daily gain (ADG) are two important economic traits in commercial swine production. Identifying QTLs and uncovering the molecular mechanism for BFT and ADG would greatly help to speed up the breeding progress. In current breeding program, EBV for these two traits are calculated and formulated a comprehensive breeding index, which then be used to improve pig performance. Using Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip, a pilot genomewide association studies (GWAS) for BFT and ADG in 83 Duroc pigs were performed. A total of 31 genome-wise significant SN Ps were detected to be associated with BFT on SSC 4, 9, 11, 12 and 14, ten of which were coincident with previously reported QTL regions. There are two genome-wise loci prominently associated with ADG on SSC2 and SSC13, respectively. The two loci on SSC2 are well overlapped with the QTL regions previously reported. All the 31 significant SNPs associated with BFT are verified on 219 outbreed pigs, six SN Ps reach an extreme significant level and seven SNP reaches a significant level, CACNA1E and ACBD6 are chosen as positional candidate genes. Our findings not only confirmed previously findings, but also revealed a number of novel SNPs associated with BFT and ADG. Two positional candidate genes CACNA1E and ACBD6 were identified for further study. These results would facilitate the identification of causative genes for BFT and ADG. PMID:26027376

  13. Impact of Daily Thermocycles on Hatching Rhythms, Larval Performance and Sex Differentiation of Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Villamizar, Natalia; Ribas, Laia; Piferrer, Francesc; Vera, Luisa M.; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

    2012-01-01

    In the wild, water temperature cycles daily: it warms up after sunrise, and cools rapidly after sunset. Surprisingly, the impact of such daily thermocycles during the early development of fish remains neglected. We investigated the influence of constant vs daily thermocycles in zebrafish, from embryo development to sexual differentiation, by applying four temperature regimens: two constant (24°C and 28°C) and two daily thermocycles: 28:24°C, TC (thermophase coinciding with daytime, and cryophase coinciding with night-time) and 24:28°C, CT (opposite to TC) in a 12:12 h light:dark cycle (LD). Embryo development was temperature-dependent but enhanced at 28°C and TC. Hatching rhythms were diurnal (around 4 h after lights on), but temperature- and cycle-sensitive, since hatching occurred sooner at 28°C (48 hours post fertilization; hpf) while it was delayed at 24°C (96 hpf). Under TC, hatching occurred at 72 hpf, while under CT hatching displayed two peaks (at 70 hpf and 94 hpf). In constant light (LL) or darkness (DD), hatching rhythms persisted with tau close to 24 h, suggesting a clock-controlled “gating” mechanism. Under 28°C or TC, larvae showed the best performance (high growth and survival, and low malformations). The sex ratio was strongly influenced by temperature, as the proportion of females was higher in CT and TC (79 and 83% respectively), contrasting with 28°C and 24°C, which led to more males (83 and 76%). Ovarian aromatase (cyp19a) expression in females was highest in TC and CT (6.5 and 4.6 fold higher than at 28°C, respectively); while anti-müllerian hormone (amh) expression in males increased in testis at 24°C (3.6 fold higher compared to TC) and particularly at 28°C (14.3 fold increase). Taken together, these findings highlight the key role of environmental cycles during early development, which shaped the daily rhythms in fish embryo and larvae, and ultimately influenced sex differentiation. PMID:23284912

  14. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men

    PubMed Central

    Lucertini, Francesco; Ponzio, Elisa; Di Palma, Michael; Galati, Claudia; Federici, Ario; Barbadoro, Pamela; D’Errico, Marcello M.; Prospero, Emilia; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Cuppini, Riccardo; Lattanzi, Davide; Minelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded), by measuring in saliva: i) daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30’ post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h); and ii) the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10) and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12) groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF), the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline. PMID:26529517

  15. Coping with Daily Thermal Variability: Behavioural Performance of an Ectotherm Model in a Warming World

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, José M.; Castillo, Simón B.; Folguera, Guillermo; Abades, Sebastián; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change poses one of the greatest threats to species persistence. Most analyses of the potential biological impacts have focused on changes in mean temperature, but changes in thermal variance will also impact organisms and populations. We assessed the effects of acclimation to daily variance of temperature on dispersal and exploratory behavior in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio laevis in an open field. Acclimation treatments were 24±0, 24±4 and 24±8°C. Because the performance of ectotherms relates nonlinearly to temperature, we predicted that animals acclimated to a higher daily thermal variation should minimize the time exposed in the centre of open field, – i.e. increase the linearity of displacements. Consistent with our prediction, isopods acclimated to a thermally variable environment reduce their exploratory behaviour, hypothetically to minimize their exposure to adverse environmental conditions. This scenario as well as the long latency of animals after releases acclimated to variable environments is consistent with this idea. We suggested that to develop more realistic predictions about the biological impacts of climate change, one must consider the interactions between the mean and variance of environmental temperature on animals' performance. PMID:25207653

  16. Coping with daily thermal variability: behavioural performance of an ectotherm model in a warming world.

    PubMed

    Rojas, José M; Castillo, Simón B; Folguera, Guillermo; Abades, Sebastián; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change poses one of the greatest threats to species persistence. Most analyses of the potential biological impacts have focused on changes in mean temperature, but changes in thermal variance will also impact organisms and populations. We assessed the effects of acclimation to daily variance of temperature on dispersal and exploratory behavior in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio laevis in an open field. Acclimation treatments were 24 ± 0, 24 ± 4 and 24 ± 8 °C. Because the performance of ectotherms relates nonlinearly to temperature, we predicted that animals acclimated to a higher daily thermal variation should minimize the time exposed in the centre of open field, --i.e. increase the linearity of displacements. Consistent with our prediction, isopods acclimated to a thermally variable environment reduce their exploratory behaviour, hypothetically to minimize their exposure to adverse environmental conditions. This scenario as well as the long latency of animals after releases acclimated to variable environments is consistent with this idea. We suggested that to develop more realistic predictions about the biological impacts of climate change, one must consider the interactions between the mean and variance of environmental temperature on animals' performance. PMID:25207653

  17. Mastering Social and Organization Goals: Strategy Use by Two Children with Asperger Syndrome during Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodger, Sylvia; Vishram, Alysha

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary data supports the effectiveness of Cognitive Orientation to (daily) Occupational Performance (CO-OP) for children with Asperger syndrome (AS). Children with AS often experience social and organizational difficulties spanning daily occupations. This case study explored the pattern of Global Strategies and Domain-Specific Strategies…

  18. Vision based assistive technology for people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As'ari, M. A.; Sheikh, U. U.

    2012-04-01

    The rapid development of intelligent assistive technology for replacing a human caregiver in assisting people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs) promises in the reduction of care cost especially in training and hiring human caregiver. The main problem however, is the various kinds of sensing agents used in such system and is dependent on the intent (types of ADLs) and environment where the activity is performed. In this paper on overview of the potential of computer vision based sensing agent in assistive system and how it can be generalized and be invariant to various kind of ADLs and environment. We find that there exists a gap from the existing vision based human action recognition method in designing such system due to cognitive and physical impairment of people with dementia.

  19. Effects of daily fluctuating temperatures on the Drosophila-Leptopilina boulardi parasitoid association.

    PubMed

    Delava, Emilie; Fleury, Frédéric; Gibert, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Koinobiont parasitoid insects, which maintain intimate and long-term relationships with their arthropod hosts, constitute an association of ectothermic organisms that is particularly sensitive to temperature variations. Because temperature shows pronounced natural daily fluctuations, we examined if experiments based on a constant temperature range can mask the real effects of the thermal regime on host-parasitoid interactions. The effects of two fluctuating thermal regimes on several developmental parameters of the Drosophila larval parasitoid Leptopilina boulardi were analyzed in this study. Regime 1 included a range of 16-23-16°C and regime 2 included a range of 16-21-26-21-16°C (mean temperature 20.1°C) compared to a 20.1°C constant temperature. Under an average temperature of 20.1°C, which corresponds to a cold condition of L. boulardi development, we showed that the success of parasitism is significantly higher under a fluctuating temperature regime than at constant temperature. A fluctuating regime also correlated with a reduced development time of the parasitoids. In contrast, the thermal regime did not affect the ability of Drosophila to resist parasitoid infestation. Finally, we demonstrated that daily temperature fluctuation prevented the entry into diapause for this species, which is normally observed at a constant temperature of 21°C. Overall, the results reveal that constant temperature experiments can produce misleading results, highlighting the need to study the thermal biology of organisms under fluctuating regimes that reflect natural conditions as closely as possible. This is particularly a major issue in host-parasitoid associations, which constitute a good model to understand the effect of climate warming on interacting species. PMID:27503721

  20. Are Breaks in Daily Self-Weighing Associated with Weight Gain?

    PubMed Central

    Helander, Elina E.; Vuorinen, Anna-Leena; Wansink, Brian; Korhonen, Ilkka K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Regular self-weighing is linked to successful weight loss and maintenance. However, an individual's self-weighing frequency typically varies over time. This study examined temporal associations between time differences of consecutive weight measurements and the corresponding weight changes by analysing longitudinal self-weighing data, including 2,838 weight observations from 40 individuals attending a health-promoting programme. The relationship between temporal weighing frequency and corresponding weight change was studied primarily using a linear mixed effects model. Weight change between consecutive weight measurements was associated with the corresponding time difference (β = 0.021% per day, p<0.001). Weight loss took place during periods of daily self-weighing, whereas breaks longer than one month posed a risk of weight gain. The findings emphasize that missing data in weight management studies with a weight-monitoring component may be associated with non-adherence to the weight loss programme and an early sign of weight gain. PMID:25397613

  1. Association between physical activity in daily life and pulmonary function in adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Miriane Lilian; Barbosa, Alan Carlos Brisola; Spina, Giovanna Domingues; Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Arantes, Rodolfo Leite; Gagliardi, Antonio Ricardo de Toledo; Romiti, Marcello; Dourado, Victor Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL) is associated with pulmonary function in adult smokers. Methods: We selected 62 adult smokers from among the participants of an epidemiological study conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil. The subjects underwent forced spirometry for pulmonary function assessment. The level of PADL was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and triaxial accelerometry, the device being used for seven days. The minimum level of PADL, in terms of quantity and intensity, was defined as 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Correlations between the studied variables were tested with Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, depending on the distribution of the variables. We used linear multiple regression in order to analyze the influence of PADL on the spirometric variables. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Evaluating all predictors, corrected for confounding factors, and using pulmonary function data as outcome variables, we found no significant associations between physical inactivity, as determined by accelerometry, and spirometric indices. The values for FVC were lower among the participants with arterial hypertension, and FEV1/FVC ratios were lower among those with diabetes mellitus. Obese participants and those with dyslipidemia presented with lower values for FVC and FEV1. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is no consistent association between physical inactivity and pulmonary function in adult smokers. Smoking history should be given special attention in COPD prevention strategies, as should cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities. PMID:27167434

  2. Daily stress magnifies the association between cognitive decline and everyday memory problems: an integration of longitudinal and diary methods.

    PubMed

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth Hahn; Almeida, David M; Seeman, Teresa E; Lachman, Margie E

    2014-12-01

    We examined whether long-term fluid cognitive decline was associated with memory problems in everyday life, and whether stress plays a moderating role. We expected that the association between cognitive decline and everyday memory problems would be magnified in the context of self-reported and physiological stress. Data are from the Boston Longitudinal Study, a subsample of the Midlife in the United States study. Participants in the current study (n = 112) completed a battery of tests measuring fluid cognitive functioning at Time 1 (T1) and 2 (T2) over 10 years. At T2, participants completed weekly diaries of self-reported daily stressors and everyday memory problems for 12 consecutive weeks. Also at T2, participants provided 4 saliva samples over the course of 1 day to assess physiological stress using diurnal cortisol profiles [cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS)]. Self-reported daily stressors and a less healthy DCS were associated with more everyday memory problems, and participants with greater cognitive decline reported more memory problems compared to those with less or no decline. Self-reported daily stressors and CAR moderated the relationship of cognitive decline and memory problems. As expected, more cognitive decline was associated with greater increases in memory problems on weeks when individuals reported more daily stressors and for individuals with a less healthy CAR. The current findings can inform interventions aimed to identify factors, such as daily stress, that contribute to daily functioning in the context of cognitive decline. PMID:25365691

  3. The Harvard Automated Phone Task: new performance-based activities of daily living tests for early Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Gad A.; Dekhtyar, Maria; Bruno, Jonathan M.; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden for Alzheimer’s disease dementia patients and caregivers. Multiple subjective scales and a few performance-based instruments have been validated and proven to be reliable in measuring instrumental activities of daily living in Alzheimer’s disease dementia but less so in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. Objective To validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task, a new performance-based activities of daily living test for early Alzheimer’s disease, which assesses high level tasks that challenge seniors in daily life. Design In a cross-sectional study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with demographics and cognitive measures through univariate and multivariate analyses; ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups was assessed; test-retest reliability with the same and alternate versions was assessed in a subset of participants; and the relationship with regional cortical thickness was assessed in a subset of participants. Setting Academic clinical research center. Participants One hundred and eighty two participants were recruited from the community (127 clinically normal elderly and 45 young normal participants) and memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital (10 participants with mild cognitive impairment). Measurements As part of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, participants navigated an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, and repetitions from which composite z-scores were derived, as well as a separate report of correct completion of the task. Results We found that the Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between diagnostic groups (APT-Script: p=0.002; APT-PCP: p<0.001; APT-Bank: p=0

  4. Daily stress and emotional well-being among Asian American adolescents: same-day, lagged, and chronic associations.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Buchanan, Christy M

    2014-02-01

    Daily-diary data from 180 Asian American 9th-10th graders (58% female, 75% second generation; M age = 14.97 years) were used to investigate how family, school, and peer stress are each associated with same-day and next-day (lagged) well-being, and vice versa. Hierarchical linear modeling provided support for reciprocal links when considering same-day reports. More daily stress was associated with lower same-day happiness and higher distress and anxiety. At the same time, well-being was associated with same-day stress, although the specific patterns were not as consistent and varied somewhat by stress domain. With a 1-day lag between daily experiences, stress was not associated with next-day well-being, but daily distress was associated with more next-day family stress. Females and first-generation adolescents were particularly vulnerable to daily stress and well-being processes. Sustained effects were also found in that chronic experiences of school stress over the 14-day period were associated with higher reports of depression and anxiety. PMID:23815704

  5. Spatial-temporal association between fine particulate matter and daily mortality

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jungsoon; Fuentes, Montserrat; Reich, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a mixture of pollutants that has been linked to serious health problems, including premature mortality. Since the chemical composition of PM2.5 varies across space and time, the association between PM2.5 and mortality could also change with space and season. In this work we develop and implement a statistical multi-stage Bayesian framework that provides a very broad, flexible approach to studying the spatiotemporal associations between mortality and population exposure to daily PM2.5 mass, while accounting for different sources of uncertainty. In stage 1, we map ambient PM2.5 air concentrations using all available monitoring data (IMPROVE and FRM) and an air quality model (CMAQ) at different spatial and temporal scales. In stage 2, we examine the spatial temporal relationships between the health end-points and the exposures to PM2.5 by introducing a spatial-temporal generalized Poisson regression model. We adjust for time-varying confounders, such as seasonal trends. A common seasonal trends model is to use a fixed number of basis functions to account for these confounders, but the results can be sensitive to the number of basis functions. In this study, the number of the basis functions is treated as an unknown parameter in our Bayesian model and we use a space-time stochastic search variable selection approach. We apply our methods to a data set in North Carolina for the year 2001. PMID:19652691

  6. 'What About Swallowing?' Diagnostic Performance of Daily Clinical Practice Compared with the Eating Assessment Tool-10.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Bas Joris; Speyer, Renée; Bülow, Margareta; Kuijpers, Laura Mf

    2016-04-01

    In daily clinical practice, patients are frequently asked about their swallowing as part of the patient-clinician interview. This study compares the diagnostic performance of a single open question 'What about swallowing?' (usual care) with the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) as reference test in screening for oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD). 303 outpatients at risk of OD were recruited at three university hospitals: 162 men and 141 women with a mean age of 70 years. All data were retrieved by phone. To identify patients at risk of dysphagia, two different cut-off scores for the EAT-10 total score were retrieved from the literature. The diagnostic performance of the single question was determined by comparing dichotomized answers to the single question (no problems versus difficulties in swallowing) with the EAT-10 as reference test. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values ranged between 0.75-0.76, 0.75-0.84, 0.93-0.97 and 0.38-0.43, respectively. Mostly, the results of this exploratory study indicate a sufficient diagnostic performance of the single question in identifying patients who are at risk of dysphagia when using the EAT-10 questionnaire as a reference test. Further research, is, however, necessary to provide additional psychometric data on Functional Health Status (FHS) questionnaires including the single question using either FEES or VFS as gold standard or reference test. PMID:26753926

  7. Daily precipitation extreme events for the Iberian Peninsula and its association with Atmospheric Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Liberato, Margarida LR

    2014-05-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula during the extended winter months have major socio-economic impacts such as floods, landslides, extensive property damage and life losses. These events are usually associated with low pressure systems with Atlantic origin, although some extreme events in summer/autumn months can be linked to Mediterranean low pressure systems. Quite often these events are evaluated on a casuistic base and making use of data from relatively few stations. An objective method for ranking daily precipitation events is presented here based on the extensive use of the most comprehensive database of daily gridded precipitation available for the Iberian Peninsula (IB02) and spanning from 1950 to 2008, with a resolution of 0.2° (approximately 16 x 22 km at latitude 40°N), for a total of 1673 pixels. This database is based on a dense network of rain gauges, combining two national data sets, 'Spain02' for peninsular Spain and Balearic islands, and 'PT02' for mainland Portugal, with a total of more than two thousand stations over Spain and four hundred stations over Portugal, all quality-controlled and homogenized. Through this objective method for ranking daily precipitation events the magnitude of an event is obtained after considering the area affected as well as its intensity in every grid point and taking into account the daily precipitation normalised departure from climatology. Different precipitation rankings are presented considering the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also the six largest river basins in the Iberian Peninsula. Atmospheric Rivers (AR) are the water vapour (WV) core section of the broader warm conveyor belt occurring over the oceans along the warm sector of extra-tropical cyclones. They are usually W-E oriented steered by pre-frontal low level jets along the trailing cold front and subsequently feed the precipitation in the extra-tropical cyclones. They are relatively narrow regions of concentrated WV

  8. Modified Daily Undulating Periodization Model Produces Greater Performance Than a Traditional Configuration in Powerlifters.

    PubMed

    Zourdos, Michael C; Jo, Edward; Khamoui, Andy V; Lee, Sang-Rok; Park, Bong-Sup; Ormsbee, Michael J; Panton, Lynn B; Contreras, Robert J; Kim, Jeong-Su

    2016-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to compare 2 daily undulating periodization (DUP) models on one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength in the squat, bench press, deadlift, total volume (TV) lifted, and temporal hormone response. Eighteen male, college-aged (21.1 ± 1.9 years) powerlifters participated in this study and were assigned to one of 2 groups: (a) traditional DUP training with a weekly training order: hypertrophy-specific, strength-specific, and power-specific training (HSP, n = 9) or (b) modified DUP training with a weekly training order: hypertrophy-specific, power-specific, and strength-specific training (HPS, n = 9). Both groups trained 3 nonconsecutive days per week for 6 weeks and performed the squat, bench press, and deadlift exercises. During hypertrophy and power sessions, subjects performed a fixed number of sets and repetitions but performed repetitions until failure at a given percentage during strength sessions to compare TV. Testosterone and cortisol were measured at pretesting and posttesting and before each strength-specific day. Hypertrophy, power, and strength produced greater TV in squat and bench press (p ≤ 0.05) than HSP, but not for deadlift (p > 0.05). For squat and deadlift, there was no difference between groups for 1RM (p > 0.05); however, HPS exhibited greater increases in 1RM bench press than HSP (p ≤ 0.05). Effect sizes (ES) showed meaningful differences (ES > 0.50) in favor of HPS for squat and bench press 1RM. Testosterone decreased (p ≤ 0.05) at weeks 5 and 6 and cortisol decline at weeks 3 and 4. However, neither hormone was different at posttesting compared with pretesting (p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that an HPS configuration of DUP has enhanced performance benefits compared with HSP. PMID:26332783

  9. Selective Narrowing of Social Networks Across Adulthood is Associated With Improved Emotional Experience in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    English, Tammy; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Past research has documented age differences in the size and composition of social networks that suggest that networks grow smaller with age and include an increasingly greater proportion of well-known social partners. According to socioemotional selectivity theory, such changes in social network composition serve an antecedent emotion regulatory function that supports an age-related increase in the priority that people place on emotional well-being. The present study employed a longitudinal design with a sample that spanned the full adult age range to examine whether there is evidence of within-individual (developmental) change in social networks and whether the characteristics of relationships predict emotional experiences in daily life. Using growth curve analyses, social networks were found to increase in size in young adulthood and then decline steadily throughout later life. As postulated by socioemotional selectivity theory, reductions were observed primarily in the number of peripheral partners; the number of close partners was relatively stable over time. In addition, cross-sectional analyses revealed that older adults reported that social network members elicited less negative emotion and more positive emotion. The emotional tone of social networks, particularly when negative emotions were associated with network members, also predicted experienced emotion of participants. Overall, findings were robust after taking into account demographic variables and physical health. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of socioemotional selectivity theory and related theoretical models. PMID:24910483

  10. The Relationship between Older Adults’ Risk for a Future Fall and Difficulty Performing Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Mamikonian-Zarpas, Ani; Laganá, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Functional status is often defined by cumulative scores across indices of independence in performing basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL/IADL), but little is known about the unique relationship of each daily activity item with the fall outcome. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the level of relative risk for a future fall associated with difficulty with performing various tasks of normal daily functioning among older adults who had fallen at least once in the past 12 months. The sample was comprised of community-dwelling individuals 70 years and older from the 1984–1990 Longitudinal Study of Aging by Kovar, Fitti, and Chyba (1992). Risk analysis was performed on individual items quantifying 6 ADLs and 7 IADLs, as well as 10 items related to mobility limitations. Within a subsample of 1,675 older adults with a history of at least one fall within the past year, the responses of individuals who reported multiple falls were compared to the responses of participants who had a single fall and reported 1) difficulty with walking and/or balance (FRAIL group, n = 413) vs. 2) no difficulty with walking or dizziness (NDW+ND group, n = 415). The items that had the strongest relationships and highest risk ratios for the FRAIL group (which had the highest probabilities for a future fall) included difficulty with: eating (73%); managing money (70%); biting or chewing food (66%); walking a quarter of a mile (65%); using fingers to grasp (65%); and dressing without help (65%). For the NDW+ND group, the most noteworthy items included difficulty with: bathing or showering (79%); managing money (77%); shopping for personal items (75%); walking up 10 steps without rest (72%); difficulty with walking a quarter of a mile (72%); and stooping/crouching/kneeling (70%). These findings suggest that individual items quantifying specific ADLs and IADLs have substantive relationships with the fall outcome among older adults who have difficulty with

  11. Daily fluctuations in positive affect positively co-vary with working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Brose, Annette; Lövdén, Martin; Schmiedek, Florian

    2014-02-01

    Positive affect is related to cognitive performance in multiple ways. It is associated with motivational aspects of performance, affective states capture attention, and information processing modes are a function of affect. In this study, we examined whether these links are relevant within individuals across time when they experience minor ups and downs of positive affect and work on cognitive tasks in the laboratory on a day-to-day basis. Using a microlongitudinal design, 101 younger adults (20-31 years of age) worked on 3 working memory tasks on about 100 occasions. Every day, they also reported on their momentary affect and their motivation to work on the tasks. In 2 of the 3 tasks, performance was enhanced on days when positive affect was above average. This performance enhancement was also associated with more motivation. Importantly, increases in task performance on days with above-average positive affect were mainly unrelated to variations in negative affect. This study's results are in line with between-person findings suggesting that high levels of well-being are associated with successful outcomes. They imply that success on cognitively demanding tasks is more likely on days when feeling happier. PMID:24364855

  12. Association of total daily physical activity with disability in community-dwelling older persons: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Based on findings primarily using self-report measures, physical activity has been recommended to reduce disability in old age. Collecting objective measures of total daily physical activity in community-dwelling older adults is uncommon, but might enhance the understanding of the relationship of physical activity and disability. We examined whether greater total daily physical activity was associated with less report of disability in the elderly. Methods Data were from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a longitudinal prospective cohort study of common, age-related, chronic conditions. Total daily physical activity was measured in community-dwelling participants with an average age of 82 using actigraphy for approximately 9 days. Disability was measured via self-reported basic activities of daily living (ADL). The odds ratio and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) were determined for the baseline association of total daily physical activity and ADL disability using a logistic regression model adjusted for age, education level, gender and self-report physical activity. In participants without initial report of ADL disability, the hazard ratio and 95% CI were determined for the relationship of baseline total daily physical activity and the development of ADL disability using a discrete time Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for demographics and self-report physical activity. Results In 870 participants, the mean total daily physical activity was 2. 9 × 105 counts/day (range in 105 counts/day = 0.16, 13. 6) and the mean hours/week of self-reported physical activity was 3.2 (SD = 3.6). At baseline, 718 (82.5%) participants reported being independent in all ADLs. At baseline, total daily physical activity was protective against disability (OR per 105 counts/day difference = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.47, 0.65). Of the participants without baseline disability, 584 were followed for 3.4 years on average. Each 105 counts/day additional total daily physical activity

  13. Association between daily activities, process skills, and motor skills in community-dwelling patients after left hemiparetic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between daily activities, information processing, and motor skills in individuals with hemineglect after having a left hemiparetic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The instrumental activities of daily living of 35 patients (22 male and 13 female; age: 57.1 ± 16.9 years) with hemineglect after having a left hemiparetic stroke were assessed by using three clinical measurement tools, including activity card sorting, assessment of motor and process skills, and the modified Barthel Index. [Results] The results of the regression analysis indicated that the patients’ processing skills in instrumental activities of daily living after having a left hemiparetic stroke were reduced. Participation in leisure and social activities was also affected as assessed by using the modified Barthel Index. [Conclusion] This study supports the clinical need for rehabilitation intervention after a left hemiparetic stroke to improve patients’ processing skills and independence in performing activities of daily living. PMID:27390426

  14. An introductory study of common grasps used by adults during performance of activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Margarita; Sancho-Bru, J L; Gracia-Ibáñez, V; Pérez-González, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a descriptive survey on human grasps. Sixty-four videos were selected to represent tasks performed in the main areas of activities of daily living (ADL) (personal care, meal preparation, eating, housekeeping, etc.). All the participants were right-handed. Elementary grasps were identified for each hand, and the grasp type (from a 9-type classification), the hands involved, and the duration were registered for each case. The results show that the most commonly used grasps are: pinch, non-prehensile, cylindrical, lateral pinch and lumbrical. The presence of these grasps in the areas of ADL is, however, very different (e.g., pinch is widely used in food preparation and very little in driving). Some grasps were used more frequently with one hand or when both hands were used simultaneously (e.g., special pinch was hardly used by the left hand). Knowing the grasp types most frequently used in ADL is essential to be able to assess grasp rehabilitation processes or hand prostheses development. PMID:24878351

  15. Various patterns of disrupted daily rest-activity rhythmicity associated with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kadono, Mayuko; Nakanishi, Naoko; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2016-08-01

    Disruptions to sleep and circadian rhythms have now been recognized as common comorbidities in patients with medical illnesses. We aimed to determine if the diurnal rhythms for rest and activity were disrupted in parallel with the development of diabetic complications. Ninety outpatients in our diabetes clinic who had a body mass index <25 kg m(2) wore an actigraph for 7 consecutive days (42 men; mean age 68.7 ± 8.2 years). Patients with neuropsychiatric diseases, liver cirrhosis, renal failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or blindness, or those who performed shiftwork were excluded. We grouped the actigraph recordings into 1-h periods and counted the number of minutes that showed activity. Stepwise regression analysis showed an association between a diabetic clinical background and measurements of circadian rhythms such as daytime activity, night-time activity, phase, interdaily stability, intradaily variability and relative amplitude. Higher age, body mass index, total cholesterol levels and insulin usage were associated with lower daytime activity and higher intradaily variability, whereas higher haemoglobin A1c levels and the presence of neuropathy were associated with greater daytime activity. The presence of proliferative retinopathy and increased levels of microalbuminuria were associated with higher intradaily variability and lower interdaily stability and amplitude. The presence of cardiovascular disease was associated with advanced phase, whereas painful neuropathy was associated with delayed phase. Our study demonstrated that different diabetic complications were associated independently with a variety of alterations in the circadian rest and activity rhythms. Our findings have provided novel insights that may be helpful in developing interventions for sleep-wake disorders associated with diabetes. PMID:26853999

  16. Factor analysis of two versions of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance scale.

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Luciane M; Scalco, Giovana P C; Abegg, Claides; Celeste, Roger K

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the factorial structure and agreement of two scoring versions of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) scale, and to compare the fit of the originally proposed factorial structure, as opposed to an alternative model. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) were conducted to explore the dimensional structure of the OIDP on a convenience sample of 200 adults (S1). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed on a random sample of 720 adults (S2). The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the total and frequency versions of the OIDP scale were, respectively, 0.81 and 0.70 for S1, and 0.82 and 0.79 for S2, with a quadratic Kappa κ = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75-0.89) in S1 and κ = 0.92 (95% CI: 0.89-0.94) in S2. Exploratory factor analyses showed one factor for the total version and three factors (non-interpretable) for the frequency version. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the frequency version for the one-factor model (Model 1) had the best fit [Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.04; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.98; Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.97, χ(2) P-value < 0.01]. The one-factor model was not significantly different from the original three-factor model. These findings suggest that the scale captures only one overall quality of life dimension, and that the frequency version was the most parsimonious model of the OIDP scale. PMID:26935779

  17. Characteristics of the Activity-Affect Association in Inactive People: An Ambulatory Assessment Study in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    von Haaren, Birte; Loeffler, Simone Nadine; Haertel, Sascha; Anastasopoulou, Panagiota; Stumpp, Juergen; Hey, Stefan; Boes, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity (PA) is related to well-being and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to PA or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants’ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between PA and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3 ± 1.7 years) using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and PA was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every 2 h on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence, and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level [mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET) value] and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15 min before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Analyzing the PA-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine characteristics of affective responses of inactive people to PA in daily life. General assumptions

  18. The influence of daily sleep patterns of commercial truck drivers on driving performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang Xiang; Fang, Youjia; Guo, Feng; Hanowski, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    Fatigued and drowsy driving has been found to be a major cause of truck crashes. Lack of sleep is the number one cause of fatigue and drowsiness. However, there are limited data on the sleep patterns (sleep duration, sleep percentage in the duration of non-work period, and the time when sleep occurred) of truck drivers in non-work periods and the impact on driving performance. This paper examined sleep patterns of 96 commercial truck drivers during non-work periods and evaluated the influence these sleep patterns had on truck driving performance. Data were from the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study. Each driver participated in the study for approximately four weeks. A shift was defined as a non-work period followed by a work period. A total of 1397 shifts were identified. Four distinct sleep patterns were identified based on sleep duration, sleep start/end point in a non-work period, and the percentage of sleep with reference to the duration of non-work period. Driving performance was measured by safety-critical events, which included crashes, near-crashes, crash-relevant conflicts, and unintentional lane deviations. Negative binomial regression was used to evaluate the association between the sleep patterns and driving performance, adjusted for driver demographic information. The results showed that the sleep pattern with the highest safety-critical event rate was associated with shorter sleep, sleep in the early stage of a non-work period, and less sleep between 1 a.m. and 5 a.m. This study also found that male drivers, with fewer years of commercial vehicle driving experience and higher body mass index, were associated with deteriorated driving performance and increased driving risk. The results of this study could inform hours-of-service policy-making and benefit safety management in the trucking industry. PMID:26954762

  19. Memory Performance, Health Literacy, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living of Community Residing Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Mackert, Michael; Becker, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background Health literacy is associated with cognitive function across multiple domains in older adults, and these older adults may face special memory and cognitive challenges that can limit their health literacy and, in turn, their ability to live independently. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate if an association existed among health literacy, memory performance, and performance-based functional ability in community-residing older adults. Methods Forty-five adults participated in this study. Designed to reflect everyday memory, the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) bridges laboratory-based measures of memory and assessments obtained by self-report and observation. The RBMT classifies individuals into four categories of memory performance: normal, poor, mildly impaired, and severely impaired. The participants were recruited in the two categories of normal (≥22) or impaired (≤16) category on the RBMT. The sample consisted of 14 who were in the impaired category and 31 in the normal group. Their average age was 77.11 years, and their average number of years of education was 15.33 years. Health literacy scores measured with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Results Health literacy scores were high (M = 65.09, SD = 2.80). Thirty-four participants or 76% of the sample scored a 66 out of a possible score of 80. Pearson correlations were calculated for the study variables. Health literacy scores with education and cognition (.30), memory performance groups (normal vs. poor; .25), and performance-based instrumental activities (.50) were associated significantly. Discussion The development of a broader assortment of health literacy instruments would improve the ability of researchers to both compare studies and build on the knowledge and results of others. PMID:22166912

  20. The influence of daily sleep patterns of commercial truck drivers on driving performance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang Xiang; Fang, Youjia; Guo, Feng; Hanowski, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Fatigued and drowsy driving has been found to be a major cause of truck crashes. Lack of sleep is the number one cause of fatigue and drowsiness. However, there are limited data on the sleep patterns (sleep duration, sleep percentage in the duration of non-work period, and the time when sleep occurred) of truck drivers in non-work periods and the impact on driving performance. This paper examined sleep patterns of 96 commercial truck drivers during non-work periods and evaluated the influence these sleep patterns had on truck driving performance. Data were from the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study. Each driver participated in the study for approximately four weeks. A shift was defined as a non-work period followed by a work period. A total of 1397 shifts were identified. Four distinct sleep patterns were identified based on sleep duration, sleep start/end point in a non-work period, and the percentage of sleep with reference to the duration of non-work period. Driving performance was measured by safety-critical events, which included crashes, near-crashes, crash-relevant conflicts, and unintentional lane deviations. Negative binomial regression was used to evaluate the association between the sleep patterns and driving performance, adjusted for driver demographic information. The results showed that the sleep pattern with the highest safety-critical event rate was associated with shorter sleep, sleep in the early stage of a non-work period, and less sleep between 1 a.m. and 5 a.m. This study also found that male drivers, with fewer years of commercial vehicle driving experience and higher body mass index, were associated with deteriorated driving performance and increased driving risk. The results of this study could inform hours-of-service policy-making and benefit safety management in the trucking industry. PMID:26954762

  1. Daily Stress and Emotional Well-Being among Asian American Adolescents: Same-Day, Lagged, and Chronic Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Buchanan, Christy M.

    2014-01-01

    Daily-diary data from 180 Asian American 9th-10th graders (58% female, 75% second generation; "M" age = 14.97 years) were used to investigate how family, school, and peer stress are each associated with same-day and next-day (lagged) well-being, and vice versa. Hierarchical linear modeling provided support for reciprocal links when…

  2. Marital Adjustment in Families of Young Children with Disabilities: Associations with Daily Hassles and Problem-Focused Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneman, Zolinda; Gavidia-Payne, Susana

    2006-01-01

    A family systems framework was used to examine associations between stressors/hassles, problem-focused coping, and marital adjustment in 67 families of young children with disabilities. Most of the couples were experiencing average to above average marital adjustment. When daily stressors/hassles were higher, husbands and wives viewed their…

  3. Daily Psychological Demands Are Associated with Six-Year Progression of Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis: The Pittsburgh Healthy Heart Project

    PubMed Central

    Kamarck, Thomas W.; Shiffman, Saul; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Tepper, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examine associations between the perception of ongoing psychological demands by ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and 6-year changes in carotid artery atherosclerosis by ultrasonography. Methods 270 initially healthy participants collected ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and recorded their daily experiences, using electronic diaries, over two 3-day periods. Mean intima-medial thickness (IMT) and plaque were assessed in the carotid arteries using B-mode ultrasound at baseline and again during a 6-year follow-up (average follow-up duration 73 months). Results Among those who had no exposure to antihypertensive medications over the course of follow-up (n = 192), daily psychological demands were associated with greater progression of IMT as well as plaque, after adjustment for demographic and risk factor covariates. Associations between demands and plaque change were partially accounted for by ABP differences among those reporting high demands. Among those who were employed at baseline (n=117), six-year IMT changes were more strongly associated with ratings of daily demands than with traditional measures of occupational stress. Conclusion These data support the role of psychological demands as a correlate of subclinical atherosclerotic progression, they point to ABP as a potential mechanism facilitating these effects, and they highlight the utility of EMA measures for capturing daily psychological demands with potential effects on health. PMID:22582340

  4. Experimental analysis of thermal performance of flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors in stationary standard and daily conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zambolin, E.; Del Col, D.

    2010-08-15

    New comparative tests on two different types of solar collectors are presented in this paper. A standard glazed flat plate collector and an evacuated tube collector are installed in parallel and tested at the same working conditions; the evacuated collector is a direct flow through type with external compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) reflectors. Efficiency in steady-state and quasi-dynamic conditions is measured following the standard and it is compared with the input/output curves measured for the whole day. The first purpose of the present work is the comparison of results in steady-state and quasi-dynamic test methods both for flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. Besides this, the objective is to characterize and to compare the daily energy performance of these two types of collectors. An effective mean for describing and analyzing the daily performance is the so called input/output diagram, in which the collected solar energy is plotted against the daily incident solar radiation. Test runs have been performed in several conditions to reproduce different conventional uses (hot water, space heating, solar cooling). Results are also presented in terms of daily efficiency versus daily average reduced temperature difference: this allows to represent the comparative characteristics of the two collectors when operating under variable conditions, especially with wide range of incidence angles. (author)

  5. Socio-demographic and lifestyle-related characteristics associated with self-reported any, daily and occasional smoking during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ruth; Manniën, Judith; de Jonge, Ank; Heymans, Martijn W; Klomp, Trudy; Hutton, Eileen K; Brug, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for various adverse birth outcomes. In order to develop effective interventions, insight is needed into the characteristics associated with pregnant women who smoke. Unknown is whether these characteristics differ for women who smoke daily and women who smoke occasionally. Our study sample, drawn from the DELIVER study (Sept 2009-March 2011), consisted of 6107 pregnant women in primary care in the Netherlands who were up to 34 weeks pregnant. The associations of thirteen socio-demographic or lifestyle-related characteristics with 'any smoking', 'daily smoking' and 'occasional smoking' during pregnancy were tested using multiple binary logistic regression with general estimating equations (GEE). Characteristics most strongly associated with any smoking were low education (OR 10.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.0-15.4), being of Turkish ethnicity (OR 3.9; 95%CI 2.3-6.7) and having no partner (OR 3.7; 95%CI 2.3-6.0). Women of Dutch ethnicity were three times more likely to smoke than those from Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries and non-religious women were much more likely to smoke than religious women. Low education was markedly more strongly associated with daily smoking than with occasional smoking (OR 20.3; 95%CI 13.2-31.3 versus OR 6.0; 95%CI 3.4-10.5). Daily smokers were more likely to be associated with other unfavorable lifestyle-related characteristics, such as not taking folic acid, being underweight, and having had an unplanned pregnancy. There is still much potential for health gain with respect to smoking during pregnancy in the Netherlands. Daily and occasional smokers appear to differ in characteristics, and therefore possibly require different interventions. PMID:24019956

  6. Chronic air pollution and social deprivation as modifiers of the association between high temperature and daily mortality

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Heat and air pollution are both associated with increases in mortality. However, the interactive effect of temperature and air pollution on mortality remains unsettled. Similarly, the relationship between air pollution, air temperature, and social deprivation has never been explored. Methods We used daily mortality data from 2004 to 2009, daily mean temperature variables and relative humidity, for Paris, France. Estimates of chronic exposure to air pollution and social deprivation at a small spatial scale were calculated and split into three strata. We developed a stratified Poisson regression models to assess daily temperature and mortality associations, and tested the heterogeneity of the regression coefficients of the different strata. Deaths due to ambient temperature were calculated from attributable fractions and mortality rates were estimated. Results We found that chronic air pollution exposure and social deprivation are effect modifiers of the association between daily temperature and mortality. We found a potential interactive effect between social deprivation and chronic exposure with regards to air pollution in the mortality-temperature relationship. Conclusion Our results may have implications in considering chronically polluted areas as vulnerable in heat action plans and in the long-term measures to reduce the burden of heat stress especially in the context of climate change. PMID:24941876

  7. Using a Continuous Time Lag to Determine the Associations Between Ambient PM2.5 Hourly Levels and Daily Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staniswalis, Joan G.; Yang, Hongling; Li, Wen-Whai; Kelly, Kerry E.

    2009-01-01

    We are interested in understanding the possible association between exposure to short-term PM2.5 peaks that have changing physical characteristics throughout the day and observable health outcomes (daily mortality). To this end, modern statistical methods are used here that allow for a continuous time lag between hourly PM2.5 mass concentration and daily mortality. The functional linear regression model was used to study how hourly PM2.5 mass of past days continuously influence the daily mortality count of the current day. Using a Poisson likelihood with the canonical link, we found that a 10 μg/m3 increase in the hourly PM2.5 above the hourly average is associated with 1.7% (.1, 3.4), 2.4% (1.2, 3.7), 1.6% (.6, 2.7), .8% (−.2, 1.8) higher risk of mortality on the same day, next day, 2-days and 3-days later, respectively. The increase in relative risk is statistically significant for lags of 0−2 days, but not at lag 3. The highest association between PM2.5 mass concentration and daily mortality was found to occur in the morning when both mass and PM number concentrations peak at roughly 8 a.m. (lag of 15, 39, and 63 hours). This morning time interval corresponds to automobile traffic rush-hour that coincides with a morning atmospheric inversion that traps high concentrations of nanoparticles. PMID:19842325

  8. Changes in Upper-Extremity Functional Capacity and Daily Performance During Outpatient Occupational Therapy for People With Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Doman, Caitlin A.; Waddell, Kimberly J.; Bailey, Ryan R.; Moore, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study explored how upper-extremity (UE) functional capacity and daily performance change during the course of outpatient rehabilitation in people with stroke. METHOD. Fifteen participants receiving outpatient occupational therapy services for UE paresis poststroke were enrolled. UE motor capacity was measured with the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and UE performance was measured using bilateral, wrist-worn accelerometers. Measurements were taken at or near the start of therapy, at every 10th visit or every 30 days throughout the duration of services, and at discharge. RESULTS. Three patterns were observed: (1) increase in ARAT scores and more normalized accelerometry profiles, (2) increase in ARAT scores but no change in accelerometry profiles, and (3) no change in ARAT scores or in accelerometry profiles. CONCLUSION. UE performance in daily life was highly variable, with inconsistencies between change in UE capacity and change in UE performance. UE capacity and performance are important constructs to assess separately during rehabilitation. PMID:27089298

  9. Academic Demands Are Associated with Reduced Alcohol Consumption by College Students: Evidence from a Daily Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Adam B.; Spencer, Desiree; Dodge, Kama

    2011-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence linking academic demands or rigor to alcohol consumption by college students. In a 3-week daily study of full-time college students at a public, residential campus in the United States, both current day and next day's academic demands were negatively related to alcohol consumption, and these relationships were…

  10. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PARTICULATE MATTER COMPONENTS AND DAILY MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY IN PHILADELPHIA, PA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In evaluating the health risks from particulate matter (PM), the question remains as to which component(s) of PM are most harmful. We investigated this issue using PM mass, PM constituents, mortality, and the elderly hospital admission data in Philadelphia, PA. Daily paired PM...

  11. Technology-Aided Verbal Instructions to Help Persons with Mild or Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Perform Daily Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Tatulli, Emanuela; Rigante, Valeria; Zonno, Nadia; Perilli, Viviana; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro G.

    2010-01-01

    These two studies extended previous research on the use of verbal instructions and support technology for helping persons with mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease perform daily activities. Study I included seven participants who were to carry out one of two previously targeted activities (i.e., either coffee preparation or table setting). Study…

  12. Identity Status: Its Relationship to Rorschach Performance and to Daily Life Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, James M.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis of the present study is that identity status, as defined by James Marcia, will relate to other characteristic differences between young adults, specifically, to the pattern of their daily lives and to their responses on the Rorschach. (Author/RK)

  13. Academic Performance Differences among Ethnic Groups: Do the Daily Use and Management of Time Offer Explanations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.

    2013-01-01

    This explorative study describes time use and time management behaviour of ethnic minority and ethnic majority students as possible explanations for the poorer study results of ethnic minority students compared to those of majority students. We used a diary approach in a small sample to examine students' daily time use in both a lecture week…

  14. Protocol for the CONVERT trial—Concurrent ONce-daily VErsus twice-daily RadioTherapy: an international 2-arm randomised controlled trial of concurrent chemoradiotherapy comparing twice-daily and once-daily radiotherapy schedules in patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) and good performance status

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Sally; Ashcroft, Linda; Bewley, Michelle; Lorigan, Paul; Wilson, Elena; Groom, Nicki; Snee, Michael; Fournel, Pierre; Cardenal, Felipe; Bezjak, Andrea; Blackhall, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Concurrent ONce-daily VErsus twice-daily RadioTherapy (CONVERT) is the only multicentre, international, randomised, phase III trial open in Europe and Canada looking at optimisation of chemoradiotherapy (RT) in limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). Following on from the Turrisi trial of once-daily versus twice-daily (BD) concurrent chemoradiotherapy, there is a real need for a new phase III trial using modern conformal RT techniques and investigating higher once-daily radiation dose. This trial has the potential to define a new standard chemo-RT regimen for patients with LS-SCLC and good performance status. Methods and analysis 447 patients with histologically or cytologically proven diagnosis of SCLC were recruited from 74 centres in eight countries between 2008 and 2013. Patients were randomised to receive either concurrent twice-daily RT(45 Gy in 30 twice-daily fractions over 3 weeks) or concurrent once-daily RT(66 Gy in 33 once-daily fractions over 6.5 weeks) both starting on day 22 of cycle 1. Patients are followed up until death. The primary end point of the study is overall survival and secondary end points include local progression-free survival, metastasis-free survival, acute and late toxicity based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events V.3.0, chemotherapy and RTdose intensity. Ethics and dissemination The trial received ethical approval from NRES Committee North West—Greater Manchester Central (07/H1008/229). There is a trial steering committee, including independent members and an independent data monitoring committee. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international conferences. Trial registration number ISRCTN91927162; Pre-results. PMID:26792218

  15. Daily, monthly and seasonal variation in PSA levels and the association with weather parameters.

    PubMed

    Connolly, D; van Leeuwen, P J; Bailie, J; Black, A; Murray, L J; Keane, P F; Gavin, A

    2011-03-01

    PSA levels have shown daily and seasonal variation, although data are conflicting regarding the season with higher PSA levels and the clinical relevance of this. We assessed the correlation of total PSA levels with meteorological data on a daily, weekly, monthly and seasonal basis. Data from 53,224 men aged 45-74 years, with an initial PSA <10.0 ng ml(-1) were correlated with temperature (°C), duration of bright sunshine (hours) and rainfall (mm). There was seasonal variation in PSA levels, with median PSA being higher in spring compared with other seasons (1.18 vs 1.10 ng ml(-1), P = 0.004). Seasonal variation was not apparent when PSA levels were age-adjusted (P = 0.112). Total PSA was not correlated with daily, weekly or monthly hours of sunshine, rainfall or mean temperature. In contrast, age-adjusted PSA varied with weekday, with higher PSA levels on Thursday and Friday compared with other days (1.16 vs 1.10 ng ml(-1), respectively). On multivariate analysis, only age predicted for PSA levels >3.0 ng ml(-1). In conclusion, PSA levels did show seasonal variation, although there was no direct correlation between PSA and any meteorological parameter. The degree of seasonal variation is small and the decision to proceed to prostate biopsy should be independent of season or weather parameters. PMID:20975738

  16. Prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Efficacy of daily meatal care regimens.

    PubMed

    Burke, J P; Garibaldi, R A; Britt, M R; Jacobson, J A; Conti, M; Alling, D W

    1981-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of daily cleansing of the urethral meatus-catheter junction in preventing bacteriuria during closed urinary drainage, randomized, controlled trials of two widely recommended regimens for meatal care were completed. In 32 (16.0 percent) of 200 patients given twice daily applications of a povidone-iodine solution and ointment bacteriuria was acquired, as compared with 24 (12.4 percent) of 194 patients not given this treatment. In 28 (12.2 percent) of 229 patients given once daily meatal cleansing with a nonantiseptic solution of green soap and water bacteriuria was acquired, as compared with 18 (8.1 percent) of 23 patients not given special meatal care. There was no evidence in either trial of a beneficial effect of meatal care. Moreover, each of four different statistical methods indicated that the rates of bacteriuria were higher in the treated groups than in the untreated groups. In subsets of female patients at high risk in both studies significantly higher rates of bacteriuria were noted in the treated groups than in the untreated groups. Current methods of meatal care appear to be hazardous, as well as expensive, and cannot be recommended as measures to control infection. PMID:7011019

  17. Daily Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know Online Tools Enhancing Daily Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing ... Tweet Email | Print Create a Daily Routine Daily Plan Activities Communication Food/Eating Get Tips on Personal Care Bathing ...

  18. Perceived and measurable performance of daily brushing and rinsing with an essential oil mouthrinse

    PubMed Central

    Pilloni, Andrea; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Barlattani, Alberto; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Giannoni, Mario; Guida, Luigi; Levrini, Luca; Majorana, Alessandra; Polimeni, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    Summary Aims To determine whether the oral health benefits of recommending twice daily brushing and rinsing with an essential oil mouthrinse (EOM) are perceived and measurable by dentists and also perceived by their patients at a 3-month recall visit. Methods This is a monadic, open label, uncontrolled study involving 766 generally healthy Italian subjects aged 19–66 years, with mild to moderate levels of gingivitis, no pockets of more than 4 mm, and at least 20 scorable teeth. Eight dentists scored subjects for plaque and gingivitis at baseline and at 90 days using simplified 4-point plaque and gingivitis indices. All subjects brushed twice daily, immediately followed by rinsing for 30 sec with 20 ml of an essential oil mouthrinse (Listerine®). Results 735 subjects completed the study (95.9%). Average score reductions were 51.9% and 45.7% for plaque and gingivitis, respectively. About 62% and 70% were judged by the dentists as improved for plaque control and gingival health. 85% of subjects judged the EOM as efficacious. Conclusion The oral health benefits of brushing and rinsing twice daily with an essential oil mouthrinse are perceived by patients and professionals alike and measurable by dentists at a 3-month recall visit. PMID:22238712

  19. Time-based prospective memory functioning in mild cognitive impairment associated with Parkinson’s disease: relationship with autonomous management of daily living commitments

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Alberto; Zabberoni, Silvia; Peppe, Antonella; Serafini, Francesca; Scalici, Francesco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Prospective memory (PM), that is, the ability to keep in memory and carry out intentions in the future, is reported to be impaired in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD). PM failure may be also associated with reduced daily living functioning in these patients. Little is known, however, about the relationship between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and time-based PM functioning in PD patients and the possible impact of PM deficits on patients’ autonomy in daily living. Here we aimed to investigate whether MCI associated with PD affects time-based PM. We also wished to determine whether PM impairment accounts for reduced autonomous management of medication in these patients. Method: The study included 48 PD patients with MCI, 33 PD patients without cognitive disorders (PDN) and 20 healthy controls. The time-based PM procedure required that subjects perform an action after a fixed time. The PM procedure was incorporated in the standard neuropsychological assessment. One score was computed for the ability to retrieve the intention (prospective component) and one for remembering the action to be executed (retrospective component). The Pill Questionnaire was administered to assess the ability to manage medication. Results: PD patients with MCI performed less accurately in the PM procedure than HC and tended to perform poorer than PDN. Moreover, in PD patients with MCI, accuracy on the prospective component of the PM task and performance on the Modified Card Sorting Test significantly predicted the ability to manage medication. Conclusions: Results document that reduced efficiency of time-based PM processes in PD is specifically related to the presence of MCI. The same data indicate that PM weakness may be associated with impaired daily living functioning and decreased autonomy. PMID:26106317

  20. Daily School Peer Victimization Experiences Among Mexican-American Adolescents: Associations with Psychosocial, Physical and School Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Nancy A.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    School bullying incidents, particularly experiences with victimization, are a significant social and health concern among adolescents. The current study extended past research by examining the daily peer victimization experiences of Mexican-American adolescents and examining how chronic (mean-level) and episodic (daily-level) victimization incidents at school are associated with psychosocial, physical and school adjustment. Across a two-week span, 428 ninth and tenth grade Mexican-American students (51 % female) completed brief checklists every night before going to bed. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed that, at the individual level, Mexican-American adolescents’ who reported more chronic peer victimization incidents across the two-weeks also reported heightened distress and academic problems. After accounting for adolescent’s mean levels of peer victimization, daily victimization incidents were associated with more school adjustment problems (i.e., academic problems, perceived role fulfillment as a good student). Additionally, support was found for the mediation model in which distress accounts for the mean-level association between peer victimization and academic problems. The results from the current study revealed that everyday peer victimization experiences among Mexican-American high school students have negative implications for adolescents’ adjustment, across multiple domains. PMID:23238764

  1. Performance Analysis of a CO2 Heat Pump Water Heating System Under a Daily Change in a Simulated Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Ryohei; Kohno, Yasuhiro; Wakui, Tetsuya; Takemura, Kazuhisa

    Air-to-water heat pumps using CO2 as a refrigerant have been developed. In addition, water heating systems each of which combines a CO2 heat pump with a hot water storage tank have been commercialized and widespread. They are expected to contribute to energy saving in residential hot water supply. It has become more and more important to enhance the system performance. In this paper, the performance of a CO2 heat pump water heating system is analyzed under a daily change in a simulated hot water demand by numerical simulation. A static model of a CO2 heat pump and a dynamic model of a storage tank result in a set of differential algebraic equations, and it is solved numerically by a hierarchical combination of Runge-Kutta and Newton-Raphson methods. Daily changes in the temperature distributions in the storage tank and the system performance criteria such as volumes of stored and unused hot water, coefficient of performance, and storage and system efficiencies are clarified under a series of daily hot water demands during a month.

  2. Part 2. Association of daily mortality with ambient air pollution, and effect modification by extremely high temperature in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhengmin; He, Qingci; Lin, Hung-Mo; Kong, Lingli; Zhou, Dunjin; Liang, Shengwen; Zhu, Zhichao; Liao, Duanping; Liu, Wenshan; Bentley, Christy M; Dan, Jijun; Wang, Beiwei; Yang, Niannian; Xu, Shuangqing; Gong, Jie; Wei, Hongming; Sun, Huilin; Qin, Zudian

    2010-11-01

    Fewer studies have been published on the association between daily mortality and ambient air pollution in Asia than in the United States and Europe. This study was undertaken in Wuhan, China, to investigate the acute effects of air pollution on mortality with an emphasis on particulate matter (PM*). There were three primary aims: (1) to examine the associations of daily mortality due to all natural causes and daily cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular [CVD], stroke, cardiac [CARD], respiratory [RD], cardiopulmonary [CP], and non-cardiopulmonary [non-CP] causes) with daily mean concentrations (microg/m3) of PM with an aerodynamic diameter--10 pm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), or ozone (O3); (2) to investigate the effect modification of extremely high temperature on the association between air pollution and daily mortality due to all natural causes and daily cause-specific mortality; and (3) to assess the uncertainty of effect estimates caused by the change in International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding of mortality data from Revision 9 (ICD-9) to Revision 10 (ICD-10) code. Wuhan is called an "oven city" in China because of its extremely hot summers (the average daily temperature in July is 37.2 degrees C and maximum daily temperature often exceeds 40 degrees C). Approximately 4.5 million residents live in the core city area of 201 km2, where air pollution levels are higher and ranges are wider than the levels in most cities studied in the published literature. We obtained daily mean levels of PM10, SO2, and NO2 concentrations from five fixed-site air monitoring stations operated by the Wuhan Environmental Monitoring Center (WEMC). O3 data were obtained from two stations, and 8-hour averages, from 10:00 to 18:00, were used. Daily mortality data were obtained from the Wuhan Centres for Disease Prevention and Control (WCDC) during the study period of July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2004. To achieve the first aim, we used a regression of

  3. Mental health of victims of sexual violence in eastern Congo: associations with daily stressors, stigma, and labeling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The conflict-ridden context of eastern Congo has set the scene for grueling human rights violations, with sexual violence as one of the ‘weapons of war’. Currently, sexual violence continues, with a considerable increase in civilian perpetrators. However, little is known regarding the particular impact of different experiences of sexual violence on adolescents’ mental health. This study therefore investigates the impact of sexual violence on eastern Congolese adolescents’ mental health and its differing associations with daily stressors, stigma, and the labeling of sexual violence (as ‘rape’ or ‘non-consensual sexual experience’). Methods A cross-sectional, population-based survey design was implemented in 22 secondary schools, randomly selected from a stratified sample, in Bunia, eastern Congo, a region extensively affected by war. A total of 1,305 school-going adolescent girls aged 11 to 23 participated. Self-report measures of mental health symptoms, war-related traumatic events, experiences of sexual violence, daily stressors, and stigmatization were administered. Differences in sociodemographic characteristics, traumatic experiences and daily and social stressors between types of sexual violence (rape, non-consensual sexual violence, no sexual violence) were explored through statistical analysis. ANCOVA analyses investigated associations between those risk factors and adolescents’ mental health. Results More than one third of eastern Congolese adolescent girls reported experiences of sexual violence. Elevated levels of daily stressors, experiences of stigmatization, and stressful war-related events were found amongst girl victims of sexual violence, with the highest levels for girls who labeled the sexual violence as rape. Daily stressors, stigmatization, and war-related events showed a large impact on the girls’ mental health. Last, girls who labeled the sexual violence as non-consensual sexual experiences reported more post

  4. Using a continuous time lag to determine the associations between ambient PM2.5 hourly levels and daily mortality.

    PubMed

    Staniswalis, Joan G; Yang, Hongling; Li, Wen-Whai; Kelly, Kerry E

    2009-10-01

    The authors are interested in understanding the possible association between exposure to short-term fine particulate matter (PM2.5) peaks that have changing physical characteristics throughout the day and observable health outcomes (daily mortality). To this end, modern statistical methods are used here that allow for a continuous time lag between hourly PM2.5 mass concentration and daily mortality. The functional linear regression model was used to study how hourly PM2.5 mass of past days continuously influences the daily mortality count of the current day. Using a Poisson likelihood with the canonical link, the authors found that a 10-microg/m3 increase in the hourly PM2.5 above the hourly average is associated with 1.7% (0.1, 3.4), 2.4% (1.2, 3.7), 1.6% (0.6, 2.7), and 0.8% (-0.2, 1.8) higher risk of mortality on the same day, next day, 2 days, and 3 days later, respectively. The increase in relative risk is statistically significant for lags of 0-2 days, but not at lag 3. The highest association between PM2.5 mass concentration and daily mortality was found to occur in the morning when both mass and PM number concentrations peak at approximately 8:00 a.m. (lag of 15, 39, and 63 hr). This morning time interval corresponds to automobile traffic rush hour that coincides with a morning atmospheric inversion that traps high concentrations of nanoparticles. PMID:19842325

  5. Mid-troposphere variables and their association with daily local precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, N. E.; Vargas, W. M.; Ciappesoni, H. H.

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes the meteorological variables directly affecting precipitation in the southern region of South America. Results show the relationships between daily precipitation at Ezeiza, Buenos Aires, and 500 mb dynamic variables (e. g. geopotential heights, relative geostrophic vorticity and its advection, vorticity tendency and zonal and meridional geostrophic wind components) using regional synoptic analyses from the Servicio Meteorológico Nacional of Argentina for 1986. The distribution of significant biserial correlation coefficients reveals the preferred positions for the anomalous wind components which favour the occurrence of rainfall at Ezeiza. In the same way, spatial distributions and temporal lag relations of 500 mb relative vorticity anomalies in relation to precipitation show the positions and relative movement of centres of anomalously cyclonic and anticyclonic vorticity which increase the probability of precipitation at Buenos Aires. Vorticity advection does not yield higher correlations, at least in a daily temporal scale. The geographical distribution of temporal means and standard deviations of geopotential heights and zonal and meridional wind components at the 500 mb level are also shown.

  6. Daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children with and without anemia: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiu-min; Liu, Hui; Qian, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is an important public health and clinical problem. Observational studies have linked iron deficiency and anemia in children with many poor outcomes, including impaired cognitive development. In this study, we summarize the evidence for the effect of daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children. We searched electronic databases (including MEDLINE and Wangfang database) and other sources (August 2015) for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials involving daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in children aged 5-12 years. We combined the data using random effects meta-analysis. We identified 3219 studies; of these, we evaluated 5 full-text papers including 1825 children. Iron supplementation cannot improve global cognitive scores (Mean difference 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.69 to 4.79, P<0.01). Our analysis suggests that iron supplementation improves global cognitive c outcomes among primary-school-aged children is still unclear. PMID:26629120

  7. An Associate Degree in High Performance Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Arnold

    In order for more individuals to enter higher paying jobs, employers must create a sufficient number of high-performance positions (the demand side), and workers must acquire the skills needed to perform in these restructured workplaces (the supply side). Creating an associate degree in High Performance Manufacturing (HPM) will help address four…

  8. Discriminative ability of the generic and condition specific Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP) among adolescents with and without hypodontia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to (1) investigate to what extent the generic and condition specific (CS) forms of the oral impact of daily performance (OIDP) inventory discriminate between a group of patients with hypodontia and a group of patients having malocclusion, (2) assess the association of the generic and CS OIDP with severity and localisation of hypodontia, whilst adjusting for patients’ age and sex. Methods A total of 163 patients aged 10–17 years were included in a cross-sectional study. Two groups were investigated: 62 patients with non-syndromic hypodontia and 101 non-hypodontia patients. Both groups had a malocclusion of similar treatment need. All patients underwent a clinical and radiographic examination and completed a Norwegian version of the generic and the CS OIDP inventory. CS scores were established for impacts attributed to hypodontia. Results The mean number of missing teeth in the hypodontia group was 6.2. The prevalence of generic and CS oral impacts in the hypodontia group were 64% and 30%, and the corresponding rates in the non-hypodontia group were 62% and 10%. The generic OIDP did not discriminate between the two groups with respect to overall scores. The CS OIDP discriminated strongly between patients with and without hypodontia regarding problems with emotional status, showing teeth, social contact, speaking and carrying out work. Compared to the non-hypodontia group, patients with hypodontia, with severe hypodontia (≥ 6 missing teeth) and upper anterior hypodontia were respectively 3.4, 2.5 and 7.0 times more likely to report any oral impact attributed to small teeth, gaps between teeth and missing teeth. Conclusions Hypodontia and malocclusion patients report a considerable burden of oral impacts. The CS-OIDP measure discriminated most effectively between patients with and without hypodontia and was related to severity and upper anterior localisation of hypodontia. PMID:24884584

  9. Impact of fixed orthodontic appliance or clear-aligner on daily performance, in adult patients with moderate need for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feiou; Yao, Linjie; Bhikoo, Chandradev; Guo, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of wearing fixed orthodontic appliance (FOA) or clear-aligner, on daily performance in adult patients. Methods The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) index was assessed in 152 adults aged 25–35 years at baseline (T0), 6 months after bonding (T1), and 12 months after bonding (T2). Participants were randomly divided into two groups: CA group (participants treated with clear-aligner) and a control group (FOA group; participants treated with FOA). Baseline malocclusion severity was assessed using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Results There were no significant differences in sociodemographic variables and OIDP scores at baseline between the two groups. Significant changes in OIDP total and subscale scores were observed while wearing FOA: OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation at T1 and T2 were significantly higher than at baseline (P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, only OIDP total score was significantly increased at T1 compared to the baseline in the CA group. OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation were significantly higher in patients wearing FOA than in patients wearing clear-aligner at T1 and T2 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion Patients wearing clear-aligner have fewer impacts on daily life than those wearing FOA during treatment, and have no significant changes in OIPD subscale scores at 12 months. FOA therapy significantly impacts daily performance in adult patients during treatment.

  10. Association between air pollution and daily consultations with general practitioners for allergic rhinitis in London, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Hajat, S; Haines, A; Atkinson, R W; Bremner, S A; Anderson, H R; Emberlin, J

    2001-04-01

    Few published studies have looked at the health effects of air pollution in the primary care setting, and most have concentrated on lower rather than upper respiratory diseases. The authors investigated the association of daily consultations with general practitioners for allergic rhinitis with air pollution in London, United Kingdom. Generalized additive models were used to regress time series of daily numbers of patients consulting for allergic rhinitis against 1992--1994 measures of air pollution, after control for possible confounders and adjustment for overdispersion and serial correlation. In children, a 10th--90th percentile increase in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) levels 4 days prior to consultation (13-31 microg/m(3)) was associated with a 24.5% increase in consultations (95% confidence interval: 14.6, 35.2; p < 0.00001); a 10th--90th percentile increase in averaged ozone (O(3)) concentrations on the day of consultation and the preceding 3 days (6--29 parts per billion) was associated with a 37.6% rise (95% confidence interval: 23.3, 53.5; p < 0.00001). For adults, smaller effect sizes were observed for SO(2) and O(3). The association with SO(2) remained highly significant in the presence of other pollutants. This study suggests that air pollution worsens allergic rhinitis symptoms, leading to substantial increases in consultations. SO(2) and O(3) seem particularly responsible, and both seem to contribute independently. PMID:11282799

  11. Effect of daily concentrate intake at weaning on performance of Belgian Blue double-muscled rearing calves.

    PubMed

    Fiems, Leo; De Boever, Johan; De Campeneere, Sam; Vanacker, José; De Brabander, Daniël

    2005-12-01

    Weaning at a different daily concentrate intake was investigated during a 140-d experimental period, using 54 male and 68 female newborn Belgian Blue double-muscled animals. They were divided into three comparable groups and received milk at 10% of their birth weight up to weaning. Concentrate was levelled off at a maximum daily intake of 3 kg, while grass hay was freely available. Weaning occurred at a daily concentrate intake level (CL) of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 kg, respectively. Weaning at an increased CL prolonged the milk-feeding period by 13.1 and 14.6 days, and resulted in a higher pre- and post-weaning growth rate (p < 0.05). Daily gain during the entire experimental period averaged 0.84, 0.85 and 0.88 kg for the respective groups (p = 0.065). Daily concentrate intake was not different among groups, with only a small effect of CL on intake around weaning. Early weaning resulted in a significant reduction of hay intake (p = 0.032). Total daily net energy intake increased slightly with a higher CL at weaning, so that energy conversion was slightly improved, amounting to 17.7, 17.6 and 17.4 MJ/kg gain, respectively. Energy balance during the first week after weaning was negative for CL 0.5 kg (-22%), while it was close to 0 for CL 0.75 kg (-2%) or positive for CL 1.0 kg. Most effects of CL at weaning were similar for males and females, but male calves tended to have a higher intake and a faster growth rate than females. It can be concluded that weaning should be delayed until Belgian Blue double-muscled calves consume at least 0.75 kg per day or more for reasons of welfare, although performance was hardly improved by weaning at a daily concentrate intake of more than 0.5 kg per day. PMID:16429825

  12. Safety and toxicokinetic profiles associated with daily oral administration of grapiprant, a selective antagonist of the prostaglandin E2 EP4 receptor, to cats.

    PubMed

    Rausch-Derra, Lesley C; Rhodes, Linda

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate safety and toxicokinetic profiles associated with daily oral administration of grapiprant, a new analgesic that selectively blocks the prostaglandin E2 EP4 receptor, to cats. ANIMALS 24 healthy domestic shorthair cats (12 males and 12 females). PROCEDURES Cats were randomly assigned (3 of each sex/group) to receive a placebo capsule or grapiprant at 3, 9, or 15 mg/kg, administered PO once daily for 28 days, beginning on day 0. Food consumption and behavior were observed daily, body weight was measured weekly, and clinicopathologic tests were performed on blood and urine samples collected on days -7, 14, and 25. Blood samples for toxicokinetic analyses were collected after treatment on days 0 and 27. Cats were euthanized on day 28, and full necropsies and histologic evaluations were performed. RESULTS Grapiprant rapidly reached peak serum concentrations and maintained substantial concentrations throughout the 28-day period. By day 27, maximum serum concentrations ranged from 683 ng/mL to 4,950 ng/mL, which were attained by 1 to 4 hours after administration. Serum half-lives on day 27 ranged from approximately 2 to 14 hours (median, approx 5 to 6 hours). Grapiprant was well tolerated, and no adverse effects were detected at doses ≤ 15 mg/kg. No significant effects of grapiprant were identified on body weight, food consumption, clinicopathologic variables, or gross or histologic necropsy findings. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested the safety of daily oral administration of grapiprant to cats. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of grapiprant for treatment of cats with osteoarthritis. PMID:27347820

  13. Daily Associations Among Self-control, Heavy Episodic Drinking, and Relationship Functioning: An Examination of Actor and Partner Effects

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    An emerging literature suggests that temporary deficits in the ability to inhibit impulsive urges may be proximally associated with intimate partner aggression. The current study examined the experience of alcohol use and the depletion of self-control in the prediction of relationship functioning. Daily diary data collected from 118 heterosexual couples were analyzed using parallel multi-level Actor Partner Interdependence Models to assess the effects of heavy episodic drinking and depletion of self-control across partners on outcomes of participant-reported daily arguing with and anger toward an intimate partner. Heavy episodic drinking among actors predicted greater arguing but failed to interact with either actor or partner depletion. We also found that greater arguing was reported on days of high congruent actor and partner depletion. Both actor and partner depletion, as well as their interaction, predicted greater partner-specific anger. Greater partner-specific anger was generally reported on days of congruent actor and partner depletion, particularly on days of high partner depletion. The current results highlight the importance of independently assessing partner effects (i.e., depletion of self-control), which interact dynamically with disinhibiting actor effects, in the prediction of daily adverse relationship functioning. Results offer further support for the development of prospective individualized and couples-based interventions for partner conflict. PMID:24700558

  14. Perceived Partner Responsiveness Mediates the Association Between Sexual and Marital Satisfaction: A Daily Diary Study in Newlywed Couples.

    PubMed

    Gadassi, Reuma; Bar-Nahum, Lior Eadan; Newhouse, Sarah; Anderson, Ragnar; Heiman, Julia R; Rafaeli, Eshkol; Janssen, Erick

    2016-01-01

    Sexuality is an integral part of intimate relationships, yet surprisingly little is known about how and for whom sexuality matters. The present research investigated the interplay of sexual and non-sexual factors that contribute to relationship satisfaction. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that the association between sexual satisfaction and marital satisfaction is mediated by a non-sexual factor-namely, perceived partner responsiveness (PPR). Additionally, we tested the role of gender as a possible moderator of this mediated association. Thirty-four newlywed couples completed diaries with each spouse reporting their sexual satisfaction, marital satisfaction, and PPR every day for 30 days. We tested our predictions at both the person level (i.e., the mean level across 30 days) and the daily level. At the person level, we found that sexual satisfaction and PPR separately predicted marital satisfaction. Moreover, the effect of sexual satisfaction on marital satisfaction was partially mediated by PPR. No gender differences emerged at this level. At the daily level, we found similar support for partial mediation. However, at this level, gender did serve as a moderator. The stronger mediation found for women was driven by a stronger association between sexual satisfaction and PPR for women than for men. This study joins a growing literature highlighting the role of PPR in dyadic relationships. PMID:25680818

  15. Bone quality associated with daily intake of coffee: a biochemical, radiographic and histometric study.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Suzie Aparecida; Matuoka, Renata Inahara; Macedo, Rander Moreira; Petenusci, Sergio Olavo; Campos, Alessandra Aparecida; Brentegani, Luiz Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine induces loss of calcium and influences the normal development of bone. This study investigated the effects of coffee on bone metabolism in rats by biochemical measurement of calcium, bone densitometry and histometry. Male rats, born of female treated daily with coffee and with coffee intake since born, were anesthetized, subjected to extraction of the upper right incisor, and sacrificed 7, 21 and 42 days after surgery. Blood and urine samples were taken, and their maxilla radiographed and processed to obtain 5-µm-thick semi-serial sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The volume and bone quality were estimated using an image-analysis software. The results showed significantly greater amount of calcium in the plasma (9.40 ± 1.73 versus 9.80 ± 2.05 mg%) and urine (1.00 ± 0.50 versus 1.25 ± 0.70 mg/24 h) and significantly less amount in bone (90.0 ± 1.94 versus 86.0 ± 2.12 mg/mg bone), reduced bone mineral density (1.05 ± 0.11 versus 0.65 ± 0.15 mmAL), and lower amount of bone (76.19 ± 1.6 versus 53.41 ± 2.1 %) (ANOVA; p≤0.01) in animals treated with coffee sacrificed after 42 days. It may be concluded that coffee/caffeine intake caused serious adverse effects on calcium metabolism in rats, including increased levels of calcium in the urine and plasma, decreased bone mineral density and lower volume of bone, thus delaying the bone repair process. PMID:21203700

  16. The Influence of Daily Variation in Teacher Performance on the Reliability and Validity of Assessment Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Linda; Capie, William

    The influence of day-to-day variation in teacher performance on the reliability and validity of teacher assessment was examined. An attempt was made to identify and quantify sources of score variation attributable to differences in teacher performance, day of observation, observers, and test subscales; and to determine their effects on reliability…

  17. Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

  18. Typical Infrasonic Daily Changes Associated with Weather Conditions in Southern Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    The dominant source of infrasonic waves in Korean peninsula is associated with weather changes around 0.1 to several hertz. The microbarom are mainly observed with KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration) infrasound station and other activity associated with typhoon in summer. The period of observation was processed during year of 2012. The KMA running two permanent infrasound stations at the middle of Korean peninsula which located DeMilitarized Zone from the 2011. For the special event that recorded from the Northern Korean Peninsula was missle launch 12-Dec 2012 which was clearly recorded. The Korean peninsula is located on Northern Hemisphere that induce the typhoon visit in summer rainy season, so main infrasonic activity was associated this weather changes concentrated general weather activity frequency area. We focused on seasonal changes induced by weather activities and processed infrasonic data related with typhoon report by KMA's weather report. The progressing results was reviewed for the infrasonic noise level changes which associated with typhoon and missle launch record on Dec-2012 for the special event.

  19. Intensity of daily physical activity is associated with central hemodynamic and leg muscle oxygen availability in COPD.

    PubMed

    Louvaris, Zafeiris; Kortianou, Eleni A; Spetsioti, Stavroula; Vasilopoulou, Maroula; Nasis, Ioannis; Asimakos, Andreas; Zakynthinos, Spyros; Vogiatzis, Ioannis

    2013-09-01

    In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), daily physical activity is reported to be adversely associated with the magnitude of exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation and peripheral muscle weakness. There is limited evidence whether central hemodynamic, oxygen transport, and peripheral muscle oxygenation capacities also contribute to reduced daily physical activity. Nineteen patients with COPD (FEV1, 48 ± 14% predicted) underwent a treadmill walking test at a speed corresponding to the individual patient's mean walking intensity, captured by a triaxial accelerometer during a preceding 7-day period. During the indoor treadmill test, the individual patient mean walking intensity (range, 1.5 to 2.3 m/s2) was significantly correlated with changes from baseline in cardiac output recorded by impedance cardiography (range, 1.2 to 4.2 L/min; r = 0.73), systemic vascular conductance (range, 7.9 to 33.7 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1); r = 0.77), systemic oxygen delivery estimated from cardiac output and arterial pulse-oxymetry saturation (range, 0.15 to 0.99 L/min; r = 0.70), arterio-venous oxygen content difference calculated from oxygen uptake and cardiac output (range, 3.7 to 11.8 mlO2/100 ml; r = -0.73), and quadriceps muscle fractional oxygen saturation assessed by near-infrared spectrometry (range, -6 to 23%; r = 0.77). In addition, mean walking intensity significantly correlated with the quadriceps muscle force adjusted for body weight (range, 0.28 to 0.60; r = 0.74) and the ratio of minute ventilation over maximal voluntary ventilation (range, 38 to 89%, r = -0.58). In COPD, in addition to ventilatory limitations and peripheral muscle weakness, intensity of daily physical activity is associated with both central hemodynamic and peripheral muscle oxygenation capacities regulating the adequacy of matching peripheral muscle oxygen availability by systemic oxygen transport. PMID:23845982

  20. Differential Daily Writing Contingencies and Performance on Major Multiple-Choice Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hautau, Briana; Turner, Haley C.; Carroll, Erin; Jaspers, Kathryn; Parker, Megan; Krohn, Katy; Williams, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    On 4 of 7 days in each unit of an undergraduate human development course, students responded in writing to specific questions related to instructor notes previously made available to them. The study compared the effects of three writing contingencies on the quality of student writing and performance on major multiple-choice exams in the course. …

  1. Association between air pollution and daily mortality and hospital admission due to ischaemic heart diseases in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Wilson Wai San; Wong, Tze Wai; Wong, Andromeda H. S.

    2015-11-01

    Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The effects of air pollution on IHD mortalities have been widely reported. Fewer studies focus on IHD morbidities and PM2.5, especially in Asia. To explore the associations between short-term exposure to air pollution and morbidities and mortalities from IHD, we conducted a time series study using a generalized additive model that regressed the daily numbers of IHD mortalities and hospital admissions on daily mean concentrations of the following air pollutants: nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10), particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The relative risks (RR) of IHD deaths and hospital admissions per 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of each air pollutant were derived in single pollutant models. Multipollutant models were also constructed to estimate their RRs controlling for other pollutants. Significant RRs were observed for all five air pollutants, ranging from 1.008 to 1.032 per 10 μg/m3 increase in air pollutant concentrations for IHD mortality and from 1.006 to 1.021 per 10 μg/m3 for hospital admissions for IHD. In the multipollutant model, only NO2 remained significant for IHD mortality while SO2 and PM2.5 was significantly associated with hospital admissions. This study provides additional evidence that mortalities and hospital admissions for IHD are significantly associated with air pollution. However, we cannot attribute these health effects to a specific air pollutant, owing to high collinearity between some air pollutants.

  2. Depressive Symptoms and the Experience of Pleasure in Daily Life: An Exploration of Associations in Early and Late Adolescence.

    PubMed

    van Roekel, Eeske; Bennik, Elise C; Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A; Verhagen, Maaike; Ormel, Johan; Engels, Rutger C M E; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-07-01

    Although loss of pleasure (i.e., anhedonia) is one of the two core symptoms of depression, very little research has examined the relation between depressive symptoms and the experience of pleasure in daily life. This exploratory study in two population-based adolescent samples aimed to examine how depressive symptoms and anhedonia specifically were related to (1) the proportion and intensity of positive events, (2) mean and variability of positive affect (PA), (3) reactivity to positive events, and (4) reactivity to PA (i.e., whether PA elicits positive events). We used Experience Sampling to measure positive events and PA several times a day during 6 to 14 days in early (N = 284) and late (N = 74) adolescents. Results showed that depressive symptoms were related to a lower proportion and intensity of positive events, lower mean PA, and higher variability in PA regardless of sex and stage of adolescence. No clear evidence was found for differential reactivity to positive events or to PA. Anhedonia was not associated with most daily life experiences of pleasure. Our findings, though preliminary, suggest that although adolescents with many depressive symptoms experience less positive events and lower PA, they are able to enjoy pleasurable events to the same extent as individuals with fewer depressive symptoms. PMID:26496738

  3. Prevalence of and factors associated with daily smoking among Inner Mongolia medical students in China: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, no study on smoking behavior of medical students in Inner Mongolia has been reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the 1-month prevalence of and factors associated with daily smoking among medical students in Inner Mongolia of China, to assist interventions designed to reduce the smoking behavior of medical college students in this region. Methods During December 2010 and January 2011 a cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical students at the Inner Mongolia Medical College using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: students’ basic information, attitude on smoking behavior, and smoking status of the student daily smokers. Students who smoked every day in the last 30 days were regarded as daily smokers. Factors associated with smoking were identified using binary logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 6044 valid surveys were returned. The overall prevalence of daily smoking was 9.8% while the prevalence of daily smoking among males and females were 29.4% and 1.7%, respectively. Males in the Faculty of Medicine Information Management had the highest daily smoking rate (48.9%). Logistic regression models found that the main factors associated with daily smoking among male medical students were highest year of study (OR = 3.62; CI: 1.18–11.05); attitude towards smoking behavior Do not care about people smoking around you (OR = 2.75; CI: 2.08–3.64); and Smoking is harmful to their health (OR = 4.40; CI: 2.21–8.75). The main factor associated with daily smoking among female medical students was attitude towards smoking behavior Eliminate smoking on campus (OR = 0.11; CI: 0.06–0.23). Both for male and female medical students, there was no association between ethnicity and cigarette daily smoking. In regard to smoking status, more than 60% of daily smokers began smoking in high school, 61.3% smoked less than 5 cigarettes per day, 62.9% of the

  4. Angular tolerance and daily performance variability of the Suncycle tracking-integrated CPV system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voarino, Philippe; Domínguez, César; Bijl, Roy; Penning, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The SunCycle CPV system [1] uses two rotating optical stages in order to avoid the need of external sun-tracking while producing a geometrical concentration ratio of 870X. In the European FP7 project CPV4ALL dedicated to demonstrate commercially this system, CEA has developed a complete ray-tracing modeling and has carried out module indoor measurements. The system optical performance was simulated through a spring equinox in Marseille (France). The angular transmission is estimated and evaluated at 0.9°. Furthermore, angular tolerance to chassis misalignments and mirror and prism rotation angles are investigated. The Peak to Average Ratio of the irradiance map of the top and middle sub-cells is estimated for the photogenerated current, which is a value acceptable for such CPV system.

  5. Productive and counterproductive job crafting: A daily diary study.

    PubMed

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B; Halbesleben, Jonathon R B

    2015-10-01

    The present study aims to uncover the way daily job crafting influences daily job performance (i.e., task performance, altruism, and counterproductive work behavior). Job crafting was conceptualized as "seeking resources," "seeking challenges," and "reducing demands" and viewed as strategies individuals use to optimize their job characteristics. We hypothesized that daily job crafting relates to daily job demands and resources (work pressure and autonomy), which consequently relate to daily work engagement and exhaustion and ultimately to job performance. A sample of 95 employees filled in a quantitative diary for 5 consecutive working days (n occasions = 475). We predicted and found that daily seeking resources was positively associated with daily task performance because daily autonomy and work engagement increased. In contrast, daily reducing demands was detrimental for daily task performance and altruism, because employees lower their daily workload and consequently their engagement and exhaustion, respectively. Only daily seeking challenges was positively (rather than negatively) associated with daily counterproductive behavior. We conclude that employee job crafting can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on job performance. PMID:25798721

  6. Uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand on the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings.

    PubMed

    Silva, Arthur Santos; Ghisi, Enedir

    2016-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to perform a sensitivity analysis of design variables and an uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand to evaluate the performance of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings. Eight cities in Brazil with different rainfall patterns were analysed. A numeric experiment was performed by means of computer simulation of rainwater harvesting. A sensitivity analysis was performed using variance-based indices for identifying the most important design parameters for rainwater harvesting systems when assessing the potential for potable water savings and underground tank capacity sizing. The uncertainty analysis was performed for different scenarios of potable water demand with stochastic variations in a normal distribution with different coefficients of variation throughout the simulated period. The results have shown that different design variables, such as potable water demand, number of occupants, rainwater demand, and roof area are important for obtaining the ideal underground tank capacity and estimating the potential for potable water savings. The stochastic variations on the potable water demand caused amplitudes of up to 4.8% on the potential for potable water savings and 9.4% on the ideal underground tank capacity. Average amplitudes were quite low for all cities. However, some combinations of parameters resulted in large amplitude of uncertainty and difference from uniform distribution for tank capacities and potential for potable water savings. Stochastic potable water demand generated low uncertainties in the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems; therefore, uniform distribution could be used in computer simulation. PMID:27208997

  7. Associations between Peer Victimization and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Hong, Jun Sung; Rao, Mrinalini A.; Low, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the extant literature on the links between peer victimization and academic performance and engagement among children and adolescents. Although most of the research on this association is based on cross-sectional investigations, research using longitudinal designs is starting to point to the fact that peer victimization does…

  8. Association of sarcopenia with swallowing problems, related to nutrition and activities of daily living of elderly individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shiozu, Hiroyasu; Higashijima, Misako; Koga, Tomoshige

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to clarify problems associated with swallowing, related to nutrition and activities of daily living (ADL), in elderly individuals with sarcopenia. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-seven subjects were assigned to a sarcopenia or a non-sarcopenia group according to a definition used by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Analyses were conducted including and excluding subjects with a central nervous system disorders in order to focus on the influence of sarcopenia. The swallowing ability, ADL, and nutrition levels were compared between the 2 groups. [Results] Swallowing function as well as ADL and nutrition levels were significantly lower in the sarcopenia group than in the non-sarcopenia group. [Conclusion] It is important to include dimensions of swallowing, nutrition, and ADL in the assessment and treatment of swallowing problems in elderly individuals with sarcopenia. PMID:25729176

  9. Breakfast skipping and breakfast type are associated with daily nutrient intakes and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Seokhwa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Emerging evidence shows that eating breakfast and breakfast types may be associated with health outcomes and dietary intakes in various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between breakfast types in Korean adults with their daily nutrient intakes and health outcomes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 11,801 20- to 64-year-old adults (age 42.9 ± 11.8 yrs [mean ± standard error of the mean]; male 41.1%, female 58.9%) in 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data were divided into 5 groups based on breakfast types in a 24-hr dietary recall: rice with 3 or more side dishes (Rice3+, 35.3%), rice with 0-2 side dishes (Rice0-2, 34.73%), noodles (1.56%), bread and cereal (6.56%), and breakfast skipping (21.63%). Daily nutrient intakes and the risk of metabolic syndrome were compared among five groups. RESULTS Compared with Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake levels, the breakfast-skipping group showed the lowest intake level in most nutrients, whereas the Rice3+ group showed the highest. Fat intake was higher in the bread and noodle groups than in the other groups. When compared with the Rice3+ group, the odds ratios for the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome were increased in the breakfast skipping, Rice0-2, and noodle groups after controlling for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS The rice-based breakfast group showed better nutritional status and health outcomes when eating with 3 or more side dishes. Nutrition education is needed to emphasize both the potential advantage of the rice-based, traditional Korean diet in terms of nutritional content and the importance of food diversity. PMID:26060541

  10. Association of psychiatric co-morbidity and efficacy of treatment in chronic daily headache in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai Kumar; Shukla, Rakesh; Trivedi, Jitendra Kumar; Singh, Deepti

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in patients of chronic daily headache (CDH) and compare the efficacy of treatment between various type of headache associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. Materials and Methods: Prospective case control cohort study, 92 consecutive patients of CDH meeting eligibility criteria. The diagnosis of various subtypes of CDH was made according to the IHS criteria. Age, sex, educational, marital and socioeconomic status, matched controls were also selected. Patients were evaluated with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) scale at the time of enrolment and at 3 months. Results: CDH accounted for 28% of all headache patients. The mean age of presentation was 30.2 ± 10.3 years, male: Female ratio of 28:64 and mean duration of 4.56 ± 0.56 years. Chronic migraine (CM) accounted for 59 patients, chronic tension type headache (CTTH) 22 patients, new daily persistent headache (NDPH) 3 patients and miscellaneous 8 patients. Psychiatric co-morbidity was present in 53.3% patients with CDH, and was more common in CM (62.7%) as compared to CTTH (36.4%). Single psychiatric co-morbidity was seen in 26 patients, while 23 patients had multiple co-morbidity. Major depressive episode, anxiety disorder, agoraphobia and dysthymia were significant psychiatric co-morbidities. Patients with CM were treated with topiramate or divalproex sodium ER and CTTH were treated with amitriptyline. 55 patients came for follow up at 3 months, improvement in headache was seen in 29 patients. Conclusion: Psychiatric co-morbidity was present in more than 50% patients with CDH and its presence along with a duration of ≥2 years was associated with a poor response to treatment. PMID:23914085

  11. Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Performance and Role Satisfaction in People With and Without Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Project

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Michael P.; Hershey, Linda A.; Prodan, Calin I.; Holm, Margo B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We investigated differences in observed performance of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and self-reported satisfaction with social role performance between people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) and age- and gender-matched control participants. METHOD. We measured observed performance of 14 IADLs using the Independence, Safety, and Adequacy domains of the Performance Assessment of Self-Care Skills (PASS) and the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Systems (PROMIS) to examine satisfaction with social role performance. RESULTS. Total PASS scores were significantly lower in participants with a-MCI (median = 40.6) than in control participants (median = 44.2; p = .006). Adequacy scores were also significantly lower. No significant differences were found between groups on the PROMIS measures. CONCLUSION. IADL differences between groups were related more to errors in adequacy than to safety and independence. Occupational therapy practitioners can play a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of subtle IADL deficits in people with MCI. PMID:25871600

  12. Walking Behavior of Zoo Elephants: Associations between GPS-Measured Daily Walking Distances and Environmental Factors, Social Factors, and Welfare Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Holdgate, Matthew R.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Miller, Lance J.; Soltis, Joseph; Andrews, Jeff; Shepherdson, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Research with humans and other animals suggests that walking benefits physical health. Perhaps because these links have been demonstrated in other species, it has been suggested that walking is important to elephant welfare, and that zoo elephant exhibits should be designed to allow for more walking. Our study is the first to address this suggestion empirically by measuring the mean daily walking distance of elephants in North American zoos, determining the factors that are associated with variations in walking distance, and testing for associations between walking and welfare indicators. We used anklets equipped with GPS data loggers to measure outdoor daily walking distance in 56 adult female African (n = 33) and Asian (n = 23) elephants housed in 30 North American zoos. We collected 259 days of data and determined associations between distance walked and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. Elephants walked an average of 5.3 km/day with no significant difference between species. In our multivariable model, more diverse feeding regimens were correlated with increased walking, and elephants who were fed on a temporally unpredictable feeding schedule walked 1.29 km/day more than elephants fed on a predictable schedule. Distance walked was also positively correlated with an increase in the number of social groupings and negatively correlated with age. We found a small but significant negative correlation between distance walked and nighttime Space Experience, but no other associations between walking distances and exhibit size were found. Finally, distance walked was not related to health or behavioral outcomes including foot health, joint health, body condition, and the performance of stereotypic behavior, suggesting that more research is necessary to determine explicitly how differences in walking may impact elephant welfare. PMID:27414411

  13. Walking Behavior of Zoo Elephants: Associations between GPS-Measured Daily Walking Distances and Environmental Factors, Social Factors, and Welfare Indicators.

    PubMed

    Holdgate, Matthew R; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Miller, Lance J; Soltis, Joseph; Andrews, Jeff; Shepherdson, David J

    2016-01-01

    Research with humans and other animals suggests that walking benefits physical health. Perhaps because these links have been demonstrated in other species, it has been suggested that walking is important to elephant welfare, and that zoo elephant exhibits should be designed to allow for more walking. Our study is the first to address this suggestion empirically by measuring the mean daily walking distance of elephants in North American zoos, determining the factors that are associated with variations in walking distance, and testing for associations between walking and welfare indicators. We used anklets equipped with GPS data loggers to measure outdoor daily walking distance in 56 adult female African (n = 33) and Asian (n = 23) elephants housed in 30 North American zoos. We collected 259 days of data and determined associations between distance walked and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. Elephants walked an average of 5.3 km/day with no significant difference between species. In our multivariable model, more diverse feeding regimens were correlated with increased walking, and elephants who were fed on a temporally unpredictable feeding schedule walked 1.29 km/day more than elephants fed on a predictable schedule. Distance walked was also positively correlated with an increase in the number of social groupings and negatively correlated with age. We found a small but significant negative correlation between distance walked and nighttime Space Experience, but no other associations between walking distances and exhibit size were found. Finally, distance walked was not related to health or behavioral outcomes including foot health, joint health, body condition, and the performance of stereotypic behavior, suggesting that more research is necessary to determine explicitly how differences in walking may impact elephant welfare. PMID:27414411

  14. The Glittre-ADL test reflects functional performance measured by physical activities of daily living in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Karloh, Manuela; Araujo, Cintia L. P.; Gulart, Aline A.; Reis, Cardine M.; Steidle, Leila J. M.; Mayer, Anamaria F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The Glittre-ADL test (TGlittre) is a valid and reliable test for the evaluation of functional capacity and involves multiple physical activities of daily living (PADL), which are known to be troublesome to patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). However, it is still unknown if this test is also able to reflect the functional performance of patients with COPD. Objective To investigate whether the TGlittre reflects the functional performance of COPD patients and whether the necessary time to complete the TGlittre and the PADL varies according to disease severity. Method Thirty-eight patients with COPD (age 65, SD=7 years; forced expiratory volume in the first second 41.3, SD=15.2% predicted) underwent anthropometric and lung function assessments and were submitted to the TGlittre and PADL measurement. Results TGlittre performance correlated significantly (p<0.05) with PADL variables, such as time sitting (r=0.50), walking (r=-0.46), number of steps taken (r=–0.53), walking movement intensity (r=–0.66), walking energy expenditure (r=-0.50), and total energy expenditure (r=–0.33). TGlittre performance was not significantly different in patients among the Global Initiative for COPD (GOLD) spirometric stages, but walking and sitting time were significantly lower and greater, respectively, in severe and very severe patients compared to those with moderate disease (p<0.05). Conclusion The performance on the TGlittre correlates with walking and sitting time and other real life PADL measurements. The severity of the disease is associated with the differences in the level of physical activity in daily life more than in functional capacity. PMID:27437713

  15. Effects of task-oriented training on upper extremity function and performance of daily activities in chronic stroke patients with impaired cognition

    PubMed Central

    Park, JuHyung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of task-oriented training on upper extremity function and performance of daily activities in chronic stroke patients with impaired cognition. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 2 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients underwent task-oriented training. The training was conducted once a day for 30 minutes, 5 times/week, for 2 weeks. The patients were evaluated 3 times before and after the task-oriented training. Changes in upper extremity function were assessed using the manual function test, and changes in the ability to carry out daily activities were assessed using the functional independence measure. [Results] The patients showed improvement in both the upper extremity function and ability to perform daily activities after task-oriented training. [Conclusion] Task-oriented training was proven effective in improving upper extremity function and ability to perform daily activities in chronic hemiplegic stroke patients with impaired cognition. PMID:26957782

  16. Association between particulate matter and its chemical constituents of urban air pollution and daily mortality or morbidity in Beijing City.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Yuesi; Li, Guoxing; Pan, Xiaochuan; Wang, Shigong; Cheng, Mengtian; Wen, Tianxue; Wang, Guangcheng; Liu, Zirui

    2015-01-01

    Recent time series studies have indicated that daily mortality and morbidity are associated with particulate matters. However, about the relative effects and its seasonal patterns of fine particulate matter constituents is particularly limited in developing Asian countries. In this study, we examined the role of particulate matters and its key chemical components of fine particles on both mortality and morbidity in Beijing. We applied several overdispersed Poisson generalized nonlinear models, adjusting for time, day of week, holiday, temperature, and relative humidity, to investigate the association between risk of mortality or morbidity and particulate matters and its constituents in Beijing, China, for January 2005 through December 2009. Particles and several constituents were associated with multiple mortality or morbidity categories, especially on respiratory health. For a 3-day lag, the nonaccident mortality increased by 1.52, 0.19, 1.03, 0.56, 0.42, and 0.32% for particulate matter (PM)2.5, PM10, K(+), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), and NO3(-) based on interquartile ranges of 36.00, 64.00, 0.41, 8.75, 1.43, and 2.24 μg/m(3), respectively. The estimates of short-term effects for PM2.5 and its components in the cold season were 1 ~ 6 times higher than that in the full year on these health outcomes. Most of components had stronger adverse effects on human health in the heavy PM2.5 mass concentrations, especially for K(+), NO3(-), and SO4(2-). This analysis added to the growing body of evidence linking PM2.5 with mortality or morbidity and indicated that excess risks may vary among specific PM2.5 components. Combustion-related products, traffic sources, vegetative burning, and crustal component and resuspended road dust may play a key role in the associations between air pollution and public health in Beijing. PMID:25074829

  17. Reconceptualizing balance: attributes associated with balance performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Julia C; Odonkor, Charles; Griffith, Laura; Holt, Nicole; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Leveille, Suzanne; Ni, Pensheng; Latham, Nancy K; Jette, Alan M; Bean, Jonathan F

    2014-09-01

    Balance tests are commonly used to screen for impairments that put older adults at risk for falls. The purpose of this study was to determine the attributes that were associated with balance performance as measured by the Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques (FICSIT) balance test. This study was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal cohort study, the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study of the Elderly (Boston RISE). Boston RISE was performed in an outpatient rehabilitation research center and evaluated Boston area primary care patients aged 65 to 96 (N=364) with self-reported difficulty or task-modification climbing a flight of stairs or walking 1/2 of a mile. The outcome measure was standing balance as measured by the FICSIT-4 balance assessment. Other measures included: self-efficacy, pain, depression, executive function, vision, sensory loss, reaction time, kyphosis, leg range of motion, trunk extensor muscle endurance, leg strength and leg velocity at peak power. Participants were 67% female, had an average age of 76.5 (±7.0) years, an average of 4.1 (±2.0) chronic conditions, and an average FICSIT-4 score of 6.7 (±2.2) out of 9. After adjusting for age and gender, attributes significantly associated with balance performance were falls self-efficacy, trunk extensor muscle endurance, sensory loss, and leg velocity at peak power. FICSIT-4 balance performance is associated with a number of behavioral and physiologic attributes, many of which are amenable to rehabilitative treatment. Our findings support a consideration of balance as multidimensional activity as proposed by the current International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) model. PMID:24952097

  18. Effects of daily mild supine exercise on physical performance after 20 days bed rest in young persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Kashihara, H.; Takenaka, K.; Kawakubo, K.; Makita, Y.; Goto, S.; Ikawa, S.; Gunji, A.

    To investgate the effects of daily mild supine exercise on physical performance capacity identified as maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO 2max) after 20 days bed-rest, 3 male students performed a supine pedaling at 40 % intensity of VO 2max for one hour every day, while 6 male and 5 female students were control. Before and after the bed-rest, muscle mass and strength of exercising leg and cardio-vascular responses during -40 mmHg lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and moderate upright cycling exercise were measured. Despite the exercise programme VO 2max was similarly decreased to the control subjects after the bed-rest. The delta VO 2max was correlated to delta % left ventricular fractional shortening during LBNP, and also % delta VO 2max to % delta stroke volume of the moderate exercise (both p<0.05). The exercise programme should be too weak to maintain cardiovascular functions and thus to present the decrease in VO 2max against pro-longed bed-rest as well as weightlessness stress.

  19. Low-Income Mothers' Nighttime and Weekend Work: Daily Associations with Child Behavior, Mother-Child Interactions, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated low-income mothers' daily nighttime and weekend work and family outcomes. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children reported daily on work hours, mood, mother-child interaction, and child behavior for two weeks (N = 724 person-days). Although nighttime and weekend work are both nonstandard schedules, results showed…

  20. Anomalous circulation patterns in association with two types of daily precipitation extremes over southeastern China during boreal summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Minggang; Guan, Zhaoyong; Jin, Dachao; Han, Jie; Zhang, Qian

    2016-04-01

    Based on the daily rainfall data from China Meteorological Administration, the tropical cyclone (TC) best track data from Japan Meteorological Agency, and the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data from NOAA, regional mean daily precipitation extreme (RDPE) events over southeastern China (specifically, the Fujian-Jiangxi region (FJR)) and the associated circulation anomalies are investigated. For the summers of 1979-2011, a total of 105 RDPE events are identified, among which 35 are TC-influenced (TCIn-RDPE) and 70 are TC-free events (TCFr-RDPE). Distinct differences between these two types of RDPEs are found in both their statistical features and the related circulation patterns. TCFr-RDPEs usually occur in June, while TCIn-RDPEs mainly take place during July-August. When TCFr-RDPEs happen, a center of the anomalous cyclonic circulation is observed over the FJR, with an anomalous anticyclonic circulation to the south of this region. The warm/moist air flows from the South China Sea (SCS) and western Pacific meet with colder air from the north, forming a narrow convergent belt of water vapor over the FJR. Simultaneously, positive diabatic forcing anomalies are observed over the FJR, whereas negative anomalies appear over both its south and north sides, facilitating the formation and maintenance of the cyclonic circulation anomaly, as well as the upward motion of the atmosphere, over the FJR. When TCIn-RDPEs occur, southeastern China is dominated by a TC-related stronger anomalous cyclonic circulation. An anomalous anticyclonic circulation in the mid and high latitudes north of the FJR exists in the mid and upper troposphere, opposite to the situation during TCFr-RDPE events. Abundant warm/wet air is carried into the FJR from both the Indian Ocean and the SCS, leading to a large amount of latent heat release over the FJR and inducing strong ascending motion there. Furthermore, large differences are also found in the manifestation of Rossby wave energy propagation between these

  1. Effects of sitting time associated with media consumption on physical activity patterns and daily energy expenditure of Saudi school students.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Iqbal, Zaheen A

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the effect of daily sitting time during media consumption on physical fitness, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body composition indices of Saudi school children. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 180 healthy Saudi school students (8-18 years) were included in this study. Sitting time, total energy expenditure, and levels of physical activity were evaluated with pre-validated internet based questionnaires. Body composition indices were evaluated using anthropometric analysis. [Results] Out of the studied participants, only 22.2% of students were physically inactive. Children with moderate and active physical scores demonstrated less sedentary behavior (TV viewing and computer usage), lower body composition values (BMI, WC, WHtR), and higher TEE than sedentary or mild activity level participants. Boys showed higher fitness scores and less sedentary behavior than girls. Media sitting time among the studied subjects correlated negatively with physical scores and positively with body composition. [Conclusion] The data presented here suggests that poor physical fitness, lower TEE, and longer sitting times differentially influence normal body composition indices among school children which may lead to overweight or obese individuals. Thus, decreasing sitting time during media consumption and enhancing physical activity may play a pivotal role in preventing obesity in young children. PMID:26504298

  2. Effects of sitting time associated with media consumption on physical activity patterns and daily energy expenditure of Saudi school students

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Iqbal, Zaheen A.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the effect of daily sitting time during media consumption on physical fitness, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body composition indices of Saudi school children. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 180 healthy Saudi school students (8–18 years) were included in this study. Sitting time, total energy expenditure, and levels of physical activity were evaluated with pre-validated internet based questionnaires. Body composition indices were evaluated using anthropometric analysis. [Results] Out of the studied participants, only 22.2% of students were physically inactive. Children with moderate and active physical scores demonstrated less sedentary behavior (TV viewing and computer usage), lower body composition values (BMI, WC, WHtR), and higher TEE than sedentary or mild activity level participants. Boys showed higher fitness scores and less sedentary behavior than girls. Media sitting time among the studied subjects correlated negatively with physical scores and positively with body composition. [Conclusion] The data presented here suggests that poor physical fitness, lower TEE, and longer sitting times differentially influence normal body composition indices among school children which may lead to overweight or obese individuals. Thus, decreasing sitting time during media consumption and enhancing physical activity may play a pivotal role in preventing obesity in young children. PMID:26504298

  3. WWC Review of the Report "Daily Online Testing in Large Classes: Boosting College Performance While Reducing Achievement Gaps." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 study, "Daily Online Testing in Large Classes: Boosting College Performance While Reducing Achievement Gaps," examined the impact of frequent online testing and immediate feedback on the academic performance of college students. The study was conducted at the University of Texas in the fall of 2008 and 2011. Researchers found…

  4. Associations between Resting, Activity, and Daily Metabolic Rate in Free-Living Endotherms: No Universal Rule in Birds and Mammals.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Steven J; Green, Jonathan A; Halsey, Lewis G; Arnold, Walter; Careau, Vincent; Dann, Peter; Frappell, Peter B; Grémillet, David; Handrich, Yves; Martin, Graham R; Ruf, Thomas; Guillemette, Magella M; Butler, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Energy management models provide theories and predictions for how animals manage their energy budgets within their energetic constraints, in terms of their resting metabolic rate (RMR) and daily energy expenditure (DEE). Thus, uncovering what associations exist between DEE and RMR is key to testing these models. Accordingly, there is considerable interest in the relationship between DEE and RMR at both inter- and intraspecific levels. Interpretation of the evidence for particular energy management models is enhanced by also considering the energy spent specifically on costly activities (activity energy expenditure [AEE] = DEE - RMR). However, to date there have been few intraspecific studies investigating such patterns. Our aim was to determine whether there is a generality of intraspecific relationships among RMR, DEE, and AEE using long-term data sets for bird and mammal species. For mammals, we use minimum heart rate (fH), mean fH, and activity fH as qualitative proxies for RMR, DEE, and AEE, respectively. For the birds, we take advantage of calibration equations to convert fH into rate of oxygen consumption in order to provide quantitative proxies for RMR, DEE, and AEE. For all 11 species, the DEE proxy was significantly positively correlated with the RMR proxy. There was also evidence of a significant positive correlation between AEE and RMR in all four mammal species but only in some of the bird species. Our results indicate there is no universal rule for birds and mammals governing the relationships among RMR, AEE, and DEE. Furthermore, they suggest that birds tend to have a different strategy for managing their energy budgets from those of mammals and that there are also differences in strategy between bird species. Future work in laboratory settings or highly controlled field settings can tease out the environmental and physiological processes contributing to variation in energy management strategies exhibited by different species. PMID:27153134

  5. Association between Total Daily Doses with duration of hospitalization among readmitted patients in a multi-ethnic Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Vivien; Toh, Ming Ren; Kwan, Yu Heng; Raaj, Sreemanee; Tan, Su-Yin Doreen; Tan, Joyce Zhen Yin

    2015-01-01

    Increased length of stay (LOS) in the hospital incurs substantial financial costs on the healthcare system. Multiple factors are associated with LOS. However, few studies have been done to associate the impact of Total Daily Doses (TDD) and LOS. Hence, the aim of this study is to examine the association between patients’ LOS upon readmission and their TDD before readmission. A retrospective cross-sectional study of readmission cases occurring from 1st January to 31st March 2013 was conducted at a regional hospital. Demographics and clinical variables were collected using electronic medical databases. Univariable and multiple linear regressions were used. Confounders such as comorbidities and drug related problems (DRP) were controlled for in this study. There were 432 patients and 649 readmissions examined. The average TDD and LOS were 18.04 ± 8.16 and 7.63 days ± 7.08 respectively. In the univariable analysis, variables that were significantly associated with the LOS included age above 75 year-old, race, comorbidity, number of comorbidities, number of medications, TDD and thrombocytopenia as DRPs. In the multiple linear regression, there was a statistically significant association between TDD (β = 0.0733, p = 0.030) and LOS. Variables that were found significant were age above 75 year-old (β = 1.5477, p = 0.008), Malay (β = −1.5123, p = 0.033), other races (β = −2.6174, p = 0.007), depression (β = 2.1551, p = 0.031) and thrombocytopenia as a type of DRP (β = 7.5548, p = 0.027). When TDD was replaced with number of medications, number of medications (β = 0.1487, p = 0.021), age of 75 year-old (β = 1.5303, p = 0.009), Malay (β = −1.4687, p = 0.038), race of others (β = −2.6499, p = 0.007), depression (β = 2.1951, p = 0.028) and thrombocytopenia as a type of DRP (β = 7.5260, p = 0.028) were significant. In conclusion, a significant relationship between TDD and number of medications before

  6. Daily cytokine fluctuations, driven by leptin, are associated with fatigue severity in chronic fatigue syndrome: evidence of inflammatory pathology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disorder characterized by persistent fatigue that is not alleviated by rest. The lack of a clearly identified underlying mechanism has hindered the development of effective treatments. Studies have demonstrated elevated levels of inflammatory factors in patients with CFS, but findings are contradictory across studies and no biomarkers have been consistently supported. Single time-point approaches potentially overlook important features of CFS, such as fluctuations in fatigue severity. We have observed that individuals with CFS demonstrate significant day-to-day variability in their fatigue severity. Methods Therefore, to complement previous studies, we implemented a novel longitudinal study design to investigate the role of cytokines in CFS pathophysiology. Ten women meeting the Fukuda diagnostic criteria for CFS and ten healthy age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched women underwent 25 consecutive days of blood draws and self-reporting of symptom severity. A 51-plex cytokine panel via Luminex was performed for each of the 500 serum samples collected. Our primary hypothesis was that daily fatigue severity would be significantly correlated with the inflammatory adipokine leptin, in the women with CFS and not in the healthy control women. As a post-hoc analysis, a machine learning algorithm using all 51 cytokines was implemented to determine whether immune factors could distinguish high from low fatigue days. Results Self-reported fatigue severity was significantly correlated with leptin levels in six of the participants with CFS and one healthy control, supporting our primary hypothesis. The machine learning algorithm distinguished high from low fatigue days in the CFS group with 78.3% accuracy. Conclusions Our results support the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of CFS. PMID:23570606

  7. Predicting Student Performance in a College Self-Paced Introductory Psychology Course: The Role of Motivational Orientation, Learning Strategies, Procrastination and Perception of Daily Hassles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidmore, Ronald L.

    This study examined the effectiveness of using selected self-report measures assessing motivational orientation, learning strategies, procrastination, and perceptions of daily hassles to facilitate the prediction of student engagement in a self-paced introductory psychology course. Research has shown these factors to be associated with academic…

  8. Reduction of body fat and improved lipid profile associated with daily consumption of a Puer tea extract in a hyperlipidemic population: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Gitte S; Beaman, Joni L; He, Yi; Guo, Zhixin; Sun, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal for this study was to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of Puer tea extract (PTE) on body weight, body-fat composition, and lipid profile in a non-Asian population in the absence of dietary restrictions. Materials and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design was used. A total of 59 overweight or mildly obese subjects were enrolled upon screening to confirm fasting cholesterol level at or above 220 mg/dL (5.7 mmol/dL). After giving informed consent, subjects were randomized to consume PTE (3 g/day) or placebo for 20 weeks. At baseline and at 4-week intervals, blood lipids, C-reactive protein, and fasting blood glucose were evaluated. A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed at baseline and at study exit to evaluate changes to body composition. Appetite and physical and mental energy were scored at each visit using visual analog scales (0–100). Results Consumption of PTE was associated with statistically significant weight loss when compared to placebo (P<0.05). Fat loss was seen for arms, legs, and the gynoid region (hip/belly), as well as for total fat mass. The fat reduction reached significance on within-group analysis, but did not reach between-group significance. Consumption of PTE was associated with improvements to lipid profile, including a mild reduction in cholesterol and the cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio after only 4 weeks, as well as a reduction in triglycerides and very small-density lipoproteins, where average blood levels reached normal range at 8 weeks and remained within normal range for the duration of the study (P<0.08). No significant changes between the PTE group and the placebo group were seen for fasting glucose or C-reactive protein. A transient reduction in appetite was seen in the PTE group when compared to placebo (P<0.1). Conclusion The results from this clinical study showed that the daily consumption of PTE was associated with significant weight loss

  9. 12 CFR 563e.26 - Small savings association performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small savings association performance standards... COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 563e.26 Small savings association performance standards. (a) Performance criteria—(1) Small savings associations that are not intermediate small...

  10. 12 CFR 563e.26 - Small savings association performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small savings association performance standards... COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 563e.26 Small savings association performance standards. (a) Performance criteria—(1) Small savings associations that are not intermediate small...

  11. Unprotected daily sun exposure is differently associated with central adiposity and beta-cell dysfunction by gender: The Korean national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES) V

    SciTech Connect

    Ohn, Jung Hun; Kwon, In Ho; Park, Juri; Ryu, Ohk Hyun; Lee, Seong Jin; Kim, Doo-Man; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Hong, Eun-Gyoung

    2014-08-15

    Background: Ultraviolet irradiation by sun exposure has been associated with both harms and benefits to metabolic health. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether unprotected daily sun exposure is associated with the prevalence of diabetes and explore the underlying mechanism. Methods: We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey V from 2010 to 2011. Participants 19–60 years of age were asked about the average amount of time they had been exposed to direct sunlight per day since the age of 19. We categorized participants into three groups with different levels of lifetime daily sun exposure and explored the association of sun exposure with the prevalence of diabetes. Results: The risk of diabetes was higher in subjects with more than 5 h of unprotected sun exposure per day, with an odds ratio of 2.39 (95% CI 1.75–3.25), compared to those with less than 2 h of sun exposure, and the association remained significant after adjusting for diabetes risk factors. Long-term sun exposure was associated with increased central obesity and the possibility of an increase in visceral adiposity, especially among women, and with decrease in beta cell function and peripheral adiposity or percent body fat in men. Conclusions: Our study provides a cutoff for upper limit of sun exposure and suggests unprotected daily sun exposure for more than 5 h should be avoided to prevent diabetes. Increased central adiposity and decreased beta cell function were observed in women and men, respectively, who had long-term unprotected daily sun exposure. - Highlights: • Sun exposure for more than 5 h per day is associated with diabetes risk. • Insulin resistance associated with visceral adiposity may play a role in women. • Insulin secretory defect may explain diabetes risk in men.

  12. The Effect of Randomized Homework Contingencies on College Students' Daily Homework and Unit Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galyon, Charles E.; Voils, Kyle L.; Blondin, Carolyn A.; Williams, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Students in an introductory educational psychology course submitted answers to daily homework questions for which they received credit either for percentage of questions answered in every homework assignment or for the accuracy of their answers to 10% of randomly selected questions. Potential credit was the same under both homework contingencies,…

  13. Do self-efficacy and depression predict oral impacts on daily performances across time? A 2-yr follow-up of students in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Åstrøm, Anne N; Lie, Stein A; Mbawalla, Hawa

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the longitudinal validity of the oral impacts on daily performance (OIDP) and to identify psychosocial determinants, in terms of self-efficacy and depressive symptoms, of the OIDP across time. Following conceptual frameworks of oral health, it was hypothesized that sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors predict oral impacts across time at both population- averaged and person-specific levels. Whether the effects of sociodemographic and clinical factors were accounted for, totally or in part, by psychosocial factors were also investigated. Self administered questionnaires and oral clinical examinations at baseline (2009) and follow-up (2011) were completed by 1,714 and 727 secondary school students, respectively. Generalized equalized equations and a random intercept model were used to account for the dependency in repeated observations. Mean OIDP change scores were negative (worsened) among those who reported worsened self-reported oral health. Psychosocial, clinical, and sociodemographic factors were independently associated with oral impacts at the population-averaged and person-specific levels. Mediation of sociodemographic and clinical variables according to psychosocial variables was not observed. Satisfactory longitudinal evaluative properties of the OIDP, and independent effects of psychosocial factors on oral impacts across time, were confirmed among secondary school students in Tanzania. PMID:27086611

  14. Is leisure time availability associated with more or less severe daily stressors? An examination using eight-day diary data

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The stress suppressing model proposes that sufficient resources reduce stress. The stress exposure model suggests that certain factors expose individuals to more stress. The current study tested these two models by assessing the within-person lagging effect of leisure time on perceived severity of daily stressors. Analyzing eight-day diary data (N=2,022), we found that having more leisure time than usual on a day reduced perceived severity of daily stressors the next day and that the decrease in severity became larger with further increase in leisure time. Additionally, the effect is much stronger among busy individuals who usually had little leisure time. The findings demonstrated an accelerated suppressing effect that differed between-person, and the lagging effect affords stronger implication for causality than correlational analysis. PMID:24563564

  15. Increasing Minimum Daily Temperatures Are Associated with Enhanced Pesticide Use in Cultivated Soybean along a Latitudinal Gradient in the Mid-Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Ziska, Lewis H.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide) applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum daily temperature (lowest 24 h recorded temperature in a given year) can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum daily temperature (1999–2013) from −28.6°C (Minnesota) to −5.1°C (Louisiana). Although soybean yields (per hectare) did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare) increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this temperature range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum daily temperatures and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum daily temperature could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term temperature data (1977–2013) indicated greater relative increases in minimum daily temperatures for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023) showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising

  16. Factors Associated With Daily Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Among Adult Patients at Four Federally Qualified Health Centers, Bronx, New York, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Arthur E.; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. This study examined the relationships between SSB consumption and demographic, health behavior, health service, and health condition characteristics of adult patients of a network of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) in a low-income, urban setting. Methods Validated, standardized self-reported health behavior questions were incorporated into the electronic health record (EHR) and asked of patients yearly, at 4 FQHCs. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of EHR data collected in 2013 from 12,214 adult patients by using logistic regression. Results Forty percent of adult patients consumed 1 or more SSBs daily. The adjusted odds ratios indicated that patients who consumed more than 1 SSB daily were more likely to be aged 18 to 29 years versus age 70 or older, current smokers versus never smoking, eating no servings of fruits and/or vegetables daily or 1 to 4 servings daily versus 5 or more servings daily, and not walking or biking more than 10 blocks in the past 30 days. Patients consuming 1 or more servings of SSBs daily were less likely to speak Spanish than English, be women than men, be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes versus no diabetes, and be diagnosed with hypertension versus no hypertension. Conclusion SSB consumption differed by certain demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and health conditions. Recording SSB intake and other health behaviors data in the EHR could help clinicians in identifying and counseling patients to promote health behavior changes. Future studies should investigate how EHR data on patient health behavior can be used to improve the health of patients and communities. PMID:25569695

  17. Breakfast is associated with the metabolic syndrome and school performance among Taiwanese children.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chia-Yi; Huang, Yi-Chen; Lo, Yuan-Ting C; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2015-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is associated with adverse child health profiles including obesity, higher blood pressure, higher serum cholesterol, and poor cognitive function. We aimed to explore the association between breakfast with school performance and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Taiwanese children. Participants were enrolled from the representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (2001-2002). Diet, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were assessed in 1287 boys and 1114 girls. Their school and social performances were examined using the modified Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance questionnaire. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to estimate the risk of MetS and also the association between breakfast consumption frequency and school or social performance. When breakfast consumption was regular, overall dietary quality was better. Children who consumed breakfast daily exhibited lower risks of high blood pressure (OR=0.37, 95% CI=0.19-0.71) and of MetS (OR=0.22, 95% CI=0.09-0.51) compared with children who consumed breakfast 0-4 times per week. Furthermore, children who consumed breakfast daily exhibited a higher overall competence (OC) score (β=0.71, p<0.05) in a dose-response manner (p for trend=0.02). This association was not dependent on overall diet or MetS. In conclusion, consuming breakfast daily is associated with better school performance, a lower risk of high blood pressure, and MetS independent of overall dietary quality. Thus, breakfast on school days is a factor in school performance and health. PMID:26202446

  18. Identification of the affected lower limb and unaffected side motor functions as determinants of activities of daily living performance in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Otsuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the independent impact of the affected upper and lower limb, trunk, and unaffected side motor functions on activities of daily living in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 77 stroke patients. Motor functions were assessed using the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set, and the activities of daily living performance was assessed using the Barthel index or Functional Independence Measure. Further, simple and partial correlation analyses were conducted between each motor function and activities of daily living parameter. [Results] Simple correlation analysis identified significant positive correlations for each pair. In contrast, partial correlation analysis only identified significant positive correlations between the affected lower limb or unaffected side functions and the Barthel index or Functional Independence Measure. This discrepancy between the two tests was explained by the significant interaction between the affected upper and lower limb functions and between the trunk and unaffected side functions. [Conclusion] The present study identified the affected lower limb and unaffected side motor functions as the major determinants of activities of daily living performance in stroke patients. These findings suggest that rehabilitation programs can be improved by targeting these areas. PMID:26311957

  19. Functional Performance and Associations between Performance Tests and Neurological Assessment Differ in Men and Women with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Medijainen, Kadri; Pääsuke, Mati; Lukmann, Aet; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Background. Neurological assessment of a patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) is expected to reflect upon functional performance. As women are known to report more limitations even for same observed functional performance level, present study was designed to examine whether associations between neurological assessments and functional performance differ across genders. Methods. 14 men and 14 women with PD participated. Functional performance was assessed by measuring walking speeds on 10-meter walk test (10MWT) and by performing timed-up-and-go-test (TUG). Neurological assessment included Hoehn and Yahr Scale (HY), Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale (S-E), and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Results. In women with PD, Kendall's tau-b correlation analyses revealed significant correlations between functional performance tests and neurological assessment measures, with the exception in MMSE. No corresponding associations were found for men, although they demonstrated better functional performance, as expected. Conclusion. Men in similar clinical stage of the PD perform better on functional tests than women. Disease severity reflects upon functional performance differently in men and women with PD. Results indicate that when interpreting the assessment results of both functional performance and neurological assessment tests, the gender of the patient should be taken into consideration. PMID:26586928

  20. Associations of frailty and psychosocial factors with autonomy in daily activities: a cross-sectional study in Italian community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been recognized as a risk factor for geriatric adverse events. Little is known of the role of psychosocial factors associated with frailty in explaining negative outcomes of aging. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the differences in psychosocial factors among robust, prefrail, and frail individuals and 2) investigating whether there was any interaction effect of frailty status with empirically identified clusters of psychosocial factors on autonomy in the activities of daily living (ADLs). Two-hundred and ten older adults (age 73±6 years, 66% women) were involved in this study. Frailty was assessed using an adapted version of the frailty phenotype. The psychosocial factors investigated were depressive symptoms using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, social isolation using the Friendship Scale, and loneliness feeling using the eight-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. The autonomy in ADLs was measured with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Thirty-one percent of participants were robust, 55% prefrail, and 14% frail. We performed an analysis of covariance which showed differences between robust, prefrail, and frail individuals for all the psychosocial variables: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, F(2, 205)=18.48, P<0.001; Friendship Scale, F(2, 205)=4.59, P=0.011; UCLA Loneliness Scale, F(2, 205)=5.87, P=0.003, controlling for age and sex. Using the same covariates, the two-way analysis of covariance indicated an interaction effect of frailty with psychosocial factors in determining ADLs, F(4, 199)=3.53, P=0.008. This study demonstrates the close relationship between frailty and psychosocial factors, suggesting the need to take into account simultaneously physical and psychosocial components of human functioning. PMID:26811675

  1. Associations of frailty and psychosocial factors with autonomy in daily activities: a cross-sectional study in Italian community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been recognized as a risk factor for geriatric adverse events. Little is known of the role of psychosocial factors associated with frailty in explaining negative outcomes of aging. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the differences in psychosocial factors among robust, prefrail, and frail individuals and 2) investigating whether there was any interaction effect of frailty status with empirically identified clusters of psychosocial factors on autonomy in the activities of daily living (ADLs). Two-hundred and ten older adults (age 73±6 years, 66% women) were involved in this study. Frailty was assessed using an adapted version of the frailty phenotype. The psychosocial factors investigated were depressive symptoms using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, social isolation using the Friendship Scale, and loneliness feeling using the eight-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. The autonomy in ADLs was measured with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Thirty-one percent of participants were robust, 55% prefrail, and 14% frail. We performed an analysis of covariance which showed differences between robust, prefrail, and frail individuals for all the psychosocial variables: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, F(2, 205)=18.48, P<0.001; Friendship Scale, F(2, 205)=4.59, P=0.011; UCLA Loneliness Scale, F(2, 205)=5.87, P=0.003, controlling for age and sex. Using the same covariates, the two-way analysis of covariance indicated an interaction effect of frailty with psychosocial factors in determining ADLs, F(4, 199)=3.53, P=0.008. This study demonstrates the close relationship between frailty and psychosocial factors, suggesting the need to take into account simultaneously physical and psychosocial components of human functioning. PMID:26811675

  2. On the Importance of Knowing Your Partner’s Views: Attitude Familiarity is Associated with Better Interpersonal Functioning and Lower Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    Birmingham, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Background Relationships have been linked to significant physical health outcomes. However, little is known about the more specific processes that might be responsible for such links. Purpose The main aim of this study was to examine a previously unexplored and potentially important form of partner knowledge (i.e., attitude familiarity) on relationship processes and cardiovascular function. Methods In this study, 47 married couples completed an attitude familiarity questionnaire and ambulatory assessments of daily spousal interactions and blood pressure. Results Attitude familiarity was associated with better interpersonal functioning between spouses in daily life (e.g., greater partner responsiveness). Importantly, attitude familiarity was also related to lower overall ambulatory systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions These data suggest that familiarity with a spouse’s attitudes may be an important factor linking relationships to better interpersonal and physical health outcomes. PMID:20878291

  3. Differences in daily rhythms of wrist temperature between obese and normal-weight women: associations with metabolic syndrome features

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The circadian rhythm of core body temperature is associated with widespread physiological effects. However, studies with other more practical temperature measures, such as wrist (WT) and proximal temperatures, are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity is associated w...

  4. Plasma concentrations of acyl-ghrelin are associated with average daily gain and feeding behavior in grow-finish pigs.

    PubMed

    Lents, C A; Brown-Brandl, T M; Rohrer, G A; Oliver, W T; Freking, B A

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of sex, sire line, and litter size on concentrations of acyl-ghrelin and total ghrelin in plasma of grow-finish pigs and to understand the relationship of plasma concentrations of ghrelin with feeding behavior, average daily gain (ADG), and back fat in grow-finish swine. Yorkshire-Landrace crossbred dams were inseminated with semen from Yorkshire, Landrace, or Duroc sires. Within 24 h of birth, pigs were cross-fostered into litter sizes of normal (N; >12 pigs/litter) or small (S; ≤ 9 pigs/litter). At 8 wk of age, pigs (n = 240) were blocked by sire breed, sex, and litter size and assigned to pens (n = 6) containing commercial feeders modified with a system to monitor feeding behavior. Total time eating, number of daily meals, and duration of meals were recorded for each individual pig. Body weight was recorded every 4 wk. Back fat and loin eye area were recorded at the conclusion of the 12-wk feeding study. A blood sample was collected at week 7 of the study to quantify concentrations of acyl- and total ghrelin in plasma. Pigs from small litters weighed more (P < 0.05) and tended (P = 0.07) to be fatter than pigs from normal litters. Postnatal litter size did not affect ADG, feeding behavior, or concentrations of ghrelin in plasma during the grow-finish phase. Barrows spent more time eating (P < 0.001) than gilts, but the number of meals and concentrations of ghrelin did not differ with sex of the pig. Pigs from Duroc and Yorkshire sires had lesser (P < 0.0001) concentrations of acyl-ghrelin than pigs from Landrace sires, but plasma concentrations of total ghrelin were not affected by sire breed. Concentrations of acyl-ghrelin were positively correlated with the number of meals and negatively correlated with meal length and ADG (P < 0.05). A larger number of short-duration meals may indicate that pigs with greater concentrations of acyl-ghrelin consumed less total feed, which likely explains why they were

  5. When it hurts, a positive attitude may help: The association of positive affect with daily walking in knee OA: the MOST Study

    PubMed Central

    White, Daniel K; Keysor, Julie J; Neogi, Tuhina; Felson, David T; LaValley, Michael; Gross, K Doug; Niu, Jingbo; Nevitt, Michael; Lewis, Cora E; Torner, Jim; Fredman, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE While depressive symptoms and knee pain are independently known to impede daily walking in older adults, it is unknown whether positive affect promotes daily walking. This study investigated this association among adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and examined whether knee pain modified this association. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study. We included 1018 participants (mean age 63.1 ± 7.8 years, 60% female) who had radiographic knee OA and had worn a StepWatch monitor to record steps/day. High- and low- positive affect, and depressive symptoms were based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. Knee pain was categorized as present in respondents who reported pain on most days at both a clinic visit and a telephone screen. RESULTS Compared to respondents with low positive affect (27% of respondents), those with high positive affect (63%) walked similar steps/day while those with depressive symptoms (10%) walked less (adjusted beta coefficients = −32.6 [−458.9, 393.8] and −579.1 [−1274.9, 116.7], respectively). There was a statistically significant interaction of positive affect by knee pain (p= 0.0045). Among respondents with knee pain (39%), those with high positive affect walked significantly more steps/day (711.0 [55.1, 1366.9]) than those with low positive affect. CONCLUSION High positive affect was associated with more daily walking among adults with painful knee OA. Positive affect may be an important psychological factor to consider to promote physical activity among people with painful knee OA. PMID:22504854

  6. Self-reported chronic pain is associated with physical performance in older people leaving aged care rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo; Sherrington, Catherine; Ferreira, Manuela L; Tiedemann, Anne; Ferreira, Paulo H; Blyth, Fiona M; Close, Jacqueline CT; Taylor, Morag; Lord, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives The impact of pain on the physical performance of patients in aged care rehabilitation is not known. The study sought to assess 1) the prevalence of pain in older people being discharged from inpatient rehabilitation; 2) the association between self-reported pain and physical performance in people being discharged from inpatient rehabilitation; and 3) the association between self-reported pain and physical performance in this population, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Methods This was an observational cross-sectional study of 420 older people at two inpatient aged care rehabilitation units. Physical performance was assessed using the Lower Limb Summary Performance Score. Pain was assessed with questions about the extent to which participants were troubled by pain, the duration of symptoms, and the impact of chronic pain on everyday activity. Depression and the number of comorbidities were assessed by questionnaire and medical file audit. Cognition was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Results Thirty percent of participants reported chronic pain (pain lasting more than 3 months), and 17% reported that this pain interfered with daily activities to a moderate or greater extent. Chronic pain (P=0.013) and chronic pain affecting daily activities (P<0.001) were associated with a poorer Lower Limb Summary Performance Score. The relationship between chronic pain affecting daily activities and Lower Limb Summary Performance Score remained significant (P=0.001) after adjusting for depression, age, comorbidities, and Mini-Mental State Examination score. This model explained 10% of the variability in physical performance. Conclusion One-third of participants reported chronic pain, and close to one-fifth reported that this pain interfered with daily activities. Chronic pain was associated with impaired physical performance, and this relationship persisted after adjusting for likely confounding factors. PMID:24523583

  7. Effects of sequential treatments with eprinomectin on performance and grazing behaviour in dairy cattle under daily-paddock stocking management.

    PubMed

    Gibb, M J; Huckle, C A; Forbes, A B

    2005-10-10

    To evaluate the effect of gastrointestinal parasites on grazing behaviour, herbage intake and milk production in spring calving dairy cows, 12 naturally infected control cows were compared with 12 similar animals treated on three occasions (June, July and September) with eprinomectin. The cows were blocked according to calving date, parity, live weight and milk yield during week 2 after turnout and then allocated to the treatments. The grazing area was sub-divided into two sets of 12 replicated paddocks of equivalent size and topography. Pairs of either control or treated animals were randomly assigned to graze each paddock over the duration of the study. Within each plot, the pair of cows grazed a series of 1-day paddocks, of areas calculated to provide 72 kg of herbage dry matter measured to ground level. Faecal samples were collected from each cow in April, prior to allocation, and every 28 days thereafter. Samples were submitted for counts of nematode eggs (sensitivity 1 epg) and the presence of Dictyocaulus viviparus larvae. Additional faecal samples were taken on each occasion for culture and nematode identification. Pasture samples for direct larval counts were collected at the same time as faecal sampling. Behaviour measurements on all cows were made during three periods, once before the first treatment with eprinomectin and thence after the 2nd and 3rd treatments. During each behaviour measurement period, grazing and ruminating behaviour were recorded over two 24-h periods and measurements of components of short-term intake rate were made during a morning and a late afternoon grazing meal. Milk yield was recorded daily and milk quality was recorded weekly. Live weight and body condition score were recorded on the day of allocation, the day of initial treatment and thereafter at weekly intervals until the end of the trial. The parasitological results showed low levels of faecal egg output throughout the study with group arithmetic means ranging from 0 to 6

  8. Association between Daily Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure and Incidence of Emergency Hospital Visits: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Finnbjornsdottir, Ragnhildur Gudrun; Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Oudin, Anna; Lund, Sigrun Helga; Gislason, Thorarinn; Rafnsson, Vilhjalmur

    2016-01-01

    Background The adverse health effects of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exposure are well known, though the possible effects of low concentrations have not been thoroughly studied. The aim was to study short-term associations between modelled ambient low-level concentrations of intermittent hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and emergency hospital visits with heart diseases (HD), respiratory diseases, and stroke as primary diagnosis. Methods The study is population-based, using data from patient-, and population-registers from the only acute care institution in the Reykjavik capital area, between 1 January, 2007 and 30 June, 2014. The study population was individuals (≥18yr) living in the Reykjavik capital area. The H2S emission originates from a geothermal power plant in the vicinity. A model was used to estimate H2S exposure in different sections of the area. A generalized linear model assuming Poisson distribution was used to investigate the association between emergency hospital visits and H2S exposure. Distributed lag models were adjusted for seasonality, gender, age, traffic zones, and other relevant factors. Lag days from 0 to 4 were considered. Results The total number of emergency hospital visits was 32961 with a mean age of 70 years. In fully adjusted un-stratified models, H2S concentrations exceeding 7.00μg/m3 were associated with increases in emergency hospital visits with HD as primary diagnosis at lag 0 risk ratio (RR): 1.067; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.024–1.111, lag 2 RR: 1.049; 95%CI: 1.005–1.095, and lag 4 RR: 1.046; 95%CI: 1.004–1.089. Among males an association was found between H2S concentrations exceeding 7.00μg/m3, and HD at lag 0 RR: 1.087; 95%CI: 1.032–1.146 and lag 4 RR: 1080; 95%CI: 1.025–1.138; and among those 73 years and older at lag 0 RR: 1.075; 95%CI: 1.014–1.140 and lag 3 RR: 1.072; 95%CI: 1.009–1.139. No associations were found with other diseases. Conclusions The study showed an association between

  9. Breast cancer-specific intrusions are associated with increased cortisol responses to daily life stressors in healthy women without personal or family histories of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dettenborn, Lucia; James, Gary D; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B; Montgomery, Guy H; Bovbjerg, Dana H

    2006-10-01

    Studies indicate that women fear breast cancer more than any other disease and that women's levels of breast cancer-specific intrusions are related to their perceived risk of breast cancer. Here, we explore possible biological consequences of higher breast cancer risk perceptions and intrusions in healthy women without personal or family histories of the disease. We hypothesized that women with higher perceived risk would have more intrusions about breast cancer, which would constitute a background stressor sufficient to increase hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) responsivity to daily stress. HPA responses to an ordinary life stressor (work) were assessed in 141 employed women (age = 37.2+/-9.2) without personal or family histories of breast cancer. Urinary cortisol excretion rates were assessed with timed sample collections at work, home, and during sleep. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant Group by Time interaction with higher work cortisol levels in women with breast cancer-specific intrusions compared to women without intrusions (p < 0.02). Regression analyses revealed a significant association between risk perceptions and intrusions (p < 0.001). Regression analysis with intrusions and risk perceptions predicting work cortisol indicated a significant contribution of intrusions (p < 0.04), but not risk perceptions (p = 0.53). Overestimation of breast cancer risk is associated with higher levels of breast cancer-specific intrusions that can result in increased cortisol responsivity to daily stressors. This heightened responsivity could have long-term negative health implications. PMID:16944305

  10. Daily Physical Activity and Screen Time, but Not Other Sedentary Activities, Are Associated with Measures of Obesity during Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Nik Shanita, Safii; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

  11. Daily physical activity and screen time, but not other sedentary activities, are associated with measures of obesity during childhood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

  12. Daily Associations between Alcohol Use and Unprotected Anal Sex Among Heavy Drinking HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Wray, Tyler B.; Pantalone, David W.; Kruis, Ryan D.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Monti, Peter M.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for the largest proportion of new HIV infections in the United States. Alcohol may facilitate HIV transmission by increasing unprotected anal sex, but few studies have focused on transmission behaviors in HIV-positive MSM. This study explored daily associations between alcohol use and sexual behavior among heavy drinking HIV-positive MSM using a 30-day Timeline Followback interview. Results of generalized estimating equations indicated that greater alcohol consumption on a given day was associated with a linear increase in the odds of having unprotected anal sex with partners of any HIV status. However, the odds of reporting unprotected anal sex with HIV-negative or HIV-status unknown partners increased in a curvilinear fashion, occurring primarily at very heavy levels of use (12+ drinks). Results suggest that very heavy drinking increases the risk of engaging in sexual behavior that has the potential for transmitting HIV to other men. PMID:25194967

  13. Effects of isolated or combined carbohydrate and caffeine supplementation between 2 daily training sessions on soccer performance.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Souza, Victor Amorim; Bertuzzi, Romulo; de Araujo, Gustavo Gomes; Bishop, David; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether isolated or combined carbohydrate (CHO) and caffeine (CAF) supplementation have beneficial effects on performance during soccer-related tests performed after a previous training session. Eleven male, amateur soccer players completed 4 trials in a randomized, double-blind, and crossover design. In the morning, participants performed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST). Then, participants ingested (i) 1.2 g·kg(-1) body mass·h(-1) CHO in a 20% CHO solution immediately after and 1, 2, and 3 h after the LIST; (ii) CAF (6 mg·kg(-1) body mass) 3 h after the LIST; (iii) CHO combined with CAF (CHO+CAF); and (iv) placebo. All drinks were taste-matched and flavourless. After this 4-h recovery, participants performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) test, a Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT), and a repeated-sprint test. There were no main effects of supplementation for CMJ, LSPT total time, or best sprint and total sprint time from the repeated-sprint test (p>0.05). There were also no main effects of supplementation for heart rate, plasma lactate concentration, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), pleasure-displeasure, and perceived activation (p>0.05). However, there were significant time effects (p<0.05), with heart rate, plasma lactate concentration, RPE, and perceived activation increasing with time, and pleasure-displeasure decreasing with time. In conclusion, isolated and/or combined CHO and CAF supplementation is not able to improve soccer-related performance tests when performed after a previous training session. PMID:25884315

  14. Low levels of estradiol are associated with elevated conditioned responding during fear extinction and with intrusive memories in daily life

    PubMed Central

    Wegerer, Melanie; Kerschbaum, Hubert; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be conceptualized as a disorder of emotional memory showing strong (conditioned) responses to trauma reminders and intrusive memories among other symptoms. Women are at greater risk of developing PTSD than men. Recent studies have demonstrated an influence of ovarian steroid hormones in both fear conditioning and intrusive memory paradigms. However, although intrusive memories are considered non-extinguished emotional reactions to trauma reminders, none of the previous studies has investigated effects of ovarian hormones on fear conditioning mechanisms and intrusive memories in conjunction. This may have contributed to an overall inconsistent picture of the role of these hormones in emotional learning and memory. To remedy this, we exposed 37 healthy women with a natural menstrual cycle (during early follicular or luteal cycle phase) to a novel conditioned-intrusion paradigm designed to model real-life traumatic experiences. The paradigm included a differential fear conditioning procedure with short violent film clips as unconditioned stimuli. Intrusive memories about the film clips were assessed ambulatorily on subsequent days. Women with lower levels of estradiol displayed elevated differential conditioned skin conductance responding during fear extinction and showed stronger intrusive memories. The inverse relationship between estradiol and intrusive memories was at least partially accounted for by the conditioned responding observed during fear extinction. Progesterone levels were not associated with either fear acquisition/extinction or with intrusive memories. This suggests that lower levels of estradiol might promote stronger symptoms of PTSD through associative processes. PMID:25463649

  15. Low levels of estradiol are associated with elevated conditioned responding during fear extinction and with intrusive memories in daily life.

    PubMed

    Wegerer, Melanie; Kerschbaum, Hubert; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2014-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be conceptualized as a disorder of emotional memory showing strong (conditioned) responses to trauma reminders and intrusive memories among other symptoms. Women are at greater risk of developing PTSD than men. Recent studies have demonstrated an influence of ovarian steroid hormones in both fear conditioning and intrusive memory paradigms. However, although intrusive memories are considered non-extinguished emotional reactions to trauma reminders, none of the previous studies has investigated effects of ovarian hormones on fear conditioning mechanisms and intrusive memories in conjunction. This may have contributed to an overall inconsistent picture of the role of these hormones in emotional learning and memory. To remedy this, we exposed 37 healthy women with a natural menstrual cycle (during early follicular or luteal cycle phase) to a novel conditioned-intrusion paradigm designed to model real-life traumatic experiences. The paradigm included a differential fear conditioning procedure with short violent film clips as unconditioned stimuli. Intrusive memories about the film clips were assessed ambulatorily on subsequent days. Women with lower levels of estradiol displayed elevated differential conditioned skin conductance responding during fear extinction and showed stronger intrusive memories. The inverse relationship between estradiol and intrusive memories was at least partially accounted for by the conditioned responding observed during fear extinction. Progesterone levels were not associated with either fear acquisition/extinction or with intrusive memories. This suggests that lower levels of estradiol might promote stronger symptoms of PTSD through associative processes. PMID:25463649

  16. Forecast of a Daily Halo CME Occurrence Probability Depending on Class and Area Change of the Associated Sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kangjin; Moon, Yong-Jae; Lee, Jin-Yi

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the halo (partial and full) coronal mass ejection (CME) occurrence probability depending on class and area change of the associated sunspot using front-side halo CMEs from 1996 to 2011. We select the most halo CME-productive 14 sunspot classifications: Cao, Cko, Dai, Dao, Dko, Dki, Dkc, Eao, Eai, Eko, Eki, Ekc, Fki, and Fkc. For each class, we assign three subgroups according to sunspot class area change: "Decrease", "Steady", or "Increase". As a result, in the case of asymmetric (k) and compact (c) groups, their CME occurrence probabilities increase. We also find that the halo-CME occurrence probabilities for the "Increase" subgroups are noticeably higher than those for the other subgroups. Our results demonstrate statistically that magnetic-flux emergence or cancellation enhances CME occurrence. We expect that this model can be routinely operated to forecast the halo-CME occurrence probability.

  17. Desert Dust Outbreaks in Southern Europe: Contribution to Daily PM10 Concentrations and Short-Term Associations with Mortality and Hospital Admissions

    PubMed Central

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Zauli-Sajani, Stefano; Pey, Jorge; Samoli, Evangelia; Alessandrini, Ester; Basagaña, Xavier; Cernigliaro, Achille; Chiusolo, Monica; Demaria, Moreno; Díaz, Julio; Faustini, Annunziata; Katsouyanni, Klea; Kelessis, Apostolos G.; Linares, Cristina; Marchesi, Stefano; Medina, Sylvia; Pandolfi, Paolo; Pérez, Noemí; Querol, Xavier; Randi, Giorgia; Ranzi, Andrea; Tobias, Aurelio; Forastiere, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the association between short-term exposure to desert dust and health outcomes is controversial. Objectives: We aimed to estimate the short-term effects of particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) on mortality and hospital admissions in 13 Southern European cities, distinguishing between PM10 originating from the desert and from other sources. Methods: We identified desert dust advection days in multiple Mediterranean areas for 2001–2010 by combining modeling tools, back-trajectories, and satellite data. For each advection day, we estimated PM10 concentrations originating from desert, and computed PM10 from other sources by difference. We fitted city-specific Poisson regression models to estimate the association between PM from different sources (desert and non-desert) and daily mortality and emergency hospitalizations. Finally, we pooled city-specific results in a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: On average, 15% of days were affected by desert dust at ground level (desert PM10 > 0 μg/m3). Most episodes occurred in spring–summer, with increasing gradient of both frequency and intensity north–south and west–east of the Mediterranean basin. We found significant associations of both PM10 concentrations with mortality. Increases of 10 μg/m3 in non-desert and desert PM10 (lag 0–1 days) were associated with increases in natural mortality of 0.55% (95% CI: 0.24, 0.87%) and 0.65% (95% CI: 0.24, 1.06%), respectively. Similar associations were estimated for cardio-respiratory mortality and hospital admissions. Conclusions: PM10 originating from the desert was positively associated with mortality and hospitalizations in Southern Europe. Policy measures should aim at reducing population exposure to anthropogenic airborne particles even in areas with large contribution from desert dust advections. Citation: Stafoggia M, Zauli-Sajani S, Pey J, Samoli E, Alessandrini E, Basagaña X, Cernigliaro A, Chiusolo M, Demaria M, Díaz J, Faustini A

  18. Inter-participant variability in daily physical activity and sedentary time among male youth sport footballers: independent associations with indicators of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Sally A M; Duda, Joan L; Barrett, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Participation in youth sport is assumed to promote and contribute towards more physically active lifestyles among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine inter-participant variability in objectively measured habitual physical activity (PA) behaviours and sedentary time among youth sport participants and their implications for health. One-hundred-and-eighteen male youth sport footballers (Mean ± s = 11.72 ± 1.60) wore a GT3X accelerometer for 7 days. Average daily PA [min · day(-1), in light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and combined moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA)] and sedentary time were calculated. Participants' body mass index adjusted for age and sex (BMI-standard deviation score), per cent body fat (BF%), waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed. Results revealed that variability in daily PA behaviours and sedentary time (min · day(-1)) was associated with BMI-standard deviation score [VPA (-), MVPA (-)], BF% [sedentary time (+), VPA (-), MVPA (-)], waist circumference [sedentary time (+), LPA (-)] and cardiorespiratory fitness [sedentary time (-), MPA (+), VPA (+), MVPA (+)]. Whilst sedentary time and MVPA were not related to health outcomes independent of one another, associations with markers of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness were stronger for sedentary time. Sedentary time was also significantly positively related to waist circumference independent of VPA. Results demonstrate inter-participant variability in habitual PA and sedentary time among youth sport participants which holds implications for their health. Thus, promoting PA and, in particular, reducing sedentary time may contribute towards the prevention of adverse health consequences associated with a physically inactive lifestyle for children and adolescents active in the youth sport context. PMID:25993894

  19. CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype as an effect modifier of the association between daily cigarette consumption and hypertension in Chinese male smokers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Ying; Zhou, Shan-Yu; Niu, Zhong-Zheng; Liu, Tao; Xie, Chuan-Bo; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2015-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for hypertension. However, the effects on hypertension of the interaction between smoking and the genotype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene are unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype affects the association between daily cigarette consumption and hypertension. We recruited 947 male smokers in southern China and used a questionnaire administered in face to face interviews to obtain information on their socio-demographic characteristics and smoking behavior. Blood samples were collected to test for CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype variations. Three blood-pressure measurements were taken for each participant, and the average values recorded. We found that, compared with light smoking (<15 cigarettes per day), heavy smoking (≥15 cigarettes per day) yielded a greater risk of hypertension. We also observed that the interaction between daily cigarette consumption and the CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype may affect hypertension. Heavy smokers with the homozygous mutant CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype exhibited a significantly greater risk of hypertension than light smokers with wild-type CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotypes. The positive interaction between heavy smoking and the homozygous mutant CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype was found to affect the likelihood of hypertension in Chinese male smokers. PMID:25874685

  20. Magnitude of daily energy deficit predicts frequency but not severity of menstrual disturbances associated with exercise and caloric restriction

    PubMed Central

    Leidy, Heather J.; Hill, Brenna R.; Lieberman, Jay L.; Legro, Richard S.; Souza, Mary Jane De

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the impact of energy deficiency on menstrual function using controlled feeding and supervised exercise over four menstrual cycles (1 baseline and 3 intervention cycles) in untrained, eumenorrheic women aged 18–30 yr. Subjects were randomized to either an exercising control (EXCON) or one of three exercising energy deficit (ED) groups, i.e., mild (ED1; −8 ± 2%), moderate (ED2; −22 ± 3%), or severe (ED3; −42 ± 3%). Menstrual cycle length and changes in urinary concentrations of estrone-1-glucuronide, pregnanediol glucuronide, and midcycle luteinizing hormone were assessed. Thirty-four subjects completed the study. Weight loss occurred in ED1 (−3.8 ± 0.2 kg), ED2 (−2.8 ± 0.6 kg), and ED3 (−2.6 ± 1.1 kg) but was minimal in EXCON (−0.9 ± 0.7 kg). The overall sum of disturbances (luteal phase defects, anovulation, and oligomenorrhea) was greater in ED2 compared with EXCON and greater in ED3 compared with EXCON AND ED1. The average percent energy deficit was the main predictor of the frequency of menstrual disturbances (f = 10.1, β = −0.48, r2 = 0.23, P = 0.003) even when weight loss was included in the model. The estimates of the magnitude of energy deficiency associated with menstrual disturbances ranged from −22 (ED2) to −42% (ED3), reflecting an energy deficit of −470 to −810 kcal/day, respectively. This is the first study to demonstrate a dose-response relationship between the magnitude of energy deficiency and the frequency of exercise-related menstrual disturbances; however, the severity of menstrual disturbances was not dependent on the magnitude of energy deficiency. PMID:25352438

  1. An epidemiological investigation into the association between biomarkers and growth performance in nursery pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomarkers are useful tools in research and clinical practice where they are often used to detect and monitor differences in the physiological state of an animal. The proteins IGF-1, IGFBP-3, GHR, CRP, SAA, Hp, IFN-α, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 have been proposed as potential biomarkers for monitoring growth in livestock. The objective of this study was to determine whether hepatic gene expression of these proposed biomarkers is associated with growth performance in nursery pigs. Herd information and growth parameters were collected for 168 piglets from 8 commercial farms in southern Ontario. From these pigs, a subset of liver tissue samples (n = 74) was used for gene expression analysis of the proposed biomarkers. Multivariable linear regression methods were used to determine whether genetic expression of the proposed biomarkers was associated with growth performance in the nursery. Results Modelling the herd information and individual piglet traits in relation to growth performance revealed that the weight at weaning and the age at weaning are significantly associated with nursery performance. Average daily gain (ADG) was significantly associated with hepatic IGFBP-3 and GHR expression in the liver (P < 0.05), and tended to be associated with hepatic IGF-1 expression (P = 0.071). Similarly, 9-week body weight was significantly associated with hepatic expression of IGFBP-3 and GHR expression (P < 0.05), and tended to be associated with hepatic expression of IGF-1 (P = 0.055). Conclusion The age and weight at which pigs are weaned is an important determinant for nursery performance. Hepatic gene expression of IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and GHR can be useful biomarkers for monitoring growth performance in nursery pigs. PMID:24314007

  2. The effect of voice ambulatory biofeedback on the daily performance and retention of a modified vocal motor behavior in participants with normal voices

    PubMed Central

    Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ambulatory biofeedback has potential to improve carryover of newly-established vocal motor behaviors into daily life outside of the clinic and warrants systematic research that is lacking in the literature. This proof-of-concept study was designed to establish an empirical basis for future work in this area by formally assessing whether ambulatory biofeedback reduces daily vocal intensity (performance) and the extent to which this change remains after biofeedback removal (retention). Method Six participants with normal voices wore the KayPENTAX Ambulatory Phonation Monitor for three baseline days followed by four days with biofeedback provided on odd days. Results Compared to baseline days, participants exhibited a statistically significant decrease in mean vocal intensity (4.4 dB) and an increase in compliance (16.8 percentage points) when biofeedback was provided above a participant-specific intensity threshold. After biofeedback removal, mean vocal intensity and compliance reverted back to baseline levels. Conclusions These findings suggest that although current ambulatory biofeedback approaches have potential to modify a vocal motor behavior, the modified behavior may not be retained after biofeedback removal. Future work calls for the testing of more innovative ambulatory biofeedback approaches based on motor control and learning theories to improve retention of a desired vocal motor behavior. PMID:25765862

  3. Cognitive performance in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: A longitudinal study in daily practice using a brief computerized cognitive battery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is need for a cognitive test battery that can be easily used in clinical practice to detect or monitor cognitive performance in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to conduct, in this patient group, a preliminary investigation of the validity and utility of a brief computerized battery, the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) battery, we longitudinally assessed cognition in patients with relapsing remitting (RR) MS. Methods Forty-three mildly disabled, clinically active RRMS patients were repeatedly assessed with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and five composite scores derived from the CDR computerized cognitive test system (CDR System): Power of Attention, Continuity of Attention, Quality of Working Memory, Quality of Episodic Memory and Speed of Memory. The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) measured disability. Results The composite scores from the CDR battery generally showed excellent test-retest reliability over the repeated assessments, though was low on occasions for the Quality of Working Memory and Quality of Episodic Memory measures. The CDR measures tended to be highly correlated with other measures of cognition (DSST and PASAT) and were also strongly related to disability (EDSS and MSFC). Baseline scores indicated large impairments to visual information processing speed and attention (DSST, Cohen's d 1.1; Power of Attention d 1.4 [reaction time on tasks of focussed and sustained attention]), and a moderate impairment both to sustained attention (Continuity of Attention d 0.6) and complex information processing speed (Speed of memory d 0.7 [reaction time on tasks of working and episodic Memory]), when compared to normative data derived from healthy volunteers enrolled in a series of separate, prior clinical trials. Working memory (Quality of Working Memory) and episodic memory (Quality of Episodic Memory) were unimpaired

  4. Distinguishing the associations between daily mortality and hospital admissions and nitrogen dioxide from those of particulate matter: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mills, I C; Atkinson, R W; Anderson, H R; Maynard, R L; Strachan, D P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To quantitatively assess time-series studies of daily nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and mortality and hospital admissions which also controlled for particulate matter (PM) to determine whether or to what extent the NO2 associations are independent of PM. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Time-series studies—published in peer-reviewed journals worldwide, up to May 2011—that reported both single-pollutant and two-pollutant model estimates for NO2 and PM were ascertained from bibliographic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) and reviews. Random-effects summary estimates were calculated globally and stratified by different geographical regions, and effect modification was investigated. Outcome measures Mortality and hospital admissions for various cardiovascular or respiratory diseases in different age groups in the general population. Results 60 eligible studies were identified, and meta-analysis was conducted on 23 outcomes. Two-pollutant model study estimates generally showed that the NO2 associations were independent of PM mass. For all-cause mortality, a 10 µg/m3 increase in 24-hour NO2 was associated with a 0.78% (95% CI 0.47% to 1.09%) increase in the risk of death, which reduced to 0.60% (0.33% to 0.87%) after control for PM. Heterogeneity between geographical region-specific estimates was removed by control for PM (I2 from 66.9% to 0%). Estimates of PM and daily mortality assembled from the same studies were greatly attenuated after control for NO2: from 0.51% (0.29% to 0.74%) to 0.18% (−0.11% to 0.47%) per 10 µg/m3 PM10 and 0.74% (0.34% to 1.14%) to 0.54% (−0.25% to 1.34%) for PM2.5. Conclusions The association between short-term exposure to NO2 and adverse health outcomes is largely independent of PM mass. Further studies should attempt to investigate whether this is a generic PM effect or whether it is modified by the source and physicochemical characteristics of PM. This finding strengthens the argument for

  5. Genome-wide association and systems genetic analyses of residual feed intake, daily feed consumption, backfat and weight gain in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feed efficiency is one of the major components determining costs of animal production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed and the expected feed intake given a certain production. Residual feed intake 1 (RFI1) was calculated based on regression of individual daily feed intake (DFI) on initial test weight and average daily gain. Residual feed intake 2 (RFI2) was as RFI1 except it was also regressed with respect to backfat (BF). It has been shown to be a sensitive and accurate measure for feed efficiency in livestock but knowledge of the genomic regions and mechanisms affecting RFI in pigs is lacking. The study aimed to identify genetic markers and candidate genes for RFI and its component traits as well as pathways associated with RFI in Danish Duroc boars by genome-wide associations and systems genetic analyses. Results Phenotypic and genotypic records (using the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip) were available on 1,272 boars. Fifteen and 12 loci were significantly associated (p < 1.52 × 10-6) with RFI1 and RFI2, respectively. Among them, 10 SNPs were significantly associated with both RFI1 and RFI2 implying the existence of common mechanisms controlling the two RFI measures. Significant QTL regions for component traits of RFI (DFI and BF) were detected on pig chromosome (SSC) 1 (for DFI) and 2 for (BF). The SNPs within MAP3K5 and PEX7 on SSC 1, ENSSSCG00000022338 on SSC 9, and DSCAM on SSC 13 might be interesting markers for both RFI measures. Functional annotation of genes in 0.5 Mb size flanking significant SNPs indicated regulation of protein and lipid metabolic process, gap junction, inositol phosphate metabolism and insulin signaling pathway are significant biological processes and pathways for RFI, respectively. Conclusions The study detected novel genetic variants and QTLs on SSC 1, 8, 9, 13 and 18 for RFI and indicated significant biological processes and metabolic pathways involved in RFI. The

  6. Which metric of ambient ozone to predict daily mortality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Kundi, Michael

    2013-02-01

    It is well known that ozone concentration is associated with daily cause specific mortality. But which ozone metric is the best predictor of the daily variability in mortality? We performed a time series analysis on daily deaths (all causes, respiratory and cardiovascular causes as well as death in elderly 65+) in Vienna for the years 1991-2009. We controlled for seasonal and long term trend, day of the week, temperature and humidity using the same basic model for all pollutant metrics. We found model fit was best for same day variability of ozone concentration (calculated as the difference between daily hourly maximum and minimum) and hourly maximum. Of these the variability displayed a more linear dose-response function. Maximum 8 h moving average and daily mean value performed not so well. Nitrogen dioxide (daily mean) in comparison performed better when previous day values were assessed. Same day ozone and previous day nitrogen dioxide effect estimates did not confound each other. Variability in daily ozone levels or peak ozone levels seem to be a better proxy of a complex reactive secondary pollutant mixture than daily average ozone levels in the Middle European setting. If this finding is confirmed this would have implications for the setting of legally binding limit values.

  7. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  8. Electroencephalogram associations to cognitive performance in clinically active nurses.

    PubMed

    Lees, Ty; Khushaba, Rami; Lal, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive impairment is traditionally identified via cognitive screening tools that have limited ability in detecting early or transitional stages of impairment. The dynamic nature of physiological variables such as the electroencephalogram (EEG) may provide alternate means for detecting these transitions. However, previous research examining EEG and cognitive performance is largely confined to samples with diagnosed cognitive impairments, and research examining non-impaired, and occupation specific samples, is limited. The present study aimed to investigate the associations between frontal pole and central EEG and cognitive performance in a sample of male and female nurses, and to determine the significance of these associations. Fifty seven nurses participated in the study, in which two lead bipolar EEG was recorded at positions Fp1 (frontal polar), Fp2, C3 (central) and C4 during a baseline and an active phase involving the common neuropsychological Stroop test. Participants' cognitive performance was assessed using the mini-mental state exam (MMSE) and Cognistat screening tools. Significant correlations between EEG beta activity and the outcome of MMSE and Cognistat were revealed, where an increased beta activity was associated to an increased global cognitive performance. Additionally, domain specific cognitive performance was also significantly associated to various EEG variables. The study identified potential EEG biomarkers for global and domain specific cognitive performance, and provides initial groundwork for the development of future EEG based biomarkers for detection of cognitive pathologies. PMID:27244262

  9. Greater Independence in Activities of Daily Living is Associated with Higher Health-Related Quality of Life Scores in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Charice S.; Slaughter, Susan E.; Jones, C. Allyson; Wagg, Adrian S.

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) for nursing home residents is important, however, the concept of quality of life is broad, encompasses many domains and is difficult to assess in people with dementia. Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are measured routinely in nursing homes using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set Version 2.0 (RAI-MDS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) instrument. We examined the relationship between HRQL and ADL to assess the future possibility of ADL dependency level serving as a surrogate measure of HRQL in residents with dementia. To assess ADL, measures derived from the RAI-MDS and FIM data were gathered for 111 residents at the beginning of our study and at 6-month follow-up. Higher scores for independence in ADL were correlated with higher scores for a disease-specific HRQL measure, the Quality of Life—Alzheimer’s Disease Scale. Preliminary evidence suggests that FIM-assessed ADL is associated with HRQL for these residents. The associations of the dressing and toileting items with HRQL were particularly strong. This finding suggests the importance of ADL function in HRQL. The RAI-MDS ADL scales should be used with caution to evaluate HRQL.

  10. Cardiac, ventilatory, and metabolic adjustments in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients during the performance of Glittre activities of daily living test.

    PubMed

    Tufanin, Andréa; Souza, Gerson Fonseca; Tisi, Guilherme Rocha; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Nascimento, Oliver A; Jardim, José R

    2014-11-01

    Functional status and quality of life are measures of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient's health status and can demonstrate the impact of the disease on the patient's ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). The Glittre-ADL test was developed to evaluate the functional status of COPD patients and their ability to perform activities of daily life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiac, respiratory, and metabolic adjustments and reproducibility of the Glittre ADL test performed by COPD patients. Twenty-two mild to severe COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1): 56.6 ± 19.9% predicted; mean age: 66.3 ± 9.18 years old) were enrolled in this study. Metabolic (oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), pulmonary ventilation (VE)/VCO2, and VE/VO2), ventilatory (tidal volume, respiratory rate, and VE), and cardiovascular (pulse oxygen saturation, VO2/heart rate (HR), and HR) variables, lower limbs fatigue, and dyspnea (Borg score) after each lap of two Glittre ADL test were analyzed. All metabolic, ventilatory, and cardiac variables increased their values up to the third lap and remained stable (plateau) until the end of the test (five laps; multivariate analysis); there was no difference among the time spent to complete each of the five laps in each test and between tests (total time of second test: 4 minutes and 3 seconds); the second test was 17.8 seconds (6.6%) shorter than the first one (NS). All variables were highly reproducible in the two tests (NS). At the end of the test, patients reached 87.7% of the VO2 max, 81% of VE peak, and 88.5% of the HR peak obtained from an incremental maximal test on a treadmill. The Glittre ADL test is easy for COPD patients to perform and is a highly reproducible test in COPD patients with mild to severe stages of the disease. In addition, our results suggest that it is possible to demonstrate the patient's functional capacity with a single test of

  11. PTSD is negatively associated with physical performance and physical function in older overweight military veterans

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Katherine S.; Beckham, Jean C.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Sloane, Richard; Pieper, Carl F.; Morey, Miriam C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on function and physical performance in older overweight military Veterans with comorbid conditions. This is a secondary data analysis of older Veterans (mean age = 62.9 yr) participating in a physical activity counseling trial. Study participants with PTSD (n = 67) and without PTSD (n = 235) were identified. Self-reported physical function (36-item Short Form Health Survey) and directly measured physical performance (mobility, aerobic endurance, strength) were assessed. Multivariate analyses of variance controlling for demographic factors and psychiatric disorders demonstrated significant physical impairment among those with PTSD. PTSD was negatively associated with self-reported physical function, functioning in daily activities, and general health (p < 0.01). Those with PTSD also performed significantly worse on tests of lower-limb function (p < 0.05). Despite being significantly younger, Veterans with PTSD had comparable scores on gait speed, aerobic endurance, grip strength, and bodily pain compared with Veterans without PTSD. This study provides preliminary data for the negative association between PTSD and physical function in older military Veterans. These data highlight the importance of ongoing monitoring of physical performance among returning Veterans with PTSD and intervening in older overweight Veterans with PTSD, whose physical performance scores are indicative of accelerated risk of premature functional aging. PMID:24933726

  12. Repetitive Daily Point of Choice Prompts and Occupational Sit-Stand Transfers, Concentration and Neuromuscular Performance in Office Workers: An RCT

    PubMed Central

    Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Schefer, Yannick; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Prolonged office sitting time adversely affects neuromuscular and cardiovascular health parameters. As a consequence, the present study investigated the effects of prompting the use of height-adjustable working desk (HAWD) on occupational sitting and standing time, neuromuscular outcomes and concentration in office workers. Methods: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) with parallel group design was conducted. Thirty-eight office workers were supplied with HAWDs and randomly assigned (Strata: physical activity (PA), BMI, gender, workload) to a prompt (INT) or non-prompt (CON) group. INT received three daily screen-based prompts within 12 weeks. CON was only instructed once concerning the benefits of using HAWDs prior to the start of the study. Sitting and standing times were objectively assessed as primary outcomes for one entire working week using the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT at baseline (pre), after 6 (mid) and 12 weeks (post). Concentration (d2-test), postural sway during upright stance (under single, dual and triple task) and lower limb strength endurance (heel-rise) were collected as secondary outcomes. Results: With large but not statistically significant within group effects from pre to post, INT increased weekly standing time at work by 9% (p = 0.22, d = 0.8) representing an increase from 7.2 h (4.8) to 9.7 (6.6) h (p = 0.07). Concentration and neuromuscular performance did not change from pre to post testing (0.23 < p < 0.95; 0.001 < ηp² < 0.05). Conclusion: Low-frequent and low cost screen-based point of choice prompts (3 per day within 12 weeks) already result in notable increases of occupational standing time of approx. daily 30 min. These stimuli, however, did not relevantly affect neuromuscular outcomes.   PMID:25903058

  13. A Study of the Associations between Conditions of Performance and Characteristics of Performers and New York State Solo Performance Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    vonWurmb, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation undertakes an analysis of 1,044 performance evaluations from New York State School Music Association (NYSSMA) Spring Festival solo adjudication ratings of student performers from a large suburban school district. It relies on results of evaluations of observed performances, and takes these evaluations as assessments of what the…

  14. Prospective Associations between Dietary Patterns and Cognitive Performance during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyaradi, Anett; Foster, Jonathan K.; Hickling, Siobhan; Li, Jianghong; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Jacques, Angela; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate prospective associations between dietary patterns and cognitive performance during adolescence. Methods: Participants were sourced from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study that includes 2868 children born between 1989 and 1992 in Perth, Western Australia. When the children were…

  15. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Skin Self-Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jakob D.; Moriarty, Cortney M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined psychosocial factors associated with skin self-exam (SSE) performance by young adults. Participants and Methods: The authors administered surveys to 218 US college students (aged 18-26 years) attending a large midwestern university. Results: Contrary to prior research, men (44%) and women (49%) were relatively…

  16. Fatigue and associated performance decrements in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, E. G.; Orlady, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    A study of safety reports was conducted to examine the hypothesis that fatigue and associated performance decrements occur in air transport operations, and that these are associated with some combination of factors: circadian desynchronosis, duty time; pre-duty activity; sleep; work scheduling; workload; and environmental deprivation. The findings are based on a selected sample of reported incidents in which the reporter associated fatigue with the occurrence. In comparing the fatigue reports with a control set, significant performance decrements were found to exist related to time-of-day, awareness and attention to duty, less significantly, final phases of flights. The majority of the fatigue incidents involved such unsafe events as altitude deviations, takeoffs and landing without clearance, and the like. Considerations of duty and sleep are the major factors in the reported fatigue conditions.

  17. Manipulating Carbohydrate Availability Between Twice-Daily Sessions of High-Intensity Interval Training Over 2 Weeks Improves Time-Trial Performance.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Andrew J; Myslik, Frank; MacInnis, Martin J; Percival, Michael E; Bishop, David; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2015-10-01

    Commencing some training sessions with reduced carbohydrate (CHO) availability has been shown to enhance skeletal muscle adaptations, but the effect on exercise performance is less clear. We examined whether restricting CHO intake between twice daily sessions of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) augments improvements in exercise performance and mitochondrial content. Eighteen active but not highly trained subjects (peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] = 44 ± 9 ml/kg/min), matched for age, sex, and fitness, were randomly allocated to two groups. On each of 6 days over 2 weeks, subjects completed two training sessions, each consisting of 5 × 4-min cycling intervals (60% of peak power), interspersed by 2 min of recovery. Subjects ingested either 195 g of CHO (HI-HI group: ~2.3 g/kg) or 17 g of CHO (HI-LO group: ~0.3 g/kg) during the 3-hr period between sessions. The training-induced improvement in 250-kJ time trial performance was greater (p = .02) in the HI-LO group (211 ± 66 W to 244 ± 75 W) compared with the HI-HI group (203 ± 53 W to 219 ± 60 W); however, the increases in mitochondrial content was similar between groups, as reflected by similar increases in citrate synthase maximal activity, citrate synthase protein content and cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV protein content (p > .05 for interaction terms). This is the first study to show that a short-term "train low, compete high" intervention can improve whole-body exercise capacity. Further research is needed to determine whether this type of manipulation can also enhance performance in highly-trained subjects. PMID:25811132

  18. Sex-specific effects of daily exposure to sucrose on spatial memory performance in male and female rats, and implications for estrous cycle stage.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Kirsten N; Morris, Margaret J; Westbrook, R Fred; Reichelt, Amy C

    2016-08-01

    Excessive consumption of sugar sweetened drinks is proposed to produce functional changes in the hippocampus, leading to perturbations in learning and memory. In this study we examined the impact of 2h daily access to 10% sucrose (or no sucrose in controls) on recognition memory tasks in young male and female rats. In Experiment 1 we tested rats on memory tasks reliant on the hippocampus (place recognition), perirhinal cortex (object recognition), and a combination of hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and perirhinal cortex (object-in-place memory). Exposure to sucrose for 2h a day for 14days prior to behavioral testing did not affect object recognition, but impaired spatial memory to an extent in both male and female rats. Male rats exposed to sucrose were impaired at both place recognition and object-in-place recognition, however female rats showed no impairment in object-in-place performance. Plasticity within the hippocampus is known to increase during the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle and is related to higher levels of circulating estrogens. In Experiment 2 we tested place recognition and object-in-place memory in 10% sucrose exposed or non-exposed control female rats both during the metestrus (low estrogen) and proestrus (high estrogen) phases of their cycle on place recognition and object-in-place memory. Both sucrose exposed and control female rats were able to perform place object-in-place recognition correctly during metestrus and proestrus, however sucrose exposed rats were only able to perform place recognition correctly during proestrus. This indicates that when hippocampal function is compromised, endogenous estrogens may boost memory performance in females, and that males may be at more risk of high sugar diet induced cognitive deficits. PMID:26828038

  19. Performance of STICS model to predict rainfed corn evapotranspiration and biomass evaluated for 6 years between 1995 and 2006 using daily aggregated eddy covariance fluxes and ancillary measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattey, Elizabeth; Jégo, Guillaume; Bourgeois, Gaétan

    2010-05-01

    Verifying the performance of process-based crop growth models to predict evapotranspiration and crop biomass is a key component of the adaptation of agricultural crop production to climate variations. STICS, developed by INRA, was part of the models selected by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada to be implemented for environmental assessment studies on climate variations, because of its built-in ability to assimilate biophysical descriptors such as LAI derived from satellite imagery and its open architecture. The model prediction of shoot biomass was calibrated using destructive biomass measurements over one season, by adjusting six cultivar parameters and three generic plant parameters to define two grain corn cultivars adapted to the 1000-km long Mixedwood Plains ecozone. Its performance was then evaluated using a database of 40 years-sites of corn destructive biomass and yield. In this study we evaluate the temporal response of STICS evapotranspiration and biomass accumulation predictions against estimates using daily aggregated eddy covariance fluxes. The flux tower was located in an experimental farm south of Ottawa and measurements carried out over corn fields in 1995, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002 and 2006. Daytime and nighttime fluxes were QC/QA and gap-filled separately. Soil respiration was partitioned to calculate the corn net daily CO2 uptake, which was converted into dry biomass. Out of the six growing seasons, three (1995, 1998, 2002) had water stress periods during corn grain filling. Year 2000 was cool and wet, while 1996 had heat and rainfall distributed evenly over the season and 2006 had a wet spring. STICS can predict evapotranspiration using either crop coefficients, when wind speed and air moisture are not available, or resistance. The first approach provided higher prediction for all the years than the resistance approach and the flux measurements. The dynamic of evapotranspiration prediction of STICS was very good for the growing seasons without

  20. Daily chocolate consumption is inversely associated with insulin resistance and liver enzymes in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    PubMed

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Stranges, Saverio

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the association of chocolate consumption with insulin resistance and serum liver enzymes in a national sample of adults in Luxembourg. A random sample of 1153 individuals, aged 18-69 years, was recruited to participate in the cross-sectional Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study. Chocolate consumption (g/d) was obtained from a semi-quantitative FFQ. Blood glucose and insulin levels were used for the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Hepatic biomarkers such as serum γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GT), serum aspartate transaminase and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) (mg/l) were assessed using standard laboratory assays. Chocolate consumers (81·8 %) were more likely to be younger, physically active, affluent people with higher education levels and fewer chronic co-morbidities. After excluding subjects taking antidiabetic medications, higher chocolate consumption was associated with lower HOMA-IR (β=-0·16, P=0·004), serum insulin levels (β=-0·16, P=0·003) and γ-GT (β=-0·12, P=0·009) and ALT (β=-0·09, P=0·004), after adjustment for age, sex, education, lifestyle and dietary confounding factors, including intakes of fruits and vegetables, alcohol, polyphenol-rich coffee and tea. This study reports an independent inverse relationship between daily chocolate consumption and levels of insulin, HOMA-IR and liver enzymes in adults, suggesting that chocolate consumption may improve liver enzymes and protect against insulin resistance, a well-established risk factor for cardiometabolic disorders. Further observational prospective research and well-designed randomised-controlled studies are needed to confirm this cross-sectional relationship and to comprehend the role and mechanisms that different types of chocolate may play in insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders. PMID:26983749

  1. Effects of daily milk supplementation on improving the physical and mental function as well as school performance among children: results from a school feeding program

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Khadijeh; Djazayery, Abolghasem; Habibi, Mohsen Ibrahim; Heidari, Homa; Dorosti-Motlagh, Ahmad Reza; Pourshahriari, Mahsima; Azadbakht, Leila

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: School feeding programs are important interventions for improving the nutritional status of students. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of milk supplementation on physical, mental and school performance of students. METHODS: This case-control population-based intervention was conducted on 469 students from 4 schools in a medium socio-economic status region in Tehran. The schools were chosen by Iranian ministry of education and training and they were allocated in case and control groups randomly. All the students in the first to third classes in the intervention schools were daily consumed sterilized and homogenized milk for three months (250 ml each). Anthropometric measurements were done according to the standard methods. For evaluating the mental function, the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (verbal, non-verbal, total Intelligent Quotient) were conducted on students. School performance was assessed by grade-point averages of each student. RESULTS: The weight of children was significantly different between control and intervention group at the end of the study among girls (23.0 ± 3.8 vs. 23.8 ± 4.3 kg; p < 0.05). Psychological tests’ scores were significantly different between the control and the intervention groups (p < 0.05) at the end of the trial among boys. The grade-point average was significantly different at the end of the trial between the intervention and the control group among girls (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: School feeding programs focus on milk supplementation had beneficial effects on the physical function and school performances specifically among girls in Iran. PMID:22091261

  2. Effect of daily feed intake in laying period on laying performance, egg quality and egg composition of genetically fat and lean lines of chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Xu, L M; Shan, A S; Hu, J W; Zhang, Y Y; Li, Y H

    2011-04-01

    1. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feed intake on laying performance, egg quality and egg composition in a Fat line and a Lean line during the laying period (34 to 54 weeks of age). 2. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial design with two dietary intake levels (nutrition recommendation and 75% of recommendation) and two broiler genotypes (Fat line and Lean line). Hens (384 of each line) were randomly divided at 23 weeks of age into 4 treatments, with each treatment represented by 12 replicates of 16 birds each. The experiment started when the rate of lay reached 5% and continued until 54 weeks of age. 3. The results indicated that there was a significant interaction between daily feed intake and genotype on egg production, egg weight, percentage yolk, yolk/albumen ratio and yolk cholesterol content. Fat line hens produced significantly more eggs and had a lower incidence of cracked eggs than the Lean line hens. The reduction in feed intake decreased egg weight and increased egg production, egg-shape index and cholesterol content of yolk significantly. PMID:21491238

  3. Performance of defect-tolerant set-associative cache memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenzel, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The increased use of on-chip cache memories has led researchers to investigate their performance in the presence of manufacturing defects. Several techniques for yield improvement are discussed and results are presented which indicate that set-associativity may be used to provide defect tolerance as well as improve the cache performance. Tradeoffs between several cache organizations and replacement strategies are investigated and it is shown that token-based replacement may be a suitable alternative to the widely-used LRU strategy.

  4. Predictors of Successful Clinical Performance in Associate Degree Nursing Students.

    PubMed

    Rice, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore self-efficacy and emotional intelligence (EI) as predictors for successful clinical performance in nursing students. Students (n = 56) from 5 associate degree in nursing (ADN) schools in 2 Northeastern states participated in the study. Findings demonstrated significant relationships among EI, self-efficacy, and student-rated clinical competence. The findings from this study support the importance of fostering clinical self-efficacy and building EI abilities in ADN students. PMID:25628244

  5. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95

  6. "My legs affect me a lot. … I can no longer walk to the forest to fetch firewood": challenges related to health and the performance of daily tasks for older women in a high HIV context.

    PubMed

    Schatz, Enid; Gilbert, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Compromised health negatively impacts older persons' ability to participate in expected social roles. Researchers have published little empirical work, however, to explore these issues in HIV endemic African settings. Qualitative interviews with 30 women, aged 60-plus, in rural South Africa, provide insight into the relationship between health and daily activities, with attention to the fulfillment of social roles. In this poor HIV endemic context, older women make connections between their compromised health and their (lack of) capacity to perform the daily tasks that they view as expected of them. By expanding the conceptualization of health to include the capacity to achieve the expectations and perform the tasks expected of one, we better understand how and why health and performance of daily activities are so intricately linked in the minds of respondents. This also provides a starting point for thinking about the social and structural support needed by older persons in these settings, especially as HIV erodes familial supports. PMID:24628607

  7. Dietary Habits Are Associated With School Performance in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several studies suggest that dietary habits are associated with poor academic performance. However, few studies have evaluated these relations after adjusting for numerous confounding factors. This study evaluated the frequency of various diet items (fruit, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk) and the regularity of meal times (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) all at once. A total of 359,264 participants aged from 12 to 18 years old were pooled from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) for the 2009 to 2013 period. Dietary habits over the last 7 days were surveyed, including the regularity of consuming breakfast, lunch and dinner and the frequency of eating fruits, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk. Physical activity, obesity, region of residence, subjective assessment of health, stress level, economic level, and parental education level were collected from all of the study participants. School performance was classified into 5 levels. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of dietary habits for school performance were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the effects of diet factors on school performance while considering the effects of other variables on both diet factors and school performance. Frequent intakes of breakfast (AOR = 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.20–2.48), fruits (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.62–1.86), vegetables (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.37–1.61), and milk (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.28–1.43) were related to high levels of school performance (each with P < 0.001). In contrast, soft drinks (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.38–0.46), instant noodles (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.55–0.70), fast food (AOR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72–0.96), and confectionary (AOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.80–0.93) were negatively

  8. Dietary Habits Are Associated With School Performance in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-03-01

    Several studies suggest that dietary habits are associated with poor academic performance. However, few studies have evaluated these relations after adjusting for numerous confounding factors. This study evaluated the frequency of various diet items (fruit, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk) and the regularity of meal times (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) all at once.A total of 359,264 participants aged from 12 to 18 years old were pooled from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) for the 2009 to 2013 period. Dietary habits over the last 7 days were surveyed, including the regularity of consuming breakfast, lunch and dinner and the frequency of eating fruits, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk. Physical activity, obesity, region of residence, subjective assessment of health, stress level, economic level, and parental education level were collected from all of the study participants. School performance was classified into 5 levels. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of dietary habits for school performance were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the effects of diet factors on school performance while considering the effects of other variables on both diet factors and school performance.Frequent intakes of breakfast (AOR = 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.20-2.48), fruits (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.62-1.86), vegetables (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.37-1.61), and milk (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.28-1.43) were related to high levels of school performance (each with P < 0.001). In contrast, soft drinks (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.38-0.46), instant noodles (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.55-0.70), fast food (AOR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72-0.96), and confectionary (AOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.80-0.93) were negatively associated with school

  9. Neurobehavioral performance in adolescents is inversely associated with traffic exposure.

    PubMed

    Kicinski, Michal; Vermeir, Griet; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Sioen, Isabelle; Bijnens, Esmée; Roels, Harry A; Baeyens, Willy; Viaene, Mineke K; Nawrot, Tim S

    2015-02-01

    On the basis of animal research and epidemiological studies in children and elderly there is a growing concern that traffic exposure may affect the brain. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between traffic exposure and neurobehavioral performance in adolescents. We examined 606 adolescents. To model the exposure, we constructed a traffic exposure factor based on a biomarker of benzene (urinary trans,trans-muconic acid) and the amount of contact with traffic preceding the neurobehavioral examination (using distance-weighted traffic density and time spent in traffic). We used a Bayesian structural equation model to investigate the association between traffic exposure and three neurobehavioral domains: sustained attention, short-term memory, and manual motor speed. A one standard deviation increase in traffic exposure was associated with a 0.26 standard deviation decrease in sustained attention (95% credible interval: -0.02 to -0.51), adjusting for gender, age, smoking, passive smoking, level of education of the mother, socioeconomic status, time of the day, and day of the week. The associations between traffic exposure and the other neurobehavioral domains studied had the same direction but did not reach the level of statistical significance. The results remained consistent in the sensitivity analysis excluding smokers and passive smokers. The inverse association between sustained attention and traffic exposure was independent of the blood lead level. Our study in adolescents supports the recent findings in children and elderly suggesting that traffic exposure adversely affects the neurobehavioral function. PMID:25461422

  10. Association between CSN3 and BCO2 gene polymorphisms and milk performance traits in the Czech Fleckvieh cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Bartonova, P; Vrtkova, I; Kaplanova, K; Urban, T

    2012-01-01

    Daily milk, fat and protein yield and amount of somatic cells in cow milk are very important factors that influence milk performance traits. An association between polymorphisms in the kappa casein (CSN3) gene and milk production, composition and technical properties has been previously reported; however, this type of information is not available for the bovine β-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2) gene--the BCO2 gene has relationship with milk color and meat fat color, which is dependent on content of β-carotene. We analyzed these two genes and their relationship with milk performance traits (daily milk, fat and protein yield, somatic cell count, SCC) in one cattle population, Czech Fleckvieh (N = 152). All animals were milked twice a day and kept in the same environmental conditions. The Fleckvieh is a typical Czech cattle breed farming for milk and meat production. It is the most common breed in the Czech Republic. DNA was isolated from milk or from hairs. Genes were analyzed using PCR-RFLP, frequencies of alleles and genotypes were calculated and association analysis was performed using a GLM Procedure in SAS. Statistical analysis established that the CSN3 gene has no statistically significant influence on daily milk, fat and protein yield and SCC. Compared to other references this result can be explained by, e.g., small group of animals and different cattle breed. The BCO2 gene (genotypes AA and AG) shows a statistically significant relationship (P = 0.05) with daily milk, protein yield and SCC. PMID:22614274

  11. Average Daily Blood Pressure, not Office Blood Pressure, is Associated with Progression of Cerebrovascular Disease and Cognitive Decline in Older People

    PubMed Central

    White, William B.; Wolfson, Leslie; Wakefield, Dorothy B.; Hall, Charles B.; Campbell, Patrick; Moscufo, Nicola; Schmidt, Julia; Kaplan, Richard F.; Pearlson, Godfrey; Guttmann, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    Background High blood pressure (BP) is a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease, including stroke. Little is known about the importance of BP on the progression of microvascular disease of the brain that has been associated with functional decline in mobility and cognition in older people. Methods and Results This was a prospective cohort of subjects 75-89 years to determine relations among vascular risk factors, white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHs), and functional status. 99 subjects were enrolled using a balanced 3×3 matrix stratified by age and mobility performance and 72 subjects completed all sets of baseline and follow-up studies at 2 years. Subjects were excluded if there were medications, systemic or neurologic diseases that could compromise mobility. Ambulatory and clinic BP monitoring, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), gait studies and neuropsychological testing were performed at baseline and after 24 months. Brain classification into normal white matter and T2-hyperintense WMH was performed using semi-automated segmentation. Quantitative measures of mobility and cognitive function were obtained longitudinally. Increased ambulatory systolic BP, but not clinic systolic BP, from baseline to 24 month follow-up was associated with increased WMH over that same period, as as well as measures of executive function/processing speed. Similar associations were observed for 24 hour BP, awake BP, and sleep BP, but not the surge between the sleep and awake time at the 24 month time point. Conclusions These data demonstrate for the first time the importance of 24-hour systolic BP in the progression of brain WMH burden associated with impairment of cognitive function in older people. The 24-hour systolic BP may be a potential target for intervention in the elderly to reduce vascular disease of the brain and impairment of function. PMID:22105196

  12. The patient with daily headaches.

    PubMed

    Maizels, Morris

    2004-12-15

    The term "chronic daily headache" (CDH) describes a variety of headache types, of which chronic migraine is the most common. Daily headaches often are disabling and may be challenging to diagnose and treat. Medication overuse, or drug rebound headache, is the most treatable cause of refractory daily headache. A pathologic underlying cause should be considered in patients with recent-onset daily headache, a change from a previous headache pattern, or associated neurologic or systemic symptoms. Treatment of CDH focuses on reduction of headache triggers and use of preventive medication, most commonly anti-depressants, antiepileptic drugs, and beta blockers. Medication overuse must be treated with discontinuation of symptomatic medicines, a transitional therapy, and long-term prophylaxis. Anxiety and depression are common in patients with CDH and should be identified and treated. Although the condition is challenging, appropriate treatment of patients with CDH can bring about significant improvement in the patient's quality-of-life. PMID:15617293

  13. ALDH2 is associated to alcohol dependence and is the major genetic determinant of "daily maximum drinks" in a GWAS study of an isolated rural Chinese sample.

    PubMed

    Quillen, Ellen E; Chen, Xiang-Ding; Almasy, Laura; Yang, Fang; He, Hao; Li, Xi; Wang, Xu-Yi; Liu, Tie-Qiao; Hao, Wei; Deng, Hong-Wen; Kranzler, Henry R; Gelernter, Joel

    2014-03-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is a moderately heritable phenotype with a small number of known risk genes mapped via linkage or candidate gene studies. We considered 313 males from among 595 members of documented, extended pedigrees in which AD segregates collected in Northern Hunan Province, China. A joint analysis of both males and females could not be performed as the difference in alcohol consumption variance was too large. Genome-wide association analyses were performed for approximately 300,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Significant associations found in the ALDH2 region for AD (minimum P = 4.73 × 10(-8)) and two AD-related phenotypes: flushing response (minimum P = 4.75 × 10(-26)) and maximum drinks in a 24-hr period (minimum P = 1.54 × 10(-16)). Association of previous candidate SNP, rs10774610 in CCDC63, was confirmed but resulted from linkage disequilibrium with ALDH2. ALDH2 is strongly associated with flushing response, AD, and maximum drinks in males, with nonsynonymous SNP rs671 explaining 29.2%, 7.9%, and 22.9% of phenotypic variation, respectively, in this sample. When rs671 was considered as a candidate SNP in females, it explained 23.6% of the variation in flushing response, but alcohol consumption rates were too low among females-despite familial enrichment for AD-for an adequate test of association for either AD or maximum drinks. These results support a mediating effect of aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency on alcohol consumption in males and a secondary, culturally mediated limitation on alcohol consumption by females that should be appropriately modeled in future studies of alcohol consumption in populations where this may be a factor. PMID:24277619

  14. Plasma Acylcarnitines Are Associated With Physical Performance in Elderly Men

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Helen; Sloane, Richard; Huffman, Kim M.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Thompson, Dana K.; Kraus, William E.; Bain, James R.; Stevens, Robert; Pieper, Carl F.; Taylor, Gregory A.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Cohen, Harvey J.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Metabolic profiling might provide insight into the biologic underpinnings of disability in older adults. Methods. A targeted mass spectrometry–based platform was used to identify and quantify 45 plasma acylcarnitines in 77 older men with a mean age of 79 years and average body mass index of 28.4 kg/m2. To control for type I error inherent in a test of multiple analytes, principal components analysis was employed to reduce the acylcarnitines from 45 separate metabolites, into a single “acylcarnitine factor.” We then tested for an association between this acylcarnitine factor and multiple indices of physical performance and self-reported function. Results. The acylcarnitine factor accounted for 40% of the total variance in 45 acylcarnitines. Of the metabolites analyzed, those that contributed most to our one-factor solution were even-numbered medium and long-chain species with side chains containing 10–18 carbons (factor loadings ≥0.70). Odd-numbered chain species, in contrast, had factor loadings 0.50 or less. Acylcarnitine factor scores were inversely related to physical performance as measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery total score, two of its three component scores (gait and chair stands Short Physical Performance Battery), and usual and maximal gait speeds (ρ = −0.324, −0.348, −0.309, −0.241, and −0.254, respectively; p < .05). Conclusions. Higher acylcarnitine factor scores were associated with lower levels of objectively measured physical performance in this group of older, largely overweight men. Metabolic profiles of rodents exhibiting lipid-induced mitochondrial dysfunction show a similar phenotypic predominance of medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines. PMID:21367961

  15. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  16. Succession planning in hospitals and the association with organizational performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Effective succession planning is the heart of leadership development and an essential business strategy because it enhances the ability to achieve orderly transitions and maintain productivity levels. The results of this study are consistent with previous studies that exhibit a positive association of previous years' performance with internal succession planning. The key to successful succession planning lies in building a solid foundation of profitability. Having successors ready to fill key vacancies helps improve operational condition and the bottom line, and thus, gives a competitive edge in the market. Preparing successors for leadership may determine which organizations simply survive and which thrive and lead their markets down the road. PMID:22479959

  17. Leptin genotype is associated with lactation performance and health of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Chebel, R C; Susca, F; Santos, J E P

    2008-07-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the associations among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the R4C locus in exon 2 of the leptin gene and the lactational performance and health of Holstein cows. Eight hundred and fourteen lactating dairy cows had their DNA sequenced in exon 2 of the leptin gene to determine the presence of SNP in the R4C locus. Cows were milked 3 times daily, and yields of milk and milk components were recorded monthly individually during the first 305 d of lactation. Cows were examined daily by herd personnel for diagnosis of health events such as retained fetal membranes, displacement of abomasum, lameness, and mastitis. Resulting genotypes were CC (34.6%), CT (48.2%), and TT (17.2%). Cows bearing the CT genotype had lower body condition (2.98 +/- 0.02) during the first 62 d in milk (DIM) than cows homozygous for the C (3.02 +/- 0.02) and T (3.04 +/- 0.03) alleles. Leptin genotype was associated with yields of milk and milk components, and cows homozygous for the C allele were less productive than those carrying the CT and TT genotypes. The 305-d yields of 3.5% fat-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk true protein were less in CC compared with CT cows by 258, 12, and 10.7 kg, respectively. Cows carrying the TT genotype had increased incidence of displacement of abomasum (4.3%), but genotype did not affect the incidence of retained fetal membranes, clinical and subclinical mastitis, or lameness. Risk of developing at least one clinical health disorder was influenced by leptin genotype, and cows carrying the CT genotype had the lowest risk for developing any disease (19.6%). Mating decisions to increase the frequency of cows heterozygous in the R4C locus may improve productivity and health. PMID:18565947

  18. Associations between age at first calving, rearing average daily weight gain, herd milk yield and dairy herd production, reproduction, and profitability.

    PubMed

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Kvapilík, J; Burdych, J; Crump, P

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of variable intensity in rearing dairy heifers on 33 commercial dairy herds, including 23,008 cows and 18,139 heifers, with age at first calving (AFC), average daily weight gain (ADG), and milk yield (MY) level on reproduction traits and profitability. Milk yield during the production period was analyzed relative to reproduction and economic parameters. Data were collected during a 1-yr period (2011). The farms were located in 12 regions in the Czech Republic. The results show that those herds with more intensive rearing periods had lower conception rates among heifers at first and overall services. The differences in those conception rates between the group with the greatest ADG (≥0.800 kg/d) and the group with the least ADG (≤0.699 kg/d) were approximately 10 percentage points in favor of the least ADG. All the evaluated reproduction traits differed between AFC groups. Conception at first and overall services (cows) was greatest in herds with AFC ≥800 d. The shortest days open (105 d) and calving interval (396 d) were found in the middle AFC group (799 to 750 d). The highest number of completed lactations (2.67) was observed in the group with latest AFC (≥800 d). The earliest AFC group (≤749 d) was characterized by the highest depreciation costs per cow at 8,275 Czech crowns (US$414), and the highest culling rate for cows of 41%. The most profitable rearing approach was reflected in the middle AFC (799 to 750 d) and middle ADG (0.799 to 0.700 kg) groups. The highest MY (≥8,500 kg) occurred with the earliest AFC of 780 d. Higher MY led to lower conception rates in cows, but the highest MY group also had the shortest days open (106 d) and a calving interval of 386 d. The same MY group had the highest cow depreciation costs, net profit, and profitability without subsidies of 2.67%. We conclude that achieving low AFC will not always be the most profitable approach, which will depend upon farm

  19. Organizational Characteristics Associated With Fundraising Performance of Nonprofit Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Cathleen Owens; Landry, Amy Yarbrough

    2015-01-01

    Fundraising has become increasingly important to nonprofit hospitals as access to capital has grown more difficult and reimbursement for services more complex. This study analyzes the variation in organizational characteristics and fundraising performance among nonprofit acute care hospitals in the United States to identify and measure critical factors related to one key fundraising performance indicator: public support. Results indicate that the presence of an endowment, along with its value, investments in fundraising, and the geographic location of the organization, account for approximately 46% of variance in public support among nonprofit hospitals. The use of a separate foundation for the fundraising operation is not necessarily associated with measures of fundraising success; however, a majority of hospitals do use a foundation, signaling a strategic choice that may be made for numerous reasons. The study results and limitations are discussed and recommendations are made for maximizing the effectiveness of the fundraising enterprise within nonprofit hospitals. Increasing awareness of challenges associated with fundraising success will enhance the strategic management of fundraising operations by hospital executives and board members. PMID:26529846

  20. Genome-wide association study identifies three novel genetic markers associated with elite endurance performance

    PubMed Central

    Kulemin, NA; Popov, DV; Naumov, VA; Akimov, EB; Bravy, YR; Egorova, ES; Galeeva, AA; Generozov, EV; Kostryukova, ES; Larin, AK; Mustafina, LJ; Ospanova, EA; Pavlenko, AV; Starnes, LM; Żmijewski, P; Alexeev, DG; Vinogradova, OL; Govorun, VM

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), aerobic performance and elite endurance athlete status in Russians. By using GWAS approach, we examined the association between 1,140,419 SNPs and relative maximal oxygen consumption rate (V.O2max) in 80 international-level Russian endurance athletes (46 males and 34 females). To validate obtained results, we further performed case-control studies by comparing the frequencies of the most significant SNPs (with P < 10−5-10−8) between 218 endurance athletes and opposite cohorts (192 Russian controls, 1367 European controls, and 230 Russian power athletes). Initially, six ‘endurance alleles’ were identified showing discrete associations with V.O2max both in males and females. Next, case-control studies resulted in remaining three SNPs (NFIA-AS2 rs1572312, TSHR rs7144481, RBFOX1 rs7191721) associated with endurance athlete status. The C allele of the most significant SNP, rs1572312, was associated with high values of V.O2max (males: P = 0.0051; females: P = 0.0005). Furthermore, the frequency of the rs1572312 C allele was significantly higher in elite endurance athletes (95.5%) in comparison with non-elite endurance athletes (89.8%, P = 0.0257), Russian (88.8%, P = 0.007) and European (90.6%, P = 0.0197) controls and power athletes (86.2%, P = 0.0005). The rs1572312 SNP is located on the nuclear factor I A antisense RNA 2 (NFIA-AS2) gene which is supposed to regulate the expression of the NFIA gene (encodes transcription factor involved in activation of erythropoiesis and repression of the granulopoiesis). Our data show that the NFIA-AS2 rs1572312, TSHR rs7144481 and RBFOX1 rs7191721 polymorphisms are associated with aerobic performance and elite endurance athlete status. PMID:25729143

  1. Genome-wide association study identifies three novel genetic markers associated with elite endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Ahmetov, Ii; Kulemin, Na; Popov, Dv; Naumov, Va; Akimov, Eb; Bravy, Yr; Egorova, Es; Galeeva, Aa; Generozov, Ev; Kostryukova, Es; Larin, Ak; Mustafina, Lj; Ospanova, Ea; Pavlenko, Av; Starnes, Lm; Żmijewski, P; Alexeev, Dg; Vinogradova, Ol; Govorun, Vm

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the association between multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), aerobic performance and elite endurance athlete status in Russians. By using GWAS approach, we examined the association between 1,140,419 SNPs and relative maximal oxygen consumption rate ([Formula: see text]O2max) in 80 international-level Russian endurance athletes (46 males and 34 females). To validate obtained results, we further performed case-control studies by comparing the frequencies of the most significant SNPs (with P < 10(-5)-10(-8)) between 218 endurance athletes and opposite cohorts (192 Russian controls, 1367 European controls, and 230 Russian power athletes). Initially, six 'endurance alleles' were identified showing discrete associations with [Formula: see text]O2max both in males and females. Next, case-control studies resulted in remaining three SNPs (NFIA-AS2 rs1572312, TSHR rs7144481, RBFOX1 rs7191721) associated with endurance athlete status. The C allele of the most significant SNP, rs1572312, was associated with high values of [Formula: see text]O2max (males: P = 0.0051; females: P = 0.0005). Furthermore, the frequency of the rs1572312 C allele was significantly higher in elite endurance athletes (95.5%) in comparison with non-elite endurance athletes (89.8%, P = 0.0257), Russian (88.8%, P = 0.007) and European (90.6%, P = 0.0197) controls and power athletes (86.2%, P = 0.0005). The rs1572312 SNP is located on the nuclear factor I A antisense RNA 2 (NFIA-AS2) gene which is supposed to regulate the expression of the NFIA gene (encodes transcription factor involved in activation of erythropoiesis and repression of the granulopoiesis). Our data show that the NFIA-AS2 rs1572312, TSHR rs7144481 and RBFOX1 rs7191721 polymorphisms are associated with aerobic performance and elite endurance athlete status. PMID:25729143

  2. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management. PMID:26484575

  3. Daily physical activity and type 2 diabetes: A review

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity improves glycemic control and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moderate to vigorous physical activity is recommended to manage T2D; however, patients with T2D can be physically weak, making it difficult to engage in the recommended levels of physical activity. Daily physical activity includes various activities performed during both occupational and leisure time such as walking, gardening, and housework that type 2 diabetic patients should be able to perform without considerable physical burden. This review focuses on the association between daily physical activity and T2D. Walking was the most common form of daily physical activity, with numerous studies demonstrating its beneficial effects on reducing the risk of T2D, CVD, and mortality. Walking for at least 30 min per day was shown to reduce the risk of T2D by approximately 50%. Additionally, walking was associated with a reduction in mortality. In contrast, evidence was extremely limited regarding other daily physical activities such as gardening and housework in patients with T2D. Recent studies have suggested daily physical activity, including non-exercise activity thermogenesis, to be favorably associated with metabolic risks and mortality. However, well-designed longitudinal studies are warranted to elucidate its effects on overall health. PMID:27350847

  4. Daily physical activity and type 2 diabetes: A review.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka

    2016-06-25

    Physical activity improves glycemic control and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moderate to vigorous physical activity is recommended to manage T2D; however, patients with T2D can be physically weak, making it difficult to engage in the recommended levels of physical activity. Daily physical activity includes various activities performed during both occupational and leisure time such as walking, gardening, and housework that type 2 diabetic patients should be able to perform without considerable physical burden. This review focuses on the association between daily physical activity and T2D. Walking was the most common form of daily physical activity, with numerous studies demonstrating its beneficial effects on reducing the risk of T2D, CVD, and mortality. Walking for at least 30 min per day was shown to reduce the risk of T2D by approximately 50%. Additionally, walking was associated with a reduction in mortality. In contrast, evidence was extremely limited regarding other daily physical activities such as gardening and housework in patients with T2D. Recent studies have suggested daily physical activity, including non-exercise activity thermogenesis, to be favorably associated with metabolic risks and mortality. However, well-designed longitudinal studies are warranted to elucidate its effects on overall health. PMID:27350847

  5. Daily Physical Activity Assessed by a Triaxial Accelerometer Is Beneficially Associated with Waist Circumference, Serum Triglycerides, and Insulin Resistance in Japanese Patients with Prediabetes or Untreated Early Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Moriyama, Sumie; Yoshikawa, Reo; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Sako, Akahito; Mishima, Shuichi; Kakei, Masafumi; Ezaki, Osamu; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the association between daily physical activity and metabolic risk factors in Japanese adults with prediabetes or untreated early type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods. Daily physical activity level was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. We assessed correlations between physical activity level and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting levels of plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, and insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results. A total of 80 patients were studied. After adjustment for age and body mass index, in all subjects, physical activity level was negatively associated with waist circumference (β = −0.124, P = 0.018) and fasting serum triglycerides (β = −0.239, P = 0.035), insulin (β = −0.224, P = 0.022). In men, physical activity level was negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (β = −0.351, P = 0.044), fasting plasma glucose (β = −0.369, P = 0.025) and insulin (β = −0.362, P = 0.012), and HOMA-IR (β = −0.371, P = 0.011). No significant associations were found between physical activity level and metabolic risk factors in women. Conclusion. Objectively measured daily physical activity is beneficially associated with waist circumference, serum triglycerides, and insulin resistance in individuals with prediabetes or untreated early T2D. (This trial is registered with UMIN000015774.) PMID:26064983

  6. Functional Imaging of Implicit Marijuana Associations during performance on an Implicit Association Test (IAT)

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Susan L.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Stacy, Alan W.; Xiao, Lin; He, Qinghua; Wong, Savio W.; Xue, Gui; Wiers, Reinout W.; Bechara, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the neural correlates of implicit associative memory processes (habit-based processes) through the imaging (fMRI) of a marijuana Implicit Association Test. Drug-related associative memory effects have been shown to consistently predict level of drug use. To observe differences in neural activity of associative memory effects, this study compared 13 heavy marijuana users and 15 non-using controls, ranging in age from 18 to 25, during performance of a marijuana Implicit Association Test (IAT). Group by condition interactions in the putamen, caudate, and right inferior frontal gyrus were observed. Relative to non-users, marijuana users showed greater bilateral activity in the dorsal striatum (caudate and putamen) during compatible trials focused on perceived positive outcomes of use. Alternatively, relative to the marijuana-using group, the non-users showed greater activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus during incompatible trials, which require more effortful processing of information. Further, relative to fixation, heavy users showed bilateral activity in the caudate and putamen, hippocampus and some frontal regions during compatible trials and no significant activity during incompatible trials. The non-using group showed greater activity in frontal regions during incompatible trials relative to fixation and no significant activity during compatible trials. These findings are consistent with a dual process framework of appetitive behaviors proposing that (1) implicit associations underlying habit are mediated through neural circuitry dependent on the striatum, and (2) deliberative/controlled behaviors are mediated through circuitry more dependent on the prefrontal cortex. PMID:24029699

  7. Impact of minimum daily dissolved oxygen concentration on performance of hybrid female channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x male blue catfish I. furcatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid Catfish (female Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus X male Blue Catfish I. furcatus) were reared during two years as single-batch crops under two different dissolved oxygen (DO) regimes each year; a high-DO (control) treatment in which the minimum daily DO was maintained above 3.8 ppm during ...

  8. The Effect of Voice Ambulatory Biofeedback on the Daily Performance and Retention of a Modified Vocal Motor Behavior in Participants with Normal Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Ambulatory biofeedback has potential to improve carryover of newly established vocal motor behaviors into daily life outside of the clinic and warrants systematic research that is lacking in the literature. This proof-of-concept study was designed to establish an empirical basis for future work in this area by formally assessing whether…

  9. Intraindividual Coupling of Daily Stress and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Sliwinski, Martin J.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Hofer, Scott M.; Stawski, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Most psychological theories predict associations among processes that transpire within individuals. However, these theories are often tested by examining relationships at the between-persons (BP) rather than the within-persons (WP) level. The authors examined the WP and BP relationships between daily stress and daily variability in cognitive performance. Daily stress and cognitive performance were assessed on 6 occasions in 108 older adults and 68 young adults. WP variability in stress predicted WP variability in response times (RTs) on a 2-back working memory task in both younger and older adults. That is, RTs were slower on high-stress days compared with low-stress days. There was evidence of an amplified WP stress effect in the older adults on a serial attention task. There was no evidence of stress effects on simple versions of these tasks that placed minimal demands on working memory. These results are consistent with theories that postulate that stress-related cognitive interference competes for attentional resources. PMID:16953716

  10. Cerebral Correlates of Automatic Associations Towards Performance Enhancing Substances

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Sebastian; Wolff, Wanja

    2015-01-01

    The direct assessment of explicit attitudes toward performance enhancing substances, for example Neuroenhancement or doping in sports, can be affected by social desirability biases and cheating attempts. According to Dual Process Theories of cognition, indirect measures like the Implicit Association Test (IAT) measure automatic associations toward a topic (as opposed to explicit attitudes measured by self-report measures). Such automatic associations are thought to occur rapidly and to evade voluntary control. However, whether or not such indirect tests actually reflect automatic associations is difficult to validate. Electroencephalography (EEG) has a superior time resolution which can differentiate between highly automatic compared to more elaborate processing stages. We therefore used EEG to examine on which processing stages cortical differences between negative or positive attitudes to doping occur, and whether or not these differences can be related to BIAT scores. We tested 42 university students (31 females, 24.43 ± 3.17 years old), who were requested to complete a brief doping IAT (BIAT) on attitudes toward doping. Cerebral activity during doping BIAT completion was assessed using high-density EEG. Behaviorally, participants D-scores exhibited negative attitudes toward doping, represented by faster reaction times in the doping + dislike pairing task. Event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed earliest effects between 200 and 300 ms. Here, a relatively larger occipital positivity was found for the doping + dislike pairing task. Further, in the LPP time range between 400 and 600 ms a larger late positive potential was found for the doping + dislike pairing task over central regions. These LPP amplitude differences were successfully predicting participants' BIAT D-scores. Results indicate that event-related potentials differentiate between positive and negative doping attitudes at stages of mid-latency. However, it seems that IAT scores can be predicted only

  11. Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Goedert, James J; Sampson, Joshua N; Moore, Steven C; Xiao, Qian; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Hayes, Richard B; Ahn, Jiyoung; Shi, Jianxin; Sinha, Rashmi

    2014-09-01

    Metabolomic analysis of feces may provide insights on colorectal cancer (CRC) if assay performance is satisfactory. In lyophilized feces from 48 CRC cases, 102 matched controls, and 48 masked quality control specimens, 1043 small molecules were detected with a commercial platform. Assay reproducibility was good for 527 metabolites [technical intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) >0.7 in quality control specimens], but reproducibility in 6-month paired specimens was lower for the majority of metabolites (within-subject ICC ≤0.5). In the CRC cases and controls, significant differences (false discovery rate ≤0.10) were found for 41 of 1043 fecal metabolites. Direct cancer association was found with three fecal heme-related molecules [covariate-adjusted 90th versus 10th percentile odds ratio (OR) = 17-345], 18 peptides/amino acids (OR = 3-14), palmitoyl-sphingomyelin (OR = 14), mandelate (OR = 3) and p-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (OR = 4). Conversely, cancer association was inverse with acetaminophen metabolites (OR <0.1), tocopherols (OR = 0.3), sitostanol (OR = 0.2), 3-dehydrocarnitine (OR = 0.4), pterin (OR = 0.3), conjugated-linoleate-18-2N7 (OR = 0.2), N-2-furoyl-glycine (OR = 0.3) and p-aminobenzoate (PABA, OR = 0.2). Correlations suggested an independent role for palmitoyl-sphingomyelin and a central role for PABA (which was stable over 6 months, within-subject ICC 0.67) modulated by p-hydroxy-benzaldehyde. Power calculations based on ICCs indicate that only 45% of metabolites with a true relative risk 5.0 would be found in prospectively collected, prediagnostic specimens from 500 cases and 500 controls. Thus, because fecal metabolites vary over time, very large studies will be needed to reliably detect associations of many metabolites that potentially contribute to CRC. PMID:25037050

  12. Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goedert, James J.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Moore, Steven C.; Xiao, Qian; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Hayes, Richard B.; Ahn, Jiyoung; Shi, Jianxin; Sinha, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic analysis of feces may provide insights on colorectal cancer (CRC) if assay performance is satisfactory. In lyophilized feces from 48 CRC cases, 102 matched controls, and 48 masked quality control specimens, 1043 small molecules were detected with a commercial platform. Assay reproducibility was good for 527 metabolites [technical intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) >0.7 in quality control specimens], but reproducibility in 6-month paired specimens was lower for the majority of metabolites (within-subject ICC ≤0.5). In the CRC cases and controls, significant differences (false discovery rate ≤0.10) were found for 41 of 1043 fecal metabolites. Direct cancer association was found with three fecal heme-related molecules [covariate-adjusted 90th versus 10th percentile odds ratio (OR) = 17–345], 18 peptides/amino acids (OR = 3–14), palmitoyl-sphingomyelin (OR = 14), mandelate (OR = 3) and p-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (OR = 4). Conversely, cancer association was inverse with acetaminophen metabolites (OR <0.1), tocopherols (OR = 0.3), sitostanol (OR = 0.2), 3-dehydrocarnitine (OR = 0.4), pterin (OR = 0.3), conjugated-linoleate-18-2N7 (OR = 0.2), N-2-furoyl-glycine (OR = 0.3) and p-aminobenzoate (PABA, OR = 0.2). Correlations suggested an independent role for palmitoyl-sphingomyelin and a central role for PABA (which was stable over 6 months, within-subject ICC 0.67) modulated by p-hydroxy-benzaldehyde. Power calculations based on ICCs indicate that only 45% of metabolites with a true relative risk 5.0 would be found in prospectively collected, prediagnostic specimens from 500 cases and 500 controls. Thus, because fecal metabolites vary over time, very large studies will be needed to reliably detect associations of many metabolites that potentially contribute to CRC. PMID:25037050

  13. Functional Status Assessment of COPD Based on Ability to Perform Daily Living Activities: A Systematic Review of Paper and Pencil Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Monjazebi, Fateme; Dalvandi, Asghar; Ebadi, Abbas; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Rahgozar, Mahdi; Richter, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Context: Activity of daily living (ADL) is an important predictor of mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Increasing ADL is important in patients with COPD and assessment of ADL is one of the best ways to evaluate the status of COPD patients. Objectives: The objective of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the psychometric properties of paper and pencil instruments measuring ADL in patients with COPD. Data Sources: English papers published from 1980 to 2014 regarding ADL in patients with COPD were searched in Web of Science, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane, PubMed, ProQuest, and CINAHL databases using the following keywords: “COPD”, “ADL”, “activities of daily living”, “daily activities”, “instrument”, “questionnaire”, “paper-and-pencil instruments”, and “measure”. Following the Internet search, manual search was also done to find article references. Study Selection: A total of 186 articles were found. Of those, 31 met the inclusion criteria. Full texts of articles meeting the inclusion criteria were studied. Consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments”(COSMIN) were used to assess the quality of the studies. Data Extraction: Data extraction form based on research aims developed by researchers and psychometric experts, with 17 questions was used. Results: In these articles, 14 pen and paper instruments were identified for examining ADL in patients with COPD; of which, 4 dealt directly with ADL while 9 assessed other criteria i.e. dyspnea as ADL indicator. The majority of instruments only dealt with two main dimensions of ADL: Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), and did not consider Advanced Activities of Daily Living (AADL), which is influenced by cultural and motivational factors. Conclusion: Despite several ADL instruments identified, complete psychometric processes have only been done in

  14. Cow characteristics and their association with production performance with different dry period lengths.

    PubMed

    Steeneveld, W; van Knegsel, A T M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B; Vernooij, J C M; Hogeveen, H

    2014-01-01

    Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) has been proposed as a management strategy to improve energy balance of dairy cows in early lactation. Both shortening and complete omission of the DP reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation compared with a conventional DP length of 60d. Some cows have less milk production loss than other cows after applying no DP or a short DP. The aim of this study is to evaluate which cow characteristics are associated with the amount of milk production losses following no DP or a short DP (30d). Daily production information from the lactation before and after the DP was available from 161 dairy cows (54 cows with a 0-d DP, 51 cows with a 30-d DP, and 56 cows with a 60-d DP) from a research herd. Daily production (milk, fat, and protein) until 305d in milk was estimated for all cows. Subsequently, total fat- and protein-corrected milk yield from 60d before the expected calving date until 305d in the following lactation (FPCMtotal) was estimated. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate which cow characteristics were associated with limited or no production losses following no DP or a short DP, compared with a conventional DP length of 60d. Average FPCMtotal was 9,341, 10,499, and 10,795kg for cows with no DP, a 30-d DP, and a 60-d DP, respectively. The cow characteristics parity, daily milk production at 12wk before the expected calving date, and reduction in daily milk production between 16 and 12wk before the expected calving date were associated with production loss due to a short (30d) or no DP. Compared with 60d DP, multiparous cows had less production loss (987kg) following no DP than primiparous cows (2,132kg). The difference in FPCMtotal between the 3DP groups was largest for cows with a low milk production (e.g., 10kg/d) at 12wk before the expected calving date. The greater the reduction in milk production between 16 and 12wk before the expected calving date, the larger the difference in FPCMtotal between

  15. Prediction of daily modes of South Asian monsoon variability and its association with Indian and Pacific Ocean SST in the NCEP CFS V2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahi, Namendra Kumar; Rai, Shailendra; Pandey, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    The prediction capability of daily modes of variability for South Asian monsoon from climate forecast system version 2 of national centers for environmental prediction with respect to observed precipitation has been assessed. The space-time structure of the daily modes for summer monsoon rainfall has been identified by using multi-channel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA). The MSSA is applied on daily anomalies of rainfall data over the South Asian monsoon region (40°E-160°E, 30°S-35°N) for the period of 2001-2013 with a lag window of 61 days for June-July-August-September season. The broad spectrum around 45 and 50 days was obtained from the observed and model data during the time domain of our study. The space-time structure of the modes obtained from the model shows good resemblance with respect to the observation. The observed northeastward propagation of oscillatory mode is well simulated by the model. The significant improvement in the space-time structure, period of oscillation, and propagation of oscillatory modes was found in the model. The observed connectivity of oscillatory and persisting modes with the sea surface temperature of Indian and Pacific Ocean has also been investigated and it was found that the model is able to predict it reasonably well.

  16. Performance Benefits Associated with Context-Dependent Arm Pointing Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidler, R. D.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stelmach, George E.

    2000-01-01

    Our previous work has demonstrated that head orientation can be used as a contextual cue to switch between mUltiple adaptive states. Subjects were assigned to one of three groups: the head orientation group tilted the head towards the right shoulder when drawing under a 0.5 gain of display and towards the left shoulder when drawing under a 1.5 gain of display; the target orientation group had the home & target positions rotated counterclockwise when drawing under the 0.5 gain and clockwise for the l.5 gain; the arm posture group changed the elbow angle of the arm they were not drawing with from full flexion to full extension with 0.5 and l.5 gain display changes. The head orientation cue was effectively associated with the multiple gains, in comparison to the control conditions. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether this context-dependent adaptation results in any savings in terms of performance measures such as movement duration and movement smoothness when subjects switch between multiple adaptive states. Subjects in the head adaptation group demonstrated reduced movement duration and increased movement smoothness (measured via normalized j erk scores) in comparison to the two control groups when switching between the 0.5 and 1.5 gain. of display. This work has demonstrated not only that subjects can acquire context-dependent adaptation, but also that it results in a significant savings of performance upon transfer between adaptive states

  17. The relationships between age, associative memory performance, and the neural correlates of successful associative memory encoding.

    PubMed

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Mattson, Julia T; Wang, Tracy H; Donley, Brian E; Rugg, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, subsequent memory effects (greater activity for later remembered than later forgotten study items) predictive of associative encoding were compared across samples of young, middle-aged, and older adults (total N = 136). During scanning, participants studied visually presented word pairs. In a later test phase, they discriminated between studied pairs, "rearranged" pairs (items studied on different trials), and new pairs. Subsequent memory effects were identified by contrasting activity elicited by study pairs that went on to be correctly judged intact or incorrectly judged rearranged. Effects in the hippocampus were age-invariant and positively correlated across participants with associative memory performance. Subsequent memory effects in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were greater in the older than the young group. In older participants only, both left and, in contrast to prior reports, right IFG subsequent memory effects correlated positively with memory performance. We suggest that the IFG is especially vulnerable to age-related decline in functional integrity and that the relationship between encoding-related activity in right IFG and memory performance depends on the experimental context. PMID:27143433

  18. Managing Daily Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... To Cure MD PPMD Merchandise Host an Event Create a Personal Page My Donor Portfolio™ Sponsor Programs Other Ways to Help About Us Mission Financials History Staff & Board Media Awards Partners Contact Us Home / Care for Duchenne / Managing Daily Life Print Email Managing Daily Life Environmental ...

  19. Chronic daily headaches

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Fayyaz; Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Khalil, Modar

    2012-01-01

    Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches. PMID:23024563

  20. Resistor array performance errors associated with extended targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisko, R. Bryan; Marlow, Steven A.; Huber, August J.; Thompson, Rhoe A.

    2006-05-01

    In recent hardware-in-the-loop tests conducted in a cryogenic chamber, a dual band sensor observed radiometric anomalies for extended targets. In order to understand the radiometric errors associated with the infrared projection arrays, systematic measurements were performed at both cryogenic and ambient temperatures. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) engineers have previously investigated an artifact observed in these arrays called "busbar robbing," but these observations were of square blocks of emitters and did not characterize radiometric accuracy of extended targets in a dynamic engagement scenario. It was discovered that when numerous emitters in a contiguous pattern are turned on, rather than scattered over the array, the "busbar robbing" effect causes the actual emitter outputs to be different from what you measure if you drive them to the same level with fewer pixels. When the emitters that are driven have some "aspect ratio" or elongated shape, then the effect is dependent on how this pattern is aligned with the emitter axes. The results of these experiments address the radiometric error that can be expected from the resistor array projectors for end game scenarios when a target becomes extended at both ambient and cryogenic temperatures.

  1. The impact of 9/11 on the association of ambient air pollution with daily respiratory hospital admissions in a Canada-US border city, Windsor, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Luginaah, Isaac; Fung, Karen Y; Gorey, Kevin M; Khan, Shahedul

    2006-08-01

    The 11 September 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks in the United States resulted in long lines of trucks at the border crossing in Windsor, Ontario. Public concern about the potential impact of these trucks spewing toxic pollutants into the air drew attention to the need to investigate the impact of 9/11 on the daily levels of air pollutants and respiratory hospitalization. In this study, significant increases in respiratory admissions were found one month and 6 months post-9/11. Mean daily respiratory admission was also significantly higher than the same period one year earlier and one year later. SO(2) and CO concentration levels were found to be generally higher after 9/11 than one year before and immediately before. Relative risk estimates of respiratory hospitalization after 9/11 showed that SO(2) (RR̂ = 1.15 for two-day, RR̂ = 1.18 for three-day, and RR̂ = 1.21 for five-day averages), NO(2) (RR̂ = 1.10 for current day), and COH (RR̂ = 1.09 for current day, RR̂ = 1.10 for two-day average) had the most significant effects after 9/11. These results suggest the need for more stringent regulatory efforts in air quality in the region in response to the changing transportation dynamics at this Canada-US border crossing. PMID:21234298

  2. Bath Breakfast Project (BBP) - Examining the role of extended daily fasting in human energy balance and associated health outcomes: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN31521726

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Current guidance regarding the role of daily breakfast in human health is largely grounded in cross-sectional observations. However, the causal nature of these relationships has not been fully explored and what limited information is emerging from controlled laboratory-based experiments appears inconsistent with much existing data. Further progress in our understanding therefore requires a direct examination of how daily breakfast impacts human health under free-living conditions. Methods/Design The Bath Breakfast Project (BBP) is a randomised controlled trial comparing the effects of daily breakfast consumption relative to extended fasting on energy balance and human health. Approximately 70 men and women will undergo extensive laboratory-based assessments of their acute metabolic responses under fasted and post-prandial conditions, to include: resting metabolic rate, substrate oxidation, dietary-induced thermogenesis and systemic concentrations of key metabolites/hormones. Physiological and psychological indices of appetite will also be monitored both over the first few hours of the day (i.e. whether fed or fasted) and also following a standardised test lunch used to assess voluntary energy intake under controlled conditions. Baseline measurements of participants' anthropometric characteristics (e.g. DEXA) will be recorded prior to intervention, along with an oral glucose tolerance test and acquisition of adipose tissue samples to determine expression of key genes and estimates of tissue-specific insulin action. Participants will then be randomly assigned either to a group prescribed an energy intake of ≥3000 kJ before 1100 each day or a group to extend their overnight fast by abstaining from ingestion of energy-providing nutrients until 1200 each day, with all laboratory-based measurements followed-up 6 weeks later. Free-living assessments of energy intake (via direct weighed food diaries) and energy expenditure (via combined heart

  3. Twice daily fludarabine/Ara-C associated to idarubicin, G-CSF and ATRA is an effective salvage regimen in non-promyelocytic acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Montillo, Marco; Ricci, Francesca; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Cafro, Anna Maria; Nosari, Anna Maria; Nichelatti, Michele; Marbello, Laura; Morra, Enrica

    2009-08-01

    Preclinical data suggest that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) synergizing with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), can improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Fludarabine 15 mg/m(2) is the minimum dose able to optimize intensification with fludarabine-arabinosylcytosine regimen. In this study 52 patients with relapsed/refractory AML obtained a complete remission (CR) rate of 69.2% after FLAIRG regimen (Fludarabine and arabinosylcytosine twice daily, idarubicin, G-CSF, ATRA). This schedule resulted effective and tolerable enabling 53% of the responding patients to receive transplant procedure. FLAIRG regimen could be proposed as a "bridge" to transplant treatment in this poor risk setting. PMID:19187960

  4. Multiple daily fractionation (MDF) radiotherapy in association with hyperthermia and/or misonidazole: experimental and clincial results. [4. 5 MeV photons

    SciTech Connect

    Arcangeli, G.; Barocas, A.; Mauro, F.; Nervi, C.; Spano. M.; Tabocchini, A.

    1980-06-01

    Several modalities involving a Multiple Daily Fractionation (MDF) course in combination with hyperthermia and/or the hypoxic sensitizer misonidazole were tested on a mouse tumor system and then applied, with the proper sequencing, to a group of patients with multiple neck node metastases from H and N cancers. Different lesions of the same patients underwent different modalities. The clinical results indicate the effectiveness, in respect to a historical series of patients treated with conventional fractionation, of either MDF alone, or MDF + hyperthermia, or MDF + misonidazole, or MDF + hyperthermia + misonidazole. The latter modality appears to be possibly the most effective at inducing a complete local tumor response lasting longer in time. The pharmacology of misonidazole was monitored in the patients to avoid undesired excessive drug plasma level. No neurological symptoms were observed. Oropharyngeal mucositis was observed only in patients treated with misonidazole and radiation through two cross-firing portals. The problem of selecting individual patients for a particular modality is discussed.

  5. Associations between aspects of pain and cognitive performance and the contribution of depressive symptoms in mid-life women: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Tomey, Kristin; Greendale, Gail A; Kravitz, Howard M; Bromberger, Joyce T; Burns, John W; Dugan, Sheila A; de Leon, Carlos F Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Pain has been associated with cognitive problems in pain patients. This study evaluated the extent to which experiences of pain are associated with cognitive performance in a community sample of mid-life women, and the contribution of depressive symptoms to this association. A cross-sectional analysis was used with data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Associations between aspects of pain and cognitive performance were evaluated using statistical models with and without depressive symptoms. The cognitive performance score was a composite of three cognitive tests, the Digit Span Backward Test, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test and the East Boston Memory Test. Greater pain experiences that interfered with daily work were independently associated with poorer cognitive performance, [β (SE) -0.074 (0.021); p value<0.01] and this association was partially explained by depressive symptoms [β (SE) -0.061 (0.022); p value<0.01 after adjusting for depressive symptoms]. Additionally, an independent association between a greater composite pain score and poorer cognitive performance was identified without adjusting for depressive symptoms, [β (SE) -0.002 (0.0009); p value<0.05] but was no longer significant after adjusting for depressive symptoms. Our results suggest that in mid-life women, greater pain is associated with poorer cognitive performance, and depressive symptoms play an important role in this association. Clinicians should be aware of these relationships when evaluating patients. PMID:25466300

  6. Leptin concentrations in finishing beef steers and heifers and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and body composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition measures of finishing beef steers and heifers and to determine if multiple sampling time points improve the associations of plasma leptin concentrations ...

  7. Drink Availability is Associated with Enhanced Examination Performance in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawson, Chris; Gardner, Mark R.; Doherty, Sarah; Martin, Laura; Soares, Rute; Edmonds, Caroline J.

    2013-01-01

    While dehydration has negative effects on memory and attention, few studies have investigated whether drinking water can enhance cognitive performance, and none have addressed this in a real-world setting. In this study we explored the potential benefits of the availability of water for undergraduates. The exam performance of students who brought…

  8. Associations of Physical Fitness and Academic Performance among Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dusen, Duncan P.; Kelder, Steven H.; Kohl, Harold W., III; Ranjit, Nalini; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Public schools provide opportunities for physical activity and fitness surveillance, but are evaluated and funded based on students' academic performance, not their physical fitness. Empirical research evaluating the connections between fitness and academic performance is needed to justify curriculum allocations to physical activity…

  9. Once-Daily Radiation Therapy for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Lindsay; Harmsen, William; Blanchard, Miran; Goetz, Matthew; Jakub, James; Mutter, Robert; Petersen, Ivy; Rooney, Jessica; Stauder, Michael; Yan, Elizabeth; Laack, Nadia

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive breast cancer variant treated with multimodality therapy. A variety of approaches intended to escalate the intensity and efficacy of radiation therapy have been reported, including twice-daily radiation therapy, dose escalation, and aggressive use of bolus. Herein, we examine our outcomes for patients treated with once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive bolus utilization, focusing on treatment technique. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with nonmetastatic IBC treated from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and predictors thereof were assessed. Results: Fifty-two women with IBC were identified, 49 (94%) of whom were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All underwent mastectomy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. Radiation was delivered in once-daily fractions of 1.8 to 2.25 Gy (median, 2 Gy). Patients were typically treated with daily 1-cm bolus throughout treatment, and 33 (63%) received a subsequent boost to the mastectomy scar. Five-year Kaplan Meier survival estimates for LRC, DFS, and OS were 81%, 56%, and 64%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence was associated with poorer OS (P<.001; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1). Extracapsular extension was associated with worse LRC (P=.02), DFS (P=.007), and OS (P=.002). Age greater than 50 years was associated with better DFS (P=.03). Pathologic complete response was associated with a trend toward improved LRC (P=.06). Conclusions: Once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive use of bolus for IBC results in outcomes consistent with previous reports using various intensified radiation therapy regimens. LRC remains a challenge despite modern systemic therapy. Extracapsular extension, age ≤50 years, and lack of complete response to chemotherapy appear to be associated with worse outcomes. Novel strategies are needed in IBC

  10. Association with meteo-climatological factors and daily emergency visits for renal colic and urinary calculi in Cuneo, Italy. A retrospective observational study, 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condemi, Vincenzo; Gestro, Massimo; Dozio, Elena; Tartaglino, Bruno; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Meco, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of nephrolithiasis is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Incidence and prevalence of kidney stones are affected by genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between various meteorological factors (independent variables) and the daily number of visits to the Emergency Department (ED of the S. Croce and Carle Hospital of Cuneo for renal colic (RC) and urinary stones (UC) as the dependent variable over the years 2007-2010. The Poisson generalized regression models (PGAMs) have been used in different progressive ways. The results of PGAMs (stage 1) adjusted for seasonal and calendar factors confirmed a significant correlation ( p < 0.03) with the thermal parameter. Evaluation of the dose-response effect [PGAMs combined with distributed lags nonlinear models (DLNMs)—stage 2], expressed in terms of relative risk (RR) and cumulative relative risk (RRC), indicated a relative significant effect up to 15 lag days of lag (RR > 1), with a first peak after 5 days (lag ranges 0-1, 0-3, and 0-5) and a second weak peak observed along the 5-15 lag range days. The estimated RR for females was significant, mainly in the second and fourth age group considered (19-44 and >65 years): RR for total ED visits 1.27, confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.46 (lag 0-5 days); RR 1.42, CI 1.01-2.01 (lag 0-10 days); and RR 1.35, CI 1.09-1.68 (lag 0-15 days). The research also indicated a moderate involvement of the thermal factor in the onset of RC caused by UC, exclusively in the female sex. Further studies will be necessary to confirm these results.