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1

Insolation data manual and direct normal solar radiation data manual  

SciTech Connect

The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24--25 years of data, generally from 1952--1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/m{sup 2} per day, Btu/ft{sup 2} per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global {bar K}{sub T} (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global {bar K}{sub T} is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

none,

1990-07-01

2

DAILY INSOLATION FORECASTING USING A MULTISTAGE NEURAL NETWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far a single-stage neural network has been proposed to forecast the insolation of the next day. The mean error of the forecast insolation by the single-stage neural network is about 30%. In this paper, a multi-stage neural network is developed for further reduction of the mean error. A first-stage neural network forecasts the average atmospheric pressure of the next

Y KEMMOKU; S ORITA; S NAKAGAWA; T SAKAKIBARA

1999-01-01

3

A calibrated, high-resolution goes satellite solar insolation product for a climatology of Florida evapotranspiration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimates of incoming solar radiation (insolation) from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite observations have been produced for the state of Florida over a 10-year period (1995-2004). These insolation estimates were developed into well-calibrated half-hourly and daily integrated solar insolation fields over the state at 2 km resolution, in addition to a 2-week running minimum surface albedo product. Model results of the daily integrated insolation were compared with ground-based pyranometers, and as a result, the entire dataset was calibrated. This calibration was accomplished through a three-step process: (1) comparison with ground-based pyranometer measurements on clear (noncloudy) reference days, (2) correcting for a bias related to cloudiness, and (3) deriving a monthly bias correction factor. Precalibration results indicated good model performance, with a station-averaged model error of 2.2 MJ m-2/day (13%). Calibration reduced errors to 1.7 MJ m -2/day (10%), and also removed temporal-related, seasonal-related, and satellite sensor-related biases. The calibrated insolation dataset will subsequently be used by state of Florida Water Management Districts to produce statewide, 2-km resolution maps of estimated daily reference and potential evapotranspiration for water management-related activities. ?? 2009 American Water Resources Association.

Paech, S.J.; Mecikalski, J.R.; Sumner, D.M.; Pathak, C.S.; Wu, Q.; Islam, S.; Sangoyomi, T.

2009-01-01

4

Predicting Daily Insolation with Hourly Cloud Height and Coverage.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation information is used in crop growth, boundary layer, entomological and plant pathological models, and in determining the potential use of active and passive solar energy systems. Yet solar radiation is among the least measured meteorological variables.A semi-physical model based on standard meteorological data was developed to estimate solar radiation received at the earth's surface. The radiation model includes the effects of Rayleigh scattering, absorption by water vapor and permanent gases, and absorption and scattering by aerosols and clouds. Cloud attenuation is accounted for by assigning transmission coefficients based on cloud height and amount. The cloud transmission coefficients for various heights and coverages were derived empirically from hourly observations of solar radiation in conjunction with corresponding cloud observations at West Lafayette, Indiana. The model was tested with independent data from West Lafayette and Indianapolis, Madison, WI, Omaha, NE, Columbia, MO, Nashville, TN, Seattle, WA, Los Angeles, CA, Phoenix, AZ, Lake Charles, LA, Miami, FL, and Sterling, VA. For each of these locations a 16% random sample of days was drawn within each of the 12 months in a year for testing the model. Excellent agreement between predicted and observed radiation values was obtained for all stations tested. Mean absolute errors ranged from 1.05 to 1.80 MJ m2 day1 and root-mean-square errors ranged from 1.31 to 2.32 MJ m2 day1. The model's performance judged by relative error was found to be independent of season and cloud amount for all locations tested.

Meyers, T. P.; Dale, R. F.

1983-04-01

5

Influence of topographic complexity on solar insolation estimates for the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, AZ  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rugged topography along the Colorado River in Glen and Grand Canyons, exemplifies features common to canyon-bound streams and rivers of the arid southwest. Physical relief influences regulated river systems, especially those that are altered, and have become partially reliant on aquatic primary production. We measured and modeled instantaneous solar flux in a topographically complex environment to determine where differences in daily, seasonal and annual solar insolation occurred in this river system. At a system-wide scale, topographic complexity generates a spatial and temporal mosaic of varying solar insolation. This solar variation is a predictable consequence of channel orientation, geomorphology, elevation angles and viewshed. Modeled estimates for clear conditions corresponded closely with observed measurements for both instantaneous photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD: ??mol m-2 s-1) and daily insolation levels (relative error 2.3%, CI ??0.45, S.D. 0.3, n = 29,813). Mean annual daily insolation levels system-wide were estimated to be 36 mol m-2 d -1 (17.5 S.D.), and seasonally varied on average from 13.4-57.4 mol m-2 d-1, for winter and summer, respectively. In comparison to identical areas lacking topographic effect (idealized plane), mean daily insolation levels were reduced by 22% during summer, and as much as 53% during winter. Depending on outlying topography, canyon bound regions having east-west (EW) orientations had higher seasonal variation, averaging from 8.1 to 61.4 mol m-2 d-1, for winter and summer, respectively. For EW orientations, 70% of mid-channel sites were obscured from direct incidence during part of the year; and of these sites, average diffuse light conditions persisted for 19.3% of the year (70.5 days), and extended upwards to 194 days. This predictive model has provided an initial quantitative step to estimate and determine the importance of autotrophic production for this ecosystem, as well as a broader application for other canyon systems. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Yard, M.D.; Bennett, G.E.; Mietz, S.N.; Coggins, L.G., Jr.; Stevens, L.E.; Hueftle, S.; Blinn, D.W.

2005-01-01

6

Handbook of solar energy data for south-facing surfaces in the United States. Volume I. An insolation, array shadowing, and reflector augmentation model  

SciTech Connect

This handbook provides estimates of average available solar insolation to fixed, flat-plate, south-facing collector surfaces at various array tilt angles at numerous sites in the US. This first volume contains average daily, total insolation estimates, by month, and annual totals for 235 locations. A model that estimates the direct, diffuse, and reflected components of total insolation on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis is presented. A shadow loss model and a reflector augmentation model providing estimates of the losses and gains associated with various fixed array geometries are also described. These models can be used with the insolation model provided or with other recorded data. A FORTRAN computer program with user's guide is presented. The program can be used to generate additional handbook values or to examine the effects of array shadowing and fixed reflector augmentation effects on a daily, monthly, or annual basis. Array shadowing depends on location, array size, array tilt, array separation, and time. The program can be used to examine trade-offs between array spacing and insolation losses due to shadowing. The reflector augmentation program can be used to examine trade-offs among array size and tilt, separation, and reflector tilt to determine the combination of design values that optimize the economic objectives or technical criteria of the system.

Smith, J.H.

1980-01-15

7

Sensitivity of simulated climate to latitudinal distribution of solar insolation reduction in solar radiation management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering has been proposed as a potential option to counteract climate change. We perform a set of idealized geoengineering simulations using Community Atmosphere Model version 3.1 developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research to investigate the global hydrological implications of varying the latitudinal distribution of solar insolation reduction in SRM methods. To reduce the solar insolation we have prescribed sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere. The radiative forcing in the geoengineering simulations is the net forcing from a doubling of CO2 and the prescribed stratospheric aerosols. We find that for a fixed total mass of sulfate aerosols (12.6 Mt of SO4), relative to a uniform distribution which nearly offsets changes in global mean temperature from a doubling of CO2, global mean radiative forcing is larger when aerosol concentration is maximum at the poles leading to a warmer global mean climate and consequently an intensified hydrological cycle. Opposite changes are simulated when aerosol concentration is maximized in the tropics. We obtain a range of 1 K in global mean temperature and 3% in precipitation changes by varying the distribution pattern in our simulations: this range is about 50% of the climate change from a doubling of CO2. Hence, our study demonstrates that a range of global mean climate states, determined by the global mean radiative forcing, are possible for a fixed total amount of aerosols but with differing latitudinal distribution. However, it is important to note that this is an idealized study and thus not all important realistic climate processes are modeled.

Modak, A.; Bala, G.

2014-08-01

8

Effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs  

SciTech Connect

This study determines the performance and cost of four 10 MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States. The solar plants are conceptualized to begin commercial operation in the year 2000. It is assumed that major subsystem performance will have improved substantially as compared to that of pilot plants currently operating or under construction. The net average annual system efficiency is therefore roughly twice that of current solar thermal electric power plant designs. Similarly, capital costs reflecting goals based on high-volume mass production that are considered to be appropriate for the year 2000 have been used. These costs, which are approximately an order of magnitude below the costs of current experimental projects, are believed to be achievable as a result of the anticipated sizeable solar penetration into the energy market in the 1990 to 2000 timeframe. The paraboloidal dish, central receiver, cylindrical parabolic trough, and compound parabolic concentrators comprise the advanced collector concepts studied. All concepts exhibit their best performance when sited in regional areas such as the sunbelt where the annual insolation is high. The regional variation in solar plant performance has been assessed in relation to the expected rise in the future cost of residential and commercial electricity in the same regions. A discussion of the regional insolation data base, a description of the solar systems performance and costs, and a presentation of a range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades are given.

Latta, A.F.; Bowyer, J.M.; Fujita, T.; Richter, P.H.

1980-02-01

9

The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance and cost of the 10 MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States were determined. The regional insolation data base is discussed. A range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several cades are presented.

Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.; Richter, P. H.

1979-01-01

10

Study on a Bioethanol Solar Reforming System with the Solar Insolation Fluctuation in Consideration of Heat Chemical Reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bioethanol reforming system (FBSR) with a sunlight heat source is developed as a potential fuel supply system for distributed fuel cells. The temperature distribution of a catalyst layer in the reactor is not stable under conditions of unstable solar radiation and unstable outside air temperature; therefore, it is thought that the inversion rate of a reforming reaction will decrease. In this paper, heat transmission analysis was used in the catalyst layer of the reforming component of an FBSR, and temperature distribution, inversion rate, and process gas composition were investigated. Based on the results, the relationship between weather conditions and a hydrogen-generating rate was determined. When solar insolation was unstable, it turned out that the efficiency of the reforming component is reduced. Fluctuations of the solar insolation over a short period of time affect the hydrogen generating rate of an FBSR. Moreover, the amount of hydrogen production of an FBSR was simulated using meteorological data from a day in March and a day in August in a cold region (Sapporo). The analysis showed that efficiency of the reforming component exceeded 40% for both of the days.

Obara, Shin'ya; El-Sayed, Abeer Galal

11

The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance and cost of four 10 MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States was studied. Each region has different insolation characteristics which result in varying collector field areas, plant performance, capital costs and energy costs. The regional variation in solar plant performance was assessed in relation to the expected rise in the future cost of residential and commercial electricity supplied by conventional utility power systems in the same regions. A discussion of the regional insolation data base is presented along with a description of the solar systems performance and costs. A range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades is given.

Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.; Richter, P. H.

1980-01-01

12

Handbook of solar energy data for south-facing surfaces in the United States. Volume 1: An insolation, array shadowing, and reflector augmentation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quick reference for obtaining estimates of available solar insolation for numerous locations and array angles is presented. A model and a computer program are provided which considered the effects of array shadowing reflector augmentation as design variables.

Smith, J. H.

1980-01-01

13

Global correlation between surface heat fluxes and insolation in the 11-year solar cycle: The latitudinal effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the small amplitude of insolation variations (1365.2-1366.6 W m-2 or 0.1%) from the 11-year solar cycle minimum to the cycle maximum and the structural complexity of the climatic dynamics, it is difficult to directly observe a solar signal in the surface temperature. The main difficulty is reduced to two factors: (1) a delay in the temperature response to external action due to thermal inertia, and (2) powerful internal fluctuations of the climatic dynamics suppressing the solar-driven component. In this work we take into account the first factor, solving the inverse problem of thermal conductivity in order to calculate the vertical heat flux from the measured temperature near the Earth's surface. The main model parameter—apparent thermal inertia—is calculated from the local seasonal extremums of temperature and albedo. We level the second factor by averaging mean annual heat fluxes in a latitudinal belt. The obtained mean heat fluxes significantly correlate with a difference between the insolation and optical depth of volcanic aerosol in the atmosphere, converted into a hindered heat flux. The calculated correlation smoothly increases with increasing latitude to 0.4-0.6, and the revealed latitudinal dependence is explained by the known effect of polar amplification.

Volobuev, D. M.; Makarenko, N. G.

2014-12-01

14

Site insolation and wind power characteristics: technical report western region (north section)  

SciTech Connect

This phase of the Site Insolation and Wind Power Characteristics Study was performed to provide statistical information on the expected future availability of solar and wind power at various sites in the Western Region (North Section) of the US Historic data (SOLMET), at 21 National Weather Service stations with hourly solar insolation and collateral meteorological information, were interrogated to provide an estimate of future trends. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Selected insolation and wind power conditions were investigated for their occurrence and persistence, for defined periods of time, on a monthly basis. Global horizontal insolation is related to inclined surfaces at each site. Ratios are provided, monthly, for multiplying global insolation to obtain insolation estimates on south-facing surfaces inclined at different angles with respect to the horizontal. Also, joint probability distribution tables are constructed showing the number of occurrences, out of a finite sample size, of daily average solar and wind power within selected intervals, by month. Information of this nature is intended as an aid to preliminary planning activities for the design and operation of solar and wind energy utilization and conversion systems.

None

1980-08-01

15

Site insolation and wind power characteristics: technical report western region (south section)  

SciTech Connect

This phase of the Site Insolation and Wind Power Characteristics Study was performed to provide statistical information on the expected future availability of solar and wind power at various sites in the Western Region (South Section) of the US Historic data (SOLMET), at 22 National Weather Service stations with hourly solar insolation and collateral meteorological information, were interrogated to provide an estimate of future trends. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Selected insolation and wind power conditions were investigated for their occurrence and persistence, for defined periods of time, on a monthly basis. Global horizontal insolation is related to inclined surfaces at each site. Ratios are provided, monthly, for multiplying global insolation to obtain insolation estimates on south-facing surfaces inclined at different angles with respect to the horizontal. Also, joint probability distribution tables are constructed showing the number of occurrences, out of a finite sample size, of daily average solar and wind power within selected intervals, by month. Information of this nature is intended as an aid to preliminary planning activities for the design and operation of solar and wind energy utilization and conversion systems.

None

1980-08-01

16

Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV-Development of an insolation handbook and instrument package  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing a need for a coordinated approach to resolve energy problems, certain members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) met in September 1974 and agreed to develop an International Energy Program. The International Energy Agency (IEA) was established within the OECD to administer, monitor and execute this International Energy Program. In July 1975, Solar Heating and Cooling was selected as one of the sixteen technology fields for multilateral cooperation. Five project areas, called tasks, were identified for cooperative activities within the IEA Program to Develop and Test Solar Heating and Cooling Systems. The objective of one task was to obtain improved basic resource information for the design and operation of solar heating and cooling systems through a better understanding of the required insolation (solar radiation) and related weather data, and through improved techniques for measurement and evaluation of such data. At the February 1976 initial experts meeting in Norrkoeping, Sweden, the participants developed the objective statement into two subtasks. (1) an insolation handbook; and (2) a portable meteorological instrument package. This handbook is the product of the first subtask. The objective of this handbook is to provide a basis for a dialogue between solar scientists and meteorologists. Introducing the solar scientist to solar radiation and related meteorological data enables him to better express his scientific and engineering needs to the meteorologist; and introducing the meteorologist to the special solar radiation and meteorological data applications of the solar scientist enables him to better meet the needs of the solar energy community.

None

1980-10-01

17

Single and Double ITCZ in Aqua-Planet Models with Globally Uniform Sea Surface Temperature and Solar Insolation: An Interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been known for more than a decade that an aqua-planet model with globally uniform sea surface temperature and solar insolation angle can generate ITCZ (intertropical convergence zone). Previous studies have shown that the ITCZ under such model settings can be changed between a single ITCZ over the equator and a double ITCZ straddling the equator through one of several measures. These measures include switching to a different cumulus parameterization scheme, changes within the cumulus parameterization scheme, and changes in other aspects of the model design such as horizontal resolution. In this paper an interpretation for these findings is offered. The latitudinal location of the ITCZ is the latitude where the balance of two types of attraction on the ITCZ, both due to earth's rotation, exists. The first type is equator-ward and is directly related to the earth's rotation and thus not sensitive to model design changes. The second type is poleward and is related to the convective circulation and thus is sensitive to model design changes. Due to the shape of the attractors, the balance of the two types of attractions is reached either at the equator or more than 10 degrees away from the equator. The former case results in a single ITCZ over the equator and the latter case a double ITCZ straddling the equator.

Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

18

Study on a Bioethanol Solar Reforming System with the Solar Insolation Fluctuation in Consideration of Heat Chemical Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioethanol reforming system (FBSR) with a sunlight heat source is developed as a potential fuel supply system for distributed fuel cells. The temperature distribution of a catalyst layer in the reactor is not stable under conditions of unstable solar radiation and unstable outside air temperature; therefore, it is thought that the inversion rate of a reforming reaction will decrease.

Shin'ya Obara; Abeer Galal El-Sayed

2009-01-01

19

Retrieving daily global solar radiation from routine climate variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is an important variable for studies related to solar energy applications, meteorology, climatology, hydrology, and agricultural meteorology. However, solar radiation is not routinely measured at meteorological stations; therefore, it is often required to estimate it using other techniques such as retrieving from satellite data or estimating using other geophysical variables. Over the years, many models have been developed to estimate solar radiation from other geophysical variables such as temperature, rainfall, and sunshine duration. The aim of this study was to evaluate six of these models using data measured at four independent worldwide networks. The dataset included 13 stations from Australia, 25 stations from Germany, 12 stations from Saudi Arabia, and 48 stations from the USA. The models require either sunshine duration hours (Ångstrom) or daily range of air temperature (Bristow and Campbell, Donatelli and Bellocchi, Donatelli and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani) as input. According to the statistical parameters, Ångstrom and Bristow and Campbell indicated a better performance than the other models. The bias and root mean square error for the Ångstrom model were less than 0.25 MJ m2 day-1 and 2.25 MJ m2 day-1, respectively, and the correlation coefficient was always greater than 95 %. Statistical analysis using Student's t test indicated that the residuals for Ångstrom, Bristow and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani are not statistically significant at the 5 % level. In other words, the estimated values by these models are statistically consistent with the measured data. Overall, given the simplicity and performance, the Ångstrom model is the best choice for estimating solar radiation when sunshine duration measurements are available; otherwise, Bristow and Campbell can be used to estimate solar radiation using daily range of air temperature.

Moradi, Isaac; Mueller, Richard; Perez, Richard

2014-05-01

20

Prediction of daily average solar wind velocity from solar magnetic field observations using hybrid intelligent systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid intelligent system, combining theory driven and data driven models, is used to predict the daily solar wind velocity at 1 AU from solar magnetic field observations. The Potential Field Model (theory driven) is used to calculate the coronal magnetic field up to the source surface placed at 2.5R?. The Earth's position is projected onto the source surface using

P. Wintoft; H. Lundstedt

1997-01-01

21

Using satellite-derived insolation data for the site\\/time specific simulation of solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the question of satellite-derived irradiance is addressed on two levels. First, the question of physical accuracy is addressed by comparing satellite-predicted hourly\\/daily global and direct irradiance with controlled ground measurements in climatically distinct environments. This accuracy is compared to the error made as a function of distance when extrapolating the needed data from the closest ground measurement

R. Perez; R. Seals; R. Stewart; A. Zelenka; V. Estrada-Cajigal

1994-01-01

22

Nonlinear Insolation Forcing: A Physical Mechanism for Climate Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper focuses on recent advances in the understanding of nonlinear insolation forcing for climate change. The amplitude-frequency resonances in the insolation variations induced by the Earth's changing obliquity are emergent and may provide a physical mechanism to drive the glaciation cycles. To establish the criterion that nonlinear insolation forcing is responsible for major climate changes, the cooperative phenomena between the frequency and amplitude of the insolation are defined as insolation pulsation. Coupling of the insolation frequency and amplitude variations has established an especially new and interesting series of insolation pulses. These pulses would modulate the insolation in such a way that the mode of insolation variations could be locked to generate the 100-kyr ice age cycle which is a long-time geophysical puzzle. The nonlinear behavior of insolation forcing is tested by energy balance and ice sheet climate models and the physical mechanism behind this forcing is explained in terms of pulse duration in the incoming solar radiation. Calculations of the solar energy flux at the top of the atmosphere show that the duration of the negative and positive insolation pulses is about 2 thousand years which is long enough to prolong glaciation into deep ice ages and cause rapid melting of large ice sheets in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere. We have performed numerical simulations of climate response to nonlinear insolation forcing for the past 2 million years. Our calculated results of temperature fluctuations are in good agreement with the climate cycles as seen in the terrestrial biogenic silica (BDP-96-2) data as well as in the marine oxygen isotope (delta(sup 18)O) records.

Liu, H. S.

1998-01-01

23

Investigation of simple daily solar radiation models suitable for use in the design of solar heating systems  

SciTech Connect

Solar heating system simulations typically require hourly weather data and the use of a main-line computer. A simpler alternative is to use daily steps with a model for daily solar collection. This report investigates the accuracy of sinusoidal radiation models for use in solar heating simulation. Accuracy of daily radiation models is assessed in two ways: by a theoretical comparison with hourly weather data, and by analysis of results of daily simulation. Results indicate that a daily radiation model can be designed with errors of less than 2%.

Sillman, S.

1980-08-01

24

Site insolation and wind power characteristics. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

Design and operation of either large or small scale solar and wind energy conversion systems should be based, in part, on knowledge of expected solar and wind power trends. For this purpose, historic solar and wind data available at 101 National Weather Service stations were processed statistically. Preliminary planning data are provided for selected daily average solar and wind power conditions occurring and persisting for time periods of interest. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Empirical probabilities were constructed from the historic data to provide a reasonable inference of the chance of similar climatological conditions occurring at any given time in the future. (Diurnal wind power variations were also considered.) Ratios were also generated at each station to relate the global radiation data to insolation on a south-facing surface inclined at various angles. In addition, joint probability distributions were derived to show the proportion of days with solar and wind power within selected intervals.

Bray, R E

1980-08-01

25

Periodic insolation variations on Mars.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previously unrecognized insolation variations on Mars are a consequence of periodic variations in eccentricity, first established by the theory of Brouwer and Van Woerkom (1950). Such annual insolation variations, characterized by both 95,000-year and 2,000,000-year periodicities, may actually be recorded in newly discovered layered deposits in the polar regions of Mars. An additional north-south variation in seasonal insolation, but not average annual insolation, exists with 51,000-year and 2,000,000-year periodicities.

Murray, B. C.; Ward, W. R.; Yeung, S. C.

1973-01-01

26

Accuracy of silicon versus thermopile radiometers for daily and monthly integrated total hemispherical solar radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement stations for solar radiation resource assessment data are expensive and labor intensive. For this reason, long-term solar radiation measurements are not widely available. Growing interest in solar renewable energy systems has generated a great number of questions about the quality of data obtained from inexpensive silicon photodiode radiometers versus costly thermopile radiometers. We analyze a year of daily total and monthly mean global horizontal irradiance measurements derived from 1-minute averages of 3-second samples of pyranometer signals. The data were collected simultaneously from both types of radiometers at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) operated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. All broadband radiometers in service at SRRL are calibrated annually using an outdoor method with reference radiometers traceable to the World Radiometric Reference. We summarized the data by daily total and monthly mean daily total amounts of solar radiation. Our results show that systematic and random errors (identified in our outdoor calibration process) in each type of radiometer cancel out over periods of one day or more. Daily total and mean monthly daily total solar energy measured by the two pyranometer types compare within 1% to 2%. The individual daily variations among different models of thermopile radiometers may be up to twice as large, up to +/-5%, being highest in the winter (higher average solar zenith angle conditions) and lowest in summer, consistent with the lower solar zenith angle conditions.

Stoffel, Thomas L.; Myers, Daryl R.

2010-08-01

27

The reliance of insolation pattern on surface aspect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sun's radiated energy is an important source in realizing the green technology concept construction. When interacting with the atmosphere and objects on the Earth's surface incoming solar radiation (insolation) will create insolation patterns that are ambiguous and as a result need to be investigated further. This paper explores the insolation pattern and ambiguities against topographic surfaces in the context of direct, diffuse, and reflectance irradiance. The topography is modeled from LiDAR data as Digital Surface Model (DSM) and Digital Terrain Model (DTM). The generated DSM and DTM were converted to Triangular Irregular Network (TIN) format within the Arc GIS environment before the insolation pattern could be visualized. The slope and aspect of the topography has an impact on the insolation which is the emphasis of this paper. The main outcome from the study is the insolation map and plots of relationship between the insolation and surface aspect. The findings from this study should contribute to the sustainable practices of green building technology.

Saad, N. Md; Hamid, J. R. Abdul; Mohd Suldi, A.

2014-02-01

28

An improved algorithm for estimating incident daily solar radiation from measurements of temperature, humidity, and precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a reformulation of the Bristow–Campbell model for daily solar radiation, developed using daily observations of radiation, temperature, humidity, and precipitation, from 40 stations in contrasting climates. By expanding the original model to include a spatially and temporally variable estimate of clear-sky transmittance, and applying a small number of other minor modifications, the new model produces better results than

Peter E. Thornton; Steven W. Running

1999-01-01

29

Long-term changes in insolation and temperatures at different altitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few years, ground- and space-based atmospheric measurements have revealed a large inter-decadal variability in the amount of radiation reaching the Earth's surface, also known as global dimming and brightening. However, the underlying physical causes of these changes remain unexplained. Clouds and aerosols, or their interactions, could both be responsible for the insolation changes, which in turn may impact the radiative balance of the planet. Here, making use of the special topology and clean environment of the Canary Islands, we compare trends in sunshine duration and temperature series, as a function of altitude. The temperature dataset is constituted by a series of mean, minimum and maximum temperatures, and daily temperature ranges. We find that the insolation and temperature trends are identical at sea level and at more than 2 km height, but the changes in diurnal temperature range are not, suggesting a possible urban heat effect at the sea level location, as well as a possible different influence of clouds and/or aerosols at different altitudes. We also find that during the summer, especially at the high altitude site, there is a clear correspondence between daytime insolation and nighttime cloud-free atmospheric extinction measurements. This suggests that atmospheric aerosol concentrations are the major contributor to the variations in the flux of solar radiation reaching the ground at high altitude sites over the Canary Islands.

Sanroma, E.; Palle, E.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.

2010-04-01

30

Total and non-isotropic diffuse insolation on tilted surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper extends the Liu and Jordan (1977) correlations between direct and diffuse insolation to predict instantaneous fluxes on surfaces in any orientation, and introduces a new procedure to allow for anisotropic as well as isotropic diffuse radiation. An expression is derived for total insolation on a horizontal surface, and a correlation equation is written for the ratio of the direct flux on a horizontal surface to the flux that would be incident on a horizontal surface outside the atmosphere. The successful predictions of the Threlkeld (1962), Morrison and Farber (1974), and data presented in this paper substantiate the proposed method of including the nonisotropic component of diffuse radiation in the estimation of total solar radiation. This model uses the total solar flux on a horizontal surface as the input parameter, making useful horizontal insolation data of many years from weather stations for solar system design.

Puri, V. M.; Jimenez, R.; Menzer, M.; Costello, F. A.

1980-01-01

31

Thermal modeling of packages for normal conditions of transport with insolation  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for each special nuclear materials package, experimental tests or an analysis must be performed to determine the temperature distribution throughout the package when exposed to normal conditions of transport. These normal conditions include two cases - one with insolation and one without insolation. Insolation (total solar heat load) values to be used in the analyses are given in 10 CFR 71.71; however, the manner in which the insolation is to be applied is not specified. Several approaches can be taken: (1) perform a steady-state analysis assuming the insolation is applied continuously, (2) perform a transient analysis assuming the incident insolation is represented by a step function (i.e., insolation is applied and then not applied in 12-hour cycles), or (3) perform a transient analysis where the incident insolation is represented by a more complex function involving variables such as time of day. The purpose of this paper is to present these various approaches and examine the effect they have on package temperature distributions. The DC-1 shipping package with the Z88 can was used for the analyses to represent a typical thin-walled Celotex-based shipping package. The results of the study indicate that the method used in applying the insolation has a significant effect on the outermost portions of the package. Maximum outer container temperatures were found to vary by as much as 19.3{degree}C depending on which insolation method was used. Typically, internal package temperatures are more critical in this type of analysis. Since the total insolation over any 24-hour period is the same for all cases, internal package temperatures (secondary containment vessel, primary containment vessel, content, etc.) are relatively unaffected by the way in which the insolation is applied. Internal package temperatures vary no more than 2{degree}C for the three insolation methods investigated.

Anderson, J.C.; Feldman, M.R.

1995-12-31

32

Markov processes and Zipf's law in daily solar irradiation at earth's surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequences of two consecutive days of solar irradiation (global horizontal and direct normal) have been studied here by different approaches. The frequency vs. rank relationships have been analyzed as an attempt to explore whether the Zifp's law is fulfilled, yielding to a partial fulfillment and observing that a good logarithmic fit can be applied to the data in the whole range. In addition, the pdfs of increments in two consecutive daily irradiation values are also studied, showing a relationship between persistence and the coefficients of the logarithmic fit. Finally, it has been shown that a Markov process can represent properly sequences of two consecutive daily irradiation values, for both global horizontal and direct normal components. Thus, synthetic series can be generated by Markov chains for characterizing daily global and direct irradiation.

Vindel, J. M.; Polo, J.

2014-01-01

33

A Temperature-Based Model for Estimating Monthly Average Daily Global Solar Radiation in China  

PubMed Central

Since air temperature records are readily available around the world, the models based on air temperature for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air temperature data are available in China. PMID:24605046

Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin

2014-01-01

34

Daily Solar Flare Forecasts Based on SDO Observations of Solar Magnetic Complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We herewith present a new empirical model of strong solar flares. Neural networks have been trained to recognise the relationship between the magnetic field complexity of active regions and strong solar flares. SHARP (Space weather HMI Active Region Patches) parameters have been used as indicators of the magnetic complexity. GOES 1-8 Å X-ray fluxes described intensities of solar flares. The model's operational space weather forecast capabilities was tested against SHARP near real-time data. An operational version of the model will be available on the website of the Swedish Space Weather Center (SRC) of International Space Environment Service (ISES).

Lundstedt, Henrik; Andersson, Viktor

2014-05-01

35

Motel solar hot-water installation--Atlanta, Georgia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of hardness of local water, average insolation for site, and daily hot water requirements insures suitability of solar-energy system design. Report describes two units which are designed to supply 81 percent of motel's annual hot water demand based on hypothetical 85 percent occupancy. Report includes drawings, operating and maintenance instructions, and test results for 1 day of operation.

1981-01-01

36

Single and Double ITCZ in Aqua-Planet Models with Globally and Temporally Uniform Sea Surface Temperature and Solar Insolation: An Interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous studies (Chao 2000, Chao and Chen 2001, Kirtman and Schneider 2000, Sumi 1992) have shown that, by means of one of several model design changes, the structure of the ITCZ in an aqua-planet model with globally uniform SST and solar angle (U-SST-SA) can change between a single ITCZ at the equator and a double ITCZ straddling the equator. These model design changes include switching to a different cumulus parameterization scheme (e.g., from relaxed Arakawa Schubert scheme (RAS) to moist convective adjustment scheme (MCA)), changes within the cumulus parameterization scheme, and changes in other aspects of the model, such as horizontal resolution. Sometimes only one component of the double ITCZ shows up; but still this is an ITCZ away from the equator, quite distinct from a single ITCZ over the equator. Since these model results were obtained by different investigators using different models which have yielded reasonable general circulation, they are considered as reliable. Chao and Chen (2001; hereafter CC01) have made an initial attempt to interpret these findings based on the concept of rotational ITCZ attractors that they introduced. The purpose of this paper is to offer a more complete interpretation.

Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

37

A simplified calibrated model for estimating daily global solar radiation in Madinah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is the most important parameter in defining the energy budget at the surface thereby influencing the hydroclimate. Several empirical models based on air temperature are developed and used in several decision-making needs such as agriculture and energy sector. However, a calibration against direct observations is a priori for implementing such models. A calibrated model is developed for Saudi Arabia (Madinah) based on observations during 2007-2011. The model is used to estimate daily solar radiation and results show a correlation coefficient of 0.94. The calibrated model outperforms the uncalibrated model available for this location. To increase the confidence, the calibrated model is also compared with a simple artificial neural network.

Benghanem, M.; Mellit, A.

2014-01-01

38

A Five-Year Data Set of Insolation from GOES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration produces insolation from the East and West Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites' (GOES) Imager in their GOES Surface and Insolation Product (GSIP). The GSIP 1/8x1/8 degree product is publicly available from April, 2009. Recently, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has funded a project to create a 5 year long data set using the algorithm used in GSIP. At the University of Wisconsin's Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, we have inserted the Satellite Algorithm for Shortwave RAdiation Budget (SASRAB) into the Pathfinder ATMOSpheres-extended (PATMOS-x) cloud products satellite imagery processing system and computed 5 years worth of radiation and cloud products. The benefits of this data set include the following: direct+diffuse and diffuse insolation every 30 min from both GOES-East and -West at the pixel level (4km at nadir); Extended Northern Hemisphere coverage for most images, with Full Disk coverage every 3 hours; many related radiation, cloud, atmosphere, and surface products at the same resolution; 5 years worth of data available for analysis; monthly, seasonal, and annual summaries of many of the pixel level quantities on a 0.1 degree grid. Anticipated uses of the data set include siting for photovoltaic arrays, solar-thermal power generation, and passive solar systems, as well as environmental applications such as coral bleaching.

Molling, C. C.; Heidinger, A. K.; Laszlo, I.

2011-12-01

39

ASHMET: a computer code for estimating insolation incident on tilted surfaces  

SciTech Connect

A computer code, ASHMET, has been developed by MSFC to estimate the amount of solar insolation incident on the surfaces of solar collectors. Both tracking and fixed-position collectors have been included. Climatological data for 248 US locations are built into the code. This report describes the methodology of the code, and its input and output. The basic methodology used by ASHMET is the ASHRAE clear-day insolation relationships modified by a clearness index derived from SOLMET-measured solar radiation data to a horizontal surface.

Elkin, R.F.; Toelle, R.G.

1980-05-01

40

Prediction of hourly and daily diffuse solar fraction in the city of Fez (Morocco)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, 3-layers MLP (Multi-Layers Perceptron) Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models have been developed and tested for predicting hourly and daily diffuse solar fractions at Fez city in Morocco. In parallel, some empirical models were tested. Three years of data (2009-2011) have been used for establishing the parameters of all tested models and 1 year (2012) to test their prediction performances. To select the best ANN (3-layers MLP) architecture, we have conducted several tests by using different combinations of inputs and by varying the number of neurons in the hidden layer. The output is only the diffuse solar fraction. The performances of each model were assessed on the basis of four statistic characteristics: mean absolute error (MAE), relative mean bias error (RMBE), relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and the degree of agreement (DA). Additionally, the coefficient of correlation (R) is used to test the linear regression between predicted and observed data. The results indicate that the ANN model is more suitable for predicting diffuse solar fraction than the empirical tested models at Fez city in Morocco.

Ihya, B.; Mechaqrane, A.; Tadili, R.; Bargach, M. N.

2014-07-01

41

Determination of Martian Northern Polar Insolation Levels Using a Geodetic Elevation Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar insolation levels at the Martian polar caps bear significantly on the seasonal and climatic cycling of volatiles on that planet. In the northern hemisphere, the Martian surface slopes downhill from the equator to the pole such that the north polar cap is situated in a 5-km-deep hemispheric-scale depression. This large-scale topographic setting plays an important role in the insolation of the northern polar cap. Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) provide comprehensive, high-accuracy topographical information required to precisely determine polar insolation. In this study, we employ a geodetic elevation model to quantify the north polar insolation and consider implications for seasonal and climatic changes. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

Arrell, J. R.; Zuber, M. T.

2000-01-01

42

Mean solar quiet daily variations in the earth’s magnetic field along East African longitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar quiet daily (Sq) variation in the earth’s magnetic field along the East African meridian was studied using data of the H, D and Z components recorded with Magnetic Data Acquisition System of SERC. One year data recorded at ten African geomagnetic observatories was used in the analysis of worldwide solar quiet daily variation (Wsq). The study revealed that the focus of Sq (H) in the southern hemisphere lies at the boundary of low and middle latitude region. Noon-time enhancement of Sq (H) was generally noticed at all stations along the meridian, though it is latitudinal dependent in terms of magnitude as it reduces with distance from dip equator. In addition, night-time variations also occur in small magnitude along African meridian in Sq (H) and Sq (Z) which could be attributed to non-ionospheric sources. Semi-diurnal variation was noticed in Sq (D) at all stations except in AAB that is under the influence of electrojet current. Dusk sector calm condition of Sq (D) current was notice in some stations and the same condition was also noticed at dawn sector in some other stations. The usual sunrise maximum and sunset minimum for D component at stations north of dip equator as well as sunrise minimum and sunset maximum was found to increase with distance away from dip equator. Day-time perturbation of Sq current was noticed to be more pronounced in all the three field elements. Mass plots of annual mean hourly value show contrasting phase pattern about the focus in H element and the results of the variations at each region with the associated standard error. It was concluded from the result of correlation coefficients computed that different currents system flowing in opposite directions could be responsible for contrasting patterns.

Bello, O. R.; Rabiu, A. B.; Yumoto, K.; Yizengaw, E.

2014-08-01

43

A probabilistic model of insolation for the Mojave Desert area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion of mathematical models of insolation characteristics suitable for use in analysis of solar energy systems is presented and shows why such models are essential for solar energy system design. A model of solar radiation for the Mojave Desert area is presented with probabilistic and deterministic components which reflect the occurrence and density of clouds and haze, and mimic their effects on both direct and indirect radiation. Multiple comparisons were made between measured total energy received per day and the corresponding simulated totals. The simulated totals were all within 11 percent of the measured total. The conclusion is that a useful probabilistic model of solar radiation for the Goldstone, California, area of the Mojave Desert has been constructed.

Hester, O. V.; Reid, M. S.

1978-01-01

44

21 CFR 880.6280 - Medical insole.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Identification. A medical insole is a device intended for medical purposes that is placed inside a shoe to relieve the symptoms of athlete's foot infection by absorbing moisture. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

2010-04-01

45

Forecast of daily solar flare peak flux using regressive and neural network methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a set of daily solar flare peak flux forecast models using the multiple linear regression, auto regression, and artificial neural network methods. We consider input parameters as solar activity data from January 1996 to December 2013 such as sunspot area, X-ray flare peak flux, weighted total flux Tf=1*Fc+10*Fm+100*Fx of previous day, mean flare rates of a given McIntosh sunspot group (Zpc), and a Mount Wilson magnetic classification. The hitting rate is defined as the fraction of events whose absolute differences between the observed and predicted fluxes in a logarithm scale are ? 0.5. The best three input parameters related to the observed flare peak flux are weighted total flare flux of previous day, Mount Wilson magnetic classification, and sunspot area. The hitting rates of flares stronger than M5 class, which is regarded to be significant for space weather forecast, are as follows: 0% for the multiple linear regression method, 30% for the auto regression method, and 69% for the neural network method. Especially, we note that for the forecast of strong flares, the neural network method is much more effective than the other methods.

Shin, Seulki; Lee, Jin-Yi; Moon, Yong-Jae

2014-06-01

46

Usability of NASA Satellite Imagery-Based Daily Solar Radiation for Crop Yield Simulation and Management Decisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tested the usability of NASA satellite imagery-based daily solar radiation for farm-specific crop yield simulation and management decisions using the Hybrid-Maize model (www.hybridmaize.unl.edu). Solar radiation is one of the key inputs for crop yield simulation. Farm-specific crop management decisions using simulation models require long-term (i.e., 20 years or longer) daily local weather data including solar radiation for assessing crop yield potential and its variation, optimizing crop planting date, and predicting crop yield in a real time mode. Weather stations that record daily solar radiation have sparse coverage and many of them have record shorter than 15 years. Based on satellite imagery and other remote sensed information, NASA has provided estimates of daily climatic data including solar radiation at a resolution of 1 degree grid over the earth surface from 1983 to 2005. NASA is currently continuing to update the database and has plans to provide near real-time data in the future. This database, which is free to the public at http://power.larc.nasa.gov, is a potential surrogate for ground- measured climatic data for farm-specific crop yield simulation and management decisions. In this report, we quantified (1) the similarities between NASA daily solar radiation and ground-measured data atr 20 US sites and four international sites, and (2) the accuracy and precision of simulated corn yield potential and its variability using NASA solar radiation coupled with other weather data from ground measurements. The 20 US sites are in the western Corn Belt, including Iowa, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Kansas. The four international sites are Los Banos in the Philippines, Beijing in China, Cali in Columbia, and Ibatan in Nigeria. Those sites were selected because of their high quality weather record and long duration (more than 20 years on average). We found that NASA solar radiation was highly significantly correlated (mean r2 =0.88**) with the ground measurements at the 20 US sites, while the correlation was poor (mean r2=0.55**, though significant) at the four international sites. At the 20 US sites, the mean root mean square error (RMSE) between NASA solar radiation and the ground data was 2.7 MJ/m2/d, or 19% of the mean daily ground data. At the four international sites, the mean RMSE was 4.0 MJ/m2/d, or 25% of the mean daily ground value. Large differences between NASA solar radiation and the ground data were likely associated with tropical environment or significant variation in elevation within a short distance. When using NASA solar radiation coupled with other weather data from ground measurements, the simulated corn yields were highly significantly correlated (mean r2=0.85**) with those using complete ground weather data at the 20 US sites, while the correlation (mean r2=0.48**) was poor at the four international sites. The mean RMSE between the simulated corn yields of the two batches was 0.50 Mg/ha, or 3% of the mean absolute value using the ground data. At the four international sites, the RMSE of the simulated yields was 1.5 Mg/ha, or 13% of the mean absolute value using the ground data. We conclude that the NASA satellite imagery-based daily solar radiation is a reasonably reliable surrogate for the ground observations for farm-specific crop yield simulation and management decisions, especially at locations where ground-measured solar radiation is unavailable.

Yang, H.; Cassman, K. G.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Hoell, J. M.

2007-12-01

47

A Comparison of Satellite Based, Modeled Derived Daily Solar Radiation Data With Observed Data for the Continental US  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many applications of simulation models and related decision support tools for agriculture and natural resource management require daily meteorological data as inputs. Availability and quality of such data, however, often constrain research and decision support activities that require use of these tools. Daily solar radiation (SRAD) data are especially problematic because the instruments require electronic integrators, accurate sensors are expensive, and calibration standards are seldom available. The Prediction Of Worldwide Energy Resources (NASA/POWER; power.larc.nasa.gov) project at the NASA Langley Research Center estimates daily solar radiation based on data that are derived from satellite observations of outgoing visible radiances and atmospheric parameters based upon satellite observations and assimilation models. The solar data are available for a global 1 degree x 1 degree coordinate grid. SRAD can also be estimated based on attenuation of extraterrestrial radiation (Q0) using daily temperature and rainfall data to estimate the optical thickness of the atmosphere. This study compares daily solar radiation data from NASA/POWER (SRADNP) with instrument readings from 295 stations (SRADOB), as well as with values that were estimated with the WGENR solar generator. WGENR was used both with daily temperature and precipitation records from the stations reporting solar data and records from the NOAA Cooperative Observer Program (COOP), thus providing two additional sources of solar data, SRADWG and SRADCO. Values of SRADNP for different grid cells consistently showed higher correlations (typically 0.85 to 0.95) with SRADOB data than did SRADWG or SRADCO for sites within the corresponding cells. Mean values of SRADOB, SRADWG and SRADNP for sites within a grid cell usually were within 1 MJm-2d-1 of each other, but NASA/POWER values averaged 1.1 MJm-2d-1 lower than SRADOB. The magnitude of this bias was greater at lower latitudes and during summer months and may be at least partially explained by assumptions in ambient aerosol properties. Overall, the NASA/POWER solar radiation data are a promising resource for regional modeling studies where realistic accounting of historic variation is required.

White, Jeffrey W.; Hoogenboom, Gerrit; Wilkens, Paul W.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Hoell, James M.

2011-01-01

48

Solar Cooking  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... (kWh/m2/day) Amount of electromagnetic energy (solar radiation) incident on the surface of the earth. Also referred to as total or global solar radiation.   Midday insolation (kWh/m2/day) Average ...

2014-09-25

49

Modeling of Daily Solar Energy on a Horizontal Surface for Five Main Sites in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents models for global and diffuse solar energy on a horizontal surface for main five sites in Malaysia. The global solar energy is modeled using linear, nonlinear, fuzzy logic, and artificial neural network (ANN) models, while the diffuse solar energy is modeled using linear, nonlinear, and ANN models. Three statistical values are used to evaluate the developed solar

Tamer Khatib; Azah Mohamed; Marwan Mahmoud; K. Sopian

2011-01-01

50

Orbital insolation, ice volume, and greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SPECMAP models of orbital-scale climate change (Imbrie et al., Paleoceanography 7 (1992) 701, Paleoceanography 8 (1993) 699) are the most comprehensive to date: all major climatic observations were analyzed within the framework of the three orbital signals. Subsequently, tuning of signals in Vostok ice to insolation forcing has fixed the timing of greenhouse-gas changes closely enough to permit an

William F. Ruddiman

2003-01-01

51

Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth like planets  

E-print Network

Because the solar luminosity increases over geological timescales, Earth climate is expected to warm, increasing water evaporation which, in turn, enhances the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can "runaway" until all the oceans are evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause oceans to escape to space before the runaway greenhouse occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated with unidimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of Earth's climate. Here we use a 3D global climate model to show that the threshold for the runaway greenhouse is about 375 W/m$^2$, significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmo...

Leconte, Jérémy; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

2013-01-01

52

Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics of long-term variation in the amplitude of solar quiet (Sq) geomagnetic field daily variation have been investigated using 1-h geomagnetic field data obtained from 69 geomagnetic observation stations within the period of 1947 to 2013. The Sq amplitude observed at these geomagnetic stations showed a clear dependence on the 10- to 12-year solar activity cycle and tended to be enhanced during each solar maximum phase. The Sq amplitude was the smallest around the minimum of solar cycle 23/24 in 2008 to 2009. The relationship between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude was approximately linear but about 53% of geomagnetic stations showed a weak nonlinear relation to the solar F10.7 index. In order to remove the effect of solar activity seen in the long-term variation of the Sq amplitude, we calculated a linear or second-order fitting curve between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude during 1947 to 2013 and examined the residual Sq amplitude, which is defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. As a result, the majority of trends in the residual Sq amplitude that passed through a trend test showed negative values over a wide region. This tendency was relatively strong in Europe, India, the eastern part of Canada, and New Zealand. The relationship between the magnetic field intensity at 100-km altitude and residual Sq amplitude showed an anti-correlation for about 71% of the geomagnetic stations. Furthermore, the residual Sq amplitude at the equatorial station (Addis Ababa) was anti-correlated with the absolute value of the magnetic field inclination. This implies movement of the equatorial electrojet due to the secular variation of the ambient magnetic field.

Shinbori, Atsuki; Koyama, Yukinobu; Nose, Masahito; Hori, Tomoaki; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yatagai, Akiyo

2014-12-01

53

Artificial Neural Network models for estimating daily solar global UV, PAR and broadband radiant fluxes in an eastern Mediterranean site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, simple Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models for estimating daily solar global broadband as well as solar spectral global UV and PAR radiant fluxes have been established. The data used in this analysis are global ultraviolet UV (GUV), global photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD-QP), broadband global radiant flux (Gh), extraterrestrial radiant flux (G0), air temperature (T), relative humidity (rh), sunshine duration (n), theoretical sunshine duration (N), precipitable water (w) and ozone column density (O3). By using different combinations of the above variables as inputs, numerous ANN-models have been developed. For each model, the output is the daily global GUV, QP and Gh solar radiant fluxes. Firstly, a set of 2 × 365 point (2 years) has been used for training each network-model, whereas a set of 365 point (1 year) has been engaged for testing and validating the ANN-models. It has been found that the ANN-models' accuracy depends on the parameters employed as well as spectral range considered. Comparisons between proposed ANN-models and conventional regression models revealed that the results of both methods are statistically significant. On closer examination of many error measures, though, it is clear that the ANN-models perform better overall. From this point of view, it turned out that the neural network technique is better suited further suggesting that the ANN methodology is a promising and a more accurate tool for estimating both broadband and spectral radiant fluxes.

Jacovides, C. P.; Tymvios, F. S.; Boland, J.; Tsitouri, M.

2015-01-01

54

A general model for estimation of daily global solar radiation using air temperatures and site geographic parameters in Southwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of daily global solar radiation (Rs) from routinely measured temperature data has been widely developed and used in many different areas of the world. However, many of them are site specific. It is assumed that a general model for estimating daily Rs using temperature variables and geographical parameters could be achieved within a climatic region. This paper made an attempt to develop a general model to estimate daily Rs using routinely measured temperature data (maximum (Tmax, °C) and minimum (Tmin, °C) temperatures) and site geographical parameters (latitude (La, °N), longitude (Ld, °E) and altitude (Alt, m)) for Guizhou and Sichuan basin of southwest China, which was classified into the hot summer and cold winter climate zone. Comparison analysis was carried out through statistics indicators such as root mean squared error of percentage (RMSE%), modeling efficiency (ME), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and mean bias error (MBE). Site-dependent daily Rs estimating models were calibrated and validated using long-term observed weather data. A general formula was then obtained from site geographical parameters and the better fit site-dependent models with mean RMSE% of 38.68%, mean MBE of 0.381 MJ m-2 d-1, mean CRM of 0.04 and mean ME value of 0.713.

Li, Mao-Fen; Fan, Li; Liu, Hong-Bin; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei

2013-01-01

55

Temperature based daily incoming solar radiation modeling based on gene expression programming, neuro-fuzzy and neural network computing techniques.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correct observation/estimation of surface incoming solar radiation (RS) is very important for many agricultural, meteorological and hydrological related applications. While most weather stations are provided with sensors for air temperature detection, the presence of sensors necessary for the detection of solar radiation is not so habitual and the data quality provided by them is sometimes poor. In these cases it is necessary to estimate this variable. Temperature based modeling procedures are reported in this study for estimating daily incoming solar radiation by using Gene Expression Programming (GEP) for the first time, and other artificial intelligence models such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). Traditional temperature based solar radiation equations were also included in this study and compared with artificial intelligence based approaches. Root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) RMSE-based skill score (SSRMSE), MAE-based skill score (SSMAE) and r2 criterion of Nash and Sutcliffe criteria were used to assess the models' performances. An ANN (a four-input multilayer perceptron with ten neurons in the hidden layer) presented the best performance among the studied models (2.93 MJ m-2 d-1 of RMSE). A four-input ANFIS model revealed as an interesting alternative to ANNs (3.14 MJ m-2 d-1 of RMSE). Very limited number of studies has been done on estimation of solar radiation based on ANFIS, and the present one demonstrated the ability of ANFIS to model solar radiation based on temperatures and extraterrestrial radiation. By the way this study demonstrated, for the first time, the ability of GEP models to model solar radiation based on daily atmospheric variables. Despite the accuracy of GEP models was slightly lower than the ANFIS and ANN models the genetic programming models (i.e., GEP) are superior to other artificial intelligence models in giving a simple explicit equation for the phenomenon which shows the relationship between the input and output parameters. This study provided new alternatives for solar radiation estimation based on temperatures.

Landeras, G.; López, J. J.; Kisi, O.; Shiri, J.

2012-04-01

56

RESEARCH PAPER: Forecast daily indices of solar activity, F10.7, using support vector regression method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 10.7 cm solar radio flux (F10.7), the value of the solar radio emission flux density at a wavelength of 10.7 cm, is a useful index of solar activity as a proxy for solar extreme ultraviolet radiation. It is meaningful and important to predict F10.7 values accurately for both long-term (months-years) and short-term (days) forecasting, which are often used as inputs in space weather models. This study applies a novel neural network technique, support vector regression (SVR), to forecasting daily values of F10.7. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of SVR in short-term F10.7 forecasting. The approach, based on SVR, reduces the dimension of feature space in the training process by using a kernel-based learning algorithm. Thus, the complexity of the calculation becomes lower and a small amount of training data will be sufficient. The time series of F10.7 from 2002 to 2006 are employed as the data sets. The performance of the approach is estimated by calculating the norm mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. It is shown that our approach can perform well by using fewer training data points than the traditional neural network.

Huang, Cong; Liu, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jing-Song

2009-06-01

57

Orbital insolation, ice volume, and greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SPECMAP models of orbital-scale climate change (Imbrie et al., Paleoceanography 7 (1992) 701, Paleoceanography 8 (1993) 699) are the most comprehensive to date: all major climatic observations were analyzed within the framework of the three orbital signals. Subsequently, tuning of signals in Vostok ice to insolation forcing has fixed the timing of greenhouse-gas changes closely enough to permit an assessment of their orbital-scale climatic role. In addition, evidence from several sources has suggested changes in the SPECMAP ? 18O time scale. This new information indicates that the timing of CO 2 changes at the periods of precession and obliquity does not fit the 1992 SPECMAP model of a "train" of responses initiated in the north, propagated to the south, and later returning north to force the ice sheets. In addition, analysis of the effects of rectification on 100,000-year climatic signals reveals that all have a phase on or near that of eccentricity. This close clustering of phases rules out the long time constants for 100,000-year ice sheets required by the 1993 SPECMAP model. A new hypotheses presented here revives elements of an earlier CLIMAP view (Hays et al., Science 194 (1976a) 1121) but adds a new assessment of the role of greenhouse gases. As proposed by Milankovitch, summer (mid-July) insolation forces northern hemisphere ice sheets at the obliquity and precession periods, with an ice time constant derived here of 10,000 years. Changes in ice volume at 41,000 years drive ice-proximal signals (SST, NADW, dust) that produce a strong positive CO 2 feedback and further amplify ice-volume changes. At the precession period, July insolation forces ice sheets but it also drives fast and early responses in CH 4 through changes in tropical monsoons and boreal wetlands, and variations in CO 2 through southern hemisphere processes. These CH 4 and CO 2 responses enhance insolation forcing of ice volume. Climatic responses at 100,000 years result from eccentricity pacing of forced processes embedded in obliquity and precession cycles. Increased modulation of precession by eccentricity every 100,000 years produces 23,000-year CO 2 and CH 4 maxima that enhance ablation caused by summer insolation and drive climate deeper into an interglacial state. When eccentricity modulation decreases at the 100,000-year cycle, ice sheets grow larger in response to obliquity forcing and activate a 41,000-year CO 2 feedback that drives climate deeper into a glacial state. Alternation of these forced processes because of eccentricity pacing produces the 100,000-year cycle. The 100,000-year cycle began 0.9 Myr ago because gradual global cooling allowed ice sheets to survive during weak precession insolation maxima and grow large enough during 41,000-year ice-volume maxima to generate strong positive CO 2 feedback. The natural orbital-scale timing of these processes indicates that ice sheets should have appeared 6000-3500 years ago and that CO 2 and CH 4 concentrations should have fallen steadily from 11,000 years ago until now. But new ice did not appear, and CO 2 and CH 4 began anomalous increases at 8000 and 5000 years ago, respectively. Human generation of CO 2 and CH 4 is implicated in these anomalous trends and in the failure of ice sheets to appear in Canada.

Ruddiman, William F.

2003-07-01

58

One Year of Terra-CERES data (Reflected Solar Radiation) Daily data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation displays a little over one year of Terra-CERES data (March 1, 2000 to May 25, 2001) at one day resolution. The data are 2.5 degree resolution. The band is reflected solar radiation (often referred to as shortwave in the literature). Bright areas correspond to cloudtops or snowcover.

Tom Bridgman

2001-06-20

59

Effect of Different Insoles on Postural Balance: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the effect of different insoles on postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] A systematic review was conducted of four databases. The papers retrieved were evaluated based on the following inclusion criteria: 1) design: controlled clinical trial; 2) intervention: insole; 3) outcome: change in static postural balance; and 4) year of publication: 2005 to 2012. [Results] Twelve controlled trials were found comparing the effects of different insoles on postural balance. The papers had methodological quality scores of 3 or 4 on the PEDro scale. [Conclusion] Insoles have benefits that favor better postural balance and control. PMID:24259792

Christovão, Thaluanna Calil Lourenço; Neto, Hugo Pasini; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Ferreira, Luiz Alfredo Braun; Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Eliege de Souza, Maria; Franco de Oliveira, Luis Vicente; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

2013-01-01

60

Effect of different insoles on postural balance: a systematic review.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the effect of different insoles on postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] A systematic review was conducted of four databases. The papers retrieved were evaluated based on the following inclusion criteria: 1) design: controlled clinical trial; 2) intervention: insole; 3) outcome: change in static postural balance; and 4) year of publication: 2005 to 2012. [Results] Twelve controlled trials were found comparing the effects of different insoles on postural balance. The papers had methodological quality scores of 3 or 4 on the PEDro scale. [Conclusion] Insoles have benefits that favor better postural balance and control. PMID:24259792

Christovão, Thaluanna Calil Lourenço; Neto, Hugo Pasini; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Ferreira, Luiz Alfredo Braun; Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Eliege de Souza, Maria; Franco de Oliveira, Luis Vicente; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

2013-10-01

61

Effect of Estimated Daily Global Solar Radiation Data on the Results of Crop Growth Models  

PubMed Central

The results of previous studies have suggested that estimated daily global radiation (RG) values contain an error that could compromise the precision of subsequent crop model applications. The following study presents a detailed site and spatial analysis of the RG error propagation in CERES and WOFOST crop growth models in Central European climate conditions. The research was conducted i) at the eight individual sites in Austria and the Czech Republic where measured daily RG values were available as a reference, with seven methods for RG estimation being tested, and ii) for the agricultural areas of the Czech Republic using daily data from 52 weather stations, with five RG estimation methods. In the latter case the RG values estimated from the hours of sunshine using the Ångström-Prescott formula were used as the standard method because of the lack of measured RG data. At the site level we found that even the use of methods based on hours of sunshine, which showed the lowest bias in RG estimates, led to a significant distortion of the key crop model outputs. When the Ångström-Prescott method was used to estimate RG, for example, deviations greater than ±10 per cent in winter wheat and spring barley yields were noted in 5 to 6 per cent of cases. The precision of the yield estimates and other crop model outputs was lower when RG estimates based on the diurnal temperature range and cloud cover were used (mean bias error 2.0 to 4.1 per cent). The methods for estimating RG from the diurnal temperature range produced a wheat yield bias of more than 25 per cent in 12 to 16 per cent of the seasons. Such uncertainty in the crop model outputs makes the reliability of any seasonal yield forecasts or climate change impact assessments questionable if they are based on this type of data. The spatial assessment of the RG data uncertainty propagation over the winter wheat yields also revealed significant differences within the study area. We found that RG estimates based on diurnal temperature range or its combination with daily total precipitation produced a bias of to 30 per cent in the mean winter wheat grain yields in some regions compared with simulations in which RG values had been estimated using the Ångström-Prescott formula. In contrast to the results at the individual sites, the methods based on the diurnal temperature range in combination with daily precipitation totals showed significantly poorer performance than the methods based on the diurnal temperature range only. This was due to the marked increase in the bias in RG estimates with altitude, longitude or latitude of given region. These findings in our view should act as an incentive for further research to develop more precise and generally applicable methods for estimating daily RG based more on the underlying physical principles and/or the remote sensing approach.

Trnka, Miroslav; Eitzinger, Josef; Kapler, Pavel; Dubrovský, Martin; Semerádová, Daniela; Žalud, Zden ?k; Formayer, Herbert

2007-01-01

62

Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets.  

PubMed

The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can 'run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375?W?m(-2), which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars. PMID:24336285

Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

2013-12-12

63

Comment on "Strong signature of the active Sun in 100 years of terrestrial insolation data" by W. Weber.  

PubMed

An analysis of ground-based observations of solar irradiance was recently published in this journal, reporting an apparent increase of solar irradiance on the ground of the order of 1% between solar minima and maxima [1]. Since the corresponding variations in total solar irradiance on top of the atmosphere are accurately determined from satellite observations to be of the order of 0.1% only [2], the one order of magnitude stronger effect in the terrestrial insolation data was interpreted as evidence for cosmic-ray induced aerosol formation in the atmosphere. In my opinion, however, this result does not reflect reality. Using the energy budget of Earth's surface, I show that changes of ground-based insolation with the solar cycle of the order of 1% between solar minima and maxima would result in large surface air temperature variations which are inconsistent with the instrumental record. It would appear that the strong variations of terrestrial irradiance found by [1] are due to the uncorrected effects of volcanic or local aerosols and seasonal variations. Taking these effects into account, I find a variation of terrestrial insolation with solar activity which is of the same order as the one measured from space, bringing the surface energy budget into agreement with the solar signal detected in temperature data. PMID:22279242

Feulner, Georg

2011-11-01

64

Using solar wind data to predict daily GPS scintillation occurrence in the African and Asian low-latitude regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of predicting the daily occurrence of Global Positioning System scintillation events using forecasts of common geophysical indices to drive a physics-based model of the system is demonstrated over a 5 month period for the African and Asian longitude sectors. The output from the Wing Kp model, which uses solar wind data to predict the geomagnetic activity level up to 4 h in advance, was used to drive the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere/ionosphere model, from which the strength of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate was calculated to determine the likelihood of scintillation. It is found that the physics-based model demonstrates superior skill to an empirical scintillation model (Wideband Model (WBMOD)) in forecasting scintillation suppression events during seasons when scintillation is common. However, neither of the models driven in this way possess the ability to forecast isolated scintillation events during transitional and off-peak seasons.

Carter, B. A.; Retterer, J. M.; Yizengaw, E.; Wiens, K.; Wing, S.; Groves, K.; Caton, R.; Bridgwood, C.; Francis, M.; Terkildsen, M.; Norman, R.; Zhang, K.

2014-12-01

65

Pluto's insolation history: Latitudinal variations and effects on atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since previous long-term insolation modeling in the early 1990s, new atmospheric pressure data, increased computational power, and the upcoming flyby of the Pluto system by NASA's New Horizons spacecraft have generated new motivation and increased capabilities for the study of Pluto's complex long-term (million-years) insolation history. The two primary topics of interest in studying Pluto's insolation history are the variations in insolation patterns when integrated over different intervals and the evolution of diurnal insolation patterns over the last several decades. We find latitudinal dichotomies when comparing average insolation over timescales of days, decades, centuries, and millennia, where all timescales we consider are short relative to the predicted timescales for Pluto's chaotic orbit. Depending on the timescales of volatile migration, some consequences of these insolation patterns may be manifested in the surface features revealed by New Horizons. We find the Maximum Diurnal Insolation (MDI) at any latitude is driven most strongly when Pluto's obliquity creates a long arctic summer (or "midnight sun") beginning just after perihelion. Pluto's atmospheric pressure, as measured through stellar occultation observations during the past three decades, shows a circumstantial correlation with this midnight sun scenario as quantified by the MDI parameter.

Earle, Alissa M.; Binzel, Richard P.

2015-04-01

66

Surface meteorology and Solar Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

67

Daily results of the initial operation of the Los Alamos salt-gradient solar pond  

SciTech Connect

The results of analysis of the initial data obtained on the Los Alamos National Laboratory salt-gradient solar pond, a 232 m/sup 2/ pond constructed for the primary purpose of studying pond hydrodynamics, are presented. The pond and the data-acquisition system were complete and in full operation by August 14, 1982. By September 21, 1982, the lower convecting zone had reached a temperature of 56/sup 0/C. An energy balance was performed over this period and is presented. Soil conductivity determinations have been made from the data, and the method is discussed. As a result of a leak discovered in the pond in September, a method of determining the leak rate was developed, and the results are included.

Hedstrom, J.C.; Jones, G.F.; Meyer, K.A.

1983-01-01

68

The importance of insolation changes for paleo ice sheet modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth and retreat of continental ice sheets in the past has largely been a response to changing climatic forcing. Since ablation is the principal component of mass loss for land-based ice sheets, the calculation of surface melt is an important aspect of paleo ice sheet modeling. Changes in insolation are often not accounted for in calculations of surface melt, under the assumption that the near-surface temperature transmits the majority of the climatic forcing to the ice sheet. To assess how this could affect paleo simulations, here we investigate the importance of different orbital configurations for estimating melt on the Greenland ice sheet. We find that during peak Eemian conditions, increased insolation contributes 20-50% to the surface melt anomaly. However, this percentage depends strongly on the temperature anomaly at the time. For higher temperature anomalies, the role of insolation changes is less important. This relationship is not homogenous over the ice sheet, since the contribution of insolation to melt is modulated by the local surface albedo. In coupled simulations, the additional insolation-induced melt translates into up to threefold more ice volume loss, compared to output using a model that does not account for insolation changes. We also introduce a simple correction factor that allows reduced-complexity melt models to account for changes in insolation.

Robinson, A.; Goelzer, H.

2014-08-01

69

Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the amplitude of the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been well-known that geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation is produced by global ionospheric currents flowing in the E-region from middle latitudes to the magnetic equator. These currents are generated by a dynamo process via interaction between the neutral wind and ionospheric plasma in a region of the thermosphere and ionosphere. From the Ohm's equation, the ionospheric currents strongly depend on the ionospheric conductivity, polarization electric field and neutral wind. Then, to investigate the Sq amplitude is essential for understanding the long-term variations in the ionospheric conductivity and neutral wind of the thermosphere and ionosphere. Elias et al. [2010] found that the Sq amplitude tends to increase by 5.4-9.9 % in the middle latitudes from 1961 to 2001. They mentioned that the long-term variation of ionospheric conductivity associated with geomagnetic secular variation mainly determines the Sq trend, but that the rest component is ionospheric conductivity enhancement associated with cooling effects in the thermosphere due to increasing the greenhouse gases. In this talk, we clarify the characteristics of the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude using the long-term observation data of geomagnetic field and neutral wind. These observation data have been provided by the IUGONET (Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork) project. In the present analysis, we used the F10.7 flux as an indicator of the variation in the solar irradiance in the EUV and UV range, geomagnetic field data with time resolution of 1 hour. The definition of the Sq amplitude is the difference of the H-component between the maximum and minimum per day when the Kp index is less than 4. As a result, the Sq amplitude at all the stations strongly depends on 11-year solar activity, and tends to enhance more during the high activities (19- and 22- solar cycles) than during the low activity (20-solar cycle). The Fourier spectra of the F10.7 flux and Sq amplitude at Guam (13.59N, 144.87E) showed that the common peaks appear at the periods of 5.5, 7,5 and 10.5 years with the coherence of more than 0.9 while the spectrum peaks around 0.5 and 1.0 year appear only in the Sq amplitude. The former peak of the Sq amplitude is due to the solar activity while the latter is a cause of the upper atmosphere variation. In order to minimize the solar activity dependence of the Sq amplitude, we calculated the residual Sq amplitude using a second degree polynomial curve between the F10.7 and Sq amplitude during 1957-2010, and examined the residual Sq field defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. The residual Sq amplitude showed a clear tendency to increase and decrease during the periods of 1957-1992 and 1993-2010, respectively. It should be noted that the residual Sq amplitude around 2010 is almost the same level as that around 1970. In order to verify qualitatively the above signatures, we need to investigate the long-term variation in the ionospheric conductivities calculated with the IRI-2007 and MSIS-00 models.

Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Tsuda, T.

2011-12-01

70

Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been well-known that geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation is produced by the global ionospheric currents flowing in the E-region, which are generated by dynamo process via interaction between the neutral wind and ionospheric plasma in a region of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere. Then, to investigate the Sq amplitude is essential for understanding the long-term variations in the ionospheric conductivity and neutral wind of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere. Recently, Elias et al. [2010] reported that the Sq amplitude tends to increase by 5.4-9.9 % in the middle latitudes in a period of 1961-2001. They mentioned that the long-term variation of ionospheric conductivity associated with geomagnetic secular variation mainly determines the Sq trend, but that the rest component is due to ionospheric conductivity enhancement associated with cooling effect in the thermosphere due to increasing greenhouse gas. In the present study, we clarify the characteristics of the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude using the long-term observation data of geomagnetic field and neutral wind. In the present analysis, we used the F10.7 solar flux as a good indicator of the variation in the solar irradiance in the EUV and UV range as well as geomagnetic field data with time resolution of 1 hour observed at 184 geomagnetic stations. The definition of the Sq amplitude is the difference of the H-component between the maximum and minimum every day when the Kp index is less than 4. As a result, the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude at all the geomagnetic stations shows a strong correlation with the solar F10.7 flux which depends on 11-year solar activity. The relationship between the Sq amplitude and F10.7 flux was not linear but nonlinear. This nonlinearity could be interpreted as the decrease of production rate of electrons and ions in the ionosphere for the strong EUV and UV fluxes as already reported by Balan et al. [1993]. In order to minimize the solar activity dependence on the Sq amplitude, we calculated second orders of fitting curve between the F10.7 flux and Sq amplitude during 1950-2011, and examined the residual Sq amplitude defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. The residual Sq amplitude clearly shows increase and decrease trends with the periods of 20 years. Then, it seems that the trends in the residual Sq and Sqp fields are related to the long-term variation in the ionospheric conductivities associated with the secular variation of the ambient magnetic field and the upper atmosphere (for example, plasma and neutral densities). In order to verify qualitatively the above signatures, we need to investigate the long-term variation in the ionospheric conductivities using a calculation tool developed by the IUGONET project.

Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.

2012-12-01

71

Solar and temporal effects on Escherichia coli concentration at a Lake Michigan swimming beach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies on solar inactivation of Escherichia coli in freshwater and in situ have been limited. At 63rd St. Beach, Chicago, Ill., factors influencing the daily periodicity of culturable E. coli, particularly insolation, were examined. Water samples for E. coli analysis were collected twice daily between April and September 2000 three times a week along five transects in two depths of water. Hydrometeorological conditions were continuously logged: UV radiation, total insolation, wind speed and direction, wave height, and relative lake level. On 10 days, transects were sampled hourly from 0700 to 1500 h. The effect of sunlight on E. coli inactivation was evaluated with dark and transparent in situ mesocosms and ambient lake water. For the study, the number of E. coli samples collected (n) was 2,676. During sunny days, E. coli counts decreased exponentially with day length and exposure to insolation, but on cloudy days, E. coli inactivation was diminished; the E. coli decay rate was strongly influenced by initial concentration. In situ experiments confirmed that insolation primarily inactivated E. coli; UV radiation only marginally affected E. coli concentration. The relationship between insolation and E. coli density is complicated by relative lake level, wave height, and turbidity, all of which are often products of wind vector. Continuous importation and nighttime replenishment of E. coli were evident. These findings (i) suggest that solar inactivation is an important mechanism for natural reduction of indicator bacteria in large freshwater bodies and (ii) have implications for management strategies of nontidal waters and the use of E. coli as an indicator organism.

Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Korinek, Ginger C.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

2004-01-01

72

Insolation-forced Spin-ups Of Uranus' Zonal Winds In Epic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present modifications made to the EPIC general climate model to include forcing effects produced by solar insolation patterns with specific application to Uranus. We implemented a gray, latitudinally- and longitudinally-varying radiative forcing term to simulate both the diurnal as well as extreme seasonal fluctuations of solar insolation experienced by Uranus. In keeping with the radiative context of these modifications, we elected to forego EPIC's default Newtonian cooling scheme in favor of implementing a gray radiative cooling term based on H2-H2 collision-induced absorption and subsequent reemission in the mid- and far-infrared. We compare the results of this scheme with measurements of Uranus' temperature-pressure profile made by the Voyager spacecraft. Additionally, we demonstrate dynamical results of this radiative scheme. We present our initial spin-up experiments from rest of Uranus' zonal and meridional winds with both equinoctial and solstice radiative forcing patterns. We compare our simulated zonal wind results to those derived from both Voyager-era solstice observations as well as recent equinox observations, which may exhibit seasonal change. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation.

Sussman, Michael; Dowling, T. E.; Chanover, N. J.

2008-09-01

73

An evaluation of personalised insoles developed using additive manufacturing.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the short and medium term use of personalised insoles, produced by combining additive manufacturing (AM) with three-dimensional (3-D) foot scanning and computer aided design (CAD) systems. For that, 38 runners (19 pairings) were recruited. The experimental conditions were: personalised and control. The personalised condition consisted of trainers fitted with personalised glove fit insoles manufactured using AM and using foot scans to match the plantar geometry of the feet. The control condition consisted of the same trainers fitted with insoles also manufactured using AM but using scans of the original insole shape. Participants were allocated to one of the experimental conditions and wore the trainers for 3 months. Over this period they attended three laboratory sessions (at months 0, 1.5 and 3) and completed an Activity Diary after each training session. The footwear was evaluated in terms of discomfort and biomechanics. Lower discomfort ratings were found in the heel area (P ? 0.05) and for overall fit (P ? 0.05), with the personalised insole. However, discomfort was reported under the arch region for both conditions. With regard to the biomechanical data, differences between conditions were detected for ankle dorsiflexion at footstrike (P ? 0.05), maximum ankle eversion (P ? 0.05) and peak mean pressure under the heel (P ? 0.01): the personalised condition had lower values which may reduce injury risk. The personalisation of the geometry of insoles through advances in AM together with 3-D scanning and CAD technologies can provide benefits and has potential. PMID:23083421

Salles, Andre S; Gyi, Diane E

2013-01-01

74

Effect of optimal daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, root growth and fruit yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in solar-greenhouse.  

PubMed

Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (P<0.05) increased the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 88% and 209% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to conventional interval fertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (<1.5 mm diameter) growth of cucumber, and eventually increased cucumber economic yield by 6.2% and 8.3% and partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 55% and 75% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to the treatment optimal interval fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving crop yield and the water and fertilizers use efficiency in solar greenhouse. PMID:24475204

Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

2014-01-01

75

Effect of Optimal Daily Fertigation on Migration of Water and Salt in Soil, Root Growth and Fruit Yield of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Solar-Greenhouse  

PubMed Central

Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (P<0.05) increased the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 88% and 209% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to conventional interval fertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (<1.5 mm diameter) growth of cucumber, and eventually increased cucumber economic yield by 6.2% and 8.3% and partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 55% and 75% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to the treatment optimal interval fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving crop yield and the water and fertilizers use efficiency in solar greenhouse. PMID:24475204

Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

2014-01-01

76

Latitudinal variations in modeled insolation driven snow surface ablation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Net absorbed insolation is partially dependent on and positively correlated with surface roughness, which changes through an ablation season. Understanding the feedback between absorbed insolation and surface ablation is important for understanding the spatial and temporal variations in surface ablation or melting. To investigate this feedback we developed a numerical model to determine the absorption of insolation on an arbitrary two-dimensional surface, and used the absorbed radiation to ablate that surface. The model is used to investigate how surface topography evolves over an ablation season. Results from numerical simulations reveal that the evolution of surface features throughout an ablation season is strongly latitudinally dependent. At high latitudes, the aspect ratio of surface features decreases through the ablation season, reducing surface topography. At low latitudes, sinusoidal periodic surfaces grow in amplitude as the surface ablates. This surface evolves into a series of peaks and valleys, resembling penitentes, features observed in high alpine snow-packs in the tropics and sub-tropics. Further investigation of the modeled latitudinal range at which periodic surfaces grow in amplitude as well as their surface orientations matches observational data on penitentes. In both high and low latitudes, topographic complexity significantly increases the fraction of absorbed insolation relative to a flat surface. For example, simulations for ablation in Greenland show that the inclusion of complex features enhances absorption by 15 percent, or for a typical ablation season, 8 W m-2.

Cathles, L. M.; Abbot, D. S.; MacAyeal, D. R.

2012-04-01

77

Fundamentals of solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text is addressed to upper level graduate students with background in solid state physics and to scientists and engineers involved in solar cell research. The author aims to present fundamental physical principles rather than the state-of-the-art. Specific devices are used to illustrate basic phenomena and to indicate possibilities for innovative design. Contents, abridged: Solar insolation. The calculation of solar

A. L. Farhenbruch; R. H. Bube

1983-01-01

78

Impacts of different types of insoles on postural stability in older adults.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the effects of different types of insoles on postural stability in older adults. Four types of commercially available insoles were selected including the cupped insoles, textured insoles, rigid insoles, and soft insoles. The experiment included a static stance session and a walking session. In the static stance session, the participants stood upright on a force platform as still as possible, with feet together, arms by the side and looking straight ahead. The mean velocity of center-of-pressure time series obtained from the force platform was used to assess static postural stability. In the walking session, the participants walked on a treadmill at their self-selected comfortable speed for 4.5 min in each insole condition. Dynamic postural stability was assessed using the margin of stability. It was found that static postural stability was not affected by insoles, but cupped insoles improved dynamic postural stability, and rigid insole was associated with better dynamic postural stability compared to soft insoles. These findings can aid in better understanding the insole design features associated with improved postural stability in older adults. PMID:25034519

Qu, Xingda

2015-01-01

79

Vertical and temporal distribution of insolation in gaps in an old-growth coniferous forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of canopy access at the Wind River Canopy Crane Research Facility, hemispherical photog- raphy, and long-term insolation data provided estimates of vertical and temporal distributions of insolation in nine can - opy gaps in a 65 m tall Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) - western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forest. Yearly insolation (long-term data from Portland, Oreg.)

Stuart B. Weiss

2000-01-01

80

Nonlinear response of summer temperature to Holocene insolation forcing in Alaska  

PubMed Central

Regional climate responses to large-scale forcings, such as precessional changes in solar irradiation and increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gases, may be nonlinear as a result of complex interactions among earth system components. Such nonlinear behaviors constitute a major source of climate “surprises” with important socioeconomic and ecological implications. Paleorecords are key for elucidating patterns and mechanisms of nonlinear responses to radiative forcing, but their utility has been greatly limited by the paucity of quantitative temperature reconstructions. Here we present Holocene July temperature reconstructions on the basis of midge analysis of sediment cores from three Alaskan lakes. Results show that summer temperatures during 10,000–5,500 calibrated years (cal) B.P. were generally lower than modern and that peak summer temperatures around 5,000 were followed by a decreasing trend toward the present. These patterns stand in stark contrast with the trend of precessional insolation, which decreased by ?10% from 10,000 y ago to the present. Cool summers before 5,500 cal B.P. coincided with extensive summer ice cover in the western Arctic Ocean, persistence of a positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation, predominantly La Niña-like conditions, and variation in the position of the Alaskan treeline. These results illustrate nonlinear responses of summer temperatures to Holocene insolation radiative forcing in the Alaskan sub-Arctic, possibly because of state changes in the Arctic Oscillation and El Niño-Southern Oscillation and associated land–atmosphere–ocean feedbacks. PMID:22084085

Clegg, Benjamin F.; Kelly, Ryan; Clarke, Gina H.; Walker, Ian R.; Hu, Feng Sheng

2011-01-01

81

Utility of NASA's daily solar and meteorological data for regional level modeling of wheat phenology and yield potential  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Data products from the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Applied Science Energy Managed Program provide estimates of long-term meteorological conditions from assimilation models and surface solar energy fluxes derived from satellite observations. NASA's Prediction Of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWE...

82

African monsoons, an immediate climate response to orbital insolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Croll-Milankovitch astronomical theory of climate1-3 has received strong support from the evidence of a linear climatic forcing by obliquity and precession, although nonlinearity had to be assumed for eccentricity4,5. Moreover, interglacials have appeared to be controlled by the orbital insolation6 although a phase shift of 6,000-5,000 yr is seen between an astronomical climate index and terrestrial climate indicators, dominated

Martine Rossignol-Strick

1983-01-01

83

Insolation and cross-hemispheric controls on Asian-Australian monsoon variability over the past glacials and interglacials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Asian-Australian summer monsoon (ASM) is primarily a synoptic feature determined by the differential thermal response to solar insolation between the Asian-Australian continents and the western Pacific warm pool (WPWP). Little is known about what process has played a key role in driving long-term ASM variability. Here we present a 180-ka record of terrestrial fluxes into offshore southeastern Papua New Guinea (PNG), a prevailing monsoon area in the WPWP. The terrestrial fluxes were estimated by a 230Th-normalized method, indicating higher terrestrial inputs into the ocean during glacial stages. We argue that the higher terrestrial fluxes are mainly fluvial, which in turn are linked to stronger ASM precipitation on land, though the increased terrestrial flux could be possibly also due to the lowstand or glacial erosion of mountain glaciers. Cross-spectral analysis indicates that the precipitation maxima is controlled by local summer insolation maxima, WPWP SST minima, and East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) maxima in precession frequency bands (21-ka-1). This result suggests that the 21-ka components of the ASM in the past 180,000 years are not only insolation driven but also a dynamic component strengthened by cross-hemispheric pressure gradient resulted from the precession maxima forcing.

Chen, M.

2012-12-01

84

Insolation and Resulting Surface Temperatures of Study Regions on the Moon and Implications for Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The imaging spectrometer MERTIS (Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer) is part of the payload of ESA's BepiColombo mission, which is scheduled for launch in 2014 (Hiesinger et al., 2010). The instrument consists of an IR-spectrometer and radiometer, which observe the surface in the wavelength range of 7-14 and 7-40µm, respectively. The four scientific objectives are to a) study Mercury's surface composition, b) identify rock-forming minerals, c) globally map the surface mineralogy and d) study surface temperature and thermal inertia (Hiesinger et al., 2010; Helbert et al., 2005). Previous studies of the lunar surface have shown that thermal emission contributes to the observed signal from the surface and can influence the spectral characteristics, e.g. the depth of absorption bands (e.g. Clark, 2009; Pieters et al., 2009; Sunshine et al., 2009). Therefore accurate knowledge of the solar insolation and resulting thermal variations is needed. In order to calculate insolation and surface temperatures, we use a numerical model which has been described by Bauch et al. (2009). Surface temperatures are depending on the surface and subsurface bulk thermophysical properties, such as bulk density, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, emissivity, and albedo. Topography also influences surface temperatures, as it changes the angle of solar incidence, but also leads to shadowed areas, e.g. the floors of polar craters. The model solves the one-dimensional heat transfer equation, based on a depth and temperature dependent thermal inertia. The surface boundary condition is based on the energy balance relation; the energy entering a surface equals the energy leaving the surface. In addition to the direct solar insolation, reflectance and scattering from adjacent surface regions also influence the surface temperatures. In preparation of the MERTIS experiment, we performed detailed thermal models of the lunar surface, which we extrapolated to Mercury. For our simulation, we use topography data from the Moon and transfer them as model regions to the surface of Mercury. When calculated with lunar parameters, this allows us to compare the results to lunar temperature measurements of the Apollo, Clementine and Chandrayaan missions (e.g. Keihm and Langseth (1973), Lawson et al. (2000), Pieters et al. (2009)). It also allows a direct comparison of the insolation and thermal variation between craters on the lunar and mercurian surface. Hiesinger, H. et al. (2010), PSS 58, 144-165; Helbert, J. et al. (2005), LPSC XXXVI, Abstract #1753; Clark, R.N. (2009), Science 326, 562-564; Pieters, C.M. et al. (2009), Science 326, 568-572; Sunshine, J.M. et al. (2009), Science 326, 565-568; Bauch, K.E. et al. (2009) LPSC XL, Abstract #1789; Keihm, S.J. and Langseth, M.G. (1973), Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 4th, 2503-2513; Lawson, S.L. et al. (2000), JGR 105, E5, 4273-4290

Bauch, Karin E.; Hiesinger, Harald

2010-05-01

85

Estimation of daily global solar radiation in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area: A combinational application of statistical downscaling method and Bayesian inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term daily global solar radiation (GSR) data of the same quality in the 20th century has been needed as a baseline to assess the climate change impact on paddy rice production in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area (MKD: 104.5-107.5oE/8.2-11.2oN). However, though sunshine duration data is available, the accessibility of GSR data is quite poor in MKD. This study estimated the daily GSR in MKD for 30-yr (1978- 2007) by applying the statistical downscaling method (SDM). The estimates of GSR was obtained from four different sources: (1) the combined equations with the corrected reanalysis data of daily maximum/minimum temperatures, relative humidity, sea level pressure, and precipitable water; (2) the correction equation with the reanalysis data of downward shortwave radiation; (3) the empirical equation with the observed sunshine duration; and (4) the observation at one site for short term. Three reanalysis data, i.e., NCEP-R1, ERA-40, and JRA-25, were used. Also the observed meteorological data, which includes many missing data, were obtained from 11 stations of the Vietnamese Meteorological Agency for 28-yr and five stations of the Global Summary of the Day for 30-yr. The observed GSR data for 1-yr was obtained from our station. Considering the use of data with many missing data for analysis, the Bayesian inference was used for this study, which has the powerful capability to optimize multiple parameters in a non-linear and hierarchical model. The Bayesian inference provided the posterior distributions of 306 parameter values relating to the combined equations, the empirical equation, and the correction equation. The preliminary result shows that the amplitude of daily fluctuation of modeled GSR was underestimated by the empirical equation and the correction equation. The combination of SDM and Bayesian inference has a potential to estimate the long- term daily GSR of the same quality even though in the area where the observed data is quite limited.

Iizumi, T.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.; Kotera, A.; Khang, N. D.

2008-12-01

86

Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

2009-03-01

87

Standing Balance on the Ground —The Influence of Flatfeet and Insoles  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine whether insoles change standing balance on the ground in normal and flat-footed subjects. [Subjects] Twenty subjects with flatfeet and 20 subjects with normal feet were included in this study. [Methods] Body sway was evaluated based on the center of pressure while subjects stood on the ground. Body sway was measured during upright standing with the feet 10?cm apart for 30 seconds. The total locus length and the area of body sway were then measured using a zebris system. Measurements were made under three sets of conditions: using BMZ insoles, which supported the cuboid; using Superfeet insoles, which supported the medial longitudinal arch; and with no insoles. [Results] The 3 insole conditions were compared. On level ground, the total locus length for the Superfeet insole was significantly less than those for the BMZ insole and no insole. [Conclusion] On level ground, Superfeet feet insoles were effective in stabilizing standing balance in both flat-footed and normal-footed subjects. PMID:24409010

Takata, Yuichi; Matsuoka, Shinji; Okumura, Nobuhisa; Iwamoto, Koji; Takahashi, Mitsugu; Uchiyama, Eiichi

2014-01-01

88

Urban air pollution and solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

1981-01-01

89

Embedded sensor insole for wireless measurement of gait parameters.  

PubMed

This work presents the development of a portable, wireless activity monitoring system for the estimation of biomechanical gait parameters. The system uses a pair of instrumented insoles able to measure pressure from different points of the foot including four commercial piezoresistive pressure sensors and a three-axis accelerometer, all together integrated in the insole to determine foot forces during stance and swing phases. The system includes two kinds of analysis data, one on line with a RF communications to a computer, and another off line reading the data from SD memory card. Our system has been validated and tested in different trials, extracting several features during walking for ten participants by means of the combined information from the two kinds of sensors. With the combined data from the complete set of sensors, we can obtain highly valuable information on foot movement during the non-contact period, such as supination or pronation characteristics or anomalous movement during flight time. From our preliminary results, the variation of the lateral acceleration of the foot seems to be correlated with the amount of supination. PMID:24375153

Martínez-Martí, Fernando; Martínez-García, María Sofía; García-Díaz, Santiago G; García-Jiménez, Javier; Palma, Alberto J; Carvajal, Miguel A

2014-03-01

90

InSole MEMS Pressure Sensing for a LowerExtremity Exoskeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control system for the Berkeley lower extremity exoskeleton (BLEEX) requires ground contact pressure information to operate safely and effectively. Commercially available in-sole sensors do not have sufficient bandwidth, accuracy and reliability for such a system. We have designed and prototyped an in-sole ground contact sensor that uses MEMS pressure transducers placed in an array of hermetically sealed cavities. This

Jason Wheeler; Brandon Rohrer; D. Kholwadwala; S. Buerger; R. Givler; J. Neely; C. Hobart; P. Galambos

2006-01-01

91

Pilot study demonstrating that sole mechanosensitivity can be affected by insole use.  

PubMed

Insoles are known to alter plantar loads and thus plantar sensory input. We therefore hypothesised that plantar somatosensory sensation could be modified over time by use of hard metatarsal pads. A sample of 12 healthy female participants was randomly allocated to either soft metatarsal pads (n=6, latex foam, Shore A11) or hard metatarsal pads groups (n=6, thermoplastic, ShoreA65). All wore the same shoe type and pedometers measured daily activities. Using a bespoke actuated device, multiple mechanical stimuli were applied to the forefoot and rearfoot before and after 8 and 30 days of wearing the pads. A control test comprised estimation of multiple auditory sensations at day 0, 8 and 30. Changes in detection of the mechanical and sound stimuli were estimated using the Stevens power function, ?=k×?(n) (estimate=?; stimulus=?). The k coefficient measured the sensitivity, i.e. the lowest detectable load/sound, and the n coefficient the gain in perception over time. After 30 days, hard metatarsal pads group had increased plantar sensitivity in the forefoot but not the rearfoot. The soft metatarsal pads group showed no changes in plantar sensitivity and the detection of auditory sensation remained stable over the 30 days.Metatarsal pads with relatively high hardness increased the perception of the lowest mechanical stimulus in the forefoot compared to soft metatarsal pads. This provides initial evidence of the potential for changes in plantar somatosensory sensation due to choice of orthotic designs in patients with foot-related problems. PMID:25455433

Vie, Bruno; Nester, Christopher James; Porte, Lisa Marie; Behr, Michel; Weber, Jean Paul; Jammes, Yves

2015-01-01

92

Solar Radiation on Mars: Tracking Photovoltaic Array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A photovoltaic power source for surface-based operation on Mars can offer many advantages. Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars and the insolation on various types of collector surfaces are necessary for effective design of future planned photovoltaic systems. In this article we have presented analytical expressions for solar radiation calculation and solar radiation data for single axis (of various types) and two axis tracking surfaces and compared the insulation to horizontal and inclined surfaces. For clear skies (low atmospheric dust load) tracking surfaces resulted in higher insolation than stationary surfaces, whereas for highly dusty atmospheres, the difference is small. The insolation on the different types of stationary and tracking surfaces depend on latitude, season and optical depth of the atmosphere, and the duration of system operation. These insolations have to be compared for each mission.

Appelbaum, Joseph; Flood, Dennis J.; Crutchik, Marcos

1994-01-01

93

Constitution Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyone could use a bit of the Constitution added to their daily lives, and this website more than delivers on its promise to deliver "smart conversation about the Constitution". Constitution Daily is an experimental blog edited by the National Constitution Center (NCC) in Philadelphia, and commentary here can include conversations about student privacy rights, the Second Amendment, and the activities of Congress. Visitors can click on the "Issues" section to dive into topic areas that include civility and privacy. After looking at each topic area, visitors can look at an interactive timeline that arranges comments, posts, and discussion on the subject. The site also contains some nice polls, and information about upcoming events at the NCC.

94

Science Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Daily is a web-based magazine that delivers timely news about discoveries in science and technology, appropriate for all audiences. Articles are often accompanied by streaming video or podcasts; all are written in language a non-scientist can understand. The web site archives contain more than 40,000 resources on topics that include medicine, the brain, plants and animals, earth science, climate, space, matter and energy, computers, mathematics, and paleontology. The web site has been the recipient of numerous awards since its inception in 1995.

2008-03-08

95

Short-term surface insolation forecasts derived from satellite cloud advection techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-term (1-3 hour) forecasts of surface insolation are of paramount import for producers of solar power producers when integrating with power distribution grids. Results from a radiative transfer model coupled with a satellite-derived cloud advection technique are presented, and compared against the NOAA Surface Radiation (SURFRAD( network for validation purposes. Satellite observations from GOES are used within the AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres-Extended (PATMOS-x) retrieval package to determine cloud properties which are then coupled with GFS wind observations to advect cloud positions forward in time. Advection is performed on a per-pixel basis as well as within self-similar cloud groups identified by a novel cloud-grouping algorithm utilizing thresholds of comparisons with the PATMOS-x input. Advected cloud positions, which account for parallax and shadow locations, are then used to run a single-column radiative transfer model to compute the forecasted surface irradiance value. Forecasts using the advection technique during calendar year 2012 are presented, along with validation results from the SURFRAD network. Issues and benefits from using satellite advection techniques versus traditional numerical weather prediction model forecasts are also presented.

Rogers, M. A.; Miller, S. D.; Heidinger, A. K.; Sengupta, M.

2012-12-01

96

Proceedings of the ninth biennial congress of the International Solar Energy Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents the papers given at a conference on solar energy. Topics considered at the conference included solar thermal power plants, central receivers, heliostat flux measurement, ocean thermal power plants, solar ponds, photovoltaic power supplies, silicon solar cells, solar concentrators, heat storage, wind turbines, hybrid systems, economics, energy policy, hydroelectric power plants, meteorology, the measurement of solar insolation, financing,

E. Bilgen; K. G. T. Hollands

1985-01-01

97

Solar energy in Peru  

SciTech Connect

The past, present, and future of Peru is discussed in terms of solar energy development and the social, economic, climatic, and technical factors involved. It is pointed out that there are 3 geographical divisions in Peru including: (1) the foggy coastal strip where rain is infrequent, insolation is low and population is high; (2) the mountainous Andes region with high insolation and many populated high mountain valleys; and (3) the rainy, Amazon basin covered with jungle, and sparcely populated with high but inconsistent insolation. Since there is little competition with other forms of energy, solar energy shows promise. Passive solar heating of buildings, particularly in the Andes region, is described, as well as the use of solar water heaters. Prototypes are described and illustrated. Industrial use of solar heated water in the wool industry as well as solar food drying and solar desalination are discussed. High temperature applications (electrical generators and refrigeration) as well as photovoltaic systems are discussed briefly. It is concluded that social and political factors are holding back the development of solar energy but a start (in the form of prototypes and demonstration programs) is being made. (MJJ)

Pierson, H.

1981-12-01

98

Sensitivity of Asian and African climate to variations in seasonal insolation, glacial ice cover, sea surface temperature and Asian orography  

SciTech Connect

The authors are interested in the general question of how low and high latitude regions interact on a climatic scale. Here they present results for modeled climatic influences in Asia and Africa, due to boundary condition changes in surrounding regions. The factors varied were the amount of solar insolation, the extent of glacial ice cover in high latitude areas, the north Atlantic sea surface temperatures, and the height of the Asian orography elevations. Results of using the GISS general circulation model, with these different imposed boundary conditions are then observed for their impact on the seasonal climate of the Asian and African monsoons. These results are then looked at in light of paleoclimatic evidence to see if these influences might be a major factor in driving the climate changes in Asia and Africa.

DeMenocal, P.B. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States)); Rind, D. (Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States))

1993-04-20

99

Analysis of walking improvement with dynamic shoe insoles, using two accelerometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orthopedics at the rehabilitation hospital found that disorders caused by sports injuries to the feet or caused by lower-back are improved by wearing dynamic shoe insoles, these improve walking balance and stability. However, the relationship of the lower-back and knees and the rate of increase in stability were not quantitatively analyzed. In this study, using two accelerometers, we quantitatively analyzed the reciprocal spatiotemporal contributions between the lower-back and knee of patients with left lower-back pain by means of Relative Power Contribution Analysis. When the insoles were worn, the contribution of the left and right knee relative to the left lower-back pain was up to 26% ( p<0.05) greater than without the insoles. Comparing patients with and without insoles, we found that the variance in the step response analysis of the left and right knee decreased by up to 67% ( p<0.05). This shows an increase in stability.

Tsuruoka, Yuriko; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Shibasaki, Ryosuke; Tsuruoka, Masako

2005-07-01

100

Estimates of available solar radiation and photovoltaic energy production for various tilted and tracking surfaces throughout the US based on PVFORM, a computerized performance model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved photovoltaic performance model called PVFORM has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. This new model incorporates the latest improvements in solar modelling techniques including the Perez anisotropic solar diffuse model. The PVFORM model has been used to produce tables of average solar radiation availabilities and corresponding direct current energy performance for a photovoltaic module mounted in various tilted and tracking configurations. Solar availabilities are also computed for some vertical and 45 deg. tilted wall surfaces for use in passive solar design. The tables contain average daily solar availabilities and PV energy production for 38 sites throughout the US. Each table contains four average daily values representing the four seasons of the year along with an annual average. Typical weather conditions are also presented for each of the 38 sites. This new model and the set of tables presented in this report are of special importance to solar energy system designers because they provide more accurate estimates of insolation availability on fixed and tracking surfaces by as much as 20%, PVFORM has been shown to be accurate to within 5% to 7% with no observable prediction bias. Use of the PVFORM model or the tabulated data found in this report will enable the architect or engineer to design more cost effective solar energy systems.

Menicucci, D. F.; Fernandez, J. P.

1986-03-01

101

U.S. Solar Resource Maps and Tools from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)  

DOE Data Explorer

Solar maps provide monthly average daily total solar resource information on grid cells. The insolation values represent the resource available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal to equal to the latitude of the collector location. [Copied from http://www.nrel.gov/gis/solar.html] Several types of solar maps are made available. The U.S. Solar resource maps show the resource potential for energy from photovoltaics and from concentrating solar power (CSP). Both sets of maps are available in low or high resolution. A dynamic map based on version 2 of PVWATTS calculates electrical energy performance estimates for a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The map of U.S. Solar Measurement Station Locations is also dynamic, showing the spatial distribution of measurement stations across the U.S. that are monitored by programs and agencies such as DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program or NREL's Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements (CONFRRM). Clicking on a station location will take the user to the website of that station. Finally, static map images providing solar resource information averaged by month are also available.

102

The biomechanical effects of a new design of lateral wedge insole on the knee and ankle during walking.  

PubMed

Lateral wedged insoles are a common treatment in individuals with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis of the knee joint. One concern has been the potential for increased foot and ankle pain due to increased eversion. The purpose of this study was to assess the biomechanical effectiveness of a typical lateral wedged insole and a combined insole with a lateral wedge and off-the-shelf anti-pronatory device in shoes while walking. A cross-over randomized design was used where each insole was worn by fifteen healthy subjects while three-dimensional motion data were collected in three different conditions: (1) control condition (with standard shoes), (2) with an insole with a lateral wedge and additional off-the-shelf anti-pronatory support (supporting), and (3) with an insole with a lateral wedge with no additional support (unsupported) in the standard shoes. The unsupported insole significantly increased the amount of ankle/subtalar joint complex eversion than the other experimental conditions, with the supporting insole reducing the ankle/subtalar joint complex eversion, and was found to be more comfortable. Both the supporting and unsupported lateral wedged insoles significantly reduced knee loading (external knee adduction moment reduction 8.5% and 9.1%, respectively), the knee adduction angular impulse. This new design of lateral wedge may offer increased adherence in future osteoarthritis population studies while offering reductions in joint loading. PMID:24054897

Jones, Richard K; Zhang, Min; Laxton, Philip; Findlow, Andrew H; Liu, Anmin

2013-08-01

103

A 3D Earth orbit model; visualization and analysis of Milankovitch cycles and insolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An astronomically precise and accurate Earth orbit graphical model, Earth orbit v2.0, is presented. The model offers 3D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcings. Prevalent paleoclimatic theories invoke Milankovitch cycles as a major forcing mechanism capable of shifting Earth's climate regimes on time scales of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. Variability of eccentricity (ellipticity of orbit), precession (longitude of perihelion) and obliquity (Earth's axial tilt) changes parameters such as amplitude of seasonal insolation, timing of seasons with respect to perihelion, and total annual insolation. Hays et al. (1976) demonstrated a strong link between Milankovitch cycles and paleoclimatological records, which has been confirmed and expanded many times since (e.g. Berger et al., 1994; Berger et al., 2010). The complex interplay of several orbital parameters on various time scales makes assessment and visualization of Earth's orbit and spatio-temporal insolation variability challenging. It is difficult to appreciate the pivotal importance of Kepler's laws of planetary motion in controlling the effects of Milankovitch cycles on insolation patterns on various spatio-temporal scales. These factors also make Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. The model allows substantial user control in a robust, yet intuitive and user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) developed in Matlab. We present the user with a choice between Berger et al. (1978) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. Berger solutions span from -1 Myr to +1 Myr, while Laskar provides solutions from -101 Myr to +21 Myr since J2000. Users can also choose a "demo" mode which allows the three Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other, so the user can isolate the effects of each on orbital geometry and insolation. For example, extreme eccentricity can be chosen, which is useful for illustrating Kepler's laws, and precession can be varied to illustrate its effect on the timing of the seasons. Earth's orbit is plotted in 3D with the chosen real (past, present or future) or demo Milankovitch parameters. Earth is placed in its orbit using Kepler's Laws and the calendar can be started on either vernal equinox (March 20) or perihelion (Jan. 3). The Sun, perihelion, and the equinoxes and solstices are displayed in a plot that can be zoomed, panned and rotated in three dimensions. The model can also output time-series plots at varying scales from Berger and Laskar's solutions. Coupled with the orbit plotting and time-series functionality, global insolation is computed as a function of latitude and day of year, using the chosen Milankovitch parameters. 3D surface plots of insolation and insolation anomalies (compared to J2000) are then produced. Insolation computations use the model's own orbital geometry with no additional a-priori input other than the Milankovitch parameter solutions. Insolation computations are successfully validated against Laskar et al. (2004). Envisioned future developments include more options for insolation plots on user-chosen spatio-temporal scales and overlaying various paleoclimatological proxy data.

Gilb, R. D.; Kostadinov, T. S.

2012-12-01

104

Atmospheric Tides, 2, The Solar and Lunar Semidiurnal Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar and lunar semidiurnal wind and temperature oscillations from the surface to 400 km are simulated for average solar activity conditions utilizing the numerical tidal model described in part 1. Hough mode decomposition of the solstitial solar semidiurnal tide excited by HzO and O3 insolation absorption below 80 km indicates that it is characterized by a predominance of (2, 2)

Jeffrey M. Forbes

1982-01-01

105

StabilitySole: Embedded Sensor Insole for Balance and Gait Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Our group has developed an easy-to-use pressure-sensing insole equipped with accelerometers to evaluate a patient’s postural\\u000a control and balance ability in a non-obtrusive manner. Pressure sensors and MEMS accelerometers are embedded in a shoe insole\\u000a and display balance information on an easy-to-use graphical user interface. The importance of balance and gait monitoring\\u000a is applicable to a variety of fields such

Peyton Paulick; Hamid Djalilian; Mark Bachman

106

Effect of custom-made and prefabricated insoles on plantar loading parameters during running with and without fatigue.  

PubMed

Controversy exists whether custom-made insoles are more effective in reducing plantar loading compared to prefabricated insoles. Forty recreational athletes ran using custom-made, prefabricated, and the original insoles of their running shoes, at rest and after a fatigue run. Contact time, stride rate, and plantar loading parameters were measured. Neither the insole conditions nor the fatigue state modified contact time and stride rate. Addressing prevention of running injuries, post-fatigue loading values are of great interest. Custom-made insoles reduced the post-fatigue loading under the hallux (92 vs. 130 kPa, P < 0.05), medial midfoot (70 vs. 105 kPa, P < 0.01), and lateral midfoot (62 vs 96 kPa, P < 0.01). Prefabricated insoles provoked reductions in post-fatigue loading under the toes (120 vs. 175 kPa, P < 0.05), medial midfoot (71 vs. 105 kPa, P < 0.01), and lateral midfoot (68 vs. 96 kPa, P < 0.01). Regarding both study insoles, custom-made insoles reduced by 31% and 54% plantar loading under the medial and lateral heel compared to the prefabricated insoles. Finally, fatigue state did not influence plantar loading regardless the insole condition. In long-distance races, even a slight reduction in plantar loading at each foot strike may suppose a significant decrease in the overall stress experienced by the foot, and therefore the use of insoles may be an important protective mechanism for plantar overloading. PMID:24823258

Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Macián-Romero, Cecili; Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel

2014-01-01

107

The Solar Constant since 1600  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze a graph of solar irradiance since 1610. Answer key is provided. They will consider average insolation, percent changes and the link between irradiance and climate change. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

2012-08-03

108

Urban air pollution: Its effect on the design and performance of solar energy systems  

SciTech Connect

The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that during a recent second stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to0.35 ppm ozone), the direct beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena where this was attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

Smith, J.H.; Gammon, R.B.; Huning, J.R.; Reid, M.S.

1980-12-01

109

Utility scale hybrid wind–solar thermal electrical generation: A case study for Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a hybrid wind–solar power plant in southwestern Minnesota is modeled for a 2-yr period using hourly wind and solar insolation data. The wind portion of the plant consists of four interconnected wind farms within a radius of 90km. The solar component of the plant is a parabolic trough solar thermal electric generating system using a heat transfer

J. P. Reichling; F. A. Kulacki

2008-01-01

110

Solar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does solar energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to solar energy. Here students read about the uses, benefits, and active and passive methods of solar energy. Information is also presented about limitations, geographical considerations of solar power in the United States, and current uses of solar energy around the world. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of solar energy. Articles and information about a solar power plant in the Mohave Desert, the use of solar energy in Iowa, and statistics about solar energy are provided in a sidebar.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

111

Cracks in desert pavement rocks: Further insights into mechanical weathering by directional insolation  

E-print Network

Cracks in desert pavement rocks: Further insights into mechanical weathering by directional August 2010 Keywords: Desert pavements Physical weathering Desert geomorphology Insolation weathering Fractures The formation of cracks is a fundamental first step in the physical weathering of rocks in desert

Ahmad, Sajjad

112

A long-term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here a new solution for the astronomical computation of the insolation quantities on Earth spanning from -250 Myr to 250 Myr. This solution has been improved with respect to La93 (Laskar et al. \\\\cite{Laskar1993}) by using a direct integration of the gravitational equations for the orbital motion, and by improving the dissipative contributions, in particular in the evolution

J. Laskar; P. Robutel; F. Joutel; M. Gastineau; A. C. M. Correia; B. Levrard

2004-01-01

113

A reliable gyroscope-based gait-phase detection sensor embedded in a shoe insole  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of patient experiments using a new gait-phase detection sensor (GPDS) together with a programmable functional electrical stimulation (FES) system for subjects with a dropped-foot walking dysfunction. The GPDS (sensors and processing unit) is entirely embedded in a shoe insole and detects in real time four phases (events) during the gait cycle: stance, heel off, swing, and

Ion P. I. Pappas; Thierry Keller; Sabine Mangold; Milos R. Popovic; Volker Dietz; Manfred Morari

2004-01-01

114

On the Origins of the Ice Ages: Insolation Forcing, Age Models, and Nonlinear Climate Change  

E-print Network

On the Origins of the Ice Ages: Insolation Forcing, Age Models, and Nonlinear Climate Change by Peter Huybers Submitted to the Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences in partial .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences May, 2004 Certified by

Huybers, Peter

115

Complementary roles of orbital insolation and North Atlantic Deep Water during Late Pleistocene interglacials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-standing dilemma of the Milankovitch hypothesis involves the observation that the Holocene deglaciation was comparable in extent to previous late Pleistocene interglacials even though insolation forcing was less. In this paper we propose an explanation that is based on an observed complementary relationship between eccentricity and North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) production rates. A ?13C record from the South

Thomas J. Crowley; Kwang-Yul Kim

1992-01-01

116

Geography, insolation, and vitamin D in nineteenth century US African-American and white statures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a new source of nineteenth century US state prison records I contrast the biological living conditions of comparable African-Americans and whites. Although blacks and whites today in the US reach similar terminal statures, nineteenth century African-American statures were consistently shorter than those of whites. Greater insolation (vitamin D production) is shown to be associated with taller black and white

Scott Alan Carson

2009-01-01

117

Starting and steady-state characteristics of dc motors powered by solar cell generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of dc motors (series, separately-excited, and shunt motors) powered by a solar cell generator and loaded by two different types of loads, one a constant load and one a ventilator load, were analyzed with respect to the transient (starting) and steady state operation. Direct current motors are employed in photovoltaic water pumping systems; therefore, the understanding of the system operation and the matching of the system components (solar cells, dc motor type, and load type) are important factors of the system design. Since the solar cell generator in a nonlinear and time-dependent power supply with an output that varies with the insolation (hourly and daily), the performance characteristics of the dc motor are different when supplied by a solar cell generator than when supplied by a conventional constant voltage source. The transient solution was obtained by using an available computer program - SUPER SCEPTRE. The separately-excited (or permanent magnet) motor with a ventilator load was found to be the most suitable for the solar cell generator. The series motor is quite acceptable, but the shunt motor gives poor performance. In all cases the ventilator load is more compatible with the solar cell generator than with the constant load.

Appelbaum, J.

1986-03-01

118

Insolation-driven 100 kyr glacial cycles and millennial climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waxing and waning of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets over the past one million years is dominated by an approximately 100-kyr periodicity and a sawtooth pattern (gradual growth and fast termination). Milankovitch theory proposes that summer insolation at high northern latitudes drives the glacial cycles, and statistical tests demonstrated that the glacial cycles are indeed linked to eccentricity, obliquity and precession cycles. However, insolation alone cannot explain the strong 100 kyr cycle which presumably arises through internal climatic feedbacks. Prior work with conceptual models, for example, showed that glacial terminations are associated with the build-up of Northern Hemisphere 'excess ice', but the physical mechanisms of 100-kyr cycle at work remain unclear. Here, using comprehensive climate and ice sheet models, we show that the ~100-kyr periodicity is explained by insolation and internal feedback amongst the climate, ice sheet and lithosphere/asthenosphere system (reference). We found that equilibrium states of ice sheets exhibit hysteresis responses to summer insolation, and that the shape and position of the hysteresis loop play a key role in determining the periodicities of glacial cycles. The hysteresis loop of the North American ice sheet is such that, after its inception, the ice sheet mass balance remains mostly positive or neutral through several precession cycles whose amplitude decreases towards an eccentricity minimum. The larger the ice sheet grows and extends towards lower latitudes, the smaller is the insolation required to turn the mass balance to negative. Therefore, once the large ice sheet is established, only a moderate increase in insolation can trigger a negative mass balance, leading to a complete retreat within several thousand years, due to the delayed isostatic rebound. The effect of ocean circulation and millennial scale climate change are not playing the dominant role for determing the 100kyr cycle, but are effective for modifying the speed and geographical pattern of the waxing and waning of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and their melt water. (reference of the basic results: Abe-Ouchi et al, 2013, Insolation-driven 100,000 year glacial cycles and hysteresis of ice-sheet volume, Nature, 500, 190-193.)

Abe-Ouchi, A.; Saito, F.; Kawamura, K.; Raymo, M. E.; Okuno, J.; Takahashi, K.; Blatter, H.

2013-12-01

119

Solar panel parallel mounting configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

1998-01-01

120

Sensitivity of modeled Cretaceous climate to insolation forcing created by varying Earth-Sun orbital relationships  

SciTech Connect

Rhythmic sedimentation patterns observed within the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway, such as those in the Bridge Creek Limestone Member of the Greenhorn Limestone Formation exposed near Pueblo, Colorado, appear to be a response to episodic climate change. These climatic variations could, in turn, be forced by the periodic insolation change over the North American continent created by Milankovitch-scale Earth-Sun orbital relationships - eccentricity (100 kiloyears), obliquity (41 kiloyears) and precession of the equinox (23 kiloyears). To test the sensitivity of Cretaceous climate to changes in Milankovitch-scale insolation forcing, a set of seasonal simulations using maximum difference insolation forcing conditions was conducted with the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Climate Model using 100 MA Cretaceous paleogeography and paleotopography. Analysis showed statistically significant differences in surface temperature, precipitation, surface wind, storm track location, and upwelling occurred over many regions of the Cretaceous Earth, particularly in the summer and winter monsoon system. During Northern Hemisphere winter, differences in the position of storm passage over Cretaceous western North America under maximum difference insolation forcing conditions varies the precipitation received over the southern Western Interior Seaway at the location where the Bridge Creek Limestone Member rhythmic sedimentation was produced. Northern Hemisphere winter simulations removing all sea ice from the model showed little difference in the climatic effects observed over southwestern North America from the case with sea ice present. Additional simulations varying only the obliquity within the model suggest that the observed Bridge Creek Limestone Member rhythmic sedimentation patterns are controlled by climatic change produced by cyclic variation in the precession of the equinox and eccentricity insolation forcing.

Glancy, T.J. Jr.

1992-01-01

121

Quantifying stair gait stability in young and older adults, with modifications to insole hardness.  

PubMed

Stair gait falls are prevalent in older adults aged 65 years and older. Extrinsic variables such as changes to insole hardness are important factors that can compromise the balance control system and increase the incidence of falls, especially since age-related decline in the cutaneous sensation is common. Balance measurements such as the minimum center of mass/base of support (COM-BOS, termed 'stability margin') and COM-BOS medial/lateral range provide information about stability during stair gait. This study was conducted to investigate stair gait stability of young and older adults, with modifications to insole hardness. Twenty healthy adults (10 young adults, 10 older adults) were recruited (mean age = 23.1, SD 2.1; mean age = 73.2, SD 5.5) and instructed to descend a 4 step staircase, for a total of 40 trials. All participants wore similar canvas shoes of varying sizes, and corresponding insole hardnesses (barefoot, soft, medium, hard). Kinematic equipment utilized 12 infrared markers anteriorly placed on the individual to record COM motion and BOS location. The findings from the study demonstrated that older adults were less stable during stair descent. Consequently, insole conditions revealed that the barefoot condition may increase the likelihood of falls, as opposed to the other insole hardnesses (soft, medium and hard). These results suggest that older adults while barefoot are putting themselves at a great risk of falling during stair descent. Since age-related changes are inevitable and the preferred footwear of choice inside the home is bare feet, this is a crucial issue that should be addressed. PMID:24954148

Antonio, Patrick J; Perry, Stephen D

2014-07-01

122

Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Data Release 5.1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data set contains over 200 parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems.The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree].

Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

123

Evaluation on penetration rate of cloud for incoming solar radiation using geostationary satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar surface insolation (SSI) represents how much solar radiance reaches the Earth's surface in a specified area and is an important parameter in various fields such as surface energy research, meteorology, and climate change. This study calculates insolation using Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT-1R) data with a simplified cloud factor over Northeast Asia. For SSI retrieval from the geostationary satellite data, the physical model of Kawamura is modified to improve insolation estimation by considering various atmospheric constituents, such as Rayleigh scattering, water vapor, ozone, aerosols, and clouds. For more accurate atmospheric parameterization, satellite-based atmospheric constituents are used instead of constant values when estimating insolation. Cloud effects are a key problem in insolation estimation because of their complicated optical characteristics and high temporal and spatial variation. The accuracy of insolation data from satellites depends on how well cloud attenuation as a function of geostationary channels and angle can be inferred. This study uses a simplified cloud factor that depends on the reflectance and solar zenith angle. Empirical criteria to select reference data for fitting to the ground station data are applied to suggest simplified cloud factor methods. Insolation estimated using the cloud factor is compared with results of the unmodified physical model and with observations by ground-based pyranometers located in the Korean peninsula. The modified model results show far better agreement with ground truth data compared to estimates using the conventional method under overcast conditions.

Yeom, Jong-Min; Han, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Jae-Jin

2012-05-01

124

Temporal behavior of a ventilated claystone at the Tournemire URL: Cross-spectral analyses focused on daily harmonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main topic of this communication is the presentation of study, auscultation and supervision procedures of deep geological radioactive waste storage repositories using natural harmonic forcings. In this paper, the effects of natural ventilation on the macroscopic behavior of a clayrock are investigated by means of time series recorded underground over a period of two years in the eastern part of Gallery 1996 at the Tournemire Underground Research Laboratory (URL). This study is based on time series acquired in theatmosphere, at the gallery wall surface, and inside the rock mass. It includes measured signals from 6 thermo-hygrometers, 5 crack-meters (measuring the displacement of 2 shrinkage cracks and 3 tectonic fractures), and a 1 meter-FDR (Frequency Domain Reflectometry) profile probe equipped with 6 sensors for measuring the volumetric pore-water content into the rock mass. Auto-spectral and cross-spectral analyses using the concept of Singular Spectrum Harmonics (SSHs and cross-SSHs) are developed. Our analyses and interpretations focus here mainly on the solar diurnal atmospheric tide (denoted S1 ). This tide corresponds to the insolation cycle of the Earth atmosphere during a mean Solar Day (24 h 00 min). This component is tracked throughout the various measured signals ("Spectral Tracking" of tide fluctuations across signals). This is equivalent, in a way, to analyzing the temporal behavior of the URL during a "Mean Solar Day on Earth". Results indicate that the daily natural forcing caused mainly by a combination of barometric and temperature related fluctuations, is the most important effect overall on our various signals. The daily harmonic induces the fluctuations of gallery air temperature, relative and absolute air humidity and it leads to desaturation of the claystone, which in turn leads to the claystone deformation and damage. The effects of the annual harmonic SA may also be significant (it was fully analyzed in the more complete version of this work); however the SA results are not presented here because the spectral resolution on the annual harmonic is insufficient at this stage with only 2 years and 2 months of clean recorded data. Focusing the present study on daily fluctuations, the cross-spectral time shifts were obtained from the phase spectrum, for the daily component S1, for various pairs of pore-water content sensors located at different distances from the gallery wall. These time shifts were then used to quantify a "spectral velocity" which is found to be on the same order than the hydraulic conductivities deduced previously from pneumatic tests performed in the Excavation Damaged Zone of Gallery 1996.

Bailly, David; Matray, Jean-Michel; Ababou, Rachid

2014-12-01

125

Mediterranean Quaternary sapropels, an immediate response of the African monsoon to variation of insolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rossignol-Strick, M., 1985. Mediterranean Quaternary sapropels, an immediate response of the African monsoon to variation of insolation. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 49: 237--263. In the subsurface of the East Mediterranean Sea, eleven discrete basin-wide, organic- rich, black sapropels were deposited during the last 465 000 years. They are dated by oxygen isotopic chronostratigraphy. The too.st recent sapropel has been shown to

MARTINE ROSSIGNOL-STRICK

1985-01-01

126

Changes in windlass effect in response to different shoe and insole designs during walking.  

PubMed

Windlass effect occurs during the pre-swing phase of gait cycle in which the peak tensile strain and force of the plantar aponeurosis (PA) is reached. The increased dorsiflexion angle of the 1st metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint is the main causing factor. The aim of this study was to investigate thoroughly in finding the appropriate shoe and insole combination that can effectively decrease the windlass effect. Foot kinematic analyses of 10 normal volunteers (aged 25.2±2.1 years, height of 167.4±9.1 cm, and weight of 66.2±18.1 kg) were performed during gait under the conditions of barefoot, standard shoe (SS) with flat insole (FI) or carbon fiber insole (CFI), and rocker sole shoe (RSS) with FI or CFI. The shoe cover consisting of transparent polymer was used for accurate measurement of kinematic data as specific areas on the cover can be cut away for direct placement of reflective markers onto the skin. Under barefoot condition, the mean of maximum dorsiflexion angle of the 1st MTP joint was measured to be 48.0±7.3°, and decreased significantly to 28.2±5.7° when wearing SS with FI, and 24.1±5.7° when wearing SS with CFI. This angle was further decreased to around 13° when wearing RSS with FI or CFI. Subjects wearing footwear alone can increase the minimum medial longitudinal angle and decrease the maximum plantarflexion angle of metatarsus related to the calcaneus as compared with barefoot condition, resulting in flatter medial foot arch. Results suggested that RSS is the effective footwear in reducing the windlass effect regardless the type of insole inserted. The findings in this study provided us with the evidences in finding the appropriate footwear for treating foot disorders such as plantar fasciitis by effectively reducing the windlass effect. PMID:22884544

Lin, Shih-Cherng; Chen, Carl P C; Tang, Simon F T; Wong, Alice M K; Hsieh, Jui-Hsiang; Chen, Weng-Pin

2013-02-01

127

Performance evaluation of two-dimensional compound elliptic lens concentrators using a yearly distributed insolation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical performance of a two-dimensional compound elliptic lens (2D-CEL) for a photovoltaic static concentrator module has been studied as a function of half-acceptance angle using an yearly distributed insolation model. The maximum yearly averaged optical concentration ratio of 1.75 was obtained for global radiation when the 2D-CEL was installed at a tilt angle equal to the latitude of Tokyo (N35°).

K. Yoshioka; A. Suzuki; T. Saitoh

1999-01-01

128

European research on solar-assisted air conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of waste heat, on the one hand, and solar heat, on the other, in order to energize sorption chillers is an important issue for increasing the energy efficiency of cooling machines. Especially in the air-conditioning business, a tight correlation often exists between insolation and cooling requirements. Therefore, the interest in solar cooling by sorption systems has prevailed for

P Lamp; F Ziegler

1998-01-01

129

Control Electronics for Solar/Flywheel Power Supply  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Control circuit automatically directs flow of electrical energy to and from motor with flywheel that constitutes storage element of solar-power system. When insolation is sufficient for charging, power is supplied by solar-cell array to load and motor. During periods of darkness, motor made to act as generator, drawing kinetic energy from flywheel and supplying it to load.

Nola, F. J.

1986-01-01

130

Incorporating Solar Electric Power into Rural Electrification Programs—A Case Study of Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, photovoltaic (PV) solar electric technology has matured to the point where solar power is now cost competitive with fossil fuel generators for use in remote, low power (<5 kW) applications. This technology is ideally suited for rural electrification in developing countries due to the high availability of solar insolation and the low power requirements in these regions.

PRITPAL SINGH

1991-01-01

131

A Fuzzy-Based Maximum Power Point Tracker for Body Mounted Solar Panels in LEO Satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar panels are the power subsystem components which provide satellite electrical power. Solar panels characteristics depend on environmental conditions (insolation level, temperature and etc.). In this paper, design and simulation of fuzzy-based MPPT for the body mounted solar panel in a LEO satellite are presented. To show how good the proposed technique is; we applied it into a real system.

M. Taherbaneh; M. B. Menhaj

2007-01-01

132

Project focus: Complete design of an interactive solar panel system to be situated on  

E-print Network

Project focus: · Complete design of an interactive solar panel system to be situated on top the effective area · Two types of solar cells: · 3 panel configurations: · Real-time power output data Si panels with 30.0o tilt c) 10 CdTe panels; 38.5o tilt · Solar insolation recorder, thermometer

133

Optimization of heat exchangers for solar concentrators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parametric study is done on heat exchangers to be used for cylindrical fixed mirror concentrators. The operational parameters, such as inlet fluid temperature, solar insolation, fluid flow rate, ambient temperature and wind velocities, are varied. The geometrical parameters, the absorber plate width and the diameter of the embedded copper tubes are also varied. The results of variation of these

P. R. Damshala; J. R. Williams

1978-01-01

134

Plantar pressure relief under the metatarsal heads - Therapeutic insole design using three-dimensional finite element model of the foot.  

PubMed

Therapeutic footwear with specially-made insoles is often used in people with diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis to relieve ulcer risks and pain due to high pressures from areas beneath bony prominences of the foot, in particular to the metatarsal heads (MTHs). In a three-dimensional finite element study of the foot and footwear with sensitivity analysis, effects of geometrical variations of a therapeutic insole, in terms of insole thicknesses and metatarsal pad (MP) placements, on local peak plantar pressure under MTHs and stress/strain states within various forefoot tissues, were determined. A validated musculoskeletal finite element model of the human foot was employed. Analyses were performed in a simulated muscle-demanding instant in gait. For many design combinations, increasing insole thicknesses consistently reduce peak pressures and internal tissue strain under MTHs, but the effects reach a plateau when insole becomes very thick (e.g., a value of 12.7mm or greater). Altering MP placements, however, showed a proximally- and a distally-placed MP could result in reverse effects on MTH pressure-relief. The unsuccessful outcome due to a distally-placed MP may attribute to the way it interacts with plantar tissue (e.g., plantar fascia) adjacent to the MTH. A uniform pattern of tissue compression under metatarsal shaft is necessary for a most favorable pressure-relief under MTHs. The designated functions of an insole design can best be achieved when the insole is very thick, and when the MP can achieve a uniform tissue compression pattern adjacent to the MTH. PMID:25620685

Chen, Wen-Ming; Lee, Sung-Jae; Lee, Peter Vee Sin

2015-02-26

135

A comparison of the biomechanical effects of valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles in patients with knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Increases in the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) have been associated with increased mechanical load at the knee and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles are common approaches to reducing this loading; however no study has directly compared the biomechanical and clinical effects of these two treatments in patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. A cross-over randomised design was used where each intervention was worn by 28 patients for a two week period. Pre- and post-intervention gait kinematic/kinetic data and clinical outcomes were collected to evaluate the biomechanical and clinical effects on the knee joint. The valgus knee brace and the lateral wedged insole significantly increased walking speed, reduced the early stance EKAM by 7% and 12%, and the knee adduction angular impulse by 8.6 and 16.1% respectively. The lateral wedged insole significantly reduced the early stance EKAM compared to the valgus knee brace (p=0.001). The valgus knee brace significantly reduced the knee varus angle compared to the baseline and lateral wedged insole. Improvements in pain and function subscales were comparable for the valgus knee brace and lateral wedged insole. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in any of the clinical outcomes; however the lateral wedged insoles demonstrated greater levels of acceptance by patients. This is the first study to biomechanically compare these two treatments, and demonstrates that given the potential role of knee loading in osteoarthritis progression, that both treatments reduce this but lateral wedge insoles appear to have a greater effect. PMID:22920242

Jones, Richard K; Nester, Christopher J; Richards, Jim D; Kim, Winston Y; Johnson, David S; Jari, Sanjiv; Laxton, Philip; Tyson, Sarah F

2013-03-01

136

Effectiveness of a heel cup with an arch support insole on the standing balance of the elderly  

PubMed Central

Background The use of insoles may enhance postural stability and prevent falls. The aim of this study was to design a new insole and to explore the effectiveness of the insole on the standing balance of the healthy elderly. Methods The study was conducted at a community hospital. Patients older than 65 years at an outpatient clinic without abnormal gait patterns, lower limb deformities, or foot pain were enrolled. The participants were assigned to good- and poor-stability groups on the basis of the stability index (SI), using the Biodex® Balance System. A heel cup with an arch support insole was provided. Participants wore the insole for 8 weeks for a minimum of 4 hours/day. A static balance test for SI was performed at the initial meeting and 8 weeks after the assigned insoles were worn for each participant. Results Five participants (10.0%) of 50 total did not finish the study. There were 25 patients in the good-stability group and 20 in the poor-stability group. The SI, before and after intervention, was significantly different for all 45 participants (3.244±0.688 versus 3.064±0.671; P<0.001). The differences in SI before and after the intervention both in the good-stability group (2.764±0.546 versus 2.592±0.538) and the poor-stability group (3.845±0.188 versus 3.655±0.128) were statistically significant (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference on changes of SI were seen between the two groups. Conclusion The results suggest a heel cup with arch support insole is effective in enhancing the standing balance of the elderly. This may be of benefit in preventing falls. PMID:24600215

Chen, Tzu-Hsuan; Chou, Li-Wei; Tsai, Mei-Wun; Lo, Ming-Jor; Kao, Mu-Jung

2014-01-01

137

Upper ocean climate of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene Insolation Maximum - a model study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine thousand years ago (9 ka BP), the Northern Hemisphere experienced enhanced seasonality caused by an orbital configuration close to the minimum of the precession index. To assess the impact of this "Holocene Insolation Maximum" (HIM) on the Mediterranean Sea, we use a regional ocean general circulation model forced by atmospheric input derived from global simulations. A stronger seasonal cycle is simulated by the model, which shows a relatively homogeneous winter cooling and a summer warming with well-defined spatial patterns, in particular, a subsurface warming in the Cretan and western Levantine areas. The comparison between the SST simulated for the HIM and a reconstruction from planktonic foraminifera transfer functions shows a poor agreement, especially for summer, when the vertical temperature gradient is strong. As a novel approach, we propose a reinterpretation of the reconstruction, to consider the conditions throughout the upper water column rather than at a single depth. We claim that such a depth-integrated approach is more adequate for surface temperature comparison purposes in a situation where the upper ocean structure in the past was different from the present-day. In this case, the depth-integrated interpretation of the proxy data strongly improves the agreement between modelled and reconstructed temperature signal with the subsurface summer warming being recorded by both model and proxies, with a small shift to the south in the model results. The mechanisms responsible for the peculiar subsurface pattern are found to be a combination of enhanced downwelling and wind mixing due to strengthened Etesian winds, and enhanced thermal forcing due to the stronger summer insolation in the Northern Hemisphere. Together, these processes induce a stronger heat transfer from the surface to the subsurface during late summer in the western Levantine; this leads to an enhanced heat piracy in this region, a process never identified before, but potentially characteristic of time slices with enhanced insolation.

Adloff, F.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Ku?era, M.; Grimm, R.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Schmiedl, G.; Emeis, K.-C.

2011-10-01

138

Galactic Cosmic Rays and Insolation are the Main Drivers of Global Climate of the Earth  

E-print Network

An energy-balance model of global climate, which takes into account a nontrivial role of galactic cosmic rays, is developed. The model is described by the fold catastrophe equation relative to increment of temperature, where galactic cosmic rays and insolation are control parameters. The comparison of the results of a computer simulation of time-dependent solution of the presented model and oxygen isotope records of deep-sea core V28-238 over the past 730 kyr are presented. The climate evolution in future 100 kyr is also predicted.

V. D. Rusov; I. V. Radin; A. V. Glushkov; V. N. Vaschenko; V. N. Pavlovich; T. N. Zelentsova; O. T. Mihalys; V. A. Tarasov; A. Kolos

2005-06-22

139

Columbia Journalism Review Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The journalism school at Columbia University is held in high-regard by many for their commitment to training journalists that will hold a high standard of quality investigative reporting that will inspire future generations of like-minded individuals. As with many journalism schools, they have made great headway into offering both critique and comment on the changing world of journalism, and the Columbia Journalism Review Daily is a fine example of such efforts. The Daily was born in 2004 with a mandate to monitor coverage of the presidential election campaign, and has continued over the past several years by offering daily (and, at times, hourly) critiques of political journalism and analyses of the broader forces affecting press performance. Visitors to the homepage can read their commentaries and analyses, and also search the entire contents of the Daily via a handy search feature. Additionally, visitors can make their way through the Daily's archives, if they so wish.

140

Chronic daily headaches  

PubMed Central

Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches. PMID:23024563

Ahmed, Fayyaz; Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Khalil, Modar

2012-01-01

141

Temperature Controller for a Solar Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relatively-simple movable sheild has been suggested for controlling temperature of solar furnace. Temperature modulator can be set to have collected solar energy fully "on", fully "off" or any intermediate level. Parabolic mirror concentrates Sunlight into receiver. Shade plate that blocks insolation at back of receiver produces shade zone in center of collector. No radiation is returned to receiver from shade zone; only rays falling on other areas of reflecting surface are directed back toward receiver.

Hale, R. R.; Mcdougal, A. R.

1982-01-01

142

Immediate Effect of Postural Insoles on Gait Performance of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Preliminary Randomized Controlled Double-blind Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Improved gait efficiency is one of the goals of therapy for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Postural insoles can allow more efficient gait by improving biomechanical alignment. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of postural insoles on gait performance of children with CP classified as levels I or II of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). [Subjects and Methods] the study was a randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial. After meeting the legal aspects and the eligibility criteria, 10 children between four and 12?years old were randomly divided into a two groups: a control group (n=5), and an experimental group (n=5). Children in the control group used a placebo insoles, and children in the experimental group used postural insoles. Evaluation consisted of three-dimensional gait analysis under three conditions: barefoot, shoes without insoles and shoes with postural insoles or shoes with placebo insoles. [Results] Regarding the immediate effects of insole use, significant improvements in gait velocity and cadence were observed in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. [Conclusion] The use of postural insoles led to improvements in gait velocity and cadence of the children with cerebral palsy classified as levels I or II of the GMFCS. PMID:25140083

Neto, Hugo Pasini; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Duarte, Natália Almeida Carvalho; Christovão, Thaluanna Calil Lourenço; Franco de Oliveira, Luis Vicente; Dumont, Arislander Jonathan Lopes; Galli, Manuela; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

2014-01-01

143

Immediate Effect of Postural Insoles on Gait Performance of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Preliminary Randomized Controlled Double-blind Clinical Trial.  

PubMed

[Purpose] Improved gait efficiency is one of the goals of therapy for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Postural insoles can allow more efficient gait by improving biomechanical alignment. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of postural insoles on gait performance of children with CP classified as levels I or II of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). [Subjects and Methods] the study was a randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial. After meeting the legal aspects and the eligibility criteria, 10 children between four and 12?years old were randomly divided into a two groups: a control group (n=5), and an experimental group (n=5). Children in the control group used a placebo insoles, and children in the experimental group used postural insoles. Evaluation consisted of three-dimensional gait analysis under three conditions: barefoot, shoes without insoles and shoes with postural insoles or shoes with placebo insoles. [Results] Regarding the immediate effects of insole use, significant improvements in gait velocity and cadence were observed in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. [Conclusion] The use of postural insoles led to improvements in gait velocity and cadence of the children with cerebral palsy classified as levels I or II of the GMFCS. PMID:25140083

Neto, Hugo Pasini; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Duarte, Natália Almeida Carvalho; Christovão, Thaluanna Calil Lourenço; Franco de Oliveira, Luis Vicente; Dumont, Arislander Jonathan Lopes; Galli, Manuela; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

2014-07-01

144

Development of SmartStep: an insole-based physical activity monitor.  

PubMed

In our previous research we developed a SmartShoe--a shoe based physical activity monitor that can reliably differentiate between major postures and activities, accurately estimate energy expenditure of individuals, measure temporal gait parameters, and estimate body weights. In this paper we present the development of the next stage of the SmartShoe evolution--SmartStep, a physical activity monitor that is fully integrated into an insole, maximizing convenience and social acceptance of the monitor. Encapsulating the sensors, Bluetooth Low Energy wireless interface and the energy source within an assembly repeatedly loaded with high forces created during ambulation presented new design challenges. In this preliminary study we tested the ability of the SmartStep to measure the pressure differences between static weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities (such as no load vs. sitting vs. standing) as well as capture pressure variations during walking. We also measured long-term stability of the sensors and insole assembly under cyclic loading in a mechanical testing system. PMID:24111408

Sazonov, Edward S; Hegde, Nagaraj; Tang, Wenlong

2013-01-01

145

Augmentation of thermal power stations with solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept of integration of a solar concentrator field with a modern thermal power station is proposed. Such a configuration\\u000a would utilise the existing equipment and infrastructure as a base load facility and solar energy to reduce the fuel consumption\\u000a during periods of insolation. The methodology suggested involves feed water heating using a solar concentrator field and consequent\\u000a reduction

BR Pai

1991-01-01

146

Daily Life with Glaucoma  

MedlinePLUS

Daily Life with Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: ... and comforting. Don't let glaucoma limit your life Don’t let glaucoma limit your life. You ...

147

Managing Daily Life  

MedlinePLUS

Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts to have more problems moving around, consider making changes in ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

148

Tips for Daily Life  

MedlinePLUS

... chapter Join our online community Tips for Daily Life Coping skills will help you handle day-to- ... challenges, maximize your independence and live a meaningful life with your diagnosis. Accepting changes Creating a coping ...

149

Daily Life: At Home  

MedlinePLUS

... living with sma > daily life > at home At Home Many families affected by SMA choose to make ... many cases, modifications address both safety and accessibility. Home Modification Considerations Before making a decision on home ...

150

Daily Food Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will find daily food recommendations based upon their age, weight, height, and activity level. Standard 2 Objective1: a,b,c It is helpful to have a guide that can give us directions on the type and quantity of foods we should eat daily. Lets first view the basics of our food groups. Click the Food Group Basics link below and see if you can answer the questions provided. Food Group Basics What is the ...

Mr. Peterson

2011-09-18

151

Comparative study of peak power tracking techniques for solar storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the power supplied by solar arrays depends upon the insolation, temperature and array voltage, it is necessary to control the operating points to draw the maximum power of the solar array. The object of this paper is to investigate the maximum power tracking algorithms which were often used to compare the tracking efficiencies for the system operating under different

Chihchiang Hua; Chihming Shen

1998-01-01

152

Assessment of solar heating systems with seasonal storage in New England: systems using duct storage in rock and a heat pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report assesses seasonal storage of solar energy for the New England region, using duct storage in rock and a heat pump. The winter climate in New England requires large heating loads, and the winter insolation is inadequate for significant solar contributions from diurnal or passive systems. The abundant solar energy available during the remainder of the year could be

D. S. Breger; A. I. Michaels

1985-01-01

153

Simplified clear sky model for direct and diffuse insolation on horizontal surfaces  

SciTech Connect

A detailed comparison was made between five simple broadband models for clear sky global insolation. Compared models were those of Atwater and Ball, Davies and Hay, Watt, Hoyt, and Lacis and Hansen. A sixth simple model, called the Bird model, has been formulated by using parts of these five models and by comparison with the results from three rigorous radiative transfer codes. All of the simple models provide results that agree within < 10% with the three rigorous codes when the sun is in the zenith position. The Bird and Hoyt models agree within 3% with each other and with the results of the rigorous codes. However, the Bird model is easier to implement and has broader application than the Hoyt model.

Bird, R.E.; Hulstrom, R.L.

1981-02-01

154

Upper ocean climate of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene Insolation Maximum - a model study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine thousand years ago, the Northern Hemisphere experienced enhanced seasonality caused by an orbital configuration with a minimum of the precession index. To assess the impact of the "Holocene Insolation Maximum" (HIM) on the Mediterranean Sea, we use a regional ocean general circulation model forced by atmospheric input derived from global simulations. A stronger seasonal cycle is simulated in the model, which shows a relatively homogeneous winter cooling and a summer warming with well-defined spatial patterns, in particular a subsurface warming in the Cretan and Western Levantine areas. The comparison between the SST simulated for the HIM and the reconstructions from planktonic foraminifera transfer functions shows a poor agreement, especially for summer, when the vertical temperature gradient is strong. However, a reinterpretation of the reconstructions is proposed, to consider the conditions throughout the upper water column. Such a depth-integrated approach accounts for the vertical range of preferred habitat depths of the foraminifera used for the reconstructions and strongly improves the agreement between modelled and reconstructed temperature signal. The subsurface warming is recorded by both model and proxies, with a light shift to the south in the model results. The mechanisms responsible for the peculiar subsurface pattern are found to be a combination of enhanced downwelling and wind mixing due to strengthened Etesian winds, and enhanced thermal forcing due to the stronger summer insolation in the Northern Hemisphere. Together, these processes induce a stronger heat transfer from the surface to the subsurface during late summer in the Western Levantine; this leads to an enhanced heat piracy in this region.

Adloff, F.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Kucera, M.; Grimm, R.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Schmiedl, G.; Emeis, K.

2011-05-01

155

Hoover Daily Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hoover Institution at Stanford University is known for its many research projects, conferences, working papers, and distinguished fellows. Over the past several years, they have been tweaking various sections of their website, and the Daily Report provides ample evidence of this transformation. The Daily Report offers a "one-stop" online destination for interested parties to look at op-ed and commentary pieces by Hoover Fellows, blog posts, interviews, and related articles and quotes about the Hoover Institution and their associates. Users can browse the materials here by date, topic, or author, and they may also sign up here to receive the Daily Report by email. The site also is quite rich in social media and Web 2.0 features.

156

Effect of posture-control insoles on function in children with cerebral palsy: Randomized controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cerebral palsy (CP) is a posture and movement disorder and different therapeutic modalities, such as the use of braces, have sought to favor selective motor control and muscle coordination in such patients. The aim of the proposed study is to determine the effect of the combination of posture-control insoles and ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) improving functional limitation in children with CP. Methods/Design The sample will be composed of 24 children with CP between four and 12 years of age. After the signing of the statement of informed consent, the children will be randomly allocated to two groups: a control group using AFOs alone and an experimental group using both posture-control insoles and AFOs. Evaluations will be performed on five occasions: without any accessory (insoles or AFOs), immediately after, one month after, six months after and one year after AFOs or insole and AFOs use. The evaluation will involve the analysis of gait, static and functional balance, mobility and hypertonia. The three-dimensional assessment of gait will involve the eight-camera SMART-D SMART-D 140® system (BTS Engineering), two Kistler force plates (model 9286BA) and an eight-channel, wireless FREEEMG® electromyography (BTS Engineering). Static balance will be assessed using a Kistler force plate (model 9286BA). Clinical functional balance and mobility will be assessed using the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go Test and Six-Minute Walk Test. The posture-control insoles will be made of ethylene vinyl acetate, with thermal molding for fixation. The fixed orthoses will be made of polypropylene and attached to the ankle region (AFO). The results will be analyzed statistically, with the level significance set to 5% (p < 0.05). Trial Registration Trial Registration Number: RBR6d342s (http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/news/) PMID:23033863

2012-01-01

157

Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

Texas Child Care, 1993

1993-01-01

158

Feasibility of solar power for Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA, through Project Pathfinder, has put in place an advanced technology program to address future needs of manned space exploration. Included in the missions under study is the establishment of outposts on the surface of Mars. The Surface Power program in Pathfinder is aimed at providing photovoltaic array technology for such an application (as well as for the lunar surface). Another important application is for unmanned precursor missions, such as the photovoltaic-power aircraft, which will scout landing sites and investigate Mars geology for a 1 to 2 year mission without landing on the surface. Effective design and utilization of solar energy depend to a large extent on adequate knowledge of solar radiation characteristics in the region of solar energy system operation. The two major climatic components needed for photovoltaic system designs are the distributions of solar insolation and ambient temperature. These distributions for the Martian climate are given at the two Viking lander locations but can also be used, to the first approximation, for other latitudes. One of the most important results is that there is a large diffuse component of the insolation, even at high optical depth, so that solar energy system operation is still possible. If the power system is to continue to generate power even on high optical opacity days, it is thus important that the photovoltaic system be designed to collect diffuse irradiance as well as direct. In absence of long term insolation and temperature data for Mars, the data presented can be used until updated data are available. The ambient temperature data are given as measured directly by the temperature sensor; the insolation data are calculated from optical depth measurements of the atmosphere.

Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

1991-01-01

159

Local effects of partly-cloudy skies on solar and emitted radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer automated data acquisition system for atmospheric emittance, and global solar, downwelled diffuse solar, and direct solar irradiances is discussed. Hourly-integrated global solar and atmospheric emitted radiances were measured continuously from February 1981 and hourly-integrated diffuse solar and direct solar irradiances were measured continuously from October 1981. One-minute integrated data are available for each of these components from February 1982. The results of the correlation of global insolation with fractional cloud cover for the first year's data set. A February data set, composed of one-minute integrated global insolation and direct solar irradiance, cloud cover fractions, meteorological data from nearby weather stations, and GOES East satellite radiometric data, was collected to test the theoretical model of satellite radiometric data correlation and develop the cloud dependence for the local measurement site.

Whitney, D. A.; Venable, D. D.

1982-01-01

160

Design and experimental testing of the performance of an outdoor LiBr/H{sub 2}O solar thermal absorption cooling system with a cold store  

SciTech Connect

A domestic-scale prototype experimental solar cooling system has been developed based on a LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption system and tested during the 2007 summer and autumn months in Cardiff University, UK. The system consisted of a 12 m{sup 2} vacuum tube solar collector, a 4.5 kW LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption chiller, a 1000 l cold storage tank and a 6 kW fan coil. The system performance, as well as the performances of the individual components in the system, were evaluated based on the physical measurements of the daily solar radiation, ambient temperature, inlet and outlet fluid temperatures, mass flow rates and electrical consumption by component. The average coefficient of thermal performance (COP) of the system was 0.58, based on the thermal cooling power output per unit of available thermal solar energy from the 12 m{sup 2} Thermomax DF100 vacuum tube collector on a hot sunny day with average peak insolation of 800 W/m{sup 2} (between 11 and 13.30 h) and ambient temperature of 24 C. The system produced an electrical COP of 3.6. Experimental results prove the feasibility of the new concept of cold store at this scale, with chilled water temperatures as low as 7.4 C, demonstrating its potential use in cooling domestic scale buildings. (author)

Agyenim, Francis; Knight, Ian; Rhodes, Michael [The Welsh School of Architecture, Bute Building, King Edward VII Avenue, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3NB Wales (United Kingdom)

2010-05-15

161

GOES surface insolation to estimate wetlands evapotranspiration Jennifer M. Jacobsa,*, David A. Myersa  

E-print Network

significant improvements over the previous GOES system with respect to the visible sensor. The GOES solar; revised 8 May 2002; accepted 14 May 2002 Abstract Incoming solar radiation derived from GOES-8 satellite a growing season characterized by significant convective activity. The satellite solar radiation

162

Dependence on latitude of the relation between the diffuse fraction of solar radiation and the radiation and the ratio of global-to-extraterrestrial radiation for monthly average daily values  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for the prediction of the monthly average daily diffuse radiation, {bar H}{sub d}, was proposed by Page in 1961. The Page method is based on the use of the linear correlation {bar H}{sub d}\\/{bar H} = c + d{bar H}\\/{bar H}{sub o}, where {bar H} and {bar H}{sub o} are, respectively, the monthly average daily values of global

A Soler

1990-01-01

163

The effect of removing plugs and adding arch support to foam based insoles on plantar pressures in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background Removable plug insoles appear to be beneficial for patients with diabetic neuropathic feet to offload local plantar pressure. However, quantitative evidence of pressure reduction by means of plug removal is limited. The value of additional insole accessories, such as arch additions, has not been tested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of removing plugs from foam based insoles, and subsequently adding extra arch support, on plantar pressures. Methods In-shoe plantar pressure measurements were performed on 26 patients with diabetic neuropathic feet at a baseline condition, in order to identify the forefoot region with the highest mean peak pressure (MPP). This was defined as the region of interest (ROI) for plug removal.The primary outcome was measurement of MPP using the pedar® system in the baseline and another three insole conditions (pre-plug removal, post-plug removal, and post-plug removal plus arch support). Results Among the 26 ROIs, a significant reduction in MPP (32.3%, P<0.001) was found after removing the insole plugs. With an arch support added, the pressure was further reduced (9.5%, P<0.001). There were no significant differences in MPP at non-ROIs between pre- and post-plug removal conditions. Conclusions These findings suggest that forefoot plantar pressure can be reduced by removing plugs and adding arch support to foam-based insoles. This style of insole may therefore be clinically useful in managing patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PMID:23895323

2013-01-01

164

NOAA Daily Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

Hydrometeorological Prediction Center

2011-01-01

165

The distribution of solar energy at the earth's surface as calculated in the ECMWF Re-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the distribution of solar energy at the earth's surface is required for various practical and theoretical purposes. The solar fluxes calculated in Re-Analysis projects are promising since their radiative transfer calculations take into account the best current estimates of the humidity and temperature structure in the atmosphere. The present study assesses the quality of the insolation climatology of

Martin Wild; Atsumu Ohmura; Hans Gilgen; Jean-Jacques Morcrette

1998-01-01

166

Daily Food Checklist  

Cancer.gov

The daily food checklist method is a form of food record. The tool is comprised of a list of foods; over the course of a day, a respondent makes a check beside a food each time she or he eats it. The checklist shares an advantage of other record methods in that it does not rely on memory. In addition, it avoids some disadvantages of complete quantitative food records in that it has relatively low respondent and investigator burden.

167

Evolution of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation in the late Holocene and insolation driven change in the tropical annual SST cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South American lake sediment records indicate that El Nino events in the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) became more frequent after 3000 calendar years BP. The reason for this evolution of ENSO behavior remains in question. An important trigger for ocean-atmosphere state switching in the tropical ocean is the annual cycle of sea surface temperature south of the equator along the margin of South America. This annual cycle can be reconstructed from the oxygen isotope records of the surf clam Mesodesma donacium. We provide evidence that these isotope records, as preserved in archeological deposits in coastal central Peru, reflect seasonal paleo-SST. We find that the annual SST cycle in the eastern equatorial Pacific became larger over the 4500-2500 calendar year BP interval. This is consistent with increased ENSO variability. The magnification of the annual SST cycle can be attributed to changing insolation, indicating that ENSO is sensitive to the intensity and seasonal timing of solar heating of the southern EEP.

Loubere, Paul; Creamer, Winifred; Haas, Jonathan

2013-01-01

168

Ice sheets, insolation and CO2 during the interglacial MIS-13  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 13, an interglacial about 500,000 years ago, has been seen as the coolest interglacial of the past 800,000 years in proxy records of the Southern Ocean and Antarctica. Its CO2 concentration is also lower than that of other interglacials and is about 40 ppmv lower than at pre-industrial time. It is also an obviously weak interglacial in marine oxygen isotope records. Its sea level could be 20 m lower than today if the benthic ?18O is assumed to be a signal of only ice volume. All these let assume that ice sheets other than Greenland might have existed in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) during MIS-13. However, this is questioned by the fact that diverse proxy records from the NH suggest that MIS-13 was as warm as or even warmer than other interglacials. Here we investigate the NH ice sheet configuration during MIS-13 through a modeling approach involving two climate models and two ice sheets models. An offline NH ice sheet model (NHISM) is forced by precipitation and temperature fields provided by transient simulations made with the climate model LOVECLIM. These 50,000-year long transient simulations cover the whole peak of MIS-13.1 (including the two peaks MIS-13.11, -13.13 and the stadial MIS-13.12) and take into account changes in CO2 concentration, insolation and ice sheets which are provided by simulations of a climate-ice sheet coupled model (CLIMBER-SICOPOLIS). LOVECLIM-NHISM and CLIMBER-SICOPOLIS give similar results although small differences exist. Interestingly, both pairs of models simulate no significant additional ice sheets in the NH at the two peaks MIS-13.11 and -13.13. This means that the effect of a 40ppmv lower CO2 concentration is counterbalanced by higher summer insolation when NH summer occurs at perihelion. However, a non-negligible Scandinavian ice sheet is simulated during the stadial MIS-13.12. This time, in the framework of a NH summer occurring at aphelion (like today), the lower CO2 concentration can initiate an additional ice sheets in the NH. More information about how climate and ice sheets respond to different forcings will be further discussed.

Yin, Qiuzhen; Berger, Andre; Ganopolski, Andrey; Goelzer, Heiko; Guo, Zhengtang; Huybrechts, Philippe

2014-05-01

169

Guide to exporting for US solar companies  

SciTech Connect

Reasons for US solar manufacturers to export are discussed; and, after a descision has been made to export solar equipment and technology, how to export and where to export are primary goals. The manual presents some basic information to answer the how and where. It provides information concerning the services which are currently available to facilitate entry into foreign markets and the basic social, economic, and solar insolation data on over 70 foreign markets are presented. Statistical profile information for the 70 countries include population; per capita income; primary languages, literacy rate; ratio of urban and rural areas; monetary unit; population density; GNP; energy production; energy consumption; energy reserves; trade with US. (MCW)

Thompson, P.

1981-06-01

170

A comparison of customised and prefabricated insoles to reduce risk factors for neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration: a participant-blinded randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration may be prevented if the mechanical stress transmitted to the plantar tissues is reduced. Insole therapy is one practical method commonly used to reduce plantar loads and ulceration risk. The type of insole best suited to achieve this is unknown. This trial compared custom-made functional insoles with prefabricated insoles to reduce risk factors for ulceration of neuropathic diabetic feet. Method A participant-blinded randomised controlled trial recruited 119 neuropathic participants with diabetes who were randomly allocated to custom-made functional or prefabricated insoles. Data were collected at issue and six month follow-up using the F-scan in-shoe pressure measurement system. Primary outcomes were: peak pressure, forefoot pressure time integral, total contact area, forefoot rate of load, duration of load as a percentage of stance. Secondary outcomes were patient perceived foot health (Bristol Foot Score), quality of life (Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life). We also assessed cost of supply and fitting. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results There were no differences between insoles in peak pressure, or three of the other four kinetic measures. The custom-made functional insole was slightly more effective than the prefabricated insole in reducing forefoot pressure time integral at issue (27% vs. 22%), remained more effective at six month follow-up (30% vs. 24%, p=0.001), but was more expensive (UK £656 vs. £554, p<0.001). Full compliance (minimum wear 7 hours a day 7 days per week) was reported by 40% of participants and 76% of participants reported a minimum wear of 5 hours a day 5 days per week. There was no difference in patient perception between insoles. Conclusion The custom-made insoles are more expensive than prefabricated insoles evaluated in this trial and no better in reducing peak pressure. We recommend that where clinically appropriate, the more cost effective prefabricated insole should be considered for use by patients with diabetes and neuropathy. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov (NCT00999635). Note: this trial was registered on completion. PMID:23216959

2012-01-01

171

A solar powered vaccine storage refrigerator that can be powered by a single truck battery  

SciTech Connect

In developing countries, kerosene powered vaccine storage refrigerators are gradually being replaced by PV powered units. The weak link in these solar powered systems is typically the deep cycle battery bank. When the batteries fail, replacements will probably have to be imported. Often the logistics of funding, recycling and transportation of these batteries may be difficult to arrange. Sun Frost has developed a vaccine refrigerator that will run on a single 100 amp battery, an automotive battery if need be. Vaccine is stored in the refrigerator section of these units, while the freezer section is used to freeze ice packs to transport the vaccine. This new dual compressor model keeps the battery bank in a shallow cycle mode by shutting off the freezer compartment when the battery is significantly discharged. The PV system can then keep the refrigerator compartment running while shallow cycling the battery even during the most severe weather conditions. The system operation has been simulated by using daily solar data. Results show that the operation of the freezer will rarely be interrupted. Another advantage is that if this system is installed in a location where insolation levels are lower than expected, the refrigerator compartment will maintain reliable operation for keeping the vaccines cold, while only the freezer's ice making capabilities would be effected.

Schlussler, L.

1999-07-01

172

Solar Angles and Tracking Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the daily and annual cycles of solar angles used in power calculations to maximize photovoltaic power generation. They gain an overview of solar tracking systems that improve PV panel efficiency by following the sun through the sky.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

173

Investigations on postural stability and spatiotemporal parameters of human gait using developed wearable smart insole.  

PubMed

Abstract Measurement of spatiotemporal parameters of human gait is important for designing new, intelligent and efficient prosthetic and orthotic devices. The paper presents a novel application of smart insole for measuring force generated at various pressure points during dynamic gait on a human foot. Besides recording and analysing the spatiotemporal parameters during stance phase, the developed sensor is also used for development of active orthotic devices. Data from the sensors is analysed in LabVIEW software for detection of plantar force and temporal gait parameters. The smart instrumentation allows processing, display and storage of gait parameters and gait events in real time. Variations of pressure pattern reported by gait experiments can also be used in identifying an accidental fall. This information will be used as a feedback signal for controlling the motion of an indigenously developed gait assistive device, i.e. an active orthotic device. Pressure at the heel and great toe points is higher than the metatarsal heads during dynamic walk. It is higher at the heel and metatarsals points than the toe point during standing position. PMID:25350821

Das, Ratan; Kumar, Neelesh

2015-01-01

174

The Biomechanical Effect of the Sensomotor Insole on a Pediatric Intoeing Gait  

PubMed Central

Background. The sensomotor insole (SMI) has clinically been shown to be successful in treating an intoeing gait. We investigated the biomechanical effect of SMI on a pediatric intoeing gait by using three-dimensional gait analysis. Methods. Six patients with congenital clubfeet and four patients with idiopathic intoeing gait were included. There were five boys and five girls with the average age at testing of 5.6 years. The torsional profile of the lower limb was assessed clinically. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed in the same shoes with and without SMI. Results. All clubfeet patients exhibited metatarsal adductus, while excessive femoral anteversion and/or internal tibial torsion was found in patients with idiopathic intoeing gait. SMI showed significant decreased internal rotation of the proximal femur in terminal swing phase and loading response phase. The internal rotation of the tibia was significantly smaller in mid stance phase and terminal stance phase by SMI. In addition, SMI significantly increased the walking speed and the step length. Conclusions. SMI improved abnormal gait patterns of pediatric intoeing gait by decreasing femoral internal rotation through the end of the swing phase and the beginning of the stance phase and by decreasing tibial internal rotation during the stance phase. PMID:24977075

Mabuchi, Akiyoshi; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Inoue, Masato; Hayashi, Mitsuhiko; Ishiguro, Naoki; Suzuki, Nobuharu

2012-01-01

175

Insolation driven biomagnetic response to the Holocene Warm Period in semi-arid East Asia.  

PubMed

The Holocene Warm Period (HWP) provides valuable insights into the climate system and biotic responses to environmental variability and thus serves as an excellent analogue for future global climate changes. Here we document, for the first time, that warm and wet HWP conditions were highly favourable for magnetofossil proliferation in the semi-arid Asian interior. The pronounced increase of magnetofossil concentrations at ~9.8?ka and decrease at ~5.9?ka in Dali Lake coincided respectively with the onset and termination of the HWP, and are respectively linked to increased nutrient supply due to postglacial warming and poor nutrition due to drying at ~6?ka in the Asian interior. The two-stage transition at ~7.7?ka correlates well with increased organic carbon in middle HWP and suggests that improved climate conditions, leading to high quality nutrient influx, fostered magnetofossil proliferation. Our findings represent an excellent lake record in which magnetofossil abundance is, through nutrient availability, controlled by insolation driven climate changes. PMID:25614046

Liu, Suzhen; Deng, Chenglong; Xiao, Jule; Li, Jinhua; Paterson, Greig A; Chang, Liao; Yi, Liang; Qin, Huafeng; Pan, Yongxin; Zhu, Rixiang

2015-01-01

176

Insolation driven biomagnetic response to the Holocene Warm Period in semi-arid East Asia  

PubMed Central

The Holocene Warm Period (HWP) provides valuable insights into the climate system and biotic responses to environmental variability and thus serves as an excellent analogue for future global climate changes. Here we document, for the first time, that warm and wet HWP conditions were highly favourable for magnetofossil proliferation in the semi-arid Asian interior. The pronounced increase of magnetofossil concentrations at ~9.8?ka and decrease at ~5.9?ka in Dali Lake coincided respectively with the onset and termination of the HWP, and are respectively linked to increased nutrient supply due to postglacial warming and poor nutrition due to drying at ~6?ka in the Asian interior. The two-stage transition at ~7.7?ka correlates well with increased organic carbon in middle HWP and suggests that improved climate conditions, leading to high quality nutrient influx, fostered magnetofossil proliferation. Our findings represent an excellent lake record in which magnetofossil abundance is, through nutrient availability, controlled by insolation driven climate changes. PMID:25614046

Liu, Suzhen; Deng, Chenglong; Xiao, Jule; Li, Jinhua; Paterson, Greig A.; Chang, Liao; Yi, Liang; Qin, Huafeng; Pan, Yongxin; Zhu, Rixiang

2015-01-01

177

Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (???3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

Tanaka, K.L.

2005-01-01

178

Insolation driven biomagnetic response to the Holocene Warm Period in semi-arid East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Holocene Warm Period (HWP) provides valuable insights into the climate system and biotic responses to environmental variability and thus serves as an excellent analogue for future global climate changes. Here we document, for the first time, that warm and wet HWP conditions were highly favourable for magnetofossil proliferation in the semi-arid Asian interior. The pronounced increase of magnetofossil concentrations at ~9.8 ka and decrease at ~5.9 ka in Dali Lake coincided respectively with the onset and termination of the HWP, and are respectively linked to increased nutrient supply due to postglacial warming and poor nutrition due to drying at ~6 ka in the Asian interior. The two-stage transition at ~7.7 ka correlates well with increased organic carbon in middle HWP and suggests that improved climate conditions, leading to high quality nutrient influx, fostered magnetofossil proliferation. Our findings represent an excellent lake record in which magnetofossil abundance is, through nutrient availability, controlled by insolation driven climate changes.

Liu, Suzhen; Deng, Chenglong; Xiao, Jule; Li, Jinhua; Paterson, Greig A.; Chang, Liao; Yi, Liang; Qin, Huafeng; Pan, Yongxin; Zhu, Rixiang

2015-01-01

179

Insolation and glacial-interglacial control on southwestern African hydroclimate over the past 140 000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past climate evolution of southwestern Africa is poorly understood and interpretations of past hydrological changes are sometimes contradictory. Here we present a record of leaf-wax ?D and ?C13 taken from a marine sediment core at 23°S off the coast of Namibia to reconstruct the hydrology and C3 versus C4 vegetation of southwestern Africa over the last 140 000 years (140 ka). We find lower leaf-wax ?D and higher ?C13 (more C4 grasses), which we interpret to indicate wetter Southern Hemisphere (SH) summer conditions and increased seasonality, during SH insolation maxima relative to minima and during the last glacial period relative to the Holocene and the last interglacial period. Nonetheless, the dominance of C4 grasses throughout the record indicates that the wet season remained brief and that this region has remained semi-arid. Our data suggest that past precipitation increases were derived from the tropics rather than from the winter westerlies. Comparison with a record from the Congo Basin indicates that hydroclimate in southwestern Africa has evolved in antiphase with that of central Africa over the last 140 ka.

Collins, James A.; Schefuß, Enno; Govin, Aline; Mulitza, Stefan; Tiedemann, Ralf

2014-07-01

180

Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars.  

PubMed

Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (approximately 3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. PMID:16222294

Tanaka, Kenneth L

2005-10-13

181

HEPROC Daily Gazette  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The HEPROC Daily Gazette Web page offers features stories about technology adaptations, assessment, faculty development, quality, and announcements of interest to the Higher Education community. Current items include: new ways to keep alumni together, increased sharing across the Internet, collaborative publication resources, an online help center, career center online, and recommendations for interactive learning. Additional features address collaboration and electronic tools in the humanities, adopting radical change in the "classroom", the Iowa State University Center for Teaching Excellence, tenure and change, collaboration with primary and secondary education, and undergraduate scholarship.

182

Spatial synchronization of an insole pressure distribution system with a 3D motion analysis system for center of pressure measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insole pressure systems are often more appropriate than force platforms for analysing center of pressure (CoP) as they are\\u000a more flexible in use and indicate the position of the CoP that characterizes the contact foot\\/shoe during gait with shoes.\\u000a However, these systems are typically not synchronized with 3D motion analysis systems. The present paper proposes a direct\\u000a method that does

Laetitia Fradet; Johannes Siegel; Marieke Dahl; Merkur Alimusaj; Sebastian I. Wolf

2009-01-01

183

An introduction to quiet daily geomagnetic fields  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On days that are quiet with respect to solar-terrestrial activity phenomena, the geomagnetic field has variations, tens of gamma in size, with major spectral components at about 24, 12, 8, and 6 hr in period. These quiet daily field variations are primarily due to the dynamo currents flowing in the E region of the earth's ionosphere, are driven by the global thermotidal wind systems, and are dependent upon the local tensor conductivity and main geomagnetic field vector. The highlights of the behavior and interpretation of these quiet field changes, from their discovery in 1634 until the present, are discussed as an introduction to the special journal issue on Quiet Daily Geomagnetic Fields. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.

Campbell, W.H.

1989-01-01

184

PLANETARY RADII ACROSS FIVE ORDERS OF MAGNITUDE IN MASS AND STELLAR INSOLATION: APPLICATION TO TRANSITS  

E-print Network

; Beaulieuetal.2006).Comparative planetology, which once included only our solar system's planets and moons, now includes sub-Neptuneto super-Jupiter-mass plan- ets in other solar systems. Currently the most important for calculations of structure and con- traction of many planets) although one planet, HD 149026b, appears to be $2

Metchev, Stanimir

185

Math in Daily Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Math in the "real world" happens all the time, and it can involve everything from buying a car to following a simple (or complex) recipe. The "Math in Daily Life" site offers up a series of interesting ways to get students thinking about how math works in everyday life. Created by Annenberg Media, this set of interactive exercises looks at the manifestation of mathematical principles in areas of life such as home decorating, finances, and of course, cooking. In each section, users will find hands-on exercises that complement well-written essays that help introduce visitors to seven different topical areas. Finally, the site includes a list of relevant websites, including links to The Math Forum, the U.S. Census Bureau, and The Metric Conversion Card.

2008-01-24

186

The Cornell Daily Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cornell University Library and the Cornell Daily Sun have teamed up to offer access to the complete run of this student newspaper. The paper was first published in September 1880, and over the intervening years it has served as a repository for the hopes, dreams, activities, and general milieu of the members of the Cornell community. Currently, visitors may browse issues dating back to 1880 in their entirety, and the project will eventually allow users to search the entire Sun archives for articles by subject, writer, or date. Visitors can use the "Search" section to type in sample searches like "Ithaca," "sports," or "library." It's an ambitious project, and one that could serve as an ideal model for other student newspapers and related publications hoping to take on a similar challenge.

187

New daily persistent headache  

PubMed Central

New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. PMID:23024565

Tyagi, Alok

2012-01-01

188

ArchDaily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Billed as the "world's most visited architecture website,â ArchDaily is a treasure trove of materials on new building projects, architectural trends, design matters, and competitions. Along the top of its homepage, visitors can delve into areas that include News, Articles, Materials, Software, and Interviews. This last area is a great place to start as it includes fabulous conversations with notables such as Jeanne Gang, Jean-Louis Cohen, and Andreas G. Gjertsen. Moving along, the Materials section offers specific technical information on equipment, finishes, installation techniques, and structural work. The Projects area contains information on new and compelling works, such as the Soundcloud Headquarters in Berlin and the Bagnoli Futura in Italy.

189

A long-term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here a new solution for the astronomical computation of the insolation quantities on Earth spanning from -250 Myr to 250 Myr. This solution has been improved with respect to La93 (Laskar et al. \\cite{Laskar1993}) by using a direct integration of the gravitational equations for the orbital motion, and by improving the dissipative contributions, in particular in the evolution of the Earth-Moon System. The orbital solution has been used for the calibration of the Neogene period (Lourens et al. \\cite{Lourens2004}), and is expected to be used for age calibrations of paleoclimatic data over 40 to 50 Myr, eventually over the full Palaeogene period (65 Myr) with caution. Beyond this time span, the chaotic evolution of the orbits prevents a precise determination of the Earth's motion. However, the most regular components of the orbital solution could still be used over a much longer time span, which is why we provide here the solution over 250 Myr. Over this time interval, the most striking feature of the obliquity solution, apart from a secular global increase due to tidal dissipation, is a strong decrease of about 0.38 degree in the next few millions of years, due to the crossing of the s6+g5-g6 resonance (Laskar et al. \\cite{Laskar1993}). For the calibration of the Mesozoic time scale (about 65 to 250 Myr), we propose to use the term of largest amplitude in the eccentricity, related to g2-g5, with a fixed frequency of 3.200''/yr, corresponding to a period of 405 000 yr. The uncertainty of this time scale over 100 Myr should be about 0.1%, and 0.2% over the full Mesozoic era.

Laskar, J.; Robutel, P.; Joutel, F.; Gastineau, M.; Correia, A. C. M.; Levrard, B.

2004-12-01

190

Racing strategy and car design for staged solar car races using simulation of environmental and vehicular parameters  

SciTech Connect

This paper develops an algorithm for a racing strategy such that the overall elapsed time for a solar car in a staged race is minimized within the constraints of energy availability. Additionally, factors (operating parameters) affecting car operation are explored, as well as opportunities to maximize car efficiency through design. The end product is computer program in which various environmental and vehicular parameters are entered, and the car's speed for any particular race course segment is the output. These operating parameters include external environmental factors such as insolation (including present and predicted), road distance and grade, speed limits, and wind velocity. The vehicle operating parameters include such factors as drag, drivetrain performance and efficiency, and solar system and battery characteristics and efficiencies. With the algorithm developed in this paper, the speed is varied for different road segments of each daily leg of the race. At the end of each road segment, the optimum speed for all the remaining segments is determined, based on the current and expected environmental and vehicle operating conditions for the rest of the road segments. This algorithm takes into consideration a non-efficient battery system and accommodates motor efficiency data. The car's energy usage for each segment of the course is simulated for various speeds and the local segment environmental conditions.

Seitzmeyer, R.L.; Morehouse, J.H.

1999-07-01

191

Concentrating solar thermal power as a viable alternative in China's electricity supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of low-carbon and pollution renewable alternatives for China revealed that concentrating solar thermal (CST) electric power generation was underemphasized in China's renewable energy plan. The analysis shows the competitive viability of CST: (1) China has the key prerequisites to make CST power generation economical including high-quality insolation and appropriate land, (2) CST's proven history, scale, and dispatchability makes it

John Chung-Ling Chien; Noam Lior

2011-01-01

192

A solar-powered organic vapour power cycle with electricity generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic and technological assessment is made of Rankine-cycle solar power plants employing an organic working fluid such as Freon 12. Consideration extends to global and seasonal patterns of insolation, and the design and performance of flat-plate collector, turbine, and Freon boiler and condenser elements of a system such as the medium-sized house tested at Hatfield, England.

A. Kenkare

1981-01-01

193

Solar radiation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation models for predicting the average daily and hourly global radiation, beam radiation and diffuse radiation are reviewed in this paper. Seven models using the Ångström–Prescott equation to predict the average daily global radiation with hours of sunshine are considered. The average daily global radiation for Hong Kong (22.3°N latitude, 114.3°E longitude) is predicted. Estimations of monthly average hourly

L. T. Wong; W. K. Chow

2001-01-01

194

Effects of insolation on habitability and the isotopic history of Martian water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three aspects of the Habitability of the Northern Plains of Mars to organics and terrestrial-like microbial life were assessed. (1) Protection offered by small surface features and; (2) the breakdown of rocks to form soils were examined using a radiative transfer computer model. Two separate sublimation experiments provided a basis to improve; (3) estimates of the amount of available water today and in the past by determining the fractionation of HDO between present-day reservoirs. (1) UV radiation sterilizes the hardiest of terrestrial organisms within minutes on the Martian surface. Small surface features including pits, trenches, flat faces and overhangs may create "safe havens" for organisms by blocking much of the UV flux. In the most favorable cases, this flux is sufficiently reduced such that organic in-fall could accumulate beneath overhanging surfaces and in pits and cracks while terrestrial microorganisms could persist for several tens of martian years. (2) The production of soils on the surface is considered by analogy with the arid US Southwest. Here differential insolation of incipient cracks of random orientations predicts crack orientation distributions consistent with field observations by assuming that only crack orientations which shield their interiors, minimizing their water loss, can grow, eventually disrupting the clast. (3) Disaggregated water ice to simulate the polar caps was produced by flash freezing in liquid nitrogen and crushing. When dust was added to the mixtures, the D/H ratio of the sublimate gas was seen to decrease with time from the bulk ratio. The more dust was added to the mixture, the more pronounced was this effect. The largest fractionation factor observed during these experiments was 2.5. Clean ice was also prepared and overlain by dust to simulate ground ice. Here, the movement of water vapor was modeled using an effective diffusivity that incorporated both adsorption on grains and diffusion. For low temperatures (<-55°C) a significant difference between the diffusivities of H 2 O and HDO was observed. This suggests adsorptive-control within the regolith as energies of interaction are 60-70kJmol -1 . This ability of the martian regolith to preferentially adsorb HDO decouples the ice table and polar caps from the atmosphere and allows for geographic variations in the D/H ratio on Mars.

Moores, John

195

Quantification of Daily Physical Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

1994-01-01

196

Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

Krupka, M. C.

1980-09-01

197

Solar powered desalination system  

E-print Network

efficiency for a PV system is a ratio of the electrical power output to the solarSolar Energy Calculator using Google Maps 23 Table 1.24: PV System Power Production Average Daily Irradiance (kWh/m2) Instillation Efficiencysolar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiency is 10%. (STH conversion efficiency is power

Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

2011-01-01

198

Solar Week 2001 Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource offers a week of online curriculum with daily topics on the Sun, including Sun as a Star, the Sun Close Up, Solar Activity, Eclipses, and Careers organized for Solar Week 2011. Each day contains a game, an activity, topical questions, a related Life Science topic, teacher information, and an Ask the Scientist page.

2001-03-01

199

Destruction of Sun-Grazing Comet C-2011 N3 (SOHO) Within the Low Solar Corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of comets in Sun-grazing orbits that survive solar insolation long enough to penetrate into the Suns inner corona provide information on the solar atmosphere and magnetic field as well as on the makeup of the comet. On 6 July 2011, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observed the demise of comet C2011 N3 (SOHO) within the low solar corona in five wavelength bands in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). The comet penetrated to within 0.146 solarradius (100,000 kilometers) of the solar surface before its EUV signal disappeared.

Schrijver, C. J.; Brown, J. C.; Battams, K.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Liu, W.; Hudson, H.; Pesnell, W. D.

2012-01-01

200

Ash loading and insolation at Hanford, Washington during and after the eruption of Mount St. Helens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of volcanic ash suspended in the atmosphere on the incident solar radiation was monitored at the Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS) subsequent to the major eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980. Passage of the ash plume over Hanford resulted in a very dramatic decrease of solar radiation intensity to zero. A reduction in visibility to less than 1 km was observed, as great quantities of ash fell out of the plume onto the ground. Ash loading in the atmosphere remained very high for several days following the eruption, primarily as a result of resuspension from the surface. Visibilities remained low (2 to 8 km) during this period. Estimates of atmospheric turbidity were made from the ratio of diffuse-to-direct solar radiation; these turbidities were used to estimate extinction along a horizontal path, a quantity which can be related to visibility. Comparisons of observed and estimated visibilities were very good, in spite of the rather coarse approximations used in the estimates. Atmospheric clarity and visibility improved to near pre-eruption conditions following a period of rain showers. The diffuse-to-direct ratio of solar radiation provided a useful index for estimating volcanic ash loading of the atmosphere.

Laulainen, N. S.

1982-01-01

201

Salt gradient solar pond technology in the US  

SciTech Connect

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has concluded that a potential exists for salt-gradient solar ponds. In a solar pond, there are three layers of salinity. The top layer absorbs sunlight, the middle serves as an insulator, while allowing radiation to pass through to the bottom layer, of the thickest salinity, which stores the energy. Selection of a site of adequate insolation, inexpensive land, free from aquifer interference, is discussed. The pond is filled by the injection procedure, as outlined. Costs vary dramatically based on site parameter limitations of insolation, water, salt, and aquifer. DOE has initiated RandD programs to address the problem of gradient zone erosion, characterize the parameters of heat extraction, and investigate the interactions of soil and brine. A feasibility study has been made at Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley. Other sites are being studied.

Macaleer, B.S.; Rannels, J.E.

1982-06-01

202

Performance correlations of five solar collectors tested simultaneously outdoors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collector thermal efficiency, and efficiency degradation with time were measured for 5 flat-plate solar collectors tested simultaneously in an outdoor solar collector test facility. Results indicate that by using collector performance parameters which account for diffuse isolation, outdoor data recorded on cloud days can be used as a measure of performance, as long as the ratio of direct to total insolation exceeds approximately 0.6. These outdoor results also show good agreement with thermal efficiency data obtained indoors in a solar simulator. Significant efficiency degradation occurred on only one of the five collectors exposed to outdoor conditions for a period of one to two years.

Miller, D. R.

1976-01-01

203

Three computer codes to read, plot and tabulate operational test-site recorded solar data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer programs used to process data that will be used in the evaluation of collector efficiency and solar system performance are described. The program, TAPFIL, reads data from an IBM 360 tape containing information (insolation, flowrates, temperatures, etc.) from 48 operational solar heating and cooling test sites. Two other programs, CHPLOT and WRTCNL, plot and tabulate the data from the direct access, unformatted TAPFIL file. The methodology of the programs, their inputs, and their outputs are described.

Stewart, S. D.; Sampson, R. S., Jr.; Stonemetz, R. E.; Rouse, S. L.

1980-01-01

204

Daily Egyptian Diversity News Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed as part of the online collections at Southern Illinois University-Carbondale's Morris Library, the Daily Egyptian Diversity News Index provides historical insight into the campus climate at this unique school. In 2006, Dr. Seymour Bryson, the associate chancellor for diversity, teamed up with several other colleagues to identify articles in the Daily Egyptian (the University's student newspaper) related to the university's historic minority campus populations. The project entailed surveying microfilm and creating searchable transcripts for online access. Currently, the online archive contains over 1,400 items from the Daily Egyptian, and content includes pieces on African American members of the homecoming court, student activists, musical groups, and student government.

205

The Solar Decathlon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In October 2002, teams of students from universities around the US competed in the Solar Decathlon, an eleven-day event that challenges the participants "to design, build, and operate the most effective and efficient solar-powered house." The Solar Decathlon homepage features information about the contest, the different designs, and the experiences of each team. Contestants also share their insight into energy conservation and solar power by providing some tips for consumers. An especially interesting section is the contest diaries, where the participants record their progress and challenges in a daily journal. The next Solar Decathlon will not be held until 2005.

2002-01-01

206

Development and testing of shingle-type solar cell molecules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The details of a shingle module design which produces in excess of 97 watts/sq m of module area at 1 kW/sq m insolation and at 60 C are reported. This selected design employs a tempered glass coverplate to provide the primary solar cell structural support. The fabrication and testing of a preproduction module of this design has demonstrated that this selected approach will meet the environmental testing requirements imposed by the contract.

Shepard, N. F.

1978-01-01

207

Evaluation of solar heating systems with seasonal storage in New England. Systems using duct storage in rock and heat pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Evaluation focuses on the New England region of the United States, and considers seasonal storage of solar energy using duct storage in rock and a heat pump. Adequate bedrock for large scale storage is available in the New England region and the climate, which includes cold, relatively cloudy winters and summers with substantial insolation, makes seasonal storage technology of

D. S. Breger; A. I. Michaels

1985-01-01

208

Daily Records of the Changing Sun by the Skylab-3 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This montage shows changing faces of the Sun, recorded daily during the 59 days spent in orbit by Skylab's second crew. The Sun spun more than two full turns around its axis. Solar rotation is apparent in these daily portraits, as are real changes on the Sun. Bright features are centers of activity on the Sun. This image contains daily records from September 6, 1973 through September 24, 1973.

1973-01-01

209

Daily Records of the Changing Sun by the Skylab-3 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This montage shows changing faces of the Sun, recorded daily during the 59 days spent in orbit by Skylab's second crew. The Sun spun more than two full turns around its axis. Solar rotation is apparent in these daily portraits, as are real changes on the Sun. Bright features are centers of activity on the Sun. This image contains daily records from July 28, 1973 through August 16, 1973.

1973-01-01

210

Daily Records of the Changing Sun by the Skylab-3 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This montage shows changing faces of the Sun, recorded daily during the 59 days spent in orbit by Skylab's second crew. The Sun spun more than two full turns around its axis. Solar rotation is apparent in these daily portraits, as are real changes on the Sun. Bright features are centers of activity on the Sun. This image contains daily records from August 17, 1973 through September 5, 1973.

1973-01-01

211

Generating daily weather data for ecosystem modelling in the Congo River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily weather data are an important constraint for diverse applications in ecosystem research. In particular, temperature and precipitation are the main drivers for forest ecosystem productivity. Mechanistic modelling theory heavily relies on daily values for minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation, incident solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit. Although the number of climate measurement stations increased during the last centuries, there

Richard Petritsch; Stephan A. Pietsch

2010-01-01

212

Riding the Wave to Reach the Masses: Natural Events in Early Twentieth Century Portuguese Daily Press  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper brings together science communicated in newspapers in Portugal by looking at how news on natural events were communicated in two different newspapers--the capital newspaper "Diario de Noticias" ("Daily News") and the "Diario dos Acores" ("Azores Daily"). In particular, we look at how the 1900 solar eclipse, a hot topic throughout…

Simoes, Ana; Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula

2012-01-01

213

A Comparison of Ground Reaction Forces Determined by Portable Force-Plate and Pressure-Insole Systems in Alpine Skiing  

PubMed Central

For the determination of ground reaction forces in alpine skiing, pressure insole (PI) systems and portable force plate (FP) systems are well known and widely used in previous studies. The purposes of this study were 1) to provide reference data for the vertical component of the ground reaction forces (vGRF) during alpine skiing measured by the PI and FP systems, and 2) to analyze whether the differences in the vGRF measured by the PI and the FP depend on a skier’s level, skiing mode and pitch. Ten expert and ten intermediate level skiers performed 10 double turns with the skiing technique “Carving in Short Radii” as High Dynamic Skiing mode and “Parallel Ski Steering in Long Radii” as Low Dynamic Skiing mode on both the steep (23 °) and the flat (15 °) slope twice. All subjects skied with both the PI and the FP system simultaneously. During the outside phase, the mean vGRF and the maximum vGRF determined by the FP are greater than the PI (p < 0.01). Additionally during the inside phase, the mean vGRF determined by the FP were greater than the PI (p < 0.01). During the edge changing phases, the mean vGRF determined by the FP were greater than the PI (p < 0.01). However, the minimum vGRF during the edge changing phases determined by the FP were smaller than the PI (p < 0.01) in the High-Steep skiing modes of Experts and Intermediates (p < 0.001). We have found that generally, the PI system underestimates the total vGRF compared to the FP system. However, this difference depends not only the phase in the turn (inside, outside, edge changing), but also is affected by the skier’s level, the skiing mode performed and pitch. Key points Typically, during the steering phases of the ski turns the total vGRFs measured by the pressure-insole system were lower compared to the portable force-plate system. However, in some skiing modes during the edge changing phase, the pressure-insole system overestimates the total vGRF compared to the portable force-plate system. Differences between the forces determined by the both systems depend on the phase in the turn (inside, outside, edge changing) and are affected additionally by the skier’s level, the performed skiing mode and pitch. PMID:24149570

Nakazato, Kosuke; Scheiber, Peter; Müller, Erich

2011-01-01

214

A comparison of ground reaction forces determined by portable force-plate and pressure-insole systems in alpine skiing.  

PubMed

For the determination of ground reaction forces in alpine skiing, pressure insole (PI) systems and portable force plate (FP) systems are well known and widely used in previous studies. The purposes of this study were 1) to provide reference data for the vertical component of the ground reaction forces (vGRF) during alpine skiing measured by the PI and FP systems, and 2) to analyze whether the differences in the vGRF measured by the PI and the FP depend on a skier's level, skiing mode and pitch. Ten expert and ten intermediate level skiers performed 10 double turns with the skiing technique "Carving in Short Radii" as High Dynamic Skiing mode and "Parallel Ski Steering in Long Radii" as Low Dynamic Skiing mode on both the steep (23 °) and the flat (15 °) slope twice. All subjects skied with both the PI and the FP system simultaneously. During the outside phase, the mean vGRF and the maximum vGRF determined by the FP are greater than the PI (p < 0.01). Additionally during the inside phase, the mean vGRF determined by the FP were greater than the PI (p < 0.01). During the edge changing phases, the mean vGRF determined by the FP were greater than the PI (p < 0.01). However, the minimum vGRF during the edge changing phases determined by the FP were smaller than the PI (p < 0.01) in the High-Steep skiing modes of Experts and Intermediates (p < 0.001). We have found that generally, the PI system underestimates the total vGRF compared to the FP system. However, this difference depends not only the phase in the turn (inside, outside, edge changing), but also is affected by the skier's level, the skiing mode performed and pitch. Key pointsTypically, during the steering phases of the ski turns the total vGRFs measured by the pressure-insole system were lower compared to the portable force-plate system.However, in some skiing modes during the edge changing phase, the pressure-insole system overestimates the total vGRF compared to the portable force-plate system.Differences between the forces determined by the both systems depend on the phase in the turn (inside, outside, edge changing) and are affected additionally by the skier's level, the performed skiing mode and pitch. PMID:24149570

Nakazato, Kosuke; Scheiber, Peter; Müller, Erich

2011-01-01

215

Solar Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is intended to spark pre- and early teen girls' interest in pursuing careers in science through the study of recent solar physics discoveries. The set of daily activities is self-contained, so participation can be carried out on a day-to-day basis depending upon your schedule. One of the great strengths of this project is the interaction with real scientists who have first hand knowledge of the various topics which make up Solar Week. These activities will also be available after the period chosen for Solar Week, without real-time interaction with scientists. This website is designed as a week-long unit. Each day covers a different topic.

216

solar thermal power systems advanced solar thermal technology project, advanced subsystems development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary design for a prototype small (20 kWe) solar thermal electric generating unit was completed, consisting of several subsystems. The concentrator and the receiver collect solar energy and a thermal buffer storage with a transport system is used to provide a partially smoothed heat input to the Stirling engine. A fossil-fuel combustor is included in the receiver designs to permit operation with partial or no solar insolation (hybrid). The engine converts the heat input into mechanical action that powers a generator. To obtain electric power on a large scale, multiple solar modules will be required to operate in parallel. The small solar electric power plant used as a baseline design will provide electricity at remote sites and small communities.

1979-01-01

217

Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

Dudley, V.E. [EG and G MSI, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-11-01

218

Solar Terrestrial Activity Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chock-full of data page is hosted by the DX-listeners club (folks who search for distant radio signals). At the top is a graph of solar flux, sunspot number, and planetary A index, measured every five days, from October 30, 2000 to the present. Next come links to more data and graphs on solar energy, cycles, etc. Recent Solar and Geomagnetic Data, Solar Wind, and Electron Fluence Charts are updated daily. Also on-site are data for Solar Cycles 1-23; a Graphical Comparison of Cycles 21, 22 and 23; a Graphical Comparison of Cycles 10, 13, 17, 20 and 23; and Historical Solar and Geomagnetic data charts 1954-2000. In addition, users will find data and data links including active solar region maps, geomagnetic forecasts, and reports of recent solar activities such as flares and coronal mass injections.

219

Climatology: Contrails reduce daily temperature range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

Travis, David J.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Lauritsen, Ryan G.

2002-08-01

220

Sensitivity of Asian and African climate to variations in seasonal insolation, glacial ice cover, sea surface temperature, and Asian orography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general circulation model was used to investigate the sensitivity of Asian and African climate to prescribed changes in boundary conditions with the objective of identifying the relative importance of individual high-latitude glacial boundary conditions on seasonal climate and providing a physical basis for interpreting the paleoclimate record. The circulation model is described and results are presented. Insolation forcing increased summer Asian monsoon winds, while increased high-latitude ice cover strengthened winter Asian trade winds causing decreased precipitation. These factors had little effect on African climate. Cooler North Atlantic sea surface temperatures enhanced winter trade winds over North Africa, southern Asian climate was relatively unaffected. Reducing Asian orography enhanced Asian winter circulation while decreasing the summer monsoon. These model results suggest that African and southern Asian climate respond differently to separate elements of high-latitude climate variability.

Demenocal, Peter B.; Rind, David

1993-01-01

221

Winter to Spring Transition in Europe 48-45 degrees N: From Temperature Control by Advection to Control by Insolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As established in previous studies, and analyzed further herein for the years 1988-1998, warm advection from the North Atlantic is the predominant control of the surface-air temperature in northern-latitude Europe in late winter. This thesis is supported by the substantial correlation Cti between the speed of the southwesterly surface winds over the eastern North Atlantic, as quantified by a specific Index Ina, and the 2-meter level temperature Ts over central Europe (48-54 deg N; 5-25 deg E), for January, February and early March. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation Cti drops drastically (quite often it is negative). The change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-air temperature. As (a) the sun rises higher in the sky, (b) the snows melt (the surface absorptivity can increase by a factor of 3.0), (c) the ocean-surface winds weaken, and (d) the temperature difference between land and ocean (which we analyze) becomes small, absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control of the continental temperature. We define the onset of spring by this transition, which evaluated for the period of our study occurs at pentad 16 (Julian Date 76, that is, March 16). The control by insolation means that the surface is cooler under cloudy conditions than under clear skies. This control produces a much smaller interannual variability of the surface temperature and of the lapse rate than prevailing in winter, when the control is by advection. Regional climatic data would be of greatest value for agriculture and forestry if compiled for well-defined seasons. For continental northern latitudes, analysis presented here of factors controlling the surface temperature appears an appropriate tool for this task.

Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Hu, H.; Jusem, J. C.; Starr, D.

1999-01-01

222

Metamorphism of stratified firn at Dome Fuji, Antarctica: A mechanism for local insolation modulation of gas transport conditions during bubble close off  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the structure of a 112.59 m long firn core recovered at Dome Fuji, East Antarctica, was investigated in order to improve understanding of firn densification and bubble formation processes, which are important for interpreting local insolation proxies used for astronomical dating of deep ice cores. Using selected samples, we measured physical properties including (1) the relative dielectric

Shuji Fujita; Junichi Okuyama; Akira Hori; Takeo Hondoh

2009-01-01

223

Intervention Study to Improve Quality of Life and Health Problems of Community-Living Elderly Women in Japan by Shoe Fitting and Custom-Made Insoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To maintain and improve foot environment that forms the basis of everyday life of the elderly is an important issue not only from the viewpoint to provide support for functional capacity, but also to maintain the quality of life (QOL) of the elderly. Objective: To determine the effects of shoe-fitting guidance and wearing shoes with custom-made insoles (CMI) on

Ayano Kusumoto; Takao Suzuki; Hideyo Yoshida; Jinhee Kwon

2007-01-01

224

Emerging NOAA Surface Solar Radiation for Solar Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar power has been growing at an annual rate of 40% in recent years. By 2025 it could grow to 10% of U.S. power needs. Sunlight is the fuel for solar power generation technologies, and as such one needs to know the quality and future availability of the fuel for accurate analysis of system performance. Sunlight (solar radiation) at the surface has been routinely estimated in real time from measurements of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) operated by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS). The GOES solar radiation data have been made available in the GOES Surface and Insolation Product (GSIP) suite since January 1996 for the contiguous U.S. every daytime hour at a spatial resolution of ~50 km (GSIP-V1). Since April 2009, solar radiation retrievals have been performed at a higher spatial resolution (~14 km) and cover larger areas (GSIP-V2). The GSIP-V1 data have recently been screened for quality, adjusted for changes in calibration, and parameters useful for the solar energy sector have been derived for the period of 1999-2009. In this presentation, we describe the quality control process and various adjustments applied, and provide examples of selected solar energy parameters (average, midday and clear-sky insolation, clear-sky days, diffuse and direct normal radiation, etc.) and their evaluation. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), one of the flagship instruments of NOAA's new geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will expand frequency and coverage of multispectral remote sensing of atmospheric and surface properties. The planned rapid observations (5-15 minutes) from ABI provide an opportunity to obtain information needed for solar energy applications where frequent observations of solar radiation reaching the surface are essential for planning and load management. The ABI algorithm, that is quite different from the one applied in GSIP-V1 and V2, uses atmospheric and surface data retrieved from multiple narrow bands using algorithms dedicated to the retrieval of these data. The algorithm is currently run with proxy data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the EOS satellites Terra and Aqua and the Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the recently launched Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite. The ABI algorithm will be explained as well as examples will be shown.

Kondratovich, V.; Laszlo, I.; Liu, H.

2012-12-01

225

Solar Pumped Lasers and Their Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1980, NASA has been pursuing high power solar lasers as part of the space power beaming program. Materials in liquid, solid, and gas phases have been evaluated against the requirements for solar pumping. Two basic characteristics of solar insolation, namely its diffuse irradiance and 5800 K blackbody-like spectrum, impose rather stringent requirements for laser excitation. However, meeting these requirements is not insurmountable as solar thermal energy technology has progressed today, and taking advantage of solar pumping lasers is becoming increasingly attractive. The high density photons of concentrated solar energy have been used for mainly electric power generation and thermal processing of materials by the DOE Solar Thermal Technologies Program. However, the photons can interact with materials through many other direct kinetic paths, and applications of the concentrated photons could be extended to processes requiring photolysis, photosynthesis, and photoexcitation. The use of solar pumped lasers on Earth seems constrained by economics and sociopolitics. Therefore, prospective applications may be limited to those that require use of quantum effects and coherency of the laser in order to generate extremely high value products and services when conventional and inexpensive means are ineffective or impossible. The new applications already proposed for concentrated solar photons, such as destruction of hazardous waste, production of renewable fuel, production of fertilizer, and air/water pollution controls, may benefit from the use of inexpensive solar pumped laser matched with the photochemical kinetics of these processes.

Lee, Ja H.

1991-01-01

226

Solar pumped lasers and their applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1980, NASA has been pursuing high power solar lasers as part of the space power beaming program. Materials in liquid, solid, and gas phases have been evaluated against the requirements for solar pumping. Two basic characteristics of solar insolation, namely its diffuse irradiance and 5800 K blackbody-like spectrum, impose rather stringent requirements for laser excitation. However, meeting these requirements is not insurmountable as solar thermal energy technology has progressed today, and taking advantage of solar pumping lasers is becoming increasingly attractive. The high density photons of concentrated solar energy have been used for mainly electric power generation and thermal processing of materials by the DOE Solar Thermal Technologies Program. However, the photons can interact with materials through many other direct kinetic paths, and applications of the concentrated photons could be extended to processes requiring photolysis, photosynthesis, and photoexcitation. The use of solar pumped lasers on Earth seems constrained by economics and sociopolitics. Therefore, prospective applications may be limited to those that require use of quantum effects and coherency of the laser in order to generate extremely high value products and services when conventional and inexpensive means are ineffective or impossible. The new applications already proposed for concentrated solar photons, such as destruction of hazardous waste, production of renewable fuel, production of fertilizer, and air/water pollution controls, may benefit from the use of inexpensive solar pumped laser matched with the photochemical kinetics of these processes.

Lee, Ja H.

227

Analytical modeling of line focus solar collectors  

SciTech Connect

Solar thermal electric power generation systems and industrial process heat systems generating steam through flash vaporization require a constant outlet temperature from the collector field. This constant temperature is most efficiently maintained by adjusting the circulating fluid flow rate. Successful design of analog controllers for this regulation requires knowledge of system dynamics and the nonlinear nature of the system parameters. Simplified models relating deviations in outlet temperature to changes in inlet temperature, insolation, and fluid flow rate illustrate the basic responses and the distributed-parameter nature of line focus collectors. Detailed models are used to develop transfer functions and frequency response curves useful for design.

Wright, J.D.

1980-04-01

228

Tractor Operation and Daily Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for the tractor operator, the manual describes, with the aid of colored illustrations and diagrams, the tasks involved in the proper operation and daily maintenance of tractors. It offers explanations for the desirability of the various servicing and adjustment operations, as well as guidelines for tractor operation and safety. The…

Fore, J. M.; And Others

229

Daily Log 2009 September 2009  

E-print Network

Location: Parking Lot I Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Two vehicle accident; no injuries. #12;Daily Location: Lot E Disposition: Report--Open Comments: Student parking permit taken from unlocked vehicle to hospital by ambulance. Report #: 2009-00486 Reported: 09/29/09 2116 Occurred: Same Incident: Traffic Crash

Boyce, Richard L.

230

2011 Daily Log February 2011  

E-print Network

: 02/28/2011 1349 Incident: Traffic Crash Location: Lot D Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Two: 02/26/2011 Incident: Hit and Skip Location: Lot P Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Unknown vehicle struck parked vehicle and left the scene. #12;2011 Daily Log Report #: 2011-00110 Reported: 02

Boyce, Richard L.

231

Web searching for daily living  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new concept proposed in this paper is a query free web search that automatically retrieves a web page including information re- lated to the daily activity that we are currently engaged in for auto- matically displaying the page on Internet-connected domestic ap- pliances around us such as televisions. When we are washing a coffee maker, for example, a web

Takuya Maekawa; Yutaka Yanagisawa; Yasushi Sakurai; Yasue Kishino; Koji Kamei; Takeshi Okadome

2009-01-01

232

2010 Daily Log January 2010  

E-print Network

off the road and into a ditch; no injuries. #12;2010 Daily Log Report #: 2010-00042 Reported: 01: 01/31/10 1852 Occurred: Same Incident: Traffic Stop Location: Johns Hill Road Disposition: Citation vehicle accident with injuries; vehicle towed. Report #: 2010-00047 Reported: 01/28/10 2113 Occurred: Same

Boyce, Richard L.

233

Value of thermal storage in solar IPH systems  

SciTech Connect

The value of thermal storage for three solar industrial process heat systems has been determined for storage capacities of 3 to 4000 hours. The dominant source of storage value is backup fuel savings with additional value derived from increased capital equipment utilization and elimination. A computer simulation was used to model the operation of the solar IPH system and predict the amount of fuel saved by heat delivered from storage. Sensitivity of storage value to process temperature, collector cost, load profile, insolation, and storage efficiency have been calculated. Storage values ranged from near zero to as high as $42/kWh of storage capacity.

Hock, S.M.; Karpuk, M.E.

1980-12-01

234

Criteria for the evaluation of laser solar energy converter systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assuming that a parabolic insolation-collection mirror-based solar pumped laser has a collector and heat emitter whose weights are proportional to their areas, and that the weight of the laser is negligible by comparison, the output power/unit weight can be expressed in terms of the efficiencies and working temperatures of the system. This ratio appears to be several times higher for an IBr laser than for one operating on C3F7I, because the solar utilization efficiency is greater for the former despite its lower working temperature.

Harries, W. L.

1985-01-01

235

UVIS CCD Daily Monitor A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program obtains full-frame, four-amp readout bias and dark frames as part of a daily monitor of the behavior of the WFC3/UVIS CCD. All images are post-flashed at a level of 12 e-; a separate program {13559} will be used to obtain un-flashed UVIS darks to monitor non-postflashed behavior. The frames from this proposal, in addition to those that are obtained as part of the WFC3/UVIS anneal program {13554}, will be used to create superbias and superdark calibration reference files for the Calibration Database System {CDBS}.This is the first of three daily monitoring programs of Cycle 21 {the others are 13557 and 13558}. It covers November 2, 2013 through February 24, 2014. The combination of the three programs provides full coverage of Cycle 21.

Bourque, Matthew

2013-10-01

236

UVIS CCD Daily Monitor C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program obtains full-frame, four-amp readout bias and dark frames as part of a daily monitor of the behavior of the WFC3/UVIS CCD. All images are post-flashed at a level of 12 e-; a separate program {13559} will be used to obtain un-flashed UVIS darks to monitor non-postflashed behavior. The frames from this program, in addition to those that are obtained as part of the WFC3/UVIS anneal program {13554}, will be used to create superbias and superdark calibration reference files for the Calibration Database System {CDBS}.This program is the second of three daily monitoring programs of Cycle 21 {the others being 13556 and 13557}. This program spans June 18, 2013 through November 4, 2014. The combination of this and the other programs span the entirety of Cycle 21.

Bourque, Matthew

2013-10-01

237

UVIS CCD Daily Monitor B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program obtains full-frame, four-amp readout bias and dark frames as part of a daily monitor of the behavior of the WFC3/UVIS CCD. All images are post-flashed at a level of 12 e-; a separate program {13559} will be used to obtain un-flashed UVIS darks to monitor non-postflashed behavior. The frames from this program, in addition to those that are obtained as part of the WFC3/UVIS anneal program {13554}, will be used to create superbias and superdark calibration reference files for the Calibration Database System {CDBS}.This program is the second of three daily monitoring programs of Cycle 21 {the others being 13556 and 13558}. This program spans February 24, 2013 through June 18, 2014. The combination of this and the other programs span the entirety of Cycle 21.

Bourque, Matthew

2013-10-01

238

Cloud cover estimation: Use of GOES imagery in development of cloud cover data base for insolation assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of using digital satellite data to establish a cloud cover data base for the United States, one that would provide detailed information on the temporal and spatial variability of cloud development are studied. Key elements include: (1) interfacing GOES data from the University of Wisconsin Meteorological Data Facility with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's VICAR image processing system and IBIS geographic information system; (2) creation of a registered multitemporal GOES data base; (3) development of a simple normalization model to compensate for sun angle; (4) creation of a variable size georeference grid that provides detailed cloud information in selected areas and summarized information in other areas; and (5) development of a cloud/shadow model which details the percentage of each grid cell that is cloud and shadow covered, and the percentage of cloud or shadow opacity. In addition, comparison of model calculations of insolation with measured values at selected test sites was accomplished, as well as development of preliminary requirements for a large scale data base of cloud cover statistics.

Huning, J. R.; Logan, T. L.; Smith, J. H.

1982-01-01

239

Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

2013-01-01

240

Influence of pressure-relief insoles developed for loaded gait (backpackers and obese people) on plantar pressure distribution and ground reaction forces.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to test the effects of two pressure relief insoles developed for backpackers and obese people on the ground reaction forces (GRF) and plantar pressure peaks during gait; and to compare the GRF and plantar pressures among normal-weight, backpackers, and obese participants. Based on GRF, plantar pressures, and finite element analysis two insoles were manufactured: flat cork-based insole with (i) corkgel in the rearfoot and forefoot (SLS1) and with (ii) poron foam in the great toe and lateral forefoot (SLS2). Gait data were recorded from 21 normal-weight/backpackers and 10 obese participants. The SLS1 did not influence the GRF, but it relieved the pressure peaks for both backpackers and obese participants. In SLS2 the load acceptance GRF peak was lower; however, it did not reduce the plantar pressure peaks. The GRF and plantar pressure gait pattern were different among the normal-weight, backpackers and obese participants. PMID:24468683

Peduzzi de Castro, Marcelo; Abreu, Sofia; Pinto, Viviana; Santos, Rubim; Machado, Leandro; Vaz, Mario; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

2014-07-01

241

Evaluation of initial collector field performance at the Langley Solar Building Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal performance of the solar collector field for the NASA Langley Solar Building Test Facility is given for October 1976 through January 1977. A 1,180 square meter solar collector field with seven collector designs helped to provide hot water for the building heating system and absorption air conditioner. The collectors were arranged in 12 rows with nominally 51 collectors per row. Heat transfer rates for each row were calculated and recorded along with sensor, insolation, and weather data every five minutes using a minicomputer. The agreement between the experimental and predicted collector efficiencies was generally within five percentage points.

Boyle, R. J.; Jensen, R. N.; Knoll, R. H.

1977-01-01

242

Evaluation of initial collector field performance at the Langley Solar Building Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal performance of the solar collector field for the NASA Langley Solar Building Test Facility is given for October 1976 through January 1977. An 1180 square meter solar collector field with seven collector designs helped to provide hot water for the building heating system and absorption air conditioner. The collectors were arranged in 12 rows with nominally 51 collectors per row. Heat transfer rates for each row are calculated and recorded along with sensor, insolation, and weather data every 5 minutes using a mini-computer. The agreement between the experimental and predicted collector efficiencies was generally within five percentage points.

Boyle, R. J.; Knoll, R. H.; Jensen, R. N.

1977-01-01

243

The application of simulation modeling to the cost and performance ranking of solar thermal power plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small solar thermal power systems (up to 10 MWe in size) were tested. The solar thermal power plant ranking study was performed to aid in experiment activity and support decisions for the selection of the most appropriate technological approach. The cost and performance were determined for insolation conditions by utilizing the Solar Energy Simulation computer code (SESII). This model optimizes the size of the collector field and energy storage subsystem for given engine generator and energy transport characteristics. The development of the simulation tool, its operation, and the results achieved from the analysis are discussed.

Rosenberg, L. S.; Revere, W. R.; Selcuk, M. K.

1981-01-01

244

Residential heating costs: a comparison of geothermal, solar and conventional resources  

SciTech Connect

The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. These costs are very sensitive to location - being dependent on the local prices of conventional energy supplies, local solar insolation, cimate, and the proximity and temperature of potential geothermal resources. The sharp price increases in imported fuels during 1979 and the planned decontrol of domestic oil and natural gas prices have set the stage for geothermal and solar market penetration in the 1980's.

Bloomster, C.H.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.

1980-08-01

245

Solar Village--Educational Initiative for Kids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a model of a solar village in the context of the school which does not contribute to air pollution by using only solar energy. Suggests that pupils would be active participants in building systems and understanding the contact between the knowledge of the basic science of solar energy and the technology processes in daily life.…

Hugerat, Muhamad; Ilyian, Salman; Toren, Zehava; Anabosi, Fawzi

2003-01-01

246

Schrepel, Eric From: SolarRichard  

E-print Network

Power. I have daily energy production in Watt Hours from my Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System for the pastSchrepel, Eric From: SolarRichard Sent: Thursday, April 15, 2004 10:00 PM To: Jenkins, Kris Subject are producing power from the sun. Conservation is the first step to energy independence using Solar Photovoltaic

247

Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

Reynolds, John S.

248

Validated, unified model for optics and heat transfer in line-axis concentrating solar energy collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rigorous numerical simulation model for the prediction of the combined optical and thermofluid behaviour of line-axis concentrating solar energy collectors combines two-dimensional steady-state finite element analysis of convective heat transfer and ray-trace techniques. The optical analysis considers both direct and diffuse insolation components and is therefore useful for the analysis of compound parabolic concentrating collectors. Experiments using Mach-Zehnder interferometry

P. C. Eames; B. Norton

1993-01-01

249

A new method for estimating the turbulent heat flux at the bottom of the daily mixed layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is presented for estimating the vertical turbulent heat flux at the bottom of the daily mixed layer from the temperature data in the mixed layer and net solar irradiance data at the sea surface. We assume that fluctuations in the divergence of advective heat flux have longer than daily time scales. The method is applied to data

Shiro Imawaki; Pearn P. Niiler; Catherine H. Gautier; David Halpern; Robert A. Knox; William G. Large; Douglas S. Luther; James C. McWilliams; James N. Moum; Clayton A. Paulson

1988-01-01

250

Daily cycles in coastal dunes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.

1988-01-01

251

Once-daily aminoglycoside therapy.  

PubMed Central

The once-daily administration of aminoglycosides is an attractive concept. In animal experiments and clinical trials, there is either a reduction in or no influence on the risk of toxicity. Less frequent dosing reduces the contact time between host tissue binding sites and drug. Thanks to the PAE and perhaps other as-yet-unrecognized factors, the fall in the level in serum below the MIC does not appear to impair antibacterial efficacy; in fact, the higher peak level in serum may enhance drug efficacy early in a dosage interval. In neutropenic patients, the in vivo PAE may be lost or small-colony variants with a shorter PAE may be selected unless a concomitant beta-lactam is administered. Because it will be some time before data from clinical trials in the United States are available, because the results from the international trials are encouraging, and because there is potential benefit to patients, it seems reasonable for infectious diseases consultants to cautiously initiate the educational process necessary to implement once-daily aminoglycoside therapy in their institutions. PMID:2039189

Gilbert, D N

1991-01-01

252

Using Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how solar energy can be used to heat water. Learners first discuss energy usage in their daily lives and then divide into pairs to conduct an experiment in which they use the sun to heat water. As an optional extension, learners can follow this activity with a project to design their own alternative energy invention.

History, American M.

2008-01-01

253

Daily Medicine Record for Your Child  

MedlinePLUS

... and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Safely Daily Medicine Record for Your Child (English) (PDF version - 97KB) Why ... 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) Time ...

254

27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records...accurate and complete daily records of production operations. It is not...

2014-04-01

255

27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records...accurate and complete daily records of production operations. It is not...

2013-04-01

256

27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records...accurate and complete daily records of production operations. It is not...

2011-04-01

257

27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records...accurate and complete daily records of production operations. It is not...

2012-04-01

258

Neural networks with artificial bee colony algorithm for modeling daily reference evapotranspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigates the ability of artificial neural networks (ANN) with artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm in daily\\u000a reference evapotranspiration (ET0) modeling. The daily climatic data, solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed from two stations,\\u000a Pomona and Santa Monica, in Los Angeles, USA, are used as inputs to the ANN–ABC model so as to estimate ET0 obtained

Coskun Ozkan; Ozgur Kisi; Bahriye Akay

259

The effect of lateral wedge insoles in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis: balancing biomechanics with pain neuroscience.  

PubMed

Results on the effects of lateral wedge insoles (LWIs) in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) are ambiguous and not fully understood. Because of the low cost of this intervention and its clinical utility, attention to LWIs is worth considering. Current insights on the efficacy of LWIs are mainly focused on changing biomechanical aspects, such as the external knee adduction moment, in an attempt to influence pain, functional ability and structural progression. It is however appropriate to interpret the effectiveness of LWIs in a broader concept than the pure biomechanical approach. Given our current understanding of OA-related pain, including the involvement of the central nervous system and nociception-motor interactions, concepts of pain neuroscience should be taken into account. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the biomechanical effect of LWIs. It aims to discuss the degree to which such biomechanical effect translates to clinical effects (symptom relief, function recovery and reduction of structural progression). In order to explain these clinical effects, this paper balances biomechanics with pain neuroscience. A literature search was performed and reviewed using a narrative approach. Many studies investigated the effect of LWIs on dynamic knee joint loading, and beneficial biomechanical effects (reduction in knee adduction moment) were observed in patients with mild to moderate medial knee OA, in particular when using full-length LWIs. However, despite beneficial biomechanical effects, there is insufficient evidence for clinically important effects or significant reductions in disease progression. Evaluating the effects of LWIs, our current understanding of OA pain should be taken into account, as LWIs may be part of a comprehensive biopsychosocial treatment. Future work on all of the variables that could influence clinical outcomes in order to decide in which subgroups of patients LWIs are (most) effective is necessary. PMID:24844545

Baert, Isabel A C; Nijs, Jo; Meeus, Mira; Lluch, Enrique; Struyf, Filip

2014-11-01

260

2, 11471183, 2005 A daily salt balance  

E-print Network

HESSD 2, 1147­1183, 2005 A daily salt balance model for streamflow generation M. A. Bari and K. R Sciences A daily salt balance model for representing stream salinity generation process following land use­1183, 2005 A daily salt balance model for streamflow generation M. A. Bari and K. R. J. Smettem Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

261

Sleep and chronic daily headache.  

PubMed

Sleep and headache have a complex and extensive interrelationship. This review focuses on the relationship between sleep and chronic daily headache, examining recent advances in the epidemiology and insights into possible mechanisms of this relationship as well as reviewing advances in treatment. There is a clear relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and snoring and morning headache, but the relationship between OSA and snoring and other primary headaches requires clarification. OSA and chronic migraine share both obesity and patent foramen ovale (PFO) as possible co-morbidities. Hypoxia does not clearly predispose to morning headache. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an established treatment for OSA, and mixed results have been reported with regards to headache improvement with this treatment. PMID:25416461

Stark, Catherine Diana; Stark, Richard James

2015-01-01

262

Total Maximum Daily Load Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides this informative resource on Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL). A term used to discuss water quality, TMDL refers to "a calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and still meet water quality standards." The TMDL Program Website offers background information on TMDLs (including FAQs), a National Overview of Impaired Waters in the US, and two standard presentations on TMDLs (HTML and Power Point). The heart of the site, however, is the interactive map of the US, which allows users access to each state's TMDL Program. Within each state, watershed names and maps, as well as source information (Water body, Parameter of Concern, Priority for TMDL Development), are provided.

263

Corticosteroid replacement therapy: twice or thrice daily?  

PubMed Central

Although glucocorticoid replacement is conventionally administered twice daily, the pharmacokinetics of hydrocortisone would predict very low levels of plasma cortisol by mid-afternoon. This study compared plasma cortisol day profiles in 7 hypoadrenal patients while on twice daily and thrice daily hydrocortisone replacement. The twice daily regimen was associated with very low levels of cortisol at 16.00 and 18.00 h. This was eliminated by administering the same total dose in a thrice daily regimen. Furthermore, estimates of 'well-being' by visual analogue scale correlated significantly with simultaneous plasma cortisol levels and 5 of the patients expressed a preference for the thrice daily regimen. The findings suggest that thrice daily glucocorticoid replacement therapy should be adopted routinely. PMID:3184107

Groves, R W; Toms, G C; Houghton, B J; Monson, J P

1988-01-01

264

Corticosteroid replacement therapy: twice or thrice daily?  

PubMed

Although glucocorticoid replacement is conventionally administered twice daily, the pharmacokinetics of hydrocortisone would predict very low levels of plasma cortisol by mid-afternoon. This study compared plasma cortisol day profiles in 7 hypoadrenal patients while on twice daily and thrice daily hydrocortisone replacement. The twice daily regimen was associated with very low levels of cortisol at 16.00 and 18.00 h. This was eliminated by administering the same total dose in a thrice daily regimen. Furthermore, estimates of 'well-being' by visual analogue scale correlated significantly with simultaneous plasma cortisol levels and 5 of the patients expressed a preference for the thrice daily regimen. The findings suggest that thrice daily glucocorticoid replacement therapy should be adopted routinely. PMID:3184107

Groves, R W; Toms, G C; Houghton, B J; Monson, J P

1988-09-01

265

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

1987-01-01

266

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

1987-07-01

267

Solar radiation management impacts on agriculture in China: A case study in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

via solar radiation management could affect agricultural productivity due to changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation. To study rice and maize production changes in China, we used results from 10 climate models participating in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G2 scenario to force the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model. G2 prescribes an insolation reduction to balance a 1% a-1 increase in CO2 concentration (1pctCO2) for 50 years. We first evaluated the DSSAT model using 30 years (1978-2007) of daily observed weather records and agriculture practices for 25 major agriculture provinces in China and compared the results to observations of yield. We then created three sets of climate forcing for 42 locations in China for DSSAT from each climate model experiment: (1) 1pctCO2, (2) G2, and (3) G2 with constant CO2 concentration (409 ppm) and compared the resulting agricultural responses. In the DSSAT simulations: (1) Without changing management practices, the combined effect of simulated climate changes due to geoengineering and CO2 fertilization during the last 15 years of solar reduction would change rice production in China by -3.0 ± 4.0 megaton (Mt) (2.4 ± 4.0%) as compared with 1pctCO2 and increase Chinese maize production by 18.1 ± 6.0 Mt (13.9 ± 5.9%). (2) The termination of geoengineering shows negligible impacts on rice production but a 19.6 Mt (11.9%) reduction of maize production as compared to the last 15 years of geoengineering. (3) The CO2 fertilization effect compensates for the deleterious impacts of changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation due to geoengineering on rice production, increasing rice production by 8.6 Mt. The elevated CO2 concentration enhances maize production in G2, contributing 7.7 Mt (42.4%) to the total increase. Using the DSSAT crop model, virtually all of the climate models agree on the sign of the responses, even though the spread across models is large. This suggests that solar radiation management would have little impact on rice production in China but could increase maize production.

Xia, Lili; Robock, Alan; Cole, Jason; Curry, Charles L.; Ji, Duoying; Jones, Andy; Kravitz, Ben; Moore, John C.; Muri, Helene; Niemeier, Ulrike; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, Simone; Watanabe, Shingo; Yoon, Jin-Ho

2014-07-01

268

Progressing Deployment of Solar Photovoltaic Installations in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation evaluates the likelihood of solar PV playing a larger role in national and state level renewable energy portfolios. I examine the feasibility of large-scale solar PV arrays on college campuses, the financials associated with large-scale solar PV arrays and finally, the influence of environmental, economic, social and political variables on the distribution of residential solar PV arrays in the United States. Chapter two investigates the challenges and feasibility of college campuses adopting a net-zero energy policy. Using energy consumption data, local solar insolation data and projected campus growth, I present a method to identify the minimum sized solar PV array that is required for the City College campus of the Los Angeles Community College District to achieve net-zero energy status. I document how current energy demand can be reduced using strategic demand side management, with remaining energy demand being met using a solar PV array. Chapter three focuses on the financial feasibility of large-scale solar PV arrays, using the proposed City College campus array as an example. I document that even after demand side energy management initiatives and financial incentives, large-scale solar PV arrays continue to have ROIs greater than 25 years. I find that traditional financial evaluation methods are not suitable for environmental projects such as solar PV installations as externalities are not taken into account and therefore calls for development of alternative financial valuation methods. Chapter four investigates the influence of environmental, social, economic and political variables on the distribution of residential solar PV arrays across the United States using ZIP code level data from the 2000 US Census. Using data from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Open PV project, I document where residential solar PVs are currently located. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was run to evaluate the influence of selected variables. Using the same model, predicted residential solar PV shares were generated and illustrated using GIS software. The results of this model indicate that solar insolation, state energy deregulation and cost of electricity are statistically significant factors positively correlated with the adoption of residential solar PV arrays. With this information, policymakers at the towns and cities level can establish effective solar PV promoting policies and regulations for their respective locations.

Kwan, Calvin Lee

2011-07-01

269

VizieR Online Data Catalog: Earth Orbit, Precession and Insolation -20Myr to +10Myr (Laskar+ 1993)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La93 is a program for computing the precession and obliquity of the Earth for various values of 1) the tidal effect of the Moon (CMAR) 2) the dynamical ellipticity of the Earth (FGAM) The nominal solution La90 corresponds to (CMAR = 0., FGAM = 1). The general solution will be called La93(CMAR,FGAM), thus La90 = La93(0.,1.) and La93(1.,1.) is obtained with the same tidal effect as in Quinn, Tremaine, Duncan (1991), although these solutions are not completely identical (see Laskar, Joutel, Boudin, 1993) The files and software of this package can be used in three different manners: 1) Contruction and Use of the nominal solution La93(0,1) The ASCII files ORBEL*.ASC contain the nominal orbital solution. The ASCII files PREC0*.ASC contain the nominal precession solution. The ASCII files CLIVAR0*.ASC contain the nominal climatic solution. The files PREC*.ASC and CLIVAR*.ASC can also be generated from the enclosed files (see section 2) For the computation of insolation quantities, the user will execute the 'prepinsol' step, and then 'insola'. 2) Construction of a parametrized La93(CMAR, FGAM) new solution The user reconstructs a complete La93(CMAR, FGAM) solution. The compilation of all required programs is obtained by running the command 'make' on a Unix machine. The preparation step 'prepa' needs to be done once, in order to prepare the necessary binary files. Then 'integ' will construct the new solutions for the given parameters (CMAR, FGAM). Alternatively, change in the Makefile the values of CMAR and FGAM before running the 'make clean' command (removes the files computed using the preceding values of CMAR and FGAM), and 'make La93'. 3) Changes in the model of precession, for example to take into account some feedback resulting from redistribution of the ice on the Earth resulting from climate changes. In this case, and in this case only, the user needs to edit the FORTRAN file integ.f More precisely, the subroutines which can be eventually modified are SUBROUTINE INIPRE(IPT) SUBROUTINE PRECES(t,AK,AH,AQ,AP,DK,DH,DQ,DP,AKI,DKI) The users may also want to adapt the driver INTEG to his specific needs (19 data files).

Laskar, J.; Joutel, F.; Boudin, F.

1994-11-01

270

Cokriging estimation of daily suspended sediment loads  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with daily river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated daily loads were compared with the daily measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated daily sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured daily values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating daily sediment loads with CK when daily discharge data is available. The estimated daily loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the daily S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.-K.; Schilling, K.; Skopec, M.

2006-01-01

271

Corrigendum to "Upper ocean climate of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene Insolation Maximum - a model study" published in Clim. Past, 7, 1103-1122, 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine thousand years ago (9 ka BP), the Northern Hemisphere experienced enhanced seasonality caused by an orbital configuration close to the minimum of the precession index. To assess the impact of this "Holocene Insolation Maximum" (HIM) on the Mediterranean Sea, we use a regional ocean general circulation model forced by atmospheric input derived from global simulations. A stronger seasonal cycle is simulated by the model, which shows a relatively homogeneous winter cooling and a summer warming with well-defined spatial patterns, in particular, a subsurface warming in the Cretan and western Levantine areas. The comparison between the SST simulated for the HIM and a reconstruction from planktonic foraminifera transfer functions shows a poor agreement, especially for summer, when the vertical temperature gradient is strong. As a novel approach, we propose a reinterpretation of the reconstruction, to consider the conditions throughout the upper water column rather than at a single depth. We claim that such a depth-integrated approach is more adequate for surface temperature comparison purposes in a situation where the upper ocean structure in the past was different from the present-day. In this case, the depth-integrated interpretation of the proxy data strongly improves the agreement between modelled and reconstructed temperature signal with the subsurface summer warming being recorded by both model and proxies, with a small shift to the south in the model results. The mechanisms responsible for the peculiar subsurface pattern are found to be a combination of enhanced downwelling and wind mixing due to strengthened Etesian winds, and enhanced thermal forcing due to the stronger summer insolation in the Northern Hemisphere. Together, these processes induce a stronger heat transfer from the surface to the subsurface during late summer in the western Levantine; this leads to an enhanced heat piracy in this region, a process never identified before, but potentially characteristic of time slices with enhanced insolation.

Adloff, F.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Ku?era, M.; Grimm, R.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Schmiedl, G.; Emeis, K.-C.

2011-11-01

272

Sedoanalgesia in pediatric daily surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The present report was focused on clinical advantages of sedoanalgesia in the pediatric outpatient surgical cases. Method: Sedoanalgesia has been used to sedate patients for a variety of pediatric procedures in our department between 2007 and 2010. This is a retrospective review of 2720 pediatric patients given ketamine for sedation with midazolam premedication. Ketamine was given intravenously (1-2 mg/kg) together with atropine (0.02 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.1 mg/kg) + a local infiltration anesthetic 2 mg/kg 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride. Result: Median age of the patients included in the study was 5.76 ± 2.12 (0-16 years). The main indications for ketamine include circumcision (69%), inguinal pathologies (inguinal hernia (17%), orchidopexy (2.68%), hydrocele (3.38%), hypospadias (1.94%), urethral fistula repair (0.33%), urethral dilatation (0.25%), and other conditions. All of our patients were discharged home well. In this regard, we have the largest group of patients ever given ketamine. Conclusion: Sedoanalgesia might be used as a quite effective method for daily surgical procedures in children. PMID:23936597

Ozkan, Aybars; Okur, Mesut; Kaya, Murat; Kaya, Ertugrul; Kucuk, Adem; Erbas, Mesut; Kutlucan, Leyla; Sahan, Leyla

2013-01-01

273

Chronic daily headaches in children.  

PubMed

Chronic daily headache (CDH) or highly frequent headaches are being recognised as an increasing problem. In adults it is estimated that up to 4% of the population has CDH, however, this number appears to be lower in children. The actual prevalence of CDH in children, however, has not been determined. The simplest definition of CDH is > 15 headache days per month. In the international headache society (IHS) criteria, only chronic tension-type headaches and chronic cluster headaches are recognised as CDH. Criteria for CDH have been suggested for adults that mirror the IHS criteria. In children, the majority of CDH appear to be migraine related. The next revision of the IHS criteria has been proposed to include chronic migraine as one of the CDH. Evaluation of CDH needs to include a complete history and physical examination to identify any possibility of the headache representing secondary headaches. Treatment and management involves a multi-tiered approach, which includes abortive therapy when the headache becomes more severe. With the precaution of avoiding overuse of analgesic medication, prophylactic therapy is used to help reduce the characteristics of the headache as well as the frequency and mild behavioural therapy. PMID:12667111

Hershey, Andrew D

2003-04-01

274

Solar astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

1991-01-01

275

Triggers of daily life ischaemia  

PubMed Central

Objective—To determine the usual triggers of silent and symptomatic ischaemia.?Design—Patients wore an ambulatory recorder for 48 hours. The device emitted a tone on detection of ischaemia and patients noted activities, feelings, and symptoms so that ischaemia could be attributed to one of four triggers: physical stress, mental stress, combined physical/mental stress, or no stressor.?Setting—Home environment.?Patients—Patients (n = 38) with stable coronary disease, positive exercise electrocardiography, and ischaemic episodes on ambulatory electrocardiography.?Main outcome measure—Matching ischaemic episodes with perceived triggers.?Results—Altogether 257 ischaemic episodes (53% silent) were documented. Triggers were: physical stress, 56%; mental stress, 5%; combined physical/mental stress, 8%; no identifiable trigger, 31%. Episodes associated with mental or no stress were more often silent (69% and 75%, respectively) than those associated with physical stress (45%, p < 0.01), while combined physical/mental stress episodes were usually symptomatic (10% silent, p < 0.01 v other stressors). Although physical stress was less commonly a trigger of silent ischaemia than angina (47% v 65%, p < 0.01), it was still the predominant trigger of silent ischaemia. There was no identifiable trigger in 45% of silent and only 17% of anginal episodes (p < 0.01). Only nine silent episodes involved mental stress alone as a trigger.?Conclusions—Daily life ischaemia is usually triggered by physical activity. Mental stress alone is an uncommon trigger of either silent or symptomatic ischaemia, while combined physical/mental stress is a significant but minor trigger of angina. Patients can identify a trigger in 83% of anginal episodes, compared with only half of silent ischaemic episodes.?? Keywords: silent ischaemia;  ambulatory electrocardiography PMID:9930050

Freedman, S; Wong, C

1998-01-01

276

DAILY / OVERNIGHT REQUEST FORM PROJECTORS: AUDIO  

E-print Network

DAILY / OVERNIGHT REQUEST FORM PROJECTORS: AUDIO: HUNTER COLLEGE Today's Date: ___ Overhead Projector ___ Public Address Unit ___ Ensign PA Audio-Visual Services ___ Slide Projector ___ Audio Cassette

Qiu, Weigang

277

Validation of the guidelines for portable meteorological instrument packages. Task IV. Development of an insolation handbook and instrumentation package  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to show how the objective of developing guidelines for a solar energy related portable meteorology instrument package, under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA), was carried out and preliminarily demonstrated and validated. A project to develop guidelines for such packages was initiated at IEA's Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings Program Expert's Meeting held in Norrkoping, Sweden in February 1976. An international comparison of resultant devices was conducted on behalf of the IEA at a conference held in Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, in 1978. Results of the 1978 Hamburg comparison of two devices and the Swiss Mobile Solar Radiation System, using German meteorological standards, are discussed. The consensus of the IEA Task Group is that the objective of the subtask has been accomplished.

None

1980-10-01

278

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system was developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power System solar receiver for space station application. The solar receiver incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain thermal energy storage (TES) canisters within the vapor space with a toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe. Part of this thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of earth orbit, the stored energy in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. A developmental heat pipe element was constructed that contains axial arteries and a distribution wick connecting the toluene heater and the TES units to the solar insolation surface of the heat pipe. Tests were conducted to demonstrate the heat pipe, TES units, and the heater tube operation. The heat pipe element was operated at design input power of 4.8 kW. Thermal cycle tests were conducted to demonstrate the successful charge and discharge of the TES units. Axial power flux levels up to 15 watts/sq cm were demonstrated and transient tests were conducted on the heat pipe element. Details of the heat pipe development and test procedures are presented.

Keddy, E.; Sena, J. Tom; Merrigan, M.; Heidenreich, Gary; Johnson, Steve

1988-06-01

279

A solar energy system as a complement to a conventional heating system: Measurement of the storage and consumption of solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A residential house, having a fuel oil based heating system (radiators and floor heating; domestic hot water), was equipped with a solar energy conversion plant which supplemented the water heating system. Total insolation, the energy received by the solar collectors, and energy consumption for heating and domestic hot water were monitored. Results show the collector system to have a conversion efficiency of 15.4%. The solar energy system contribution to overall energy consumption was 6.1%. Improvement of the solar energy plant is discussed. Suggestions include enlarging the collector surface, alteration of the regulation scheme, utilization of thermal stratification in the conception of solar heat storage, better insulation of conduit pipes, and avoidance of shadowing the collectors.

Doering, E.; Lippe, W.

1980-09-01

280

Noise in pressure transducer readings produced by variations in solar radiation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Variations in solar radiation can produce noise in readings from gauge pressure transducers when the transducer cable is exposed to direct sunlight. This noise is a result of insolation-induced heating and cooling of the air column in the vent tube of the transducer cable. A controlled experiment was performed to assess the impact of variations in solar radiation on transducer readings. This experiment demonstrated that insolation-induced fluctuations in apparent pressure head can be as large as 0.03 m. The magnitude of these fluctuations is dependent on cable color, the diameter of the vent tube, and the length of the transducer cable. The most effective means of minimizing insolation-induced noise is to use integrated transducer-data logger units that fit within a well. Failure to address this source of noise can introduce considerable uncertainty into analyses of hydraulic tests when the head change is relatively small, as is often the case for tests in highly permeable aquifers or for tests using distant observation wells.

Cain, S. F., III; Davis, G.A.; Loheide, S.P., II; Butler, J.J., Jr.

2004-01-01

281

Holocene evolution of summer winds and marine productivity in the tropical Indian Ocean in response to insolation forcing: data-model comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative abundance of Globigerinoides bulloides was used to infer Holocene paleo-productivity changes on the Oman margin and at the southern tip of India. Today, the primary productivity at both sites reaches its maximum during the summer season, when monsoon winds result in local Eckman pumping, which brings more nutrients to the surface. On a millennium time-scale, however, the % G. bulloides records indicate an opposite evolution of paleo-productivity at these sites through the Holocene. The Oman Margin productivity was maximal at ~9 ka (boreal summer insolation maximum) and has decreased since then, suggesting a direct response to insolation forcing. On the contrary, the productivity at the southern tip of India was minimum at ~9 ka, and strengthened towards the present. Paleo-reconstructions of wind patterns, marine productivity and foraminifera assemblages were obtained using the IPSL-CM4 climate model coupled to the PISCES marine biogeochemical model and the FORAMCLIM ecophysiological model. These reconstructions are fully coherent with the marine core data. They confirm that the evolution of particulate export production and foraminifera assemblages at our two sites were directly linked with the strength of the upwelling. Model simulations at 9 ka and 6 ka BP show that the relative evolution between the two sites since the early Holocene can be explained by the weakening but also the southward shift of monsoon winds over the Arabian Sea during boreal summer.

Bassinot, F. C.; Marzin, C.; Braconnot, P.; Marti, O.; Mathien-Blard, E.; Lombard, F.; Bopp, L.

2011-07-01

282

Solar Max 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new exhibit from the Exploratorium (last discussed in the August 6, 1999 Scout Report) is a content-rich examination of the upcoming "solar maximum." The year 2000, it is believed, will see the highest degree of sunspot activity for the current solar cycle. The result may be geomagnetic storms that disrupt power grids, radio broadcasts, and satellites, as well as unusually vibrant displays of the Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis (the Northern and Southern Lights). To follow these events and learn about the science behind them, most users will need look no further than this site, which offers links to news stories and daily reports from NASA, links to a large number of images, a Solar Max FAQ in text and video, classroom activities, a glossary, and links to upcoming solar missions and numerous other related resources. A Japanese language version of the site is forthcoming.

283

The relationship between daily and vacation activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to build upon existing literature in recreation involvement and loyalty to investigate the relationship between vacation and daily activities. The results support the hypothesis that the more that individuals are involved in an activity in a daily setting, the more they tend to participate in the same activity while on vacation. The segmentation tree

Xinran Y. Lehto

2007-01-01

284

Obtaining daily precipitation parameters from meteorological yearbooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the performance of two different methods, one based on the method of moments and the other based on maximum likelihood, in their assessment of the main statistical features of daily precipitation using censored information found in meteorological yearbooks. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to generate series of daily rainfall and summarize them in the same format

Francisco J. Meza

2006-01-01

285

Effects of daily stress on negative mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the influence of daily stressors on mental health in a community sample. Ss were 166 married couples who completed diaries each day for 6 weeks. In pooled within-person analyses, daily stressors explained up to 20% of the variance in mood. Interpersonal conflicts were by far the most distressing events. Furthermore, when stressors occurred on a series of

Niall Bolger; Anita DeLongis; Ronald C. Kessler; Elizabeth A. Schilling

1989-01-01

286

New daily persistent headache and panic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a primary chronic daily headache that is generally considered to be difficult to treat. Migraine has been linked to comorbid psychiatric conditions, mainly mood and anxiety disorders, but NDPH has never been linked to psychiatric conditions, and never studied extensively for such an association. Case: We report nine cases (six women and three

Mario FP Peres; Giancarlo Lucchetti; Juliane PP Mercante; William B Young

2011-01-01

287

Daily Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.…

Einolf, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

288

Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

Munsell, Devon R.

289

The 1-kW solar Stirling experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this experiment was to demonstrate electrical power generation using a small free-piston Stirling engine and linear alternator in conjunction with a parabolic solar collector. A test bed collector, formerly used at the JPL Table Mountain Observatory, was renovated and used to obtain practical experience and to determine test receiver performance. The collector was mounted on a two-axis tracker, with a cold water calorimeter mounted on the collector to measure its efficiency, while a separate, independently tracking radiometer was used to measure solar insolation. The solar receiver was designed to absorb energy from the collector, then transfer the resulting thermal energy to the Stirling engine. Successful testing of receiver/collector assembly yielded valuable inputs for design of the Stirling engine heater head.

Giandomenico, A.

1981-01-01

290

1-kW solar Stirling experiment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this experiment was to demonstrate electrical power generation using a small free-piston Stirling engine and linear alternator in conjunction with a parabolic solar collector. A test bed collector, formerly used at the JPL Table Mountain Observatory, was renovated and used to obtain practical experience and to determine test receiver performance. The collector was mounted on a two-axis tracker, with a cold water calorimeter mounted on the collector to measure its efficiency, while a separate, independently tracking radiometer was used to measure solar insolation. The solar receiver was designed to absorb energy from the collector, then transfer the resulting thermal energy to the Stirling engine. Successful testing of receiver/collector assembly yielded valuable inputs for design of the Stirling engine heater head.

Giandomenico, A.

1981-05-01

291

Weather, season, and daily stroke admissions in Hong Kong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies examining daily temperature and stroke incidence have given conflicting results. We undertook this retrospective study of all stroke admissions in those aged 35 years old and above to Hong Kong public hospitals from 1999 through 2006 in order to better understand the effects of meteorological conditions on stroke risk in a subtropical setting. We used Poisson Generalized Additive Models with daily hemorrhagic (HS) and ischemic stroke (IS) counts separately as outcomes, and daily mean temperature, humidity, solar radiation, rainfall, air pressure, pollutants, flu consultation rates, day of week, holidays, time trend and seasonality as predictors. Lagged effects of temperature, humidity and pollutants were also considered. A total of 23,457 HS and 107,505 IS admissions were analyzed. Mean daily temperature had a strong, consistent, negative linear association with HS admissions over the range (8.2-31.8°C) observed. A 1°C lower average temperature over the same day and previous 4 days (lags 0-4) being associated with a 2.7% (95% CI: 2.0-3.4%, P < .0.0001) higher admission rate after controlling for other variables. This association was stronger among older subjects and females. Higher lag 0-4 average change in air pressure from previous day was modestly associated with higher HS risk. The association between IS and temperature was weaker and apparent only below 22°C, with a 1°C lower average temperature (lags 0-13) below this threshold being associated with a 1.6% (95% CI:1.0-2.2%, P < 0.0001) higher IS admission rate. Pollutant levels were not associated with HS or IS. Future studies should examine HS and IS risk separately.

Goggins, William B.; Woo, Jean; Ho, Suzanne; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Chau, P. H.

2012-09-01

292

Adolescent Daily and General Maladjustment: Is There Reactivity to Daily Repeated Measures Methodologies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined whether repeated exposure to daily surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' daily and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 daily reports tapping experienced or…

Nishina, Adrienne

2012-01-01

293

Deriving Daily Purpose through Daily Events and Role Fulfillment among Asian American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Establishing life purpose is a key developmental task; however, how it is linked to adolescents' everyday family, school, extracurricular, and leisure experiences remains unclear. Using daily diary data from 180 Asian American ninth and tenth graders (50% ninth; 58% female; 25% first generation), daily purpose was positively related to daily

Kiang, Lisa

2012-01-01

294

Living with rheumatoid arthritis: The role of daily spirituality and daily religious and spiritual coping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate more fully the role of daily spiritual experiences and daily religious\\/spiritual coping in the experience of individuals with pain due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Thirty-five individuals with RA were asked to keep a structured daily diary for 30 consecutive days. The diary included standardized measures designed to assess spiritual experiences, religious

Francis J. Keefe; Glenn Affleck; John Lefebvre; Lynn Underwood; David S. Caldwell; Jana Drew; Jennifer Egert; Jessica Gibson; Kenneth Pargament

2001-01-01

295

Surface Solar Radiation from Geostationary Satellites for Renewable Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation available at the surface has been routinely derived in real time from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS) in a processing system known as the GOES Surface and Insolation Product (GSIP) system. The GSIP system has recently been upgraded to provide retrievals experimentally at a spatial resolution of ~ 4 km. The planned rapid observations (5-15 minutes) from the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on the upcoming GOES-R satellite will enhance the capabilities realized in the current GCIP for solar resources where frequent observations of solar radiation reaching the surface are essential for planning and load management. The algorithms used in GSIP and with ABI are based on radiative transfer, represented in look-up-tables, and internally retrieve clear-sky and cloudy-sky transmittances (GSIP), or use atmospheric and surface parameters derived independently from multispectral radiances (ABI) for calculating these transmittances. Tests, performed using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, have shown that the ABI algorithm is superior to the GSIP algorithm. The algorithms are designed to provide basic radiation budget products (e.g., total solar irradiance at the surface), as well as products specifically needed in the solar energy sector (average, midday and clear-sky insolation, clear-sky days, diffuse and direct normal radiation, etc.). The accuracy of surface solar radiation retrievals are assessed using long-term GOES and MODIS satellite data and surface measurements at the Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) network.

Laszlo, I.; Kondratovich, V.; Liu, H.

2011-12-01

296

Construction of the method for estimating solar radiation based on weather records _|toward the climatic reconstruction in the historical period  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to develop and construct the method for estimating monthly mean solar radiation based on the combination of daily weather records. At the first step, the relationship between the daily accumulated solar radiation and the daily weather conditions recorded by the local observatory of JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency) was examined. The weather conditions were classified

M. Ichino

2001-01-01

297

Big Bear Solar Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) is located at the end of a causeway in a mountain lake more than 2 km above sea level. The site has more than 300 sunny days a year and a natural inversion caused by the lake which makes for very clean images. BBSO is the only university observatory in the US making high-resolution observations of the Sun. Its daily images are posted at http://www.bbso.njit.e...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

298

The 1991 Japan Solar Energy Society. Japan Wind Energy Association Joint Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thie paper summarizes the lectures presented at the research presentation conference held by the Japan Solar Energy Society and the Japan Wind Energy Association. The contents include a lecture relating to photovoltaic cells intended for efficiency improvement; a lecture relating to a light power generation system including the field test reports, improvements on peripheral devices and output characteristics; a lecture relating to optical chemistry; a lecture relating to heat pumps utilizing solar heat and well water; a lecture relating air conditioning utilizing photovoltaic cells; a lecture relating to heat systems utilizing solar heat directly; a lecture relating to heat collection; a lecture relating to cold heat for cooling using earth tubes; a lecture relating to direct utilization of ground water heat and solar heat; a lecture relating to underground heat storage; a lecture relating to accumulation of cold heat and hot heat; a lecture relating to insolation on the amount of insolation and spectroscopy; a lecture relating to light collection intended of energy saving; a lecture relating to improving materials including light collecting plates and thin films; a lecture relating to development and characteristics of solar cars; and a lecture relating to wind energy.

1991-09-01

299

Solar Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about solar energy and how to calculate the amount of solar energy available at a given location and time of day on Earth. The importance of determining incoming solar energy for solar devices is discussed.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

300

Solar Lentigo  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Solar Lentigo Information for adults A A A This image displays many solar lentigos due to the patient having many sunburns as a child and teenager. Overview A solar lentigo (plural, solar lentigines), also known as a ...

301

Solar index generation and delivery  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Index, or, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar Index, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978. The purpose was to enhance public awareness to solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar Index represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80 gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The Index is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which also has applications to space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems and which supplies economic analyses for such solar energy systems. The Index is generated for approximately 68 geographic locations in the country on a daily basis. The definition of the Index, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time and a plan for the future are described. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the Index, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST program) and future efforts.

Lantz, L.J.

1980-01-01

302

Solar Power System Evaluated for the Human Exploration of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electric power system is a crucial element of any mission for the human exploration of the Martian surface. The bulk of the power generated will be delivered to crew life support systems, extravehicular activity suits, robotic vehicles, and predeployed in situ resource utilization (ISRU) equipment. In one mission scenario, before the crew departs for Mars, the ISRU plant operates for 435 days producing liquefied methane and oxygen for ascent-stage propellants and water for crew life support. About 200 days after ISRU production is completed, the crew arrives for a 500-day surface stay. In this scenario, the power system must operate for a total of 1130 days (equivalent to 1100 Martian "sols"), providing 400 MW-hr of energy to the ISRU plant and up to 18 kW of daytime user power. A photovoltaic power-generation system with regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage has been under study at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The conceptual power system is dominated by the 4000- m2 class photovoltaic array that is deployed orthogonally as four tent structures, each approximately 5 m on a side and 100-m long. The structures are composed of composite members deployed by an articulating mast, an inflatable boom, or rover vehicles, and are subsequently anchored to the ground. Array panels consist of thin polymer membranes with thin-film solar cells. The array is divided into eight independent electrical sections with solar cell strings operating at 600 V. Energy storage is provided by regenerative fuel cells based on hydrogen-oxygen proton exchange membrane technology. Hydrogen and oxygen reactants are stored in gaseous form at 3000 psi, and the water produced is stored at 14.7 psi. The fuel cell operating temperature is maintained by a 40-m2 deployable pumped-fluid loop radiator that uses water as the working fluid. The power management and distribution (PMAD) architecture features eight independent, regulated 600-Vdc channels. Power management and distribution power cables use various gauges of copper conductors with ethylene tetrafluoroethylene insulation. To assess power system design options and sizing, we developed a dedicated Fortran code to predict detailed power system performance and estimate system mass. This code also modeled the requisite Mars surface environments: solar insolation, Sun angles, dust storms, dust deposition, and thermal and ultraviolet radiation. Using this code, trade studies were performed to assess performance and mass sensitivities to power system design parameters (photovoltaic array geometry and orientation) and mission parameters (landing date and landing site latitude, terrain slope, and dust storm activity). Mission analysis cases were also run. Power results are shown in this graph for an analysis case with a September 1, 2012, landing date; 18.95 North latitude landing site; two seasonal dusts storms; and tent arrays. To meet user load requirements and the ISRU energy requirement, an 8-metric ton (MT) power system and 4000-m2 photovoltaic array area were required for the assumed advanced CuInS2 thin-film solar cell technology. In this figure, the top curve is the average daytime photovoltaic array power, the middle curve is average daytime user load power, and the bottom curve is nighttime power. At mission day 1, daytime user power exceeds 120 kW before falling off to 80 kW at the end of the mission. Throughout the mission, nighttime user power is set to the nighttime power requirement. In this analysis, "nighttime" is defined as the 13- to 15-hr period when array power output is below the daytime power requirement. During dust storms, power system capability falls off dramatically so that by mission day 900, a daily energy balance cannot be maintained. Under these conditions, the ISRU plant is placed in standby mode, and the regenerative fuel cell energy storage is gradually discharged to meet user loads.

Kerslake, Thomas W.

2000-01-01

303

Aerosols reduce solar radiation over China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solar radiation measurements taken from 1961 to 2000 at stations throughout China were used to characterize long term trends in radiation levels. It was found that since 1961, there have been significant decreases in China in daily surface solar radiation and monthly sunshine duration.

Al., Che E.; Agu

304

Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

2012-09-01

305

The sun’s total and spectral irradiance for solar energy applications and solar radiation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the most recent composite time series of total solar irradiance spaceborne measurements, a solar constant value of 1366.1 Wm?2 is confirmed, and simple quadratic expressions are proposed to predict its daily value from the Zurich sunspot number, the MgII index, or the 10.7 cm radio flux index. Whenever these three indices are available on a daily basis (since 1978),

Christian A. Gueymard

2004-01-01

306

Near-transyear in solar magnetism.  

PubMed

Daily data on solar magnetism, available from May 1975 to April 2002, were analyzed by linear-nonlinear rhythmometry, with particular focus on the near-transyear, slightly longer than the calendar year. The time structure of solar magnetism is compared to that of solar activity, gauged by Wolf numbers. An about 27-day component corresponding to the solar rotation period, is common to both variables but differs in harmonic content. About 10-year component characterizes solar activity but not solar magnetism. A near-transyear with a period of about 1.05 years is detected in solar magnetism. In solar activity, a near-transyear is also found but its period of about 1.10 years is longer than that characterizing solar magnetism, and it may be paired with an about 0.9-year component to correspond to an about 10-year modulation in amplitude or phase of an about-yearly component. PMID:16275508

Cornélissen, G; Otsuka, K; Halberg, F

2005-10-01

307

Solar and Photovoltaic Data from the University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory (UO SRML)  

DOE Data Explorer

The UO SRML is a regional solar radiation data center whose goal is to provide sound solar resource data for planning, design, deployment, and operation of solar electric facilities in the Pacific Northwest. The laboratory has been in operation since 1975. Solar data includes solar resource maps, cumulative summary data, daily totals, monthly averages, single element profile data, parsed TMY2 data, and select multifilter radiometer data. A data plotting program and other software tools are also provided. Shade analysis information and contour plots showing the effect of tilt and orientation on annual solar electric system perfomance make up a large part of the photovoltaics data.(Specialized Interface)

308

Early daily trunk shrinkage is highly sensitive to water stress in nectarine trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity to water stress of different plant water status indicators was evaluated during two consecutive years in early nectarine trees grown in a semi-arid region. Measurements were made post-harvest and two irrigation treatments were applied: a control treatment (CTL), irrigated at 120% of crop evapotranspiration demand to achieve non-limiting water conditions, and a deficit irrigation treatment (DI), that applied around 37% less water than CTL during late postharvest. The plant water status indicators evaluated were midday stem water potential (?stem) and parameters derived from trunk diameter fluctuations (TDF): maximum daily shrinkage (MDS), trunk daily growth rate (TGR), early daily shrinkage measured between 0900 and 1200 h solar time (EDS), and late daily shrinkage (LDS) that occurred between 1200 h solar time and the moment that minimum trunk diameter was reached (typically 1600 h solar time). The most sensitive (highest ratio of signal intensity (SI) to noise) indicators to water stress were ?stem together with EDS. The SI of EDS was greater than that of ?stem, although with greater variability. EDS was a better indicator than MDS, with higher SI and similar variability. Although MDS was linearly related to ?stem down to -1.5 MPa, thereafter MDS decreased with increasing water stress. In contrast, EDS was linearly related to ?stem, although the slope of the regression decreased as the season progressed, as in the case of MDS. Further studies are needed to determine whether EDS is a sensitive indicator of water stress in a range of species.

Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro; De la Rosa, Jose M.; Dodd, Ian C.; Conesa, María R.; Domingo, Rafael

2014-05-01

309

Materials and optics for solar energy conversion and advanced lighting technology; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 19-21, 1986  

SciTech Connect

The present conference encompasses topics in the fields of optical switching materials, photovoltaic materials, holographic films, and solar optical materials, as well as insolation and illumination testing and measurement technologies, light source hardware and applications, novel optical techniques in illumination and lighting, and the production of lighting effects in the entertainment industry. Attention is given to thermochromic and electrochromic materials for optical switching and energy-efficient windows, tin oxide antireflection coatings, holographic solar concentration and greenhouse lighting, long-lived glass mirrors for space, exposure testing of solar absorbers, optical projection equipment, medium and short arc metal halide lamps, and nonimaging optics for illumination.

Lampert, C.M.; Holly, S.

1987-01-01

310

27 CFR 19.829 - Daily records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Records ...shall keep accurate and complete daily records of production operations that include— (a) The kind...

2010-04-01

311

Simulation of daily energy budget and mean soil temperatures at an arid site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil temperature is often inadequately based upon relatively few measurements at widely dispersed locations. Within arid regions, such as the desert southwestern United States, soils, microclimates, and thus soil temperature may be markedly heterogeneous. Because extensive measurement of soil temperature is often not feasible, models are needed that simulate soil temperature based on readily available soil survey and “above-ground” weather information. This paper describes a simple energy-budget based model for simulating daily mean temperatures within a bare arid land soil. The model requires basic information on soil physical properties, and daily weather data including air temperature, windspeed, rainfall, and solar radiation to calculate daily surface energy budget components and surface temperature. One of two alternative numerical methods is then used to calculated subsurface temperatures. Tests of the model using 1987 daily temperature data from an arid site at Yuma, Arizona resulted in root mean square deviations within 1.4°C between daily modeled and measured temperatures at both 0.05 and 0.10 m depths. Sensitivity analysis showed modeled temperatures at 0.05 m depth to be most sensitive to parameters affecting the surface energy balance such as air temperature and solar radiation. Modeled temperatures at 1.0m depth were relatively more sensitive to initial temperature conditions and to parameters affecting distribution of energy within the profile such as thermal conductivity.

Matthias, A. D.

1990-03-01

312

Signal-to-Noise Characteristics of Solar MG II Indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the variations in solar ultraviolet irradiances is essential to understanding both the Sun and the behavior of the Earth's upper atmosphere. Since the solar ultraviolet radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere, the requisite measurements must be done from space. Reliable, approximately daily measurements of solar ultraviolet irradiances have been made since November 1978 by a variety of instruments

P. C. Crane; L. E. Floyd

1999-01-01

313

Associations among Daily Stressors and Salivary Cortisol: Findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences  

PubMed Central

While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally-occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1,694 adults (Age=57, Range=33–84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5,995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally-occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. PMID:23856186

Stawski, Robert S.; Cichy, Kelly E.; Piazza, Jennifer R.; Almeida, David M.

2013-01-01

314

Optimization of the absorption efficiency of an amorphous-silicon thin-film tandem solar cell backed by a metallic surface-relief grating.  

PubMed

The rigorous coupled-wave approach was used to compute the plane-wave absorptance of a thin-film tandem solar cell with a metallic surface-relief grating as its back reflector. The absorptance is a function of the angle of incidence and the polarization state of incident light; the free-space wavelength; and the period, duty cycle, the corrugation height, and the shape of the unit cell of the surface-relief grating. The solar cell was assumed to be made of hydrogenated amorphous-silicon alloys and the back reflector of bulk aluminum. The incidence and the grating planes were taken to be identical. The AM1.5 solar irradiance spectrum was used for computations in the 400-1100 nm wavelength range. Inspection of parametric plots of the solar-spectrum-integrated (SSI) absorption efficiency and numerical optimization using the differential evolution algorithm were employed to determine the optimal surface-relief grating. For direct insolation, the SSI absorption efficiency is maximizable by appropriate choices of the period, the duty cycle, and the corrugation height, regardless of the shape of the corrugation in each unit cell of the grating. A similar conclusion also holds for diffuse insolation, but the maximum efficiency for diffuse insolation is about 20% smaller than for direct insolation. Although a tin-doped indium-oxide layer at the front and an aluminum-doped zinc-oxide layer between the semiconductor material and the backing metallic layer change the optimal depth of the periodic corrugations, the optimal period of the corrugations does not significantly change. PMID:23400058

Solano, Manuel; Faryad, Muhammad; Hall, Anthony S; Mallouk, Thomas E; Monk, Peter B; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

2013-02-10

315

Holocene evolution of summer winds and marine productivity in the tropical Indian Ocean in response to insolation forcing: data-model comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative abundance of Globigerinoides bulloides was used to infer Holocene paleo-productivity changes at ODP Site 723 (19°03' N, 57°37' E; Oman Margin) and core MD77-191 (07°30' N, 76°43' E; Southern tip of India). Today, the primary productivity at both sites peaks during the summer season, when monsoon winds result in local Eckman pumping, which brings more nutrients to the surface. On a millennium time-scale, however, the % G.~bulloides records indicate an opposite evolution of paleo-productivity at these sites through the Holocene. The Oman Margin productivity was maximal at ~9 ka (boreal summer insolation maximum) and decreased since then, suggesting a direct response to insolation forcing. On the opposite, the productivity at the southern tip of India was minimum at ~9 ka, and strengthened towards the present. Paleo-reconstructions of wind patterns, marine productivity and foraminifera assemblages were obtained using the IPSL-CM4 climate model coupled to the PISCES marine biogeochemical model and the FORAMCLIM ecophysiological model. These reconstructions are fully coherent with the marine core data. They confirm that the evolution of particulate export production and foraminifera assemblages at our two sites have been directly linked with the strength of the upwelling. Model simulations at 9 ka and 6 ka BP show that the relative evolution between the two sites since the early Holocene can be explained by the weakening but also the southward shift of monsoon winds over the Arabian sea during boreal summer.

Bassinot, F. C.; Marzin, C.; Braconnot, P.; Marti, O.; Mathien-Blard, E.; Lombard, F.; Bopp, L.

2011-02-01

316

Doppler observations of solar rotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Daily observations of the photospheric equatorial rotation rate using the Doppler effect mode at the Sanford Solar Observatory are presented. These observations show no variations in the rotation rate that exceed the observational error of about one percent. The average rotation rate is indistinguishable from that of sunspots and large scale magnetic field structures.

Scherrer, P. H.

1980-01-01

317

Doppler observations of solar rotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Daily observations of the photospheric equatorial rotation rate using the Doppler effect are made at the Stanford Solar Observatory. These observations show no variations in the rotation rate that exceed the observational error of about 1%. The average rotation rate is indistinguishable from that of sunspots and large-scale magnetic field structures.

Scherrer, P. H.; Wilcox, J. M.

1980-01-01

318

Natural heat storage in a brine-filled solar pond in the Tully Valley of central New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tully Valley, located in southern Onondaga County, New York, has a long history of unusual natural hydrogeologic phenomena including mudboils (Kappel, 2009), landslides (Tamulonis and others, 2009; Pair and others, 2000), landsurface subsidence (Hackett and others, 2009; Kappel, 2009), and a brine-filled sinkhole or “Solar pond” (fig. 1), which is documented in this report. A solar pond is a pool of salty water (brine) which stores the sun’s energy in the form of heat. The saltwater naturally forms distinct layers with increasing density between transitional zones (haloclines) of rapidly changing specific conductance with depth. In a typical solar pond, the top layer has a low salt content and is often times referred to as the upper convective zone (Lu and others, 2002). The bottom layer is a concentrated brine that is either convective or temperature stratified dependent on the surrounding environment. Solar insolation is absorbed and stored in the lower, denser brine while the overlying halocline acts as an insulating layer and prevents heat from moving upwards from the lower zone (Lu and others, 2002). In the case of the Tully Valley solar pond, water within the pond can be over 90 degrees Fahrenheit (°F) in late summer and early fall. The purpose of this report is to summarize observations at the Tully Valley brine-filled sinkhole and provide supplemental climate data which might affect the pond salinity gradients insolation (solar energy).

Hayhurst, Brett; Kappel, William M.

2014-01-01

319

36 January/February 2008 Vol 98 No 1 Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association Background: The use of cushioned or shock-absorbing insoles has been suggested as  

E-print Network

of cushioned insoles resulted in significant reductions in mean vertical ground reaction force peak impact (6.8%) and ground reaction force loading rate (8.3%), as well as peak tibial acceleration (15.8%). Spectral analysis acceleration at initial foot-ground contact during running. The impact reduction observed was independent

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

320

Daily soil temperature modeling using neuro-fuzzy approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil temperature is an important meteorological parameter which influences a number of processes in agriculture, hydrology, and environment. However, soil temperature records are not routinely available from meteorological stations. This work aimed to estimate daily soil temperature using the coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) in arid and semiarid regions. For this purpose, daily soil temperatures were recorded at six depths of 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 cm below the surface at two synoptic stations in Iran. According to correlation analysis, mean, maximum, and minimum air temperatures, relative humidity, sunshine hours, and solar radiation were selected as the inputs of the CANFIS models. It was concluded that, in most cases, the best soil temperature estimates with a CANFIS model can be provided with the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy model and the Gaussian membership function. Comparison of the models' performances at arid and semiarid locations showed that the CANFIS models' performances in arid site were slightly better than those in semiarid site. Overall, the obtained results indicated the capabilities of the CANFIS model in estimating soil temperature in arid and semiarid regions.

Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P.

2014-11-01

321

CONC/11: a computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems  

SciTech Connect

CONC/11 is a computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. It is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended Fortran (similar to Fortran 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers.

Jaffe, L. D.

1984-02-15

322

CONC/11: A computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CONC/11 computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems is discussed. This program is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. The CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended FORTRAN (similar to FORTRAN 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers. A user's manual is also provided for this program.

Jaffe, L. D.

1984-01-01

323

Advanced conceptual design for solar repowering at Pioneer Mill Co. , Ltd. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An advanced conceptual design for a solar repowering facility has been prepared for a Hawaii sugar factory. A baseline conceptual design is summarized as a starting point and the tradeoff studies that were performed are described. The results of a review of the available relevant data covering both solar component development and site-specific parameters, and the tradeoff studies conducted during the refinement of the baseline conceptual design into the advanced conceptual design are described. The systems of the advanced conceptual design of the solar repowering facility are described in detail, including the collector system, the receiver system, the thermal transport system, the master control system, and the nonsolar energy system. The description of each system includes details of the major components and their locations, functional requirements, design and operating characteristics, performance estimates, and cost estimates. Economic analyses are presented to measure the improvement of the advanced design over the baseline and to identify possible conditions and assumptions under which this solar repowering project might be economically viable. A development plan is presented to provide a smooth transition from the advanced conceptual design phase of the project to commercial operation. Appended are the system specification, site insolation measurement program, site insolation model, performance algorithms for major subsystems and components for SOLTES, a system simulation code, performance simulation results, and receiver flux maps. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-05-01

324

Comparison of DOE-2 and TRNSYS solar-heating-system simulation  

SciTech Connect

The analysis and comparison of the output of the solar energy section of DOE-2 called Component Based Simulator (CBS) and TRNSYS are discussed. The adequacy and sensitivity of CBS when various active solar energy collectors and systems were interfaced with a standard space heating system were investigated. The analysis included both single- and double-glazed collectors with selectively and nonselectively coated absorbing surfaces located in four different environments. The results of the study show the agreement between the two programs to be remarkably similar. Graphs are presented to illustrate the minor differences in annual average collector efficiency and annual average part solar as well as the thermal load and insolation levels. In addition, difficulties encountered by the researchers when performing this study and when attempting to model the collector systems with each program's components are discussed and recommendations offered to facilitate the solar simulation process for future CBS users.

Eden, A.; Morgan, M.

1980-12-01

325

Development of flat-plate solar collectors for the heating and cooling of buildings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relevant design parameters in the fabrication of a solar collector for heating liquids were examined. The objective was to design, fabricate, and test a low-cost, flat-plate solar collector with high collection efficiency, high durability, and requiring little maintenance. Computer-aided math models of the heat transfer processes in the collector assisted in the design. The preferred physical design parameters were determined from a heat transfer standpoint and the absorber panel configuration, the surface treatment of the absorber panel, the type and thickness of insulation, and the number, spacing and material of the covers were defined. Variations of this configuration were identified, prototypes built, and performance tests performed using a solar simulator. Simulated operation of the baseline collector configuration was combined with insolation data for a number of locations and compared with a predicted load to determine the degree of solar utilization.

Ramsey, J. W.; Borzoni, J. T.; Holland, T. H.

1975-01-01

326

Comparison of geothermal, solar, and conventional space heating costs in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. Geothermal district heating systems will become economically feasible in most urban centers north of a line extending roughly from Los Angeles to Baltimore. Solar heating systems, with conventional heating backup, will become economically feasible throughout the country. The most economical applications will be in suburban and rural areas in the intermountain West and into the Great Plains region. Conventional heating will remain most economic: (1) in urban centers in the South (where annual heat demand is low0; (2) in Northern urban centers which are too distant from geothermal resources; and (3) in suburban and rural areas with low solar insolation. Conventional energy will supplement solar energy in most locations.

Bloomster, C. H.; Price, B. A.; Fassbender, L. L.

327

Reconstruction of solar irradiancevariations in cycle?23: Is solar surface magnetism the cause?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of solar irradiance variations is presented which is based on the assumption that solar surface magnetism is responsible for all total irradiance changes on time scales of days to years. A time series of daily magnetograms and empirical models of the thermal structure of magnetic features (sunspots, faculae) are combined to reconstruct total (and spectral) irra- diance from

N. A. Krivova; S. K. Solanki; M. Fligge; Y. C. Unruh

2003-01-01

328

20 CFR 330.3 - Daily rate of compensation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily rate of compensation. 330.3 Section...BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.3 Daily rate of compensation. (a)...

2010-04-01

329

Turbine sizing of a solar thermal power plant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the insolation is intermittent, thermal energy storage is necessary to extend the time of power generation with solar heat past sunset. There are two approaches to specifying the size of turbine-generator units depending on the system operation. In the first approach, the turbine operates at its full capacity when operating on direct solar heat, and at reduced capacity when operating on collected heat out of energy storage. In the second approach, the turbine will always operate at a uniform level either on derated energy from the receiver or from energy storage. Both of these approaches have certain advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, a simple analysis is outlined and exercised to compare the performance and economics of these two approaches.

Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.

1979-01-01

330

Development and Testing of Shingle-type Solar Cell Modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, fabrication and testing of a shingle-type terrestrial solar cell module which produces 98 watts/sq m of exposed module area at 1 kW/sq m insolation and 61 C are reported. These modules make it possible to easily incorporate photovoltaic power generation into the sloping roofs of residential or commercial buildings by simply nailing the modules to the plywood roof sheathing. This design consists of nineteen series-connected 53 mm diameter solar cells arranged in a closely packed hexagon configuration. These cells are individually bonded to the embossed surface of a 3 mm thick thermally tempered hexagon-shaped piece of glass. Polyvinyl butyral is used as the laminating adhesive.

Shepard, N. F., Jr.

1979-01-01

331

Irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential size of the onfarm-pumped irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems in seven high-insolation states is estimated. The study is restricted to the displacement of three specific fuels: gasoline, diesel and natural gas. The model was developed to estimate the optimal number of parabolic dish modules per farm based on the minimum cost mix of conventional and solar thermal energy required to meet irrigation needs. The study concludes that the potential market size for onfarm-pumped irrigation applications ranges from 101,000 modules when a 14 percent real discount rate is assumed to 220,000 modules when the real discount rate drops to 8 percent. Arizona, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico and Texas account for 98 percent of the total demand for this application, with the natural gas replacement market accounting for the largest segment (71 percent) of the total market.

Habib-Agahi, H.; Jones, S. C.

1981-01-01

332

Geosynthetic clay liners shrinkage under simulated daily thermal cycles.  

PubMed

Geosynthetic clay liners are used as part of composite liner systems in municipal solid waste landfills and other applications to restrict the escape of contaminants into the surrounding environment. This is attainable provided that the geosynthetic clay liner panels continuously cover the subsoil. Previous case histories, however, have shown that some geosynthetic clay liner panels are prone to significant shrinkage and separation when an overlying geomembrane is exposed to solar radiation. Experimental models were initiated to evaluate the potential shrinkage of different geosynthetic clay liner products placed over sand and clay subsoils, subjected to simulated daily thermal cycles (60°C for 8 hours and 22°C for 16 hours) modelling field conditions in which the liner is exposed to solar radiation. The variation of geosynthetic clay liner shrinkage was evaluated at specified times by a photogrammetry technique. The manufacturing techniques, the initial moisture content, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to width) of the geosynthetic clay liner were found to considerably affect the shrinkage of geosynthetic clay liners. The particle size distribution of the subsoil and the associated suction at the geosynthetic clay liner-subsoil interface was also found to have significant effects on the shrinkage of the geosynthetic clay liner. PMID:24718363

Sarabadani, Hamid; Rayhani, Mohammad T

2014-04-01

333

MathMastery.com: Daily Brains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Six days a week, a new math problem is posted on this Web site to intrigue and challenge grade school students. Each Daily Brain has a different theme, considering some mathematical perspective of science, history, geography, and more. After solving the problem, or for a little help, students can look at a step-by-step solution that is also posted online. All old Daily Brains are kept in an archive, and as of May 2003, they numbered around 400. The problems are mostly intended for students between fourth and sixth grades.

2007-12-12

334

Regional comparisons of on-site solar potential in the residential and industrial sectors  

SciTech Connect

Regional and sub-regional differences in the potential development of decentralized solar technologies are studied. Two sectors of the economy were selected for intensive analysis: the residential and industrial sectors. In both investigations, the sequence of analysis follows the same general steps: (1) selection of appropriate prototypes within each land-use sector disaggregated by census region; (2) characterization of the end-use energy demand of each prototype in order to match an appropriate decentralized solar technology to the energy demand; (3) assessment of the energy conservation potential within each prototype limited by land use patterns, technology efficiency, and variation in solar insolation; and (4) evaluation of the regional and sub-regional differences in the land use implications of decentralized energy supply technologies that result from the combination of energy demand, energy supply potential, and the subsequent addition of increasingly more restrictive policies to increase the percent contribution of on-site solar energy. Results are presented and discussed. It is concluded that determining regional variations in solar energy contribution for both the residential and industrial sectors appears to be more dependent upon a characterization of existing demand and conservation potential than regional variations in solar insolation. Local governmental decisions influencing developing land use patterns can significantly promote solar energy use and reduce reliance on non-renewable energy sources. These decisions include such measures as solar access protection through controls on vegetation and on building height and density in the residential sector, and district heating systems and industrial co-location in the manufacturing sector. (WHK)

Gatzke, A.E.; Skewes-Cox, A.O.

1980-10-01

335

ScienceDaily: Researchers Directly Deposit Gold Nanoparticles In Suspension ScienceDaily: Your source for the latest  

E-print Network

ScienceDaily: Researchers Directly Deposit Gold Nanoparticles In Suspension ScienceDaily: Your Engineering, Biochemistry, Engineering, Physics, Microarrays Researchers Directly Deposit Gold Nanoparticles - Search #12;ScienceDaily: Researchers Directly Deposit Gold Nanoparticles In Suspension Magnetic

Espinosa, Horacio D.

336

Generating daily weather data for ecosystem modelling in the Congo River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily weather data are an important constraint for diverse applications in ecosystem research. In particular, temperature and precipitation are the main drivers for forest ecosystem productivity. Mechanistic modelling theory heavily relies on daily values for minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation, incident solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit. Although the number of climate measurement stations increased during the last centuries, there are still regions with limited climate data. For example, in the WMO database there are only 16 stations located in Gabon with daily weather measurements. Additionally, the available time series are heavily affected by measurement errors or missing values. In the WMO record for Gabon, on average every second day is missing. Monthly means are more robust and may be estimated over larger areas. Therefore, a good alternative is to interpolate monthly mean values using a sparse network of measurement stations, and based on these monthly data generate daily weather data with defined characteristics. The weather generator MarkSim was developed to produce climatological time series for crop modelling in the tropics. It provides daily values for maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and solar radiation. The monthly means can either be derived from the internal climate surfaces or prescribed as additional inputs. We compared the generated outputs observations from three climate stations in Gabon (Lastourville, Moanda and Mouilla) and found that maximum temperature and solar radiation were heavily overestimated during the long dry season. This is due to the internal dependency of the solar radiation estimates to precipitation. With no precipitation a cloudless sky is assumed and thus high incident solar radiation and a large diurnal temperature range. However, in reality it is cloudy in the Congo River Basin during the long dry season. Therefore, we applied a correction factor to solar radiation and temperature range based on the ratio of values on rainy days and days without rain, respectively. For assessing the impact of our correction, we simulated the ecosystem behaviour using the climate data from Lastourville, Moanda and Mouilla with the mechanistic ecosystem model Biome-BGC. Differences in terms of the carbon, nitrogen and water cycle were subsequently analysed and discussed.

Petritsch, Richard; Pietsch, Stephan A.

2010-05-01

337

Objective Prediction of Daily Precipitation and Cloudiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between present weather and concurrent daily 700-mb circulation is studied for the winter season in the United States. All weather data are averaged within 40 climatologically homogeneous circles and expressed asnumerical index giving the propor- tion of precipitation or cloudiness within each circle at map time. The synoptic climatology of the resulting weather index is analyzed, and schematic

William H. Klein; Curtis W. Crockett; James F. Andrews

1965-01-01

338

Probabilistic quality control of daily temperature data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure for quality control of daily maximum and minimum temperature data acquired by a monitoring network is presented. The procedure aims to automatically identify data affected by potential anomalies, thus reducing the necessary time for a manual inspection of the operator who has the task to assign the final flags in each quality control system. Potential anomalies in daily temperature data are identified through probabilistic confidence intervals derived from the historical dataset observed both in the target station and in the selected reference stations. In particular, a first control is carried out by verifying whether the observed data lie within a confidence interval of fixed probability, obtained from the historical series of the same station, after removal of statistically significant linear trend. A second control is based on comparing the observed data with confidence intervals derived by means of multiple linear regressions, developed by using contemporaneous data observed in reference stations. Examples of applications of the proposed procedures are reported with reference to daily maximum and minimum temperature observed from 1950 to 2004 at some Sicilian automatic stations, operated by the Water Observatory of Regional Agency for Waste and Water (formerly, the Sicilian Regional Hydrographic Office). Finally, the accuracy of the proposed procedure is verified by introducing known errors in the available series of daily temperature, assumed as correct, and by computing the probabilities to correctly and incorrectly classify the acquired data in terms of the corresponding frequencies.

Sciuto, G.; Bonaccorso, B.; Cancelliere, A.; Rossi, G.

2010-05-01

339

Detection of Daily Clouds on Titan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have discovered frequent variations in the near-infrared spectrum of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, which are indicative of the daily presence of sparse clouds covering less than 1% of the area of the satellite. The thermodynamics of Titan's atmosphere and the clouds' altitudes suggest that convection governs their evolutions. Their short lives point to the presence of rain. We propose

Caitlin A. Griffith; Joseph L. Hall; Thomas R. Geballe

2000-01-01

340

FRESH KNOWLEDGE DAILY NEW THIS SUMMER!  

E-print Network

FRESH KNOWLEDGE DAILY SUMMER AT NEW THIS SUMMER! SU's David B. Falk College of Sport and Human Dynamics offers this 3 credit class for Summer 2014. For more information about this class, contact Rachel Razza at rrazza@syr.edu. Visit summer.syr.edu for information about other classes available through

Mather, Patrick T.

341

TRENDS IN ANNUAL AND DAILY PRECIPITATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Annual precipitation in the Great Plains was generally higher during the last two decades of the 20th century. Corresponding changes in daily precipitation amount, number of rainy days, and distribution throughout the year were investigated for Kingfisher in central Oklahoma. The number of rainy da...

342

Super 7: Daily Exercises in Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a year-long program of daily exercises in problem solving for 2nd and 3rd grade students that presents 144 lessons, each with seven problems. The problems cover number sense, computation, measurements, geometry, problem solving, and patterns. The material is presented in a sequential fashion with concepts repeated and expanded, and…

Hamilton, Octavia

343

National Institutes of Health Daily Food List  

Cancer.gov

DAILY FOOD LIST PARTICIPANT ID HERE NOTIFICATION TO RESPONDENT OF ESTIMATED BURDEN Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 5 minutes per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information.

344

INTERPOLATING VANCOUVER'S DAILY AMBIENT PM 10 FIELD  

EPA Science Inventory

In this article we develop a spatial predictive distribution for the ambient space- time response field of daily ambient PM10 in Vancouver, Canada. Observed responses have a consistent temporal pattern from one monitoring site to the next. We exploit this feature of the field b...

345

Daily Reporting Rainfall Station CAPE YORK RIVERS  

E-print Network

Daily Reporting Rainfall Station CAPE YORK RIVERS Manual Heavy Rainfall Station Manual River Station Telemetry Rainfall Station Telemetry River Station Revised: Nov 2011 MAP 919.1 FLOOD WARNING River Pormpuraaw Kowanyama Southwell Croydon Yappar R Blackbull Siding M itchellR StaatenR Dorunda TM

Greenslade, Diana

346

News Allocation Policies of American Daily Newspapers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this paper, conducted during the winter of 1973-74, explored the newshole policies of U.S. daily newspapers in the context of rapid technological and economic changes. A national survey consisted of a structured questionnaire mailed to a stratified, random sample of newspapers selected by circulation size. Analysis of…

Drew, Dan G.; Wilhoit, G. Cleveland

347

2011 Daily Log Report #: 2011-00168  

E-print Network

2011 Daily Log March 2011 Report #: 2011-00168 Reported: 03/31/2011 1237 Occurred: 03/31/2011 1235 Incident: Medical Emergency Location: Outside of Student Union Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Female transported to hospital by ambulance for medical treatment. Report #: 2011-00167 Reported: 03/31/2011 1116

Boyce, Richard L.

348

Big Ideas behind Daily 5 and CAFE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Daily 5 and CAFE were born out of The Sister's research and observations of instructional mentors, their intense desire to be able to deliver highly intentional, focused instruction to small groups and individuals while the rest of the class was engaged in truly authentic reading and writing, and their understanding that a one size fits all…

Boushey, Gail; Moser, Joan

2012-01-01

349

Heat transparent high intensity high efficiency solar cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved solar cell design is described. A surface of each solar cell has a plurality of grooves. Each groove has a vertical face and a slanted face that is covered by a reflecting metal. Light rays are reflected from the slanted face through the vertical face where they traverse a photovoltaic junction. As the light rays travel to the slanted face of an adjacent groove, they again traverse the junction. The underside of the reflecting coating directs the light rays toward the opposite surface of solar cell as they traverse the junction again. When the light rays travel through the solar cell and reach the saw toothed grooves on the under side, the process of reflection and repeatedly traversing the junction again takes place. The light rays ultimately emerge from the solar cell. These solar cells are particularly useful at very high levels of insolation because the infrared or heat radiation passes through the cells without being appreciably absorbed to heat the cell.

Evans, J. C., Jr. (inventor)

1982-01-01

350

Estimation of Diffuse Fraction of Global Solar Radiation Using Artificial Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measured daily mean air temperature and relative humidity values between 1998 and 2002 for Abha city in Saudi Arabia were used for predicting diffuse fraction of solar radiation in future time domain using artificial neural networks method. The estimations of diffuse solar radiation were made using four combinations of data sets, viz. (i) day of the year and daily maximum

S. Rehman; M. Mohandes

2009-01-01

351

Solar dynamic power for the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a computer code which provides a significant advance in the systems analysis capabilities of solar dynamic power modules. While the code can be used to advantage in the preliminary analysis of terrestrial solar dynamic modules its real value lies in the adaptions which make it particularly useful for the conceptualization of optimized power modules for space applications. In particular, as illustrated in the paper, the code can be used to establish optimum values of concentrator diameter, concentrator surface roughness, concentrator rim angle and receiver aperture corresponding to the main heat cycle options - Organic Rankine and Brayton - and for certain receiver design options. The code can also be used to establish system sizing margins to account for the loss of reflectivity in orbit or the seasonal variation of insolation. By the simulation of the interactions among the major components of a solar dynamic module and through simplified formulations of the major thermal-optic-thermodynamic interactions the code adds a powerful, efficient and economic analytical tool to the repertory of techniques available for the design of advanced space power systems.

Archer, J. S.; Diamant, E. S.

1986-01-01

352

Daily life ischemia and nitrate therapy.  

PubMed

Daily life ischemia has generated considerable interest because most of it is silent and associated with increased risk of adverse outcome. Coronary vasomotion, as well as increases in myocardial oxygen demand, seem important in the pathogenesis of this form of ischemia, so treatment with nitrates seems rational. Administration of sublingual nitroglycerin hourly, over 12 hours, was shown to decrease both silent and painful ischemic episodes in patients with effort angina. Subsequently, isosorbide dinitrate or mononitrate, given either as an intravenous infusion or orally, was shown to decrease both silent and painful ischemic episodes in patients with unstable rest angina and in those with severe angina. More recently, 6 studies have reported using transdermal nitroglycerin for daily life ischemia. Three of these reported open-label uncontrolled observations and suggested that ischemia frequency may be reduced approximately 60-80% during treatment with doses of 10-30 mg/day, with a duration of treatment ranging from 1 hour to 14 days. In 2 of these reports the duration of ischemia also decreased. The other 3 studies were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with a total enrollment of 86 patients. These studies provided mixed results. One suggested that evidence for partial tolerance develops within 1 day of treatment, using large continuous or intermittent doses (mean, 52 mg/day). Another suggested that no tolerance develops to intermittent dosing (18 mg/16 hr out of 24 hr) during exercise testing but no effect is seen on daily life ischemia. The remaining study suggested that tolerance does not develop using small doses (15 mg/day) continuously over 14 days for ischemia during daily life, and that this response is different from that observed using the calcium antagonist nifedipine. These limited observations and conflicting results underscore a need for additional larger controlled trials, employing topical nitrate therapy in low intermittent doses for daily life ischemia. PMID:1529927

Pepine, C J

1992-09-24

353

Seasonal and spatial variation of organic tracers for biomass burning in PM1 aerosols from highly insolated urban areas.  

PubMed

PM1 aerosol characterization on organic tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan and its isomers and dehydroabietic acid) was conducted within the AERTRANS project. PM1 filters (N = 90) were sampled from 2010 to 2012 in busy streets in the urban centre of Madrid and Barcelona (Spain) at ground-level and at roof sites. In both urban areas, biomass burning was not expected to be an important local emission source, but regional emissions from wildfires, residential heating or biomass removal may influence the air quality in the cities. Although both areas are under influence of high solar radiation, Madrid is situated in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, while Barcelona is located at the Mediterranean Coast and under influence of marine atmospheres. Two extraction methods were applied, i.e. Soxhlet and ASE, which showed equivalent results after GC-MS analyses. The ambient air concentrations of the organic tracers for biomass burning increased by an order of magnitude at both sites during winter compared to summer. An exception was observed during a PM event in summer 2012, when the atmosphere in Barcelona was directly affected by regional wildfire smoke and levels were four times higher as those observed in winter. Overall, there was little variation between the street and roof sites in both cities, suggesting that regional biomass burning sources influence the urban areas after atmospheric transport. Despite the different atmospheric characteristics in terms of air relative humidity, Madrid and Barcelona exhibit very similar composition and concentrations of biomass burning organic tracers. Nevertheless, levoglucosan and its isomers seem to be more suitable for source apportionment purposes than dehydroabietic acid. In both urban areas, biomass burning contributions to PM were generally low (2 %) in summer, except on the day when wildfire smoke arrive to the urban area. In the colder periods the contribution increase to around 30 %, indicating that regional biomass burning has a substantial influence on the urban air quality. PMID:24477336

van Drooge, B L; Fontal, M; Bravo, N; Fernández, P; Fernández, M A; Muñoz-Arnanz, J; Jiménez, B; Grimalt, J O

2014-10-01

354

Break Correction of Swiss Daily and Sub-Daily Temperature Series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many applications in climate science require high-quality, long-term data at a high temporal resolution. However, such records are often affected by artificial breaks. The challenging task of homogenizing daily and sub-daily data has only been partially addressed in recent years. Therefore, the number of available datasets providing homogeneous daily and sub-daily series is still small compared to the volume of monthly or annual data. In this study, series of daily maximum (Tmax), daily minimum (Tmin), morning (Tmorn), noon (Tnoon) and evening (Teve), and daily mean (Tmean) temperatures measured in 61 stations of the Swiss climate observation network were corrected for artificial breaks. The break detection for the above mentioned series was accomplished in a former study by using a combination of three different break detection methods. Here the previously determined breakpoints are corrected by applying the method of higher-order moments for autocorrelated data (HOMAD), which is an improved version of the higher-order moments method (HOM), providing an objective choice of regression parameters.

Auchmann, Renate; Kuglitsch, Franz; Toreti, Andrea; Brönnimann, Stefan

2014-05-01

355

Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to Daily Family Stressors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the National Study of Daily Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of daily interviews during which they reported on daily

Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.

2012-01-01

356

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

SciTech Connect

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. Sundstrand Corporation is developing a ORC-SDPS candidate for the Space Station that uses toluene as the organic fluid and LiOH as the TES material. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. 3 refs., 8 figs.

Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.; Merrigan, M.A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

1987-01-01

357

Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

Eaton, William W.

358

Solar Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational brief provides an overview of solar activity, including a description of Earth's magnetosphere and of various solar phenomena such as the solar wind, Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), sunspots, solar flares, and others. A list of links to additional material is also provided.

359

Solar panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention provides a method for heating water by solar radiation using a reflux condenser system in which a heat transfer liquid is boiled by solar radiation and the vapor used to heat the water in a heat exchanger. The solar panel itself is highly efficient in operation and comprises a solar plate which incorporates a number of tubes containing

1978-01-01

360

Solar furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar furnace is a device for applying high temperatures to a specimen by concentrating solar radiation on it. A brief historical review concerning the development of solar furnaces is presented and fundamental operational and design principles for solar furnaces are discussed. A paraboloidal mirror is used as a radiation concentrator of the reflection type. According to the procedures used

T. Sakurai

1977-01-01

361

Estimating solar access of typical residential rooftops: A case study in San Jose, CA  

SciTech Connect

Shadows cast by trees and buildings can limit the solar access of rooftop solar-energy systems, including photovoltaic panels and thermal collectors. This study characterizes rooftop shading in a residential neighborhood of San Jose, CA, one of four regions analyzed in a wider study of the solar access of California homes.High-resolution orthophotos and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) measurements of surface height were used to create a digital elevation model of all trees and buildings in a 4 km2 residential neighborhood. Hourly shading of roofing planes (the flat elements of roofs) was computed geometrically from the digital elevation model. Parcel boundaries were used to determine the extent to which roofing planes were shaded by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels.In the year in which surface heights were measured (2005), shadows from all sources ("total shading") reduced the insolation received by S-, SW-, and W-facing residential roofing planes in the study area by 13 - 16percent. Shadows cast by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels reduced insolation by no more than 2percent. After 30 years of simulated maximal tree growth, annual total shading increased to 19 - 22percent, and annual extraparcel shading increased to 3 - 4percent.

Levinson, Ronnen M.; Gupta, Smita; Akbari, Hashem; Pomerantz, Melvin

2008-03-03

362

Different scaling behaviors in daily temperature records over China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-range correlations of five kinds of daily temperature records (i.e. daily average temperature records, daily maximum temperature records, daily minimum temperature records, diurnal temperature range and the sum of daily maximum and minimum temperature records) from 164 weather stations over China during 1951–2004 are analyzed by means of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). These five kinds of fluctuation series are found to

Naiming Yuan; Zuntao Fu; Jiangyu Mao

2010-01-01

363

Solar Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

1979-01-01

364

Nimbus-7 ERB Solar Analysis Tape (ESAT) user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seven years and five months of Nimbus-7 Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) solar data are available on a single ERB Solar Analysis Tape (ESAT). The period covered is November 16, 1978 through March 31, 1986. The Nimbus-7 satellite performs approximately 14 orbits per day and the ERB solar telescope observes the sun once per orbit as the satellite crosses the southern terminator. The solar data were carefully calibrated and screened. Orbital and daily mean values are given for the total solar irradiance plus other spectral intervals (10 solar channels in all). In addition, selected solar activity indicators are included on the ESAT. The ESAT User's Guide is an update of the previous ESAT User's Guide (NASA TM 86143) and includes more detailed information on the solar data calibration, screening procedures, updated solar data plots, and applications to solar variability. Details of the tape format, including source code to access ESAT, are included.

Major, Eugene; Hickey, John R.; Kyle, H. Lee; Alton, Bradley M.; Vallette, Brenda J.

1988-01-01

365

Heavy metals in common foodstuff: Daily intake  

SciTech Connect

Lately, toxic effects of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) as well as desirable ones of some others (Ni, Mn, Zn) have been a field of thorough investigation. The main way of human body fortification in metals is through foodchain depending on the kind and quantity of the consumed food, according to dietary habits. The purpose of this study is the calculation of metals daily intake through common foodstuff of Greek inhabitants. The calculation is based on results from quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn in common foodstuff from the market of the city of Thessaloniki. The daily food consumption data is derived from three sources: (a) answers to a questionnaire distributed to families of the city of Thessaloniki, (b) nutrition data provided by the Agricultural Bank of Greece and (c) nutrition data according to international bibliography.

Tsoumbaris, P.; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H. (Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

1994-07-01

366

Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring in Daily Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous monitoring of blood pressure in daily life could improve early detection of cardiovascular disorders, as well as promoting healthcare. Conventional ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) equipment can measure blood pressure at regular intervals for 24 hours, but is limited by long measuring time, low sampling rate, and constrained measuring posture. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for continuous real-time measurement of blood pressure during daily activities. Our method is based on blood pressure estimation from pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation, which formula we improved to take into account changes in the inner diameter of blood vessels. Blood pressure estimation results using our new method showed a greater precision of measured data during exercise, and a better accuracy than the conventional PWV method.

Lopez, Guillaume; Shuzo, Masaki; Ushida, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Keita; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Imai, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akio; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

367

Microalbuminuria, Kidney Function, and Daily Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to investigate independent relationship between daily physical activity, microalbuminuria, and kidney function. The demographic characteristics and laboratory parameters were recorded for all patients. The determination of daily activities was carried out by Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale (NEADLS) which was performed for each patient in an interview. Totally 139 patients were enrolled. In the whole group NEADLS score was correlated with age (rho: ?0.759, P < 0.0001), clinical systolic blood pressure (rho: ?0.212, P: 0.018), blood urea nitrogen (rho: ?0.516, P < 0.0001), creatinine (rho: ?0.501, P < 0.0001), uric acid (rho: ?0.308, P < 0.0001), albumin (rho: 0.382, P < 0.0001), total cholesterol (rho: ?0.194, P: 0.022), LDL-cholesterol (rho: ?0.230, P: 0.008), hemoglobin (rho: 0.256, P: 0.002), creatinine clearance (rho: 0.565, P < 0.0001), 24-hour urinary protein excretion (rho: ?0.324, P < 0.0001), and 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) (rho: ?0.483, P < 0.0001). The multivariate linear regression of independent factors corelated with logarithmically converted NEADLS score (as a dependent variable) has shown that age (P < 0.0001), presence of coronary artery disease (P: 0.011), hemoglobin (P: 0.020), 24-hour creatinine clearance (P: 0.004), and 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (P < 0.0001) were independently corelated with NEADLS score. In conclusion, both UAE and kidney function were independently associated with daily physical activity. PMID:24455256

2013-01-01

368

Copula-based daily rainfall disaggregation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A daily rainfall disaggregation model, which uses a copula to model the dependence structure between total depth, total duration of wet periods, and the maximum proportional depth of a wet period, is presented. The wet(1)-dry(0) binary sequence is modeled by the nonrandomized Bartlett-Lewis model with diurnal effect incorporated before superimposing the AR(1) depth process submodel. Unlike previous studies, the model is structured such that all wet day data available are considered in the analysis, without the need to discard any good quality daily data embedded in a month having some missing data. This increased the data size, thus improving the modeling process. Further, the daily data are classified according to the total duration of wet periods duration within the day. In this way a large proportion of the model parameters become seasonal invariant, the overriding factor being the total duration of wet periods. The potential of the developed model has been demonstrated by disaggregating both the data set used in developing the model parameters and also a 12 year continuous rainfall data set not used in the model parameterization. Gross rainfall statistics of several aggregation levels down to 6 min have been very well reproduced by the disaggregation model. The copula dependence structure and the variation of the depth process submodel parameters with the total duration of wet periods are also very well captured by the presented model.

Gyasi-Agyei, Yeboah

2011-07-01

369

Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.  

PubMed

Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes. PMID:23918373

Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

2013-08-20

370

Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters  

PubMed Central

Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters’ bounded nature. An individual’s encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of “familiar strangers” in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or “structure of co-presence” across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and—particularly—disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes. PMID:23918373

Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W.; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

2013-01-01

371

A Double-Edged Sword: Race, Daily Family Support Exchanges, and Daily Well-Being.  

PubMed

This study contributes to research on race and family ties by exploring racial differences in the direct effects of family support exchanges on daily well-being and the extent to which family support buffers/exacerbates stressor reactivity. African Americans and European Americans aged 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) from the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE) reported on family support exchanges (i.e., support received/support provided), daily stressors, and negative affect during 8 days of telephone interviews. On a daily basis, receiving family support was not associated with well-being, whereas providing family support was associated with compromised well-being among African Americans. As expected, receiving family support buffered reactivity to daily tensions for both races, whereas providing emotional support to family exacerbated African Americans' reactivity to daily tensions. Together, our findings suggest that even after considering the benefits of receiving family support, providing family support takes an emotional toll on African Americans. PMID:25368438

Cichy, Kelly E; Stawski, Robert S; Almeida, David M

2014-11-01

372

Smoking motives of daily and non-daily smokers: A profile analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Non-daily or intermittent smoking is becoming common, but little is known about smoking patterns of intermittent smokers (ITS). This study assesses differences in the profile of smoking motives of non-daily, ITS and daily smokers (DS). Methods Participants were 218 DS and 252 ITS (152 converted ITS [CITS], who previously smoked daily, and 80 native ITS [NITS] who did not), not currently quitting, recruited by advertisement. ITS were defined as smoking 4–27 days per month; DS as smoking daily, 5–30 cigarettes per day. Participants completed the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM), yielding scores for 13 different motives. The within-profile standard deviation expressed profile scatter (differentiation among motives), and profile shape was assessed on scores standardized for within-profile mean and standard deviation. Results There was no difference between ITS and DS on profile scatter. ITS and DS differed in the shape of the standardized score profile, with DS scoring higher on Tolerance, Craving, Automaticity, Loss of Control and Behavioral Choice motives, and ITS scoring higher on Cue Exposure, Weight Control, and Positive Reinforcement motives. CITS did not differ from NITS in profile scatter or profile shape. Conclusion ITS differ from DS in the relative importance of motives, with ITS emphasizing motives associated with acute, situational smoking, and DS emphasizing dependence-related motives. Among ITS, history of daily smoking did not influence the profile of motives. PMID:22784601

Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S.; Scholl, Sarah M.; Tindle, Hilary A.

2013-01-01

373

Global daily reference evapotranspiration modeling and evaluation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accurate and reliable evapotranspiration (ET) datasets are crucial in regional water and energy balance studies. Due to the complex instrumentation requirements, actual ET values are generally estimated from reference ET values by adjustment factors using coefficients for water stress and vegetation conditions, commonly referred to as crop coefficients. Until recently, the modeling of reference ET has been solely based on important weather variables collected from weather stations that are generally located in selected agro-climatic locations. Since 2001, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) has been producing six-hourly climate parameter datasets that are used to calculate daily reference ET for the whole globe at 1-degree spatial resolution. The U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science has been producing daily reference ET (ETo) since 2001, and it has been used on a variety of operational hydrological models for drought and streamflow monitoring all over the world. With the increasing availability of local station-based reference ET estimates, we evaluated the GDAS-based reference ET estimates using data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). Daily CIMIS reference ET estimates from 85 stations were compared with GDAS-based reference ET at different spatial and temporal scales using five-year daily data from 2002 through 2006. Despite the large difference in spatial scale (point vs. ???100 km grid cell) between the two datasets, the correlations between station-based ET and GDAS-ET were very high, exceeding 0.97 on a daily basis to more than 0.99 on time scales of more than 10 days. Both the temporal and spatial correspondences in trend/pattern and magnitudes between the two datasets were satisfactory, suggesting the reliability of using GDAS parameter-based reference ET for regional water and energy balance studies in many parts of the world. While the study revealed the potential of GDAS ETo for large-scale hydrological applications, site-specific use of GDAS ETo in complex hydro-climatic regions such as coastal areas and rugged terrain may require the application of bias correction and/or disaggregation of the GDAS ETo using downscaling techniques. ?? 2008 American Water Resources Association.

Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.; Lietzow, R.; Melesse, Assefa M.

2008-01-01

374

The Solar-Meteorological Research Program for the South-Central U.S.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In assessing a six-state region comprising Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, and Missouri, the Solar-Meteorological Research Program for the South-Central U.S. hopes to assemble a data base that will predict the performance of various solar systems and enable the development of design tools for both active and passive systems. Data sources include the long-term record accumulated at the National Climatic Center of the National Weather Service as well as new airborne and ground-based measurements of meteorological and radiation parameters of the region. Administered by the Solar Data Center at Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas, the program conducts workshops on insolation measurements and modelling.

Rudzki, J. E.; Clark, G.; Loxsom, F.; Micek, L.

1980-11-01

375

Dynamic conversion of solar generated heat to electricity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effort undertaken during this program led to the selection of the water-superheated steam (850 psig/900 F) crescent central receiver as the preferred concept from among 11 candidate systems across the technological spectrum of the dynamic conversion of solar generated heat to electricity. The solar power plant designs were investigated in the range of plant capacities from 100 to 1000 Mw(e). The investigations considered the impacts of plant size, collector design, feed-water temperature ratio, heat rejection equipment, ground cover, and location on solar power technical and economic feasibility. For the distributed receiver systems, the optimization studies showed that plant capacities less than 100 Mw(e) may be best. Although the size of central receiver concepts was not parametrically investigated, all indications are that the optimal plant capacity for central receiver systems will be in the range from 50 to 200 Mw(e). Solar thermal power plant site selection criteria and methodology were also established and used to evaluate potentially suitable sites. The result of this effort was to identify a site south of Inyokern, California, as typically suitable for a solar thermal power plant. The criteria used in the selection process included insolation and climatological characteristics, topography, and seismic history as well as water availability.

Powell, J. C.; Fourakis, E.; Hammer, J. M.; Smith, G. A.; Grosskreutz, J. C.; Mcbride, E.

1974-01-01

376

Experimenting with concentrated sunlight using the DLR solar furnace  

SciTech Connect

The high flux solar furnace that is operated by the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) at Cologne was inaugurated in June 1994 and we are now able to look back onto one year of successful operation. The solar furnace project was founded by the government of the State Northrhine Westfalia within the Study Group AG Solar. The optical design is a two-stage off-axis configuration which uses a flat 52 m{sup 2} heliostat and a concentrator composed of 147 spherical mirror facets. The heliostat redirects the solar light onto the concentrator which focuses the beam out of the optical axis of the system into the laboratory building. At high insolation levels (>800W/m{sup 2}) it is possible to collect a total power of 20 kW with peak flux densities of 4 MW/m{sup 2}. Sixteen different experiment campaigns were carried out during this first year of operation. The main research fields for these experiments were material science, component development and solar chemistry. The furnace also has its own research program leading to develop sophisticated measurement techniques like remote infrared temperature sensing and flux mapping. Another future goal to be realized within the next five years is the improvement of the performance of the furnace itself. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Neumann, A.; Groer, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt Linder Hoehe, Koeln (Germany)] [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt Linder Hoehe, Koeln (Germany)

1996-10-01

377

Photovoltaic solar array technology required for three wide scale generating systems for terrestrial applications: rooftop, solar farm, and satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three major options for wide-scale generation of photovoltaic energy for terrestrial use are considered: (1) rooftop array, (2) solar farm, and (3) satellite station. The rooftop array would use solar cell arrays on the roofs of residential or commercial buildings; the solar farm would consist of large ground-based arrays, probably in arid areas with high insolation; and the satellite station would consist of an orbiting solar array, many square kilometers in area. The technology advancement requirements necessary for each option are discussed, including cost reduction of solar cells and arrays, weight reduction, resistance to environmental factors, reliability, and fabrication capability, including the availability of raw materials. The majority of the technology advancement requirements are applicable to all three options, making possible a flexible basic approach regardless of the options that may eventually be chosen. No conclusions are drawn as to which option is most advantageous, since the feasibility of each option depends on the success achieved in the technology advancement requirements specified.

Berman, P. A.

1972-01-01

378

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the end of this project, you will be able to explain the components of the Solar System and know the order of the planets starting from the Sun. Objective Question: What is the Solar System? First, listen and read about the Solar System 1. How many planets make up our Solar System? 2. What is at the center of the Solar System? Next,listen and read about the Planets. 1. Can you name all of the planets? Finally, listen and watch The Solar System Movie. 1. Can you list the ...

Ms.west

2009-07-07

379

Solar Collectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar Energy's solar panels are collectors for a solar energy system which provides heating for a drive-in bank in Akron, OH. Collectors were designed and manufactured by Solar Energy Products, a firm established by three former NASA employees. Company President, Frank Rom, an example of a personnel-type technology transfer, was a Research Director at Lewis Research Center, which conducts extensive solar heating and cooling research, including development and testing of high-efficiency flat-plate collectors. Rom acquired solar energy expertise which helped the company develop two types of collectors, one for use in domestic/commercial heating systems and the other for drying grain.

1980-01-01

380

Periodicities of solar flare and its relations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Daily flare index during period between March 1975 and May 1978, were studied by using power spectral analysis method. There are periodicities between 4.5 days to 21.7 days. Our results confirm the periodicity around 12.5 days found by several authors. This periodicity was attributed to the rotation of solar core. Long term periodicities were given where 88 and 320 days periodicities were confirmed. The relation between these periodicities and other solar activities periodicity were given.

Hady, Ahmed A.

1995-01-01

381

BOREAS TE-21 Daily Surface Meteorological Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-21 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the meteorology of boreal forest areas. Daily meteorological data were derived from half-hourly BOREAS tower flux (TF) and Automatic Meteorological Station (AMS) mesonet measurements collected in the Southern and Northern Study Areas (SSA and NSA) for the period of 01 Jan 1994 until 31 Dec 1994. The data were stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Kimball, John; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

2000-01-01

382

Daily Lesson Plan: Thirsty for Drought Relief  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Daily Lesson Plan from the New York Times Learning Network, students explore a variety of drought-related issues and research possible courses of action as part of a "drought preparedness taskforce." Based on New York Times coverage of drought in Arizona (story link provided), this exercise offers an active, interdisciplinary way to learn about water conservation and the ecological and economic effects of drought. Designed for grades 6-8 or 9-12, this exercise can be completed in one class period. The site includes useful Web links and a printer-friendly version of the lesson plan. Free registration is required.

Anderson, Bridget.

2003-01-01

383

Daily Spiritual Experiences and Adolescent Treatment Response  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to explore changes in belief orientation during treatment and the impact of increased daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on adolescent treatment response. One-hundred ninety-five adolescents court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment program were assessed at intake and discharge. Forty percent of youth who entered treatment as agnostic or atheist identified themselves as spiritual or religious at discharge. Increased DSE was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence, increased prosocial behaviors, and reduced narcissistic behaviors. Results indicate a shift in DSE that improves youth self-care and care for others that may inform intervention approaches for adolescents with addiction.

LEE, MATTHEW T.; VETA, PAIGE S.; JOHNSON, BYRON R.; PAGANO, MARIA E.

2014-01-01

384

Dementia care: focusing on daily experiences.  

PubMed

Dementia care is emerging as a national priority. It is affecting younger people and as many as one million could be living with the condition by 2015. This article describes the development of the Kitwood Plus model, which was specifically designed to care for people with dementia. Based on Kitwood (1997), the model fosters high-quality interaction from high-quality carers to enhance relationships and daily living experiences. Smile, touch, eye contact and positive talk (STEP) are the basic tools needed to connect with people with the condition. PMID:23035369

Durgahee, Taleb; Durgahee, Amir

385

Insignificant solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examine the claim that solar-terrestrial interaction, as measured by sunspots, solar wind velocity, and geomagnetic activity, might play a role in triggering earthquakes. We count the number of earthquakes having magnitudes that exceed chosen thresholds in calendar years, months, and days, and we order these counts by the corresponding rank of annual, monthly, and daily averages of the solar-terrestrial variables. We measure the statistical significance of the difference between the earthquake-number distributions below and above the median of the solar-terrestrial averages by ?2 and Student's t tests. Across a range of earthquake magnitude thresholds, we find no consistent and statistically significant distributional differences. We also introduce time lags between the solar-terrestrial variables and the number of earthquakes, but again no statistically significant distributional difference is found. We cannot reject the null hypothesis of no solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes.

Love, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Jeremy N.

2013-01-01

386

xtreme space weather storms are driven by solar activity, which  

E-print Network

, with the reversal occurring around the time of maximum. At the time of writing (early January 2014) we are close on the Sun varies with a semi-regular 11-year cycle known as the solar cycle. Short-term variations (daily the solar disk. There are also longer- term variations occurring over timescales from years to centuries

Wheatland, Michael S.

387

Solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance: Present, past, and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

New models of solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance variability are constructed in 1 nm bins from 0 to 120 nm using multiple regression of the Mg II and F10.7 solar activity indices with irradiance observations made during the descending phase of cycle 23. The models have been used to reconstruct EUV spectra daily since 1950, annually since 1610, to forecast

J. L. Lean; T. N. Woods; F. G. Eparvier; R. R. Meier; D. J. Strickland; J. T. Correira; J. S. Evans

2011-01-01

388

A method for characterization and inter-comparison of sites with regard to solar energy utilization by statistical analysis of their solar radiation data as performed for three sites in the Israel Negev region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the characterization and inter-comparison of sites with regard to their suitability for utilization of solar energy based upon the statistical analysis of their solar radiation intensities is presented. In this method each monthly data set of the daily global, horizontal beam and diffuse radiation intensities was analyzed and the following parameters were determined: monthly average daily radiation

Amiran Ianetz; Vera Lyubansky; Ilan Setter; Efim G. Evseev; Avraham I. Kudish

2000-01-01

389

Solar Geometry  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

Solar Noon (GMT time) The time when the sun is due south in the northern hemisphere or due north in the southern ... The average cosine of the angle between the sun and directly overhead during daylight hours.   Cosine solar ...

2014-09-25

390

Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The region of the universe in which we live, the Solar System, is but one of many clusters of stars and planets in space. Our Solar System lies in a particular region of the universe called the `Milky Way Galaxy'....

P. Masson

2000-01-01

391

Solar Flares  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page details and resources that help support an understanding of solar flares on our sun. When we are drawing a sun on a piece of paper, they usually look like this: Cartoon Picture of a Sun The spiky lines have a name - Solar Flares. This is when the sun releases gas and heat into the atmosphere. Click on this picture to see what a solar flare looks like. Picture of a Solar Flare 2 In this video, you ...

Mrs. Verlengia

2011-12-10

392

Solar Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a “Solar distillation” is a technology for producing potable water from brackish and underground water of low-quality at low\\u000a cost. It can reduce water-scarcity problems together with other water purification technologies. Solar distillation is analogous\\u000a to natural hydrological cycle. It uses an apparatus called a solar still in which water is evaporated using solar energy,\\u000a a form of renewable energy, and

Rahul Dev; Gopal Nath Tiwari

393

Solar panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar collector for use in receiving solar radiation and converting the same to heat. A matrix of plural layers of slit-and-expanded sheets are contained within the solar collector and the heat produced by the matrix absorbing solar radiation is transferred by convection into a forced fluid path. The surfaces of the slit-and-expanded sheets are coated to absorb and convert

Schriefer; A. H. Jr

1978-01-01

394

Solar panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar collector for use in receiving solar radiation and converting the same to heat is described. A matrix of plural layers of slit-and-expanded sheets are contained within the solar collector and the heat produced by the matrix absorbing solar radiation is transferred by convection into a forced fluid path. The surfaces of the slit-and-expanded sheets are coated to absorb

Schriefer; A. H. Jr

1979-01-01

395

42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “daily basis”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “daily basis”. (a) To meet the daily basis requirement specified in §...

2014-10-01

396

Daily Drinking May Raise Risk of Liver Cirrhosis  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Daily Drinking May Raise Risk of Liver Cirrhosis, Study Warns Everyday habits appear to matter ... Daily drinking increases the risk of alcohol-related liver cirrhosis, a new study found. It's generally believed ...

397

27 CFR 19.736 - Daily production records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily production records. 19.736 Section 19...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Account § 19.736 Daily production records. (a) Spirits...

2010-04-01

398

7 CFR 59.301 - Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs. 59.301 Section 59.301 Agriculture...CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.301 Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs. (a) In general . The...

2010-01-01

399

42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “daily basis”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “daily basis”. (a) To meet the daily basis requirement specified in §...

2011-10-01

400

42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “daily basis”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “daily basis”. (a) To meet the daily basis requirement specified in §...

2013-10-01

401

42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “daily basis”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “daily basis”. (a) To meet the daily basis requirement specified in §...

2012-10-01

402

42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “daily basis”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “daily basis”. (a) To meet the daily basis requirement specified in §...

2010-10-01

403

More Than 1 in 10 Use Daily Aspirin Inappropriately  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. More Than 1 in 10 Use Daily Aspirin Inappropriately For many users, the odds of heart ... Many Americans are likely using daily low-dose aspirin inappropriately in the hopes of preventing a first- ...

404

Seasonal and longitudinal variations of the solar quiet (Sq) current system during solar minimum determined by CHAMP satellite  

E-print Network

variation that is clearly observed during geomagnetic quiet time periods. The observed regular daily. There are a number of current systems during geomagnetically quiet time periods and these are all part of the SqSeasonal and longitudinal variations of the solar quiet (Sq) current system during solar minimum

Forbes, Jeffrey

405

Solar Equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

1983-01-01

406

Solar panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar panel has an interior insulated heat storage means, a solar radiation collector wall mounted on a first side of the storage means having a collector surface for exposure to solar radiation, and a heat emitter wall mounted on a second side of the heat storage means opposite the first side having an emitter surface for exposure to a

K. Schmid; G. Wagner

1982-01-01

407

Solar furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar furnace is constructed of evacuated glass block solar elements that include an interior face, or surface, of zinc. Because of this material, substantial solar radiant energy is retained and radiated to the interior of the furnace, permitting the furnace to reach temperatures of 300° C. and more when located at latitudes between the 35th parallels. Evacuated insulating elements

Clavier

1985-01-01

408

Climate response to imposed solar radiation reductions in high latitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With human-induced climate change leading to amplified warming in high latitudes, mitigation alone is unlikely to be rapid enough to prevent significant, even irreversible, impacts. Model simulations in which solar insolation was arbitrarily reduced poleward of 51, 61, or 71° latitude in one or both hemispheres not only cooled those regions, but also drew energy from lower latitudes, exerting a cooling influence over much of the particular hemisphere in which the reduction was imposed. The simulations, conducted using the National Center for Atmospheric Research's CAM3.1 atmospheric model coupled to a slab ocean, indicated that high-latitude reductions in absorbed solar radiation have a significantly larger cooling influence than solar reductions of equivalent magnitude spread evenly over the Earth. This amplified influence occurred primarily because concentrated high-latitude reductions in solar radiation led to increased sea ice fraction and surface albedo, thereby amplifying the energy deficit at the top of the atmosphere as compared to the response for an equivalent reduction in solar radiation spread evenly over the globe. Reductions in incoming solar radiation in one polar region (either north or south) resulted in increased poleward energy transport during that hemisphere's cold season and shifted the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) away from that pole, whereas comparable solar reductions in both polar regions resulted in increased poleward energy transport, but tended to leave the ITCZ approximately in place. Together, these results suggest that, until emissions reductions are sufficient to limit the warming influence of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, polar reductions in solar radiation, if they could be efficiently and effectively implemented, warrant further research as an approach to moderating the early stages of both high-latitude and global warming.

MacCracken, M. C.; Shin, H.-J.; Caldeira, K.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.

2013-09-01

409

Clinical and biochemical correlates of starting “daily” hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical and biochemical correlates of starting “daily” hemodialysis.BackgroundDaily hemodialysis has been proposed to improve outcomes for patients with end-stage renal disease. There has been increasing evidence that daily hemodialysis might have potential advantages over intermittent dialysis. However, despite these potential advantages, daily hemodialysis is infrequently used in the United States, and published accounts on the technique are few.MethodsWe describe patient

John D. Woods; Friedrich K. Port; Sean Orzol; Umberto Buoncristiani; Eric Young; Robert A. Wolfe; Philip J. Held

1999-01-01

410

Experimental and financial investigation of asymmetrical solar stills with different insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation is carried out on three unsymmetrical solar stills with different insulation under actual field conditions. Also, a simple economic evaluation of solar distillation is made to find out the best insulating material, in Egypt, to be used in the asymmetrical solar stills. From the experimental results, an empirical correlation for the daily production from the stills is

M. A. Mohamad; S. H. Soliman; M. S. Abdel-Salam; H. M. S. Hussein

1995-01-01

411

Modeling of Rankine cycle\\/vapor compression cycle cooling systems for solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar cooling system computer simulations were utilized in the determination of daily and seasonal cooling performance and in determining design values such as cooling capacity, collector area, storage size, and sizes of pumps and piping. RC\\/VCC solar cooling systems converted collected solar heat into a cooling effect. This was accomplished at the site of the installation by using the Rankine

A. N. Egrican

1977-01-01

412

Optimization of tilt angle for solar panel: Case study for Madinah, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the optimal choice of the tilt angle for the solar panel in order to collect the maximum solar irradiation. In this paper, the collector surface is assumed to be facing toward equator. The study is based upon the measured values of daily global and diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface. It is shown that the optimal

M. Benghanem

2011-01-01

413

Buffer thermal energy storage for an air Brayton solar engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of latent-heat buffer thermal energy storage to a point-focusing solar receiver equipped with an air Brayton engine was studied. To demonstrate the effect of buffer thermal energy storage on engine operation, a computer program was written which models the recuperator, receiver, and thermal storage device as finite-element thermal masses. Actual operating or predicted performance data are used for all components, including the rotating equipment. Based on insolation input and a specified control scheme, the program predicts the Brayton engine operation, including flows, temperatures, and pressures for the various components, along with the engine output power. An economic parametric study indicates that the economic viability of buffer thermal energy storage is largely a function of the achievable engine life.

Strumpf, H. J.; Barr, K. P.

1981-01-01

414

Theory of cellwise optimization for solar central receiver system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cost effective optimization of the solar central receiver system is primarily concerned with the distribution of heliostats in the collector field, including the boundaries of the field. The cellwise optimization procedure determines the optimum cell usage and heliostat spacing parameters for each cell in the collector field. Spacing parameters determine the heliostat density and neighborhood structure uniformly in each cell. Consequently, the cellwise approach ignores heliostat mismatch at cell boundaries. Ignoring the cell boundary problem permits an easy solution for the optimum in terms of appropriately defined annual average data. Insolation, receiver interception, shading and blocking, cosine effects, and the cost parameters combine to control the optimum. Many trade offs are represented. Outputs include the receiver flux density distribution for design time, coefficients for an actual layout, the optimum boundary and various performance and cost estimates for the optimum field. It is also possible to optimize receiver size and tower height by a repeated application of the field optimization procedure.

Lipps, F. W.

1985-05-01

415

Efficiency of a solar collector with internal boiling  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of a solar collector with a boiling fluid is analyzed to provide a simple algebraic model for future systems simulations, and to provide guidance for testing. The efficiency equation is developed in a form linear in the difference between inlet and saturation (boiling) temperatures, whereas the expression upon which ASHRAE Standard 109P is based utilizes the difference between inlet and ambient temperatures. The coefficient of the revised linear term is a weak function of collector parameters, weather, and subcooling of the working fluid. For a glazed flat-plate collector with metal absorber, the coefficient is effectively constant. Therefore, testing at multiple values of insolation and subcooling, as specified by ASHRAE 109P, should not be necessary for most collectors. The influences of collector properties and operating conditions on efficiency are examined.

Neeper, D.A.

1986-01-01

416

Nonlinear dynamic model of a solar stream generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermal-hydraulic model of a once-through subcritical steam generator has been developed for predicting dynamic characteristics of solar thermal power plants as well as for control system design. The purpose of the model is to evaluate the overall system performance and component interaction with sufficient accuracy for controller design, rather than to describe the microscopic details occurring within the steam generator. The three-section (compressed water, two-phase mixture, and superheated steam) model with time-varying phase boundaries is described by a set of nonlinear differential equations derived from conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Local stability of the model has been examined at different levels of insolation. Transient response of six plant variables due to independent step disturbances in three input variables are presented as typical results.

Ray, A.

1981-01-01

417

The Daily Stress Inventory: Validity and effect of repeated administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Daily Stress Inventory (DSI) is a self-report measure of minor stressors which is administered daily. One test of the validity of a measure of daily stress is its sensitivity to the difference between the stressors of workdays and those of weekends. A second concern in establishing the validity of a test administered repeatedly is that self-monitoring may influence the

Phillip J. Brantley; Thomas B. Cocke; Glenn N. Jones; Anthony J. Goreczny

1988-01-01

418

Original article A comparison of daily representations of canopy  

E-print Network

Original article A comparison of daily representations of canopy conductance based on two to unreasonable values of com- puted canopy conductance, which corrupt diurnal courses and daily averages, both methods for computing daily canopy conductance were compared in a pine for- est. A simplification

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

419

Experimental Analysis of a Reduced Daily Bluegill Limit in Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a reduced daily limit (from 30 to 10 fish\\/d) on the size structure of bluegills Lepomis macrochirus in eight Minnesota lakes was measured with a controlled and replicated experiment. Bluegills from four treatment lakes (daily limit of 10 fish) and four control lakes (daily limit of 30 fish) were sampled in 2 years prior to regulation implementation

Peter C. Jacobson

2005-01-01

420

Derivation Of Daily Values Used For Nutrition Labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily Values (DVs) are the daily dietary intake standards used for nutrition labeling. Information on the derivation of DVs is important for dietetics professionals and nutrition educators who use DVs to educate and instruct patients and students about diet planning and evaluation and about adherence to modified diets. The first daily intake standards for nutrition labeling were established in 1973

JEAN A. T. PENNINGTON; VANS. HUBBARD

1997-01-01

421

CALCULATION OF DAILY RATE WORKSHEET FOR THE TEACHING ASSISTANTS AND  

E-print Network

CALCULATION OF DAILY RATE WORKSHEET FOR THE TEACHING ASSISTANTS AND TEACHING ASSOCIATES Please in quarter) http://www.ap.uci.edu/salary/ 1. Calculate Quarterly Rate: Annual Salary = Quarterly Rate 3 = 2. Calculate amount of Daily Rate: Quarterly Rate = Daily Rate "Working Days" in Quarter = 3. Calculate payment

Rose, Michael R.

422

20 CFR 330.2 - Computation of daily benefit rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT ...OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.2 Computation...maximum daily benefit rate, such increase will apply to days of unemployment or days of sickness...by the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act are...her daily benefit rate. [56 FR...

2010-04-01

423

Daily ozone cycle in the stratosphere: global, regional and seasonal behaviour modelled with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) is utilised to study the daily ozone cycle and underlying photochemical and dynamical processes. The analysis is focused on the daily ozone cycle in the middle stratosphere at 5 hPa where satellite-based trend estimates of stratospheric ozone are most biased by diurnal sampling effects and drifting satellite orbits. The simulated ozone cycle shows a minimum after sunrise and a maximum in the late afternoon. Further, a seasonal variation of the daily ozone cycle in the stratosphere was found. Depending on season and latitude, the peak-to-valley difference of the daily ozone cycle varies mostly between 3-5% (0.4 ppmv) with respect to the midnight ozone volume mixing ratio. The maximal variation of 15% (0.8 ppmv) is found at the polar circle in summer. The global pattern of the strength of the daily ozone cycle is mainly governed by the solar zenith angle and the sunshine duration. In addition, we find synoptic scale variations in the strength of the daily ozone cycle. These variations are often anti-correlated to regional temperature anomalies and are due to the temperature dependence of the rate coefficients k2 and k3 of the Chapman cycle reactions. Further, the NOx catalytic cycle counteracts to the accumulation of ozone during daytime and leads to an anti-correlation between anomalies in NOx and the strength of the daily ozone cycle. Similarly, ozone recombines with atomic oxygen which leads to an anti-correlation between anomalies in ozone abundance and the strength of the daily ozone cycle. At higher latitudes, an increase of the westerly (easterly) wind cause a decrease (increase) in the sunshine duration of an air parcel leading to a weaker (stronger) daily ozone cycle.

Schanz, A.; Hocke, K.; Kämpfer, N.

2014-03-01

424

Daily ozone cycle in the stratosphere: global, regional and seasonal behaviour modelled with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) is utilised to study the daily ozone cycle and underlying photochemical and dynamical processes. The analysis is focused on the daily ozone cycle in the middle stratosphere at 5 hPa where satellite-based trend estimates of stratospheric ozone are most biased by diurnal sampling effects and drifting satellite orbits. The simulated ozone cycle shows a minimum after sunrise and a maximum in the late afternoon. Further, a seasonal variation of the daily ozone cycle in the stratosphere was found. Depending on season and latitude, the peak-to-valley difference of the daily ozone cycle varies mostly between 3 and 5% (0.4 ppmv) with respect to the midnight ozone volume mixing ratio. The maximal variation of 15% (0.8 ppmv) is found at the polar circle in summer. The global pattern of the strength of the daily ozone cycle is mainly governed by the solar zenith angle and the sunshine duration. In addition, we find synoptic-scale variations in the strength of the daily ozone cycle. These variations are often anti-correlated to regional temperature anomalies and are due to the temperature dependence of the rate coefficients k2 and k3 of the Chapman cycle reactions. Further, the NOx catalytic cycle counteracts the accumulation of ozone during daytime and leads to an anti-correlation between anomalies in NOx and the strength of the daily ozone cycle. Similarly, ozone recombines with atomic oxygen which leads to an anti-correlation between anomalies in ozone abundance and the strength of the daily ozone cycle. At higher latitudes, an increase of the westerly (easterly) wind cause a decrease (increase) in the sunshine duration of an air parcel leading to a weaker (stronger) daily ozone cycle.

Schanz, A.; Hocke, K.; Kämpfer, N.

2014-07-01

425

Accelerated/abbreviated test methods, study 4 of task 3 (encapsulation) of the low-cost silicon solar array project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inherent weatherability is controlled by the three weather factors common to all exposure sites: insolation, temperature, and humidity. Emphasis was focused on the transparent encapsulant portion of miniature solar cell arrays by eliminating weathering effects on the substrate and circuitry (which are also parts of the encapsulant system). The most extensive data were for yellowing, which were measured conveniently and precisely. Considerable data also were obtained on tensile strength. Changes in these two properties after outdoor exposure were predicted very well from accelerated exposure data.

Kolyer, J. M.; Mann, N. R.

1978-01-01

426

Charcoal-methanol adsorption refrigerator powered by a compound parabolic concentrating solar collector  

SciTech Connect

A compound parabolic concentrating solar collector (CPC) of concentration ratio 3.9 and aperture area 2.0 m[sup 2] was used to power an intermittent solid adsorption refrigerator and ice maker using activated charcoal (carbon) as the adsorbing medium and methanol as the working fluid. The copper tube receiver of the CPC was packed with 2.5 kg of imported adsorbent 207E3, which was only utilized when the performance of activated charcoal (ACJ1, produced from local coconut shells) was found to be inferior to the imported adsorbent. Up to 1 kg of ice at an evaporator temperature of [minus]6[degrees]C was produced, with the net solar coefficient of performance (COP) being of the order of 0.02. Maximum receiver/adsorbent temperature recorded was 154[degrees]C on a day when the insolation was 26.8 MJ/m[sup [minus]2]. Temperatures in excess of 150[degrees]C are undesirable since they favour the conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether, a noncondensable gas which inhibits both condensation and adsorption. The major advantage of this system is its ability to produce ice even on overcast days (insolation [approximately] 10 MJ/m[sup [minus]2]).

Headley, O.StC.; Kothdiwala, A.F.; McDoom, I.A. (Univ. of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago))

1994-08-01

427

Investigation of daily covering material for biocells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioreactor landfilling, with the acceptance of landfill Directive 1999/31/EC has lost its actuality in European Union; at the same time, this method can still be used for acceleration of biowaste degradation and biogas production. One of the possibilities to reduce the disposal of biowaste is to use biocells for its anaerobic pre-treatment before landfilling. The daily filling up of such a cell requires isolation of the main volume to limit gas emissions, reduce smells, etc. Bioprocesses that are of the utmost importance for biocell treatment are often not taken into account in selection of materials to be used as daily landfill covers. Based on physical, chemical and biological methods the investigations have been carried out into different covering materials offered in the market, with identification of parameters that are the most important for daily covering the biocells. It is found that the materials fitted best this purpose should be of biological origin and consist of small bio-particles with large surface, without the inhibitors of anaerobic processes such as sulphuric compounds. Bioreaktoru pielietošana atkritumu uzglab?šanas sf?r?, sakar? ar Direkt?vas 1999/31/EC pie?emšanu, ir zaud?jusi savu aktualit?ti, ta?u š? metode v?l joproj?m var tikt izmantota bioatkritumu no?rd?šanai un biog?zes ražošanai. Viena no iesp?j?m k? samazin?t bioatkritumu izvietošanu ir bioš?nu izmantošana bioatkritumu anaerobai pirmsapstr?dei pirms to noglab?šanas. Š?nas piepild?šana ikdien? prasa nepieciešam?bu izol?t liel?ko t?s da?u, lai samazin?tu g?zes emisiju, smakas, utt. Materi?li, kas ikdien? tiek izmantoti atkritumu p?rkl?šanai, nepietiekami ietekm? bioprocesus, kas pamat? ir galvenais bioš?nas izmantošanas m?r?is. Šaj? sakar? ir veikta daž?du tirdzniec?b? pieejamu p?rkl?juma materi?lu izp?te, pielietojot virkni fizik?lo, ??misko un biolo?isko metožu, un nosakot svar?g?kos parametrus, kas ir b?tiski šo materi?lu izmantošanai ikdien? k? bioš?nas p?rkl?jumu. P?t?jumu rezult?t? noteikts, ka visatbilstoš?kie ir materi?li ar biolo?isko izcelsmi, sast?voši no maz?m bio da?i??m ar lielu laukumu bez anaerobo procesu inhibitoriem, piem?ram, s?ra komponent?m.

Bendere, R.; Smigins, R.; Medne, O.; Berzina-Cimdina, L.; Rugele, K.

2014-02-01

428

Solar Neutrinos  

E-print Network

Present results and future measurements of solar neutrinos are discussed. The results to date indicate that solar electron neutrinos are changing to other active types and that transitions solely to sterile neutrinos are disfavored. The flux of $^{8}B$ solar neutrinos produced in the Sun, inferred assuming only active neutrino types, is found to be in very good agreement with solar model calculations. Future measurements will focus on greater accuracy for charged current and neutral current sensitive reactions to provide more accurate measurements of neutrino flavour change and further studies of day-night flux differences and spectral shape. Other experiments sensitive to lower energy solar neutrinos will be in operation soon.

A. B. McDonald

2002-09-21

429

Solar Meter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instrument pictured is an inexpensive solar meter which is finding wide acceptance among architects, engineers and others engaged in construction of solar energy facilities. It detects the amount of solar energy available at a building site, information necessary to design the most efficient type of solar system for a particular location. Incorporating technology developed by NASA's Lewis Research Center, the device is based upon the solar cell, which provides power for spacecraft by converting the sun's energy to electricity. The meter is produced by Dodge Products, Inc., Houston, Texas, a company formed to bring the technology to the commercial marketplace.

1978-01-01

430

The lunar daily geomagnetic variation and its dependence on sunspot number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed spherical harmonic model of the lunar daily geomagnetic variation, L, is presented and discussed. This model, which is based on a vastly greater data-set than hitherto, is compared to an earlier model of the solar daily geomagnetic variation, S, which is based on the same data. The dependence of L on sunspot number, as measured by the Wolf ratio, is found to be less than that of S by a factor of 2. It is confirmed that the dependence of S, L and E-region conductivity with sunspot cycle differ significantly from one another, casting doubt on that region as the principal location for the L and S dynamo currents.

Çelik, Cengiz

2014-11-01

431

A computer program to determine the possible daily release window for sky target experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program is presented which is designed to determine the daily release window for sky target experiments. Factors considered in the program include: (1) target illumination by the sun at release time and during the tracking period; (2) look angle elevation above local horizon from each tracking station to the target; (3) solar depression angle from the local horizon of each tracking station during the experimental period after target release; (4) lunar depression angle from the local horizon of each tracking station during the experimental period after target release; and (5) total sky background brightness as seen from each tracking station while viewing the target. Program output is produced in both graphic and data form. Output data can be plotted for a single calendar month or year. The numerical values used to generate the plots are furnished to permit a more detailed review of the computed daily release windows.

Michaud, N. H.

1973-01-01

432

Solar radiation on variously oriented sloping surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly average daily irradiation on surfaces tilted towards the equator and also inclined at various azimuth angles are estimated for two locations in Lesotho and the results are presented. The isotropic model suggested by Liu and Jordan (Trans. of Ashrae, 526, 1962) along with the modified equation of Klein (Solar Energy, 19, 4, 1977) are employed for the estimation purposes.

K GOPINATHAN

1991-01-01

433

[Medical emergencies in daily dermatological practice].  

PubMed

Many patients and their companions who present daily in dermatological clinics and private practices may have numerous non-dermatological comorbidities, which can cause medical emergencies. Additionally several dermatologic diagnostic or therapeutic procedures which are commonly performed can cause life-threatening complications. Therefore dermatologists can be confronted with acute medical emergencies at any time. Mostly these are internal medicine emergencies. Therefore dermatologists must have the basic emergency medical knowledge; emergency situations should be practiced regularly and this training documented for quality control measures. Every practice must be able to deliver life-saving care until trained emergency medical personnel arrive. The general emergency procedures are presented below and the practical approach is illustrated at different cardinal symptoms such as impaired consciousness, respiratory disorders or cardiocirculatory disorders. PMID:22527382

Ständer, H F

2012-04-01

434

Council on Foreign Relations: Daily Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council on Foreign Relations produces an impressive array of background papers, online debates, op-ed pieces, and articles every year. International relations gurus, policy pundits, and members of the public benefit widely from these works, and those persons who haven't looked over the Council's "Daily Analysis" yet, may wish to do so now. Here visitors can read analytical briefs written by staff members on issues of the day, complete with links to "the news, analysis, commentary, and primary source materials that put the facts in context." The briefs are arranged chronologically, and recent pieces include "Is Brain Drain Good For Africa?", "China's Olympic Moment", and "Picking Presidents and Foreign Policy". These briefs are a great way to get acquainted with important news developments from around the world, and it's easy to see how educators might want to draw on the site as a resource for political science or international relations courses.

2008-01-01

435

The Science of Sleep and Daily Rhythms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of the BioEd initiative at the Baylor College of Medicine, this fine guide to the science of sleep and daily rhythms was authored by Nancy P. Moreno, Barbara Z. Tharp, and Gregory L. Vogt. The 32-page document is designed for use in a variety of classrooms, and it contains activities, worksheets, and information about how sleep studies are used to improve performance across a wide range of human endeavors. The activities here include "Using a Sundial," "Living Clocks," "Sleep Patterns," and "Investigating Sleep." Each of these activities is explained succinctly and thoroughly, and many do not required specialized equipment. One of the most interesting activities is the sun tracking board which allows students to track the sun's movements with just a bit of cardboard, several writing instruments, a ruler, and some string. Finally, the sleep cycle rhythms activity gets creative, as students are asked to write a few poems about their own sleep patterns.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Vogt, Gregory

2012-07-06

436

Daily variation characteristics at polar geomagnetic observatories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is based on the statistical analysis of the diurnal variation as observed at six polar geomagnetic observatories, three in the Northern and three in the Southern hemisphere. Data are for 2006, a year of low geomagnetic activity. We compared the Italian observatory Mario Zucchelli Station (TNB; corrected geomagnetic latitude: 80.0°S), the French-Italian observatory Dome C (DMC; 88.9°S), the French observatory Dumont D'Urville (DRV; 80.4°S) and the three Canadian observatories, Resolute Bay (RES; 83.0°N), Cambridge Bay (CBB; 77.0°N) and Alert (ALE, 87.2°N). The aim of this work was to highlight analogies and differences in daily variation as observed at the different observatories during low geomagnetic activity year, also considering Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions and geomagnetic indices.

Lepidi, S.; Cafarella, L.; Pietrolungo, M.; Di Mauro, D.

2011-08-01

437

Assessment of solar options for small power systems applications. Volume V. SOLSTEP: a computer model for solar plant system simulations  

SciTech Connect

The simulation code, SOLSTEP, was developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to facilitate the evaluation of proposed designs for solar thermal power plants. It allows the user to analyze the thermodynamic and economic performance of a conceptual design for several field size-storage capacity configurations. This feature makes it possible to study the levelized energy cost of a proposed concept over a range of plant capacity factors. The thermodynamic performance is analyzed on a time step basis using actual recorded meteorological and insolation data for specific geographic locations. The flexibility of the model enables the user to analyze both central and distributed generation concepts using either thermal or electric storage systems. The thermodynamic and economic analyses view the plant in a macroscopic manner as a combination of component subsystems. In the thermodynamic simulation, concentrator optical performance is modeled as a function of solar position; other aspects of collector performance can optionally be treated as functions of ambient air temperature, wind speed, and component power level. The power conversion model accounts for the effects of ambient air temperature, partial load operation, auxiliary power demands, and plant standby and startup energy requirements. The code was designed in a modular fashion to provide efficient evaluations of the collector system, total plant, and system economics. SOLSTEP has been used to analyze a variety of solar thermal generic concepts involving several collector types and energy conversion and storage subsystems. The code's straightforward models and modular nature facilitated simple and inexpensive parametric studies of solar thermal power plant performance.

Bird, S.P.

1980-09-01

438

What Is The Optimal Level of Solar Radiation Management?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation management (SRM), achieved by stratospheric aerosol injections or by placing a sunshade in orbit, has the potential to cool the Earth's climate to pre-industrial temperatures even with large quantities of CO2 in the atmosphere. Many authors have observed that in such a geoengineered world there would be an undesirable reduction in the intensity of the hydrological cycle. With a large geoengineering intervention in the climate there are many known issues, and potentially some unexpected issues, which could arise as a result. If climate geoengineering is to be conducted, what is the optimal level of solar radiation management? Here we present the results from a set of experiments using the UK Met Office HadCM3L coupled GCM to simulate the effect of reductions in insolation on the climate of a world with four times the pre-industrial CO2 level. We consider 10 levels of SRM geoengineering from 100% application, returning global average temperature to pre-industrial levels, to 10% of this reduction in insolation. A pre-industrial control, two and four times pre-industrial CO2 experiments were also conducted. All the simulations were run for 400 years to allow the climate to reach a new equilibrium, with the last 100 years used for the climatological averages. In addition the Glimmer Ice Sheet model was used to simulate the viability of the Greenland ice sheet in each of these climates, the results of this section of the work are already published. We assess the effects of different levels of geoengineering on a high CO2 world by a number of different methods, including: temperature and precipitation changes and the stability of the Greenland Ice-Sheet. We include a measure of the change in the climate due solely to the geoengineering intervention, accounting for imperfect mitigation. We combine these variables to find a first estimate of the optimal level of solar radiation management for a high CO2 world. Global average temperature and precipitation have been shown to drop with increasing levels of SRM geoengineering, however our results show that levels of crought may remain constant or even decrease relative to the unmitigated, high CO2 world. We show that the Greenland ice sheet remains stable, in its preindustrial state, with a reduction in insolation of 60% of that required to cool the Earth to pre-industrial temperatures. We also find that the mitigation of global warming at low levels of geoengineering has few imperfections but that at higher levels of geoengineering there are profound imperfections. We combine these results to determine a subjective optimal level of geoengineering. Our results show that to minimize the level of undesired geoengineering-induced climate changes and reductions in global precipitation, whilst preserving the Greenland ice sheet, 60% of the full reduction in insolation would be required. This partial geoengineering would be cheaper to implement and would be less likely to produce unexpected side-effects.

Irvine, Peter; Ridgwell, Andy; Lunt, Dan

2010-05-01

439

Solar House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students work in teams to design and build a model of a solar house after researching several websites. Students will discover that a solar house takes advantage of solar energy to minimize the use of traditional energy sources and can include design elements that take advantage of the sun's rays to light and heat the house, to heat water, and to set up a favorable flow of air. They also learn that many solar houses contain a solar mass that will absorb the heat during the day and release it slowly at night and a passive solar house will also take into account the angle of the sun's rays, to maximize heating during the winter and shade during the summer. This site contains all of the specifications for planning, building, and testing the model and a rubric for grading the project.

Wendy Van Norden

440

Solar Dynamics and G-modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various properties of r-modes that would occupy the solar convection zone were computed. Values were calculated for the energy loss from the coefficient of eddy viscosity using the solar convective zone model. Viscous damping is strong and removes one-third or more of the mode energy each oscillation period. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) of daily Zurich sunspot number was made for eight sets of data, taken near peaks of solar cycles 14 to 21. The FFTs were evaluated with the Wolff and Hickey model. The horizontal component of Fh of the force exerted by a planetary torque was calculated to see is it works on the photospheric layers at a rate comparable to 0.000001 solar luminosity. The time span of torque in the external sector of the Sun was calculated. The duration of the effect of two planets in conjunction on sunspot numbers was examined. The north-south asymmetry of solar activity was investigated.

Blizard, Jane B.

1987-02-01

441

Solar Dynamics and G-modes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various properties of r-modes that would occupy the solar convection zone were computed. Values were calculated for the energy loss from the coefficient of eddy viscosity using the solar convective zone model. Viscous damping is strong and removes one-third or more of the mode energy each oscillation period. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) of daily Zurich sunspot number was made for eight sets of data, taken near peaks of solar cycles 14 to 21. The FFTs were evaluated with the Wolff and Hickey model. The horizontal component of F sub h of the force exerted by a planetary torque was calculated to see is it works on the photospheric layers at a rate comparable to 0.000001 solar luminosity. The time span of torque in the external sector of the Sun was calculated. The duration of the effect of two planets in conjunction on sunspot numbers was examined. The north-south asymmetry of solar activity was investigated.

Blizard, Jane B.

1987-01-01

442

Solar Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson,students will evaluate a location in the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere to determine the areas best for collecting solar power. Changes in surface radiation will be evaluated using Monthly Surface Radiation data from 2007 from MyNASAData website. Students will draw conclusions about how surface radiation levels will affect choice of solar power plant location selection and infer the best location for a solar power plant.

443

Solar furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar furnace electricity generating system is provided herein. It includes a concentrator and accumulator for the sun's rays to generate a concentrated high temperature solar beam. A heat hearth is disposed, e.g., in the ground, to absorb the concentrated high temperature solar beam. A plurality of concentric alternating heat-transfer-medium-containing chambers and heat absorption zones are provided around the heat

1983-01-01

444

Solar Racing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 'Energy Education for the 21st Century' design challenge, students construct and evaluate a solar-powered model car. Students utilize the design process and undergo review by their peers to select an optimal gear ratio and components for their car. As a culminating activity, students compete in a Solar Sprint race modeled after the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Junior Solar Sprint competition.

Teachers, Pbs

445

SOLAR CYCLE VARIATIONS OF THE OCCURRENCE OF CORONAL TYPE III RADIO BURSTS AND A NEW SOLAR ACTIVITY INDEX  

SciTech Connect

This Letter presents the results of studies of solar cycle variations of the occurrence rate of coronal type III radio bursts. The radio spectra are provided by the Learmonth Solar Radio Observatory (Western Australia), part of the USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN). It is found that the occurrence rate of type III bursts strongly correlates with solar activity. However, the profiles for the smoothed type III burst occurrence rate differ considerably from those for the sunspot number, 10.7 cm solar radio flux, and solar flare index. The type III burst occurrence rate (T3BOR) is proposed as a new index of solar activity. T3BOR provides complementary information about solar activity and should be useful in different studies including solar cycle predictions and searches for different periodicities in solar activity. This index can be estimated from daily results of the Automated Radio Burst Identification System. Access to data from other RSTN sites will allow processing 24 hr radio spectra in near-real time and estimating true daily values of this index. It is also shown that coronal type III bursts can even occur when there are no visible sunspots on the Sun. However, no evidence is found that the bursts are not associated with active regions. It is also concluded that the type III burst productivity of active regions exhibits solar cycle variations.

Lobzin, Vasili; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

2011-07-20

446

Solar Physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The areas of emphasis are: (1) develop theoretical models of the transient release of magnetic energy in the solar atmosphere, e.g., in solar flares, eruptive prominences, coronal mass ejections, etc.; (2) investigate the role of the Sun's magnetic field in the structuring of solar corona by the development of three-dimensional numerical models that describe the field configuration at various heights in the solar atmosphere by extrapolating the field at the photospheric level; (3) develop numerical models to investigate the physical parameters obtained by the ULYSSES mission; (4) develop numerical and theoretical models to investigate solar activity effects on the solar wind characteristics for the establishment of the solar-interplanetary transmission line; and (5) develop new instruments to measure solar magnetic fields and other features in the photosphere, chromosphere transition region and corona. We focused our investigation on the fundamental physical processes in solar atmosphere which directly effect our Planet Earth. The overall goal is to establish the physical process for the Sun-Earth connections.

Wu, S. T.

2000-01-01

447

A comparison of alternatives for daily to sub-daily rainfall disaggregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis paper evaluates three distinct approaches for disaggregating daily rainfall to sub-daily sequences: (1) random multiplicative cascades (microcanonical and canonical versions), (2) point process (randomized Bartlett-Lewis model - RBLM), and (3) resampling (method of fragments). These methods are used to perform disaggregation of daily rainfall to hourly rainfall at four point locations across Australia (Sydney, Perth, Cairns, and Hobart), which are associated with different climatic regimes. The methods are evaluated based on parameter estimation procedures applied (including introduction of the sequential Monte Carlo sampler in RBLM), the capability of the resulting sequences to reproduce standard validation statistics, and the representation of observed rainfall variability and intermittency, within-day wet spells, and extreme rainfall percentiles. The results generally indicate that the method of fragments outperforms the other models. While all the models are found to simulate reasonably well the commonly used statistical measures (e.g. mean and dry proportions) of rainfall at the hourly timestep, the microcanonical model is found to significantly overestimate the hourly rainfall variance. With respect to extreme value characteristics, the resampling approach is found to match well the observed intensity-frequency relationship at an hourly scale, with the cascade models underestimating (canonical) and overestimating (microcanonical) extreme rainfall. The point process model's performance is poor in Cairns but reasonably good at other locations. An analysis of the empirical within-day wet- and dry-spell distributions further reveals that the cascade-based models are not robust for observed wet and dry spells.

Pui, Alexander; Sharma, Ashish; Mehrotra, Rajeshwar; Sivakumar, Bellie; Jeremiah, Erwin

2012-11-01

448

Daily phosphorus variation in a mountain stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monthly diel monitoring studies for phosphorus content were conducted (1995-1996 period) for multiple stations on Incline Creek, a mountain stream in the Lake Tahoe basin (California-Nevada). Large discharge and particulate P (PP) concentration fluctuations occurred during June in the early evening as snowmelt from higher elevations arrived at the lower stream reaches. June diel dissolved organic P (DOP) concentrat