Science.gov

Sample records for daily solar insolation

  1. Handbook of solar energy data for south-facing surfaces in the United States. Volume 2: Average hourly and total daily insolation data for 235 localities. Alaska - Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Average hourly and daily total insolation estimates for 235 United States locations are presented. Values are presented for a selected number of array tilt angles on a monthly basis. All units are in kilowatt hours per square meter.

  2. Insolation data manual and direct normal solar radiation data manual

    SciTech Connect

    1990-07-01

    The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24--25 years of data, generally from 1952--1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/m{sup 2} per day, Btu/ft{sup 2} per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global {bar K}{sub T} (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global {bar K}{sub T} is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

  3. A calibrated, high-resolution goes satellite solar insolation product for a climatology of Florida evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paech, S.J.; Mecikalski, J.R.; Sumner, D.M.; Pathak, C.S.; Wu, Q.; Islam, S.; Sangoyomi, T.

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of incoming solar radiation (insolation) from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite observations have been produced for the state of Florida over a 10-year period (1995-2004). These insolation estimates were developed into well-calibrated half-hourly and daily integrated solar insolation fields over the state at 2 km resolution, in addition to a 2-week running minimum surface albedo product. Model results of the daily integrated insolation were compared with ground-based pyranometers, and as a result, the entire dataset was calibrated. This calibration was accomplished through a three-step process: (1) comparison with ground-based pyranometer measurements on clear (noncloudy) reference days, (2) correcting for a bias related to cloudiness, and (3) deriving a monthly bias correction factor. Precalibration results indicated good model performance, with a station-averaged model error of 2.2 MJ m-2/day (13%). Calibration reduced errors to 1.7 MJ m -2/day (10%), and also removed temporal-related, seasonal-related, and satellite sensor-related biases. The calibrated insolation dataset will subsequently be used by state of Florida Water Management Districts to produce statewide, 2-km resolution maps of estimated daily reference and potential evapotranspiration for water management-related activities. ?? 2009 American Water Resources Association.

  4. Estimating the Diurnal Cycle and Daily Insolation of Ultraviolet and Photosynthetically Active Radiation at the Sea Surface.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Victor S; Taguchi, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Accurate determination of the diurnal variability and daily insolation of surface (0(+) ) and subsurface (0(-) ) irradiance are essential to estimate several physical, chemical and biological processes occurring at the surface layer of marine environments. Natural downwelling PAR and spectral UVR were examined on eight occasions at 0(+) and 0(-) to refine empirical models, particularly in the UVR spectrum. The diurnal variability in UVR and PAR were wavelength dependent and were modeled by a sinusoidal equation. The best fit for PAR at 0(+) and 0(-) was the sinusoid power of n=2 and n=2.5, respectively. In the UVR spectrum, sinusoids increased as wavelengths decreased ranging from n=2-5. Higher n values in the UV-B spectrum suggest sharper increase/decrease near sunrise and sunset hours, ultimately reducing the final value of daily insolation at specified wavelengths. Calculated daily insolation of UV-B/(UV-A+PAR) ratio suggests that photoinhibition from exposure to UV-B occurs within a shorter biologically effective day length than PAR, and is high during summer and low during winter. These results suggest that biogeochemical calculations based on diurnal models of irradiance measurements would benefit from accurate solar noon references and wavelength specificity, particularly in the UVR spectrum. PMID:26031560

  5. Predicting Daily Insolation with Hourly Cloud Height and Coverage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, T. P.; Dale, R. F.

    1983-04-01

    Solar radiation information is used in crop growth, boundary layer, entomological and plant pathological models, and in determining the potential use of active and passive solar energy systems. Yet solar radiation is among the least measured meteorological variables.A semi-physical model based on standard meteorological data was developed to estimate solar radiation received at the earth's surface. The radiation model includes the effects of Rayleigh scattering, absorption by water vapor and permanent gases, and absorption and scattering by aerosols and clouds. Cloud attenuation is accounted for by assigning transmission coefficients based on cloud height and amount. The cloud transmission coefficients for various heights and coverages were derived empirically from hourly observations of solar radiation in conjunction with corresponding cloud observations at West Lafayette, Indiana. The model was tested with independent data from West Lafayette and Indianapolis, Madison, WI, Omaha, NE, Columbia, MO, Nashville, TN, Seattle, WA, Los Angeles, CA, Phoenix, AZ, Lake Charles, LA, Miami, FL, and Sterling, VA. For each of these locations a 16% random sample of days was drawn within each of the 12 months in a year for testing the model. Excellent agreement between predicted and observed radiation values was obtained for all stations tested. Mean absolute errors ranged from 1.05 to 1.80 MJ m2 day1 and root-mean-square errors ranged from 1.31 to 2.32 MJ m2 day1. The model's performance judged by relative error was found to be independent of season and cloud amount for all locations tested.

  6. Influence of topographic complexity on solar insolation estimates for the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, AZ

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yard, M.D.; Bennett, G.E.; Mietz, S.N.; Coggins, L.G., Jr.; Stevens, L.E.; Hueftle, S.; Blinn, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    Rugged topography along the Colorado River in Glen and Grand Canyons, exemplifies features common to canyon-bound streams and rivers of the arid southwest. Physical relief influences regulated river systems, especially those that are altered, and have become partially reliant on aquatic primary production. We measured and modeled instantaneous solar flux in a topographically complex environment to determine where differences in daily, seasonal and annual solar insolation occurred in this river system. At a system-wide scale, topographic complexity generates a spatial and temporal mosaic of varying solar insolation. This solar variation is a predictable consequence of channel orientation, geomorphology, elevation angles and viewshed. Modeled estimates for clear conditions corresponded closely with observed measurements for both instantaneous photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD: ??mol m-2 s-1) and daily insolation levels (relative error 2.3%, CI ??0.45, S.D. 0.3, n = 29,813). Mean annual daily insolation levels system-wide were estimated to be 36 mol m-2 d -1 (17.5 S.D.), and seasonally varied on average from 13.4-57.4 mol m-2 d-1, for winter and summer, respectively. In comparison to identical areas lacking topographic effect (idealized plane), mean daily insolation levels were reduced by 22% during summer, and as much as 53% during winter. Depending on outlying topography, canyon bound regions having east-west (EW) orientations had higher seasonal variation, averaging from 8.1 to 61.4 mol m-2 d-1, for winter and summer, respectively. For EW orientations, 70% of mid-channel sites were obscured from direct incidence during part of the year; and of these sites, average diffuse light conditions persisted for 19.3% of the year (70.5 days), and extended upwards to 194 days. This predictive model has provided an initial quantitative step to estimate and determine the importance of autotrophic production for this ecosystem, as well as a broader application for other canyon systems. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Solar microclimatology. [tables (data) on insolation for application to solar energy conversion by electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenney, D. B.; Beauchamp, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    It has become apparent in recent years that solar energy can be used for electric power production by several methods. Because of the diffuse nature of the solar insolation, the area involved in any central power plant design can encompass several square miles. A detailed design of these large area collection systems will require precise knowledge of the local solar insolation. Detailed information will also be needed concerning the temporal nature of the insolation and the local spatial distribution. Therefore, insolation data was collected and analyzed for a network of sensors distributed over an area of several square kilometers in Arizona. The analyses of this data yielded probability distributions of cloud size, velocity, and direction of motion which were compared with data obtained from the National Weather Service. Microclimatological analyses were also performed for suitable modeling parameters pertinent to large scale electric power plant design. Instrumentation used to collect the data is described.

  8. Distribution of global insolation over Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, I.A.; Twidell, J.W. )

    1990-01-01

    There are only five observatories measuring global insolation in Pakistan, which cannot represent the solar climate of the country. However 37 observatories, distributed fairly well over the entire country, record sunshine. Therefore insolation-sunshine empirical equations are developed to estimate global insolation over Pakistan. Three neighboring observatories for which the insolation-sunshine records are available are also included in the study. Monthly and yearly maps are constructed, for daily global insolation, based on data for 40 locations. The isolines are compared with the results obtained in India and with world solar insolation maps.

  9. Camera-based forecasting of insolation for solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manger, Daniel; Pagel, Frank

    2015-02-01

    With the transition towards renewable energies, electricity suppliers are faced with huge challenges. Especially the increasing integration of solar power systems into the grid gets more and more complicated because of their dynamic feed-in capacity. To assist the stabilization of the grid, the feed-in capacity of a solar power system within the next hours, minutes and even seconds should be known in advance. In this work, we present a consumer camera-based system for forecasting the feed-in capacity of a solar system for a horizon of 10 seconds. A camera is targeted at the sky and clouds are segmented, detected and tracked. A quantitative prediction of the insolation is performed based on the tracked clouds. Image data as well as truth data for the feed-in capacity was synchronously collected at one Hz using a small solar panel, a resistor and a measuring device. Preliminary results demonstrate both the applicability and the limits of the proposed system.

  10. SOLINS- SOLAR INSOLATION MODEL FOR COMPUTING AVAILABLE SOLAR ENERGY TO A SURFACE OF ARBITRARY ORIENTATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    This computer program, SOLINS, was developed to aid engineers and solar system designers in the accurate modeling of the average hourly solar insolation on a surface of arbitrary orientation. The program can be used to study insolation problems specific to residential and commercial applications where the amount of space available for solar collectors is limited by shadowing problems, energy output requirements, and costs. For tandem rack arrays, SOLINS will accommodate the use of augmentation reflectors built into the support structure to increase insolation values at the collector surface. As the use of flat plate solar collectors becomes more prevalent in the building industry, the engineer and designer must have the capability to conduct extensive sensitivity analyses on the orientation and location of solar collectors. SOLINS should prove to be a valuable aid in this area of engineering. SOLINS uses a modified version of the National Bureau of Standards model to calculate the direct, diffuse, and reflected components of total insolation on a tilted surface with a given azimuthal orientation. The model is based on the work of Liu and Jordan with corrections by Kusuda and Ishii to account for early morning and late afternoon errors. The model uses a parametric description of the average day solar climate to generate monthly average day profiles by hour of the insolation level on the collector surface. The model includes accommodation of user specified ground and landscape reflectivities at the collector site. For roof or ground mounted, tilted arrays, SOLINS will calculate insolation including the effects of shadowing and augmentation reflectors. The user provides SOLINS with data describing the array design, array orientation, the month, the solar climate parameter, the ground reflectance, and printout control specifications. For the specified array and environmental conditions, SOLINS outputs the hourly insolation the array will receive during an average day during the month specified, along with the total insolation the collector surface will receive over an average 24-hour period. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 46K of 8 bit bytes. The SOLINS routines were developed in 1979.

  11. Effects of the Mount Pinatubo eruption on solar insolation: Four case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.L.; Robert, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    The Southwest Technology Development Institute staff analyzed solar insolation data from four sites recorded during the years 1990 through 1992. Analyses were performed to identify and quantify the effects on insolation caused by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines on June 15th and 16th, 1991. The four monitoring stations that supplied the raw data for this report were: The Southwest Region Experiment Station in Las Cruces, New Mexico; The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado; The Solar Insolation Monitor Program station operated by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company in Carrisa Plains, California; and The Solar Insolation monitor station at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Data from each of the sites were recorded by dedicated datalogging equipment. Every effort was made to prevent data acquisition system problems (e.g., drift of the datalogger clock) from influencing the accuracy of the results.

  12. Handbook of solar energy data for south-facing surfaces in the United States. Volume I. An insolation, array shadowing, and reflector augmentation model

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.

    1980-01-15

    This handbook provides estimates of average available solar insolation to fixed, flat-plate, south-facing collector surfaces at various array tilt angles at numerous sites in the US. This first volume contains average daily, total insolation estimates, by month, and annual totals for 235 locations. A model that estimates the direct, diffuse, and reflected components of total insolation on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis is presented. A shadow loss model and a reflector augmentation model providing estimates of the losses and gains associated with various fixed array geometries are also described. These models can be used with the insolation model provided or with other recorded data. A FORTRAN computer program with user's guide is presented. The program can be used to generate additional handbook values or to examine the effects of array shadowing and fixed reflector augmentation effects on a daily, monthly, or annual basis. Array shadowing depends on location, array size, array tilt, array separation, and time. The program can be used to examine trade-offs between array spacing and insolation losses due to shadowing. The reflector augmentation program can be used to examine trade-offs among array size and tilt, separation, and reflector tilt to determine the combination of design values that optimize the economic objectives or technical criteria of the system.

  13. Power Flow Simulations of a More Renewable California Grid Utilizing Wind and Solar Insolation Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, E. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Dvorak, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Time series power flow analyses of the California electricity grid are performed with extensive addition of intermittent renewable power. The study focuses on the effects of replacing non-renewable and imported (out-of-state) electricity with wind and solar power on the reliability of the transmission grid. Simulations are performed for specific days chosen throughout the year to capture seasonal fluctuations in load, wind, and insolation. Wind farm expansions and new wind farms are proposed based on regional wind resources and time-dependent wind power output is calculated using a meteorological model and the power curves of specific wind turbines. Solar power is incorporated both as centralized and distributed generation. Concentrating solar thermal plants are modeled using local insolation data and the efficiencies of pre-existing plants. Distributed generation from rooftop PV systems is included using regional insolation data, efficiencies of common PV systems, and census data. The additional power output of these technologies offsets power from large natural gas plants and is balanced for the purposes of load matching largely with hydroelectric power and by curtailment when necessary. A quantitative analysis of the effects of this significant shift in the electricity portfolio of the state of California on power availability and transmission line congestion, using a transmission load-flow model, is presented. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to determine the effects of forecasting errors in wind and insolation on load-matching and transmission line congestion.

  14. Sensitivity of simulated climate to latitudinal distribution of solar insolation reduction in solar radiation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modak, A.; Bala, G.

    2014-08-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering has been proposed as a potential option to counteract climate change. We perform a set of idealized geoengineering simulations using Community Atmosphere Model version 3.1 developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research to investigate the global hydrological implications of varying the latitudinal distribution of solar insolation reduction in SRM methods. To reduce the solar insolation we have prescribed sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere. The radiative forcing in the geoengineering simulations is the net forcing from a doubling of CO2 and the prescribed stratospheric aerosols. We find that for a fixed total mass of sulfate aerosols (12.6 Mt of SO4), relative to a uniform distribution which nearly offsets changes in global mean temperature from a doubling of CO2, global mean radiative forcing is larger when aerosol concentration is maximum at the poles leading to a warmer global mean climate and consequently an intensified hydrological cycle. Opposite changes are simulated when aerosol concentration is maximized in the tropics. We obtain a range of 1 K in global mean temperature and 3% in precipitation changes by varying the distribution pattern in our simulations: this range is about 50% of the climate change from a doubling of CO2. Hence, our study demonstrates that a range of global mean climate states, determined by the global mean radiative forcing, are possible for a fixed total amount of aerosols but with differing latitudinal distribution. However, it is important to note that this is an idealized study and thus not all important realistic climate processes are modeled.

  15. Estimating Insolation Incident on Tilted Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkin, R. E.; Toelle, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    ASHMET computer program estimates amount of solar insolation incident on surfaces of several types of solar collectors, including fixed-position flat-plate, monthly-tilt-adjusted flat-plat, beam-tracting, and fixed-azimuthtracker. Basic methodology employed in ASHMET is to use ASHRAE relationships to obtain clear-day total daily insolation incident on collector surface of representative day of each month of year. ASHMET is interactive program and prompts user for all required data.

  16. Effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs

    SciTech Connect

    Latta, A.F.; Bowyer, J.M.; Fujita, T.; Richter, P.H.

    1980-02-01

    This study determines the performance and cost of four 10 MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States. The solar plants are conceptualized to begin commercial operation in the year 2000. It is assumed that major subsystem performance will have improved substantially as compared to that of pilot plants currently operating or under construction. The net average annual system efficiency is therefore roughly twice that of current solar thermal electric power plant designs. Similarly, capital costs reflecting goals based on high-volume mass production that are considered to be appropriate for the year 2000 have been used. These costs, which are approximately an order of magnitude below the costs of current experimental projects, are believed to be achievable as a result of the anticipated sizeable solar penetration into the energy market in the 1990 to 2000 timeframe. The paraboloidal dish, central receiver, cylindrical parabolic trough, and compound parabolic concentrators comprise the advanced collector concepts studied. All concepts exhibit their best performance when sited in regional areas such as the sunbelt where the annual insolation is high. The regional variation in solar plant performance has been assessed in relation to the expected rise in the future cost of residential and commercial electricity in the same regions. A discussion of the regional insolation data base, a description of the solar systems performance and costs, and a presentation of a range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades are given.

  17. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  18. Erythemal ultraviolet insolation in New Zealand at solar zenith angles of 30 and 45..

    PubMed

    Ryan, K G; Smith, G J; Rhoades, D A; Coppell, R B

    1996-05-01

    Solar UV radiometers with spectral responsivities that are close to the erythemal/carcinogenic action spectrum of skin have been installed at several centers of population in New Zealand, including Auckland, 37 degrees S, Wellington, 41 degrees S and Christchurch, 43.5 degrees S. The data set covers the period from the time the radiometry program commenced in 1988/1989 to the end of the southern summer, March 1995. The radiometers were recalibrated annually and the data were corrected for changes in the absolute responsivity of the radiometers. Erythemally effective UV irradiances at solar zenith angles of 30 degrees and 45 degrees were then extracted from the data set. No monotonic trend in these data is apparent, although there are statistically significant differences in mean irradiances from one year to the next. An example of this is the decrease observed in all sites following the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in June 1991. The maximum erythemally effective insolations at solar zenith angles of 30 degrees and 45 degrees were consistently lower in Christchurch than in the other two New Zealand sites. This could arise from higher levels of atmospheric turbidity and/or tropospheric ozone at this location. Also, a seasonal increase in erythemally effective UV insolation from spring to autumn was observed each year in all three New Zealand sites. PMID:8628754

  19. Atmospheric effects on insolation in the Brazilian Amazon: Observed modification of solar radiation by clouds and smoke and derived single scattering albedo of fire aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, J. S.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Yamasoe, M. A.; Artaxo, P.

    2002-10-01

    Five aerosol and solar flux monitoring sites were established in Brazil for the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amaznia (LBA) project. The first two sites were developed in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso in January 1999, while the others were initiated in September 1999 in Amazonas, Para, and near Brasilia (later relocated to Acre). Daily insolation [photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and total solar] for 1999 and 9 months of 2000 was determined from flux measurements, and the daily fraction of theoretical cloud-free, background-aerosol insolation, fB(day), was evaluated for each site. Observed daily shortfall (MJ m-2 d-1) of PAR insolation due to clouds and aerosols (relative to modeled values for background aerosol), and the instantaneous reductions of PAR irradiance due to high aerosol optical thickness (AOT) smoke events are presented for 1999 at Alta Floresta. The ratio of PAR flux to total solar flux (PAR fraction) was examined for all atmospheric conditions during 1999, and the observed dependence of this parameter on column water vapor and smoke AOT was quantified. No significant relationship with cloud amount (as quantified) was found. Instantaneous PAR irradiance measurements and concurrent, cloud-cleared aerosol data from collocated CIMEL sunphotometers were used with a radiative transfer model to investigate the optical properties of smoke aerosols during the burning season. In particular, the single scattering albedo (SSA) was evaluated in the PAR spectral range for AOT440 nm values ranging from 0.8 to 3.0. These estimates were compared with the operational retrievals of the same parameter from algorithms developed by AERONET for CIMEL sunphotometer radiance measurements.

  20. The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the performance and cost of four 10-MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States. Each region has different insolation characteristics which result in varying collector field areas, plant performance, capital costs, and energy costs. The paraboloidal dish, central receiver, cylindrical parabolic trough, and compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) comprise the advanced concepts studied. This paper contains a discussion of the regional insolation data base, a description of the solar systems' performances and costs, and a presentation of a range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades.

  1. The Effects of Solar Insolation on Organic-rich Cometary Analogue Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, Susan M.; Smith, D. C.; Olney, R. D.; Cintala, M. J.

    2009-09-01

    Comets are believed to be a rich source of both water and organics to the early Earth. Exposure of comet nuclei to the ultraviolet radiation from the Sun can lead to chemical reactions within these complex bodies that result in a wide variety of complex organic molecules. In general, cometary dust is believed to be comprised of roughly half organic-rich and half inorganic components. Signatures in UV emission spectra of cometary dust (e.g. P/Halley, Hyakutake) suggest the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Likely candidates responsible for these features include pyrene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and napthalene. We have conducted a suite of experiments whereby both volatile-free and volatile-rich organic samples were insolated with a solar lamp (0.250-2.5 μm) to investigate the chemistry that may occur both in the upper crust in comets (devoid of volatiles), as well as in the ice-rich portion of comet nuclei. Samples include each of the PAHs listed above, independently and in combination with volatiles (e.g. water, CO2, NH3, CH3OH). The samples are intimately mixed, cooled in a liquid nitrogen dewar, and insolated under vaccuum to mimic conditions in space and exposure to solar radiation. The resulting organic components are isolated and analyzed via a GCMS (mass spectrometer) and FTIR (Infrared spectrometer) to identify both the resultant organic molecules and their infrared signatures that may be detected telescopically. This work was supported by a Cottrell Scholar Award from the Research Corporation.

  2. Study on a Bioethanol Solar Reforming System with the Solar Insolation Fluctuation in Consideration of Heat Chemical Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shin'ya; El-Sayed, Abeer Galal

    A bioethanol reforming system (FBSR) with a sunlight heat source is developed as a potential fuel supply system for distributed fuel cells. The temperature distribution of a catalyst layer in the reactor is not stable under conditions of unstable solar radiation and unstable outside air temperature; therefore, it is thought that the inversion rate of a reforming reaction will decrease. In this paper, heat transmission analysis was used in the catalyst layer of the reforming component of an FBSR, and temperature distribution, inversion rate, and process gas composition were investigated. Based on the results, the relationship between weather conditions and a hydrogen-generating rate was determined. When solar insolation was unstable, it turned out that the efficiency of the reforming component is reduced. Fluctuations of the solar insolation over a short period of time affect the hydrogen generating rate of an FBSR. Moreover, the amount of hydrogen production of an FBSR was simulated using meteorological data from a day in March and a day in August in a cold region (Sapporo). The analysis showed that efficiency of the reforming component exceeded 40% for both of the days.

  3. The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.; Richter, P. H.

    1979-01-01

    The performance and cost of the 10 MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States were determined. The regional insolation data base is discussed. A range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several cades are presented.

  4. Sensitivity of simulated climate to latitudinal distribution of solar insolation reduction in SRM geoengineering methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modak, A.; Bala, G.

    2013-10-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering has been proposed as a potential option to counteract climate change. We perform a set of idealized geoengineering simulations to understand the global hydrological implications of varying the latitudinal distribution of solar insolation reduction in SRM methods. We find that for a fixed total mass of sulfate aerosols (12.6 Mt of SO4), relative to a uniform distribution which mitigates changes in global mean temperature, global mean radiative forcing is larger when aerosol concentration is maximum at the poles leading to a warmer global mean climate and consequently an intensified hydrological cycle. Opposite changes are simulated when aerosol concentration is maximized in the tropics. We obtain a range of 1 K in global mean temperature and 3% in precipitation changes by varying the distribution pattern: this range is about 50% of the climate change from a doubling of CO2. Hence, our study demonstrates that a range of global mean climate states, determined by the global mean radiative forcing, are possible for a fixed total amount of aerosols but with differing latitudinal distribution, highlighting the need for a careful evaluation of SRM proposals.

  5. The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.; Richter, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    The performance and cost of four 10 MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States was studied. Each region has different insolation characteristics which result in varying collector field areas, plant performance, capital costs and energy costs. The regional variation in solar plant performance was assessed in relation to the expected rise in the future cost of residential and commercial electricity supplied by conventional utility power systems in the same regions. A discussion of the regional insolation data base is presented along with a description of the solar systems performance and costs. A range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades is given.

  6. Changes in stratospheric aerosols and solar insolation due to Mt. Pinatubo eruption as observed over the western Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Hayasaka, Tadahiro; Hashida, Gen; Takizawa, Iwao; Tanaka, Masayuki; Iwasaka, Naoto

    1994-06-15

    The authors present the results of sunphotometer and pyranometer readings taken from ships in the western Pacific in the latitude range 30{degrees}N to 30{degrees}S, following the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. The sunphotometer data shows a definite columnar rise in aerosol content via optical thickness following the eruption. The pyranometer showed a drop in solar insolation, which was actually larger than what would have been expected from models based on the aerosol increase.

  7. Handbook of solar energy data for south-facing surfaces in the United States. Volume 1: An insolation, array shadowing, and reflector augmentation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A quick reference for obtaining estimates of available solar insolation for numerous locations and array angles is presented. A model and a computer program are provided which considered the effects of array shadowing reflector augmentation as design variables.

  8. Site insolation and wind power characteristics: technical report Midwest region

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    This phase of the Site Insolation and Wind Power Characteristics Study was performed to provide statistical information on the expected future availability of solar and wind power at various sites in the Midwest Region of the US Historic data (SOLMET), at 22 National Weather Service stations with hourly solar insolation and collateral meteorological information, were interrogated to provide an estimate of future trends. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Selected insolation and wind power conditions were investigated for their occurrence and persistence, for defined periods of time, on a monthly basis. Global horizontal insolation is related to inclined surfaces at each site. Ratios are provided, monthly, for multiplying global insolation to obtain insolation estimates on south-facing surfaces inclined at different angles with respect to the horizontal. Also, joint probability distribution tables are constructed showing the number of occurrences, out of a finite sample size, of daily average solar and wind power within selected intervals, by month. Information of this nature is intended as an aid to preliminary planning activities for the design and operation of solar and wind energy utilization and conversion systems.

  9. High-resolution ensemble solar radiation estimates through assimilation of coarse-scale retrievals into a simple physical insolation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Margulis, S. A.

    2005-12-01

    The incident solar radiation flux at the earth's surface is the primary driver of the energy and water exchange between atmosphere and land or ocean, and therefore plays an important role in agriculture, climate research and monitoring, long-range weather prediction and the global hydrologic cycle. In this study a simple physical radiative transfer insolation model is developed for use in both prediction and data assimilation applications. The major advantage of this model is in its parsimony through only considering the most important parameters in the insolation process. One of the novel aspects of the model is the use of the Visible Infrared Solar-infrared Split window Technique (VISST) pixel-level cloud product as a primary model input. The product is used to facilitate cloud detection and to directly estimate cloud reflectance and absorption. The parsimony of the model and high-resolution VISST cloud product (available at ~ half-hourly temporal and 0.02 spatial resolution) allow for the computationally efficient prediction of high resolution solar radiation fields. The deterministic model was first tested over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region during the summer of 1997. The insolation predictions were shown to correlate well with observations from ground measurements from 12 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) SGP facilities during the investigated period. To further improve the solar radiation predictions, a probabilistic approach was adopted in order to merge the model predictions with well-developed retrieval products from the Solar Radiation Budget (SRB) downward shortwave radiation data from GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) Continental International Scale Project (GCISP), which is available at hourly temporal and 0.5 spatial resolutions. Probability distributions of the model input parameters were specified to generate an ensemble of open-loop high-resolution predictions. The coarse-scale SRB retrieval estimates were then assimilated into the model using an Ensemble Kalman Filtering (EnKF) approach. The result is a high-resolution estimate that weighs the uncertainty in both the simple model and the retrieval product. Comparison of the posterior estimates to the ground observations are performed and show significant improvement over the open-loop estimates, especially in cloudy sky conditions.

  10. Parameterization of daily solar global ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Feister, U; Jkel, E; Gericke, K

    2002-09-01

    Daily values of solar global ultraviolet (UV) B and UVA irradiation as well as erythemal irradiation have been parameterized to be estimated from pyranometer measurements of daily global and diffuse irradiation as well as from atmospheric column ozone. Data recorded at the Meteorological Observatory Potsdam (52 degrees N, 107 m asl) in Germany over the time period 1997-2000 have been used to derive sets of regression coefficients. The validation of the method against independent data sets of measured UV irradiation shows that the parameterization provides a gain of information for UVB, UVA and erythemal irradiation referring to their averages. A comparison between parameterized daily UV irradiation and independent values of UV irradiation measured at a mountain station in southern Germany (Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg at 48 degrees N, 977 m asl) indicates that the parameterization also holds even under completely different climatic conditions. On a long-term average (1953-2000), parameterized annual UV irradiation values are 15% and 21% higher for UVA and UVB, respectively, at Hohenpeissenberg than they are at Potsdam. Daily global and diffuse irradiation measured at 28 weather stations of the Deutscher Wetterdienst German Radiation Network and grid values of column ozone from the EPTOMS satellite experiment served as inputs to calculate the estimates of the spatial distribution of daily and annual values of UV irradiation across Germany. Using daily values of global and diffuse irradiation recorded at Potsdam since 1937 as well as atmospheric column ozone measured since 1964 at the same site, estimates of daily and annual UV irradiation have been derived for this site over the period from 1937 through 2000, which include the effects of changes in cloudiness, in aerosols and, at least for the period of ozone measurements from 1964 to 2000, in atmospheric ozone. It is shown that the extremely low ozone values observed mainly after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 have substantially enhanced UVB irradiation in the first half of the 1990s. According to the measurements and calculations, the nonlinear long-term changes observed between 1968 and 2000 amount to +4%, ..., +5% for annual global irradiation and UVA irradiation mainly because of changing cloudiness and + 14%, ..., +15% for UVB and erythemal irradiation because of both changing cloudiness and decreasing column ozone. At the mountain site, Hohenpeissenberg, measured global irradiation and parameterized UVA irradiation decreased during the same time period by -3%, ..., -4%, probably because of the enhanced occurrence and increasing optical thickness of clouds, whereas UVB and erythemal irradiation derived by the parameterization have increased by +3%, ..., +4% because of the combined effect of clouds and decreasing ozone. The parameterizations described here should be applicable to other regions with similar atmospheric and geographic conditions, whereas for regions with significantly different climatic conditions, such as high mountainous areas and arctic or tropical regions, the representativeness of the regression coefficients would have to be approved. It is emphasized here that parameterizations, as the one described in this article, cannot replace measurements of solar UV radiation, but they can use existing measurements of solar global and diffuse radiation as well as data on atmospheric ozone to provide estimates of UV irradiation in regions and over time periods for which UV measurements are not available. PMID:12403449

  11. Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV-Development of an insolation handbook and instrument package

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    Recognizing a need for a coordinated approach to resolve energy problems, certain members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) met in September 1974 and agreed to develop an International Energy Program. The International Energy Agency (IEA) was established within the OECD to administer, monitor and execute this International Energy Program. In July 1975, Solar Heating and Cooling was selected as one of the sixteen technology fields for multilateral cooperation. Five project areas, called tasks, were identified for cooperative activities within the IEA Program to Develop and Test Solar Heating and Cooling Systems. The objective of one task was to obtain improved basic resource information for the design and operation of solar heating and cooling systems through a better understanding of the required insolation (solar radiation) and related weather data, and through improved techniques for measurement and evaluation of such data. At the February 1976 initial experts meeting in Norrkoeping, Sweden, the participants developed the objective statement into two subtasks. (1) an insolation handbook; and (2) a portable meteorological instrument package. This handbook is the product of the first subtask. The objective of this handbook is to provide a basis for a dialogue between solar scientists and meteorologists. Introducing the solar scientist to solar radiation and related meteorological data enables him to better express his scientific and engineering needs to the meteorologist; and introducing the meteorologist to the special solar radiation and meteorological data applications of the solar scientist enables him to better meet the needs of the solar energy community.

  12. Single and Double ITCZ in Aqua-Planet Models with Globally Uniform Sea Surface Temperature and Solar Insolation: An Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    It has been known for more than a decade that an aqua-planet model with globally uniform sea surface temperature and solar insolation angle can generate ITCZ (intertropical convergence zone). Previous studies have shown that the ITCZ under such model settings can be changed between a single ITCZ over the equator and a double ITCZ straddling the equator through one of several measures. These measures include switching to a different cumulus parameterization scheme, changes within the cumulus parameterization scheme, and changes in other aspects of the model design such as horizontal resolution. In this paper an interpretation for these findings is offered. The latitudinal location of the ITCZ is the latitude where the balance of two types of attraction on the ITCZ, both due to earth's rotation, exists. The first type is equator-ward and is directly related to the earth's rotation and thus not sensitive to model design changes. The second type is poleward and is related to the convective circulation and thus is sensitive to model design changes. Due to the shape of the attractors, the balance of the two types of attractions is reached either at the equator or more than 10 degrees away from the equator. The former case results in a single ITCZ over the equator and the latter case a double ITCZ straddling the equator.

  13. Site insolation and wind power characteristics: technical report western region (south section)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    This phase of the Site Insolation and Wind Power Characteristics Study was performed to provide statistical information on the expected future availability of solar and wind power at various sites in the Western Region (South Section) of the US Historic data (SOLMET), at 22 National Weather Service stations with hourly solar insolation and collateral meteorological information, were interrogated to provide an estimate of future trends. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Selected insolation and wind power conditions were investigated for their occurrence and persistence, for defined periods of time, on a monthly basis. Global horizontal insolation is related to inclined surfaces at each site. Ratios are provided, monthly, for multiplying global insolation to obtain insolation estimates on south-facing surfaces inclined at different angles with respect to the horizontal. Also, joint probability distribution tables are constructed showing the number of occurrences, out of a finite sample size, of daily average solar and wind power within selected intervals, by month. Information of this nature is intended as an aid to preliminary planning activities for the design and operation of solar and wind energy utilization and conversion systems.

  14. Estimation of monthly mean daily global solar radiation in Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, G. )

    1990-10-01

    By comparing the published values of monthly mean daily global solar radiation on horizontal surfaces in Memphis and Nashville with calculated values using equations from four models for this parameter, it is shown that the best estimates arise from the use of a model that requires sunshine hours, rain days, and relative humidity as the relevant climatological variables. It is suggested that this equation be used to estimate monthly mean daily global solar radiation for all locations in Tennessee.

  15. Direct insolation models

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, R.; Hulstrom, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Several recently published models of the direct component of the broadband insolation are compared for clear sky conditions. The comparison includes seven simple models and one rigorous model that is used as a basis for determining accuracy. Where possible, the comparison is made between the results of each model for each atmospheric constituent (H/sub 2/O, CO/sub 2/, O/sub 3/, O/sub 2/, aerosol and molecular scattering) separately as well as for the combined effect of all of the constituents. Two optimum simple models of varying degrees of complexity are developed as a result of this comparison. The study indicates: aerosols dominate the attenuation of the direct beam for reasonable atmospheric conditions; molecular scattering is next in importance; water vapor is an important absorber; and carbon dioxide and oxygen are relatively unimportant as attenuators of the broadband solar energy.

  16. Stochastic Simulation of Daily Solar Radiation from Sunshine Duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockart, N.; Kavetski, D.; Franks, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Solar radiation is a key component of the energy balance used for estimating evaporation. As solar radiation is not widely measured, many empirical models have been developed to estimate solar radiation using sunshine hours (SSH) data. Most of these models only provide deterministic estimates of monthly solar radiation and do not provide an estimate of the uncertainty in the predictions. This study developed five stochastic models which use daily SSH data to produce probabilistic simulations of solar radiation, and can be used to estimate historical daily radiation. The predictive uncertainty due to the timing of the SSH during the day (estimated using Monte Carlo simulation), as well as due to external errors (such as the variability in cloud type and atmospheric composition), were considered. The developed models differ in their parameterisation of the direct and diffuse components of the solar radiation, using either no scaling, linear or quadratic scaling of the radiation by the daily SSH fraction to account for cloud attenuation. For each model the simulated solar radiation was compared with the observed radiation. The performance of the five models was compared and the models were found to perform similarly well, with an average error of approximately 9% for all locations studied. The results suggest that the uncertainty due to the timing of the SSH does not dominate predictive errors in global radiation. Rather the external uncertainty is the dominant source of predictive error in the radiation estimates.

  17. Daily total global solar radiation modeling from several meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgili, Mehmet; Ozgoren, Muammer

    2011-05-01

    This paper investigates the modeling of the daily total global solar radiation in Adana city of Turkey using multi-linear regression (MLR), multi-nonlinear regression (MNLR) and feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Several daily meteorological data, i.e., measured sunshine duration, air temperature and wind speed and date of the year, i.e., monthly and daily, were used as independent variables to the MLR, MNLR and ANN models. In order to determine the relationship between the total global solar radiation and other meteorological data, and also to obtain the best independent variables, the MLR and MNLR analyses were performed with the "Stepwise" method in the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program. Thus, various models consisting of the combination of the independent variables were constructed and the best input structure was investigated. The performances of all models in the training and testing data sets were compared with the measured daily global solar radiation values. The obtained results indicated that the ANN method was better than the other methods in modeling daily total global solar radiation. For the ANN model, mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), correlation coefficient ( R) and coefficient of determination ( R 2) for the training/testing data set were found to be 0.89/1.00 MJ/m2 day, 7.88/9.23%, 0.9824/0.9751, and 0.9651/0.9508, respectively.

  18. Solar daily variation at geomagnetic observatories in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Zain; Kumbher, Abdul Salam

    2016-03-01

    A study of solar daily variation is performed using the famous Chapman-Miller method for solar cycles 22 & 23 (1986-2007). The objective is to study the characteristics of Sq variation at Pakistani geomagnetic observatories using solar harmonics and a more traditional five quietest day's method. The data recorded at the Karachi geomagnetic observatory for SC 22 and 23 and data sets from other Pakistani geomagnetic observatories; Sonmiani, Quetta and Islamabad are analyzed for H, D and Z components of the geomagnetic field. Except for the D and Z components at Karachi and Sonmiani and H component at Islamabad, the two solar daily variations correlated well with each other. Also, the synthesized daily variation from the solar harmonics of H, D and Z components explained the equivalent Sq current system reasonably well for all seasons. For H component, the first solar harmonic (s1) obtained from spherical harmonic analysis of the data, appeared as the largest harmonic with no significant changes for the seasonal division of data. However, for D and Z components, amplitudes are comparable, but undergo distinct variations. s1 for H and D components increases with magnetic activity while for Z component it is the largest for the medium phase of magnetic activity. With the sunspot number division of data, the weighted mean of the Wolf ratio of all three components is in good agreement with the previous studies. The synthesized solar daily variation for D component, S(D), at Karachi, Sonmiani, Quetta and Islamabad did not show any signs of winter anomaly for the period studied. However, S(D) variation at Karachi during winter season showed morning minimum followed by a maximum at local noon and another minimum in the afternoon. We suggest this could be the effects of Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly (EIA) observable at the Karachi observatory only during the winter season. Similarly, much disturbed in equinoctial and summer months, S(Z) illustrated an unwavering daily variation for the winter season at the Karachi observatory for both solar cycles. We find that it is the vertical component which is more strongly correlated with the mean monthly sunspot number and F10.7 solar radio flux. An interesting result obtained at Islamabad is the semi-diurnal variation of H component with a morning maximum and afternoon minimum and the phase reversal noticed for Z component variation. Attributed to an early eastward current this is, usually, observed for stations close to the Sq focus current system.

  19. Long-term Observations of Electric Field, Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, Wind Speed, Wind Direction, Rainfall Rate and Solar Insolation at a Remote Meteorological Observing Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, F. W.; Beasley, W. H.; Bansemer, A. R.; Grimsley, D. L.; Byerley, L. G.

    2001-12-01

    For nearly two years we observed the electric field at the surface continually and simultaneously with observations of temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, rainfall rate and solar insolation at a remote automated meteorological observing station in Norman, OK. The electric-field observations were made with electric-field mills that were cycled on every few minutes for a period of about 20 seconds, 24 hours a day, seven days a week for the entire period of time. We observed a number of interesting patterns in the observations, some familiar and some not. For example, monthly averages of the observations often yield Carnegie curves, but not always. We noted what appears to be a sunrise effect on some days. We present a representative sample of the observations.

  20. Load/weather/insolation database for estimating photovoltaic array and system performance in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    El-Rafey, E.; El-Sherbiny, M. )

    1988-01-01

    In this article a simplified technique is reported for predicting photovoltaic (PV) array and system performance. A load/solar/weather database for seven different locations in Egypt is also provided to aid in the necessary calculations. The insolation data has been collected by the help of homemade, resistance-loaded standard solar cells so that their responses are linear with insolation level. Mean temperature and wind speed have been collected or measured on an hourly basis and averaged to give daily values. The fraction of the load that is met by the solar photovoltaic system is calculated for each of the seven locations. This fraction has been taken as a figure of merit to help in promoting photovoltaic applications in Egypt. In this study the Egyptian load profiles are classified according to a collected statistical real data. Array manufacturer's specification sheets and data on the locally fabricated solar cells have been used in the present calculations.

  1. Development of vibrating insoles.

    PubMed

    Hijmans, Juha M; Geertzen, Jan H B; Schokker, Bart; Postema, Klaas

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the development of vibrating insoles. Insoles, providing a subsensory mechanical noise signal to the plantar side of the feet, may improve balance in healthy young and older people and in patients with stroke or diabetic neuropathy. This study describes the requirements for the tactors, (tactile actuators) insole material and noise generator. A search for the components of vibrating insoles providing mechanical noise to the plantar side of the feet was performed. The mechanical noise signal should be provided by tactors built in an insole or shoe and should obtain an input signal from a noise generator and an amplifier. Possible tactors are electromechanical tactors, a piezo actuator or the VBW32 skin transducer. The Minirator MR1 of NTI, a portable MP3 player or a custom-made noise generator can provide these tactors with input. The tactors can be built in foam, silicone or cork insoles. In conclusion, a C2 electromechanical tactor, a piezo actuator or the VBW32 skin transducer, activated by a custom-made noise generator, built in a cork insole covered with a leather layer seems the ideal solution. PMID:17975456

  2. [Comparison of three daily global solar radiation models].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Ming; Fan, Wen-Yi; Zhao, Ying-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Three daily global solar radiation estimation models ( -P model, Thornton-Running model and model provided by Liu Ke-qun et al.) were analyzed and compared using data of 13 weather stations from 1982 to 2012 from three northeastern provinces and eastern Inner Mongolia. After cross-validation analysis, the result showed that mean absolute error (MAE) for each model was 1.71, 2.83 and 1.68 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1) respectively, showing that -P model and model provided by Liu Ke-qun et al. which used percentage of sunshine had an advantage over Thornton-Running model which didn't use percentage of sunshine. Model provided by Liu Ke-qun et al. played a good effect on the situation of non-sunshine, and its MAE and bias percentage were 18.5% and 33.8% smaller than those of -P model, respectively. High precision results could be obtained by using the simple linear model of -P. -P model, Thornton-Running model and model provided by Liu Ke-qun et al. overvalued daily global solar radiation by 12.2%, 19.2% and 9.9% respectively. MAE for each station varied little with the spatial change of location, and annual MAE decreased with the advance of years. The reason for this might be that the change of observation accuracy caused by the replacement of radiation instrument in 1993. MAEs for rainy days, non-sunshine days and warm seasons of the three models were greater than those for days without rain, sunshine days and cold seasons respectively, showing that different methods should be used for different weather conditions on estimating solar radiation with meteorological elements. PMID:25509082

  3. Nonlinear Insolation Forcing: A Physical Mechanism for Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper focuses on recent advances in the understanding of nonlinear insolation forcing for climate change. The amplitude-frequency resonances in the insolation variations induced by the Earth's changing obliquity are emergent and may provide a physical mechanism to drive the glaciation cycles. To establish the criterion that nonlinear insolation forcing is responsible for major climate changes, the cooperative phenomena between the frequency and amplitude of the insolation are defined as insolation pulsation. Coupling of the insolation frequency and amplitude variations has established an especially new and interesting series of insolation pulses. These pulses would modulate the insolation in such a way that the mode of insolation variations could be locked to generate the 100-kyr ice age cycle which is a long-time geophysical puzzle. The nonlinear behavior of insolation forcing is tested by energy balance and ice sheet climate models and the physical mechanism behind this forcing is explained in terms of pulse duration in the incoming solar radiation. Calculations of the solar energy flux at the top of the atmosphere show that the duration of the negative and positive insolation pulses is about 2 thousand years which is long enough to prolong glaciation into deep ice ages and cause rapid melting of large ice sheets in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere. We have performed numerical simulations of climate response to nonlinear insolation forcing for the past 2 million years. Our calculated results of temperature fluctuations are in good agreement with the climate cycles as seen in the terrestrial biogenic silica (BDP-96-2) data as well as in the marine oxygen isotope (delta(sup 18)O) records.

  4. Investigation of simple daily solar radiation models suitable for use in the design of solar heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sillman, S.

    1980-08-01

    Solar heating system simulations typically require hourly weather data and the use of a main-line computer. A simpler alternative is to use daily steps with a model for daily solar collection. This report investigates the accuracy of sinusoidal radiation models for use in solar heating simulation. Accuracy of daily radiation models is assessed in two ways: by a theoretical comparison with hourly weather data, and by analysis of results of daily simulation. Results indicate that a daily radiation model can be designed with errors of less than 2%.

  5. Site insolation and wind power characteristics. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, R E

    1980-08-01

    Design and operation of either large or small scale solar and wind energy conversion systems should be based, in part, on knowledge of expected solar and wind power trends. For this purpose, historic solar and wind data available at 101 National Weather Service stations were processed statistically. Preliminary planning data are provided for selected daily average solar and wind power conditions occurring and persisting for time periods of interest. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Empirical probabilities were constructed from the historic data to provide a reasonable inference of the chance of similar climatological conditions occurring at any given time in the future. (Diurnal wind power variations were also considered.) Ratios were also generated at each station to relate the global radiation data to insolation on a south-facing surface inclined at various angles. In addition, joint probability distributions were derived to show the proportion of days with solar and wind power within selected intervals.

  6. View-limiting shrouds for insolation radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, E. W.; Trentelman, G. F.

    1985-01-01

    Insolation radiometers (normal incidence pyrheliometers) are used to measure the solar radiation incident on solar concentrators for calibrating thermal power generation measurements. The measured insolation value is dependent on the atmospheric transparency, solar elevation angle, circumsolar radiation, and radiometer field of view. The radiant energy entering the thermal receiver is dependent on the same factors. The insolation value and the receiver input will be proportional if the concentrator and the radiometer have similar fields of view. This report describes one practical method for matching the field of view of a radiometer to that of a solar concentrator. The concentrator field of view can be calculated by optical ray tracing methods and the field of view of a radiometer with a simple shroud can be calculated by using geometric equations. The parameters for the shroud can be adjusted to provide an acceptable match between the respective fields of view. Concentrator fields of view have been calculated for a family of paraboloidal concentrators and receiver apertures. The corresponding shroud parameters have also been determined.

  7. Prismatic tracking insolation collector

    SciTech Connect

    Meckler, M.

    1983-05-10

    A tracking insolation collector characterized by elongated prisms of acute apex angle maintained with an objective face disposed normal to the sun rays and through which dispersed light is projected from a transmission face and onto a coordinated mirror for geometric focus onto a target, the heat rays of the spectrum being concentrated onto the target by lens means on the plane of said projection, an astro timer revolving the prisms and mirrors throughout reversed morning and afternoon tracking modes in alignment with the traverse plane of the sun.

  8. The reliance of insolation pattern on surface aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, N. Md; Hamid, J. R. Abdul; Mohd Suldi, A.

    2014-02-01

    The Sun's radiated energy is an important source in realizing the green technology concept construction. When interacting with the atmosphere and objects on the Earth's surface incoming solar radiation (insolation) will create insolation patterns that are ambiguous and as a result need to be investigated further. This paper explores the insolation pattern and ambiguities against topographic surfaces in the context of direct, diffuse, and reflectance irradiance. The topography is modeled from LiDAR data as Digital Surface Model (DSM) and Digital Terrain Model (DTM). The generated DSM and DTM were converted to Triangular Irregular Network (TIN) format within the Arc GIS environment before the insolation pattern could be visualized. The slope and aspect of the topography has an impact on the insolation which is the emphasis of this paper. The main outcome from the study is the insolation map and plots of relationship between the insolation and surface aspect. The findings from this study should contribute to the sustainable practices of green building technology.

  9. Solar energy measurement program at Hampton, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, D.A.; Griffin, T.J.; Venable, D.D.

    1983-06-01

    A global, diffuse and direct solar irradiance and atmospheric emittance measurement program was initiated February 1981 at Hampton, Virginia. Measurements of cloud cover fraction and atmospheric turbidity were also routinely made. The results of the correlation of global insolation with cloud cover fraction using the ARL regression equation are presented for the period March 1981 through February 1982. Mean daily insolation components are also presented for the period March 1981 through December 1982.

  10. Physical match: insole and shoe.

    PubMed

    Shor, Yaron; Kennedy, Robert B; Tsach, Tsadok; Volkov, Nikolai; Novoselsky, Yehuda; Vinokurov, Asya

    2003-07-01

    In this case report, the authors show an interesting case of a physical match between an insole and a suspect shoe that was connected to the crime scene by a blood drop. Several pairs of shoes were seized and inspected. On the insoles of the main suspect's shoes, two different types of prints were seen, one was clear and the other image was faint. A physical match examination was conducted and the authors could place the right insole inside the right shoe. The insole was apparently glued to the shoe by the sweat, heat and dirt inside the shoe, and not by the manufacturer. In this case, the critical questions were how conclusive can the complexity of the random contours be, and whether the physical match between the two objects could pass the "Daubert challenge." PMID:12877297

  11. Pluto's Insolation History: Latitudinal Variations and Effects on Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, Alissa M.; Binzel, Richard P.

    2014-11-01

    Since previous insolation modeling in the early 1990s, new atmospheric pressure data, increased computational power, and the upcoming flyby of the Pluto system by NASAs New Horizons spacecraft have generated new motivation and increased capabilities for the study of Plutos complex long-term (million-years) insolation history. The two primary topics of interest in studying Plutos insolation history are the variations in insolation patterns when integrated over different intervals and the evolution of diurnal insolation patterns over the last several decades. We find latitudinal dichotomies when comparing average insolation over timescales of days, decades, centuries, and millennia. Depending on the timescales of volatile migration, some consequences of these insolation patterns may be manifested in the surface features revealed by New Horizons. For any single rotation of Pluto there is a latitude that receives more insolation relative to the others. Often this is the sub-subsolar latitude but it can also be an arctic circle latitude when near-polar regions of Pluto experience the "midnight sun". We define the amount of that greatest insolation value over the course of one rotation as the "maximum diurnal insolation" (MDI). We find that MDI is driven to its highest values when Plutos obliquity creates a long arctic summer (or midnight sun) beginning just after perihelion. Plutos atmospheric pressure, as measured through stellar occultation observations during the past three decades, appears to correlate with Pluto's currently occurring midnight sun as quantified by the MDI parameter. If insolation (as parameterized by the MDI value) is the single dominant factor driving Pluto's atmospheric pressure, this Midnight Sun Model predicts that Pluto's maximum atmospheric pressure will be reached in 2017 followed by a steady decline. Pluto's maximum diurnal insolation value begins dropping after 2017 due to two factors: Plutos sub-solar point becomes more equatorial (lessening the midnight sun effect) and the planet continues to recede toward aphelion. This work was supported in part by the NASA New Horizons mission to Pluto under SwRI Subcontract 299433Q.

  12. Insolation Distribution in Titan's Lower Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora, J. M.; Goodman, P.; Russell, J.; Lunine, J.

    2012-04-01

    Variable solar heating drives the seasonal variability of Titans lower atmospheric dynamics, and therefore its hydrological cycle. Circulation models that have been developed to examine this methane cycle tend to produce a globally oscillating Hadley circulation, the upwelling arm of which follows a diurnal-mean insolation maximum that reaches the pole in summertime (e.g. Mitchell et al., 2006; Schneider et al., 2012). These models use highly simplified parameterizations of radiative transfer, designed to fit Huygens measurements from the equatorial regions; they do not account for the increased attenuation of sunlight at higher latitudes due to Titans curvature. Haze scattering in Titans atmosphere complicates the calculation of the radiation field that reaches the troposphere. However, based on Huygens DISR measurements, Tomasko et al. (2008) computed solar heating rates as a function of altitude for different latitudes, and at different seasons, including a scattering model. In their results, the maximum heating, during solstice, below ~50 km (i.e., in the troposphere) occurred at mid-latitudes, not the poles as might be assumed from the insolation distribution at the top of the atmosphere. Based on these results, we calculated an insolation distribution near the surface that differs significantly from that used in previous models (Lora et al., 2011). This has implications for the circulation, which we explored with a very simple box model that accounts only for thermally driven advection: Forced with the calculated insolation distribution, the model produces surface temperatures in agreement with observations (Jennings et al. 2009), and a circulation pattern significantly different than the one produced with the simplified distribution from the top of the atmosphere. References: Jennings, D.E., et al.: Titans surface brightness temperatures. Astrophys. J., Vol. 691, pp. L103-L105, 2009. Lora, J.M., et al.: Insolation in Titans troposphere. Icarus, Vol. 216, pp. 116-119, 2011. Mitchell, J.L., et al.: The dynamics behind Titans methane clouds. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., Vol. 103, pp. 18421-18426, 2006. Schneider, T., et al.: Polar methane accumulation and rainstorms on Titan from simulations of the methane cycle. Nature, Vol. 481, pp. 58-61, 2012. Tomasko, M.G., et al.: Heat balance in Titans atmosphere. Planet. Space Sci., Vol. 56, pp. 648-659, 2008.

  13. Differential Angstrom model for predicting insolation from hours of sunshine

    SciTech Connect

    Yeboah-Amankwah, D.; Agyeman, K.

    1990-01-01

    The Angstrom model for predicting insolation is limited in scope because it gives equal weighting to sunshine hours recorded at any time of the day. The differential Angstrom model presented in this paper removes this limitation and relates insolation, q{sub j}, in the j{sup th} hour to the sunshine duration, n{sub j}, of the same period by the equation: q{sub j} = a{sub j} + b{sub j}. By regression analysis of monthly data, the set of constants a{sub j} and b{sub j} for each hour of each month of the year can be determined. Thus, using the appropriate set of a and b regression coefficients, any sunshine data can be transformed to insolation. The sum of the equation over a day gives the daily insolation from which monthly means can be calculated. The method has been applied to the 1986 and 1988 sunshine data recorded at the University of Papua New Guinea to predict the observed insolation to within 3.5%. The differential Angstrom method has applications in places which have much recorded data on hours of sunshine but have limited observed insolation data.

  14. Exponential approximation for daily average solar heating or photolysis. [of stratospheric ozone layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogley, A. C.; Borucki, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    When incorporating formulations of instantaneous solar heating or photolytic rates as functions of altitude and sun angle into long range forecasting models, it may be desirable to replace the time integrals by daily average rates that are simple functions of latitude and season. This replacement is accomplished by approximating the integral over the solar day by a pure exponential. This gives a daily average rate as a multiplication factor times the instantaneous rate evaluated at an appropriate sun angle. The accuracy of the exponential approximation is investigated by a sample calculation using an instantaneous ozone heating formulation available in the literature.

  15. Solar Availability for Winter Space Heating: An Analysis of SOLMET Data, 1953 to 1975.

    PubMed

    Asbury, J G; Maslowski, C; Mueller, R O

    1979-11-01

    Solar availability for space heating on coldest-weather days has been determined from an analysis of SOLMET data tapes. The tapes contain hourly readings of insolation and ambient temperature over the period from 1953 through 1975. Scatter diagrams of insolation versus heating degree-days, compiled on a daily basis, indicate a wide variation in the insolation level, even during coldest-weather periods. For all but one of the eight sites studied, the peak-day backup energy requirement of the solar system was in excess of 85 percent of the peak-day energy requirement of the conventional (nonsolar) heating system. PMID:17796931

  16. ASHMET: A computer code for estimating insolation incident on tilted surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkin, R. F.; Toelle, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    A computer code, ASHMET, was developed by MSFC to estimate the amount of solar insolation incident on the surfaces of solar collectors. Both tracking and fixed-position collectors were included. Climatological data for 248 U. S. locations are built into the code. The basic methodology used by ASHMET is the ASHRAE clear-day insolation relationships modified by a clearness index derived from SOLMET-measured solar radiation data to a horizontal surface.

  17. Reconstruction of daily solar UV irradiation from 1893 to 2002 in Potsdam, Germany.

    PubMed

    Junk, Jürgen; Feister, Uwe; Helbig, Alfred

    2007-08-01

    Long-term records of solar UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface are scarce. Radiative transfer calculations and statistical models are two options used to reconstruct decadal changes in solar UV radiation from long-term records of measured atmospheric parameters that contain information on the effect of clouds, atmospheric aerosols and ground albedo on UV radiation. Based on earlier studies, where the long-term variation of daily solar UV irradiation was derived from measured global and diffuse irradiation as well as atmospheric ozone by a non-linear regression method [Feister et al. (2002) Photochem Photobiol 76:281-293], we present another approach for the reconstruction of time series of solar UV radiation. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with measurements of solar UV irradiation taken at the Meteorological Observatory in Potsdam, Germany, as well as measured parameters with long-term records such as global and diffuse radiation, sunshine duration, horizontal visibility and column ozone. This study is focussed on the reconstruction of daily broad-band UV-B (280-315 nm), UV-A (315-400 nm) and erythemal UV irradiation (ER). Due to the rapid changes in cloudiness at mid-latitude sites, solar UV irradiance exhibits appreciable short-term variability. One of the main advantages of the statistical method is that it uses doses of highly variable input parameters calculated from individual spot measurements taken at short time intervals, which thus do represent the short-term variability of solar irradiance. PMID:17318610

  18. An estimate of the solar radiation incident at the top of Pluto's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemelrijck, E.

    The intensity and the global distribution of solar insolation on Pluto are calculated, including the latitudinal variations of seasonal and annual average insolation at 60, 75, and 90 deg angles. Existing orbital and planetary data on Pluto are used to calculate the planetocentric longitude of its perihelion and the length of the northern and southern summer and winter. Three contour maps are developed for the incident solar radiation in calories per square centimeter per planetary day as a function of latitude and solar longitude. The seasonal variations in the equatorial and polar insolation and the latitudinal variations of the mean daily solar radiation are also provided. The polar insolation increases with obliquity, and is accompanied by a decrease in the equatorial isolation. It is noted that long-term observations of the orbital elements and the direction of the axis of rotation are necessary to confirm the validity of the calculations.

  19. 21 CFR 880.6280 - Medical insole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical insole. 880.6280 Section 880.6280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES....6280 Medical insole. (a) Identification. A medical insole is a device intended for medical...

  20. 21 CFR 880.6280 - Medical insole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical insole. 880.6280 Section 880.6280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES....6280 Medical insole. (a) Identification. A medical insole is a device intended for medical...

  1. 21 CFR 880.6280 - Medical insole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical insole. 880.6280 Section 880.6280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES....6280 Medical insole. (a) Identification. A medical insole is a device intended for medical...

  2. 21 CFR 880.6280 - Medical insole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical insole. 880.6280 Section 880.6280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES....6280 Medical insole. (a) Identification. A medical insole is a device intended for medical...

  3. 21 CFR 880.6280 - Medical insole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical insole. 880.6280 Section 880.6280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES....6280 Medical insole. (a) Identification. A medical insole is a device intended for medical...

  4. Relationships between daily UV-A, UV-B, and hemispherical solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerlaut, Gene A.; Miyake, Yukiharu

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies elucidated the relationship between total ultraviolet and total solar radiant exposures at four meteorologically different sites: desert, subtropical, urban smog and high altitude. These studies, which have only been briefly summarized elsewhere, demonstrated that at-latitude daily total ultraviolet plotted against daily at-latitude total solar radiant exposure follows well-defined, site- specific relationships; namely, data for month-pairs that are symmetrical about the two solstices plot on the regression line with high correlation coefficients. It was found that the algebraic behavior of the family of regression expressions (DEC, JAN-NOV, FEB-OCT, MAR-SEP, APR- AUG, MAY-JUL, JUN) depend on whether either pollution- related absorption or humidity-related scattering mechanisms predominate one over the other at any given site. More recent studies, which are on-going, have determined the extent to which daily UV-B radiant exposure exhibits the same dependence on latitude, altitude, and local climate atmospheric conditions that was observed for daily UV-A (e.g., total) radiant exposures. It was found that the UV-B histograms for both Arizona and Florida show a much greater degree of scatter than do the UV-A histograms. Solar UV-B radiation is much more sensitive to a combination of atmospheric conditions and ozone than is UV-A, and the differences between the Florida and Arizona UV-B histograms are ascribed to these effects.

  5. Lunar and solar daily variations of ionospheric electron content at Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, P. K.; Tyagi, T. R.

    1986-03-01

    Ionospheric electron content measurements obtained at Delhi during the period 1975-1980 have been analysed by the Chapman-Miller method to compute lunar and solar daily variations. The results show that the magnitude of the lunar harmonic components is about one-tenth that of the solar harmonic components. Significant seasonal and solar cycle variations were observed for both the lunar and the solar terms. The lunar semi-diurnal component, the most significant term, can be explained as due to the additional 'fountain' effect caused by the lunar semi-diurnal variation of the electric field at the equatorial region. The lunar semi-diurnal variations were found to have significant oceanic and ionospheric components.

  6. Spatial variations of temperature on a coastal site in Sweden as a response to insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercauteren, N.; Dahlberg, J.; Lam, N.; Destouni, G.; Hylander, K.

    2012-04-01

    Temperature and humidity are major factors controlling ecosystem development. In a context of changing climate, the spatial distribution of temperature is likely to be affected, and species distribution might be subsequently modified. In particular, topographic heterogeneity is affecting the micro-climate and thus regulates the expansion or restriction of species in a landscape. During a change of climate, certain species might become restricted to localized refugia, or on the contrary expand from old refugia when the overall landscape becomes favorable. In this research we are using GIS based model of incoming solar radiation and subsequently derived monthly averaged temperatures to increase the understanding of changes in local climate and how it affects species repartition. The model is based on topography and observed variations in atmospheric conditions and is accounting for site latitude, elevation, surface orientation, daily and seasonal shifts in sun angle and the effect of shadows from the surrounding topography. A 2500 km2 forested field site located on the western coast of Sweden, along the Baltic Sea, is investigated both in terms of temperature heterogeneity and plant communities. We derive 50 m resolution insolation maps and analyze the response of monthly temperature to insolation. Surface and near surface temperatures are measured by a dense network of temperature sensors during the spring and summer of 2011 and are used for comparison with the modeled temperature maps. We investigate the potential of this modeling approach to scale climate trend analysis down to local climate change in heterogeneous landscapes. We build on the methodology used by Huang et al. (2008) in a mountain ecosystem and develop it for use on a coastal site that is largely influence by the presence of the sea. The time lag that is appropriate between insolation and subsequent temperature response appears to be influenced by the presence of a large water body and follows an exponential decay from the coastal to the inland measurement sites. We use the insolation and an appropriate time lag dependent on the distance to the sea in a linear regression model to derive estimates of spatially distributed temperature in our landscape. The dataset indicates a strong potential for monthly temperature to be predicted from solar radiation. Huang, S., Rich, P.M., Crabtree, R.L., Potter, C.S., Fu, P., 2008. Modeling Monthly Near-Surface Air Temperature from Solar Radiation and Lapse Rate: Application over Complex Terrain in Yellowstone National Park. Physical Geography 29, 158-178.

  7. Estimation of daily global solar irradiation under different sky conditions in central and southern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didari, Shohreh; Zand-Parsa, Shahrokh

    2015-10-01

    Daily global solar irradiation (R s) is one of the main inputs in environmental modeling. Because of the lack of its measuring facilities, high-quality and long-term data are limited. In this research, R s values were estimated based on measured sunshine duration and cloud cover of our synoptic meteorological stations in central and southern Iran during 2008, 2009, and 2011. Clear sky solar irradiation was estimated from linear regression using extraterrestrial solar irradiation as the independent variable with normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of 4.69 %. Daily R s was calibrated using measured sunshine duration and cloud cover data under different sky conditions during 2008 and 2009. The 2011 data were used for model validation. According to the results, in the presence of clouds, the R s model using sunshine duration data was more accurate when compared with the model using cloud cover data (NRMSE = 11. 69 %). In both models, with increasing sky cloudiness, the accuracy decreased. In the study region, more than 92 % of sunshine durations were clear or partly cloudy, which received close to 95 % of total solar irradiation. Hence, it was possible to estimate solar irradiation with a good accuracy in most days with the measurements of sunshine duration.

  8. On the Signature of Chaotic Dynamics in 10.7 cm Daily Solar Radio Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Oindrilla; Chatterjee, T. N.

    2015-11-01

    We examine the properties of the time-series of daily values of the 10.7-cm solar radio flux and sunspot-number activity indices, and their relative behavior. The analysis and the comparisons are based upon the estimation of the embedded dimension and the use of recurrence plots. The result shows higher-order chaos in 10.7-cm radio flux, and a similar but not identical chaotic nature in the sunspot number indicative of a change in the phase space of the Sun. Both data series show a stochastic behavior only during the rising and peak phase of Solar Cycle 23.

  9. Spectral effects on direct-insolation absorptance of five collector coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotchkiss, G. B.; Simon, F. F.; Burmeister, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    Absorptances for direct insolation of black chrome, black nickel, copper oxide, and two black zinc conversion selective coatings were calculated for a number of typical solar spectrums. Measured spectral reflectances were used while the effects of atmospheric ozone density, turbidity, and air mass were incorporated in calculated direct solar spectrums. Absorptance variation for direct insolation was found to be of the order of 1 percent for a typical range of clear-sky atmospheric conditions.

  10. Multilayer ferroelectret-based energy harvesting insole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Z.; Zhu, D.; Beeby, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports a flexible energy harvesting insole made of multilayer ferroelectrets, and demonstrates that this insole can power a wireless signal transmission. We have previously studied the energy harvesting characteristics of single and 10-layer ferroelectrets under compressive forces with quantified amplitudes and frequencies. In this work, we fabricate a flexible insole using multilayer ferroelectrets, and increase the number of layers from 10 up to 80, then use this insole to harvest energy from footsteps. We use this insole to power a commercial ZigBee wireless transmitter, and successfully demonstrate that an 8-bit data transmission can be solely powered by the energy harvested from this insole for every 3 to 4 footsteps. It confirms the anticipation from our previous work that the multilayer ferroelectrets are capable of powering the start-up and transmission of a low-power chipset, and shows a potential of using this energy harvesting insole in wearable applications.

  11. Markov processes and Zipf's law in daily solar irradiation at earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindel, J. M.; Polo, J.

    2014-01-01

    Sequences of two consecutive days of solar irradiation (global horizontal and direct normal) have been studied here by different approaches. The frequency vs. rank relationships have been analyzed as an attempt to explore whether the Zifp's law is fulfilled, yielding to a partial fulfillment and observing that a good logarithmic fit can be applied to the data in the whole range. In addition, the pdfs of increments in two consecutive daily irradiation values are also studied, showing a relationship between persistence and the coefficients of the logarithmic fit. Finally, it has been shown that a Markov process can represent properly sequences of two consecutive daily irradiation values, for both global horizontal and direct normal components. Thus, synthetic series can be generated by Markov chains for characterizing daily global and direct irradiation.

  12. Coastal-inland solar radiation difference study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, W.D. Jr.; Vukovich, F.M.

    1980-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the characteristics of solar insolation in the coastal zone and to determine the effect of the sea breeze circulation on the global insolation. In order to satisfy these objectives, a six station sampling network was established in the coastal plain of southeastern North Carolina, where previous evidence has indicated that the sea breeze circulation is almost a daily occurrence from late May through October. Three sites (Sloop Point, Onslow Beach, and Cape Fear Technical Institute (CFTI)) were located near the coast (coastal sites) to assess the insolation at the coast. A site (Clinton) was located in an area seldom affected by the sea breeze (about 100 km from the coast). Two additional sites, Wallace and Ellis Airport, located between the coastal sites and the control site, were to be used to assess the transient impact of the sea breeze upon the insolation. Pyranometers were located at each site to measure the global insolation. Direct normal insolation measured by a pyrheliometer and ultraviolet radiation measured by uv radiometers were observed at the Sloop Point and Clinton sites only. Data were collected during the calendar year 1978. The results of the study indicated that the global insolation had greater variability over the network during the summer season (June, July, and August). During the summer, there was a systematicdiurnal variation of the difference in global insolation between the inland and the coastal sites.

  13. A Temperature-Based Model for Estimating Monthly Average Daily Global Solar Radiation in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    Since air temperature records are readily available around the world, the models based on air temperature for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air temperature data are available in China. PMID:24605046

  14. Lunar and solar daily variations of equivalent slab thickness at Delhi.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, P. K.; Tyagi, T. R.

    1987-02-01

    Equivalent slab thickness data obtained at Delhi during the ascending half of this solar cycle from 1978 to 1980 have been analysed by the Chapman-Miller method to compute the lunar and solar daily variations. Significant diurnal and seasonal variations were observed for the lunar as well as the solar terms. There is no apparent correlation between these variations and sunspot activity. The occurrence of the most significant lunar term, the lunar semidiurnal component, coincides with the diffusion caused by the additional fountain effect generated by the lunar semidiurnal variation of the electric field at the equatorial region. Except for the phase, the results obtained for slab thickness differ from those reported for ionospheric electron content for the same period and location.

  15. The Effects of a Lateral Wedge Insole on Knee and Ankle Joints During Slope Walking.

    PubMed

    Uto, Yuki; Maeda, Tetsuo; Kiyama, Ryoji; Kawada, Masayuki; Tokunaga, Ken; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Fukudome, Kiyohiro; Ohshige, Tadasu; Yoshimoto, Yoichi; Yone, Kazunori

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a lateral wedge insole reduces the external knee adduction moment during slope walking. Twenty young, healthy subjects participated in this study. Subjects walked up and down a slope using 2 different insoles: a control flat insole and a 7 lateral wedge insole. A three-dimensional motion analysis system and force plate were used to examine the knee adduction moment, the ankle valgus moment, and the moment arm of the ground reaction force to the knee joint center in the frontal plane. The lateral wedge insole significantly decreased the moment arm of the ground reaction force, resulting in a reduction of the knee adduction moment during slope walking, similar to level walking. The reduction ratio of knee adduction moment by the lateral wedge insole during the early stance of up-slope walking was larger than that of level walking. Conversely, the lateral wedge insole increased the ankle valgus moment during slope walking, especially during the early stance phase of up-slope walking. Clinicians should examine the utilization of a lateral wedge insole for knee osteoarthritis patients who perform inclined walking during daily activity, in consideration of the load on the ankle joint. PMID:26252560

  16. Solar radiation on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Appelbaum, J.; Flood, D.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. In this paper the authors present a procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally, hourly and daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the sun with a special diode on the Viking cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

  17. Geomagnetic lunar and solar daily variations during the last 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Kosch, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes long-term changes in the geomagnetic lunar (L) and solar (S) daily variations. We analyze the eastward component of the geomagnetic field observed at eight midlatitude stations during 1903-2012. The amplitude and phase for the semidiurnal component of the L and S variations are examined. Both L and S amplitudes correlate with the solar activity index F10.7, revealing a prominent 11 year solar cycle. In both cases, the correlation is slightly better with √(F10.7) than F10.7. The sensitivity of the L variation to solar activity is comparable with that of the S variation. The solar cycle effect is also found in the phase of the S variation but not apparent in the phase of the L variation. The ratio in the amplitude of the L to S variation shows a long-term decrease (approximately 10% per century), which may be due to a reduction in lunar tidal waves from the lower atmosphere to the upper atmosphere in association with climate change.

  18. Daily laying time in free-living European starlings: solar noon, a potential synchronizer.

    PubMed

    Houdelier, Ccilia; Bertin, Aline; Guyomarc'h, Catherine; Richard, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    Reproduction is generally controlled by important temporal constraints involving complex adaptive mechanisms. Birds, in temperate zones, present marked breeding seasonality as well as marked daily organization of reproductive behavior, especially laying. Intra-specific variability and determinants of this pattern have been investigated mainly in domestic non-passerine birds. The present study analyzed the daily temporal organization of laying in a free-living species, the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris. Breeding in a starling colony was monitored for five consecutive years using a non-invasive method (infrared video camera) to precisely estimate laying times. European starlings present a marked daily laying rhythm, ovipositions occurring only during a morning species-specific temporal window. Inside this laying window, time intervals between successive eggs varied greatly among females. Contrary to many species, the light/dark cycle did not appear to control laying time in European starlings, but daily variations of the ultraviolet composition of the solar spectrum appeared to be a possible Zeitgeber of this behavior. PMID:17453845

  19. Calculation of monthly average global solar radiation on horizontal surfaces using daily hours of bright sunshine

    SciTech Connect

    Halouani, N.; Nguyen, C.T.; Vo-Ngoc, D. )

    1993-03-01

    Several statistical models calculating the monthly average global solar radiation on horizontal surfaces using the daily hours of bright sunshine have been extensively evaluated and compared for Canadian regions. Results show that Gariepy's model provides the best overall performance and Hay's model is rated next best, whereas Rietveld's model has been found to be the least accurate. Local performances of models have also been established throughout Canada that show that both Gariepy's and Hay's models perform quite well. Recommended models have been suggested for the studied regions. 27 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Insolation and the Precession Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2000-01-01

    Simple nonlinear climate models yield a precession index-like term in the temperature. Despite its importance in the geologic record, the precession index e sin omega, where e is the Earth's orbital eccentricity and omega is the Sun's perigee in the geocentric frame, is not present in the insolation at the top of the atmosphere. Hence there is no one-for-one mapping of 23,000 and 19,000 year periodicities from the insolation to the paleoclimate record; a nonlinear climate model is needed to produce these periods. Two such models, a grey body and an energy balance climate model with an added quadratic term, produce e sin omega terms in temperature. These terms, which without feedback mechanisms achieve extreme values of about plus or minus 0.48 K for the grey body and plus or minus 0.64 K for the energy balance model, simultaneously cool one hemisphere while they warm the other. Moreover, they produce long-term cooling in the northern hemisphere when the Sun's perigee is near northern solstice and long-term warming in the northern hemisphere when the perigee is near southern solstice. Thus this seemingly paradoxical mechanism works against the standard model which requires cool northern summers (Sun far from Earth in northern summer) to build up northern ice sheets, so that if the standard model is correct it may be more efficient than previously thought. Alternatively, the new mechanism could possibly be dominant and indicate southern hemisphere control of the northern ice sheets, wherein the southern oceans undergo a long-term cooling when the Sun is close to the Earth during southern summer. The cold water eventually flows north, cooling the northern hemisphere. This might explain why the northern oceans lag the southern ones when it comes to orbital forcing.

  1. Formulation of cosmic-ray solar daily variation and its seasonal variation, produced from generalized stationary anisotropy of solar origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatsuoka, R.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    In previous papers, a formulation was presented of cosmic ray daily variations produced from solar anisotropies stationary through a year, and also of their annual (or seasonal) modulation caused by the annual variation of the rotation axis of the Earth relative to that of the Sun. These anisotropies are symmetric for an arbitrary rotation around an axis. From observations of the tri-diurnal variation, it has been suggested that solar anisotropies also contain some axis-asymmetric term of the third order with respect to the IMF-axis. This suggestion has recently found support in a theoretical study by Munakata and Nagashima. According to their results, the terms of axis-asymmetry with respect to IMF-axis appear also in the 2nd order anisotropy, together with some different kinds of axis-symmetric terms. The contribution of these anisotropies to the daily variation is different from that of those discussed previously. The above mentioned formulation is extended to a case of a generalized anisotropy.

  2. Motel solar hot-water installation--Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of hardness of local water, average insolation for site, and daily hot water requirements insures suitability of solar-energy system design. Report describes two units which are designed to supply 81 percent of motel's annual hot water demand based on hypothetical 85 percent occupancy. Report includes drawings, operating and maintenance instructions, and test results for 1 day of operation.

  3. A Five-Year Data Set of Insolation from GOES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molling, C. C.; Heidinger, A. K.; Laszlo, I.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration produces insolation from the East and West Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites' (GOES) Imager in their GOES Surface and Insolation Product (GSIP). The GSIP 1/8x1/8 degree product is publicly available from April, 2009. Recently, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has funded a project to create a 5 year long data set using the algorithm used in GSIP. At the University of Wisconsin's Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, we have inserted the Satellite Algorithm for Shortwave RAdiation Budget (SASRAB) into the Pathfinder ATMOSpheres-extended (PATMOS-x) cloud products satellite imagery processing system and computed 5 years worth of radiation and cloud products. The benefits of this data set include the following: direct+diffuse and diffuse insolation every 30 min from both GOES-East and -West at the pixel level (4km at nadir); Extended Northern Hemisphere coverage for most images, with Full Disk coverage every 3 hours; many related radiation, cloud, atmosphere, and surface products at the same resolution; 5 years worth of data available for analysis; monthly, seasonal, and annual summaries of many of the pixel level quantities on a 0.1 degree grid. Anticipated uses of the data set include siting for photovoltaic arrays, solar-thermal power generation, and passive solar systems, as well as environmental applications such as coral bleaching.

  4. The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in daily global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data

    SciTech Connect

    Behrang, M.A.; Assareh, E.; Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A.R.

    2010-08-15

    The main objective of present study is to predict daily global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface, based on meteorological variables, using different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, and wind speed values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32 16'N, 48 25'E), are used in this study. In order to consider the effect of each meteorological variable on daily GSR prediction, six following combinations of input variables are considered: (I)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and relative humidity as inputs and daily GSR as output. (II)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (III)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (IV)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and evaporation as inputs and daily GSR as output. (V)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. (VI)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are applied for daily GSR modeling based on six proposed combinations. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data. The comparison of obtained results from ANNs and different conventional GSR prediction (CGSRP) models shows very good improvements (i.e. the predicted values of best ANN model (MLP-V) has a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) about 5.21% versus 10.02% for best CGSRP model (CGSRP 5)). (author)

  5. ASHMET: a computer code for estimating insolation incident on tilted surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Elkin, R.F.; Toelle, R.G.

    1980-05-01

    A computer code, ASHMET, has been developed by MSFC to estimate the amount of solar insolation incident on the surfaces of solar collectors. Both tracking and fixed-position collectors have been included. Climatological data for 248 US locations are built into the code. This report describes the methodology of the code, and its input and output. The basic methodology used by ASHMET is the ASHRAE clear-day insolation relationships modified by a clearness index derived from SOLMET-measured solar radiation data to a horizontal surface.

  6. Prediction of hourly and daily diffuse solar fraction in the city of Fez (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihya, B.; Mechaqrane, A.; Tadili, R.; Bargach, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, 3-layers MLP (Multi-Layers Perceptron) Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models have been developed and tested for predicting hourly and daily diffuse solar fractions at Fez city in Morocco. In parallel, some empirical models were tested. Three years of data (2009-2011) have been used for establishing the parameters of all tested models and 1 year (2012) to test their prediction performances. To select the best ANN (3-layers MLP) architecture, we have conducted several tests by using different combinations of inputs and by varying the number of neurons in the hidden layer. The output is only the diffuse solar fraction. The performances of each model were assessed on the basis of four statistic characteristics: mean absolute error (MAE), relative mean bias error (RMBE), relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and the degree of agreement (DA). Additionally, the coefficient of correlation ( R) is used to test the linear regression between predicted and observed data. The results indicate that the ANN model is more suitable for predicting diffuse solar fraction than the empirical tested models at Fez city in Morocco.

  7. Determination of Martian Northern Polar Insolation Levels Using a Geodetic Elevation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrell, J. R.; Zuber, M. T.

    2000-08-01

    Solar insolation levels at the Martian polar caps bear significantly on the seasonal and climatic cycling of volatiles on that planet. In the northern hemisphere, the Martian surface slopes downhill from the equator to the pole such that the north polar cap is situated in a 5-km-deep hemispheric-scale depression. This large-scale topographic setting plays an important role in the insolation of the northern polar cap. Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) provide comprehensive, high-accuracy topographical information required to precisely determine polar insolation. In this study, we employ a geodetic elevation model to quantify the north polar insolation and consider implications for seasonal and climatic changes. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  8. Determination of Martian Northern Polar Insolation Levels Using a Geodetic Elevation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrell, J. R.; Zuber, M. T.

    2000-01-01

    Solar insolation levels at the Martian polar caps bear significantly on the seasonal and climatic cycling of volatiles on that planet. In the northern hemisphere, the Martian surface slopes downhill from the equator to the pole such that the north polar cap is situated in a 5-km-deep hemispheric-scale depression. This large-scale topographic setting plays an important role in the insolation of the northern polar cap. Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) provide comprehensive, high-accuracy topographical information required to precisely determine polar insolation. In this study, we employ a geodetic elevation model to quantify the north polar insolation and consider implications for seasonal and climatic changes. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  9. Development of Daily Solar Maximum Flare Flux Forecast Models for Strong Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seulki; Chu, Hyoungseok

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a set of daily solar maximum flare flux forecast models for strong flares using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) methods. We consider input parameters as solar activity data from January 1996 to December 2013 such as sunspot area, X-ray maximum flare flux and weighted total flux of the previous day, and mean flare rates of McIntosh sunspot group (Zpc) and Mount Wilson magnetic classification. For a training data set, we use the same number of 61 events for each C-, M-, and X-class from Jan. 1996 to Dec. 2004, while other previous models use all flares. For a testing data set, we use all flares from Jan. 2005 to Nov. 2013. The statistical parameters from contingency tables show that the ANN models are better for maximum flare flux forecasting than the MLR models. A comparison between our maximum flare flux models and the previous ones based on Heidke Skill Score (HSS) shows that our all models for X-class flare are much better than the other models. According to the Hitting Fraction (HF), which is defined as a fraction of events satisfying that the absolute differences of predicted and observed flare flux in logarithm scale are less than equal to 0.5, our models successfully forecast the maximum flare flux of about two-third events for strong flares. Since all input parameters for our models are easily available, the models can be operated steadily and automatically on daily basis for space weather service.

  10. Prediction of monthly mean daily global solar radiation using Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivamadhavi, V.; Selvaraj, R. Samuel

    2012-12-01

    In this study, a multilayer feed forward (MLFF) neural network based on back propagation algorithm was developed, trained, and tested to predict monthly mean daily global radiation in Tamil Nadu, India. Various geographical, solar and meteorological parameters of three different locations with diverse climatic conditions were used as input parameters. Out of 565 available data, 530 were used for training and the rest were used for testing the artificial neural network (ANN). A 3-layer and a 4-layer MLFF networks were developed and the performance of the developed models was evaluated based on mean bias error, mean absolute percentage error, root mean squared error and Student's t-test. The 3-layer MLFF network developed in this study did not give uniform results for the three chosen locations. Hence, a 4-layer MLFF network was developed and the average value of the mean absolute percentage error was found to be 5.47%. Values of global radiation obtained using the model were in excellent agreement with measured values. Results of this study show that the designed ANN model can be used to estimate monthly mean daily global radiation of any place in Tamil Nadu where measured global radiation data are not available.

  11. Development of Daily Maximum Flare-Flux Forecast Models for Strong Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seulki; Lee, Jin-Yi; Moon, Yong-Jae; Chu, Hyoungseok; Park, Jongyeob

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a set of daily maximum flare-flux forecast models for strong flares (M- and X-class) using multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Our input parameters are solar-activity data from January 1996 to December 2013 such as sunspot area, X-ray maximum, and weighted total flare flux of the previous day, as well as mean flare rates of McIntosh sunspot group (Zpc) and Mount Wilson magnetic classifications. For a training dataset, we used 61 events each of C-, M-, and X-class from January 1996 to December 2004. For a testing dataset, we used all events from January 2005 to November 2013. A comparison between our maximum flare-flux models and NOAA model based on true skill statistics (TSS) shows that the MLR model for X-class and the average of all flares ( M{+}X-class) are much better than the NOAA model. According to the hitting fraction (HF), which is defined as a fraction of events satisfying the condition that the absolute differences of predicted and observed flare flux on a logarithm scale are smaller than or equal to 0.5, our models successfully forecast the maximum flare flux of about two-thirds of the events for strong flares. Since all input parameters for our models are easily available, the models can be operated steadily and automatically on a daily basis for space-weather services.

  12. A probabilistic model of insolation for the Mojave Desert area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hester, O. V.; Reid, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of mathematical models of insolation characteristics suitable for use in analysis of solar energy systems is presented and shows why such models are essential for solar energy system design. A model of solar radiation for the Mojave Desert area is presented with probabilistic and deterministic components which reflect the occurrence and density of clouds and haze, and mimic their effects on both direct and indirect radiation. Multiple comparisons were made between measured total energy received per day and the corresponding simulated totals. The simulated totals were all within 11 percent of the measured total. The conclusion is that a useful probabilistic model of solar radiation for the Goldstone, California, area of the Mojave Desert has been constructed.

  13. Interpreting insolation signals in ice core records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutterli, M. A.; Sime, L. C.

    2009-04-01

    High resolution East Antarctica stable water isotope ice core records are inversely related to Southern Hemisphere summer insolation intensity at the precession and obliquity timescales. Because Southern Hemisphere summer insolation varies directly out of phase with that in the Northern Hemisphere, this has lead to the suggestion that global climate is controlled by some measure of Northern Hemisphere summer insolation intensity. Here we present results from a snow metamorphism model and an isotope enabled GCM suggesting that the East Antarctic isotope ice core variations in the precession and obliquity bands may instead be caused by post-depositional processes that are modulated by changes in local insolation. This likely also applies to other ice core records and has implications for the interpretation of global climate change at these orbital periods.

  14. Forecast of daily solar flare peak flux using regressive and neural network methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seulki; Lee, Jin-Yi; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2014-06-01

    We have developed a set of daily solar flare peak flux forecast models using the multiple linear regression, auto regression, and artificial neural network methods. We consider input parameters as solar activity data from January 1996 to December 2013 such as sunspot area, X-ray flare peak flux, weighted total flux Tf=1*Fc+10*Fm+100*Fx of previous day, mean flare rates of a given McIntosh sunspot group (Zpc), and a Mount Wilson magnetic classification. The hitting rate is defined as the fraction of events whose absolute differences between the observed and predicted fluxes in a logarithm scale are ? 0.5. The best three input parameters related to the observed flare peak flux are weighted total flare flux of previous day, Mount Wilson magnetic classification, and sunspot area. The hitting rates of flares stronger than M5 class, which is regarded to be significant for space weather forecast, are as follows: 0% for the multiple linear regression method, 30% for the auto regression method, and 69% for the neural network method. Especially, we note that for the forecast of strong flares, the neural network method is much more effective than the other methods.

  15. Forecasting of preprocessed daily solar radiation time series using neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Paoli, Christophe; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie-Laure; Voyant, Cyril

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, we present an application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in the renewable energy domain. We particularly look at the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) network which has been the most used of ANNs architectures both in the renewable energy domain and in the time series forecasting. We have used a MLP and an ad hoc time series pre-processing to develop a methodology for the daily prediction of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. First results are promising with nRMSE {proportional_to} 21% and RMSE {proportional_to} 3.59 MJ/m{sup 2}. The optimized MLP presents predictions similar to or even better than conventional and reference methods such as ARIMA techniques, Bayesian inference, Markov chains and k-Nearest-Neighbors. Moreover we found that the data pre-processing approach proposed can reduce significantly forecasting errors of about 6% compared to conventional prediction methods such as Markov chains or Bayesian inference. The simulator proposed has been obtained using 19 years of available data from the meteorological station of Ajaccio (Corsica Island, France, 41 55'N, 8 44'E, 4 m above mean sea level). The predicted whole methodology has been validated on a 1.175 kWc mono-Si PV power grid. Six prediction methods (ANN, clear sky model, combination..) allow to predict the best daily DC PV power production at horizon d + 1. The cumulated DC PV energy on a 6-months period shows a great agreement between simulated and measured data (R{sup 2} > 0.99 and nRMSE < 2%). (author)

  16. Usability of NASA Satellite Imagery-Based Daily Solar Radiation for Crop Yield Simulation and Management Decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Cassman, K. G.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Hoell, J. M.

    2007-12-01

    We tested the usability of NASA satellite imagery-based daily solar radiation for farm-specific crop yield simulation and management decisions using the Hybrid-Maize model (www.hybridmaize.unl.edu). Solar radiation is one of the key inputs for crop yield simulation. Farm-specific crop management decisions using simulation models require long-term (i.e., 20 years or longer) daily local weather data including solar radiation for assessing crop yield potential and its variation, optimizing crop planting date, and predicting crop yield in a real time mode. Weather stations that record daily solar radiation have sparse coverage and many of them have record shorter than 15 years. Based on satellite imagery and other remote sensed information, NASA has provided estimates of daily climatic data including solar radiation at a resolution of 1 degree grid over the earth surface from 1983 to 2005. NASA is currently continuing to update the database and has plans to provide near real-time data in the future. This database, which is free to the public at http://power.larc.nasa.gov, is a potential surrogate for ground- measured climatic data for farm-specific crop yield simulation and management decisions. In this report, we quantified (1) the similarities between NASA daily solar radiation and ground-measured data atr 20 US sites and four international sites, and (2) the accuracy and precision of simulated corn yield potential and its variability using NASA solar radiation coupled with other weather data from ground measurements. The 20 US sites are in the western Corn Belt, including Iowa, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Kansas. The four international sites are Los Banos in the Philippines, Beijing in China, Cali in Columbia, and Ibatan in Nigeria. Those sites were selected because of their high quality weather record and long duration (more than 20 years on average). We found that NASA solar radiation was highly significantly correlated (mean r2 =0.88**) with the ground measurements at the 20 US sites, while the correlation was poor (mean r2=0.55**, though significant) at the four international sites. At the 20 US sites, the mean root mean square error (RMSE) between NASA solar radiation and the ground data was 2.7 MJ/m2/d, or 19% of the mean daily ground data. At the four international sites, the mean RMSE was 4.0 MJ/m2/d, or 25% of the mean daily ground value. Large differences between NASA solar radiation and the ground data were likely associated with tropical environment or significant variation in elevation within a short distance. When using NASA solar radiation coupled with other weather data from ground measurements, the simulated corn yields were highly significantly correlated (mean r2=0.85**) with those using complete ground weather data at the 20 US sites, while the correlation (mean r2=0.48**) was poor at the four international sites. The mean RMSE between the simulated corn yields of the two batches was 0.50 Mg/ha, or 3% of the mean absolute value using the ground data. At the four international sites, the RMSE of the simulated yields was 1.5 Mg/ha, or 13% of the mean absolute value using the ground data. We conclude that the NASA satellite imagery-based daily solar radiation is a reasonably reliable surrogate for the ground observations for farm-specific crop yield simulation and management decisions, especially at locations where ground-measured solar radiation is unavailable.

  17. Solar radiation incident on Mars and the outer planets - Latitudinal, seasonal, and atmospheric effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.; Kraemer, D. R.; Kuhn, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Calculations of the daily solar radiation incident at the tops of the atmospheres of Mars and the outer planets and its variability with latitude and season are presented in a series of figures and tables. The changes in the latitudinal and seasonal distributions of daily surface insolation during the great Martian dust storm of 1971 (when Martian atmospheric optical depth increased from about tau = 0.1 to 2.0) were significant and dramatically illustrate the effect of atmospheric aerosols on surface insolation; i.e., the mean annual daily insolation at the poles decreased by more than a factor of 100 as tau increased from 0.1 to 2.0.

  18. A Comparison of Satellite Based, Modeled Derived Daily Solar Radiation Data with Observed Data for the Continental US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Jeffrey W.; Hoogenboom, Gerrit; Wilkens, Paul W.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Hoell, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Many applications of simulation models and related decision support tools for agriculture and natural resource management require daily meteorological data as inputs. Availability and quality of such data, however, often constrain research and decision support activities that require use of these tools. Daily solar radiation (SRAD) data are especially problematic because the instruments require electronic integrators, accurate sensors are expensive, and calibration standards are seldom available. The Prediction Of Worldwide Energy Resources (NASA/POWER; power.larc.nasa.gov) project at the NASA Langley Research Center estimates daily solar radiation based on data that are derived from satellite observations of outgoing visible radiances and atmospheric parameters based upon satellite observations and assimilation models. The solar data are available for a global 1 degree x 1 degree coordinate grid. SRAD can also be estimated based on attenuation of extraterrestrial radiation (Q0) using daily temperature and rainfall data to estimate the optical thickness of the atmosphere. This study compares daily solar radiation data from NASA/POWER (SRADNP) with instrument readings from 295 stations (SRADOB), as well as with values that were estimated with the WGENR solar generator. WGENR was used both with daily temperature and precipitation records from the stations reporting solar data and records from the NOAA Cooperative Observer Program (COOP), thus providing two additional sources of solar data, SRADWG and SRADCO. Values of SRADNP for different grid cells consistently showed higher correlations (typically 0.85 to 0.95) with SRADOB data than did SRADWG or SRADCO for sites within the corresponding cells. Mean values of SRADOB, SRADWG and SRADNP for sites within a grid cell usually were within 1 MJm-2d-1 of each other, but NASA/POWER values averaged 1.1 MJm-2d-1 lower than SRADOB. The magnitude of this bias was greater at lower latitudes and during summer months and may be at least partially explained by assumptions in ambient aerosol properties. Overall, the NASA/POWER solar radiation data are a promising resource for regional modeling studies where realistic accounting of historic variation is required.

  19. Solar Cooking

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    ... (kWh/m2/day) Amount of electromagnetic energy (solar radiation) incident on the surface of the earth. Also referred to as total or global solar radiation. Midday insolation (kWh/m2/day) Average ...

  20. Solar radiation for Mars power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed information about the solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. A procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally and daily variation of the global, direct (or beam), and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated, are presented. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the Viking Lander cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

  1. Viscoelastic shoe insoles: their use in aerobic dancing.

    PubMed

    Clark, J E; Scott, S G; Mingle, M

    1989-01-01

    To determine whether use of viscoelastic insoles would significantly decrease the frequency of musculoskeletal overuse injury in aerobic dancers, 139 high-level aerobic dancers were divided randomly into two groups. The control group received placebo foam insoles and test subjects were fitted with viscoelastic insoles. Subjects used these insoles during dance class for 15 weeks. Injury rates were low in both groups and no statistical difference was found. Pain syndromes were fewer in the group using viscoelastic insoles, but the difference was not statistically significant. About a third of dancers fitted with viscoelastic insoles and a tenth of placebo insert wearers found that the insoles made their shoes too tight to be comfortable. No conclusion can be drawn on whether shock-absorbing insoles decrease injuries from aerobic dancing, but use of viscoelastic insoles may improve comfort and provide pain relief for some high-level aerobic dancers if proper fit is achieved. PMID:2916917

  2. Prediction of long-term performance of active solar heating systems using daily hours of bright sunshine

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, C.T.; Galanis, N.

    1984-08-01

    An algorithm based on daily hours of bright sunshine has been developed and used to evaluate the performance of active solar heating systems for different values of system parameters (collector area and efficiency curves; orientation and inclination; storage capacity; heating load). Comparisons of monthly and annual results with those obtained by other methods using measured values of global horizontal radiation show good results. The results were used to construct charts (for southern Quebec in this case) which do not require values of solar radiation for the prediction of the system's performance.

  3. Clinical Cosmobiology - Sudden Cardiac Death and Daily / Monthly Geomagnetic, Cosmic Ray and Solar Activity - the Baku Study (2003-2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupel, E.; Babayev, E. S.; Mustafa, F. R.; Abramson, E.; Israelevich, P.; Sulkes, J.

    2006-12-01

    Part of results of collaborative studies for revealing an influence of the periodical changes of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray activities on the sudden cardiac death (SCD) mortality is described in this paper. The data covering daily and monthly temporal distribution of SCD (788 patients in 36 months in 2003-2005), taken from all of emergency and first medical aid stations of grand Baku area, were analyzed and compared with certain cosmophysical parameters. It was obtained that SCD is higher on the highest and lowest daily levels of geomagnetic activity. Days with SCD are accompanied by higher cosmic ray (neutron) activity. The monthly number of SCD was inversely related to solar and geomagnetic activities while was positively linked with cosmic ray activity level. It was concluded that cosmic ray activity could be considered as one of regulating external/environmental factors in human homeostasis.

  4. Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, Atsuki; Koyama, Yukinobu; Nose, Masahito; Hori, Tomoaki; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yatagai, Akiyo

    2014-12-01

    Characteristics of long-term variation in the amplitude of solar quiet (Sq) geomagnetic field daily variation have been investigated using 1-h geomagnetic field data obtained from 69 geomagnetic observation stations within the period of 1947 to 2013. The Sq amplitude observed at these geomagnetic stations showed a clear dependence on the 10- to 12-year solar activity cycle and tended to be enhanced during each solar maximum phase. The Sq amplitude was the smallest around the minimum of solar cycle 23/24 in 2008 to 2009. The relationship between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude was approximately linear but about 53% of geomagnetic stations showed a weak nonlinear relation to the solar F10.7 index. In order to remove the effect of solar activity seen in the long-term variation of the Sq amplitude, we calculated a linear or second-order fitting curve between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude during 1947 to 2013 and examined the residual Sq amplitude, which is defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. As a result, the majority of trends in the residual Sq amplitude that passed through a trend test showed negative values over a wide region. This tendency was relatively strong in Europe, India, the eastern part of Canada, and New Zealand. The relationship between the magnetic field intensity at 100-km altitude and residual Sq amplitude showed an anti-correlation for about 71% of the geomagnetic stations. Furthermore, the residual Sq amplitude at the equatorial station (Addis Ababa) was anti-correlated with the absolute value of the magnetic field inclination. This implies movement of the equatorial electrojet due to the secular variation of the ambient magnetic field.

  5. A general model for estimation of daily global solar radiation using air temperatures and site geographic parameters in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mao-Fen; Fan, Li; Liu, Hong-Bin; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of daily global solar radiation (Rs) from routinely measured temperature data has been widely developed and used in many different areas of the world. However, many of them are site specific. It is assumed that a general model for estimating daily Rs using temperature variables and geographical parameters could be achieved within a climatic region. This paper made an attempt to develop a general model to estimate daily Rs using routinely measured temperature data (maximum (Tmax, C) and minimum (Tmin, C) temperatures) and site geographical parameters (latitude (La, N), longitude (Ld, E) and altitude (Alt, m)) for Guizhou and Sichuan basin of southwest China, which was classified into the hot summer and cold winter climate zone. Comparison analysis was carried out through statistics indicators such as root mean squared error of percentage (RMSE%), modeling efficiency (ME), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and mean bias error (MBE). Site-dependent daily Rs estimating models were calibrated and validated using long-term observed weather data. A general formula was then obtained from site geographical parameters and the better fit site-dependent models with mean RMSE% of 38.68%, mean MBE of 0.381 MJ m-2 d-1, mean CRM of 0.04 and mean ME value of 0.713.

  6. Earth Orbit v2.1: a 3-D visualization and analysis model of Earth's orbit, Milankovitch cycles and insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinov, T. S.; Gilb, R.

    2014-06-01

    Milankovitch theory postulates that periodic variability of Earth's orbital elements is a major climate forcing mechanism, causing, for example, the contemporary glacial-interglacial cycles. There are three Milankovitch orbital parameters: orbital eccentricity, precession and obliquity. The interaction of the amplitudes, periods and phases of these parameters controls the spatio-temporal patterns of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the timing and duration of the seasons. This complexity makes Earth-Sun geometry and Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. Here, we present "Earth Orbit v2.1": an astronomically precise and accurate model that offers 3-D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcing. The model is developed in MATLAB® as a user-friendly graphical user interface. Users are presented with a choice between the Berger (1978a) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. A "demo" mode is also available, which allows the Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other, so that users can isolate the effects of each parameter on orbital geometry, the seasons, and insolation. A 3-D orbital configuration plot, as well as various surface and line plots of insolation and insolation anomalies on various time and space scales are produced. Insolation computations use the model's own orbital geometry with no additional a priori input other than the Milankovitch parameter solutions. Insolation output and the underlying solar declination computation are successfully validated against the results of Laskar et al. (2004) and Meeus (1998), respectively. The model outputs some ancillary parameters as well, e.g., Earth's radius-vector length, solar declination and day length for the chosen date and latitude. Time-series plots of the Milankovitch parameters and several relevant paleoclimatological data sets can be produced. Both research and pedagogical applications are envisioned for the model.

  7. Earth Orbit v2.1: a 3-D visualization and analysis model of Earth's orbit, Milankovitch cycles and insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinov, T. S.; Gilb, R.

    2013-11-01

    Milankovitch theory postulates that periodic variability of Earth's orbital elements is a major climate forcing mechanism, causing, for example, the contemporary glacial-interglacial cycles. There are three Milankovitch orbital parameters: orbital eccentricity, precession and obliquity. The interaction of the amplitudes, periods and phases of these parameters controls the spatio-temporal patterns of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the timing of the seasons with respect to perihelion. This complexity makes Earth-Sun geometry and Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. Here, we present "Earth Orbit v2.1": an astronomically precise and accurate model that offers 3-D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcing. The model is developed in MATLAB as a user-friendly graphical user interface. Users are presented with a choice between the Berger (1978a) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. A "demo" mode is also available, which allows the Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other, so that users can isolate the effects of each parameter on orbital geometry, the seasons, and insolation. A 3-D orbital configuration plot, as well as various surface and line plots of insolation and insolation anomalies on various time and space scales are produced. Insolation computations use the model's own orbital geometry with no additional a priori input other than the Milankovitch parameter solutions. Insolation output and the underlying solar declination computation are successfully validated against the results of Laskar et al. (2004) and Meeus (1998), respectively. The model outputs some ancillary parameters as well, e.g. Earth's radius-vector length, solar declination and day length for the chosen date and latitude. Time-series plots of the Milankovitch parameters and EPICA ice core CO2 and temperature data can be produced. Both research and pedagogical applications are envisioned for the model.

  8. RESEARCH PAPER: Forecast daily indices of solar activity, F10.7, using support vector regression method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cong; Liu, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jing-Song

    2009-06-01

    The 10.7 cm solar radio flux (F10.7), the value of the solar radio emission flux density at a wavelength of 10.7 cm, is a useful index of solar activity as a proxy for solar extreme ultraviolet radiation. It is meaningful and important to predict F10.7 values accurately for both long-term (months-years) and short-term (days) forecasting, which are often used as inputs in space weather models. This study applies a novel neural network technique, support vector regression (SVR), to forecasting daily values of F10.7. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of SVR in short-term F10.7 forecasting. The approach, based on SVR, reduces the dimension of feature space in the training process by using a kernel-based learning algorithm. Thus, the complexity of the calculation becomes lower and a small amount of training data will be sufficient. The time series of F10.7 from 2002 to 2006 are employed as the data sets. The performance of the approach is estimated by calculating the norm mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. It is shown that our approach can perform well by using fewer training data points than the traditional neural network.

  9. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in relation to four levels of daily geomagnetic and extreme yearly solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupel, E.; Goldenfeld, M.; Shimshoni, M.; Siegel, R.

    1993-03-01

    The link between geomagnetic field activity (GMA), solar activity and intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy individuals was investigated. The IOP of 485 patients (970 eyes) was recorded over three nonconsecutive years (1979, 1986, 1989) which were characterized by maximal solar activity (1979, 1989) or minimal solar activity (1986). The measurements were also correlated with four categories of GMA activity: quiet (level I0), unsettled (II0), active (III0), and stormy (IV0). Participants were also differentiated by age and sex. We found that IOP was lowest on days of level IV0 (stormy) GMA. The drop in IOP concomitant with a decrease in GMA level was more significant during periods of low solar activity and in persons over 65 years of age. There was a trend towards higher IOP values on days of levels II0 and IV0 GMA in years of high solar activity. Differences between the sexes and among individuals younger than 65 years were not significant. Our results show an interesting aspect of environmental influence on the healthy population.

  10. Estimation of daily global solar radiation as a function of routine meteorological data in Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, Francisco Javier; Yebra, Mara Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Solar radiation is the main responsible of many processes of the biophysical environment. Temperature changes, snow melt dynamics, carbon sequestration, evaporation from soils, plants, and open water bodies are explained by the amount of radiation received in a surface. Lack of direct observations and insufficient record length limit the ability to use global solar radiation information for resource use management and planning. Based on the general equation of Bristow and Campbell, we propose a modification that allows us to better represent atmospheric transmissivity as a function of routine meteorological variables and improve estimates of global solar radiation in Mediterranean and semi arid areas. The improved Bristow-Campbell model (IBC) is easy to use in any location where measurements of temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity are available, and present a simple solution that can be used as proxy for relative humidity in case that variable is not been measured.

  11. Inverse insolation dependence of Venus' cloud-level convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Takeshi; Higuchi, Takehito; Maejima, Yasumitsu; Takagi, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Norihiko; Ikeda, Kohei; Ando, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    It is generally accepted that convection in planetary atmospheres is enhanced in low latitudes and in the daytime where incoming solar radiation is intense. Here we demonstrate, using a local convection model, that this tendency is reversed for Venus' cloud-level convection, which is driven by heating of the cloud base by upwelling infrared radiation. The dense lower atmosphere of Venus serves as a heat reservoir, whose temperature is horizontally well homogenized by large-scale dynamics, and thus upwelling infrared flux heats the cloud base almost equally over the entire planet. Since solar radiation preferentially heats the upper part of the cloud and has a stabilizing influence on the atmosphere, convection is relatively suppressed in low latitudes and in the daytime. The inverse insolation dependence seen in the numerical model explains observations of the latitudinal dependence of the convective layer depth and the gravity wave activity. The mechanism suggested in this study should be taken into account in climate modeling of Venus and cloudy exoplanets. How the combination of the opposite effects of the infrared heating and the solar heating determines the global distribution of the convective activity is an issue of universal importance. A long-lifetime Venus balloon floating at cloud heights would be useful for understanding these dynamical processes and the associated material transport.

  12. A 3D Visualization and Analysis Model of the Earth Orbit, Milankovitch Cycles and Insolation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinov, Tihomir; Gilb, Roy

    2013-04-01

    Milankovitch theory postulates that periodic variability of Earth's orbital elements is a major climate forcing mechanism. Although controversies remain, ample geologic evidence supports the major role of the Milankovitch cycles in climate, e.g. glacial-interglacial cycles. There are three Milankovitch orbital parameters: orbital eccentricity (main periodicities of ~100,000 and ~400,000 years), precession (quantified as the longitude of perihelion, main periodicities 19,000-24,000 years) and obliquity of the ecliptic (Earth's axial tilt, main periodicity 41,000 years). The combination of these parameters controls the spatio-temporal patterns of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the timing of the seasons with respect to perihelion, as well as season duration. The complex interplay of the Milankovitch orbital parameters on various time scales makes assessment and visualization of Earth's orbit and insolation variability challenging. It is difficult to appreciate the pivotal importance of Kepler's laws of planetary motion in controlling the effects of Milankovitch cycles on insolation patterns. These factors also make Earth-Sun geometry and Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. Here, an astronomically precise and accurate Earth orbit visualization model is presented. The model offers 3D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcings. Both research and educational uses are envisioned for the model, which is developed in Matlab as a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). We present the user with a choice between the Berger et al. (1978) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. A "demo" mode is also available, which allows the three Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other (and over much larger ranges than the naturally occurring ones), so the user can isolate the effects of each parameter on orbital geometry, the seasons, and insolation. Users select a calendar date and the Earth is placed in its orbit using Kepler's laws; the calendar can be started on either vernal equinox (March 20) or perihelion (Jan. 3). Global insolation is computed as a function of latitude and day of year, using the chosen Milankovitch parameters. 3D surface plots of insolation and insolation anomalies (with respect to J2000) are then produced. Insolation computations use the model's own orbital geometry with no additional a-priori input other than the Milankovitch parameter solutions. Insolation computations are successfully validated against Laskar et al. (2004) values. The model outputs other relevant parameters as well, e.g. Earth's radius-vector length, solar declination and day length for the chosen date and latitude. Time-series plots of the Milankovitch parameters and EPICA ice core CO2 and temperature data can be produced. Envisioned future developments include computational efficiency improvements, more options for insolation plots on user-chosen spatio-temporal scales, and overlaying additional paleoclimatological proxy data.

  13. Bulk Insolation Models as Predictors for Locations for High Lunar Hydrogen Concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I.G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Starr, R. D.; Evans, L. G.; Sanin, A.; Livengood, T.; Sagdeev, R.; Milikh, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we consider the bulk effects of surface illumination on topography (insolation) and the possible thermodynamic effects on the Moon's hydrogen budget. Insolation is important as one of the dominant loss processes governing distributions of hydrogen volatiles on the Earth, Mars and most recently Mercury. We evaluated three types of high latitude > 65 deg., illumination models that were derived from the Lunar Observing Laser Altimetry (LOLA) digital elevation models (DEM)'s. These models reflect varying accounts of solar flux interactions with the Moon's near-surface. We correlate these models with orbital collimated epithermal neutron measurements made by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND). LEND's measurements derive the Moon's spatial distributions of hydrogen concentration. To perform this analysis we transformed the topographic model into an insolation model described by two variables as each pixels 1) slope and 2) slope angular orientation with respect to the pole. We then decomposed the illumination models and epithermal maps as a function of the insolation model and correlate the datasets.

  14. Effect of Estimated Daily Global Solar Radiation Data on the Results of Crop Growth Models

    PubMed Central

    Trnka, Miroslav; Eitzinger, Josef; Kapler, Pavel; Dubrovský, Martin; Semerádová, Daniela; Žalud, Zden ěk; Formayer, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    The results of previous studies have suggested that estimated daily global radiation (RG) values contain an error that could compromise the precision of subsequent crop model applications. The following study presents a detailed site and spatial analysis of the RG error propagation in CERES and WOFOST crop growth models in Central European climate conditions. The research was conducted i) at the eight individual sites in Austria and the Czech Republic where measured daily RG values were available as a reference, with seven methods for RG estimation being tested, and ii) for the agricultural areas of the Czech Republic using daily data from 52 weather stations, with five RG estimation methods. In the latter case the RG values estimated from the hours of sunshine using the Ångström-Prescott formula were used as the standard method because of the lack of measured RG data. At the site level we found that even the use of methods based on hours of sunshine, which showed the lowest bias in RG estimates, led to a significant distortion of the key crop model outputs. When the Ångström-Prescott method was used to estimate RG, for example, deviations greater than ±10 per cent in winter wheat and spring barley yields were noted in 5 to 6 per cent of cases. The precision of the yield estimates and other crop model outputs was lower when RG estimates based on the diurnal temperature range and cloud cover were used (mean bias error 2.0 to 4.1 per cent). The methods for estimating RG from the diurnal temperature range produced a wheat yield bias of more than 25 per cent in 12 to 16 per cent of the seasons. Such uncertainty in the crop model outputs makes the reliability of any seasonal yield forecasts or climate change impact assessments questionable if they are based on this type of data. The spatial assessment of the RG data uncertainty propagation over the winter wheat yields also revealed significant differences within the study area. We found that RG estimates based on diurnal temperature range or its combination with daily total precipitation produced a bias of to 30 per cent in the mean winter wheat grain yields in some regions compared with simulations in which RG values had been estimated using the Ångström-Prescott formula. In contrast to the results at the individual sites, the methods based on the diurnal temperature range in combination with daily precipitation totals showed significantly poorer performance than the methods based on the diurnal temperature range only. This was due to the marked increase in the bias in RG estimates with altitude, longitude or latitude of given region. These findings in our view should act as an incentive for further research to develop more precise and generally applicable methods for estimating daily RG based more on the underlying physical principles and/or the remote sensing approach.

  15. Quick use of WEFAX images from METEOSAT to determine daily solar radiation in France

    SciTech Connect

    Delorme, C.; Gallo, A.; Olivieri, J. )

    1992-09-01

    The authors present some preliminary results about 74 days: March 15th to June 30th, 1990. Four WEFAX images per day from the visible channel of METEOSAT have been processed. The main elements of the GISTEL methodology are briefly stated again. The estimated daily global irradiation on the ground is compared with figures measured at 10 stations in the south of France. In order to analyze the main causes of inaccuracy, this comparison is made on several modes: estimated and measured values, estimated and measured weather indexes for normalization, station per station to detect possible geographic errors.

  16. Ultraviolet insolation drives seasonal and diurnal space weather variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Patrick T.; Sotirelis, Thomas; Skura, Joseph P.; Meng, Ching-I.; Lyatsky, Wladislav

    2002-10-01

    We present several findings that improve the understanding of the seasonal and diurnal variation in auroral and magnetospheric activity. The total ionospheric conductivity in the nightside auroral oval from UV insolation (?P) is calculated, and its seasonal and diurnal variation is shown to correlate very highly with that of the Am and AL indices of geomagnetic activity (r = 0.89 and r = 0.75, respectively). Such excellent correlations with Am have been previously obtained by other researchers using instead the acute angle between the Earth's dipole axis and the Earth-Sun line, ?. However, the ionospheric conductivity formulation provides a more physical model to explain the equinoctial (McIntosh) effect. Namely, the level of geomagnetic activity is well-ordered by whether the nightside auroral oval is sunlit in one hemisphere or neither. We improve calculations of the expected pattern of seasonal and diurnal variations in the solar wind input. The elliptical nature of the Earth's orbit results in observed interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) strengths about 7% larger in January than June. When the Sun's spin axis tilt to the ecliptic plane is considered, the predicted IMF southward component (Bs) maximizes in February, as is observed. We also calculate the seasonal and diurnal variation of a more general solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function, EKL. EKL proves to have little (0.5%) diurnal variation and has a seasonal variation of about 14%. For the first time, the seasonal and diurnal variation in the ?PC, the polar cap flux (from Polar UVI observations, cross-calibrated to a DMSP-based standard) and in magnetotail stretching (the b2i index) are presented. Magnetotail stretching proves to correlate better (r = -0.57) with EKL than with ?P. ?PC correlates better with ?P, but the correlation (r = -0.49) is not nearly as strong as that for the indices of geomagnetic activity, Am and AL. Our survey of the seasonal and diurnal variation of the magnetosphere thus shows that some aspects (geomagnetic indices) correlate best with UV insolation, while others (magnetotail stretching) correlate best with solar wind input.

  17. Comment on "Strong signature of the active Sun in 100 years of terrestrial insolation data" by W. Weber.

    PubMed

    Feulner, Georg

    2011-11-01

    An analysis of ground-based observations of solar irradiance was recently published in this journal, reporting an apparent increase of solar irradiance on the ground of the order of 1% between solar minima and maxima [1]. Since the corresponding variations in total solar irradiance on top of the atmosphere are accurately determined from satellite observations to be of the order of 0.1% only [2], the one order of magnitude stronger effect in the terrestrial insolation data was interpreted as evidence for cosmic-ray induced aerosol formation in the atmosphere. In my opinion, however, this result does not reflect reality. Using the energy budget of Earth's surface, I show that changes of ground-based insolation with the solar cycle of the order of 1% between solar minima and maxima would result in large surface air temperature variations which are inconsistent with the instrumental record. It would appear that the strong variations of terrestrial irradiance found by [1] are due to the uncorrected effects of volcanic or local aerosols and seasonal variations. Taking these effects into account, I find a variation of terrestrial insolation with solar activity which is of the same order as the one measured from space, bringing the surface energy budget into agreement with the solar signal detected in temperature data. PMID:22279242

  18. Using solar wind data to predict daily GPS scintillation occurrence in the African and Asian low-latitude regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. A.; Retterer, J. M.; Yizengaw, E.; Wiens, K.; Wing, S.; Groves, K.; Caton, R.; Bridgwood, C.; Francis, M.; Terkildsen, M.; Norman, R.; Zhang, K.

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of predicting the daily occurrence of Global Positioning System scintillation events using forecasts of common geophysical indices to drive a physics-based model of the system is demonstrated over a 5 month period for the African and Asian longitude sectors. The output from the Wing Kp model, which uses solar wind data to predict the geomagnetic activity level up to 4 h in advance, was used to drive the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere/ionosphere model, from which the strength of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate was calculated to determine the likelihood of scintillation. It is found that the physics-based model demonstrates superior skill to an empirical scintillation model (Wideband Model (WBMOD)) in forecasting scintillation suppression events during seasons when scintillation is common. However, neither of the models driven in this way possess the ability to forecast isolated scintillation events during transitional and off-peak seasons.

  19. Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leconte, Jrmy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alize

    2013-12-01

    The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can `run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375 W m-2, which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars.

  20. Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets.

    PubMed

    Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

    2013-12-12

    The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can 'run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375 W m(-2), which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars. PMID:24336285

  1. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  2. Effect of a textured insole on balance and gait symmetry.

    PubMed

    Aruin, Alexander S; Kanekar, Neeta

    2013-11-01

    Asymmetry of standing balance and gait is common in individuals with neurological disorders, and achieving symmetrical stance and gait is an important goal of rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a novel discomfort-induced approach (that is based on using a single textured insole) on the alteration in the symmetry of gait and balance. Eleven healthy subjects (6 females and 5 males, mean age of 28.0 ± 4.1 years) were tested using the Computerized Dynamic Posturography and GaitRite systems when standing or walking while wearing standard footwear with the textured insole positioned either in the left or in the right shoe, and without the insole. Significant immediate effect of the textured insole was seen in the outcome measures of static (weight bearing) and dynamic (weight symmetry index, strength symmetry) balance tests (p < 0.05) as well as in gait symmetry (single support and swing phases) (p < 0.05). The results of the study indicate that a textured insole can significantly modify the symmetry of stance and gait in healthy individuals. Pilot data from individuals with stroke also showed a reduction in the asymmetry of gait when walking with the single textured insole in the shoe on the unaffected side. This outcome provides support for future studies on the efficacy of the textured insole in minimizing asymmetry of gait and posture in individuals in need. PMID:23979014

  3. Solar radiation on Mars: Update 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. The authors present a procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally and daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the Viking Lander cameras and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation. This work is an update to NASA-TM-102299 and includes a refinement of the solar radiation model.

  4. Determination of the Solar Energy Microclimate of the United States Using Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderharr, T. H.; Ellis, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The determination of total solar energy reaching the ground over the United States using measurements from meteorological satellites as the basic data set is examined. The methods of satellite data processing are described. Uncertainty analysis and comparison of results with well calibrated surface pyranometers are used to estimate the probable error in the satellite-based determination of ground insolation. It is 10 to 15 percent for daily information, and about 5 percent for monthly values. However, the natural space and time variability of insolation is much greater than the uncertainty in the method. The most important aspect of the satellite-based technique is the ability to determine the solar energy reaching the ground over small areas where no other measurements are available. Thus, it complements the widely spaced solar radiation measurement network of ground stations.

  5. A Shoe Insole Delivering Subsensory Vibratory Noise Improves Balance and Gait in Healthy Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    Lipsitz, Lewis; Lough, Matthew; Niemi, James; Travison, Thomas; Howlett, Harold; Manor, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to test whether subsensory vibratory noise applied to the sole of the foot using a novel piezo-electric vibratory insole, can significantly improve sensation, enhance balance, and reduce gait variability in elderly people. We also aimed to determine the optimal level of vibratory noise, and whether the therapeutic effect would endure and the user’s sensory threshold would remain constant during the course of a day. Design A randomized single-blind crossover study of three subsensory noise stimulation levels on 3 separate days. Setting Balance and gait laboratory Participants 12 healthy community-dwelling elderly volunteers aged 65 – 90 years who could feel the maximum insole vibration. Intervention A urethane foam insole with the piezo-electric actuators delivering subsensory vibratory noise stimulation to the soles of the feet. Main Outcome Measures Balance, gait, and timed up-and-go tests. Results The vibratory insoles significantly improved performance on the timed up-and-go test, reduced the area of postural sway, and reduced the temporal variability of walking at both 70% and 85% of the sensory threshold and throughout the course of a day. Vibratory sensation thresholds remained relatively stable within and across study days. Conclusions This study provides proof of concept that the application of the principle of stochastic resonance to the foot sole sensory system using a new low voltage piezoelectric technology can improve measures of balance and gait that are associated with falls. Effective vibratory noise amplitudes range from 70% to 85% of the sensory thresholds and can be set once daily. PMID:25450133

  6. Estimation of the monthly average daily solar radiation using geographic information system and advanced case-based reasoning.

    PubMed

    Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Lee, Minhyun; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-05-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) system is considered an unlimited source of clean energy, whose amount of electricity generation changes according to the monthly average daily solar radiation (MADSR). It is revealed that the MADSR distribution in South Korea has very diverse patterns due to the country's climatic and geographical characteristics. This study aimed to develop a MADSR estimation model for the location without the measured MADSR data, using an advanced case based reasoning (CBR) model, which is a hybrid methodology combining CBR with artificial neural network, multiregression analysis, and genetic algorithm. The average prediction accuracy of the advanced CBR model was very high at 95.69%, and the standard deviation of the prediction accuracy was 3.67%, showing a significant improvement in prediction accuracy and consistency. A case study was conducted to verify the proposed model. The proposed model could be useful for owner or construction manager in charge of determining whether or not to introduce the PV system and where to install it. Also, it would benefit contractors in a competitive bidding process to accurately estimate the electricity generation of the PV system in advance and to conduct an economic and environmental feasibility study from the life cycle perspective. PMID:23548030

  7. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Solar Quiet Daily Sq Variation and Equatorial Electrojet Over Africa: Results From International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiu, A.; Yumoto, K.; Bello, O.

    2010-12-01

    Space Environment Research Centre of Kyushu University, Japan, installed 13 units of Magnetic Data Acquisition Systems MAGDAS over Africa during the International Heliophysical Year IHY. Magnetic records from 10 stations along the African 96o Magnetic Meridian (Geographical 30o - 40o East) were examined for Solar quiet daily Sq variation in the three geomagnetic field components H, D and Z. Spatial variations of Sq in the geomagnetic components were examined. Signatures of equatorial electrojet and worldwide Sq were identified and studied in detail. H field experienced more variation within the equatorial electrojet zone. Diurnal and seasonal variations of the geomagnetic variations in the three components were discussed. Levels of inter-relationships between the Sq and its variability in the three components were statistically derived and interpreted in line with the mechanisms responsible for the variations of the geomagnetic field. Data from 2 magnetic observatories within equatorial electrojet EEJ strip and 2 stations outside the EEJ strip were employed to evaluate and study the signatures of the Equatorial electrojet over the African sector. The transient variations of the EEJ at two almost parallel axes using Lagos-Ilorin and Nairobi-Addis pairs were examined. The EEJ appear stronger in East than West Africa. The magnitudes and patterns of variation of EEJ strength along the two axes were examined for any simultaneity or otherwise of responses to ionospheric processes. The flow gradient of EEJ along the African sector was estimated and its diurnal variation studied.

  8. Daily global solar radiation prediction from air temperatures using kernel extreme learning machine: A case study for Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Mohammadi, Kasra; Chen, Hui-Ling; Narayana Samy, Ganthan; Petković, Dalibor; Ma, Chao

    2015-11-01

    Lately, the kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) has gained considerable importance in the scientific area due to its great efficiency, easy implementation and fast training speed. In this paper, for the first time the potential of KELM to predict the daily horizontal global solar radiation from the maximum and minimum air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) is appraised. The effectiveness of the proposed KELM method is evaluated against the grid search based support vector regression (SVR), as a robust methodology. Three KELM and SVR models are developed using different input attributes including: (1) Tmin and Tmax, (2) Tmin and Tmax-Tmin, and (3) Tmax and Tmax-Tmin. The achieved results reveal that the best predictions precision is achieved by models (3). The achieved results demonstrate that KELM offers favorable predictions and outperforms the SVR. For the KELM (3) model, the obtained statistical parameters of mean absolute bias error, root mean square error, relative root mean square error and correlation coefficient are 1.3445 MJ/m2, 2.0164 MJ/m2, 11.2464% and 0.9057%, respectively for the testing data. As further examination, a month-by-month evaluation is conducted and found that in six months from May to October the KELM (3) model provides further accuracy than overall accuracy. Based upon the relative root mean square error, the KELM (3) model shows excellent capability in the period of April to October while in the remaining months represents good performance.

  9. Orographic cloud over the eastern slopes of Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii, related to insolation and wind

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.J.

    1980-07-01

    During the period 1 to 11 June 1978, solar radiation and other meteorological data were gathered at eight stations arranged in a nearly linear transection extending from the coast at Hilo, Hawaii to Mauna Loa Observatory, 60 km inland and 3400 m higher. Solar radiation distributions followed climatological rainfall patterns; the driest areas were sunniest. At the wettest sites, underneath the orographic cloud, measured global solar radiation was only 50% of clear-sky potential, and the diffuse component probably accounted for more than 50% of the global radiation. The orographic cloud developed during the day in upslope winds, and sharply reduced afternoon solar radiation at all sites. Total cloudiness, and hence insolation, varied greatly from day to day due to the passage of trade wind cloud masses and jet stream cirrus.

  10. Assessment of the global monthly mean surface insolation estimated from satellite measurements using global energy balance archive data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhanqing; Whitlock, Charles H.; Charlock, Thomas P.

    1995-01-01

    Global sets of surface radiation budget (SRB) have been obtained from satellite programs. These satellite-based estimates need validation with ground-truth observations. This study validates the estimates of monthly mean surface insolation contained in two satellite-based SRB datasets with the surface measurements made at worldwide radiation stations from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA). One dataset was developed from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) using the algorithm of Li et al. (ERBE/SRB), and the other from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) using the algorithm of Pinker and Laszlo and that of Staylor (GEWEX/SRB). Since the ERBE/SRB data contain the surface net solar radiation only, the values of surface insolation were derived by making use of the surface albedo data contained GEWEX/SRB product. The resulting surface insolation has a bias error near zero and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) between 8 and 28 W/sq m. The RMSE is mainly associated with poor representation of surface observations within a grid cell. When the number of surface observations are sufficient, the random error is estimated to be about 5 W/sq m with present satellite-based estimates. In addition to demonstrating the strength of the retrieving method, the small random error demonstrates how well the ERBE derives from the monthly mean fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). A larger scatter is found for the comparison of transmissivity than for that of insolation. Month to month comparison of insolation reveals a weak seasonal trend in bias error with an amplitude of about 3 W/sq m. As for the insolation data from the GEWEX/SRB, larger bias errors of 5-10 W/sq m are evident with stronger seasonal trends and almost identical RMSEs.

  11. Traffic and nucleation events as main sources of ultrafine particles in high-insolation developed world cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brines, M.; Dall'Osto, M.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.; Gómez-Moreno, F.; Núñez, L.; Artíñano, B.; Costabile, F.; Gobbi, G. P.; Salimi, F.; Morawska, L.; Sioutas, C.; Querol, X.

    2015-05-01

    Road traffic emissions are often considered the main source of ultrafine particles (UFP, diameter smaller than 100 nm) in urban environments. However, recent studies worldwide have shown that - in high-insolation urban regions at least - new particle formation events can also contribute to UFP. In order to quantify such events we systematically studied three cities located in predominantly sunny environments: Barcelona (Spain), Madrid (Spain) and Brisbane (Australia). Three long-term data sets (1-2 years) of fine and ultrafine particle number size distributions (measured by SMPS, Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) were analysed. Compared to total particle number concentrations, aerosol size distributions offer far more information on the type, origin and atmospheric evolution of the particles. By applying k-means clustering analysis, we categorized the collected aerosol size distributions into three main categories: "Traffic" (prevailing 44-63% of the time), "Nucleation" (14-19%) and "Background pollution and Specific cases" (7-22%). Measurements from Rome (Italy) and Los Angeles (USA) were also included to complement the study. The daily variation of the average UFP concentrations for a typical nucleation day at each site revealed a similar pattern for all cities, with three distinct particle bursts. A morning and an evening spike reflected traffic rush hours, whereas a third one at midday showed nucleation events. The photochemically nucleated particles' burst lasted 1-4 h, reaching sizes of 30-40 nm. On average, the occurrence of particle size spectra dominated by nucleation events was 16% of the time, showing the importance of this process as a source of UFP in urban environments exposed to high solar radiation. Nucleation events lasting for 2 h or more occurred on 55% of the days, this extending to > 4 h in 28% of the days, demonstrating that atmospheric conditions in urban environments are not favourable to the growth of photochemically nucleated particles. In summary, although traffic remains the main source of UFP in urban areas, in developed countries with high insolation urban nucleation events are also a main source of UFP. If traffic-related particle concentrations are reduced in the future, nucleation events will likely increase in urban areas, due to the reduced urban condensation sinks.

  12. Solar radiation on Mars: Update 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. A procedure and solar radiation related data are presented from which the daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. Given the optical depth of the Mars atmosphere, the global radiation is calculated from the normalized net flux function based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation. The direct beam was derived from the optical depth using Beer's law, and the diffuse component was obtained from the difference of the global and the direct beam radiation. The optical depths of the Mars atmosphere were derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the cameras used on the two Viking Landers.

  13. Solar energy microclimate as determined from satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonder Haar, T. H.; Ellis, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for determining solar insolation at the earth's surface using satellite broadband visible radiance and cloud imagery data, along with conventional in situ measurements. Conventional measurements are used to both tune satellite measurements and to develop empirical relationships between satellite observations and surface solar insolation. Cloudiness is the primary modulator of sunshine. The satellite measurements as applied in this method consider cloudiness both explicitly and implicitly in determining surface solar insolation at space scales smaller than the conventional pyranometer network.

  14. Solar and Temporal Effects on Escherichia coli Concentration at a Lake Michigan Swimming Beach

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Korinek, Ginger C.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2004-01-01

    Studies on solar inactivation of Escherichia coli in freshwater and in situ have been limited. At 63rd St. Beach, Chicago, Ill., factors influencing the daily periodicity of culturable E. coli, particularly insolation, were examined. Water samples for E. coli analysis were collected twice daily between April and September 2000 three times a week along five transects in two depths of water. Hydrometeorological conditions were continuously logged: UV radiation, total insolation, wind speed and direction, wave height, and relative lake level. On 10 days, transects were sampled hourly from 0700 to 1500 h. The effect of sunlight on E. coli inactivation was evaluated with dark and transparent in situ mesocosms and ambient lake water. For the study, the number of E. coli samples collected (n) was 2,676. During sunny days, E. coli counts decreased exponentially with day length and exposure to insolation, but on cloudy days, E. coli inactivation was diminished; the E. coli decay rate was strongly influenced by initial concentration. In situ experiments confirmed that insolation primarily inactivated E. coli; UV radiation only marginally affected E. coli concentration. The relationship between insolation and E. coli density is complicated by relative lake level, wave height, and turbidity, all of which are often products of wind vector. Continuous importation and nighttime replenishment of E. coli were evident. These findings (i) suggest that solar inactivation is an important mechanism for natural reduction of indicator bacteria in large freshwater bodies and (ii) have implications for management strategies of nontidal waters and the use of E. coli as an indicator organism. PMID:15240311

  15. Solar and temporal effects on Escherichia coli concentration at a Lake Michigan swimming beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Korinek, Ginger C.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2004-01-01

    Studies on solar inactivation of Escherichia coli in freshwater and in situ have been limited. At 63rd St. Beach, Chicago, Ill., factors influencing the daily periodicity of culturable E. coli, particularly insolation, were examined. Water samples for E. coli analysis were collected twice daily between April and September 2000 three times a week along five transects in two depths of water. Hydrometeorological conditions were continuously logged: UV radiation, total insolation, wind speed and direction, wave height, and relative lake level. On 10 days, transects were sampled hourly from 0700 to 1500 h. The effect of sunlight on E. coli inactivation was evaluated with dark and transparent in situ mesocosms and ambient lake water. For the study, the number of E. coli samples collected (n) was 2,676. During sunny days, E. coli counts decreased exponentially with day length and exposure to insolation, but on cloudy days, E. coli inactivation was diminished; the E. coli decay rate was strongly influenced by initial concentration. In situ experiments confirmed that insolation primarily inactivated E. coli; UV radiation only marginally affected E. coli concentration. The relationship between insolation and E. coli density is complicated by relative lake level, wave height, and turbidity, all of which are often products of wind vector. Continuous importation and nighttime replenishment of E. coli were evident. These findings (i) suggest that solar inactivation is an important mechanism for natural reduction of indicator bacteria in large freshwater bodies and (ii) have implications for management strategies of nontidal waters and the use of E. coli as an indicator organism.

  16. A Wireless Flexible Sensorized Insole for Gait Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Crea, Simona; Donati, Marco; De Rossi, Stefano Marco Maria; Oddo, Calogero Maria; Vitiello, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design and development of a novel pressure-sensitive foot insole for real-time monitoring of plantar pressure distribution during walking. The device consists of a flexible insole with 64 pressure-sensitive elements and an integrated electronic board for high-frequency data acquisition, pre-filtering, and wireless transmission to a remote data computing/storing unit. The pressure-sensitive technology is based on an optoelectronic technology developed at Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna. The insole is a low-cost and low-power battery-powered device. The design and development of the device is presented along with its experimental characterization and validation with healthy subjects performing a task of walking at different speeds, and benchmarked against an instrumented force platform. PMID:24412902

  17. A wireless flexible sensorized insole for gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Crea, Simona; Donati, Marco; De Rossi, Stefano Marco Maria; Oddo, Calogero Maria; Vitiello, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design and development of a novel pressure-sensitive foot insole for real-time monitoring of plantar pressure distribution during walking. The device consists of a flexible insole with 64 pressure-sensitive elements and an integrated electronic board for high-frequency data acquisition, pre-filtering, and wireless transmission to a remote data computing/storing unit. The pressure-sensitive technology is based on an optoelectronic technology developed at Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna. The insole is a low-cost and low-power battery-powered device. The design and development of the device is presented along with its experimental characterization and validation with healthy subjects performing a task of walking at different speeds, and benchmarked against an instrumented force platform. PMID:24412902

  18. How accurate did GCMs compute the insolation at TOA for AMIP-2?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschke, Ehrhard; Giorgetta, Marco A.; Kinne, Stefan; Wild, Martin

    2005-12-01

    Monthly averages of solar radiation reaching the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) as simulated by 20 General Circulation Models (GCMs) during the period 1985-1988 are compared. They were part of submissions to AMIP-2 (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project). Monthly averages of ISCCP-FD (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project - Flux Data) are considered as reference. Considerable discrepancies are found: Most models reproduce the prescribed Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) value within +/-0.7 Wm-2. Monthly zonal averages disagree between +/-2 to +/-7 Wm-2, depending on latitude and season. The largest model diversity occurs near polar regions. Some models display a zonally symmetric insolation, while others and ISCCP show longitudinal deviations of the order of +/-1 Wm-2. With such differences in meridional gradients impacts in multi-annual simulations cannot be excluded. Sensitivity studies are recommended.

  19. Modeling sugarcane growth in response to age, insolation, and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    How, K.T.S.

    1986-01-01

    Modeling sugarcane growth in response to age of cane, insolation and air temperature using first-order multiple regression analysis and a nonlinear approach is investigated. Data are restricted to one variety from irrigated fields to eliminate the impact of varietal response and rainfall. Ten first-order models are investigated. The predictant is cane yield from 600 field tests. The predictors are cumulative values of insolation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature for 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, or for each crop period derived from weather observations near the test plots. The low R-square values indicate that the selected predictor variables could not account for a substantial proportion of the variations of cane yield and the models have limited predictive values. The nonlinear model is based on known functional relationships between growth and age, growth and insolation, and growth and maximum temperature. A mathematical expression that integrates the effect of age, insolation and maximum temperature is developed. The constant terms and coefficients of the equation are determined from the requirement that the model must produce results that are reasonable when compared with observed monthly elongation data. The nonlinear model is validated and tested using another set of data.

  20. Effect of Optimal Daily Fertigation on Migration of Water and Salt in Soil, Root Growth and Fruit Yield of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Solar-Greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (P<0.05) increased the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 88% and 209% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to conventional interval fertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (<1.5 mm diameter) growth of cucumber, and eventually increased cucumber economic yield by 6.2% and 8.3% and partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 55% and 75% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to the treatment optimal interval fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving crop yield and the water and fertilizers use efficiency in solar greenhouse. PMID:24475204

  1. Effect of optimal daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, root growth and fruit yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in solar-greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (P<0.05) increased the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 88% and 209% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to conventional interval fertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (<1.5 mm diameter) growth of cucumber, and eventually increased cucumber economic yield by 6.2% and 8.3% and partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 55% and 75% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to the treatment optimal interval fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving crop yield and the water and fertilizers use efficiency in solar greenhouse. PMID:24475204

  2. Thermochromic gels for control of insolation

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, A.; Hoffmann, T.; Koerner, W.; Fricke, J. )

    1993-05-01

    Thermochromic gels consist of a mixture of water, gelling agent, and a polyether reaction compound. They show a drastic increase of scattering when a characteristic switching temperature is surpassed. The hemispherical transmission consequently decreases from about 90 to 50% for a 1-mm-thick layer sandwiched between two glass panes. The increase in scattering is caused by a dramatic increase in number density and particle size of created scattering centers. The latter consists of agglomerated polyether chains with reduced water content, i.e., increased index of refraction. Our measurements cover the directional-directional transmission, as well as the directional-hemispherical transmission and reflection, using a double- beam spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. For structural information a light-scattering apparatus was employed. Multiflux calculations allow predictions of the switching behaviour for nonvertical incidence and for arbitrarily thick layers. The thermochromic material is a low-cost, nontoxic product. The achieved switching action is reliable however, it may need improvement to allow application in solar architecture.

  3. Utility of NASA's daily solar and meteorological data for regional level modeling of wheat phenology and yield potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data products from the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Applied Science Energy Managed Program provide estimates of long-term meteorological conditions from assimilation models and surface solar energy fluxes derived from satellite observations. NASA's Prediction Of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWE...

  4. Solar absorption cooling plant in Seville

    SciTech Connect

    Bermejo, Pablo; Pino, Francisco Javier; Rosa, Felipe

    2010-08-15

    A solar/gas cooling plant at the Engineering School of Seville (Spain) was tested during the period 2008-2009. The system is composed of a double-effect LiBr + water absorption chiller of 174 kW nominal cooling capacity, powered by: (1) a pressurized hot water flow delivered by mean of a 352 m{sup 2} solar field of a linear concentrating Fresnel collector and (2) a direct-fired natural gas burner. The objective of the project is to indentify design improvements for future plants and to serve as a guideline. We focused our attention on the solar collector size and dirtiness, climatology, piping heat losses, operation control and coupling between solar collector and chiller. The daily average Fresnel collector efficiency was 0.35 with a maximum of 0.4. The absorption chiller operated with a daily average coefficient of performance of 1.1-1.25, where the solar energy represented the 75% of generator's total heat input, and the solar cooling ratio (quotient between useful cooling and insolation incident on the solar field) was 0.44. (author)

  5. Evaluation of satellite-based, modeled-derived daily solar radiation data for the continental U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many applications of simulation models and related decision support tools for agriculture and natural resource management require daily meteorological data as inputs. Availability and quality of such data, however, often constrain research and decision support activities that require use of these to...

  6. Rocky Mountain hydroclimate: Holocene variability and the role of insolation, ENSO, and the North American Monsoon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Lesleigh

    2012-01-01

    Over the period of instrumental records, precipitation maximum in the headwaters of the Colorado Rocky Mountains has been dominated by winter snow, with a substantial degree of interannual variability linked to Pacific oceanatmosphere dynamics. High-elevation snowpack is an important water storage that is carefully observed in order to meet increasing water demands in the greater semi-arid region. The purpose here is to consider Rocky Mountain water trends during the Holocene when known changes in earth's energy balance were caused by precession-driven insolation variability. Changes in solar insolation are thought to have influenced the variability and intensity of the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and North American Monsoon and the seasonal precipitation balance between rain and snow at upper elevations. Holocene records are presented from two high elevation lakes located in northwest Colorado that document decade-to-century scale precipitation seasonality for the past ~ 7000 years. Comparisons with sub-tropical records of ENSO indicate that the snowfall-dominated precipitation maxima developed ~ 3000 and 4000 years ago, coincident with evidence for enhanced ENSO/PDO dynamics. During the early-to-mid Holocene the records suggest a more monsoon affected precipitation regime with reduced snowpack, more rainfall, and net moisture deficits that were more severe than recent droughts. The Holocene perspective of precipitation indicates a far broader range of variability than that of the past century and highlights the non-linear character of hydroclimate in the U.S. west.

  7. Nonlinear response of summer temperature to Holocene insolation forcing in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Benjamin F; Kelly, Ryan; Clarke, Gina H; Walker, Ian R; Hu, Feng Sheng

    2011-11-29

    Regional climate responses to large-scale forcings, such as precessional changes in solar irradiation and increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gases, may be nonlinear as a result of complex interactions among earth system components. Such nonlinear behaviors constitute a major source of climate "surprises" with important socioeconomic and ecological implications. Paleorecords are key for elucidating patterns and mechanisms of nonlinear responses to radiative forcing, but their utility has been greatly limited by the paucity of quantitative temperature reconstructions. Here we present Holocene July temperature reconstructions on the basis of midge analysis of sediment cores from three Alaskan lakes. Results show that summer temperatures during 10,000-5,500 calibrated years (cal) B.P. were generally lower than modern and that peak summer temperatures around 5,000 were followed by a decreasing trend toward the present. These patterns stand in stark contrast with the trend of precessional insolation, which decreased by ?10% from 10,000 y ago to the present. Cool summers before 5,500 cal B.P. coincided with extensive summer ice cover in the western Arctic Ocean, persistence of a positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation, predominantly La Nia-like conditions, and variation in the position of the Alaskan treeline. These results illustrate nonlinear responses of summer temperatures to Holocene insolation radiative forcing in the Alaskan sub-Arctic, possibly because of state changes in the Arctic Oscillation and El Nio-Southern Oscillation and associated land-atmosphere-ocean feedbacks. PMID:22084085

  8. Assessment of the Level-3 MODIS daily aerosol optical depth in the context of surface solar radiation and numerical weather modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Dudhia, J.; Gueymard, C. A.; Pozo-Vzquez, D.

    2013-01-01

    The daily Level-3 MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) product is a global daily spatial aggregation of the Level-2 MODIS AOD (10-km spatial resolution) into a regular grid with a resolution of 1 1. It offers interesting characteristics for surface solar radiation and numerical weather modeling applications. However, most of the validation efforts so far have focused on Level-2 products and only rarely on Level 3. In this contribution, we compare the Level-3 Collection 5.1 MODIS AOD dataset from the Terra satellite available since 2000 against observed daily AOD values at 550 nm from more than 500 AERONET ground stations around the globe. Overall, the mean error of the dataset is 0.03 (17%, relative to the mean ground-observed AOD), with a root mean square error of 0.14 (73%, relative to the same), but these errors are also found highly dependent on geographical region. We propose new functions for the expected error of the Level-3 AOD, as well as for both its mean error and its standard deviation. Additionally, we investigate the role of pixel count vis--vis the reliability of the AOD estimates, and also explore to what extent the spatial aggregation from Level 2 to Level 3 influences the total uncertainty in the Level-3 AOD. Finally, we use a radiative transfer model to investigate how the Level-3 AOD uncertainty propagates into the calculated direct normal and global horizontal irradiances.

  9. FreeWalker: a smart insole for longitudinal gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Baitong Wang; Rajput, Kuldeep Singh; Wing-Kin Tam; Tung, Anthony K H; Zhi Yang

    2015-08-01

    Gait analysis is an important diagnostic measure to investigate the pattern of walking. Traditional gait analysis is generally carried out in a gait lab, with equipped force and body tracking sensors, which needs a trained medical professional to interpret the results. This procedure is tedious, expensive, and unreliable and makes it difficult to track the progress across multiple visits. In this paper, we present a smart insole called FreeWalker, which provides quantitative gait analysis outside the confinement of traditional lab, at low- cost. The insole consists of eight pressure sensors and two motion tracking sensors, i.e. 3-axis accelerometer and 3-axis gyroscope. This enables measurement of under-foot pressure distribution and motion sequences in real-time. The insole is enabled with onboard SD card as well as wireless data transmission, which help in continuous gait-cycle analysis. The data is then sent to a gateway, for analysis and interpretation of data, using a user interface where gait features are graphically displayed. We also present validation result of a subject's left foot, who was asked to perform a specific task. Experiment results show that we could achieve a data-sampling rate of over 1 KHz, transmitting data up to a distance of 20 meter and maintain a battery life of around 24 hours. Taking advantage of these features, FreeWalker can be used in various applications, like medical diagnosis, rehabilitation, sports and entertainment. PMID:26737102

  10. Solar energy system performance evaluation: Summerwood Associates, House G, Old Saybrook, connecticut, June 1980 - May 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, M.

    An active solar energy system designed to supply 62% of the space heating and 100% of the hot water is described. It is equipped with flat plate collectors with pyramidal optics reflectors, a 600-gallon concrete storge tank, and an auxiliary system consisting of a dual-source heat pump with electrical resistance heater. The solar fraction of space and water heating was 36%, substantially less than was expected, due to less solar energy being collected than was calculated. The solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance are also given as well as outdoor temperature, heating degree-days, and daily insolation. The performance of the total system and of the collector, storage, hot water and space heating subsystems is analyzed, and the system operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions are reported. The system is described and the sensors used are discussed.

  11. Middle Holocene daily light cycle reconstructed from the strontium/calcium ratios of a fossil giant clam shell

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Masako; Sano, Yuji; Ishida, Akizumi; Takahata, Naoto; Shirai, Kotaro; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Insolation is an important component of meteorological data because solar energy is the primary and direct driver of weather and climate. Previous analyses of cultivated giant clam shells revealed diurnal variation in the Sr/Ca ratio, which might reflect the influence of the daily light cycle. We applied proxy method to sample from prehistoric era, a fossil giant clam shell collected at Ishigaki Island in southern Japan. The specimen was alive during the middle Holocene and thus exposed to the warmest climate after the last glacial period. This bivalve species is known to form a growth line each day, as confirmed by the analysis of the Sr enrichment bands using EPMA and facilitated age-model. We analyzed the Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios along the growth axis, measuring a 2-μm spot size at 2-μm interval using NanoSIMS. The Sr/Ca ratios in the winter layers are characterized by a striking diurnal cycle consisting of narrow growth lines with high Sr/Ca ratios and broad growth bands with low Sr/Ca ratios. These variations, which are consistent with those of the cultivated clam shell, indicate the potential for the reconstruction of the variation in solar insolation during the middle Holocene at a multi-hourly resolution. PMID:25736488

  12. Middle Holocene daily light cycle reconstructed from the strontium/calcium ratios of a fossil giant clam shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Masako; Sano, Yuji; Ishida, Akizumi; Takahata, Naoto; Shirai, Kotaro; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2015-03-01

    Insolation is an important component of meteorological data because solar energy is the primary and direct driver of weather and climate. Previous analyses of cultivated giant clam shells revealed diurnal variation in the Sr/Ca ratio, which might reflect the influence of the daily light cycle. We applied proxy method to sample from prehistoric era, a fossil giant clam shell collected at Ishigaki Island in southern Japan. The specimen was alive during the middle Holocene and thus exposed to the warmest climate after the last glacial period. This bivalve species is known to form a growth line each day, as confirmed by the analysis of the Sr enrichment bands using EPMA and facilitated age-model. We analyzed the Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios along the growth axis, measuring a 2-?m spot size at 2-?m interval using NanoSIMS. The Sr/Ca ratios in the winter layers are characterized by a striking diurnal cycle consisting of narrow growth lines with high Sr/Ca ratios and broad growth bands with low Sr/Ca ratios. These variations, which are consistent with those of the cultivated clam shell, indicate the potential for the reconstruction of the variation in solar insolation during the middle Holocene at a multi-hourly resolution.

  13. Middle Holocene daily light cycle reconstructed from the strontium/calcium ratios of a fossil giant clam shell.

    PubMed

    Hori, Masako; Sano, Yuji; Ishida, Akizumi; Takahata, Naoto; Shirai, Kotaro; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Insolation is an important component of meteorological data because solar energy is the primary and direct driver of weather and climate. Previous analyses of cultivated giant clam shells revealed diurnal variation in the Sr/Ca ratio, which might reflect the influence of the daily light cycle. We applied proxy method to sample from prehistoric era, a fossil giant clam shell collected at Ishigaki Island in southern Japan. The specimen was alive during the middle Holocene and thus exposed to the warmest climate after the last glacial period. This bivalve species is known to form a growth line each day, as confirmed by the analysis of the Sr enrichment bands using EPMA and facilitated age-model. We analyzed the Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios along the growth axis, measuring a 2-?m spot size at 2-?m interval using NanoSIMS. The Sr/Ca ratios in the winter layers are characterized by a striking diurnal cycle consisting of narrow growth lines with high Sr/Ca ratios and broad growth bands with low Sr/Ca ratios. These variations, which are consistent with those of the cultivated clam shell, indicate the potential for the reconstruction of the variation in solar insolation during the middle Holocene at a multi-hourly resolution. PMID:25736488

  14. Insolation and Resulting Surface Temperatures of Study Regions on the Moon and Implications for Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, Karin E.; Hiesinger, Harald

    2010-05-01

    The imaging spectrometer MERTIS (Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer) is part of the payload of ESA's BepiColombo mission, which is scheduled for launch in 2014 (Hiesinger et al., 2010). The instrument consists of an IR-spectrometer and radiometer, which observe the surface in the wavelength range of 7-14 and 7-40m, respectively. The four scientific objectives are to a) study Mercury's surface composition, b) identify rock-forming minerals, c) globally map the surface mineralogy and d) study surface temperature and thermal inertia (Hiesinger et al., 2010; Helbert et al., 2005). Previous studies of the lunar surface have shown that thermal emission contributes to the observed signal from the surface and can influence the spectral characteristics, e.g. the depth of absorption bands (e.g. Clark, 2009; Pieters et al., 2009; Sunshine et al., 2009). Therefore accurate knowledge of the solar insolation and resulting thermal variations is needed. In order to calculate insolation and surface temperatures, we use a numerical model which has been described by Bauch et al. (2009). Surface temperatures are depending on the surface and subsurface bulk thermophysical properties, such as bulk density, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, emissivity, and albedo. Topography also influences surface temperatures, as it changes the angle of solar incidence, but also leads to shadowed areas, e.g. the floors of polar craters. The model solves the one-dimensional heat transfer equation, based on a depth and temperature dependent thermal inertia. The surface boundary condition is based on the energy balance relation; the energy entering a surface equals the energy leaving the surface. In addition to the direct solar insolation, reflectance and scattering from adjacent surface regions also influence the surface temperatures. In preparation of the MERTIS experiment, we performed detailed thermal models of the lunar surface, which we extrapolated to Mercury. For our simulation, we use topography data from the Moon and transfer them as model regions to the surface of Mercury. When calculated with lunar parameters, this allows us to compare the results to lunar temperature measurements of the Apollo, Clementine and Chandrayaan missions (e.g. Keihm and Langseth (1973), Lawson et al. (2000), Pieters et al. (2009)). It also allows a direct comparison of the insolation and thermal variation between craters on the lunar and mercurian surface. Hiesinger, H. et al. (2010), PSS 58, 144-165; Helbert, J. et al. (2005), LPSC XXXVI, Abstract #1753; Clark, R.N. (2009), Science 326, 562-564; Pieters, C.M. et al. (2009), Science 326, 568-572; Sunshine, J.M. et al. (2009), Science 326, 565-568; Bauch, K.E. et al. (2009) LPSC XL, Abstract #1789; Keihm, S.J. and Langseth, M.G. (1973), Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 4th, 2503-2513; Lawson, S.L. et al. (2000), JGR 105, E5, 4273-4290

  15. Assessment and ground-based correction of the Level-3 MODIS daily aerosol optical depth: Implications in the context of surface solar radiation prediction and numerical weather modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Dudhia, J.; Pozo-Vazquez, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Level-3 MODIS (L3M) aerosol optical depth (AOD) product offers interesting features for surface solar radiation and numerical weather modeling applications. However, most of the validation efforts so far have been focused on Level-2 (L2M) products and only rarely on L3M. We compare the Collection 5.1 L3M AOD (Terra dataset) available since 2000 against observed daily AOD values at 550 nm from more than 500 AERONET ground stations. The aim is to check the advisability of this dataset for surface solar radiation calculations using numerical weather models. Overall, the mean error (ME) is 0.03 (17%, relative to the mean observed AOD), with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.14 (73%), albeit these values are found highly dependent on geographical region. For AOD values above about 0.3 the expected error (EE) is found higher than that of the L2M product. We propose specific parameterizations for the EE of the L3M AOD, as well as for both its ME and its standard deviation. We also found that, roughly, half of the uncertainty of the L3M AOD dataset might be attributable to its sub-pixel variability. Finally, we used a radiative transfer model to investigate how the L3M AOD uncertainty propagates into the direct normal (DNI) and global horizontal (GHI) irradiances evaluation. Overall, for AODs smaller than 0.5, the induced uncertainty in DNI due to AOD alone is below 15% on average, and below 5% for GHI (for a solar zenith angle of 30 degrees). But the uncertainty in AOD is highly spatially variable, so is that in irradiance. These results suggest the necessity of a correction method to reduce the bias of the L3M AOD. Ground-based AOD measurements can be also used in a data fusion procedure. We present the results of a preliminary study using optimal interpolation of L3M daily AOD data based on daily AERONET AOD measurements in the US in the period since June to August 2009. The method removes the data gaps in the original dataset, assesses the spatial distribution of uncertainty and corrects the resultant gridded-AOD based on point-wise ground measurements. Overall, based on a cross-validation procedure, the method was able to reduce the ME from 0.013 (9%) to -0.002 (-2%), the RMSE from 0.084 (59%) to 0.070 (49%) and increase the correlation coefficient from 10% to 92%. Fig 1 shows the time series of the mean daily AOD for the original (blue) and the data-fused (red) datasets over the study region. The methodology shall allow creating an accurate and long-term gridded-AOD database suitable to be ingested in numerical weather models so that the effect in the atmospheric system of AOD and its daily variability can be better assessed. Such a dataset is crucial for DNI calculations at surface.

  16. Insolation Effects on the Lunar Hydrogen Budget: Correlated Observations of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's LEND, LOLA and Diviner Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I.; Boynton, W. V.; Litvak, M.; Milikh, G. M.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R. D.; Livengood, T. A.; Chin, G.; Harshman, K.; Droege, G.

    2012-12-01

    In this research we correlate the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO), Diviner radiometer temperature maps that characterize the Moon's thermal environment with maps derived from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) and Lunar Orbiting Laser Altimeter (LOLA). In previous research, we found evidence that the Moon's Hydrogen budget was broadly influenced by insolation effects. In that analysis we implemented a transformation of LOLA's topography maps, thereby isolating poleward-facing and equator-facing slopes. We then integrated the LEND epithermal neutron maps over these regions and found that the epithermal neutron count rates were significantly lower in poleward-facing slopes vs. equivalent equator-facing slopes, yielding a localized "epithermal contrast". This result suggests higher H / H2O concentrations in poleward-facing slopes vs. comparable equator-facing slopes. It is also consistent with findings in terrestrial and Martian environments indicating similar H / H2O slope contrasts. In support of that finding we determined that the epithermal neutron rates over east and west-facing slopes were as predicted equivalent. The above effects were also similar for both North and South Poles. Together, this support indicated surface insolation is an important factor governing the Moon's Hydrogen budget. Temperature effects of insolation are primarily a function of a cosine process a = i cos ?, which predicts the effective solar irradiation a, incident to a given surface as a function of its angular orientation ?, to the source solar irradiation, i. ? is locally a function of several variables including combined: seasonal, diurnal, topographic, latitude and regolith compositional effects which induces locally dependent and time variable temperature conditions. The Moons low obliquity and increased latitude predictably attenuate solar irradiation, which is well correlated with decreased near-surface temperatures towards the poles. Importantly, topographic variance is also a critical factor in ?, that influences a slopes relative orientation to the incident solar irradiation thus inducing localized illumination and temperature conditions. At a given lunar latitude, these factors yield a localized temperature continuum. The temperature differential or 'contrast' between localized poleward-facing and equator-facing slopes approximates the temperature range of this continuum. We extend this research by integrating the Diviner radiometer temperature maps to this analysis. In this effort we will perform a correlative analysis to identify and quantify the temperature contrast between pole-facing and equator-facing slopes used in the LEND analysis. This will allow us to determine the relative contribution of insolation factors e.g. latitude, slope degree and orientation to the poleward direction on epithermal neutron fluences and the Hydrogen budget.

  17. SERI (Solar Energy Research Institute) solar radiation resource assessment project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulstrom, R. L.; Maxwell, E.; Riordan, C.; Rymes, M.; Stoffel, T.

    1989-10-01

    The earth receives vast amounts of energy from the sun in the form of incident solar radiation. Solar radiation drives the earth's weather and sustains life. As a result of the increasing costs, uncertain availability, and potentially severe environmental impacts of other sources of energy, insolation is being considered as a clean renewable energy source for our needs for heating, cooling, electricity, and fuels. Widespread interest and activities were initiated immediately after the oil embargo of the mid-1970s. For many applications, the insolation must be converted to a different form, such as heat, electricity, or a fuel (liquid, gas, or solid). A technology that can do this is known as a solar energy conversion device or technology. A wide range of candidate technologies is being developed. Some of these technologies include photovoltaics (converting insolation to electricity), solar thermal (converting insolation to heat), solar thermal-electric (converting insolation to heat, then to electricity), and biomass (converting insolation to biomass and then to fuels).

  18. Manufacturing and finite element assessment of a novel pressure reducing insole for Diabetic Neuropathic patients.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, A; Mossayebi, A R; Jamshidi, N; Naemi, R; Karimi, M T

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes is one of the metabolic diseases. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to diabetic foot ulcers and if it was not treated would lead to amputation. Foot ulcers can be prevented by using suitable insoles which are made of appropriate material and geometrically designed by constituent layers. In this study, single-layer and three-layer insoles have been compared during static and dynamic loading. The selected materials were silicone gel (SG), plastazote foam (PLZ), polyfoam (PF) and ethyl vinyl acetate foam (EVA). Four single-layer and 18 combinations of three-layer insoles were selected. Materials behaviors were determined by using a uniaxial pressure test. The description of stress and strain is obtained by using the model of three dimensional nonlinear Finite Element Method (FEM). Then samples were tested by using commercially available plantar pressure measurement system. The FEM results showed that the SG and PLZ insoles are more appropriate compared to single-layer insoles. The combinations of PLZ, SG and EVA (from top to bottom) are recognized as the best between three-layer insoles. Also the best three-layer insole is more effective in promoting a favourable stress and strain distribution than single-layer insoles, especially in dynamic mode. According to simulation results, three-layer insole decreases stress concentration by 9%. Also experimental tests showed that using three-layer insole decreases plantar pressure by 63% compared to barefoot condition bare foot. PMID:25536901

  19. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  20. IHT: Tools for Computing Insolation Absorption by Particle Laden Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Grout, R. W.

    2013-10-01

    This report describes IHT, a toolkit for computing radiative heat exchange between particles. Well suited for insolation absorption computations, it is also has potential applications in combustion (sooting flames), biomass gasification processes and similar processes. The algorithm is based on the 'Photon Monte Carlo' approach and implemented in a library that can be interfaced with a variety of computational fluid dynamics codes to analyze radiative heat transfer in particle-laden flows. The emphasis in this report is on the data structures and organization of IHT for developers seeking to use the IHT toolkit to add Photon Monte Carlo capabilities to their own codes.

  1. Solar drying in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Headley, O. )

    1992-03-01

    The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) has estimated that a quarter of crops are lost through inadequate handling after harvesting. The use of solar dryers can reduce these losses and improve the quality of food. Oliver Headley of the University of the West Indies overviews a range of dryers developed in the Caribbean region. Solar dryers have been used in various parts of the Caribbean for the past eighteen years. The main types are: closed cycle dryers with separate flat plate collector; open cycle dryers with roof vanes against direct sunlight; open cycle dryers with rockbed heat storage units; open cycle dryers with chimneys for air circulation; wire basket dryers with flow through ventilation; barn roof collectors feeding packed bed dryers. During the dry season (January to April), mean daily insolation in a typical Caribbean island is about 25 MJ/m{sup 2}. With such an abundant resource, solar crop drying emerged as a preferred method for the preservation of perishable commodities. In territories without fossil fuel reserves solar energy is an obvious alternative since it does not involve expenditure of scarce foreign exchange. Research and development work in solar crop drying was conducted both at experimental sites in the University and in rural districts throughout the region. Several types of dryer were designed and tested.

  2. Assessment of the Level-3 MODIS daily aerosol optical depth in the context of surface solar radiation and numerical weather modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Dudhia, J.; Gueymard, C. A.; Pozo-Vzquez, D.

    2012-09-01

    The Level-3 MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) product offers interesting features for surface solar radiation and numerical weather modeling applications. Remarkably, the Collection 5.1 dataset extends over more than a decade, and provides daily values of AOD over a global regular grid of 11 spatial resolution. However, most of the validation efforts so far have focused on Level-2 products (10-km, at original resolution) and only rarely on Level-3 (at aggregated spatial resolution of 11). In this contribution, we compare the Level-3 Collection 5.1 MODIS AOD dataset available since 2000 against observed daily AOD values at 550 nm from more than 500 AERONET ground stations around the globe. One aim of this study is to check the advisability of this MODIS dataset for surface shortwave solar radiation calculations using numerical weather models. Overall, the mean error of the dataset is 0.03 (17%, relative to the mean ground-observed AOD), with a root mean square error of 0.14 (73%, relative to the same), albeit these values are found highly dependent on geographical region. For AOD values below about 0.3 the expected error is found very similar to that of the Level-2 product. However, for larger AOD values, higher errors are found. Consequently, we propose new functions for the expected error of the Level-3 AOD, as well as for both its mean error and its standard deviation. Additionally, we investigate the role of pixel count vis--vis the reliability of the AOD estimates. Our results show that a higher pixel count does not necessarily turn into a more reliable AOD estimate. Therefore, we recommend to verify this assumption in the dataset at hand if the pixel count is meant to be used. We also explore to what extent the spatial aggregation from Level-2 to Level-3 influences the total uncertainty in the Level-3 AOD. In particular, we found that, roughly, half of the error might be attributable to Level-3 AOD sub-pixel variability. Finally, we use a~radiative transfer model to investigate how the Level-3 AOD uncertainty propagates into the calculated direct normal (DNI) and global horizontal (GHI) irradiances. Overall, results indicate that, for Level-3 AODs smaller than 0.5, the induced uncertainty in DNI due to the AOD uncertainty alone is below 15% on average, and below 5% for GHI (for a solar zenith angle of 30. However, the uncertainty in AOD is highly spatially variable, and so is that in irradiance.

  3. Reconstruction of six decades of daily total solar shortwave irradiation in the Iberian Peninsula using sunshine duration records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romn, Roberto; Bilbao, Julia; de Miguel, Argimiro

    2014-12-01

    Total global solar shortwave (G) irradiation and sunshine duration were recorded at nine Spanish stations located in the Iberian Peninsula. G irradiation under cloudless conditions was simulated by means of a radiative transfer model using satellite data as input. A method based on these cloudless simulations and sunshine duration records was developed to reconstruct G series. This model was validated against experimental data, providing a good agreement for cloudless skies (mean bias error of 0.4% and root mean square error of 5.8%). Monthly averages of modelled and measured G irradiation presented a mean bias error of 0.5% and a root mean square error of 3%. Differences between modelled and measured G irradiation were in agreement within the model uncertainties. The reconstruction model was applied to sunshine duration measurements, giving long-term G series at the nine locations. Monthly, seasonal, and annual G anomalies were calculated and analysed. Averaged series (using the nine locations) showed a statistically significant decrease in annual G from 1950 to the mid 1980s (-1.7%dc-1) together with a significant increase from the mid 1980s to 2011 (1.6%dc-1). The effect of uncertainty in the reconstructed series on statistically significant trends was studied.

  4. Insolation Effects on Lunar Hydrogen: Correlated observations of LEND and Second Order Insolation Effects Derived from LOLA Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mazarico, E.; Droege, G.; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) LEND Team; LOLA Team

    2011-12-01

    The Moon's polar permanent shadow regions (PSR) have long been considered the unique repository for volatile Hydrogen (H). This postulate was due to the extreme and persistently cold environment that has been maintained over eons of lunar history. However, we have recently reported two results that have challenged the PSR hypothesis. 1) that higher lunar H distributions are only weakly correlated to the PSR condition. 2) We suggest a relationship between higher H in the context of pole-facing slopes relative to equator facing slopes. Correlated observations by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the Lunar Orbiting Laser Altimeter (LOLA) have been performed indicating pole-facing slopes have 0.01 to 0.02 cps lower epithermal count rates than their equivalent equator-facing slopes. These bulk observations were hypothesis tested and indicate a significant and consistent relationship between topographically modulated insolation effects derived from specialized transformations of LOLA digital elevation models (DEM)'s and LEND maps for latitudes > 60 deg latitude. In this presentation we review the techniques and results from the recent high latitude analysis and apply similar techniques to equatorial regions. We also compare results to second order modeling results derived from long-term LOLA numerical modeling of insolation conditions on the Moon. Results from our low latitude analysis will be reported. We discuss interpretations and implications for Lunar Hydrogen studies

  5. Urban air pollution and solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

  6. Urban air pollution and solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

    1981-10-01

    The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

  7. Correlating Pluto's Albedo Distribution to Long Term Insolation Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, Alissa M.; Binzel, Richard P.; Stern, S. Alan; Young, Leslie A.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Ennico, Kimberly; Grundy, Will M.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Spencer, John R.; Weaver, Hal A.

    2015-11-01

    NASA's New Horizons' reconnaissance of the Pluto system has revealed striking albedo contrasts from polar to equatorial latitudes on Pluto, as well as sharp boundaries for longitudinal variations. These contrasts suggest Pluto undergoes dynamic evolution that drives the redistribution of volatiles. Using the New Horizons results as a template, in this talk we will explore the volatile migration process driven seasonally on Pluto considering multiple timescales. These timescales include the current orbit (248 years) as well as the timescales for obliquity precession (amplitude of 23 degrees over 3 Myrs) and regression of the orbital longitude of perihelion (3.7 Myrs). We will build upon the long-term insolation history model described by Earle and Binzel (2015, Icarus 250, 405-412) with the goal of identifying the most critical timescales that drive the features observed in Plutos current post-perihelion epoch. This work was supported by the NASA New Horizons Project.

  8. Dynamic modeling and sensitivity analysis of solar thermal energy conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    Since the energy input to solar thermal conversion systems is both time variant and probabilistic, it is unlikely that simple steady-state methods for estimating lifetime performance will provide satisfactory results. The work described here uses dynamic modeling to begin identifying what must be known about input radiation and system dynamic characteristics to estimate performance reliably. Daily operation of two conceptual solar energy systems was simulated under varying operating strategies with time-dependent radiation intensity ranging from smooth input of several magnitudes to input of constant total energy whose intensity oscillated with periods from 1/4 hour to 6 hours. Integrated daily system output and efficiency were functions of both level and dynamic characteristics of insolation. Sensitivity of output to changes in total input was greater than one.

  9. Framework for the mapping of the monthly average daily solar radiation using an advanced case-based reasoning and a geostatistical technique.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhyun; Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2014-04-15

    For the effective photovoltaic (PV) system, it is necessary to accurately determine the monthly average daily solar radiation (MADSR) and to develop an accurate MADSR map, which can simplify the decision-making process for selecting the suitable location of the PV system installation. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a framework for the mapping of the MADSR using an advanced case-based reasoning (CBR) and a geostatistical technique. The proposed framework consists of the following procedures: (i) the geographic scope for the mapping of the MADSR is set, and the measured MADSR and meteorological data in the geographic scope are collected; (ii) using the collected data, the advanced CBR model is developed; (iii) using the advanced CBR model, the MADSR at unmeasured locations is estimated; and (iv) by applying the measured and estimated MADSR data to the geographic information system, the MADSR map is developed. A practical validation was conducted by applying the proposed framework to South Korea. It was determined that the MADSR map developed through the proposed framework has been improved in terms of accuracy. The developed MADSR map can be used for estimating the MADSR at unmeasured locations and for determining the optimal location for the PV system installation. PMID:24635702

  10. Foot model for tracking temperature of safety boot insoles: application to different insole materials in firefighter boots.

    PubMed

    Garca-Hernndez, Csar; Snchez-lvarez, Eduardo J; Huertas-Taln, Jos-Luis

    2016-01-01

    This research is based on the development of a human foot model to study the temperature conditions of a foot bottom surface under extreme external conditions. This foot model is made by combining different manufacturing techniques to enable the simulation of bones and tissues, allowing the placement of sensors on its surface to track the temperature values of different points inside a shoe. These sensors let researchers capture valuable data during a defined period of time, making it possible to compare the features of different safety boots, socks or soles, among others. In this case, it has been applied to compare different plantar insole materials, placed into safety boots on a high-temperature surface. PMID:26651242

  11. An Apparatus to Quantify Anteroposterior and Mediolateral Shear Reduction in Shoe Insoles

    PubMed Central

    Belmont, Barry; Wang, Yancheng; Ammanath, Peethambaran; Wrobel, James S.; Shih, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Background Many of the physiological changes that lead to diabetic foot ulceration, such as muscle atrophy and skin hardening, are manifested at the foot–ground interface via pressure and shear points. Novel shear-reducing insoles have been developed, but their magnitude of shear stiffness has not yet been compared with regular insoles. The aim of this study was to develop an apparatus that would apply shear force and displacement to an insole’s forefoot region, reliably measure deformation, and calculate insole shear stiffness. Methods An apparatus consisting of suspended weights was designed to test the forefoot region of insoles. Three separate regions representing the hallux; the first and second metatarsals; and the third, fourth, and fifth metatarsals were sheared at 20 mm/min for displacements from 0.1 to 1.0 mm in both the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions for two types of insoles (regular and shear reducing). Results Shear reduction was found to be significant for the intervention insoles under all testing conditions. The ratio of a regular insole’s effective stiffness and the experimental insole’s effective stiffness across forefoot position versus shear direction, gait instance versus shear direction, and forefoot position versus gait instance was 270% ± 79%, 270% ± 96%, and 270% ± 86%, respectively. The apparatus was reliable with an average measured coefficient of variation of 0.034 and 0.069 for the regular and shear-reducing insole, respectively. Conclusions An apparatus consisting of suspended weights resting atop three locations of interest sheared across an insole was demonstrated to be capable of measuring the insole shear stiffness accurately, thus quantifying shear-reducing effects of a new type of insole. PMID:23567000

  12. A novel shear reduction insole effect on the thermal response to walking stress, balance, and gait.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, James S; Ammanath, Peethambaran; Le, Tima; Luring, Christopher; Wensman, Jeffrey; Grewal, Gurtej S; Najafi, Bijan; Pop-Busui, Rodica

    2014-11-01

    Shear stresses have been implicated in the formation of diabetes-related foot ulcers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a novel shear-reducing insole on the thermal response to walking, balance, and gait. Twenty-seven diabetes peripheral neuropathy patients were enrolled and asked to take 200 steps in both intervention and standard insoles. Thermal foot images of the feet were taken at baseline (1) following a 5-minute temperature acclimatization and (2) after walking. Testing order was randomized, and a 5-minute washout period was used between testing each insole condition. Sudomotor function was also assessed. Gait and balance were measured under single and dual task conditions using a validated body worn sensor system. The mean age was 65.1 years, height was 67.3 inches, weight was 218 pounds, and body mass index was 33.9, 48% were female, and 82% had type 2 diabetes. After walking in both insole conditions, foot temperatures increased significantly in standard insoles. The intervention insole significantly reduced forefoot and midfoot temperature increases (64.1%, P = .008; 48%, P = .046) compared to standard insoles. There were significant negative correlations with sudomotor function and baseline temperatures (r = .53-.57). The intervention demonstrated 10.4% less gait initiation double support time compared to standard insoles (P = .05). There were no differences in static balance measures. We found significantly lower forefoot and midfoot temperature increases following walking with shear-reducing insoles compared to standard insoles. We also found improvements in gait. These findings merit future study for the prevention of foot ulcer. PMID:25107709

  13. A Novel Shear Reduction Insole Effect on the Thermal Response to Walking Stress, Balance, and Gait

    PubMed Central

    Ammanath, Peethambaran; Le, Tima; Luring, Christopher; Wensman, Jeffrey; Grewal, Gurtej S.; Najafi, Bijan; Pop-Busui, Rodica

    2014-01-01

    Shear stresses have been implicated in the formation of diabetes-related foot ulcers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a novel shear-reducing insole on the thermal response to walking, balance, and gait. Twenty-seven diabetes peripheral neuropathy patients were enrolled and asked to take 200 steps in both intervention and standard insoles. Thermal foot images of the feet were taken at baseline (1) following a 5-minute temperature acclimatization and (2) after walking. Testing order was randomized, and a 5-minute washout period was used between testing each insole condition. Sudomotor function was also assessed. Gait and balance were measured under single and dual task conditions using a validated body worn sensor system. The mean age was 65.1 years, height was 67.3 inches, weight was 218 pounds, and body mass index was 33.9, 48% were female, and 82% had type 2 diabetes. After walking in both insole conditions, foot temperatures increased significantly in standard insoles. The intervention insole significantly reduced forefoot and midfoot temperature increases (64.1%, P = .008; 48%, P = .046) compared to standard insoles. There were significant negative correlations with sudomotor function and baseline temperatures (r = .53-.57). The intervention demonstrated 10.4% less gait initiation double support time compared to standard insoles (P = .05). There were no differences in static balance measures. We found significantly lower forefoot and midfoot temperature increases following walking with shear-reducing insoles compared to standard insoles. We also found improvements in gait. These findings merit future study for the prevention of foot ulcer. PMID:25107709

  14. Solar Radiation on Mars: Tracking Photovoltaic Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Flood, Dennis J.; Crutchik, Marcos

    1994-01-01

    A photovoltaic power source for surface-based operation on Mars can offer many advantages. Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars and the insolation on various types of collector surfaces are necessary for effective design of future planned photovoltaic systems. In this article we have presented analytical expressions for solar radiation calculation and solar radiation data for single axis (of various types) and two axis tracking surfaces and compared the insulation to horizontal and inclined surfaces. For clear skies (low atmospheric dust load) tracking surfaces resulted in higher insolation than stationary surfaces, whereas for highly dusty atmospheres, the difference is small. The insolation on the different types of stationary and tracking surfaces depend on latitude, season and optical depth of the atmosphere, and the duration of system operation. These insolations have to be compared for each mission.

  15. Short-term surface insolation forecasts derived from satellite cloud advection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, M. A.; Miller, S. D.; Heidinger, A. K.; Sengupta, M.

    2012-12-01

    Short-term (1-3 hour) forecasts of surface insolation are of paramount import for producers of solar power producers when integrating with power distribution grids. Results from a radiative transfer model coupled with a satellite-derived cloud advection technique are presented, and compared against the NOAA Surface Radiation (SURFRAD( network for validation purposes. Satellite observations from GOES are used within the AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres-Extended (PATMOS-x) retrieval package to determine cloud properties which are then coupled with GFS wind observations to advect cloud positions forward in time. Advection is performed on a per-pixel basis as well as within self-similar cloud groups identified by a novel cloud-grouping algorithm utilizing thresholds of comparisons with the PATMOS-x input. Advected cloud positions, which account for parallax and shadow locations, are then used to run a single-column radiative transfer model to compute the forecasted surface irradiance value. Forecasts using the advection technique during calendar year 2012 are presented, along with validation results from the SURFRAD network. Issues and benefits from using satellite advection techniques versus traditional numerical weather prediction model forecasts are also presented.

  16. Biomechanical effects of lateral and medial wedge insoles on unilateral weight bearing

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Tomonori; Kito, Nobuhiro; Yukimune, Masaki; Tokuda, Kazuki; Tanimoto, Kenji; Anan, Masaya; Takahashi, Makoto; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lateral wedge insoles reduce the peak external knee adduction moment and are advocated for patients with knee osteoarthritis. However, some patients demonstrate adverse biomechanical effects with treatment. In this study, we examined the immediate effects of lateral and medial wedge insoles under unilateral weight bearing. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy young adults participated in this study. The subjects were assessed by using the foot posture index, and were divided into three groups: normal foot, pronated foot, and supinated foot groups. The knee adduction moment and knee-ground reaction force lever arm under the studied conditions were measured by using a three-dimensional motion capture system and force plates. [Results] In the normal and pronated groups, the change in knee adduction moment significantly decreased under the lateral wedge insole condition compared with the medial wedge insole condition. In the normal group, the change in the knee-ground reaction force lever arm also significantly decreased under the lateral wedge insole condition than under the medial wedge insole condition. [Conclusion] Lateral wedge insoles significantly reduced the knee adduction moment and knee-ground reaction force lever arm during unilateral weight bearing in subjects with normal feet, and the biomechanical effects varied according to individual foot alignment. PMID:26957775

  17. Biomechanical effects of lateral and medial wedge insoles on unilateral weight bearing.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Tomonori; Kito, Nobuhiro; Yukimune, Masaki; Tokuda, Kazuki; Tanimoto, Kenji; Anan, Masaya; Takahashi, Makoto; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lateral wedge insoles reduce the peak external knee adduction moment and are advocated for patients with knee osteoarthritis. However, some patients demonstrate adverse biomechanical effects with treatment. In this study, we examined the immediate effects of lateral and medial wedge insoles under unilateral weight bearing. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy young adults participated in this study. The subjects were assessed by using the foot posture index, and were divided into three groups: normal foot, pronated foot, and supinated foot groups. The knee adduction moment and knee-ground reaction force lever arm under the studied conditions were measured by using a three-dimensional motion capture system and force plates. [Results] In the normal and pronated groups, the change in knee adduction moment significantly decreased under the lateral wedge insole condition compared with the medial wedge insole condition. In the normal group, the change in the knee-ground reaction force lever arm also significantly decreased under the lateral wedge insole condition than under the medial wedge insole condition. [Conclusion] Lateral wedge insoles significantly reduced the knee adduction moment and knee-ground reaction force lever arm during unilateral weight bearing in subjects with normal feet, and the biomechanical effects varied according to individual foot alignment. PMID:26957775

  18. Firm insoles effectively reduce hemolysis in runners during long distance running - a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Shock absorbing insoles are effective in reducing the magnitude and rate of loading of peak impact forces generated at foot strike during running, whereas the foot impact force during running has been considered to be an important cause of intravascular hemolysis in long distance runners. Objective of this study was to evaluate the intravascular hemolysis during running and compare the effect of two different types of insoles (Soft and Firm) on hemolysis. Methods Twenty male long and middle distance runners volunteered to participate in this study. We selected two insoles (Soft and Firm) according to their hardness level (SHORE 'A' scale). Participants were randomly assigned to the soft insole (group 1) and firm insole (group 2) group with ten athletes in each group. Each athlete completed one hour of running at the calculated target heart rate (60-70%). Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after running. We measured unconjucated bilirubin (mg/dl), lactate dehydrogenase (?/ml), hemoglobin (g/l) and serum ferritin (ng/ml) as indicators of hemolysis. Results Our study revealed a significant increase in the mean values of unconjucated bilirubin (P < 0.05) while running with soft insoles indicating the occurrence of hemolysis in this group of athletes. Graphical analysis revealed an inverse relationship between hardness of insoles and hemolysis for the observed values. Conclusion Our results indicate that intravascular hemolysis occurs in athletes during long distance running and we conclude that addition of firm insoles effectively reduces the amount of hemolysis in runners compared to soft insoles. PMID:21651826

  19. Coherent pan-Asian climatic and isotopic response to orbital forcing of tropical insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battisti, D. S.; Ding, Qinghua; Roe, G. H.

    2014-11-01

    The oxygen-18 isotope composition of calcite in stalagmites across southern and eastern Asia are highly correlated to one another on orbital time scales: large negative excursions are coincident with maxima in summer insolation in the subtropics of the Northern Hemisphere (NH). These isotopic excursions reflect changes in the precipitation-weighted isotopic composition of precipitation, ?18Op. We present results from two core experiments using an isotope-enabled climate modelthe"high-insolation" and "low-insolation" experimentsin which the model is forced by extrema in NH summer insolation. Compared to the low-insolation experiment, the high-insolation climate features profound, large-scale changes in the pattern of monsoon precipitation spanning from Africa to Southeast Asia that are due to changes in the relative contributions of temperature and moisture to the near-surface equivalent potential temperature ?e. Under high insolation, a more rapid increase in land surface temperature in early summer causes the greatest ?e (and hence precipitation) to shift from the oceans in low insolation (such as today) to be over land in high insolation (such as the early Holocene). The model captures the general pattern of isotopic excursions seen in caves spanning from Israel to western China, including large drops in ?18Op over eastern Tibet (-7), the Arabian Peninsula, and northeast Africa (-4). Although there are large changes in precipitation over Tibet, the change in ?18Op is due to changes in the ?18O of water vapor that is delivered and subsequently precipitated; it does not inform on local precipitation amount or intensity.

  20. Variation of solar cell sensitivity and solar radiation on tilted surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klucher, T. M.

    1978-01-01

    The validity is studied that one of various insolation models used to compute solar radiation incident on tilted surfaces from global data measured on horizontal surfaces. The variation of solar cell sensitivity to solar radiation is determined over a wide range of atmospheric condition. A new model was formulated that reduced the deviations between measured and predicted insolation to less than 3 percent. Evaluation of solar cell sensitivity data indicates small change (2-3 percent) in sensitivity from winter to summer for tilted cells. The feasibility of using such global data as a means for calibrating terrestrial solar cells is discussed.

  1. Solar energy in Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, H.

    1981-12-01

    The past, present, and future of Peru is discussed in terms of solar energy development and the social, economic, climatic, and technical factors involved. It is pointed out that there are 3 geographical divisions in Peru including: (1) the foggy coastal strip where rain is infrequent, insolation is low and population is high; (2) the mountainous Andes region with high insolation and many populated high mountain valleys; and (3) the rainy, Amazon basin covered with jungle, and sparcely populated with high but inconsistent insolation. Since there is little competition with other forms of energy, solar energy shows promise. Passive solar heating of buildings, particularly in the Andes region, is described, as well as the use of solar water heaters. Prototypes are described and illustrated. Industrial use of solar heated water in the wool industry as well as solar food drying and solar desalination are discussed. High temperature applications (electrical generators and refrigeration) as well as photovoltaic systems are discussed briefly. It is concluded that social and political factors are holding back the development of solar energy but a start (in the form of prototypes and demonstration programs) is being made. (MJJ)

  2. Liquid solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report documents evaluation test on commercial flat-plate solar collector that uses water as working fluid. Performance was measured before and after 34-day exposure to natural environment. Tables in metric and English units present data on air and water temperatures, waterflow, insolation, efficiency, and windspeed and direction.

  3. Arkansas solar retrofit guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    An investigation of how solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is reported. The retrofits examined were greenhouses, air heaters and water heaters. The design, construction, and performance of the retrofits are described, along with some information about sun motion and orientation and greenhouse gardening. Appended are maps, tables, and graphs of insolation in Arkansas. (LEW)

  4. Sensitivity of Asian and African climate to variations in seasonal insolation, glacial ice cover, sea surface temperature and Asian orography

    SciTech Connect

    DeMenocal, P.B. ); Rind, D. )

    1993-04-20

    The authors are interested in the general question of how low and high latitude regions interact on a climatic scale. Here they present results for modeled climatic influences in Asia and Africa, due to boundary condition changes in surrounding regions. The factors varied were the amount of solar insolation, the extent of glacial ice cover in high latitude areas, the north Atlantic sea surface temperatures, and the height of the Asian orography elevations. Results of using the GISS general circulation model, with these different imposed boundary conditions are then observed for their impact on the seasonal climate of the Asian and African monsoons. These results are then looked at in light of paleoclimatic evidence to see if these influences might be a major factor in driving the climate changes in Asia and Africa.

  5. The effect of customized insoles on the reduction of postwork discomfort.

    PubMed

    Sobel, E; Levitz, S J; Caselli, M A; Christos, P J; Rosenblum, J

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effect of customized insoles in relieving postwork discomfort in healthy individuals whose jobs require long periods of standing and walking. CompuSole insoles were worn by 122 New York City Police Department officers for up to 5 weeks for an average of 7 hours per day. The officers walked an average of 3 miles per day. Before the study, one-fifth of the police officers in this study experienced foot pain or discomfort at the end of their workday; 15% had calluses, corns, or athlete's foot; 18% had sought treatment for a foot problem in the past; and 20% had worn foot orthoses. There was a significant reduction in tiredness in the feet at the end of the day after wearing the insoles, but no improvement in back or leg discomfort. At the end of the workday, 68% had less foot discomfort and 60% were more comfortable at work when wearing the insoles. PMID:11734607

  6. Analysis of walking improvement with dynamic shoe insoles, using two accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruoka, Yuriko; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Shibasaki, Ryosuke; Tsuruoka, Masako

    2005-07-01

    The orthopedics at the rehabilitation hospital found that disorders caused by sports injuries to the feet or caused by lower-back are improved by wearing dynamic shoe insoles, these improve walking balance and stability. However, the relationship of the lower-back and knees and the rate of increase in stability were not quantitatively analyzed. In this study, using two accelerometers, we quantitatively analyzed the reciprocal spatiotemporal contributions between the lower-back and knee of patients with left lower-back pain by means of Relative Power Contribution Analysis. When the insoles were worn, the contribution of the left and right knee relative to the left lower-back pain was up to 26% ( p<0.05) greater than without the insoles. Comparing patients with and without insoles, we found that the variance in the step response analysis of the left and right knee decreased by up to 67% ( p<0.05). This shows an increase in stability.

  7. Validity and reliability of pressure-measurement insoles for vertical ground reaction force assessment in field situations.

    PubMed

    Koch, Markus; Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Ernst, Michael; Knardahl, Stein; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to test the validity and reliability of pressure-measurement insoles (medilogic() insoles) when measuring vertical ground reaction forces in field situations. Various weights were applied to and removed from the insoles in static mechanical tests. The force values measured simultaneously by the insoles and force plates were compared for 15 subjects simulating work activities. Reliability testing during the static mechanical tests yielded an average interclass correlation coefficient of 0.998. Static loads led to a creeping pattern of the output force signal. An individual load response could be observed for each insole. The average root mean square error between the insoles and force plates ranged from 6.6% to 17.7% in standing, walking, lifting and catching trials and was 142.3% in kneeling trials. The results show that the use of insoles may be an acceptable method for measuring vertical ground reaction forces in field studies, except for kneeling positions. PMID:26674403

  8. Effects of low-energy laser insolation upon the development of postradiation syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, Rimma N.; Gomberg, Vladimir G.; Boiko, Vladimir A.; Pupkova, Ludmila S.; Reznikov, Leonid L.; Dadali, V. A.

    1996-04-01

    Basic pathogenic research as well as the studies of clinical therapeutic aspects dealing with the long-term gamma radiation effects are of utmost significance nowadays. The main goal of the present study was to establish the capability of low-energy laser insolation to oppose the free radical oxidative chain reactions inherent to the effects of radiation. Adequate doses of low- energy laser insolation were shown to produce positive effects upon the metabolism similar to those of pharmacologic radioprotectors.

  9. Parametric study of orthopedic insole of valgus foot on partial foot amputation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-Chao; Wang, Li-Zhen; Chen, Wei; Du, Cheng-Fei; Mo, Zhong-Jun; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2016-06-01

    Orthopedic insole was important for partial foot amputation (PFA) to achieve foot balance and avoid foot deformity. The inapposite insole orthosis was thought to be one of the risk factors of reamputation for foot valgus patient, but biomechanical effects of internal tissues on valgus foot had not been clearly addressed. In this study, plantar pressure on heel and metatarsal regions of PFA was measured using F-Scan. The three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of partial foot evaluated different medial wedge angles (MWAs) (0.0°-10.0°) of orthopedic insole on valgus foot. The effect of orthopedic insole on the internal bone stress, the medial ligament tension of ankle, plantar fascia tension, and plantar pressure was investigated. Plantar pressure on medial heel region was about 2.5 times higher than that of lateral region based on the F-Scan measurements. FE-predicted results showed that the tension of medial ankle ligaments was the lowest, and the plantar pressure was redistributed around the heel, the first metatarsal, and the lateral longitudinal arch regions when MWA of orthopedic insole ranged from 7.5° to 8.0°. The plantar fascias maintained about 3.5% of the total load bearing on foot. However, the internal stresses from foot bones increased. The simulation in this study would provide the suggestion of guiding optimal design of orthopedic insole and therapeutic planning to pedorthist. PMID:26291149

  10. Characteristics of long-term variation in the amlitude of the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation using the Inter-university Upper atmosphere Gobal Observation NETwork (IUGONET) data analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    Characteristics of long-term variation in the amplitude of solar quiet geomagnetic field daily variation (Sq) have been investigated using 1-hour geomagnetic field data obtained from 69 geomagnetic stations in a period of 1947-2013. In the present data analysis, we took advantage of the IUGONET data analysis system. The Sq amplitude clearly showed a 10-12 year solar activity dependence and it tended to enhance during each solar maximum. During the minimum of solar cycle 23/24 in 2008-2009, the Sq amplitude became the smallest in the investigated period. The relationship between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude is approximately linear but 64 percent of geomagnetic stations show a weak nonlinear dependence on the solar F10.7 index. In order to remove the effect of solar activity seen in the long-term variation of the Sq amplitude, we calculated a linear or second order fitting curve between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude during 1947-2013, and examined the residual Sq amplitude, which is defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. As a result, a majority of the trends in the residual Sq amplitude that passed through a trend test showed a negative value in a wide region. This tendency was relatively strong in Europe, India, the eastern part of Canada, and New Zealand. The relationship between the magnetic field intensity and residual Sq amplitude showed an anti-correlation for about 71 percent of geomagnetic stations. On the other hand, the residual Sq amplitude in the equatorial station (Addis Ababa) was anti-correlated with the absolute value of the magnetic field inclination. This implies the movement of the equatorial electrojet due to the secular variation of the ambient magnetic field.

  11. Local effects of partly-cloudy skies on solar and emitted radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, D. A.; Griffin, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol and turbidity measurements were analyzed and the results are presented. The correlation of global insolation with cloud cover fractions for the first complete year's data set was completed. A theoretical model was developed to parameterize the effects of local aerosols upon insolation received at the ground using satellite radiometric data and insolation measurements under clear sky conditions. A February data set, composed of one minute integrated global insolation and direct solar irradiances, cloud cover fractions, meteorological data from nearby weather stations, and GOES East satellite radiometric data was collected to test the model and used to calculate the effects of local aerosols.

  12. Operation and performance of the solar steam system at the Johnson & Johnson plant in Sherman, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, D. F.; Youngblood, S. B.

    1982-08-01

    A solar system that produces 174 C (345 F) steam is in operation at the Johnson and Johnson manufacturing plant in Sherman, Texas. The system uses parabolic trough collectors to heat pressurized water which then flashes to steam in a flash boiler; this steam is fed into the plant steam main for use in several manufacturing processes. The facility's performance has been monitored continuously since it began operation in January 1980. The collector field typically has delivered energy to the flash boiler at an average daily efficiency of 30 to 40 percent, with an hourly average efficiency ranging from 38 to 42 percent at peak insolation periods. The daily and hourly values for energy collected and steam generated on a clear day in September are presented, as well as a monthly summary for the first 13 months of operation.

  13. Performance studies on solar concrete collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, J.K.; Sukhatme, S.P.; Limaye, R.G.; Bopshetty, S.V. )

    1989-01-01

    This article presents performance studies on solar concrete collectors used for providing domestic hot water. Although they are less efficient, such collectors integrated with building structures are likely to be more cost effective than conventional flat-plate collectors using metallic absorber plates. The collectors are made up of thin concrete slabs with a network of PVC (polyvinyl chloride) tubes embedded inside the concrete. A layer of galvanized iron wiremesh on either side of the PVC tubes provides the necessary reinforcement to the concrete. The top of the slab is painted black and glazed, while the back insulation is made out of autoclave cellular concrete. Collectors with tube spacing varying from 6 to 15 cm have been cast and tested for different flow rates and inlet fluid temperatures. Of the collectors tested, it has been found that the collector with a pitch of 6 cm gives the best performance at a flow rate of 0.02 1/s per square meter of collector absorber area. Typically the daily efficiency of such a collector is about 37% for an inlet temperature of about 50{degree}C, daily solar insolation of 23.8 MJ/m{sup 2} and an average ambient temperature of 34{degree}C. The pressure drop across the collector has also been measured and is found to be less than that of a conventional collector. Concrete strength measurements show that the wiremesh reinforcement provides sufficient strength to withstand handling stresses.

  14. U.S. Solar Resource Maps and Tools from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Solar maps provide monthly average daily total solar resource information on grid cells. The insolation values represent the resource available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal to equal to the latitude of the collector location. [Copied from http://www.nrel.gov/gis/solar.html] Several types of solar maps are made available. The U.S. Solar resource maps show the resource potential for energy from photovoltaics and from concentrating solar power (CSP). Both sets of maps are available in low or high resolution. A dynamic map based on version 2 of PVWATTS calculates electrical energy performance estimates for a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The map of U.S. Solar Measurement Station Locations is also dynamic, showing the spatial distribution of measurement stations across the U.S. that are monitored by programs and agencies such as DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program or NREL's Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements (CONFRRM). Clicking on a station location will take the user to the website of that station. Finally, static map images providing solar resource information averaged by month are also available.

  15. Insolation-sunshine relation with site elevation and latitude

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, I.A. )

    1994-07-01

    Data from six meteorological stations dispersed widely over Pakistan have been used to produce a correlation between the monthly means of easily measured sunshine duration and the less frequently recorded global solar radiation, taking into account the site elevation above sea level and the latitude. The relation is shown to be valuable for other regions too.

  16. Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2.5 QC Shortwave Daily Data in Native Format (SRB_REL2.5_QCSW_DAILY)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    This data set contains average clear-sky surface insolation, all-sky surface insolation, surface absorbed SW flux, and all-sky surface albedo measured at daily intervals for each day for the entire globe between 07/01/1983 and 06/30/2005. These SW surface radiative parameters were derived with the Quality-Check SW (QCSW) algorithm of the NASA World Climate Research Programme/Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (WCRP/GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=Ranges from 1 degree (tropics and subtropics) to 120 degrees (the poles).; Temporal_Resolution=daily; Temporal_Resolution_Range=daily].

  17. Insolation and CO2 Contribution to the interglacial climates of the past 800,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Q.; Berger, A. L.

    2010-12-01

    The individual contributions of insolation and greenhouse gases (GHG) to the interglacial climates of the past 800,000 years, as well as their combined effects and synergism, are quantified through simulations with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity and using the factor separation technique. The interglacials are compared in terms of their forcings and climate response. Our results show that MIS-9 is the warmest interglacial and MIS-13 the coolest. GHG are responsible for a large part of the difference between the global annual mean temperatures of the interglacials as a direct result of the greenhouse effect. However, insolation plays a significant role through its seasonal and regional impacts, particularly during the local summer of both hemispheres. Analysis of the individual effects of insolation and GHG shows that their relative importance on the interglacial intensity varies from one interglacial to another. MIS-9 is the warmest GHG-induced interglacial and MIS-17 the coolest. MIS-9 is also the warmest insolation-induced interglacial and MIS-7 the coolest, the insolation-induced cooling of MIS-7 beating its GHG-induced warming and making it one of the cool interglacials. In the explanation of the generally warmer post-MBE interglacials, boreal winter - or equivalently austral summer - is a key season and the Southern Hemisphere plays a more important role than the Northern Hemisphere as it warms significantly during both seasons (Yin and Berger, 2010). Our simulations also show that the variations in the global tree fraction and desert fraction are mainly controlled by insolation, being almost independent of the GHG concentration changes. This is due to the fact that, being given the warm interglacial conditions, the tree fraction is not sensitive to temperature change but sensitive to precipitation change which, at the regional scale, is mainly controlled by insolation. The response of the sea ice in the Arctic is different from that in the Southern Ocean. In the Arctic, the winter sea-ice maximum shows no apparent variation between the interglacials and the variation of the summer ice minimum is mostly explained by insolation. In the Southern Ocean, both the winter ice maximum and summer ice minimum show significant variations. The former one is mainly controlled by GHG, but in the latter GHG and insolation are equally important. The mechanisms responsible for all these features will be discussed.

  18. Does Wearing Textured Insoles during Non-class Time Improve Proprioception in Professional Dancers?

    PubMed

    Steinberg, N; Tirosh, O; Adams, R; Karin, J; Waddington, G

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to determine whether textured insoles inserted in the sports shoes of young dancers improved their inversion and eversion ankle movement discrimination. 26 ballet dancers (14 female, 12 male) from the Australian Ballet School, ages 14-19 years, were divided into 2 groups according to sex and class levels. During the first 4 weeks, the first intervention group (GRP1) was asked to wear textured insoles in their sports shoes during non-class periods, and the second intervention group (GRP2) followed standard practice. In the next 4 weeks, GRP2 was asked to wear the textured insoles and GRP1 did not wear the textured insoles. Participants were tested pre-intervention, after 4 weeks, and at 8 weeks for both inversion and eversion ankle discrimination. In both inversion and eversion testing positions, interaction was found between the 2 groups and the 3 testing times (p<0.001), with significant differences between the first testing and the second testing (p=0.038 and p=0.019, respectively), and between the third testing and the second testing (p=0.003 and p=0.029, respectively). In conclusion, the stimulation to the proprioceptive system arising from textured insoles worn for 4 weeks was sufficient to improve the ankle proprioception of ballet dancers, in both inversion and eversion movements. PMID:26332901

  19. Mississippi County Community College Solar Photovoltaic Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, W.D.; Deaver, F.K.; Johnson, M.M.; Pugh, T.; Snowden, R.; Wall, J.D.; Williams, J.G.; Yeargan, J.R.

    1980-11-01

    A weather station was maintained in Blytheville, Arkansas, from April 1978 to April 1980. Daily totals of direct normal and global insolation are given, and an hour-by-hour printout of direct normal, global, and diffuse solar radiation for the entire two year period is included. A number of studies were conducted, including daylighting, energy conservation and management, design tradeoffs, and landscaping. The collector selection process included the writing of specifications, providing design data, reviewing the various collector designs, inspecting potential vendor facilities, monitoring on-site tests, and the final selection. A simulation was made of the entire system, including both an electrical and thermal simulation of the photovoltaic array and a thermal simulation of the various buildings. Example printouts of the simulations are included. (LEW)

  20. Insolation, erosion, and morphology of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, H. U.; Mottola, S.; Davidsson, B.; Schröder, S. E.; Skorov, Y.; Kührt, E.; Groussin, O.; Pajola, M.; Hviid, S. F.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J. R.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Michalik, H.; Naletto, G.; Sabau, L.; Thomas, N.; Vincent, J.-B.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Agarwal, J.; Güttler, C.; Oklay, N.; Tubiana, C.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The complex shape of comet 67P and its oblique rotation axis cause pronounced seasonal effects. Irradiation and hence activity vary strongly. Aims: We investigate the insolation of the cometary surface in order to predict the sublimation of water ice. The strongly varying erosion levels are correlated with the topography and morphology of the present cometary surface and its evolution. Methods: The insolation as a function of heliocentric distance and diurnal (spin dependent) variation is calculated using >105 facets of a detailed digital terrain model. Shading, but also illumination and thermal radiation by facets in the field of view of a specific facet are iteratively taken into account. We use a two-layer model of a thin porous dust cover above an icy surface to calculate the water sublimation, presuming steady state and a uniform surface. Our second model, which includes the history of warming and cooling due to thermal inertia, is restricted to a much simpler shape model but allows us to test various distributions of active areas. Results: Sublimation from a dirty ice surface yields maximum erosion. A thin dust cover of 50 μm yields similar rates at perihelion. Only about 6% of the surface needs to be active to match the observed water production rates at perihelion. A dust layer of 1 mm thickness suppresses the activity by a factor of 4 to 5. Erosion on the south side can reach more than 10 m per orbit at active spots. The energy input to the concave neck area (Hapi) during northern summer is enhanced by about 50% owing to self-illumination. Here surface temperatures reach maximum values along the foot of the Hathor wall. Integrated over the whole orbit this area receives the least energy input. Based on the detailed shape model, the simulations identify "hot spots" in depressions and larger pits in good correlation with observed dust activity. Three-quarters of the total sublimation is produced while the sub-solar latitude is south, resulting in a distinct dichotomy in activity and morphology. Conclusions: The northern areas display a much rougher morphology than what is seen on Imhotep, an area at the equator that will be fully illuminated when 67P is closer to the Sun. Self-illumination in concave regions enhance the energy input and hence erosion. This explains the early activity observed at Hapi. Cliffs are more prone to erosion than horizontal, often dust covered, areas, which leads to surface planation. Local activity can only persist if the forming cliff walls are eroding. Comet 67P has two lobes and also two distinct sides. Transport of material from the south to the north is probable. The morphology of the Imhotep plain should be typical for the terrains of the yet unseen southern hemisphere.

  1. A 3D Earth orbit model; visualization and analysis of Milankovitch cycles and insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilb, R. D.; Kostadinov, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    An astronomically precise and accurate Earth orbit graphical model, Earth orbit v2.0, is presented. The model offers 3D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcings. Prevalent paleoclimatic theories invoke Milankovitch cycles as a major forcing mechanism capable of shifting Earth's climate regimes on time scales of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. Variability of eccentricity (ellipticity of orbit), precession (longitude of perihelion) and obliquity (Earth's axial tilt) changes parameters such as amplitude of seasonal insolation, timing of seasons with respect to perihelion, and total annual insolation. Hays et al. (1976) demonstrated a strong link between Milankovitch cycles and paleoclimatological records, which has been confirmed and expanded many times since (e.g. Berger et al., 1994; Berger et al., 2010). The complex interplay of several orbital parameters on various time scales makes assessment and visualization of Earth's orbit and spatio-temporal insolation variability challenging. It is difficult to appreciate the pivotal importance of Kepler's laws of planetary motion in controlling the effects of Milankovitch cycles on insolation patterns on various spatio-temporal scales. These factors also make Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. The model allows substantial user control in a robust, yet intuitive and user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) developed in Matlab. We present the user with a choice between Berger et al. (1978) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. Berger solutions span from -1 Myr to +1 Myr, while Laskar provides solutions from -101 Myr to +21 Myr since J2000. Users can also choose a "demo" mode which allows the three Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other, so the user can isolate the effects of each on orbital geometry and insolation. For example, extreme eccentricity can be chosen, which is useful for illustrating Kepler's laws, and precession can be varied to illustrate its effect on the timing of the seasons. Earth's orbit is plotted in 3D with the chosen real (past, present or future) or demo Milankovitch parameters. Earth is placed in its orbit using Kepler's Laws and the calendar can be started on either vernal equinox (March 20) or perihelion (Jan. 3). The Sun, perihelion, and the equinoxes and solstices are displayed in a plot that can be zoomed, panned and rotated in three dimensions. The model can also output time-series plots at varying scales from Berger and Laskar's solutions. Coupled with the orbit plotting and time-series functionality, global insolation is computed as a function of latitude and day of year, using the chosen Milankovitch parameters. 3D surface plots of insolation and insolation anomalies (compared to J2000) are then produced. Insolation computations use the model's own orbital geometry with no additional a-priori input other than the Milankovitch parameter solutions. Insolation computations are successfully validated against Laskar et al. (2004). Envisioned future developments include more options for insolation plots on user-chosen spatio-temporal scales and overlaying various paleoclimatological proxy data.

  2. Footscan pressure insoles: accuracy and reliability of force and pressure measurements in running.

    PubMed

    Low, D C; Dixon, S J

    2010-10-01

    In the current investigation, the accuracy and reliability of two pairs of Footscan pressure insoles (500 Hz, RSscan, Belgium) was assessed, with four female (pair 1) and four male (pair 2) participants each performing 16 running trials (3.8m/s 5%). Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) revealed that the reliability of the force and pressure data was generally excellent (ICC>0.75). In comparison with impact and propulsive force data collected simultaneously with a force plate (AMTI, 500 Hz), insole data were significantly lower (p<0.05). Therefore, despite the excellent reliability of measurements, the accuracy of the impact and propulsive forces taken with the Footscan pressure insole is low. It is concluded that data collected without appropriate calibration should be used with caution, particularly if the aim is to use the data for a comparison of absolute force and pressure magnitudes with criterion values. PMID:20813530

  3. Drive-Response Analysis of Global Ice Volume, CO2, and Insolation using Information Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brendryen, J.; Hannisdal, B.

    2014-12-01

    The processes and interactions that drive global ice volume variability and deglaciations are a topic of considerable debate. Here we analyze the drive-response relationships between data sets representing global ice volume, CO2 and insolation over the past 800 000 years using an information theoretic approach. Specifically, we use a non-parametric measure of directional information transfer (IT) based on the construct of transfer entropy to detect the relative strength and directionality of interactions in the potentially chaotic and non-linear glacial-interglacial climate system. Analyses of unfiltered data suggest a tight coupling between CO2 and ice volume, detected as strong, symmetric information flow consistent with a two-way interaction. In contrast, IT from Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer insolation to CO2 is highly asymmetric, suggesting that insolation is an important driver of CO2. Conditional analysis further suggests that CO2 is a dominant influence on ice volume, with the effect of insolation also being significant but limited to smaller-scale variability. However, the strong correlation between CO2 and ice volume renders them information redundant with respect to insolation, confounding further drive-response attribution. We expect this information redundancy to be partly explained by the shared glacial-interglacial "sawtooth" pattern and its overwhelming influence on the transition probability distributions over the target interval. To test this, we filtered out the abrupt glacial terminations from the ice volume and CO2 records to focus on the residual variability. Preliminary results from this analysis confirm insolation as a driver of CO2 and two-way interactions between CO2 and ice volume. However, insolation is reduced to a weak influence on ice volume. Conditional analyses support CO2 as a dominant driver of ice volume, while ice volume and insolation both have a strong influence on CO2. These findings suggest that the effect of orbital variability on global ice volume may work primarily through its influence on CO2. Our preliminary results are consistent with the idea that the coupling between CO2 and ice volume likely occurs via a feedback loop that involves meltwater-induced shifts in oceanic circulation and associated changes in the carbon cycle.

  4. Wealth, inequality, and insolation effects across the 19th century white US stature distribution.

    PubMed

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2010-12-01

    Sources associated with 19th century stature variation have been widely considered. Using US state prison records and robust statistics, this paper illustrates that 19th century US white statures were positively associated with a broad combination of wealth, equality, and environmental characteristics. Individuals from geographic areas characterized by low wealth and high inequality had shorter statures. After controlling for various factors, direct sunlight--the primary source of vitamin D--was also positively associated with stature. After controlling for wealth, inequality, and insolation, farmers were taller than workers in other occupations. These wealth, insolation, and socioeconomic relationships are significant across the stature distribution. PMID:21055748

  5. Effect of custom-made and prefabricated insoles on plantar loading parameters during running with and without fatigue.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Prez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Macin-Romero, Cecili; Snchez-Zuriaga, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Controversy exists whether custom-made insoles are more effective in reducing plantar loading compared to prefabricated insoles. Forty recreational athletes ran using custom-made, prefabricated, and the original insoles of their running shoes, at rest and after a fatigue run. Contact time, stride rate, and plantar loading parameters were measured. Neither the insole conditions nor the fatigue state modified contact time and stride rate. Addressing prevention of running injuries, post-fatigue loading values are of great interest. Custom-made insoles reduced the post-fatigue loading under the hallux (92 vs. 130 kPa, P < 0.05), medial midfoot (70 vs. 105 kPa, P < 0.01), and lateral midfoot (62 vs 96 kPa, P < 0.01). Prefabricated insoles provoked reductions in post-fatigue loading under the toes (120 vs. 175 kPa, P < 0.05), medial midfoot (71 vs. 105 kPa, P < 0.01), and lateral midfoot (68 vs. 96 kPa, P < 0.01). Regarding both study insoles, custom-made insoles reduced by 31% and 54% plantar loading under the medial and lateral heel compared to the prefabricated insoles. Finally, fatigue state did not influence plantar loading regardless the insole condition. In long-distance races, even a slight reduction in plantar loading at each foot strike may suppose a significant decrease in the overall stress experienced by the foot, and therefore the use of insoles may be an important protective mechanism for plantar overloading. PMID:24823258

  6. Temperature, precipitation, and insolation effects on autumn vegetation phenology in temperate China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Fu, Yongshuo H; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Huang, Mengtian; Li, Xiran; Piao, Shilong

    2016-02-01

    Autumn phenology plays a critical role in regulating climate-biosphere interactions. However, the climatic drivers of autumn phenology remain unclear. In this study, we applied four methods to estimate the date of the end of the growing season (EOS) across China's temperate biomes based on a 30-year normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS). We investigated the relationships of EOS with temperature, precipitation sum, and insolation sum over the preseason periods by computing temporal partial correlation coefficients. The results showed that the EOS date was delayed in temperate China by an average rate at 0.120.01days per year over the time period of 1982-2011. EOS of dry grassland in Inner Mongolia was advanced. Temporal trends of EOS determined across the four methods were similar in sign, but different in magnitude. Consistent with previous studies, we observed positive correlations between temperature and EOS. Interestingly, the sum of precipitation and insolation during the preseason was also associated with EOS, but their effects were biome dependent. For the forest biomes, except for evergreen needle-leaf forests, the EOS dates were positively associated with insolation sum over the preseason, whereas for dry grassland, the precipitation over the preseason was more dominant. Our results confirmed the importance of temperature on phenological processes in autumn, and further suggested that both precipitation and insolation should be considered to improve the performance of autumn phenology models. PMID:26340580

  7. On the Departure from Isothermality of Pluto's Volatile Ice due to Local Insolation and Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafton, Laurence M.; Stansberry, John A.

    2015-11-01

    Pluto’s atmosphere is known to be supported by the vapor pressure of ices that are volatile at low temperature, primarily N2 and secondarily CH4 and CO. The atmospheric bulk is regulated by the globally average temperature of the ice, which is determined by a radiative balance between the diurnally average insolation absorbed globally by the volatile ice and the global volatile ice thermal radiation. This bulk is sufficient that Pluto’s atmosphere is close to hydrostatic equilibrium, though this may not remain so as Pluto continues to move towards aphelion. With the weight of the atmosphere currently distributed evenly around the body, the ice temperature is expected to be globally isothermal in absence of topographic variations, due to the transport of latent heat from regions of high insolation to low insolation through sublimation and condensation. Images returned from the New Horizons spacecraft show topographical features, including mountain ranges that extend above 3.5 km, with albedo variations that suggest a topographical dimension or dependence of the volatile ice deposits. In general, the conditions often applied to a volatile atmosphere of hydrostatic equilibrium and vapor-solid phase equilibrium are approximations that may not always both be appropriate. This is particularly the case in the presence of topography when the atmospheric lapse rate differs from the wet adiabat. We present our results of an investigation of the effect of variable insolation and topography on Pluto’s local ice temperature assuming an atmosphere close to hydrostatic equilibrium.

  8. Prevention of lower extremity stress fractures: a controlled trial of a shock absorbent insole.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, L I; Dziados, J E; Jones, B H; Brundage, J F; Harris, J M; Sullivan, R; Gill, P

    1988-01-01

    A prospective controlled trial was carried out to determine the usefulness of a viscoelastic polymer insole in prevention of stress fractures and stress reactions of the lower extremities. The subjects were 3,025 US Marine recruits who were followed for 12 weeks of training at Parris Island, South Carolina. Polymer and standard mesh insoles were systematically distributed in boots that were issued to members of odd and even numbered platoons. The most important finding was that an elastic polymer insole with good shock absorbency properties did not prevent stress reactions of bone during a 12-week period of vigorous physical training. To control for the confounding effects of running in running shoes, which occurred for about one and one-half hours per week for the first five weeks, we also examined the association of age of shoes and cost of shoes with injury incidence. A slight trend of increasing stress injuries by increasing age of shoes was observed. However, this trend did not account for the similarity of rates in the two insole groups. In addition, we observed a strong trend of decreasing stress injury rate by history of increasing physical activity, as well as a higher stress injury rate in White compared to Black recruits. The results of the trial were not altered after controlling for these factors. This prospective study confirms previous clinical reports of the association of stress fractures with physical activity history. The clinical application of a shock absorbing insole as a preventive for lower extremity stress reactions is not supported in these uniformly trained recruits. The findings are relevant to civilian populations. PMID:3056045

  9. Sensitivity of modeled Cretaceous climate to insolation forcing created by varying Earth-Sun orbital relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Glancy, T.J. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Rhythmic sedimentation patterns observed within the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway, such as those in the Bridge Creek Limestone Member of the Greenhorn Limestone Formation exposed near Pueblo, Colorado, appear to be a response to episodic climate change. These climatic variations could, in turn, be forced by the periodic insolation change over the North American continent created by Milankovitch-scale Earth-Sun orbital relationships - eccentricity (100 kiloyears), obliquity (41 kiloyears) and precession of the equinox (23 kiloyears). To test the sensitivity of Cretaceous climate to changes in Milankovitch-scale insolation forcing, a set of seasonal simulations using maximum difference insolation forcing conditions was conducted with the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Climate Model using 100 MA Cretaceous paleogeography and paleotopography. Analysis showed statistically significant differences in surface temperature, precipitation, surface wind, storm track location, and upwelling occurred over many regions of the Cretaceous Earth, particularly in the summer and winter monsoon system. During Northern Hemisphere winter, differences in the position of storm passage over Cretaceous western North America under maximum difference insolation forcing conditions varies the precipitation received over the southern Western Interior Seaway at the location where the Bridge Creek Limestone Member rhythmic sedimentation was produced. Northern Hemisphere winter simulations removing all sea ice from the model showed little difference in the climatic effects observed over southwestern North America from the case with sea ice present. Additional simulations varying only the obliquity within the model suggest that the observed Bridge Creek Limestone Member rhythmic sedimentation patterns are controlled by climatic change produced by cyclic variation in the precession of the equinox and eccentricity insolation forcing.

  10. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  11. Solar Thermal Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1982-11-01

    The thermal conversion process of solar energy is based on well-known phenomena of heat transfer (Kreith 1976). In all thermal conversion processes, solar radiation is absorbed at the surface of a receiver, which contains or is in contact with flow passages through which a working fluid passes. As the receiver heats up, heat is transferred to the working fluid which may be air, water, oil, or a molten salt. The upper temperature that can be achieved in solar thermal conversion depends on the insolation, the degree to which the sunlight is concentrated, and the measures taken to reduce heat losses from the working fluid.

  12. Test facility for solar-cell reference conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klucher, T. M.

    1976-01-01

    A test facility, intended primarily for long-term monitoring of the global insolation and its components and the concurrent solar cell performance under a wide variety of measureable atmospheric and weather conditions, is described. Instruments for the measurement of insolation, cell performance, turbidity, water vapor, and cloud cover are described. Preliminary evaluation of the hourly data base generated over a two-month period for a range of sky conditions from clear to overcast is presented.

  13. [The clinical evaluation of the lateral wedged insole fixed elastically on the subtalar joint of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee].

    PubMed

    Toda, Y

    2001-06-01

    We assessed the clinical efficacy of a lateral wedged insole with elastic fixation of the subtalar joint for conservative treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Novel insoles with elastic subtalar fixation (fixed insole) and a traditional shoe insert wedged insoles (inserted insole) were prepared. Seventy-one new female outpatients with osteoarthritis of the knee (knee OA) were treated with wedged insoles for 3 months. Randomization was performed according to birth date. The Severity Index of Lequesne, et al at the final assessment was compared with that at baseline in both the inserted and fixed insole groups. There were 37 participants in the inserted group and 34 participants in the fixed insole group. Regarding discomfort during nocturnal bed rest, 21 out of 34 (61%) participants were positive at the baseline assessment, however, only 8 out of 34 (27%) were positive at the final assessment in the fixed insole group (P = 0.033). In the fixed insole group, the number of participants complained immediate pain after walking was decreased from 28 (82%) at the baseline assessment to 17 (50%) at the final assessments (P = 0.0104). These significant differences were not found in the group with the inserted insole. Thus, clinical efficacy of lateral wedged insole may be emphasized with elastic fixation of the subtalar joint. PMID:11505514

  14. A method for subject-specific modelling and optimisation of the cushioning properties of insole materials used in diabetic footwear.

    PubMed

    Chatzistergos, Panagiotis E; Naemi, Roozbeh; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a numerical method that can be used to investigate the cushioning properties of different insole materials on a subject-specific basis. Diabetic footwear and orthotic insoles play an important role for the reduction of plantar pressure in people with diabetes (type-2). Despite that, little information exists about their optimum cushioning properties. A new in-vivo measurement based computational procedure was developed which entails the generation of 2D subject-specific finite element models of the heel pad based on ultrasound indentation. These models are used to inverse engineer the material properties of the heel pad and simulate the contact between plantar soft tissue and a flat insole. After its validation this modelling procedure was utilised to investigate the importance of plantar soft tissue stiffness, thickness and loading for the correct selection of insole material. The results indicated that heel pad stiffness and thickness influence plantar pressure but not the optimum insole properties. On the other hand loading appears to significantly influence the optimum insole material properties. These results indicate that parameters that affect the loading of the plantar soft tissues such as body mass or a person's level of physical activity should be carefully considered during insole material selection. PMID:25937545

  15. Effect of postural insoles on static and functional balance in children with cerebral palsy: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Christovão, Thaluanna C. L.; Pasini, Hugo; Grecco, Luanda A. C.; Ferreira, Luiz A. B.; Duarte, Natália A. C.; Oliveira, Cláudia S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Improved gait efficiency is one of the goals of therapy for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Postural insoles can allow more efficient gait by improving biomechanical alignment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the combination of postural insoles and ankle-foot orthoses on static and functional balance in children with CP. METHOD: A randomized, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial. After meeting legal requirements and the eligibility criteria, 20 children between four and 12 years of age were randomly allocated either to the control group (CG) (n=10) or the experimental group (EG) (n=10). The CG used placebo insoles and the EG used postural insoles. The Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go Test, Six-Minute Walk Test, and Gross Motor Function Measure-88 were used to assess balance as well as the determination of oscillations from the center of pressure in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions with eyes open and closed. Three evaluations were carried out: 1) immediately following placement of the insoles; 2) after three months of insole use; and 3) one month after suspending insole use. RESULTS: The EG achieved significantly better results in comparison to the CG on the Timed Up-and-Go Test as well as body sway in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. CONCLUSION: Postural insoles led to an improvement in static balance among children with cerebral palsy, as demonstrated by the reduction in body sway in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. Postural insole use also led to a better performance on the Timed Up-and-Go Test. PMID:25651134

  16. Obliquity signals at low latitudes: a result of the cross-equatorial tropical insolation gradient?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosmans, Joyce; Hilgen, Frederik; Lourens, Lucas

    2013-04-01

    Despite the near-zero obliquity-induced insolation changes at the tropics, an obliquity signal is present in various sediment records at low latitudes. A number of hypotheses have been brought forward to explain the presence of obliquity at the tropics, especially in North-African records of monsoon strength. Firstly, the latitude of the tropics changes from 22 to 24.5, shifting the area under the influence of the monsoon by ~300 km, which could influence its poleward penetration. A second hypothesis involves the strengthening of the austral winter insolation gradient at times of high obliquity, forcing stronger trade winds which become part of the North-African monsoonal south-westerlies, intensifying the North-African summer monsoon. Thirdly, influences of higher latitudes, where obliquity-induced changes in insolation are larger, could strengthen the North-African monsoon through increased northerly moisture transport into the monsoon region and a strengthened Asian low pressure system. The fourth hypothesis is based on the insolation gradient, specifically the cross-equatorial insolation gradient between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. This insolation gradient drives the differential sensible heating between the two limbs of the winter hemisphere Hadley Cell and therefore the strength of the monsoon. This hypothesis suggests that the obliquity signal in the tropics arises without influence from higher latitudes. Using a high-resolution coupled climate model, EC-Earth, we can oppose the first three hypotheses. Comparing two experiments of low and high obliquity we find a more northward North-African monsoon during high obliquity, as suggested by the first hypothesis. However, we find that precession has a much larger effect on the northward extend of the North-African monsoon. Also, we find a very small increase in trade wind strength over the South-Atlantic for obliquity. Furthermore, spectral analysis shows that the winter hemispheric insolation gradient varies mostly with precession and very little with obliquity, contradicting the second hypothesis. Concerning the third hypothesis, in our EC-Earth experiments we find only small changes in moisture transport from the north into North-Africa which are negligible compared to changes in moisture transport from the tropical Atlantic. We also do not find evidence that the North-African monsoon strength is influenced by the Asian continental heat low. The lack of influence from higher latitudes on the North-African monsoon and the increased moisture transport from the tropical Atlantic suggest that the obliquity signal arises from the tropics themselves. Furthermore, across the whole tropics we find that during high obliquity cross-equatorial winds and moisture transport as well as the Hadley circulation are stronger during both boreal and austral summer. This is in agreement with a strengthened cross-equatorial insolation gradient, suggesting that this gradient forces the obliquity variations in the tropics without requiring the higher latitudes.

  17. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Data Release 5.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data set contains over 200 parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems.The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree].

  18. Shallow solar pond for large amounts of hot water. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This project entailed the detailed design, construction and testing of a shallow solar pond (SSP) system to provide hot water to a school in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. The three phases of the project, design, construction and testing of the pond, are all treated as separate reports in the appendices of this report. Several detailed drawings are provided with the brief discussion of the design of the SSP module. A total of thirteen T type thermocouples were used to measure the temperature at various points in the system. Incident insolation was also measured for the analysis of the system's performance. The average daily collector efficiency measured over a 29 day period was 45% with a standard deviation of 5%.

  19. Changes in windlass effect in response to different shoe and insole designs during walking.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Cherng; Chen, Carl P C; Tang, Simon F T; Wong, Alice M K; Hsieh, Jui-Hsiang; Chen, Weng-Pin

    2013-02-01

    Windlass effect occurs during the pre-swing phase of gait cycle in which the peak tensile strain and force of the plantar aponeurosis (PA) is reached. The increased dorsiflexion angle of the 1st metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint is the main causing factor. The aim of this study was to investigate thoroughly in finding the appropriate shoe and insole combination that can effectively decrease the windlass effect. Foot kinematic analyses of 10 normal volunteers (aged 25.22.1 years, height of 167.49.1 cm, and weight of 66.218.1 kg) were performed during gait under the conditions of barefoot, standard shoe (SS) with flat insole (FI) or carbon fiber insole (CFI), and rocker sole shoe (RSS) with FI or CFI. The shoe cover consisting of transparent polymer was used for accurate measurement of kinematic data as specific areas on the cover can be cut away for direct placement of reflective markers onto the skin. Under barefoot condition, the mean of maximum dorsiflexion angle of the 1st MTP joint was measured to be 48.07.3, and decreased significantly to 28.25.7 when wearing SS with FI, and 24.15.7 when wearing SS with CFI. This angle was further decreased to around 13 when wearing RSS with FI or CFI. Subjects wearing footwear alone can increase the minimum medial longitudinal angle and decrease the maximum plantarflexion angle of metatarsus related to the calcaneus as compared with barefoot condition, resulting in flatter medial foot arch. Results suggested that RSS is the effective footwear in reducing the windlass effect regardless the type of insole inserted. The findings in this study provided us with the evidences in finding the appropriate footwear for treating foot disorders such as plantar fasciitis by effectively reducing the windlass effect. PMID:22884544

  20. Insolation-induced mid-Brunhes transition in Southern Ocean ventilation and deep-ocean temperature.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qiuzhen

    2013-02-14

    Glacial-interglacial cycles characterized by long cold periods interrupted by short periods of warmth are the dominant feature of Pleistocene climate, with the relative intensity and duration of past and future interglacials being of particular interest for civilization. The interglacials after 430,000 years ago were characterized by warmer climates and higher atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide than the interglacials before, but the cause of this climatic transition (the so-called mid-Brunhes event (MBE)) is unknown. Here I show, on the basis of model simulations, that in response to insolation changes only, feedbacks between sea ice, temperature, evaporation and salinity caused vigorous pre-MBE Antarctic bottom water formation and Southern Ocean ventilation. My results also show that strong westerlies increased the pre-MBE overturning in the Southern Ocean via an increased latitudinal insolation gradient created by changes in eccentricity during austral winter and by changes in obliquity during austral summer. The stronger bottom water formation led to a cooler deep ocean during the older interglacials. These insolation-induced differences in the deep-sea temperature and in the Southern Ocean ventilation between the more recent interglacials and the older ones were not expected, because there is no straightforward systematic difference in the astronomical parameters between the interglacials before and after 430,000 years ago. Rather than being a real 'event', the apparent MBE seems to have resulted from a series of individual interglacial responses--including notable exceptions to the general pattern--to various combinations of insolation conditions. Consequently, assuming no anthropogenic interference, future interglacials may have pre- or post-MBE characteristics without there being a systematic change in forcings. These findings are a first step towards understanding the magnitude change of the interglacial carbon dioxide concentration around 430,000 years ago. PMID:23407538

  1. The Principal Components of Adult Female Insole Shape Align Closely with Two of Its Classic Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Bookstein, Fred L.; Domjanic, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The plantar surface of the human foot transmits the weight and dynamic force of the owners lower limbs to the ground and the reaction forces back to the musculoskeletal system. Its anatomical variation is intensely studied in such fields as sports medicine and orthopedic dysmorphology. Yet, strangely, the shape of the insole that accommodates this surface and elastically buffers these forces is neither an aspect of the conventional anthropometrics of feet nor an informative label on the packet that markets supplementary insoles. In this paper we pursue an earlier suggestion that insole form in vertical view be quantified in terms of the shape of the foot not at the plane of support (the footprint) but some two millimeters above that level. Using such sections extracted from laser scans of 158 feet of adult women from the University of Zagreb, in conjunction with an appropriate modification of todays standard geometric morphometrics (GMM), we find that the sectioned form can be described by its size together with two meaningful relative warps of shape. The pattern of this shape variation is not novel. It is closely aligned with two of the standard footprint measurements, the Chippaux-mi?k arch index and the Clarke arch angle, whose geometrical foci (the former in the ball of the foot, the latter in the arch) it apparently combines. Thus a strong contemporary analysis complements but does not supplant the simpler anthropometric analyses of half a century ago, with implications for applied anthropology. PMID:26308442

  2. Southern Laurentide Ice-Sheet Retreat Synchronous with Rising Boreal Summer Insolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, David J.; Carlson, Anders E.; Legrande, Allegra N.; Anslow, Faron S.; Moore, Angus K.; Caffee, Marc; Syverson, Kent M.; Licciardi, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing the precise timing for the onset of ice-sheet retreat at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is critical for delineating mechanisms that drive deglaciations. Uncertainties in the timing of ice-margin retreat and global ice-volume change allow a variety of plausible deglaciation triggers. Using boulder 10Be surface exposure ages, we date initial southern Laurentide ice-sheet (LIS) retreat from LGM moraines in Wisconsin (USA) to 23.0 +/- 0.6 ka, coincident with retreat elsewhere along the southern LIS and synchronous with the initial rise in boreal summer insolation 24-23 ka. We show with climate-surface mass balance simulations that this small increase in boreal summer insolation alone is potentially sufficient to drive enhanced southern LIS surface ablation. We also date increased southern LIS retreat after ca. 20.5 ka likely driven by an acceleration in rising isolation. This near-instantaneous southern LIS response to boreal summer insolation before any rise in atmospheric CO2 supports the Milankovic hypothesis of orbital forcing of deglaciations.

  3. The effect of cushioning insoles on back and lower extremity pain in an industrial setting.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, John R

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low back pain and lower extremity pain in a group of factory workers and determine the effect of cushioning insoles on low back pain and lower extremity pain. Data were gathered via questionnaire from 306 employees of an aircraft engine assembly factory. A subset of 40 workers who had reported significant levels of back or lower extremity pain were sampled for four consecutive 12-hour shifts wearing their normal footwear and then a week later for four consecutive shifts wearing cushioning insoles. High levels of low back pain and lower extremity pain were reported by workers on the plant floor, but low back pain was poorly correlated to lower extremity pain (r = 0.371). The effect of insoles on the subset of 40 workers was to lower low back pain by 38%, foot pain by 37%, and knee pain by 38% (p < .001). The reduction in low back pain, however, was not correlated to the reduction in lower extremity pain; workers reporting a decrease in low back pain differed from those reporting less lower extremity pain. PMID:24053218

  4. Temporal behavior of a ventilated claystone at the Tournemire URL: Cross-spectral analyses focused on daily harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailly, David; Matray, Jean-Michel; Ababou, Rachid

    2014-12-01

    The main topic of this communication is the presentation of study, auscultation and supervision procedures of deep geological radioactive waste storage repositories using natural harmonic forcings. In this paper, the effects of natural ventilation on the macroscopic behavior of a clayrock are investigated by means of time series recorded underground over a period of two years in the eastern part of Gallery 1996 at the Tournemire Underground Research Laboratory (URL). This study is based on time series acquired in theatmosphere, at the gallery wall surface, and inside the rock mass. It includes measured signals from 6 thermo-hygrometers, 5 crack-meters (measuring the displacement of 2 shrinkage cracks and 3 tectonic fractures), and a 1 meter-FDR (Frequency Domain Reflectometry) profile probe equipped with 6 sensors for measuring the volumetric pore-water content into the rock mass. Auto-spectral and cross-spectral analyses using the concept of Singular Spectrum Harmonics (SSHs and cross-SSHs) are developed. Our analyses and interpretations focus here mainly on the solar diurnal atmospheric tide (denoted S1 ). This tide corresponds to the insolation cycle of the Earth atmosphere during a mean Solar Day (24 h 00 min). This component is tracked throughout the various measured signals ("Spectral Tracking" of tide fluctuations across signals). This is equivalent, in a way, to analyzing the temporal behavior of the URL during a "Mean Solar Day on Earth". Results indicate that the daily natural forcing caused mainly by a combination of barometric and temperature related fluctuations, is the most important effect overall on our various signals. The daily harmonic induces the fluctuations of gallery air temperature, relative and absolute air humidity and it leads to desaturation of the claystone, which in turn leads to the claystone deformation and damage. The effects of the annual harmonic SA may also be significant (it was fully analyzed in the more complete version of this work); however the SA results are not presented here because the spectral resolution on the annual harmonic is insufficient at this stage with only 2 years and 2 months of clean recorded data. Focusing the present study on daily fluctuations, the cross-spectral time shifts were obtained from the phase spectrum, for the daily component S1, for various pairs of pore-water content sensors located at different distances from the gallery wall. These time shifts were then used to quantify a "spectral velocity" which is found to be on the same order than the hydraulic conductivities deduced previously from pneumatic tests performed in the Excavation Damaged Zone of Gallery 1996.

  5. Control Electronics for Solar/Flywheel Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Control circuit automatically directs flow of electrical energy to and from motor with flywheel that constitutes storage element of solar-power system. When insolation is sufficient for charging, power is supplied by solar-cell array to load and motor. During periods of darkness, motor made to act as generator, drawing kinetic energy from flywheel and supplying it to load.

  6. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  7. Suppression of insolation heating induced by electromagnetic scatteringdue to fine spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horie, J.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.; Manaka, Y.; Taniguchi, K.; Ashida, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, i.e., the greatest earthquake in the Japanese history, and the successive disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant have caused a fatal electric power shortage problem in summer in 2011. It is of key importance to reduce electricity demand and to save the energy. About one third of the total electricity demand at the peak consumption in summer is for the air-conditioning in the household and office sectors in Japan. It is, therefore, necessary to think deliberately of the reduction of electric power demand for air-conditioning. In fact, the temperature of materials rises when they are exposed to the sunlight (insolation heating) in particular in summer and the air-conditioning would become necessary for restoring the comfort in insolated housings. The energy for the air-conditioning is spent to pump out the heat changed in the materials of the insolated housings and would be proportional to the temperature to lower down. It is, therefore, clear that the reduction of the energy for the air-conditioning would strongly depend on relaxation of temperature rise or the insulation of insolated materials. Insolation heating could be suppressed when the materials are coated with paint admixed with fine silica spheres (insulating paint). By coating buildings' walls and roofs with such paint, the temperature of interior rooms could be kept lower without air-conditioning. These insulation effects are well known and have been utilized in the past, but have hardly been analyzed theoretically yet. Theoretical analysis would greatly enhance the effects of the suppression of insolation heating. In preceding studies, Ohkawa et al.(2009; 2011) and Mikada et al.(2011) focused on the electromagnetic wave scattering induced by fine spheres and developed the analytical method using superposition of scattered waves from each sphere (the first Born approximation), and indicated that the size of the spheres is one of the parameters affecting the light intensity transmitted through the paint. However, the rigorous results, not using such approximation or considering other parameters than the size of spheres, are still unknown. Such rigorous solution is necessary to find the best structure of the paint for insulating phenomena. In this study, we consider fine spheres randomly distributed in a paint layer coating a material, and analyze its scattering characteristics using the Monte Carlo ray tracing method based on the Mie theory. Three layers (air, paint and iron) are first assumed and a number of photons incident on the paint layer. The optical paths of photons are successively traced. We use their ratio between the number of reflected and transmitted photons and their phases in order toestimate the intensity of near-infrared sunlight that reaches the material (transmission intensity). As a result, it is found that the sphere radius should be less than 0.5 μm and the refractive index of sphere is less than 1.45 if we want to decrease the transmission intensity to less than about 0.1. We conclude that the introduction of the Monte Carlo simulation has led us to a quantitative analysis of the insulation effects caused by electromagnetic scattering and to find the optimum size and material of spheres to be admixed with paint.

  8. Critical insolation-CO2 relation for diagnosing past and future glacial inception.

    PubMed

    Ganopolski, A; Winkelmann, R; Schellnhuber, H J

    2016-01-14

    The past rapid growth of Northern Hemisphere continental ice sheets, which terminated warm and stable climate periods, is generally attributed to reduced summer insolation in boreal latitudes. Yet such summer insolation is near to its minimum at present, and there are no signs of a new ice age. This challenges our understanding of the mechanisms driving glacial cycles and our ability to predict the next glacial inception. Here we propose a critical functional relationship between boreal summer insolation and global carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, which explains the beginning of the past eight glacial cycles and might anticipate future periods of glacial inception. Using an ensemble of simulations generated by an Earth system model of intermediate complexity constrained by palaeoclimatic data, we suggest that glacial inception was narrowly missed before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The missed inception can be accounted for by the combined effect of relatively high late-Holocene CO2 concentrations and the low orbital eccentricity of the Earth. Additionally, our analysis suggests that even in the absence of human perturbations no substantial build-up of ice sheets would occur within the next several thousand years and that the current interglacial would probably last for another 50,000 years. However, moderate anthropogenic cumulative CO2 emissions of 1,000 to 1,500 gigatonnes of carbon will postpone the next glacial inception by at least 100,000 years. Our simulations demonstrate that under natural conditions alone the Earth system would be expected to remain in the present delicately balanced interglacial climate state, steering clear of both large-scale glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere and its complete deglaciation, for an unusually long time. PMID:26762457

  9. Prediction of knee joint moment changes during walking in response to wedged insole interventions.

    PubMed

    Lewinson, Ryan T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2016-04-01

    Wedged insoles are prescribed for medial knee osteoarthritis to reduce the knee adduction moment; however, it is currently not possible to predict which patients will in fact experience reduced moments. The purpose of this study was to identify a simple method using two-dimensional data for predicting the expected change in knee adduction moments with wedged insoles. Knee adduction moments during walking were determined for healthy individuals (n = 15) and individuals with medial knee osteoarthritis (n = 19) while wearing their own shoe without an insole (control), with a 6-mm medial wedge and with a 6-mm lateral wedge. The percent changes relative to control were determined. Then, participants completed single-step trials with each footwear condition where only the changes in mediolateral positions of the knee joint center, shank center of mass, ankle joint center, and foot center of mass relative to control were determined. These variables were used as predictors in regression equations where the change in knee adduction moment during walking was the dependent variable. The change in mediolateral positions of the lower extremity during a single step significantly predicted the change in knee adduction moment during walking for the lateral wedge in both the healthy (R(2) = 0.72, p = 0.008) and knee osteoarthritis (R(2) = 0.52, p = 0.026) groups, and also for the medial wedge in both the healthy (R(2) = 0.67, p = 0.016) and knee osteoarthritis (R(2) = 0.54, p = 0.020) groups. The method of using mediolateral position data from a single-step movement to predict walking biomechanics was successful. These data are relatively simple to collect and analyze, offering the possibility for future incorporation into a wedge prediction system. PMID:26994119

  10. Plantar pressure relief under the metatarsal heads: therapeutic insole design using three-dimensional finite element model of the foot.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; Lee, Sung-Jae; Lee, Peter Vee Sin

    2015-02-26

    Therapeutic footwear with specially-made insoles is often used in people with diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis to relieve ulcer risks and pain due to high pressures from areas beneath bony prominences of the foot, in particular to the metatarsal heads (MTHs). In a three-dimensional finite element study of the foot and footwear with sensitivity analysis, effects of geometrical variations of a therapeutic insole, in terms of insole thicknesses and metatarsal pad (MP) placements, on local peak plantar pressure under MTHs and stress/strain states within various forefoot tissues, were determined. A validated musculoskeletal finite element model of the human foot was employed. Analyses were performed in a simulated muscle-demanding instant in gait. For many design combinations, increasing insole thicknesses consistently reduce peak pressures and internal tissue strain under MTHs, but the effects reach a plateau when insole becomes very thick (e.g., a value of 12.7mm or greater). Altering MP placements, however, showed a proximally- and a distally-placed MP could result in reverse effects on MTH pressure-relief. The unsuccessful outcome due to a distally-placed MP may attribute to the way it interacts with plantar tissue (e.g., plantar fascia) adjacent to the MTH. A uniform pattern of tissue compression under metatarsal shaft is necessary for a most favorable pressure-relief under MTHs. The designated functions of an insole design can best be achieved when the insole is very thick, and when the MP can achieve a uniform tissue compression pattern adjacent to the MTH. PMID:25620685

  11. Effectiveness of a heel cup with an arch support insole on the standing balance of the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tzu-Hsuan; Chou, Li-Wei; Tsai, Mei-Wun; Lo, Ming-Jor; Kao, Mu-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of insoles may enhance postural stability and prevent falls. The aim of this study was to design a new insole and to explore the effectiveness of the insole on the standing balance of the healthy elderly. Methods The study was conducted at a community hospital. Patients older than 65 years at an outpatient clinic without abnormal gait patterns, lower limb deformities, or foot pain were enrolled. The participants were assigned to good- and poor-stability groups on the basis of the stability index (SI), using the Biodex Balance System. A heel cup with an arch support insole was provided. Participants wore the insole for 8 weeks for a minimum of 4 hours/day. A static balance test for SI was performed at the initial meeting and 8 weeks after the assigned insoles were worn for each participant. Results Five participants (10.0%) of 50 total did not finish the study. There were 25 patients in the good-stability group and 20 in the poor-stability group. The SI, before and after intervention, was significantly different for all 45 participants (3.2440.688 versus 3.0640.671; P<0.001). The differences in SI before and after the intervention both in the good-stability group (2.7640.546 versus 2.5920.538) and the poor-stability group (3.8450.188 versus 3.6550.128) were statistically significant (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference on changes of SI were seen between the two groups. Conclusion The results suggest a heel cup with arch support insole is effective in enhancing the standing balance of the elderly. This may be of benefit in preventing falls. PMID:24600215

  12. Solar power satellite status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. P.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a solar power satellite program is considered. It is suggested that the solar power satellite is an engineering rather than a science program - that is, that no scientific breakthroughs are required before initiating the project. Available technology is examined, and several key questions are discussed: how efficient is microwave transfer of energy; how feasible is construction in space; and will the advantages of continuous insolation compensate for the costs of building a solar power plant in synchronous orbit 23,000 miles above the earth.

  13. Analysis of a direct radiation solar dehumidification system

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, K.; Barlow, R.; Pesaran, A.; Kreith, F.

    1985-06-01

    SERI researchers investigated a desiccant dehumidifier that is regenerated by direct absorption of solar radiation using a simplified numerical model (DESSIM) of the adsorption and desorption processes. This paper presents estimates of the performance of a solar-fired air conditioning system (ventilation cycle) containing the dehumidifier/collector. The researchers also considered the effects of dehumidifier NTUs, heat exchanger performance, and insolation levels. The direct radiation system can operate effectively at low insolation levels and thus may have some advantages in some geographic areas.

  14. Analysis of a direct radiation solar dehumidification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, K.; Barlow, R.; Pesaran, A.; Kreith, F.

    1985-08-01

    SERI researchers investigated a desiccant dehumidifier that is regenerated by direct absorption of solar radiation using a simplified numerical model (DESSIM) of the adsorption and desorption processes. This paper presents estimates of the performance of a solar-fired air conditioning system (ventilation cycle) containing the dehumidifier/collector. The researchers also considered the effects of dehumidifier NTUs, heat exchanger performance, and insolation levels. The direct radiation system can operate effectively at low insolation levels and thus may have some advantages in some geographic areas.

  15. MRO SOW Daily Script

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest E.; Khanampornpan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy E.

    2008-01-01

    The MRO SOW daily script (wherein "MRO" signifies "Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter" and "SOW" signifies "sequence systems engineer of the week") is a computer program that automates portions of the MRO daily SOW procedure, which includes checking file-system sizes and automated sequence processor (ASP) log files. The MRO SOW daily script effects clear reporting of (1) the status of, and requirements imposed on, the file system and (2) the ASP log files.

  16. Holocene climate in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean: Controlled by insolation or oceanic circulation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Simon H. H.; Koç, Nalân; Crosta, Xavier

    2004-04-01

    The Holocene climate of the Southern Ocean is not well understood, mainly because of the lack of high-resolution reconstructions of ocean surface properties. Here we present a 12,500-yr-long, decadal-scale record of Holocene sea-surface temperatures and sea- ice presence from the Polar Front of the East Atlantic Southern Ocean. The record shows gradual climate change, with no abrupt Neoglacial cooling, and an unprecedented late Holocene warming. The dominant forcing factor appears to be precessional insolation; Northern Hemisphere summer insolation correlates to at least the early to middle Holocene climate trend. Spectral analysis reveals centennial-scale cyclic climate changes with periods of 1220, 1070, 400, and 150 yr. The record shows good correlation to East Antarctic ice cores and to climate records from South Georgia and Bunger Oasis. However, the record shows out-of-phase behavior with regard to climate records from the western Antarctic Peninsula and the Peru-Chile Current; such behavior hints at a climatic divide through Patagonia, the Drake Passage, and between West and East Antarctica.

  17. Insolation and Abrupt Climate Change Effects on the Western Pacific Maritime Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, J. W.; Quinn, T. M.; Shen, C.; Cardenas, M.; Siringan, F. P.; Hori, M.; Okumura, Y.; Banner, J. L.; Lin, K.; Jiang, X.; Taylor, F. W.

    2013-12-01

    Many monsoon-sensitive paleoclimate archives capture the response of the Asian-Australian monsoon system to changes in summer insolation, as well as abrupt climate changes such as the Younger Dryas (YD). The response is commonly a direct one in Holocene and YD archives. In the case of insolation, increased summer insolation leads to increased monsoon rainfall over land, as captured in stalagmite ?18O records from Oman and China. We evaluate this direct response using maritime stalagmite records from the island of Palawan, Philippines (10 N, 119 E). The wet season in Palawan occurs over the same months (June-October) as in Oman, India and China. Therefore, we expected the Palawan stalagmite ?18O record, a proxy of rainfall, to have a similar response to changing insolation and hence, a trend of decreasing monsoon rainfall over the Holocene. However, the Holocene trend in two partially replicated stalagmite ?18O records is opposite to that expected: rainfall increases over the Holocene, despite the decrease of summer insolation over the Holocene. We interpret the Holocene trend observed at Palawan to be the result of an increase in the maritime monsoon that balances the reduction in the land monsoon; an interpretation that is consistent with previously published results from coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model runs. Seawater ?18O reconstructions from marine sediment cores in the western tropical Pacific contain a freshening trend over the Holocene, also supporting the hypothesis of increase maritime monsoon rainfall. The direct relationship between monsoon rainfall over land as recorded in the YD interval in Chinese stalagmite records is also observed in maritime monsoon rainfall during the YD at Palawan: both records get drier during the YD cold interval. This agreement between YD stalagmite records from China and Palawan contrasts sharply with the inverse relationship between these records over the Holocene. We further investigate the nature of the changes in maritime monsoon rainfall in several ways. Output from global climate models in the PMIP2 compilation at 6ka provides a snapshot of conditions in the western Pacific during the mid-Holocene. Also, two global climate models run under transient conditions, LOVECLIM and NCAR CCSM3, are used to investigate the timing and spatial structure of the YD. We test the regional coherency of the Holocene trend in the Palawan stalagmite ?18O record by generating an additional Philippine stalagmite ?18O record from Negros, an island ~450 km east of Palawan. Preliminary data from Negros suggest a complex precipitation response in the Philippines over the Holocene, such that both the monsoon and the western Pacific warm pool influence the regional hydroclimate. Global climate model results from the isotope-enabled NASA GISS ModelE-R model provide further assistance in the interpretation of the multiple stalagmite ?18O records from the Philippines.

  18. Chronic daily headaches

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Fayyaz; Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Khalil, Modar

    2012-01-01

    Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches. PMID:23024563

  19. Air content and O2/N2 tuned chronologies on local insolation signatures in the Vostok ice core are similar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipenkov, V.; Raynaud, D.; Loutre, M.-F.; Duval, P.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.

    2009-04-01

    An accurate chronology of ice cores is needed for interpreting the paleoclimatic record and understanding the relation between insolation and climate. A new domain of research in this area has been initially stimulated by the work of M. Bender (2002) linking the record of O2/N2 ratio in the air trapped in the Vostok ice with the local insolation. More recently, it has been proposed that the long-term changes in air content, V, recorded in ice from the high Antarctic plateau is also dominantly imprinted by the local summer insolation (Raynaud et al., 2007). The present paper presents a new V record from Vostok, which is compared with the published Vostok O2/N2 record for the same period of time (150-400 ka BP) by using the same spectral analysis methods. The spectral differences between the two properties and the possible mechanisms linking them with insolation through the surface snow structure and the close-off processes are discussed. The main result of our study is that the two experimentally independent local insolation proxies lead to absolute (orbital) time scales, which agree together within a standard deviation of 0.6 ka. This result strongly adds credibility to the air content of ice and the O2 to N2 ratio of the air trapped in ice as equally reliable and complementary tools for accurate dating of existing and future deep ice cores. References: M. Bender, Orbital tuning chronology for the Vostok climate record supported by trapped gas composition, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 204(2002) 275-289. D. Raynaud, V. Lipenkov, B. Lemieux-Dudon, P. Duval, M.F. Loutre, N. Lhomme, The local insolation signature of air content in Antarctic ice: a new step toward an absolute dating of ice records, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 261(2007) 337-349.

  20. Study of combined /photovoltaic-thermal/ solar energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, R. C.

    A theoretical analysis of a combined photovoltaic-thermal energy system for converting solar energy is presented. Optical concentration is employed to intensify the available solar energy density. The thermal energy extraction works both to cool the solar cells and to provide heat energy. Overall system efficiencies (total output energy, both thermal and electrical, divided by the available insolation) are shown to reach values close to 40%, with predicted capital costs less than 0.1 cent per kWh.

  1. Time variation analysis of the daily Forbush decrease indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Sankar Narayan; Ghosh, Koushik; Panja, Subhash Chandra

    2011-08-01

    In the present paper we have analyzed the daily Forbush decrease indices from January 1, 1967 to December 31, 2003. First filtering the time series by Simple Exponential Smoothing, we have applied Scargle Method of Periodogram on the processed time series in order to search for its time variation. Study exhibits periodicities around 174, 245, 261, 321, 452, 510, 571, 584, 662, 703, 735, 741, 767, 774, 820, 970, 1062, 1082, 1489, 1715, 2317, 2577, 2768, 3241 and 10630 days with confidence levels higher than 90%. Some of these periods are significantly similar to the observed periodicities of other solar activities, like solar filament activity, solar electron flare occurrence, solar-flare rate, solar proton events, solar neutrino flux, solar irradiance, cosmic ray intensity and flare, spectrum of the sunspot, solar wind, southern coronal hole area and solar cycle, which may suggest that the Forbush decrease behaves similarly to these solar activities and these activities may have a common origin.

  2. Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaek, Ekkachai

    The lack of effort by mainstream architects in integrating energy-efficient strategies in architectural designing is due to the complexity in a building's energy conscious concepts and theories, the difficulties to visualize and quantify energy consumption, and the late implementing of energy consumption analysis in the conventional design process. This task would be accomplishing by a building system's engineer where results might be determined only after the basic architectural design has been completed. An effective simple tool and method should then be available to assist architects in building's energy-efficient designing at the beginning of the design. The building's energy consumption is directly and mainly influenced by the relationship of the sun, site, and its building configuration. The solar radiations will first impact on the building's envelope, which will have a direct effect on the amount of energy a building will consume. If an architect can define or map the intensity of solar energy on the site's buildable volume, and use this information to determine the levels of solar insolation, a more energy efficient building form can be proposed. This research hypothesis has shared the fundamental techniques of the Solar Envelope projection by Professor Ralph Knowles [Knowles, 1981] of the University of Southern California. However a different approach is taken by including the influence of regional restrictions and the surrounding buildings' shadows when projecting of solar volumes and solar envelope. The research methodology will discuss the development of a computer-based approach to develop a three-dimensional architectural form based on an insolation map related to the design site. The prototype computer program is referred as the Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA). The solar insolation volume of the site is determined by integrating three types of computer-generated models include the Buildable Volume model based on design constraints; the Shading Condition Volumes models based on the shading objects that surrounded the adjacent site; and the Solar Envelope Volume model based on Ralph Knowles's principles and related research. Once the integrated volume is created, the levels of insolation at the volume's surface can then be determined and quantified. Hence, this solar insolation volume can be represented the effective envelope of the potential built-form and can be used as the reference for the solar energy-effective buildings design.

  3. USAF solar thermal applications overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauger, J. S.; Simpson, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Process heat applications were compared to solar thermal technologies. The generic process heat applications were analyzed for solar thermal technology utilization, using SERI's PROSYS/ECONOMAT model in an end use matching analysis and a separate analysis was made for solar ponds. Solar technologies appear attractive in a large number of applications. Low temperature applications at sites with high insolation and high fuel costs were found to be most attractive. No one solar thermal technology emerges as a clearly universal or preferred technology, however,, solar ponds offer a potential high payoff in a few, selected applications. It was shown that troughs and flat plate systems are cost effective in a large number of applications.

  4. Daily Food Plan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Increasing Online Tools SuperTracker What's Cooking? BMI Calculator MyPlate Daily Checklist Portion Distortion Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Preschooler Growth Charts Quizzes Fruit Group Quiz Vegetable ...

  5. Simplified clear sky model for direct and diffuse insolation on horizontal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, R.E.; Hulstrom, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    A detailed comparison was made between five simple broadband models for clear sky global insolation. Compared models were those of Atwater and Ball, Davies and Hay, Watt, Hoyt, and Lacis and Hansen. A sixth simple model, called the Bird model, has been formulated by using parts of these five models and by comparison with the results from three rigorous radiative transfer codes. All of the simple models provide results that agree within < 10% with the three rigorous codes when the sun is in the zenith position. The Bird and Hoyt models agree within 3% with each other and with the results of the rigorous codes. However, the Bird model is easier to implement and has broader application than the Hoyt model.

  6. An Ambulatory System for Gait Monitoring Based on Wireless Sensorized Insoles.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez, Ivn; Fontecha, Jess; Hervs, Ramn; Bravo, Jos

    2015-01-01

    A new gait phase detection system for continuous monitoring based on wireless sensorized insoles is presented. The system can be used in gait analysis mobile applications, and it is designed for real-time demarcation of gait phases. The system employs pressure sensors to assess the force exerted by each foot during walking. A fuzzy rule-based inference algorithm is implemented on a smartphone and used to detect each of the gait phases based on the sensor signals. Additionally, to provide a solution that is insensitive to perturbations caused by non-walking activities, a probabilistic classifier is employed to discriminate walking forward from other low-level activities, such as turning, walking backwards, lateral walking, etc. The combination of these two algorithms constitutes the first approach towards a continuous gait assessment system, by means of the avoidance of non-walking influences. PMID:26184199

  7. Mercury's low-degree geoid and topography controlled by insolation-driven elastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, N.; Čadek, O.; Běhounková, M.; KáÅová, M.; Plesa, A.-C.; Grott, M.; Breuer, D.; Padovan, S.; Wieczorek, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    Mercury experiences an uneven insolation that leads to significant latitudinal and longitudinal variations of its surface temperature. These variations, which are predominantly of spherical harmonic degrees 2 and 4, propagate to depth, imposing a long-wavelength thermal perturbation throughout the mantle. We computed the accompanying density distribution and used it to calculate the mechanical and gravitational response of a spherical elastic shell overlying a quasi-hydrostatic mantle. We then compared the resulting geoid and surface deformation at degrees 2 and 4 with Mercury's geoid and topography derived from the MErcury, Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging spacecraft. More than 95% of the data can be accounted for if the thickness of the elastic lithosphere were between 110 and 180 km when the thermal anomaly was imposed. The obtained elastic thickness implies that Mercury became locked into its present 3:2 spin orbit resonance later than about 1 Gyr after planetary formation.

  8. An Ambulatory System for Gait Monitoring Based on Wireless Sensorized Insoles

    PubMed Central

    González, Iván; Fontecha, Jesús; Hervás, Ramón; Bravo, José

    2015-01-01

    A new gait phase detection system for continuous monitoring based on wireless sensorized insoles is presented. The system can be used in gait analysis mobile applications, and it is designed for real-time demarcation of gait phases. The system employs pressure sensors to assess the force exerted by each foot during walking. A fuzzy rule-based inference algorithm is implemented on a smartphone and used to detect each of the gait phases based on the sensor signals. Additionally, to provide a solution that is insensitive to perturbations caused by non-walking activities, a probabilistic classifier is employed to discriminate walking forward from other low-level activities, such as turning, walking backwards, lateral walking, etc. The combination of these two algorithms constitutes the first approach towards a continuous gait assessment system, by means of the avoidance of non-walking influences. PMID:26184199

  9. Boot-insole effects on comfort and plantar loading at the heel and fifth metatarsal during running and turning in soccer.

    PubMed

    Nunns, Michael P I; Dixon, Sharon J; Clarke, James; Carré, Matt

    2016-04-01

    Plantar loading may influence comfort, performance and injury risk in soccer boots. This study investigated the effect of cleat configuration and insole cushioning levels on perception of comfort and in-shoe plantar pressures at the heel and fifth metatarsal head region. Nine soccer academy players (age 15.7 ± 1.6 years; height 1.80 ± 0.40 m; body mass 71.9 ± 6.1 kg) took part in the study. Two boot models (8 and 6 cleats) and two insoles (Poron and Poron/gel) provided four footwear combinations assessed using pressure insoles during running and 180° turning. Mechanical and comfort perception tests differentiated boot and insole conditions. During biomechanical testing, the Poron insole generally provided lower peak pressures than the Poron/gel insole, particularly during the braking step of the turn. The boot model did not independently influence peak pressures at the fifth metatarsal, and had minimal influence on heel loads. Specific boot-insole combinations performed differently (P < 0.05). The 8-cleat boot and the Poron insole performed best biomechanically and perceptually, but the combined condition did not. Inclusion of kinematic data and improved control of the turning technique are recommended to strengthen future research. The mechanical, perception and biomechanical results highlight the need for a multi-faceted approach in the assessment of footwear. PMID:26197986

  10. Weathering of a flat-plate solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report contains performance evaluation of flat-plate liquid solar collector after 14-months of natural weathering. Collector efficiency was calculated and plotted as function of inlet liquid temperature. Measurements were made of ambient temperature, inlet and outlet temperatures, differential temperature and pressure, liquid flow rate, insolation, and windspeed.

  11. Effect of posture-control insoles on function in children with cerebral palsy: Randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral palsy (CP) is a posture and movement disorder and different therapeutic modalities, such as the use of braces, have sought to favor selective motor control and muscle coordination in such patients. The aim of the proposed study is to determine the effect of the combination of posture-control insoles and ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) improving functional limitation in children with CP. Methods/Design The sample will be composed of 24 children with CP between four and 12 years of age. After the signing of the statement of informed consent, the children will be randomly allocated to two groups: a control group using AFOs alone and an experimental group using both posture-control insoles and AFOs. Evaluations will be performed on five occasions: without any accessory (insoles or AFOs), immediately after, one month after, six months after and one year after AFOs or insole and AFOs use. The evaluation will involve the analysis of gait, static and functional balance, mobility and hypertonia. The three-dimensional assessment of gait will involve the eight-camera SMART-D SMART-D 140 system (BTS Engineering), two Kistler force plates (model 9286BA) and an eight-channel, wireless FREEEMG electromyography (BTS Engineering). Static balance will be assessed using a Kistler force plate (model 9286BA). Clinical functional balance and mobility will be assessed using the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go Test and Six-Minute Walk Test. The posture-control insoles will be made of ethylene vinyl acetate, with thermal molding for fixation. The fixed orthoses will be made of polypropylene and attached to the ankle region (AFO). The results will be analyzed statistically, with the level significance set to 5% (p < 0.05). Trial Registration Trial Registration Number: RBR6d342s (http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/news/) PMID:23033863

  12. Dairy farm hot water: an economic evaluation of solar collectors vs. heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Heid, W.G. Jr.; Williams, E.V.

    1982-01-01

    Two alternative systems for heating water - solar collectors and heat exchangers - were compared to determine the more economical choice by dairy farmers. Btu requirements and discounted payback were estimated for three dairy herd sizes, 40, 90, and 140 cows. The analysis was performed for two locations in Kansas, Dodge City and Topeka. These locations were chosen because their average daily insolation is around 600,000 Btu/ft/sup 2/ which is representative of many of the dairying regions in the western half of the United States. Both the solar hot water and the heat exchanger systems analyzed in this study were sized according to manufacturer specifications. For the basic analysis, it was assumed that the solar collector system was 52% efficient and supplied a solar fraction of about 50%. Performance of the heat exchanger was measured at three levels, 60, 70, and 80%. The fraction of Btu requirements supplied varied with herd size. Herd size is an important factor to consider as farmers select the more appropriate alternative technology. Discounted payback for heat exchangers decreased rapidly as herd size increased, reaching 1 to 2 years, with tax credits, for the 140-cow herd size. Because less hot water per cow is needed in large dairies, heat exchangers will supply a large percentage of the hot water requirements for a 140-cow herd dairy. Heat exchangers appear to be ideally suited, both technically and economically, for commercial-sized dairy herds. Conversely, the discounted payback for solar hot water systems was about the same for all three herd sizes and above the payback level of heat exchangers even at the small herd size. Only for herds of less than 40 cows are solar hot water systems competitive with heat exchangers.

  13. Feasibility of solar power for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    NASA, through Project Pathfinder, has put in place an advanced technology program to address future needs of manned space exploration. Included in the missions under study is the establishment of outposts on the surface of Mars. The Surface Power program in Pathfinder is aimed at providing photovoltaic array technology for such an application (as well as for the lunar surface). Another important application is for unmanned precursor missions, such as the photovoltaic-power aircraft, which will scout landing sites and investigate Mars geology for a 1 to 2 year mission without landing on the surface. Effective design and utilization of solar energy depend to a large extent on adequate knowledge of solar radiation characteristics in the region of solar energy system operation. The two major climatic components needed for photovoltaic system designs are the distributions of solar insolation and ambient temperature. These distributions for the Martian climate are given at the two Viking lander locations but can also be used, to the first approximation, for other latitudes. One of the most important results is that there is a large diffuse component of the insolation, even at high optical depth, so that solar energy system operation is still possible. If the power system is to continue to generate power even on high optical opacity days, it is thus important that the photovoltaic system be designed to collect diffuse irradiance as well as direct. In absence of long term insolation and temperature data for Mars, the data presented can be used until updated data are available. The ambient temperature data are given as measured directly by the temperature sensor; the insolation data are calculated from optical depth measurements of the atmosphere.

  14. Data monitoring and information availability - A key to solar energy utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Widespread use of solar energy heating and cooling systems is dependent upon their price competitiveness with other systems in the marketplace. There are indications that the degree of accuracy of existing solar insolation data is such that systems must be oversized by 50 percent. Refinement of the solar insolation data could result in a substantial cost reduction of solar heating and cooling systems making these units more competitive with conventional systems. This paper describes a system, the Sunfall Monitor, that provides this capability. The system monitors and records on tape in computer-compatible format the values of the direct and total solar irradiance. Provisions are also incorporated for evaluation of solar cell, collector and absorber material samples. Concepts and discussions for application of the device in relationship to research/development and the solar energy heating and cooling acts conclude the paper.

  15. Local effects of partly-cloudy skies on solar and emitted radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, D. A.; Venable, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    A computer automated data acquisition system for atmospheric emittance, and global solar, downwelled diffuse solar, and direct solar irradiances is discussed. Hourly-integrated global solar and atmospheric emitted radiances were measured continuously from February 1981 and hourly-integrated diffuse solar and direct solar irradiances were measured continuously from October 1981. One-minute integrated data are available for each of these components from February 1982. The results of the correlation of global insolation with fractional cloud cover for the first year's data set. A February data set, composed of one-minute integrated global insolation and direct solar irradiance, cloud cover fractions, meteorological data from nearby weather stations, and GOES East satellite radiometric data, was collected to test the theoretical model of satellite radiometric data correlation and develop the cloud dependence for the local measurement site.

  16. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.

  17. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  18. An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamazaki, Y.; Yumoto, K.; Cardinal, M.G.; Fraser, B.J.; Hattori, P.; Kakinami, Y.; Liu, J.Y.; Lynn, K.J.W.; Marshall, R.; McNamara, D.; Nagatsuma, T.; Nikiforov, V.M.; Otadoy, R.E.; Ruhimat, M.; Shevtsov, B.M.; Shiokawa, K.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2011-01-01

    An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation has been constructed based on geomagnetic data obtained from 21 stations along the 210 Magnetic Meridian of the Circum-pan Pacific Magnetometer Network (CPMN) from 1996 to 2007. Using the least squares fitting method for geomagnetically quiet days (Kp ??? 2+), the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation at each station was described as a function of solar activity SA, day of year DOY, lunar age LA, and local time LT. After interpolation in latitude, the model can describe solar-activity dependence and seasonal dependence of solar quiet daily variations (S) and lunar quiet daily variations (L). We performed a spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) on these S and L variations to examine average characteristics of the equivalent external current systems. We found three particularly noteworthy results. First, the total current intensity of the S current system is largely controlled by solar activity while its focus position is not significantly affected by solar activity. Second, we found that seasonal variations of the S current intensity exhibit north-south asymmetry; the current intensity of the northern vortex shows a prominent annual variation while the southern vortex shows a clear semi-annual variation as well as annual variation. Thirdly, we found that the total intensity of the L current system changes depending on solar activity and season; seasonal variations of the L current intensity show an enhancement during the December solstice, independent of the level of solar activity. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Inhomogeneities in daily data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, Victor; Aguilar, Enric; Auchmann, Renate; Auer, Ingeborg; Brandsma, Theo; Chimani, Barbara; Gilabert, Alba; Mestre, Olivier; Toreti, Andrea; Vertacnik, Gregor

    2015-04-01

    Daily datasets have become a focus of climate research because they are essential for studying the variability and extremes in weather and climate. However, long observational climate records are usually affected by changes due to nonclimatic factors, resulting in inhomogeneities in the time series. Looking at the known physical causes of these inhomogeneities, one may expect that the tails of the distribution are especially affected. Although the number of national and regional homogenized daily temperature datasets is increasing, inhomogeneities affecting the tails of the distribution are often not or insufficiently taken into account. In this literature review we investigate the physical causes of inhomogeneities and how they affect the distribution with respect to its mean and its tails. We review what is known about changes in the distribution from existing historical parallel measurements. We discuss effects of the state-of-the-art homogenization methods on the temperature distribution. Finally, we provide an overview of the quality of available daily datasets that are often used for studies on changes in extremes and additionally describe well-homogenized regional datasets. As expected, this review provides evidence that the tails of the distribution are generally more affected by non-climatic changes than the means. This is a problem because the question to which extent daily homogenization methods can reduce those effects is insufficiently studied and most available methods are focused on temperature only. More specifically, it is advised to study whether the current deterministic correction methods should be succeeded by stochastic methods. Concerning the large scale available daily datasets, many of them are not homogenized (with respect to the distribution), whereas the number of national and regional homogenized datasets is strongly growing. Given the strong interest in studying changes in weather variability and extremes and the existence of often large inhomogeneities in the raw data, the homogenization of daily data and the development of better methods should have a high research priority. This research would be much facilitated by a global reference database with parallel measurements. The climate community, and especially those involved in homogenization, bias correction and the evaluation of uncertainties, should take an active role to foster the compilation of such a reference database. We have started an initiative collecting parallel datasets, which is an expert team of the International Surface Temperature Initiative. Its aims will be explained and its progress will be presented.

  20. Guide to exporting for US solar companies

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.

    1981-06-01

    Reasons for US solar manufacturers to export are discussed; and, after a descision has been made to export solar equipment and technology, how to export and where to export are primary goals. The manual presents some basic information to answer the how and where. It provides information concerning the services which are currently available to facilitate entry into foreign markets and the basic social, economic, and solar insolation data on over 70 foreign markets are presented. Statistical profile information for the 70 countries include population; per capita income; primary languages, literacy rate; ratio of urban and rural areas; monetary unit; population density; GNP; energy production; energy consumption; energy reserves; trade with US. (MCW)

  1. Regional insolation forcing of late Quaternary climate change in the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Vandergoes, Marcus J; Newnham, Rewi M; Preusser, Frank; Hendy, Chris H; Lowell, Thomas V; Fitzsimons, Sean J; Hogg, Alan G; Kasper, Haino Uwe; Schlchter, Christian

    2005-07-14

    In agreement with the Milankovitch orbital forcing hypothesis it is often assumed that glacial-interglacial climate transitions occurred synchronously in the Northern and Southern hemispheres of the Earth. It is difficult to test this assumption, because of the paucity of long, continuous climate records from the Southern Hemisphere that have not been dated by tuning them to the presumed Northern Hemisphere signals. Here we present an independently dated terrestrial pollen record from a peat bog on South Island, New Zealand, to investigate global and local factors in Southern Hemisphere climate changes during the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. Our record largely corroborates the Milankovitch model of orbital forcing but also exhibits some differences: in particular, an earlier onset and longer duration of the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results suggest that Southern Hemisphere insolation may have been responsible for these differences in timing. Our findings question the validity of applying orbital tuning to Southern Hemisphere records and suggest an alternative mechanism to the bipolar seesaw for generating interhemispheric asynchrony in climate change. PMID:16015326

  2. Insolation driven biomagnetic response to the Holocene Warm Period in semi-arid East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Suzhen; Deng, Chenglong; Xiao, Jule; Li, Jinhua; Paterson, Greig A.; Chang, Liao; Yi, Liang; Qin, Huafeng; Pan, Yongxin; Zhu, Rixiang

    2015-01-01

    The Holocene Warm Period (HWP) provides valuable insights into the climate system and biotic responses to environmental variability and thus serves as an excellent analogue for future global climate changes. Here we document, for the first time, that warm and wet HWP conditions were highly favourable for magnetofossil proliferation in the semi-arid Asian interior. The pronounced increase of magnetofossil concentrations at ~9.8?ka and decrease at ~5.9?ka in Dali Lake coincided respectively with the onset and termination of the HWP, and are respectively linked to increased nutrient supply due to postglacial warming and poor nutrition due to drying at ~6?ka in the Asian interior. The two-stage transition at ~7.7?ka correlates well with increased organic carbon in middle HWP and suggests that improved climate conditions, leading to high quality nutrient influx, fostered magnetofossil proliferation. Our findings represent an excellent lake record in which magnetofossil abundance is, through nutrient availability, controlled by insolation driven climate changes. PMID:25614046

  3. Insolation driven biomagnetic response to the Holocene Warm Period in semi-arid East Asia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Suzhen; Deng, Chenglong; Xiao, Jule; Li, Jinhua; Paterson, Greig A; Chang, Liao; Yi, Liang; Qin, Huafeng; Pan, Yongxin; Zhu, Rixiang

    2015-01-01

    The Holocene Warm Period (HWP) provides valuable insights into the climate system and biotic responses to environmental variability and thus serves as an excellent analogue for future global climate changes. Here we document, for the first time, that warm and wet HWP conditions were highly favourable for magnetofossil proliferation in the semi-arid Asian interior. The pronounced increase of magnetofossil concentrations at ~9.8?ka and decrease at ~5.9?ka in Dali Lake coincided respectively with the onset and termination of the HWP, and are respectively linked to increased nutrient supply due to postglacial warming and poor nutrition due to drying at ~6?ka in the Asian interior. The two-stage transition at ~7.7?ka correlates well with increased organic carbon in middle HWP and suggests that improved climate conditions, leading to high quality nutrient influx, fostered magnetofossil proliferation. Our findings represent an excellent lake record in which magnetofossil abundance is, through nutrient availability, controlled by insolation driven climate changes. PMID:25614046

  4. Insolation driven biomagnetic response to the Holocene Warm Period in semi-arid East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Suzhen; Deng, Chenglong; Xiao, Jule; Li, Jinhua; Paterson, Greig A.; Chang, Liao; Yi, Liang; Qin, Huafeng; Pan, Yongxin; Zhu, Rixiang

    2015-01-01

    The Holocene Warm Period (HWP) provides valuable insights into the climate system and biotic responses to environmental variability and thus serves as an excellent analogue for future global climate changes. Here we document, for the first time, that warm and wet HWP conditions were highly favourable for magnetofossil proliferation in the semi-arid Asian interior. The pronounced increase of magnetofossil concentrations at ~9.8 ka and decrease at ~5.9 ka in Dali Lake coincided respectively with the onset and termination of the HWP, and are respectively linked to increased nutrient supply due to postglacial warming and poor nutrition due to drying at ~6 ka in the Asian interior. The two-stage transition at ~7.7 ka correlates well with increased organic carbon in middle HWP and suggests that improved climate conditions, leading to high quality nutrient influx, fostered magnetofossil proliferation. Our findings represent an excellent lake record in which magnetofossil abundance is, through nutrient availability, controlled by insolation driven climate changes.

  5. Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenneth L

    2005-10-13

    Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (approximately 3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. PMID:16222294

  6. Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (???3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  7. Investigations on postural stability and spatiotemporal parameters of human gait using developed wearable smart insole.

    PubMed

    Das, Ratan; Kumar, Neelesh

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of spatiotemporal parameters of human gait is important for designing new, intelligent and efficient prosthetic and orthotic devices. The paper presents a novel application of smart insole for measuring force generated at various pressure points during dynamic gait on a human foot. Besides recording and analysing the spatiotemporal parameters during stance phase, the developed sensor is also used for development of active orthotic devices. Data from the sensors is analysed in LabVIEW software for detection of plantar force and temporal gait parameters. The smart instrumentation allows processing, display and storage of gait parameters and gait events in real time. Variations of pressure pattern reported by gait experiments can also be used in identifying an accidental fall. This information will be used as a feedback signal for controlling the motion of an indigenously developed gait assistive device, i.e. an active orthotic device. Pressure at the heel and great toe points is higher than the metatarsal heads during dynamic walk. It is higher at the heel and metatarsals points than the toe point during standing position. PMID:25350821

  8. The sensitivity of the Arctic sea ice to orbitally induced insolation changes: a study of the mid-Holocene Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project 2 and 3 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, M.; Brandefelt, J.; Nilsson, J.

    2013-04-01

    In the present work the Arctic sea ice in the mid-Holocene and the pre-industrial climates are analysed and compared on the basis of climate-model results from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project phase 2 (PMIP2) and phase 3 (PMIP3). The PMIP3 models generally simulate smaller and thinner sea-ice extents than the PMIP2 models both for the pre-industrial and the mid-Holocene climate. Further, the PMIP2 and PMIP3 models all simulate a smaller and thinner Arctic summer sea-ice cover in the mid-Holocene than in the pre-industrial control climate. The PMIP3 models also simulate thinner winter sea ice than the PMIP2 models. The winter sea-ice extent response, i.e. the difference between the mid-Holocene and the pre-industrial climate, varies among both PMIP2 and PMIP3 models. Approximately one half of the models simulate a decrease in winter sea-ice extent and one half simulates an increase. The model-mean summer sea-ice extent is 11 % (21 %) smaller in the mid-Holocene than in the pre-industrial climate simulations in the PMIP2 (PMIP3). In accordance with the simple model of Thorndike (1992), the sea-ice thickness response to the insolation change from the pre-industrial to the mid-Holocene is stronger in models with thicker ice in the pre-industrial climate simulation. Further, the analyses show that climate models for which the Arctic sea-ice responses to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are similar may simulate rather different sea-ice responses to the change in solar forcing between the mid-Holocene and the pre-industrial. For two specific models, which are analysed in detail, this difference is found to be associated with differences in the simulated cloud fractions in the summer Arctic; in the model with a larger cloud fraction the effect of insolation change is muted. A sub-set of the mid-Holocene simulations in the PMIP ensemble exhibit open water off the north-eastern coast of Greenland in summer, which can provide a fetch for surface waves. This is in broad agreement with recent analyses of sea-ice proxies, indicating that beach-ridges formed on the north-eastern coast of Greenland during the early- to mid-Holocene.

  9. Daily Food Checklist

    Cancer.gov

    The daily food checklist method is a form of food record. The tool is comprised of a list of foods; over the course of a day, a respondent makes a check beside a food each time she or he eats it. The checklist shares an advantage of other record methods in that it does not rely on memory. In addition, it avoids some disadvantages of complete quantitative food records in that it has relatively low respondent and investigator burden.

  10. An analysis of a direct radiation solar dehumidification system

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, K.; Barlow, R.; Pesaran, A.; Kreith, F.

    1987-02-01

    A desiccant dehumidifier regenerated by direct absorption of solar radiation was investigated using a simplified numerical model (DESSIM) of the adsorption and desorption processes. This paper presents estimates of the performance of an air conditioning system in the ventilation mode using direct solar radiation regeneration. The effects of dehumidifier NTUs, heat exchanger performance, and insolation levels were also analyzed. The direct radiation regeneration system was found to have a COP less than that of other types of regeneration schemes.

  11. Climatic and insolation control on the high-resolution total air content in the NGRIP ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicher, O.; Baumgartner, M.; Schilt, A.; Schmitt, J.; Schwander, J.; Stocker, T. F.; Fischer, H.

    2015-11-01

    Because the total air content (TAC) of polar ice is directly affected by the atmospheric pressure, its record in polar ice cores was considered as a proxy for past ice sheet elevation changes. However the Antarctic ice core TAC record is known to also contain an insolation signature, although the underlying physical mechanisms are still a matter of debate. Here we present a high-resolution TAC record over the whole North Greenland Ice Core Project ice core, covering the last 120 000 years, which independently supports an insolation signature in Greenland. Wavelet analysis reveals a clear precession and obliquity signal similar to previous findings on Antarctic TAC, with different insolation history. In our high-resolution record we also find a decrease of 3-5 % (3-4.2 mL kg-1) in TAC as a response to Dansgaard-Oeschger-Events (DO-events). TAC starts to decrease in parallel to increasing Greenland surface temperature and slightly before CH4 reacts to the warming, but also shows a two-step decline that lasts for several centuries into the warm phase/interstadial. The TAC response is larger than expected considering only local temperature and atmospheric pressure as a driver, pointing to transient firnification response caused by the accumulation-induced increase in the load on the firn at bubble close-off, while temperature changes deeper in the firn are still small.

  12. Decentralized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    Emphasis was placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ utilizing a unique solar cell array roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5 percent efficiency at 28 C and 100 mW/sq cm insolation are used to generate 10 kW (peak). An all electric home is considered with lead acid battery storage, DC AC inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  13. A solar powered vaccine storage refrigerator that can be powered by a single truck battery

    SciTech Connect

    Schlussler, L.

    1999-07-01

    In developing countries, kerosene powered vaccine storage refrigerators are gradually being replaced by PV powered units. The weak link in these solar powered systems is typically the deep cycle battery bank. When the batteries fail, replacements will probably have to be imported. Often the logistics of funding, recycling and transportation of these batteries may be difficult to arrange. Sun Frost has developed a vaccine refrigerator that will run on a single 100 amp battery, an automotive battery if need be. Vaccine is stored in the refrigerator section of these units, while the freezer section is used to freeze ice packs to transport the vaccine. This new dual compressor model keeps the battery bank in a shallow cycle mode by shutting off the freezer compartment when the battery is significantly discharged. The PV system can then keep the refrigerator compartment running while shallow cycling the battery even during the most severe weather conditions. The system operation has been simulated by using daily solar data. Results show that the operation of the freezer will rarely be interrupted. Another advantage is that if this system is installed in a location where insolation levels are lower than expected, the refrigerator compartment will maintain reliable operation for keeping the vaccines cold, while only the freezer's ice making capabilities would be effected.

  14. A long-term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, J.; Robutel, P.; Joutel, F.; Gastineau, M.; Correia, A. C. M.; Levrard, B.

    2004-12-01

    We present here a new solution for the astronomical computation of the insolation quantities on Earth spanning from -250 Myr to 250 Myr. This solution has been improved with respect to La93 (Laskar et al. \\cite{Laskar1993}) by using a direct integration of the gravitational equations for the orbital motion, and by improving the dissipative contributions, in particular in the evolution of the Earth-Moon System. The orbital solution has been used for the calibration of the Neogene period (Lourens et al. \\cite{Lourens2004}), and is expected to be used for age calibrations of paleoclimatic data over 40 to 50 Myr, eventually over the full Palaeogene period (65 Myr) with caution. Beyond this time span, the chaotic evolution of the orbits prevents a precise determination of the Earth's motion. However, the most regular components of the orbital solution could still be used over a much longer time span, which is why we provide here the solution over 250 Myr. Over this time interval, the most striking feature of the obliquity solution, apart from a secular global increase due to tidal dissipation, is a strong decrease of about 0.38 degree in the next few millions of years, due to the crossing of the s6+g5-g6 resonance (Laskar et al. \\cite{Laskar1993}). For the calibration of the Mesozoic time scale (about 65 to 250 Myr), we propose to use the term of largest amplitude in the eccentricity, related to g2-g5, with a fixed frequency of 3.200''/yr, corresponding to a period of 405 000 yr. The uncertainty of this time scale over 100 Myr should be about 0.1%, and 0.2% over the full Mesozoic era.

  15. Long-term solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, J.

    2006-08-01

    A precise solution for the motion of the Earth axis (precession and nutation) is required for the reduction of astronomical observations over a few centuries. On the other hand, over long time scales, the short term variations of the Earth axis can be neglected and only the long term variations of the obliquity and precession angle become dominant. These solution are used for the analysis of the paleoclimate signal present in the sedimentary records over several millions of years, according to Milankovitch theory of paleoclimates. The agreement between the computed insolation signal (that depends on the secular evolution of the Earth's orbit and spin axis) and the sedimentary records is now so well established that in the recently published geological timescale GTS2004 (Gradstein et al, 2004), the whole Neogen period (0-23 Ma) has been calibrated using the astronomical solution of Laskar et al (2004). In the continuation of this work, there is now an international effort for the astronomical calibration of the full Paleogene period (65 Ma). This goal is a difficult challenge for the computation of the Earth parameter evolution. Indeed, due to the chaotic evolution of its orbit (Laskar, 1989), the uncertainty on the solution diverges exponentially by a factor of 10 every 10 Myr. The present orbital solution of (Laskar, 2004) is estimated to be valid over about 40 Myr. To extend this solution over 65 Myr will require to improv the accuracy of the model by more than 2 order of magnitude. The situation of the solution for the evolution of the Earth's axis is even worse, due to the uncertainty of the past evolution of the tidal dissipation in the Earth-Moon system.

  16. The effects of total contact insole with forefoot medial posting on rearfoot movement and foot pressure distributions in patients with flexible flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Tang, Simon Fuk-Tan; Chen, Chien-Hung; Wu, Chih-Kuan; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Kuan-Jung; Chen, Chih-Kuang

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of total contact insole with forefoot medial posting (TCIFMP) orthosis in patients with flexible flatfoot. The TCIFMP insole was custom- mode, made from semi-rigid plastazote and PPT. Using the gait analysis and the plantar-pressure measure systems, we investigate rearfoot motion and plantar pressure redistribution in these patients. The results of this study showed that the excessive valgus movement of the rearfoot can be reduced significantly by the TCIFMP insole in these patients. Besides, there were significant decreases in the peak pressure under the toe, lateral metatarsal, lateral foot and heel areas. Therefore, we suggested that the TCIFMP insole is an effective orthotic device for rearfoot motion control, plantar pressure reduction and re-distribution in patients with flexible flatfoot. PMID:25683316

  17. An introduction to quiet daily geomagnetic fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    On days that are quiet with respect to solar-terrestrial activity phenomena, the geomagnetic field has variations, tens of gamma in size, with major spectral components at about 24, 12, 8, and 6 hr in period. These quiet daily field variations are primarily due to the dynamo currents flowing in the E region of the earth's ionosphere, are driven by the global thermotidal wind systems, and are dependent upon the local tensor conductivity and main geomagnetic field vector. The highlights of the behavior and interpretation of these quiet field changes, from their discovery in 1634 until the present, are discussed as an introduction to the special journal issue on Quiet Daily Geomagnetic Fields. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.

  18. Effects of insolation on habitability and the isotopic history of Martian water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, John

    Three aspects of the Habitability of the Northern Plains of Mars to organics and terrestrial-like microbial life were assessed. (1) Protection offered by small surface features and; (2) the breakdown of rocks to form soils were examined using a radiative transfer computer model. Two separate sublimation experiments provided a basis to improve; (3) estimates of the amount of available water today and in the past by determining the fractionation of HDO between present-day reservoirs. (1) UV radiation sterilizes the hardiest of terrestrial organisms within minutes on the Martian surface. Small surface features including pits, trenches, flat faces and overhangs may create "safe havens" for organisms by blocking much of the UV flux. In the most favorable cases, this flux is sufficiently reduced such that organic in-fall could accumulate beneath overhanging surfaces and in pits and cracks while terrestrial microorganisms could persist for several tens of martian years. (2) The production of soils on the surface is considered by analogy with the arid US Southwest. Here differential insolation of incipient cracks of random orientations predicts crack orientation distributions consistent with field observations by assuming that only crack orientations which shield their interiors, minimizing their water loss, can grow, eventually disrupting the clast. (3) Disaggregated water ice to simulate the polar caps was produced by flash freezing in liquid nitrogen and crushing. When dust was added to the mixtures, the D/H ratio of the sublimate gas was seen to decrease with time from the bulk ratio. The more dust was added to the mixture, the more pronounced was this effect. The largest fractionation factor observed during these experiments was 2.5. Clean ice was also prepared and overlain by dust to simulate ground ice. Here, the movement of water vapor was modeled using an effective diffusivity that incorporated both adsorption on grains and diffusion. For low temperatures (<-55C) a significant difference between the diffusivities of H 2 O and HDO was observed. This suggests adsorptive-control within the regolith as energies of interaction are 60-70kJmol -1 . This ability of the martian regolith to preferentially adsorb HDO decouples the ice table and polar caps from the atmosphere and allows for geographic variations in the D/H ratio on Mars.

  19. Photoprotection in moisturizers and daily-care products.

    PubMed

    Seite, S; Fourtanier, A; Rougier, A

    2010-10-01

    During usual daily activities, an appropriate protection against solar UV exposure should prevent clinical, cellular and molecular changes potentially leading to photoaging. In skin areas regularly exposed to sun, UV-damage is superimposed to tissue degeneration resulting from chronological aging. It is, therefore, important to know if moisturizers and daily-care products containing UVA absorbers combined with UVB ones are able to prevent these skin damages. This review will summarize clinical studies evaluating this topic. These studies demonstrate that broad-spectrum protection in moisturizers or daily-care products can prevent the "silent" sub-erythemal cumulative effects of UVR from inadvertent sun exposure. PMID:20930697

  20. A Photovoltaic Generation System with Improvement of Power Degradation Caused by Non-Uniform Insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Toshihide; Yoshida, Toshiya; Ohniwa, Katsumi

    This paper proposes a new photovoltaic generation system which effectively uses generated power of shadowed cells. In this system, a capacitor is connected to the solar cell module in parallel. The generated power of the shadowed cells is charged into the capacitor. This charged power is added to the solar cell array output power. The proposed system needs no external power supplies and is very compact and cost-effective. The energy efficiency of the system is much better than that of the bypass diode method. The experiment shows the usefulness of this system.

  1. The Immediate Effect of Lateral Wedge Insoles, With and Without a Subtalar Strap, on the Lateral Trunk Lean Motion in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Esfandiari, Elham; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Yazdi, Hamid Reza; Foroughi, Nasim; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Orthotic interventions for knee osteoarthritis (OA) aim to reduce mechanical loading on the medial compartment of the knee and may lessen the lateral trunk lean as the most important compensatory gait strategy. The lateral wedge insole is a known orthotic intervention for knee OA. However, the question whether the addition of a subtalar strap to the wedge improves its effect has not been addressed in the literature. Objective: To compare the effects of lateral wedge insoles, with and without a subtalar strap, on the lateral trunk lean in patients with knee OA. Methods: Twenty-three patients aged over 40 years, with grade I or II OA of the medial compartment of one knee, based on the American College of Rheumatology criteria, were included in this study. The patients were diagnosed with OA based on a clinical examination, and the diagnosis was confirmed with radiographs. A 3-dimensional motion measurement system was used to collect the gait data for 3 different conditions: (1) with no insole, (2) with a lateral wedge insole, and (3) with a lateral wedge insole and a subtalar strap. The immediate effect of the 3 test conditions on the lateral trunk lean was compared during a gait cycle a stance phase and at the point of midstance. Results: Based on the laboratory coordinate system, the 3 conditions had no significant effect on the lateral trunk lean during a gait cycle and a stance phase and at the point of midstance in patients with knee OA. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that the lateral wedge insoles, with and without a subtalar strap, had no immediate effect on the lateral trunk lean in patients with knee OA. However, the long-term effect of lateral wedge insoles on the lateral trunk lean in these patients requires further investigation. PMID:24600533

  2. Racing strategy and car design for staged solar car races using simulation of environmental and vehicular parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Seitzmeyer, R.L.; Morehouse, J.H.

    1999-07-01

    This paper develops an algorithm for a racing strategy such that the overall elapsed time for a solar car in a staged race is minimized within the constraints of energy availability. Additionally, factors (operating parameters) affecting car operation are explored, as well as opportunities to maximize car efficiency through design. The end product is computer program in which various environmental and vehicular parameters are entered, and the car's speed for any particular race course segment is the output. These operating parameters include external environmental factors such as insolation (including present and predicted), road distance and grade, speed limits, and wind velocity. The vehicle operating parameters include such factors as drag, drivetrain performance and efficiency, and solar system and battery characteristics and efficiencies. With the algorithm developed in this paper, the speed is varied for different road segments of each daily leg of the race. At the end of each road segment, the optimum speed for all the remaining segments is determined, based on the current and expected environmental and vehicle operating conditions for the rest of the road segments. This algorithm takes into consideration a non-efficient battery system and accommodates motor efficiency data. The car's energy usage for each segment of the course is simulated for various speeds and the local segment environmental conditions.

  3. Ash loading and insolation at Hanford, Washington during and after the eruption of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laulainen, N. S.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of volcanic ash suspended in the atmosphere on the incident solar radiation was monitored at the Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS) subsequent to the major eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980. Passage of the ash plume over Hanford resulted in a very dramatic decrease of solar radiation intensity to zero. A reduction in visibility to less than 1 km was observed, as great quantities of ash fell out of the plume onto the ground. Ash loading in the atmosphere remained very high for several days following the eruption, primarily as a result of resuspension from the surface. Visibilities remained low (2 to 8 km) during this period. Estimates of atmospheric turbidity were made from the ratio of diffuse-to-direct solar radiation; these turbidities were used to estimate extinction along a horizontal path, a quantity which can be related to visibility. Comparisons of observed and estimated visibilities were very good, in spite of the rather coarse approximations used in the estimates. Atmospheric clarity and visibility improved to near pre-eruption conditions following a period of rain showers. The diffuse-to-direct ratio of solar radiation provided a useful index for estimating volcanic ash loading of the atmosphere.

  4. Fast adjustment of the climate system to changes in atmospheric CO2 and solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.; Bala, G.

    2011-12-01

    A key issue in the study of global climate change is the climate response to external forcing. When radiative forcing is applied to the climate system, the climate system starts to respond, resulting in changes in temperature and other fields. A new quasi-equilibrium climate state is achieved when the global mean net energy balance at the top-of-atmosphere returns to zero. The adjustment of the climate system is governed by different processes on different timescales. Within days to months, the climate system adjusts mainly to the imposed forcing and the change of land surface temperature. On longer timescale of years to centuries, when the ocean temperature starts to respond, changes in sea surface temperature exert a strong control on the adjustment of the climate system. By performing ensemble simulations using Hadley Center climate model, HadCM3L, we investigate climate system response to the applied forcing in the forms of additional atmospheric carbon dioxide and an increase in solar insolation. Both carbon dioxide and solar forcing affects the Earth's radiation balance and carbon dioxide also affects the climate system through its impact on plant stomata. We focus on the daily evolution of climate response within a timescale of one month over land and oceans. We will provide a mechanistic understanding of why increasing atmospheric CO2 causes a reduction in global-mean precipitation in the absence of sea surface temperature change. We will also discuss the adjustment of radiative forcing and the usefulness in radiative forcing as a predictor of equilibrium climate change. A discussion of the climate response from daily to millennium timescale will also be presented.

  5. Destruction of Sun-Grazing Comet C-2011 N3 (SOHO) Within the Low Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Brown, J. C.; Battams, K.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Liu, W.; Hudson, H.; Pesnell, W. D.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of comets in Sun-grazing orbits that survive solar insolation long enough to penetrate into the Suns inner corona provide information on the solar atmosphere and magnetic field as well as on the makeup of the comet. On 6 July 2011, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observed the demise of comet C2011 N3 (SOHO) within the low solar corona in five wavelength bands in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). The comet penetrated to within 0.146 solarradius (100,000 kilometers) of the solar surface before its EUV signal disappeared.

  6. Measuring Daily Stress in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfenoff, Sheila H.; Jose, Paul E.

    A study of school-age children was designed to: (1) identify hassles that children experience in their families, among peers, and at school; (2) determine the ability of hassles to predict unhealthy psychological and physical functioning; and (3) explore the effect of daily hassles on school behavior. A measure of children's daily stress that used

  7. Warmer daily temperatures since 1951

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-09-01

    Days and nights have indeed become warmer over the past 60 years, a new study finds. Although several observation-based studies have shown that daily average temperatures as well as daily maximum and minimum temperatures have increased over the past few decades, controversy has remained as to how the observed trends in extreme and average temperatures are related to each other: Are the warming trends in extreme temperatures a result of a shifting mean climate, or have temperatures become more variable? Using a global observational data set of daily temperatures, Donat and Alexander compared the probability distributions of daily maximum and minimum temperatures over two 30-year periods, 1951-1980 and 1981-2010. The authors show that the maximum and minimum daily temperatures all over the globe have significantly shifted toward higher values during the latter period. They further show that the distributions have become skewed toward the hotter part of the distribution; changes are greater for daily minimum (nighttime) temperatures than for the daily maximum (daytime) temperatures. The authors conclude that the distribution of global daily temperatures has indeed become more extreme compared to the middle of the twentieth century. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2012GL052459, 2012)

  8. Salt gradient solar pond technology in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Macaleer, B.S.; Rannels, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has concluded that a potential exists for salt-gradient solar ponds. In a solar pond, there are three layers of salinity. The top layer absorbs sunlight, the middle serves as an insulator, while allowing radiation to pass through to the bottom layer, of the thickest salinity, which stores the energy. Selection of a site of adequate insolation, inexpensive land, free from aquifer interference, is discussed. The pond is filled by the injection procedure, as outlined. Costs vary dramatically based on site parameter limitations of insolation, water, salt, and aquifer. DOE has initiated RandD programs to address the problem of gradient zone erosion, characterize the parameters of heat extraction, and investigate the interactions of soil and brine. A feasibility study has been made at Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley. Other sites are being studied.

  9. Enhanced solar energy options using earth-orbiting mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbreath, W. P.; Billman, K. W.; Bowen, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    A system of orbiting space reflectors is described, analyzed, and shown to economically provide nearly continuous insolation to preselected ground sites, producing benefits hitherto lacking in conventional solar farms and leading to large reductions in energy costs for such installations. Free-flying planar mirrors of about 1 sq km are shown to be optimum and can be made at under 10 g/sq m of surface, thus minimizing material needs and space transportation costs. Models are developed for both the design of such mirrors and for the analysis of expected ground insolation as a function of orbital parameters, time, and site location. Various applications (agricultural, solar-electric production, weather enhancement, etc.) are described.

  10. Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

  11. Three computer codes to read, plot and tabulate operational test-site recorded solar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, S. D.; Sampson, R. S., Jr.; Stonemetz, R. E.; Rouse, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    Computer programs used to process data that will be used in the evaluation of collector efficiency and solar system performance are described. The program, TAPFIL, reads data from an IBM 360 tape containing information (insolation, flowrates, temperatures, etc.) from 48 operational solar heating and cooling test sites. Two other programs, CHPLOT and WRTCNL, plot and tabulate the data from the direct access, unformatted TAPFIL file. The methodology of the programs, their inputs, and their outputs are described.

  12. Influence of the Solar Luminosity on the Glaciations, sea Level Changes and Resulting Earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shopov, Y. Y.; Stoykova, D. A.; Tsankov, L. T.; Sanabria, M. E.; Georgieva, D. I.; Ford, D. C.; Georgiev, L. N.

    2002-12-01

    Glaciations were attributed to variations of the Earth's orbit (Milankovitch cycles). But the best ever dated paleoclimatic record (from Devils Hole, Nevada) demonstrated that the end of the last glacial period (termination II) happened 10 000 years before the one suggested by the orbital variations, i.e. the result appeared before the reason. This fact suggests that there is something wrong in the theory. Calcite speleothems luminescence of organics depends exponentially upon soil temperatures that are determined primarily by the solar radiation. So the microzonality of luminescence of speleothems may be used as an indirect Solar Insolation (radiation) proxy index. We obtained luminescence solar insolation proxy records in speleothems (from Jewel Cave, South Dakota, US and Duhlata cave, Bulgaria). These records exhibit very rapid increasing of the solar insolation at 139 kyrs BP responsible for the termination II (the end of the last glaciation) and demonstrate that solar luminosity variations contribute to Earth's heating almost as much as the orbital variations of the Earth's orbit (Milankovitch cycles). The most powerful cycle of the solar luminosity (11500 yrs) is responsible for almost 1/2 of the variations in solar insolation experimental records. Changes in the speed of Earth's rotation during glacial- interglacial transitions produce fracturing of the Earth's crust and major earthquakes along the fractures. The intensity of this process is as higher as faster is the change of the sea level and as higher is its amplitude. Glaciations and deglaciations drive changes of the sea level. Much higher dimensions of this process should be caused by eruptive increasing of solar luminosity, which may be caused only by collision of large asteroids with the Sun. We demonstrate that such collision may cause "Bible Deluge" type of event.

  13. Test-retest reliability of an insole plantar pressure system to assess gait along linear and curved trajectories

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have assessed reliability of insole technology for evaluating foot pressure distribution during linear walking. Since in natural motion straight walking is intermingled with turns, we determined the test-retest reliability of insole assessment for curved as well as linear trajectories, and estimated the minimum number of steps required to obtain excellent reliability for each output variable. Methods Sixteen young healthy participants were recruited. Each performed, two days apart, two sessions of three walking conditions: linear (LIN) and curved, clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW). The Pedar-X system was used to collect pressure distribution. Foot print was analyzed both as a whole and as subdivided into eight regions: medial and lateral heel, medial and lateral arch, I metatarsal head, II-V metatarsal heads, hallux, lateral toes. Reliability was assessed by using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for clinically relevant variables from analysis of 50 steps per trajectory: Peak Force (PF); Peak Pressure (PP); Contact Area (CA); Stance Duration (S). Results When considering whole-foot, all variables showed an ICC >0.80, therefore highly reliable. This was true for both LIN and curved trajectories. There was no difference in ICC of the four variables between left and right foot. When collapsing foot and trajectories, S had a lower ICC than PP and CA, and PP lower than CA. Mean percent error between the values of first and second session was <5%. When separately considering the eight foot regions, ICCs of PF, PP and CA for all regions and trajectories were generally >0.90, indicating excellent reliability. In curved trajectories, S showed smaller ICCs. Since the least ICC value for S was 0.60 in LIN trajectory, we estimated that to achieve an ICC ?0.90 more than 200 steps should be collected. Conclusions High reliability of insole dynamic variables (PF, PP, CA) is obtained with 50 steps using the Pedar-X system. On the contrary, high reliability of temporal variable (S) requires a larger step number. The negligible differences in ICC between LIN and curved trajectory allow use of this device for gait assessment along mixed trajectories in both clinical and research setting. PMID:24903003

  14. Delayed build-up of Arctic ice sheets during 400, 000-year minima in insolation variability confirmed by Chinese loess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Q.; Wang, L.; Oldfield, F.; Peng, S.; Qin, L.; Song, Y.; Xu, B.; Qiao, Y.; Bloemendal, J.; Guo, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The growth and decay of the Northern Hemisphere ice volume led to alternations of glacial and interglacial climate and major changes in sea level during the Quaternary period. Unfortunately, long-term continuous records of ice-sheet variability in the Northern during the Quaternary period Hemisphere only are scarce because benthic δ18O records represent an integrated signal of changes in ice volume in both polar regions. Direct sedimentary records of Northern Hemisphere polar ice sheets exist only for the late Quaternary and longer term records are scarce. However, variations in Northern Hemisphere ice sheets influence the Siberian High (an atmospheric pressure system), so variations in the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM)--as recorded in the aeolian dust deposits on the Chinese Loess Plateau--can serve as a useful proxy of Arctic climate variability. Here we present an EAWM proxy record using grain-size variations in two parallel loess sections over the past 900 kyr to address the timing of build-up of Northern hemisphere ice sheets around 413 kyr mimina in eccentricity and precessional variability. These periods are regarded as the astronomical analogues of the present interglacial. The results show that during periods of low eccentricity and precessional variability around 400 kyr and 800 kyr ago, the grain-size-inferred intensity of the EAWM remains weak for up to 20 kyr after the end of the interglacial episodes MIS 11, MIS 19 and MIS 21. In contrast, there is a rapid increase in the EAWM after the end of most other interglacials. We conclude that, for these interglacials at 400 kyr intervals, the weak EAWM winds maintain a non-glacial climate at high northern latitudes for much longer than expected from the conventional loess and marine oxygen isotope records. During these times, the less severe summer insolation minima at 65° N (modulated by 413-kyr eccentricity cycles) would have suppressed ice and snow accumulation, leading to a weak Siberian High and, consequently, weak EAWM winds. Astronomically driven insolation during the present interglacial and in the near future is characterized by its low-amplitude variability. The close similarity between future insolation and that 400 kyr ago leads us to speculate that the future climate may still remain in interglacial mode for more that ~40 kyr, even in the absence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Asynchronous development of hemispheric ice sheets suggested by this study sheds new lights on understanding the forcing mechanism of glacial-interglacial alternations.

  15. Development and testing of shingle-type solar cell molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F.

    1978-01-01

    The details of a shingle module design which produces in excess of 97 watts/sq m of module area at 1 kW/sq m insolation and at 60 C are reported. This selected design employs a tempered glass coverplate to provide the primary solar cell structural support. The fabrication and testing of a preproduction module of this design has demonstrated that this selected approach will meet the environmental testing requirements imposed by the contract.

  16. Solar radiation: absence of air pollution trends at Mauna Loa.

    PubMed

    Ellis, H T; Pueschel, R F

    1971-05-21

    Measurements of solar radiation made at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, over a period of 13 years give no evidence that human activities affect atmospheric turbidity on a global scale. Short-term fluctuations in insolation appear to be associated with naturally produced tropospheric aerosols. The intrusion of volcanic dust into the stratosphere results in prolonged increases in atmospheric opacity due to the extended residence times of aerosols in the stratosphere. PMID:5572907

  17. solar thermal power systems advanced solar thermal technology project, advanced subsystems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design for a prototype small (20 kWe) solar thermal electric generating unit was completed, consisting of several subsystems. The concentrator and the receiver collect solar energy and a thermal buffer storage with a transport system is used to provide a partially smoothed heat input to the Stirling engine. A fossil-fuel combustor is included in the receiver designs to permit operation with partial or no solar insolation (hybrid). The engine converts the heat input into mechanical action that powers a generator. To obtain electric power on a large scale, multiple solar modules will be required to operate in parallel. The small solar electric power plant used as a baseline design will provide electricity at remote sites and small communities.

  18. Estimating solar radiation for plant simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, T.; French, V.; Leduc, S.

    1985-01-01

    Five algorithms producing daily solar radiation surrogates using daily temperatures and rainfall were evaluated using measured solar radiation data for seven U.S. locations. The algorithms were compared both in terms of accuracy of daily solar radiation estimates and terms of response when used in a plant growth simulation model (CERES-wheat). Requirements for accuracy of solar radiation for plant growth simulation models are discussed. One algorithm is recommended as being best suited for use in these models when neither measured nor satellite estimated solar radiation values are available.

  19. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, V.E.; Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W.

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  20. Using a pilot study to establish experimental methods for inexpensive instrumented insoles used in dynamic skiing analysis.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Andrew Peter; Boppana, Abhijit; Bamberg, Stacy J M

    2014-01-01

    Loss of balance leads to increased likelihood of falling for human locomotion. Determining the likelihood of falling for skiing locomotion is challenging because, unlike walking, normal locomotion is not clearly defined. One of the first learned styles of skiing is wedge style (WS). WS affords relatively easier balancing and speed control due to a wide base of support and greater resistance to forward movement, respectively. As skiers become more familiar with WS, their sensory, cognition, and actuation improve and they are able to apply more advanced styles, namely parallel style (PS), which requires refined balance. This paper studies the effects of WS and PS, on a single subject pilot study, and how they effect the likelihood of falling. A traditional laboratory setting was not suitable because of extreme difficulty and expense required to mimic the environment. Specially designed instrumented insoles were used to capture force data in a mountain environment. PMID:25570614

  1. Delayed build-up of Arctic ice sheets during 400, 000-year minima in insolation variability confirmed by Chinese loess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Qingzhen; Wang, Luo; Oldfield, Frank; Peng, Shuzhen; Qin, Li; Song, Yang; Xu, Bing; Qiao, Yansong; Bloemendal, Jan; Guo, Zhengtang

    2014-05-01

    The growth and decay of the Northern Hemisphere ice volume led to alternations of glacial and interglacial climate. Unfortunately, long-term continuous records of ice-sheet variability in the Northern Hemisphere during the Quaternary period only are scarce because benthic ?18O records represent an integrated signal of changes in ice volume in both polar regions. However, variations in Northern Hemisphere ice sheets influence the Siberian High (an atmospheric pressure system), so variations in the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM)as recorded in the aeolian dust deposits on the Chinese Loess Plateaucan serve as a useful proxy of Arctic climate variability. Here we present an EAWM proxy record using grain-size variations in two parallel loess sections over the past 900 kyr to address the timing of build-up of Northern hemisphere ice sheets around 413 kyr mimina in eccentricity and precessional variability. These periods are regarded as the astronomical analogues of the present interglacial. The grain-size-inferred intensity of the EAWM records shows that the wind strength of EAWM increased rapidly after the end of most interglacials. However, during periods of low eccentricity and precessional variability around 400 kyr and 800 kyr ago, EAWM remains weak for up to 20 kyr after the end of the interglacial episodes MIS 11, MIS 19 and MIS 21. We conclude that the delayed increase in wind strength of the EAWM was caused by delayed buildup of Arctic ice sheets at the ends of the interglacials at 400 kyr intervals, which had led to much longer climate of interglacial mode at high northern latitudes than expected from the marine oxygen isotope records. During these times, the less severe summer insolation minima at 65 N (modulated by 413-kyr eccentricity cycles) would have suppressed ice and snow accumulation, leading to a weak Siberian High and, consequently, weak EAWM winds. Astronomically driven insolation during the present interglacial and in the near future is characterized by its low-amplitude variability. The close similarity between future insolation and that 400 kyr ago leads us to speculate that the future climate may still remain in interglacial mode for more that ~40 kyr, even in the absence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The difference in timing of the onset of glaciations inferred from the EAMW records and marine ?18O records in this study could not be attributable in chronology uncertainty. We argue that the changes in marine ?18O records at 400 kyr and 800 kyr ago mainly reflect the changes in glaciation in Antarctic regions, as supported by temperature records in the EPICA ice core. The much earlier onset of glacial climate in Antarctic suggests that austral summer insolation in high southern latitudes may also play an important role in driving the alternations of glacial and interglacial at some special orbital configurations, e.g. 400 kyr and 800 kyr ago.

  2. Winter to Spring Transition in Europe 48-45 degrees N: From Temperature Control by Advection to Control by Insolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Hu, H.; Jusem, J. C.; Starr, D.

    1999-01-01

    As established in previous studies, and analyzed further herein for the years 1988-1998, warm advection from the North Atlantic is the predominant control of the surface-air temperature in northern-latitude Europe in late winter. This thesis is supported by the substantial correlation Cti between the speed of the southwesterly surface winds over the eastern North Atlantic, as quantified by a specific Index Ina, and the 2-meter level temperature Ts over central Europe (48-54 deg N; 5-25 deg E), for January, February and early March. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation Cti drops drastically (quite often it is negative). The change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-air temperature. As (a) the sun rises higher in the sky, (b) the snows melt (the surface absorptivity can increase by a factor of 3.0), (c) the ocean-surface winds weaken, and (d) the temperature difference between land and ocean (which we analyze) becomes small, absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control of the continental temperature. We define the onset of spring by this transition, which evaluated for the period of our study occurs at pentad 16 (Julian Date 76, that is, March 16). The control by insolation means that the surface is cooler under cloudy conditions than under clear skies. This control produces a much smaller interannual variability of the surface temperature and of the lapse rate than prevailing in winter, when the control is by advection. Regional climatic data would be of greatest value for agriculture and forestry if compiled for well-defined seasons. For continental northern latitudes, analysis presented here of factors controlling the surface temperature appears an appropriate tool for this task.

  3. A Multi-Stage Human Factors and Comfort Assessment of Instrumented Insoles Designed for Use in a Connected Health Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Harte, Richard; Quinlan, Leo R.; Glynn, Liam; Rodriguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Scharf, Thomas; Carenas, Carlos; Reixach, Elisenda; Garcia, Joan; Carrabina, Jordi; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2015-01-01

    Wearable electronics are gaining widespread use as enabling technologies, monitoring human physical activity and behavior as part of connected health infrastructures. Attention to human factors and comfort of these devices can greatly positively influence user experience, with a subsequently higher likelihood of user acceptance and lower levels of device rejection. Here, we employ a human factors and comfort assessment methodology grounded in the principles of human-centered design to influence and enhance the design of an instrumented insole. A use case was developed and interrogated by stakeholders, experts, and end users, capturing the context of use and user characteristics for the instrumented insole. This use case informed all stages of the design process through two full design cycles, leading to the development of an initial version 1 and a later version 2 prototype. Each version of the prototype was subjected to an expert human factors inspection and controlled comfort assessment using human volunteers. Structured feedback from the first cycle of testing was the driver of design changes implemented in the version 2 prototype. This prototype was found to have significantly improved human factors and comfort characteristics over the first version of the prototype. Expert inspection found that many of the original problems in the first prototype had been resolved in the second prototype. Furthermore, a comfort assessment of this prototype with a group of young healthy adults showed it to be indistinguishable from their normal footwear. This study demonstrates the power and effectiveness of human factors and comfort assessment methodologies in influencing and improving the design of wearable devices. PMID:26694468

  4. A Multi-Stage Human Factors and Comfort Assessment of Instrumented Insoles Designed for Use in a Connected Health Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Harte, Richard; Quinlan, Leo R; Glynn, Liam; Rodriguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Scharf, Thomas; Carenas, Carlos; Reixach, Elisenda; Garcia, Joan; Carrabina, Jordi; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2015-01-01

    Wearable electronics are gaining widespread use as enabling technologies, monitoring human physical activity and behavior as part of connected health infrastructures. Attention to human factors and comfort of these devices can greatly positively influence user experience, with a subsequently higher likelihood of user acceptance and lower levels of device rejection. Here, we employ a human factors and comfort assessment methodology grounded in the principles of human-centered design to influence and enhance the design of an instrumented insole. A use case was developed and interrogated by stakeholders, experts, and end users, capturing the context of use and user characteristics for the instrumented insole. This use case informed all stages of the design process through two full design cycles, leading to the development of an initial version 1 and a later version 2 prototype. Each version of the prototype was subjected to an expert human factors inspection and controlled comfort assessment using human volunteers. Structured feedback from the first cycle of testing was the driver of design changes implemented in the version 2 prototype. This prototype was found to have significantly improved human factors and comfort characteristics over the first version of the prototype. Expert inspection found that many of the original problems in the first prototype had been resolved in the second prototype. Furthermore, a comfort assessment of this prototype with a group of young healthy adults showed it to be indistinguishable from their normal footwear. This study demonstrates the power and effectiveness of human factors and comfort assessment methodologies in influencing and improving the design of wearable devices. PMID:26694468

  5. Method and Apparatus for Monitoring of Daily Activity in Terms of Ground Reaction Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert T. (Inventor); Breit, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A device to record and analyze habitual daily activity in terms of the history of gait-related musculoskeletal loading is disclosed. The device consists of a pressure-sensing insole placed into the shoe or embedded in a shoe sole, which detects contact of the foot with the ground. The sensor is coupled to a portable battery-powered digital data logger clipped to the shoe or worn around the ankle or waist. During the course of normal daily activity, the system maintains a record of time-of-occurrence of all non-spurious foot-down and lift-off events. Off line, these data are filtered and converted to a history of foot-ground contact times, from which measures of cumulative musculoskeletal loading, average walking- and running-specific gait speed, total time spent walking and running, total number of walking steps and running steps, and total gait-related energy expenditure are estimated from empirical regressions of various gait parameters to the contact time reciprocal. Data are available as cumulative values or as daily averages by menu selection. The data provided by this device are useful for assessment of musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health and risk factors associated with habitual patterns of daily activity.

  6. TV Producer Juggles Daily News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Bill

    1989-01-01

    Brennan discusses the daily activities required in the production of a television news show. In "The Not-So-Glamorous Life of a TV Reporter," Linda Yu describes the time and effort required to become a television reporter. (LS)

  7. [Social phobia in daily life].

    PubMed

    Morschitzky, Hans

    2009-12-01

    Based on present diagnostic criteria daily routine of patients with social phobia is described in detail with all its social, educational and occupational impacts. Suffering of affected people is classified as a disease and in need of treatment. PMID:19935489

  8. Publishing Daily on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, George

    1997-01-01

    Relates how a 16,000 circulation daily newspaper publishes on the Web. Discusses lessons learned about audience, content, design, interactivity, and making money. Muses about the effect new media will have on print. (PA)

  9. Solar Pumped Lasers and Their Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1980, NASA has been pursuing high power solar lasers as part of the space power beaming program. Materials in liquid, solid, and gas phases have been evaluated against the requirements for solar pumping. Two basic characteristics of solar insolation, namely its diffuse irradiance and 5800 K blackbody-like spectrum, impose rather stringent requirements for laser excitation. However, meeting these requirements is not insurmountable as solar thermal energy technology has progressed today, and taking advantage of solar pumping lasers is becoming increasingly attractive. The high density photons of concentrated solar energy have been used for mainly electric power generation and thermal processing of materials by the DOE Solar Thermal Technologies Program. However, the photons can interact with materials through many other direct kinetic paths, and applications of the concentrated photons could be extended to processes requiring photolysis, photosynthesis, and photoexcitation. The use of solar pumped lasers on Earth seems constrained by economics and sociopolitics. Therefore, prospective applications may be limited to those that require use of quantum effects and coherency of the laser in order to generate extremely high value products and services when conventional and inexpensive means are ineffective or impossible. The new applications already proposed for concentrated solar photons, such as destruction of hazardous waste, production of renewable fuel, production of fertilizer, and air/water pollution controls, may benefit from the use of inexpensive solar pumped laser matched with the photochemical kinetics of these processes.

  10. The effect of different types of insoles or shoe modifications on medial loading of the knee in persons with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard K; Chapman, Graham J; Parkes, Matthew J; Forsythe, Laura; Felson, David T

    2015-11-01

    Many conservative treatments exist for medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) which aims to reduce the external knee adduction moment (EKAM). The objective of this study was to determine the difference between different shoes and lateral wedge insoles on EKAM, knee adduction angular impulse (KAAI), external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort when walking in individuals with medial knee OA. Seventy individuals with medial knee OA underwent three-dimensional walking gait analysis in five conditions (barefoot, control shoe, typical wedge, supported wedge, and mobility shoe) with pain and comfort recorded concurrently. The change in EKAM, KAAI, external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort were assessed using multiple linear regressions and pairwise comparisons. Compared with the control shoe, lateral wedge insoles and barefoot walking significantly reduced early stance EKAM and KAAI. The mobility shoe showed no effect. A significant reduction in latter stance EKAM was seen in the lateral wedge insoles compared to the other conditions, with only the barefoot condition reducing the external knee flexion moment. However, the mobility shoe showed significant immediate knee pain reduction and improved comfort scores. Different lateral wedge insoles show comparable reductions in medial knee loading and in our study, the mobility shoe did not affect medial loading. PMID:25991385

  11. Solar-geophysical data number 604, December 1994. Part 1: (Prompt reports). Data for November, October 1994, and late data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, H. E.

    1994-12-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) Solar-Terrestrial Environment - Plots of GOES satellite X-rays, Particles and Magnetometer data with ground-based Boulder Magnetometer and Deep River Neutron Monitor; (2) IUWDS Alert Periods (Advance and Worldwide); (3) Solar Activity Indices - Daily Sunspot Numbers (12 Months), Daily 2800 MHz Solar Flux (12 Months), Daily Solar Indices (Sunspot Numbers and Solar Flux); (4) Smoothed Observed and Predicted Sunspot Numbers, Graph and Table of Monthly Mean Solar Radio Flux 1950-present, Plot of Monthly Mean Sunspot Numbers Jan. 1749-Nov. 1994; (5) Solar Flares; (6) Solar Radio Emission; (7) Stanford Mean Solar Magnetic Field; and (8) GOES-7 Daily Electron Fluence.

  12. Riding the Wave to Reach the Masses: Natural Events in Early Twentieth Century Portuguese Daily Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoes, Ana; Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula

    2012-01-01

    This paper brings together science communicated in newspapers in Portugal by looking at how news on natural events were communicated in two different newspapers--the capital newspaper "Diario de Noticias" ("Daily News") and the "Diario dos Acores" ("Azores Daily"). In particular, we look at how the 1900 solar eclipse, a hot topic throughout

  13. Riding the Wave to Reach the Masses: Natural Events in Early Twentieth Century Portuguese Daily Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoes, Ana; Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula

    2012-01-01

    This paper brings together science communicated in newspapers in Portugal by looking at how news on natural events were communicated in two different newspapers--the capital newspaper "Diario de Noticias" ("Daily News") and the "Diario dos Acores" ("Azores Daily"). In particular, we look at how the 1900 solar eclipse, a hot topic throughout…

  14. The effectiveness of shoe insoles for the prevention and treatment of low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is a significant public health problem in Western industrialised countries and has been reported to affect up to 80% of adults at some stage in their lives. It is associated with high health care utilisation costs, disability, work loss and restriction of social activities. An intervention of foot orthoses or insoles has been suggested to reduce the risk of developing LBP and be an effective treatment strategy for people suffering from LBP. However, despite the common usage of orthoses and insoles, there is a lack of clear guidelines for their use in relation to LBP. The aim of this review is to investigate the effectiveness of foot orthoses and insoles in the prevention and treatment of non specific LBP. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library was conducted in May 2013. Two authors independently reviewed and selected relevant randomised controlled trials. Quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool and the Downs and Black Checklist. Meta-analysis of study data were conducted where possible. Results Eleven trials were included: five trials investigated the treatment of LBP (n?=?293) and six trials examined the prevention of LBP (n?=?2379) through the use of foot orthoses or insoles. Meta-analysis showed no significant effect in favour of the foot orthoses or insoles for either the treatment trials (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.74, CI 95%: -1.5 to 0.03) or the prevention trials (relative risk (RR) 0.78, CI 95%: 0.50 to 1.23). Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to support the use of insoles or foot orthoses as either a treatment for LBP or in the prevention of LBP. The small number, moderate methodological quality and the high heterogeneity of the available trials reduce the strength of current findings. Future research should concentrate on identification of LBP patients most suited to foot orthoses or insole treatment, as there is some evidence that trials structured along these lines have a greater effect on reducing LBP. PMID:24775807

  15. Conversion from daily to alternate daily corticosteroids in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzcharles, M A; Halsey, J; Currey, H L

    1982-01-01

    An attempt was made to convert 24 patients on corticosteroid treatment from a daily to an alternate daily regimen. Ten patients were successfully converted, 11 failed to convert, and 3 had to be withdrawn for irrelevant reasons. A simple tetracosactrin stimulation test gave some indication of which patients were more likely to convert successfully. Success was not influenced by severity or duration of disease, nor by dose of duration of steroid therapy. Conversion did not influence various clinical and laboratory measures of undesirable steroid side effects, but the follow-up period was probably too short to judge this. The evidence of others suggests that conversion is worth attempting. PMID:7065731

  16. Solar Energy Meteorological Research and Training Site - Region II. Final report, 1977-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, R.; Hamilton, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Region II Solar Energy Meteorological Research and Training Site (SEMRTS) began operation on October 1, 1977 with the following objectives: establishment of an observation station to produce high quality records of solar radiation and weather data; establishment of an educational program in solar meteorology; and the establishment of a continuing research program. Some highlights included: the Perez model, an anisotropic model of diffuse radiation; the analysis of the effects of the volcanic clouds from Mt. St. Helens and El Chichon on the spectral distribution of insolation; technical and mathematical corrections of past data sets based upon minute-by-minute insolation data; a photovoltaic demonstration for the 1980 Winter Olympics; and analysis of the integration of photovoltaics and wind systems to produce electricity. (LEW)

  17. Daily management systems in medicine.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Lane F

    2014-01-01

    "Lean" (continuous improvement) organizations make use of daily management systems (DMS) that are designed so that problems can be quickly identified, front-line staff are empowered to fix the problems that they can, and problems that the front-line staff cannot fix are escalated and countermeasures created quickly. Key components of a DMS include leadership standard work, visual controls, and a daily accountability process, as well as discipline involving each of these three components. The author's organization recently had the opportunity to open a new, nonreplacement hospital, allowing the incorporation of continuous improvement principles into the hospital's design and operations. One high-priority task was the creation of a DMS, which was structured as a tiered "huddle" system. All of the front-line clinical areas, as well as all clinical and nonclinical ancillary support areas, conduct morning huddles. Problems identified at these huddles and needing escalation are then brought to a patient flow huddle and an integrated huddle. All of these huddles occur daily and have a standard format with three clearly defined components: metrics-goal review, daily readiness assessment, and problem accountability reporting. The huddles also provide a daily opportunity to see and converse with the people with whom one needs to discuss certain issues. The process of bringing people together for these huddles can contribute significantly to team formation, coordination of efforts, and development of a culture of trust. PMID:24617697

  18. Reconciling Consumer and Utility Objectives in the Residential Solar PV Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Michael R.

    Today's energy market is facing large-scale changes that will affect all market players. Near the top of that list is the rapid deployment of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Yet that growing trend will be influenced multiple competing interests between various stakeholders, namely the utility, consumers and technology provides. This study provides a series of analyses---utility-side, consumer-side, and combined analyses---to understand and evaluate the effect of increases in residential solar PV market penetration. Three urban regions have been selected as study locations---Chicago, Phoenix, Seattle---with simulated load data and solar insolation data at each locality. Various time-of-use pricing schedules are investigated, and the effect of net metering is evaluated to determine the optimal capacity of solar PV and battery storage in a typical residential home. The net residential load profile is scaled to assess system-wide technical and economic figures of merit for the utility with an emphasis on intraday load profiles, ramp rates and electricity sales with increasing solar PV penetration. The combined analysis evaluates the least-cost solar PV system for the consumer and models the associated system-wide effects on the electric grid. Utility revenue was found to drop by 1.2% for every percent PV penetration increase, net metering on a monthly or annual basis improved the cost-effectiveness of solar PV but not battery storage, the removal of net metering policy and usage of an improved the cost-effectiveness of battery storage and increases in solar PV penetration reduced the system load factor. As expected, Phoenix had the most favorable economic scenario for residential solar PV, primarily due to high solar insolation. The study location---solar insolation and load profile---was also found to affect the time of year at which the largest net negative system load was realized.

  19. Design of landfill daily cells.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakopoulos, D; Dokas, I

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the behaviour of the landfill soil-to-refuse (S/R) ratio when size, geometry and operating parameters of the daily cell vary over realistic ranges. A simple procedure is presented (1) for calculating the cell parameters values which minimise the S/R ratio and (2) for studying the sensitivity of this minimum S/R ratio to variations in cell size, final refuse density, working face length, lift height and cover thickness. In countries where daily soil cover is required, savings in landfill space could be realised following this procedure. The sensitivity of minimum S/R to variations in cell dimensions decreases with cell size. Working face length and lift height affect the S/R ratio significantly. This procedure also offers the engineer an additional tool for comparing one large daily cell with two or more smaller ones, at two different working faces within the same landfill. PMID:11720268

  20. A novel tool for continuous fracture aftercare - Clinical feasibility and first results of a new telemetric gait analysis insole.

    PubMed

    Braun, Benedikt J; Bushuven, Eva; Hell, Rebecca; Veith, Nils T; Buschbaum, Jan; Holstein, Joerg H; Pohlemann, Tim

    2016-02-01

    Weight bearing after lower extremity fractures still remains a highly controversial issue. Even in ankle fractures, the most common lower extremity injury no standard aftercare protocol has been established. Average non weight bearing times range from 0 to 7 weeks, with standardised, radiological healing controls at fixed time intervals. Recent literature calls for patient-adapted aftercare protocols based on individual fracture and load scenarios. We show the clinical feasibility and first results of a new, insole embedded gait analysis tool for continuous monitoring of gait, load and activity. Ten patients were monitored with a new, independent gait analysis insole for up to 3 months postoperatively. Strict 20kg partial weight bearing was ordered for 6 weeks. Overall activity, load spectrum, ground reaction forces, clinical scoring and general health data were recorded and correlated. Statistical analysis with power analysis, t-test and Spearman correlation was performed. Only one patient completely adhered to the set weight bearing limit. Average time in minutes over the limit was 374min. Based on the parameters load, activity, gait time over 20kg weight bearing and maximum ground reaction force high and low performers were defined after 3 weeks. Significant difference in time to painless full weight bearing between high and low performers was shown. Correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between weight bearing and clinical scoring as well as pain (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Score rs=0.74; Olerud-Molander Score rs=0.93; VAS pain rs=-0.95). Early, continuous gait analysis is able to define aftercare performers with significant differences in time to full painless weight bearing where clinical or radiographic controls could not. Patient compliance to standardised weight bearing limits and protocols is low. Highly individual rehabilitation patterns were seen in all patients. Aftercare protocols should be adjusted to real-time patient conditions, rather than fixed intervals and limits. With a real-time measuring device high performers could be identified and influenced towards optimal healing conditions early, while low performers are recognised and missing healing influences could be corrected according to patient condition. PMID:26626806

  1. Integrally regulated solar array demonstration using an Intel 8080 microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrik, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    A concept for regulating the voltage of a solar array by using a microprocessor to effect discrete voltage changes was demonstrated. Eight shorting switches were employed to regulate a simulated array at set-point voltages between 10,000 and 15,000 volts. The demonstration showed that the microprocessor easily regulated the solar array output voltage independently of whether or not the switched cell groups were binary sized in voltage. In addition, the microprocessor provided logic memory capability to perform additional tasks such as locating and insolating a faulty switch.

  2. Criteria for the evaluation of laser solar energy converter systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Assuming that a parabolic insolation-collection mirror-based solar pumped laser has a collector and heat emitter whose weights are proportional to their areas, and that the weight of the laser is negligible by comparison, the output power/unit weight can be expressed in terms of the efficiencies and working temperatures of the system. This ratio appears to be several times higher for an IBr laser than for one operating on C3F7I, because the solar utilization efficiency is greater for the former despite its lower working temperature.

  3. Solar heating of the Martian dusty atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    This paper examines the solar heating of the Martian atmosphere during the 1971 global dust storm observed by Mariner 9. Radiative scattering as well as absorption is included by utilizing the delta-Eddington approximation to the full radiative transfer equation. The necessary optical parameters are generated by a Mie program which uses a size distribution and a complex refractive index inferred from a number of sources, particularly from recent analyses of Mariner 9 UVS and TV observations. When uniform mixing of the dust is assumed, the solar heating per unit mass during a Martian global dust storm is remarkably uniform with height for small solar zenith angles. Heating rates may reach 80 K/day for overhead sunlight. Overall, 20% of the direct insolation is absorbed by the dust-laden atmosphere. Even optically thin widespread dust hazes may produce heating rates of several degrees Kelvin per day.

  4. Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Lehmann, Sune; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-10-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness) to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.

  5. MyPlate Daily Checklist

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Menus Seasonal Winter Spring Summer Fall Food Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide MyPlate Daily Checklist ... Printable Materials MyPlate Videos Recipes & Menus Seasonal Resources Food Safety Newsroom Communicator's Guide Dietary Guidelines Stay connected Get ...

  6. Daily Food Plan for Moms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Menus Seasonal Winter Spring Summer Fall Food Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide MyPlate Daily Checklist ... Dietary Supplements Medical Conditions, Allergies, and Food Intolerances Food Safety Older Adults Children Students Professionals Multiple Languages MyPlate, ...

  7. Providing daily updated weather data for online risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petritsch, R.; Hasenauer, H.

    2009-04-01

    Daily weather data are an important constraint for diverse applications in ecosystem research. In particular, temperature and precipitation are the main drivers for forest ecosystem productivity. Mechanistic modeling theory heavily relies on daily values for minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation, incident solar radiation and vapor pressure. These data are usually provided by interpolation techniques using measured values from surrounding stations or weather generators based on monthly mean values. One well-known and frequently used software packages is DAYMET which was adapted and validated for Austrian purposes. The calculation includes the interpolation of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation based on near-by measurements and the subsequent extrapolation of incident solar radiation and vapor pressure deficit based on the temperature and precipitation values. The Austrian version of DAYMET uses daily weather data from more than 400 measuring stations all over Austria from 1960 to 2005. Due to internal procedures of DAYMET daily values for a whole year are estimated together; thus, the update of the database may only be done with full year records. Whether this approach convenient for retrospective modeling studies risk assessment (e.g. drought stress, forest fire, insect outbreaks) needs a higher update frequency than a full year. At best the measurements would be available immediately after they are taken. In practice the update frequency is limited by the operational provision of daily weather data. The aim of this study is to implement a concept for providing daily updated weather data as it could be used for continuous risk assessment. First we built a new climate database containing all available daily measurements. It is based on a well-established Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and may be accessed and extended using the Standard Query Language (SQL). Secondly, we re-implemented the interpolation logic for temperature and precipitation. Incident solar radiation and vapor pressure deficit were calculated with the same procedure as used in DAYMET adjusted to the new data handling. Cross validation is used to obtain optimal parameters but also for rough accuracy estimation of the generated daily weather data. A validation including detailed residual analyses is done using a set of 23 independent climate stations. The results are comparable with the original procedure and allow an online calculation of the needed parameters.

  8. Evidence for insolation and Pacific forcing of late glacial through Holocene climate in the Central Mojave Desert (Silver Lake, CA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Matthew E.; Knell, Edward J.; Anderson, William T.; Lachniet, Matthew S.; Palermo, Jennifer; Eeg, Holly; Lucero, Ricardo; Murrieta, Rosa; Arevalo, Andrea; Silveira, Emily; Hiner, Christine A.

    2015-09-01

    Silver Lake is the modern terminal playa of the Mojave River in southern California (USA). As a result, it is well located to record both influences from the winter precipitation dominated San Bernardino Mountains - the source of the Mojave River - and from the late summer to early fall North American monsoon at Silver Lake. Here, we present various physical, chemical and biological data from a new radiocarbon-dated, 8.2 m sediment core taken from Silver Lake that spans modern through 14.8 cal ka BP. Texturally, the core varies between sandy clay, clayey sand, and sand-silt-clay, often with abrupt sedimentological transitions. These grain-size changes are used to divide the core into six lake status intervals over the past 14.8 cal ka BP. Notable intervals include a dry Younger Dryas chronozone, a wet early Holocene terminating 7.8 - 7.4 cal ka BP, a distinct mid-Holocene arid interval, and a late Holocene return to ephemeral lake conditions. A comparison to potential climatic forcings implicates a combination of changing summer - winter insolation and tropical and N Pacific sea-surface temperature dynamics as the primary drivers of Holocene climate in the central Mojave Desert.

  9. Screen-printed piezoelectric shoe-insole energy harvester using an improved flexible PZT-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almusallam, A.; Torah, R. N.; Zhu, D.; Tudor, M. J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports improved screen-printed piezoelectric composites that can be printed on fabrics or flexible substrates. The materials are flexible and are processed at lower temperature (130C). One main PZT particle size (2?m) was mixed separately with smaller piezoelectric particles (0.1, 0.3 and 0.8?m) with different weight ratios to investigate the piezoelectric property d33. The blended PZT powder was then mixed with 40% polymer binder and printed on Alumina substrates. The applied poling field, temperature and time were 8MV/m, 160C and 10min, respectively. The optimum material gives a d33 of 36pC/N with particle sizes of 2?m and 0.8?m and mixed percentages of 82% and 18%, respectively. A screen-printed piezoelectric shoe-insoles (PSI) has been developed as a self-powered force mapping sensor. The PSI was simulated, fabricated and tested. ANSYS results show that one element of PSI sole can produce an open- circuit voltage of 3V when a human of average weight of 70kg makes a gait strike. Experimental results show that one element produced 2V which is less than the simulated results because of the reduction of poling field for the practical device.

  10. Formation of gullies on Mars: Link to recent climate history and insolation microenvironments implicate surface water flow origin

    PubMed Central

    Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.; Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.

    2008-01-01

    Features seen in portions of a typical midlatitude Martian impact crater show that gully formation follows a geologically recent period of midlatitude glaciation. Geological evidence indicates that, in the relatively recent past, sufficient snow and ice accumulated on the pole-facing crater wall to cause glacial flow and filling of the crater floor with debris-covered glaciers. As glaciation waned, debris-covered glaciers ceased flowing, accumulation zones lost ice, and newly exposed wall alcoves continued as the location for limited snow/frost deposition, entrapment, and preservation. Analysis of the insolation geometry of this pole-facing crater wall, and similar occurrences in other craters at these latitudes on Mars, shows that they are uniquely favored for accumulation of snow and ice, and a relatively more rapid exposure to warmer summer temperatures. We show that, after the last glaciation, melting of residual snow and ice in alcoves could have formed the fluvial channels and sedimentary fans of the gullies. Recent modeling shows that top-down melting can occur in these microenvironments under conditions similar to those currently observed on Mars, if small amounts of snow or frost accumulate in alcoves and channels. Accumulation and melting is even more favored in the somewhat wetter, relatively recent geological past of Mars, after the period of active glaciation. PMID:18725636

  11. Formation of gullies on Mars: link to recent climate history and insolation microenvironments implicate surface water flow origin.

    PubMed

    Head, James W; Marchant, David R; Kreslavsky, Mikhail A

    2008-09-01

    Features seen in portions of a typical midlatitude Martian impact crater show that gully formation follows a geologically recent period of midlatitude glaciation. Geological evidence indicates that, in the relatively recent past, sufficient snow and ice accumulated on the pole-facing crater wall to cause glacial flow and filling of the crater floor with debris-covered glaciers. As glaciation waned, debris-covered glaciers ceased flowing, accumulation zones lost ice, and newly exposed wall alcoves continued as the location for limited snow/frost deposition, entrapment, and preservation. Analysis of the insolation geometry of this pole-facing crater wall, and similar occurrences in other craters at these latitudes on Mars, shows that they are uniquely favored for accumulation of snow and ice, and a relatively more rapid exposure to warmer summer temperatures. We show that, after the last glaciation, melting of residual snow and ice in alcoves could have formed the fluvial channels and sedimentary fans of the gullies. Recent modeling shows that top-down melting can occur in these microenvironments under conditions similar to those currently observed on Mars, if small amounts of snow or frost accumulate in alcoves and channels. Accumulation and melting is even more favored in the somewhat wetter, relatively recent geological past of Mars, after the period of active glaciation. PMID:18725636

  12. Cloud cover estimation: Use of GOES imagery in development of cloud cover data base for insolation assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huning, J. R.; Logan, T. L.; Smith, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of using digital satellite data to establish a cloud cover data base for the United States, one that would provide detailed information on the temporal and spatial variability of cloud development are studied. Key elements include: (1) interfacing GOES data from the University of Wisconsin Meteorological Data Facility with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's VICAR image processing system and IBIS geographic information system; (2) creation of a registered multitemporal GOES data base; (3) development of a simple normalization model to compensate for sun angle; (4) creation of a variable size georeference grid that provides detailed cloud information in selected areas and summarized information in other areas; and (5) development of a cloud/shadow model which details the percentage of each grid cell that is cloud and shadow covered, and the percentage of cloud or shadow opacity. In addition, comparison of model calculations of insolation with measured values at selected test sites was accomplished, as well as development of preliminary requirements for a large scale data base of cloud cover statistics.

  13. Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

  14. Solar Energy Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Last year the people of Cleveland, Ohio were troubled by natural gas shortages during one of the coldest winters on record. The severe winter generated a great deal of interest in solar energy as an alternative source of heat. Home owners, home builders and civic officials wanted to know just how much solar energy is available in Cleveland. Now they get a daily report through the city's news media, from information supplied as a community service by NASA's Lewis Research Center. Lewis routinely makes daily measurements of solar energy as part of its continuing research in behalf of the Department of Energy. The measuring device is a sun sensor called a pyranometer (upper photo) located atop a building at the NASA Center. To make the information conveniently available to news media, Lewis developed a Voice Output Integrating Insolometer, an automated system that acquires information from the sun sensor and translates it into a recorded telephone message. The Lewis pyranometer collects sun data for 15 hours daily and measures the total solar energy yield. For reporting to the public, the information is electronically converted to a specific reading. A media representative calling in gets a voice-synthesized announcement of a two or three digit number; the number corresponds to the kilowatt-hours of solar energy that would be available to a typical 500-square-foot solar collector system. Response in Cleveland has been favorable and interest is developing in other parts of the country.

  15. Quantifying the Relationship between Sea Ice Concentration, Insolation, and the Molecular Fossil IP25: an Example from the Bering and Chukchi Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caissie, B.; Sharko, C. J.; Kocis, J. J.; Petsch, S.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Masse, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a remarkable decrease in Arctic sea ice extent and duration. However, it is unknown if similarly rapid decreases in sea ice occurred in the past during orbitally-driven warmings. To address this question, the molecular fossil IP25 is used as an indicator of the presence of sea ice. IP25 is a monounsaturated, highly branched isoprenoid selectively biosynthesized by diatoms associated with seasonal sea ice. However, correlation of IP25 concentrations with environmental conditions is not well constrained. Core-top calibrations are needed to quantify reconstructions of IP25-based sea ice concentrations in down-core studies. Here we report IP25 measured in a suite of surface sediment samples (n=59) in the Bering and Chukchi Seas. We use principal component and regression analysis to correlate IP25 with other geochemical data and spring (MAMJ) environmental variables. We then present a proxy for spring sea ice concentration that is based on IP25 concentration, insolation, and sea ice concentration. Diatoms dominate primary productivity in the Bering and Chukchi seas. Satellite-derived spring sea ice concentration in the study area ranges from 0% to 100% ice coverage. We measured IP25, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and grain-size (GS) in each surface sample. IP25 is present in all surface samples. Notably, TOC-normalized IP25 values are higher in the Chukchi Sea (460-2000 μg/gTOC) than the Bering Sea (40-680 μg/gTOC). These values are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than in the North Atlantic, also a seasonally ice covered region. We calculated a metric we call "insolation on ice" which is the product of isolation and sea-ice concentration. Because the ice-related bloom is light limited, in the spring, blooms occur only once the light becomes intense enough to sustain photosynthesis under the ice. Furthermore, insolation displays considerable variation on Milankovitch time scales. Insolation on ice is a way to quantify optimum diatom growth intervals. IP25 is strongly correlated with MAMJ insolation on ice (R2=0.70, p<0.001) and MAMJ sea ice concentration (R2=0.66, p<0.001). The first two principle components explain 80% of the variance and show that these 3 variables are highly positively related while SST, SSS, and insolation are highly negatively related to IP25. TOC, TN, C/N and GS are orthogonal to and not related to IP25. We conclude that IP25 concentration can be used as a proxy for spring sea ice concentration if IP25 concentration is used to model the insolation on ice at the time of sediment deposition. Using the known insolation at that time and latitude, we can then calculate spring sea ice concentration for the sample. Although further work is warranted to extend this proxy to other regions of the Arctic where diatoms contribute a smaller percentage of the organic matter sediment pool, this proxy represents a significant step forward in quantifying past sea ice concentrations.

  16. Observability of market daily volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  17. Using joint probability distribution functions to evaluate simulations of precipitation, cloud fraction and insolation in the North America Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Huikyo; Kim, Jinwon; Waliser, Duane E.; Loikith, Paul C.; Mattmann, Chris A.; McGinnis, Seth

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluates model fidelity in simulating relationships between seasonally averaged precipitation, cloud fraction and surface insolation from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Project (NARCCAP) hindcast using observational data from ground stations and satellites. Model fidelity is measured in terms of the temporal correlation coefficients between these three variables and the similarity between the observed and simulated joint probability distribution functions (JPDFs) in 14 subregions over the conterminous United States. Observations exhibit strong negative correlations between precipitation/cloud fraction and surface insolation for all seasons, whereas the relationship between precipitation and cloud fraction varies according to regions and seasons. The skill in capturing these observed relationships varies widely among the NARCCAP regional climate models, especially in the Midwest and Southeast coast regions where observations show weak (or even negative) correlations between precipitation and cloud fraction in winter due to frequent non-precipitating stratiform clouds. Quantitative comparison of univariate and JPDFs indicates that model performance varies markedly between regions as well as seasons. This study also shows that comparison of JPDFs is useful for summarizing the performance of and highlighting problems with some models in simulating cloud fraction and surface insolation. Our quantitative metric may be useful in improving climate models by highlighting shortcomings in the formulations related with the physical processes involved in precipitation, clouds and radiation or other multivariate processes in the climate system.

  18. Project Ahupua'a: solar meteorological field measurements on the Island of Hawaii, Summer 1978. 5. Southern flank of Mauna Loa

    SciTech Connect

    Ekern, P.C.; Becker, R.J.

    1982-10-01

    Between 12-21 June 1978, four instrumented vans were deployed in a nearly linear transect above Na'alehu, along the steep southeastern slope of Mauna Loa. The transect, traversing a pronounced rainfall and insolation gradient, was designed to monitor sunlight and other meteorological variables related to solar energy. Surprisingly, many locations here receive more insolation during winter than during summer. Stronger than normal trade wind conditions prevailed during the period. A minor distrubance moved eastward to the north of the Island of Hawaii on 20 June, weakened the trade winds for nearly 24 h, and offered the opportunity to examine the development of island-generated circulations unhindered by the large scale flow. The amount of insolation recieved at the transect stations was less than the long-term mean. Persistent cloudiness attenuated insolation. Orographic cloud limited morning insolation while a sea breeze-anabatic cloud depleted afternoon insolation. Peak sunlight values were recorded during the mid-morning transition. This pattern occurred on all nine trade wind days. On 20 June, no orographic cloud formed and maximum values of insolation were received at three of the four transect sites. Strong gusty surface winds recorded along the transect may have been associated with a low level jet stream with Mauna Loa acting as a western boundary to the trade wind current. All transect stations experienced nocturnal wind pulses. Wind speed fluctuations, occasionally exceeding 5 m s/sup -1/, occurred with pronounced changes in wind direction. Increasing winds veered toward the prevailing trade wind direction, decreasing winds backed. Low level jet stream instabilities were a likely cause of these fluctuations.

  19. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary

  20. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

  1. Solar Village--Educational Initiative for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Ilyian, Salman; Toren, Zehava; Anabosi, Fawzi

    2003-01-01

    Explains a model of a solar village in the context of the school which does not contribute to air pollution by using only solar energy. Suggests that pupils would be active participants in building systems and understanding the contact between the knowledge of the basic science of solar energy and the technology processes in daily life.

  2. Solar Village--Educational Initiative for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Ilyian, Salman; Toren, Zehava; Anabosi, Fawzi

    2003-01-01

    Explains a model of a solar village in the context of the school which does not contribute to air pollution by using only solar energy. Suggests that pupils would be active participants in building systems and understanding the contact between the knowledge of the basic science of solar energy and the technology processes in daily life.…

  3. Residential heating costs: a comparison of geothermal, solar and conventional resources

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomster, C.H.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.

    1980-08-01

    The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. These costs are very sensitive to location - being dependent on the local prices of conventional energy supplies, local solar insolation, cimate, and the proximity and temperature of potential geothermal resources. The sharp price increases in imported fuels during 1979 and the planned decontrol of domestic oil and natural gas prices have set the stage for geothermal and solar market penetration in the 1980's.

  4. The application of simulation modeling to the cost and performance ranking of solar thermal power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, L. S.; Revere, W. R.; Selcuk, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    Small solar thermal power systems (up to 10 MWe in size) were tested. The solar thermal power plant ranking study was performed to aid in experiment activity and support decisions for the selection of the most appropriate technological approach. The cost and performance were determined for insolation conditions by utilizing the Solar Energy Simulation computer code (SESII). This model optimizes the size of the collector field and energy storage subsystem for given engine generator and energy transport characteristics. The development of the simulation tool, its operation, and the results achieved from the analysis are discussed.

  5. Evaluation of initial collector field performance at the Langley Solar Building Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Jensen, R. N.; Knoll, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal performance of the solar collector field for the NASA Langley Solar Building Test Facility is given for October 1976 through January 1977. A 1,180 square meter solar collector field with seven collector designs helped to provide hot water for the building heating system and absorption air conditioner. The collectors were arranged in 12 rows with nominally 51 collectors per row. Heat transfer rates for each row were calculated and recorded along with sensor, insolation, and weather data every five minutes using a minicomputer. The agreement between the experimental and predicted collector efficiencies was generally within five percentage points.

  6. Karasek Home, Blackstone, Massachusetts solar-energy-system performance evaluation, Nov. 1981 - Mar. 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, M.

    1982-06-01

    The Karasek Home is a single family Massachusetts residence whose active-solar-energy system is equipped with 640 square feet of trickle-down liquid flat-plate collectors, storage in a 300-gallon tank and a 2000-gallon tank embedded in a rock bin in the basement, and an oil-fired glass-lined 40-gallon domestic hot water tank for auxiliary water and space heating. Monthly performance data are tabulated for the overall system and for the collector, storage, space heating, and domestic hot water subsystems. For each month a graph is presented of collector array efficiency versus the difference between the inlet water temperature and ambient temperature divided by insolation. Typical system operation is illustrated by graphs of insolation and temperatures at different parts of the system versus time for a typical day. The typical system operating sequence for a day is also graphed as well as solar energy utilization and heat losses.

  7. Modeling topographic influences on solar radiation: A manual for the SOLARFLUX Model

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, P.M.; Hetrick, W.A.; Saving, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    SOLARFLUX is a geographical information system (GIS) based computer program (running under ARC/INFO and GRID) that models incoming solar radiation based on surface orientation (slope and aspect), solar angle (azimuth and zenith) as it shifts over time, shadows caused by topographic features, and atmospheric conditions. A convenient user interface allows specification of program parameters including latitude, time interval for simulation, file name of a topographic surface, atmospheric conditions (transmittivity), and file names for output. The user specifies a topographic surface as an array of elevation values (GRID). SOLARFLUX generates five basic types of output: 1) total direct radiation, 2) duration of direct sunlight, 3) total diffuse radiation, 4) skyview factor, and 5) hemispherical viewsheds of sky obstruction for specified surface locations. This manual serves as the comprehensive guide to SOLARFLUX. Included are discussions on modeling insolation on complex surfaces, our theoretical approach, program setup and operation, and a set of applications illustrating characteristics of topographic insolation modeling.

  8. Conceptual design of a solar cogeneration facility at Pioneer Mill Co. , Ltd

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Results are reported of a conceptual design study of the retrofit of a solar central receiver system to an existing cogeneration facility at a Hawaii raw sugar factory. Background information on the site, the existing facility, and the project organization is given. Then the results are presented o the work to select the site specific configuration, including the working fluid, receiver concept, heliostat field site, and the determination of the solar facility size and of the role of thermal storage. The system selected would use water-steam as its working fluid in a twin-cavity receiver collecting sunlight from 41,420 m/sup 2/ of heliostat mirrors. The lates version of the system specification is appended, as are descriptions of work to measure site insolation and a site insolation mathematical model and interface data for the local utility. (LEW)

  9. Predicting Complete Ground Reaction Forces and Moments During Gait With Insole Plantar Pressure Information Using a Wavelet Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Sim, Taeyong; Kwon, Hyunbin; Oh, Seung Eel; Joo, Su-Bin; Choi, Ahnryul; Heo, Hyun Mu; Kim, Kisun; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2015-09-01

    In general, three-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRFs) and ground reaction moments (GRMs) that occur during human gait are measured using a force plate, which are expensive and have spatial limitations. Therefore, we proposed a prediction model for GRFs and GRMs, which only uses plantar pressure information measured from insole pressure sensors with a wavelet neural network (WNN) and principal component analysis-mutual information (PCA-MI). For this, the prediction model estimated GRFs and GRMs with three different gait speeds (slow, normal, and fast groups) and healthy/pathological gait patterns (healthy and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) groups). Model performance was validated using correlation coefficients (r) and the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE%) and was compared to the prediction accuracy of the previous methods using the same dataset. As a result, the performance of the GRF and GRM prediction model proposed in this study (slow group: r?=?0.840-0.989 and NRMSE%?=?10.693-15.894%; normal group: r?=?0.847-0.988 and NRMSE% =?10.920-19.216%; fast group: r?=?0.823-0.953 and NRMSE%?=?12.009-20.182%; healthy group: r?=?0.836-0.976 and NRMSE%?=?12.920-18.088%; and AIS group: r?=?0.917-0.993 and NRMSE%?=?7.914-15.671%) was better than that of the prediction models suggested in previous studies for every group and component (p?

  10. Delayed build-up of Arctic ice sheets during 400,000-year minima in insolation variability.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qingzhen; Wang, Luo; Oldfield, Frank; Peng, Shuzhen; Qin, Li; Song, Yang; Xu, Bing; Qiao, Yansong; Bloemendal, Jan; Guo, Zhengtang

    2012-10-18

    Knowledge of the past variability of climate at high northern latitudes during astronomical analogues of the present interglacial may help to inform our understanding of future climate change. Unfortunately, long-term continuous records of ice-sheet variability in the Northern Hemisphere only are scarce because records of benthic (18)O content represent an integrated signal of changes in ice volume in both polar regions. However, variations in Northern Hemisphere ice sheets influence the Siberian High (an atmospheric pressure system), so variations in the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM)--as recorded in the aeolian dust deposits on the Chinese Loess Plateau--can serve as a useful proxy of Arctic climate variability before the ice-core record begins. Here we present an EAWM proxy record using grain-size variations in two parallel loess sections representative of sequences across the whole of the Chinese Loess Plateau over the past 900,000 years. The results show that during periods of low eccentricity and precessional variability at approximately 400,000-year intervals, the grain-size-inferred intensity of the EAWM remains weak for up to 20,000 years after the end of the interglacial episode of high summer monsoon activity and strong pedogenesis. In contrast, there is a rapid increase in the EAWM after the end of most other interglacials. We conclude that, for both the 400,000-year interglacials, the weak EAWM winds maintain a mild, non-glacial climate at high northern latitudes for much longer than expected from the conventional loess and marine oxygen isotope records. During these times, the less-severe summer insolation minima at 65° N (ref. 4) would have suppressed ice and snow accumulation, leading to a weak Siberian High and, consequently, weak EAWM winds. PMID:23034648

  11. Contemporary Systems, Inc., Walpole, New Hampshire solar-energy-system performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, B. D.

    A hybrid solar building in New Hampshire designed to obtain 71% of its space heating and 75% of its water heating from solar energy was evaluated. The active solar system is equipped with 800 square feet of flat plate air collectors and two site built rock bins. There is also a window wall and sunspace. Auxiliary water heating is electric. Monthly performance data are tabulated for the solar system overall, for the active and passive collector systems, water and space heating subsystems, and the building. Monthly data for the solar coefficients of performance, building environment, solar operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions are also tabulated. Typical system operation is illustrated by graphs for a typical day of the hourly temperatures at different parts of the system, active heating system fluid flow rate, and total insolation. Typical system operating sequences are also graphed, as well as the solar energy use.

  12. Solar energy utilization in the USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpilrain, E. E.

    1991-05-01

    The conditions for solar energy utilization in the USSR are not too favorable. Only in the country's southern regions is there sufficient insolation to make solar energy utilization economic. In higher latitudes, only seasonal use of solar energy is reasonable. Up to now, the main application of solar energy has been to produce low-temperature heat for hot water production, drying of agricultural goods, space heating and thermal treatment of concrete. A substantial proportion of the solar heating installations are flat plate solar collectors. The total installed area of solar collectors slightly exceeds 100,000 square meters. The collectors are produced by large- and small-scale industry. Where selective coatings are applied to the absorber plates, black nickel or chromium are the main coating materials. Recently launched new projects aim to develop and produce advanced collectors, with enhanced efficiency and reliability. There has been substantial progress in developing photovoltaic (PV) cells for space applications, but terrestrial application of PV is still in a very early stage. Annual production of PV cells totals about 100 kW, based on mono- or polycrystalline silicon. R&D work on thin-film PV cells is in progress. Work is in progress on the development of automated production lines to manufacture 1 MW/yr of crystalline and amorphous silicon. A 5-MW tower-type demonstration plant, with a circular heliostat field, uses steam as the working fluid. Experience with this plant has revealed several disadvantages, including commonwealth of independent states.

  13. When Daily Sunspot Births Become Positively Correlated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, Alexander; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Shnirman, Mikhail; Courtillot, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    We study the first differences w(t) of the International Sunspot Number (ISSN) daily series for the time span 1850 - 2013. The one-day correlations ρ1 between w(t) and w(t+1) are computed within four-year sliding windows and are found to shift from negative to positive values near the end of Cycle 17 ({˜} 1945). They remain positive during the last Grand Maximum and until {˜} 2009, when they fall to zero. We also identify a prominent regime change in {˜} 1915, strengthening previous evidence of major anomalies in solar activity at this date. We test an autoregressive process of order 1 (AR(1)) as a model that can reproduce the high-frequency component of ISSN: we compute ρ1 for this AR(1) process and find that it is negative. Positive values of ρ1 are found only if the process involves positive correlation: this leads us to suggest that the births of successive spots are positively correlated during the last Grand Maximum.

  14. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking

  15. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  16. Daily cycles in coastal dunes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

  17. Solar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

  18. Solar energy system economic evaluation: Contemporary Newman, Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An economic evaluation of performance of the solar energy system (based on life cycle costs versus energy savings) for five cities considered to be representative of a broad range of environmental and economic conditions in the United States is discussed. The considered life cycle costs are: hardware, installation, maintenance, and operating costs for the solar unique components of the total system. The total system takes into consideration long term average environmental conditions, loads, fuel costs, and other economic factors applicable in each of five cities. Selection criteria are based on availability of long term weather data, heating degree days, cold water supply temperature, solar insolation, utility rates, market potential, and type of solar system.

  19. Thermo-electronic solar power conversion with a parabolic concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olukunle, Olawole C.; De, Dilip K.

    2016-02-01

    We consider the energy dynamics of the power generation from the sun when the solar energy is concentrated on to the emitter of a thermo-electronic converter with the help of a parabolic mirror. We use the modified Richardson-Dushman equation. The emitter cross section is assumed to be exactly equal to the focused area at a height h from the base of the mirror to prevent loss of efficiency. We report the variation of output power with solar insolation, height h, reflectivity of the mirror, and anode temperature, initially assuming that there is no space charge effect. Our methodology allows us to predict the temperature at which the anode must be cooled in order to prevent loss of efficiency of power conversion. Novel ways of tackling the space charge problem have been discussed. The space charge effect is modeled through the introduction of a parameter f (0 < f < 1) in the thermos-electron emission equation. We find that the efficiency of the power conversion depends on solar insolation, height h, apart from radii R of the concentrator aperture and emitter, and the collector material properties. We have also considered solar thermos electronic power conversion by using single atom-layer graphene as an emitter.

  20. Biologically effective dose of solar ultraviolet radiation estimated by spore dosimetry in Tokyo since 1980.

    PubMed

    Munakata, N

    1993-09-01

    The biologically effective dose of solar UV radiation has been measured in Tokyo since 1980 using Bacillus subtilis spores. To determine the cumulative dose in a half day, several samples of UV-sensitive spores were exposed in successive intervals from the solar-noon time. Because fluence-survival curves were exponential, the number of lethal hits received by the spores was calculated for each interval and termed inactivation dose (ID). The total number of hits obtained in a half day (half-day ID) was correlated with the amount of global insolation by a power-function regression. The regression analyses were performed for the data collected on 35 days from 1980 to 1986 and for the data collected on 53 days from 1989 to 1991. The latter data set yielded significantly larger estimates of half-day ID relative to the insolation than the former. These analyses suggested that the biologically effective dose relative to the insolation increased about 30% at some time in the later part of 1980s at this location. Changes of solar activity, air pollution and stratospheric ozone layer were considered as potentially responsible for this increase, but identification of the causative factors requires further efforts. PMID:8234473

  1. Electric power - Photovoltaic or solar dynamic?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Hallinan, G. J.; Hieatt, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The design of the power system for supplying the Space Station with insolation-generated electricity is the main Phase B task at NASA-Lewis Center. The advantages and limitations of two types of power systems, the photovoltaic arrays (PV) and the solar dynamic system (SD), are discussed from the points of view of cost, overall systems integration, and growth. Subsystems of each of these options are described, and a sketch of a projected SD system is shown. The PV technology is well developed and proven, but its low efficiency calls for solar arrays of large areas, which affect station dynamics, control, and drag compensation. The SD systems would be less costly to operate than VP, and are more efficient, needing less deployed area. The major drawback of the SD is its infancy. The conservative and forgiving designs for some of its components must still be created and tested, and the development risks assessed.

  2. Daily Medicine Record for Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the-Counter Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Daily Medicine Record for Your Child (English) Share Tweet Linkedin ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...

  3. Sleep and chronic daily headache.

    PubMed

    Stark, Catherine Diana; Stark, Richard James

    2015-01-01

    Sleep and headache have a complex and extensive interrelationship. This review focuses on the relationship between sleep and chronic daily headache, examining recent advances in the epidemiology and insights into possible mechanisms of this relationship as well as reviewing advances in treatment. There is a clear relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and snoring and morning headache, but the relationship between OSA and snoring and other primary headaches requires clarification. OSA and chronic migraine share both obesity and patent foramen ovale (PFO) as possible co-morbidities. Hypoxia does not clearly predispose to morning headache. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an established treatment for OSA, and mixed results have been reported with regards to headache improvement with this treatment. PMID:25416461

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Earth Orbit, Precession and Insolation -20Myr to +10Myr (Laskar+ 1993)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, J.; Joutel, F.; Boudin, F.

    1994-11-01

    La93 is a program for computing the precession and obliquity of the Earth for various values of 1) the tidal effect of the Moon (CMAR) 2) the dynamical ellipticity of the Earth (FGAM) The nominal solution La90 corresponds to (CMAR = 0., FGAM = 1). The general solution will be called La93(CMAR,FGAM), thus La90 = La93(0.,1.) and La93(1.,1.) is obtained with the same tidal effect as in Quinn, Tremaine, Duncan (1991), although these solutions are not completely identical (see Laskar, Joutel, Boudin, 1993) The files and software of this package can be used in three different manners: 1) Contruction and Use of the nominal solution La93(0,1) The ASCII files ORBEL*.ASC contain the nominal orbital solution. The ASCII files PREC0*.ASC contain the nominal precession solution. The ASCII files CLIVAR0*.ASC contain the nominal climatic solution. The files PREC*.ASC and CLIVAR*.ASC can also be generated from the enclosed files (see section 2) For the computation of insolation quantities, the user will execute the 'prepinsol' step, and then 'insola'. 2) Construction of a parametrized La93(CMAR, FGAM) new solution The user reconstructs a complete La93(CMAR, FGAM) solution. The compilation of all required programs is obtained by running the command 'make' on a Unix machine. The preparation step 'prepa' needs to be done once, in order to prepare the necessary binary files. Then 'integ' will construct the new solutions for the given parameters (CMAR, FGAM). Alternatively, change in the Makefile the values of CMAR and FGAM before running the 'make clean' command (removes the files computed using the preceding values of CMAR and FGAM), and 'make La93'. 3) Changes in the model of precession, for example to take into account some feedback resulting from redistribution of the ice on the Earth resulting from climate changes. In this case, and in this case only, the user needs to edit the FORTRAN file integ.f More precisely, the subroutines which can be eventually modified are SUBROUTINE INIPRE(IPT) SUBROUTINE PRECES(t,AK,AH,AQ,AP,DK,DH,DQ,DP,AKI,DKI) The users may also want to adapt the driver INTEG to his specific needs (19 data files).

  5. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

  6. Progressing Deployment of Solar Photovoltaic Installations in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Calvin Lee

    2011-07-01

    This dissertation evaluates the likelihood of solar PV playing a larger role in national and state level renewable energy portfolios. I examine the feasibility of large-scale solar PV arrays on college campuses, the financials associated with large-scale solar PV arrays and finally, the influence of environmental, economic, social and political variables on the distribution of residential solar PV arrays in the United States. Chapter two investigates the challenges and feasibility of college campuses adopting a net-zero energy policy. Using energy consumption data, local solar insolation data and projected campus growth, I present a method to identify the minimum sized solar PV array that is required for the City College campus of the Los Angeles Community College District to achieve net-zero energy status. I document how current energy demand can be reduced using strategic demand side management, with remaining energy demand being met using a solar PV array. Chapter three focuses on the financial feasibility of large-scale solar PV arrays, using the proposed City College campus array as an example. I document that even after demand side energy management initiatives and financial incentives, large-scale solar PV arrays continue to have ROIs greater than 25 years. I find that traditional financial evaluation methods are not suitable for environmental projects such as solar PV installations as externalities are not taken into account and therefore calls for development of alternative financial valuation methods. Chapter four investigates the influence of environmental, social, economic and political variables on the distribution of residential solar PV arrays across the United States using ZIP code level data from the 2000 US Census. Using data from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Open PV project, I document where residential solar PVs are currently located. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was run to evaluate the influence of selected variables. Using the same model, predicted residential solar PV shares were generated and illustrated using GIS software. The results of this model indicate that solar insolation, state energy deregulation and cost of electricity are statistically significant factors positively correlated with the adoption of residential solar PV arrays. With this information, policymakers at the towns and cities level can establish effective solar PV promoting policies and regulations for their respective locations.

  7. 50 CFR 20.24 - Daily limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Daily limit. 20.24 Section 20.24 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING..., more than the daily bag limit or aggregate daily bag limit, whichever applies....

  8. Once-daily aminoglycoside therapy: potential ototoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, C; Smith, C; Krieff, D

    1996-01-01

    Current data indicate that once-daily aminoglycoside therapy is as efficacious as traditional multiple daily dosing and equally or less toxic. Our experience with once-daily gentamicin, 6 mg/kg of body weight led to a 10% (3 of 33 patients) occurrence of documented ototoxicity after prolonged aminoglycoside exposure. PMID:8878610

  9. The Daily Practices of Successful Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.

    2011-01-01

    While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in daily practice. "The Daily Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of daily practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators

  10. The Daily Practices of Successful Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.

    2011-01-01

    While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in daily practice. "The Daily Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of daily practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…

  11. The daily processing of asteroid observations by Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanga, Paolo; Mignard, François; Dell`Oro, Aldo; Muinonen, Karri; Pauwels, Thierry; Thuillot, William; Berthier, Jérôme; Cellino, Alberto; Hestroffer, Daniel; Petit, Jean-Marc; Carry, Benoit; David, Pedro; Delbo`, Marco; Fedorets, Grigori; Galluccio, Laurent; Granvik, Mikael; Ordenovic, Christophe; Pentikäinen, Hanna

    2016-04-01

    The Gaia mission started its regular observing program in the summer of 2014, and since then it is regularly obtaining observations of asteroids. This paper draws the outline of the data processing for Solar System objects, and in particular on the daily "short-term" processing, from the on-board data acquisition to the ground-based processing. We illustrate the tools developed to compute predictions of asteroid observations, we discuss the procedures implemented by the daily processing, and we illustrate some tests and validations of the processing of the asteroid observations. Our findings are overall consistent with the expectations concerning the performances of Gaia and the effectiveness of the developed software for data reduction.

  12. Terrestrial cooling and solar variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agee, E. M.

    1982-01-01

    Observational evidence from surface temperature records is presented and discussed which suggests a significant cooling trend over the Northern Hemisphere from 1940 to the present. This cooling trend is associated with an increase of the latitudinal gradient of temperature and the lapse rate, as predicted by climate models with decreased solar input and feedback mechanisms. Evidence suggests that four of these 80- to 100-year cycles of global surface temperature fluctuation may have occurred, and in succession, from 1600 to the present. Interpretation of sunspot activity were used to infer a direct thermal response of terrestrial temperature to solar variability on the time scale of the Gleissberg cycle (90 years, an amplitude of the 11-year cycles). A physical link between the sunspot activity and the solar parameter is hypothesized. Observations of sensible heat flux by stationary planetary waves and transient eddies, as well as general circulation modeling results of these processes, were examined from the viewpoint of the hypothesis of cooling due to reduced insolation.

  13. Validation of the guidelines for portable meteorological instrument packages. Task IV. Development of an insolation handbook and instrumentation package

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to show how the objective of developing guidelines for a solar energy related portable meteorology instrument package, under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA), was carried out and preliminarily demonstrated and validated. A project to develop guidelines for such packages was initiated at IEA's Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings Program Expert's Meeting held in Norrkoping, Sweden in February 1976. An international comparison of resultant devices was conducted on behalf of the IEA at a conference held in Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, in 1978. Results of the 1978 Hamburg comparison of two devices and the Swiss Mobile Solar Radiation System, using German meteorological standards, are discussed. The consensus of the IEA Task Group is that the objective of the subtask has been accomplished.

  14. Holocene climate variations in the western Antarctic Peninsula: evidence for sea ice extent predominantly controlled by changes in insolation and ENSO variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etourneau, J.; Collins, L. G.; Willmott, V.; Kim, J.-H.; Barbara, L.; Leventer, A.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Bianchini, A.; Klein, V.; Crosta, X.; Massé, G.

    2013-07-01

    The West Antarctic ice sheet is particularly sensitive to global warming and its evolution and impact on global climate over the next few decades remains difficult to predict. In this context, investigating past sea ice conditions around Antarctica is of primary importance. Here, we document changes in sea ice presence, upper water column temperatures (0-200 m) and primary productivity over the last 9000 yr BP (before present) in the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) margin from a sedimentary core collected in the Palmer Deep Basin. Employing a multi-proxy approach, based on the combination of two biomarkers proxies (highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkenes for sea ice and TEX86L for temperature) and micropaleontological data (diatom assemblages), we derived new Holocene records of sea ice conditions and upper water column temperatures. The early Holocene (9000-7000 yr BP) was characterized by a cooling phase with a short sea ice season. During the mid-Holocene (~7000-3800 yr BP), local climate evolved towards slightly colder conditions and a prominent extension of the sea ice season occurred, promoting a favorable environment for intensive diatom growth. The late Holocene (the last ~2100 yr) was characterized by warmer temperatures and increased sea ice presence, accompanied by reduced local primary productivity, likely in response to a shorter growing season compared to the early or mid-Holocene. The gradual increase in annual sea ice duration over the last 7000 yr might have been influenced by decreasing mean annual and spring insolation, despite increasing summer insolation. We postulate that, in addition to precessional changes in insolation, seasonal variability, via changes in the strength of the circumpolar Westerlies and upwelling activity, was further amplified by the increasing frequency/amplitude of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, between 3800 and 2100 yr BP, the lack of correlation between ENSO and climate variability in the WAP suggests that other climatic factors might have been more important in controlling WAP climate at this time.

  15. The spatial-temporal patterns of Asian summer monsoon precipitation in response to Holocene insolation change: a model-data synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Liya; Schneider, Birgit; Park, Wonsun; Latif, Mojib; Khon, Vyacheslav; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2014-02-01

    Paleoclimate proxy records of precipitation/effective moisture show spatial-temporal inhomogeneous over Asian monsoon and monsoon marginal regions during the Holocene. To investigate the spatial differences and diverging temporal evolution over monsoonal Asia and monsoon marginal regions, we conduct a series of numerical experiments with an atmosphere-ocean-sea ice coupled climate model, the Kiel Climate Model (KCM), for the period of Holocene from 9.5 ka BP to present (0 ka BP). The simulations include two time-slice equilibrium experiments for early Holocene (9.5 ka BP) and present-day (0 ka BP), respectively and one transient simulation (HT) using a scheme for model acceleration regarding to the Earth's orbitally driven insolation forcing for the whole period of Holocene (from 9.5 to 0 ka BP). The simulated summer precipitation in the equilibrium experiments shows a tripole pattern over monsoonal Asia as depicted by the first modes of empirical orthogonal function (EOF1) of H0K and H9K. The transient simulation HT exhibits a wave train pattern in the summer precipitation across the Asian monsoon region associated with a gradually decreased trend in the strength of Asian summer monsoon, as a result of the response of Asian summer monsoon system to the Holocene orbitally-forced insolation change. Both the synthesis of multi-proxy records and model experiments confirm the regional dissimilarity of the Holocene optimum precipitation/effective moisture over the East Asian summer monsoon region, monsoon marginal region, and the westerly-dominated areas, suggesting the complex response of the regional climate systems to Holocene insolation change in association with the internal feedbacks within climate system, such as the air-sea interactions associated with the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the evolution of Asian summer monsoon during the Holocene.

  16. Solar radiation management impacts on agriculture in China: A case study in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lili; Robock, Alan; Cole, Jason; Curry, Charles L.; Ji, Duoying; Jones, Andy; Kravitz, Ben; Moore, John C.; Muri, Helene; Niemeier, Ulrike; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, Simone; Watanabe, Shingo; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-07-01

    Geoengineering via solar radiation management could affect agricultural productivity due to changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation. To study rice and maize production changes in China, we used results from 10 climate models participating in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G2 scenario to force the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model. G2 prescribes an insolation reduction to balance a 1% a-1 increase in CO2 concentration (1pctCO2) for 50 years. We first evaluated the DSSAT model using 30 years (1978-2007) of daily observed weather records and agriculture practices for 25 major agriculture provinces in China and compared the results to observations of yield. We then created three sets of climate forcing for 42 locations in China for DSSAT from each climate model experiment: (1) 1pctCO2, (2) G2, and (3) G2 with constant CO2 concentration (409 ppm) and compared the resulting agricultural responses. In the DSSAT simulations: (1) Without changing management practices, the combined effect of simulated climate changes due to geoengineering and CO2 fertilization during the last 15 years of solar reduction would change rice production in China by -3.0 4.0 megaton (Mt) (2.4 4.0%) as compared with 1pctCO2 and increase Chinese maize production by 18.1 6.0 Mt (13.9 5.9%). (2) The termination of geoengineering shows negligible impacts on rice production but a 19.6 Mt (11.9%) reduction of maize production as compared to the last 15 years of geoengineering. (3) The CO2 fertilization effect compensates for the deleterious impacts of changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation due to geoengineering on rice production, increasing rice production by 8.6 Mt. The elevated CO2 concentration enhances maize production in G2, contributing 7.7 Mt (42.4%) to the total increase. Using the DSSAT crop model, virtually all of the climate models agree on the sign of the responses, even though the spread across models is large. This suggests that solar radiation management would have little impact on rice production in China but could increase maize production.

  17. The Feasibility of Using Augmented Auditory Feedback From a Pressure Detecting Insole to Reduce the Knee Adduction Moment: A Proof of Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Christopher; Stoller, Ina S; Shakoor, Najia; Thorp, Laura E; Wimmer, Markus A

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this work was to conduct a proof of concept study utilizing auditory feedback from a pressure-detecting shoe insole to shift plantar pressure medially in order to reduce the knee adduction moment (KAM). When compared with normal walking, 32 healthy subjects significantly reduced their peak KAM using feedback (p?

  18. Altering Knee Abduction Angular Impulse Using Wedged Insoles for Treatment of Patellofemoral Pain in Runners: A Six-Week Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lewinson, Ryan T.; Wiley, J. Preston; Humble, R. Neil; Worobets, Jay T.; Stefanyshyn, Darren J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine if a change in internal knee abduction angular impulse (KAAI) is related to pain reduction for runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP) by comparing lateral and medial wedge insole interventions, and increased KAAI and decreased KAAI groups. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov ID# NCT01332110). Setting Biomechanics laboratory and community. Patients Thirty-six runners with physician-diagnosed PFP enrolled in the trial, and 27 were analyzed. Interventions Runners with PFP were randomly assigned to either an experimental 3 mm lateral wedge or control 6 mm medial wedge group. Participants completed a biomechanical gait analysis to quantify KAAIs with their assigned insole, and then used their assigned insole for six-weeks during their regular runs. Usual pain during running was measured at baseline and at six-week follow-up using a visual analog scale. Statistical tests were performed to identify differences between wedge types, differences between biomechanical response types (i.e. increase or decrease KAAI), as well as predictors of pain reduction. Main Outcome Measures Percent change in KAAI relative to neutral, and % change in pain over six weeks. Results Clinically meaningful reductions in pain (>33%) were measured for both footwear groups; however, no significant differences between footwear groups were found (p = 0.697). When participants were regrouped based on KAAI change (i.e., increase or decrease), again, no significant differences in pain reduction were noted (p = 0.146). Interestingly, when evaluating absolute change in KAAI, a significant relationship between absolute % change in KAAI and % pain reduction was observed (R2 = 0.21; p = 0.030), after adjusting for baseline pain levels. Conclusion The greater the absolute % change in KAAI during running, the greater the % reduction in pain over six weeks, regardless of wedge type, and whether KAAIs increased or decreased. Lateral and medial wedge insoles were similar in effectiveness for treatment of PFP. Clinical Relevance Altering KAAI should be a focus of future PFP research. Lateral wedges should be studied further as an alternative therapy to medial wedges for management of PFP. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01332110 PMID:26230399

  19. Sedoanalgesia in pediatric daily surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Aybars; Okur, Mesut; Kaya, Murat; Kaya, Ertugrul; Kucuk, Adem; Erbas, Mesut; Kutlucan, Leyla; Sahan, Leyla

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present report was focused on clinical advantages of sedoanalgesia in the pediatric outpatient surgical cases. Method: Sedoanalgesia has been used to sedate patients for a variety of pediatric procedures in our department between 2007 and 2010. This is a retrospective review of 2720 pediatric patients given ketamine for sedation with midazolam premedication. Ketamine was given intravenously (1-2 mg/kg) together with atropine (0.02 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.1 mg/kg) + a local infiltration anesthetic 2 mg/kg 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride. Result: Median age of the patients included in the study was 5.76 2.12 (0-16 years). The main indications for ketamine include circumcision (69%), inguinal pathologies (inguinal hernia (17%), orchidopexy (2.68%), hydrocele (3.38%), hypospadias (1.94%), urethral fistula repair (0.33%), urethral dilatation (0.25%), and other conditions. All of our patients were discharged home well. In this regard, we have the largest group of patients ever given ketamine. Conclusion: Sedoanalgesia might be used as a quite effective method for daily surgical procedures in children. PMID:23936597

  20. Visual stimuli in daily life.

    PubMed

    Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenit, Dorothe G A; van der Beld, Gerrit; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Groen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    People of all ages, but especially children and adolescents, are increasingly exposed to visual stimuli. Typical environmental stimuli that can trigger epileptic seizures in susceptible persons are televisions (TVs), computers, videogames (VGs), discothque lights, venetian blinds, striped walls, rolling stairs (escalators), striped clothing, and sunlight reflected from snow or the sea or interrupted by trees during a ride in a car or train. Less common stimuli are rotating helicopter blades, disfunctioning fluorescent lighting, welding lights, etc. New potentially provocative devices turn up now and then unexpectedly. During the last decades especially, displays have become increasingly dominant in many of our daily-life activities. We therefore focus mainly on the characteristics of artificial light and on current and future developments in video displays and videogames. Because VG playing has been shown also to have positive effects, a rating system might be developed for provocativeness to inform consumers about the content. It is important that patients with epilepsy be informed adequately about their possible visual sensitivity. PMID:14706037

  1. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keddy, E.; Sena, J. Tom; Merrigan, M.; Heidenreich, Gary; Johnson, Steve

    1988-01-01

    An integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system was developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power System solar receiver for space station application. The solar receiver incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain thermal energy storage (TES) canisters within the vapor space with a toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe. Part of this thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of earth orbit, the stored energy in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. A developmental heat pipe element was constructed that contains axial arteries and a distribution wick connecting the toluene heater and the TES units to the solar insolation surface of the heat pipe. Tests were conducted to demonstrate the heat pipe, TES units, and the heater tube operation. The heat pipe element was operated at design input power of 4.8 kW. Thermal cycle tests were conducted to demonstrate the successful charge and discharge of the TES units. Axial power flux levels up to 15 watts/sq cm were demonstrated and transient tests were conducted on the heat pipe element. Details of the heat pipe development and test procedures are presented.

  2. Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munsell, Devon R.

    Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

  3. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at Landsat spatial scales during the BEAREX'08 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Martha C.; Kustas, William P.; Alfieri, Joseph G.; Gao, Feng; Hain, Christopher; Prueger, John H.; Evett, Steven; Colaizzi, Paul; Howell, Terry; Chávez, José L.

    2012-12-01

    Robust spatial information about environmental water use at field scales and daily to seasonal timesteps will benefit many applications in agriculture and water resource management. This information is particularly critical in arid climates where freshwater resources are limited or expensive, and groundwater supplies are being depleted at unsustainable rates to support irrigated agriculture as well as municipal and industrial uses. Gridded evapotranspiration (ET) information at field scales can be obtained periodically using land-surface temperature-based surface energy balance algorithms applied to moderate resolution satellite data from systems like Landsat, which collects thermal-band imagery every 16 days at a resolution of approximately 100 m. The challenge is in finding methods for interpolating between ET snapshots developed at the time of a clear-sky Landsat overpass to provide complete daily time-series over a growing season. This study examines the efficacy of a simple gap-filling algorithm designed for applications in data-sparse regions, which does not require local ground measurements of weather or rainfall, or estimates of soil texture. The algorithm relies on general conservation of the ratio between actual ET and a reference ET, generated from satellite insolation data and standard meteorological fields from a mesoscale model. The algorithm was tested with ET retrievals from the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) surface energy balance model and associated DisALEXI flux disaggregation technique, which uses Landsat-scale thermal imagery to reduce regional ALEXI maps to a finer spatial resolution. Daily ET at the Landsat scale was compared with lysimeter and eddy covariance flux measurements collected during the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment of 2008 (BEAREX08), conducted in an irrigated agricultural area in the Texas Panhandle under highly advective conditions. The simple gap-filling algorithm performed reasonably at most sites, reproducing observed cumulative ET to within 5-10% over the growing period from emergence to peak biomass in both rainfed and irrigated fields.

  4. Daily regulation of hormone profiles.

    PubMed

    Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The highly coordinated output of the hypothalamic biological clock does not only govern the daily rhythm in sleep/wake (or feeding/fasting) behaviour but also has direct control over many aspects of hormone release. In fact, a significant proportion of our current understanding of the circadian clock has its roots in the study of the intimate connections between the hypothalamic clock and multiple endocrine axes. This chapter will focus on the anatomical connections used by the mammalian biological clock to enforce its endogenous rhythmicity on the rest of the body, using a number of different hormone systems as a representative example. Experimental studies have revealed a highly specialised organisation of the connections between the mammalian circadian clock neurons and neuroendocrine as well as pre-autonomic neurons in the hypothalamus. These complex connections ensure a logical coordination between behavioural, endocrine and metabolic functions that will help the organism adjust to the time of day most efficiently. For example, activation of the orexin system by the hypothalamic biological clock at the start of the active phase not only ensures that we wake up on time but also that our glucose metabolism and cardiovascular system are prepared for this increased activity. Nevertheless, it is very likely that the circadian clock present within the endocrine glands plays a significant role as well, for instance, by altering these glands' sensitivity to specific stimuli throughout the day. In this way the net result of the activity of the hypothalamic and peripheral clocks ensures an optimal endocrine adaptation of the metabolism of the organism to its time-structured environment. PMID:23604480

  5. Holocene evolution of summer winds and marine productivity in the tropical Indian Ocean in response to insolation forcing: data-model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassinot, F. C.; Marzin, C.; Braconnot, P.; Marti, O.; Mathien-Blard, E.; Lombard, F.; Bopp, L.

    2011-07-01

    The relative abundance of Globigerinoides bulloides was used to infer Holocene paleo-productivity changes on the Oman margin and at the southern tip of India. Today, the primary productivity at both sites reaches its maximum during the summer season, when monsoon winds result in local Eckman pumping, which brings more nutrients to the surface. On a millennium time-scale, however, the % G. bulloides records indicate an opposite evolution of paleo-productivity at these sites through the Holocene. The Oman Margin productivity was maximal at ~9 ka (boreal summer insolation maximum) and has decreased since then, suggesting a direct response to insolation forcing. On the contrary, the productivity at the southern tip of India was minimum at ~9 ka, and strengthened towards the present. Paleo-reconstructions of wind patterns, marine productivity and foraminifera assemblages were obtained using the IPSL-CM4 climate model coupled to the PISCES marine biogeochemical model and the FORAMCLIM ecophysiological model. These reconstructions are fully coherent with the marine core data. They confirm that the evolution of particulate export production and foraminifera assemblages at our two sites were directly linked with the strength of the upwelling. Model simulations at 9 ka and 6 ka BP show that the relative evolution between the two sites since the early Holocene can be explained by the weakening but also the southward shift of monsoon winds over the Arabian Sea during boreal summer.

  6. Astronomical forcing, insolation and millennial-scale climate variability: evidence from the North Atlantic Ocean (IODP Expedition 306, Site U1313) during the Early-Middle Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Patrizia; Crowhurst, Simon; Naafs, David; Barbante, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Since the seminal work by Hays, Imbrie and Shackleton (1976), a plethora of studies mostly based on marine sediments collected during DSDP-ODP-IODP Expeditions has demonstrated a correlation between orbital variations and climatic change. However, information on how changes in orbital boundary conditions affected the frequency and amplitude of millennial-scale climate variability is still fragmentary. Here we examine the record of climatic conditions from MIS 23 to 17 (c. 920-670 ka) using high-resolution stable isotope records from benthic and planktonic foraminifera from a sedimentary sequence in the North Atlantic (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 306, Site U1313) in order to evaluate the climate system's response in the millennial band to known orbitally induced insolation changes. Special emphasis is placed on Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 19, an interglacial centred at around 785 ka during which the insolation appears comparable to the current orbital geometry: MIS 19 is characterised by a minimum of the 400-kyr eccentricity cycle, subdued amplitude of precessional changes, and small amplitude variations in insolation making this marine isotopic stage a potential astronomical analogue for the Holocene and its future evolution, if this remains governed by natural forcing (Loutre and Berger 2000). Benthic and planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotope values indicate relatively stable conditions during the peak warmth of MIS 19, but sea-surface and deep-water reconstructions start diverging during the transition towards the glacial MIS 18, when large, cold excursions disrupt the surface waters whereas low amplitude millennial scale fluctuations persist in the deep waters as recorded by the oxygen isotope signal (Ferretti et al., 2015). The glacial inception occurred at ˜779 ka, in agreement with an increased abundance of tetra-unsaturated alkenones, reflecting the influence of icebergs and associated meltwater pulses and high-latitude waters at the study site. Using a variety of time series analysis techniques, we evaluate the evolution of millennial climate variability in response to changing orbital boundary conditions during the early-middle Pleistocene. Suborbital variability in both surface- and deep-water records is mainly concentrated at a period of ˜11 kyr and, additionally, at ˜5.8 and ˜3.9 kyr in the deep ocean; these periods are equal to harmonics of precession band oscillations. The fact that the response at the 11 kyr period increased over the same interval during which the amplitude of the response to the precessional cycle increased supports the notion that most of the variance in the 11 kyr band in the sedimentary record is nonlinearly transferred from precession band oscillations. Considering that these periodicities are important features in the equatorial and intertropical insolation, these observations are in line with the view that the low-latitude regions play an important role in the response of the climate system to the astronomical forcing. We conclude that the effect of the orbitally induced insolation is of fundamental importance in regulating the timing and amplitude of millennial scale climate variability. Ferretti P., Crowhurst S.J., Naafs B.D.A., Barbante C., 2015. Quaternary Science Reviews 108, 95-110. Hays J.D., Imbrie J., Shackleton N.J., 1976. Science 194, 1121-1132. Loutre M.F., Berger A., 2000. Climatic Change 46, 61-90.

  7. Solar cogeneration: Cimarron River station, Central Telephone and Utilities-Western Power

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, J.E.

    1981-04-01

    The site-specific conceptual design progress is described for a solar central receiver cogeneration facility at a Kansas utility. The process is described which led to the selection of the preferred solar cogeneration facility. The status of the conceptual design is presented. The evaluation of system performance is described. A test program is described that is to determine the magnitude of impact that local environmental factors have on collector system performance and to measure the direct normal insolation at the cogeneration facility site. The system specification is appended. (LEW)

  8. Noise in pressure transducer readings produced by variations in solar radiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, S. F., III; Davis, G.A.; Loheide, S.P., II; Butler, J.J., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in solar radiation can produce noise in readings from gauge pressure transducers when the transducer cable is exposed to direct sunlight. This noise is a result of insolation-induced heating and cooling of the air column in the vent tube of the transducer cable. A controlled experiment was performed to assess the impact of variations in solar radiation on transducer readings. This experiment demonstrated that insolation-induced fluctuations in apparent pressure head can be as large as 0.03 m. The magnitude of these fluctuations is dependent on cable color, the diameter of the vent tube, and the length of the transducer cable. The most effective means of minimizing insolation-induced noise is to use integrated transducer-data logger units that fit within a well. Failure to address this source of noise can introduce considerable uncertainty into analyses of hydraulic tests when the head change is relatively small, as is often the case for tests in highly permeable aquifers or for tests using distant observation wells.

  9. The 1-kW solar Stirling experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giandomenico, A.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to demonstrate electrical power generation using a small free-piston Stirling engine and linear alternator in conjunction with a parabolic solar collector. A test bed collector, formerly used at the JPL Table Mountain Observatory, was renovated and used to obtain practical experience and to determine test receiver performance. The collector was mounted on a two-axis tracker, with a cold water calorimeter mounted on the collector to measure its efficiency, while a separate, independently tracking radiometer was used to measure solar insolation. The solar receiver was designed to absorb energy from the collector, then transfer the resulting thermal energy to the Stirling engine. Successful testing of receiver/collector assembly yielded valuable inputs for design of the Stirling engine heater head.

  10. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Solaron Akron, Akron, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system that was installed at Akron, Ohio is developed for this and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions. The analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f chart design procedure with inputs based on the characteristics of the installed parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results show that only in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where insolation is 1828 Btu/sq ft/day and the conventional energy cost is high, is this solar energy system marginally profitable.

  11. 1-kW solar Stirling experiment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Giandomenico, A.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to demonstrate electrical power generation using a small free-piston Stirling engine and linear alternator in conjunction with a parabolic solar collector. A test bed collector, formerly used at the JPL Table Mountain Observatory, was renovated and used to obtain practical experience and to determine test receiver performance. The collector was mounted on a two-axis tracker, with a cold water calorimeter mounted on the collector to measure its efficiency, while a separate, independently tracking radiometer was used to measure solar insolation. The solar receiver was designed to absorb energy from the collector, then transfer the resulting thermal energy to the Stirling engine. Successful testing of receiver/collector assembly yielded valuable inputs for design of the Stirling engine heater head.

  12. Small solar thermal electric power plants with early commercial potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. E.; Bisantz, D. J.; Clayton, R. N.; Heiges, H. H.; Ku, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Cost-effective small solar thermal electric power plants (1- to 10-MW nominal size) offer an attractive way of helping the world meet its future energy needs. The paper describes the characteristics of a conceptual near-term plant (about 1 MW) and a potential 1990 commercial version. The basic system concept is one in which steam is generated using two-axis tracking, parabolic dish, and point-focusing collectors. The steam is transported through low-loss piping to a central steam turbine generator unit where it is converted to electricity. The plants have no energy storage and their output power level varies with the solar insolation level. This system concept, which is firmly based on state-of-the-art technology, is projected to offer one of the fastest paths for U.S. commercialization of solar thermal electric power plants through moderate technology advances and mass production.

  13. [Lipid therapy in daily routine].

    PubMed

    Sonntag, F; Schaefer, J R; Gitt, A K; Weizel, A; Jannowitz, C; Karmann, B; Pittrow, D; Bestehorn, K

    2012-10-01

    Patients with increased cardiovascular risk profile are frequently seen in general practice. Comprehensive management of modifiable risk factors, in particular dyslipidemia, is mandatory. Many studies in clinical practice have shown a gap between the recommendations in clinical guidelines and the actual situation. Current data on the management situation of patients with high cardiovascular risk is provided by the prospective registry LIMA. Primary care physicians in 2,387 offices throughout Germany documented 13,924 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes mellitus or peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Treatment with simvastatin 40?mg was an inclusion criterion. Physicians documented drug utilization, laboratory values (lipids, blood glucose), blood pressure and clinical events over one year and received feedback about the target value attainment of their patients after data entry. Mean age of the patients was 65.7 years, and 61.6?% were men. CAD was reported in 70.6?%, diabetes mellitus in 58.2?% and PAD in 14.9?%. Most patients (68?%) received simvastatin as monotherapy also after the inclusion visit; 20.6?% of patients received in addition the cholesterol absorption inhibitor (ezetimibe) in the first 6 months, and 23.3?% in the second 6 months. Patients achieved the LDL-cholesterol target value in 31.8?% at entry and 50.0?% after one year. The blood pressure target daily practice comprehensive management of risk factors in patients at high cardiovascular risk remains a challenge. For normalization of increased LDL cholesterol values addition of ezetimibe to existing statin therapy improves the chances of patients for target level attainment. PMID:23023622

  14. NOAA Data Rescue of Key Solar Databases and Digitization of Historical Solar Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, H. E.

    2006-08-01

    Over a number of years, the staff at NOAA National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) has worked to rescue key solar databases by converting them to digital format and making them available via the World Wide Web. NOAA has had several data rescue programs where staff compete for funds to rescue important and critical historical data that are languishing in archives and at risk of being lost due to deteriorating condition, loss of any metadata or descriptive text that describe the databases, lack of interest or funding in maintaining databases, etc. The Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division at NGDC was able to obtain funds to key in some critical historical tabular databases. Recently the NOAA Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) funded a project to digitize historical solar images, producing a large online database of historical daily full disk solar images. The images include the wavelengths Calcium K, Hydrogen Alpha, and white light photos, as well as sunspot drawings and the comprehensive drawings of a multitude of solar phenomena on one daily map (Fraunhofer maps and Wendelstein drawings). Included in the digitization are high resolution solar H-alpha images taken at the Boulder Solar Observatory 1967-1984. The scanned daily images document many phases of solar activity, from decadal variation to rotational variation to daily changes. Smaller versions are available online. Larger versions are available by request. See http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/SOLAR/ftpsolarimages.html. The tabular listings and solar imagery will be discussed.

  15. Solar weather monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochedez, J.-F.; Zhukov, A.; Robbrecht, E.; van der Linden, R.; Berghmans, D.; Vanlommel, P.; Theissen, A.; Clette, F.

    2005-11-01

    Space Weather nowcasting and forecasting require solar observations because geoeffective disturbances can arise from three types of solar phenomena: coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares and coronal holes. For each, we discuss their definition and review their precursors in terms of remote sensing and in-situ observations. The objectives of Space Weather require some specific instrumental features, which we list using the experience gained from the daily operations of the Solar Influences Data analysis Centre (SIDC) at the Royal Observatory of Belgium. Nowcasting requires real-time monitoring to assess quickly and reliably the severity of any potentially geoeffective solar event. Both research and forecasting could incorporate more observations in order to feed case studies and data assimilation respectively. Numerical models will result in better predictions of geomagnetic storms and solar energetic particle (SEP) events. We review the data types available to monitor solar activity and interplanetary conditions. They come from space missions and ground observatories and range from sequences of dopplergrams, magnetograms, white-light, chromospheric, coronal, coronagraphic and radio images, to irradiance and in-situ time-series. Their role is summarized together with indications about current and future solar monitoring instruments.

  16. Solar index generation and delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Index, or, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar Index, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978. The purpose was to enhance public awareness to solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar Index represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80 gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The Index is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which also has applications to space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems and which supplies economic analyses for such solar energy systems. The Index is generated for approximately 68 geographic locations in the country on a daily basis. The definition of the Index, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time and a plan for the future are described. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the Index, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST program) and future efforts.

  17. Feasibility Study on the Use of a Solar Thermoelectric Cogenerator Comprising a Thermoelectric Module and Evacuated Tubular Collector with Parabolic Trough Concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, L.; Zhang, M.; Tanemura, S.; Tanaka, T.; Kang, Y. P.; Xu, G.

    2012-06-01

    We have designed a new solar thermoelectric cogeneration system consisting of an evacuated tubular solar collector (ETSC) with a parabolic trough concentrator (PTC) and thermoelectric modules (TEMs) to supply both thermal energy and electricity. The main design concepts are (1) the hot side of the TEM is bonded to the solar selective absorber installed in an evacuated glass tube, (2) the cold side of the TEM is also bonded to the heat sink, and (3) the outer circulated water is heated by residual solar energy after TEM generation. We present an example solar thermal simulation based on energy balance and heat transfer as used in solar engineering to predict the electrical conversion efficiency and solar thermal conversion efficiency for different values of parameters such as the solar insolation, concentration ratio, and TEM ZT values.

  18. Efficiency measurements of different types of solar cells in dependence on the irradiation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, J.; Kunzelmann, S.; Voss, B.; Wilson, H. R.; Wittwer, V.

    Experimental measurements on a number of Si-solar cells show, in good agreement with theoretical calculations, that the series resistance and the diode quality factor are the most important parameters characterizing the dependence of the cell efficiency on the insolation level. Both monocrystalline and polycrystalline cells were tested and found to give similar results. Variations in the spectral distribution of the insolation may cause changes of about 10 percent in the efficiency. In operation, maximum power tracking or a simple constant bias voltage mode is possible. Outdoor measurements show that by setting the bias voltage in the right range, more than 92 percent of the maximal energy can be obtained without power tracking.

  19. Results of heating mode performance tests of a solar-assisted heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

    1979-01-01

    The performance of a heat pump, utilizing 8.16 square meters of low-cost solar collectors as the evaporator in a Freon-114 refrigeration cycle, was determined under actual insolation conditions during the summer and fall of 1976. C.O.P.'s (coefficient of performance) greater than 3 were obtained with condensing temperatures around 78 C and evaporating temperatures around 27 C. Ambient temperatures were about 3 C above evaporating temperatures. Similar performance levels were obtained at other insolation and temperature conditions. Experience with the system has identified some component and system changes which should increase the obtainable C.O.P. to about 4.0. These are described along with the system's design rationale. The accumulated data are presented as an appendix.

  20. Solar energy harvesting in the epicuticle of the oriental hornet ( Vespa orientalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Marian; Hod, Idan; Zaban, Arie; Boden, Stuart A.; Bagnall, Darren M.; Galushko, Dmitry; Bergman, David J.

    2010-12-01

    The Oriental hornet worker correlates its digging activity with solar insolation. Solar radiation passes through the epicuticle, which exhibits a grating-like structure, and continues to pass through layers of the exo-endocuticle until it is absorbed by the pigment melanin in the brown-colored cuticle or xanthopterin in the yellow-colored cuticle. The correlation between digging activity and the ability of the cuticle to absorb part of the solar radiation implies that the Oriental hornet may harvest parts of the solar radiation. In this study, we explore this intriguing possibility by analyzing the biophysical properties of the cuticle. We use rigorous coupled wave analysis simulations to show that the cuticle surfaces are structured to reduced reflectance and act as diffraction gratings to trap light and increase the amount absorbed in the cuticle. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was constructed in order to show the ability of xanthopterin to serve as a light-harvesting molecule.

  1. An experimental study of a new solar still - The wiping spherical still

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makki, A.

    Theoretical and experimental results of the functioning of a spherical solar water distiller which includes a curved, turning glass wiper are presented. A review of past and present solar still apparatus is presented, along with an analytical examination of insolation characteristics. Numerical models are constructed of the performance of solar stills, noting the enhanced gain with less materials available by using spherically shaped plexiglass for the transparent upper surface. Attachment of a curved glass wiper, which extends from the top center of the dome to the collector tray and is made to revolve around the dome's inner surface by either an electric motor, or a wind-powered shaft, or by means of a motor driven by solar cells, is shown to keep the transparency higher and thus augment the efficiency of the still to 14 percent better performance than with a flat plate solar still.

  2. Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India

    SciTech Connect

    Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

  3. Solar and Photovoltaic Data from the University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory (UO SRML)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The UO SRML is a regional solar radiation data center whose goal is to provide sound solar resource data for planning, design, deployment, and operation of solar electric facilities in the Pacific Northwest. The laboratory has been in operation since 1975. Solar data includes solar resource maps, cumulative summary data, daily totals, monthly averages, single element profile data, parsed TMY2 data, and select multifilter radiometer data. A data plotting program and other software tools are also provided. Shade analysis information and contour plots showing the effect of tilt and orientation on annual solar electric system perfomance make up a large part of the photovoltaics data.(Specialized Interface)

  4. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernndez-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, Mara V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, Mara J.; Muoz, ngela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6

  5. Techniques for Daily Living: Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldridge, Lillian; And Others

    Presented are specific guides concerning techniques for daily living which were developed by the child care staff at the Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School. The guides are designed for cottage parents of the children, who may have both visual and other handicaps, and show what daily living skills are necessary and appropriate for the

  6. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  7. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  8. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  9. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  10. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  11. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einolf, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.

  12. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einolf, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.…

  13. 49 CFR 229.21 - Daily inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Daily inspection. 229.21 Section 229.21..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Inspections and Tests 229.21 Daily inspection. (a) Except for MU locomotives, each locomotive in use shall be inspected at least once...

  14. 49 CFR 229.21 - Daily inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Daily inspection. 229.21 Section 229.21..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Inspections and Tests 229.21 Daily inspection. (a) Except for MU locomotives, each locomotive in use shall be inspected at least once...

  15. 49 CFR 229.21 - Daily inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Daily inspection. 229.21 Section 229.21..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Inspections and Tests 229.21 Daily inspection. (a) Except for MU locomotives, each locomotive in use shall be inspected at least once...

  16. 49 CFR 229.21 - Daily inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Daily inspection. 229.21 Section 229.21..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Inspections and Tests 229.21 Daily inspection. (a) Except for MU locomotives, each locomotive in use shall be inspected at least once...

  17. 49 CFR 229.21 - Daily inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Daily inspection. 229.21 Section 229.21..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Inspections and Tests 229.21 Daily inspection. (a) Except for MU locomotives, each locomotive in use shall be inspected at least once...

  18. Holocene vegetation and climate histories in the eastern Tibetan Plateau: controls by insolation-driven temperature or monsoon-derived precipitation changes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Yu, Z.; Zhao, W.

    2012-12-01

    The climates on the eastern Tibetan Plateau are strongly influenced by direct insolation heating as well as monsoon-derived precipitation change. However, the moisture and temperature influences on regional vegetation and climate have not been well documented in paleoclimate studies. Here we present a well-dated and high-resolution loss-on-ignition, peat property and fossil pollen record over the last 10,000 years from a sedge-dominated fen peatland in the central Zoige Basin on the eastern Tibetan Plateau and discuss its ecological and climatic interpretations. Lithology results indicate that organic matter content is high at 60-80% between 10 and 3 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP) and shows large-magnitude fluctuations in the last 3000 years. Ash-free bulk density, as a proxy of peat decomposition and peatland surface moisture conditions, oscillates around a mean value of 0.1 g/cm3, with low values at 6.5-4.7 ka, reflecting a wet interval, and an increasing trend from 4.7 to 2 ka, suggesting a drying trend. The time-averaged mean carbon accumulation rates are 30.6 gC/m2/yr for the last 10,000 years, higher than that from many northern peatlands. Tree pollen (mainly from Picea), mostly reflecting temperature change in this alpine meadow-forest ecotonal region, has variable values (from 3 to 34%) during the early Holocene, reaches the peak value during the mid-Holocene at 6.5 ka, and then decreases until 2 ka. The combined peat property and pollen data indicate that a warm and wet climate prevailed in the mid-Holocene (6.5-4.7 ka), representing a monsoon maximum or "optimum climate" for the region. The timing is consistent with recent paleo-monsoon records from southern China and with the idea that the interplays of summer insolation and other extratropical large-scale boundary conditions, including sea-surface temperature and sea-level change, control regional climate. The cooling and drying trend since the mid-Holocene likely reflects the decrease in insolation heating and weakening of summer monsoons. Regional synthesis of five pollen records along a southenorth transect indicates that this climate pattern can be recognized all across the eastern Tibetan Plateau. The peatland and vegetation changes in the late Holocene suggest complex and dramatic responses of these lowland and upland ecosystems to changes in temperature and moisture conditions and human activities.

  19. Holocene vegetation and climate histories in the eastern Tibetan Plateau: controls by insolation-driven temperature or monsoon-derived precipitation changes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan; Yu, Zicheng; Zhao, Wenwei

    2011-05-01

    The climates on the eastern Tibetan Plateau are strongly influenced by direct insolation heating as well as monsoon-derived precipitation change. However, the moisture and temperature influences on regional vegetation and climate have not been well documented in paleoclimate studies. Here we present a well-dated and high-resolution loss-on-ignition, peat property and fossil pollen record over the last 10,000 years from a sedge-dominated fen peatland in the central Zoige Basin on the eastern Tibetan Plateau and discuss its ecological and climatic interpretations. Lithology results indicate that organic matter content is high at 60-80% between 10 and 3 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP) and shows large-magnitude fluctuations in the last 3000 years. Ash-free bulk density, as a proxy of peat decomposition and peatland surface moisture conditions, oscillates around a mean value of 0.1 g/cm 3, with low values at 6.5-4.7 ka, reflecting a wet interval, and an increasing trend from 4.7 to 2 ka, suggesting a drying trend. The time-averaged mean carbon accumulation rates are 30.6 gC/m 2/yr for the last 10,000 years, higher than that from many northern peatlands. Tree pollen (mainly from Picea), mostly reflecting temperature change in this alpine meadow-forest ecotonal region, has variable values (from 3 to 34%) during the early Holocene, reaches the peak value during the mid-Holocene at 6.5 ka, and then decreases until 2 ka. The combined peat property and pollen data indicate that a warm and wet climate prevailed in the mid-Holocene (6.5-4.7 ka), representing a monsoon maximum or "optimum climate" for the region. The timing is consistent with recent paleo-monsoon records from southern China and with the idea that the interplays of summer insolation and other extratropical large-scale boundary conditions, including sea-surface temperature and sea-level change, control regional climate. The cooling and drying trend since the mid-Holocene likely reflects the decrease in insolation heating and weakening of summer monsoons. Regional synthesis of five pollen records along a south-north transect indicates that this climate pattern can be recognized all across the eastern Tibetan Plateau. The peatland and vegetation changes in the late Holocene suggest complex and dramatic responses of these lowland and upland ecosystems to changes in temperature and moisture conditions and human activities.

  20. The 1991 Japan Solar Energy Society. Japan Wind Energy Association Joint Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-09-01

    Thie paper summarizes the lectures presented at the research presentation conference held by the Japan Solar Energy Society and the Japan Wind Energy Association. The contents include a lecture relating to photovoltaic cells intended for efficiency improvement; a lecture relating to a light power generation system including the field test reports, improvements on peripheral devices and output characteristics; a lecture relating to optical chemistry; a lecture relating to heat pumps utilizing solar heat and well water; a lecture relating air conditioning utilizing photovoltaic cells; a lecture relating to heat systems utilizing solar heat directly; a lecture relating to heat collection; a lecture relating to cold heat for cooling using earth tubes; a lecture relating to direct utilization of ground water heat and solar heat; a lecture relating to underground heat storage; a lecture relating to accumulation of cold heat and hot heat; a lecture relating to insolation on the amount of insolation and spectroscopy; a lecture relating to light collection intended of energy saving; a lecture relating to improving materials including light collecting plates and thin films; a lecture relating to development and characteristics of solar cars; and a lecture relating to wind energy.

  1. Williamson Home, Ipswich, Mass. solar-energy-system performance evaluation, Nov. 1981 - Apr. 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, M.

    1982-06-01

    Data on solar water and space heating systems are given. The Williamson Home in Massachusetts is a single family residence whose active-solar-energy system is designed to supply 47% of the space heating and 91% of the hot water. The system is equipped with 339 square feet of flat plate collectors, a 240-cubic-foot rock bin for storage, a propane-gas furnace and a 100-gallon propane gas hot water tank for auxiliary heating. Monthly performance data are tabulated for the overall system and for the collector, hot water, and space heating subsystems. Also tabulated are solar coefficients of performance, solar operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions. Also given is a graph of collector array efficiency versus the difference between the inlet water and ambient temperatures divided by insolation. System operation is illustrated by graphs of typical insolation data and outside ambient and indoor temperatures, collector operating periods and inlet/outlet temperatures, and typical storage and distribution temperatures versus time for a typical day. The system operating sequence and solar energy utilization and losses are also graphed.

  2. Weather, season, and daily stroke admissions in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goggins, William B.; Woo, Jean; Ho, Suzanne; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Chau, P. H.

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies examining daily temperature and stroke incidence have given conflicting results. We undertook this retrospective study of all stroke admissions in those aged 35 years old and above to Hong Kong public hospitals from 1999 through 2006 in order to better understand the effects of meteorological conditions on stroke risk in a subtropical setting. We used Poisson Generalized Additive Models with daily hemorrhagic (HS) and ischemic stroke (IS) counts separately as outcomes, and daily mean temperature, humidity, solar radiation, rainfall, air pressure, pollutants, flu consultation rates, day of week, holidays, time trend and seasonality as predictors. Lagged effects of temperature, humidity and pollutants were also considered. A total of 23,457 HS and 107,505 IS admissions were analyzed. Mean daily temperature had a strong, consistent, negative linear association with HS admissions over the range (8.2-31.8C) observed. A 1C lower average temperature over the same day and previous 4 days (lags 0-4) being associated with a 2.7% (95% CI: 2.0-3.4%, P < .0.0001) higher admission rate after controlling for other variables. This association was stronger among older subjects and females. Higher lag 0-4 average change in air pressure from previous day was modestly associated with higher HS risk. The association between IS and temperature was weaker and apparent only below 22C, with a 1C lower average temperature (lags 0-13) below this threshold being associated with a 1.6% (95% CI:1.0-2.2%, P < 0.0001) higher IS admission rate. Pollutant levels were not associated with HS or IS. Future studies should examine HS and IS risk separately.

  3. Solar Power System Evaluated for the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2000-01-01

    The electric power system is a crucial element of any mission for the human exploration of the Martian surface. The bulk of the power generated will be delivered to crew life support systems, extravehicular activity suits, robotic vehicles, and predeployed in situ resource utilization (ISRU) equipment. In one mission scenario, before the crew departs for Mars, the ISRU plant operates for 435 days producing liquefied methane and oxygen for ascent-stage propellants and water for crew life support. About 200 days after ISRU production is completed, the crew arrives for a 500-day surface stay. In this scenario, the power system must operate for a total of 1130 days (equivalent to 1100 Martian "sols"), providing 400 MW-hr of energy to the ISRU plant and up to 18 kW of daytime user power. A photovoltaic power-generation system with regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage has been under study at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The conceptual power system is dominated by the 4000- m2 class photovoltaic array that is deployed orthogonally as four tent structures, each approximately 5 m on a side and 100-m long. The structures are composed of composite members deployed by an articulating mast, an inflatable boom, or rover vehicles, and are subsequently anchored to the ground. Array panels consist of thin polymer membranes with thin-film solar cells. The array is divided into eight independent electrical sections with solar cell strings operating at 600 V. Energy storage is provided by regenerative fuel cells based on hydrogen-oxygen proton exchange membrane technology. Hydrogen and oxygen reactants are stored in gaseous form at 3000 psi, and the water produced is stored at 14.7 psi. The fuel cell operating temperature is maintained by a 40-m2 deployable pumped-fluid loop radiator that uses water as the working fluid. The power management and distribution (PMAD) architecture features eight independent, regulated 600-Vdc channels. Power management and distribution power cables use various gauges of copper conductors with ethylene tetrafluoroethylene insulation. To assess power system design options and sizing, we developed a dedicated Fortran code to predict detailed power system performance and estimate system mass. This code also modeled the requisite Mars surface environments: solar insolation, Sun angles, dust storms, dust deposition, and thermal and ultraviolet radiation. Using this code, trade studies were performed to assess performance and mass sensitivities to power system design parameters (photovoltaic array geometry and orientation) and mission parameters (landing date and landing site latitude, terrain slope, and dust storm activity). Mission analysis cases were also run. Power results are shown in this graph for an analysis case with a September 1, 2012, landing date; 18.95 North latitude landing site; two seasonal dusts storms; and tent arrays. To meet user load requirements and the ISRU energy requirement, an 8-metric ton (MT) power system and 4000-m2 photovoltaic array area were required for the assumed advanced CuInS2 thin-film solar cell technology. In this figure, the top curve is the average daytime photovoltaic array power, the middle curve is average daytime user load power, and the bottom curve is nighttime power. At mission day 1, daytime user power exceeds 120 kW before falling off to 80 kW at the end of the mission. Throughout the mission, nighttime user power is set to the nighttime power requirement. In this analysis, "nighttime" is defined as the 13- to 15-hr period when array power output is below the daytime power requirement. During dust storms, power system capability falls off dramatically so that by mission day 900, a daily energy balance cannot be maintained. Under these conditions, the ISRU plant is placed in standby mode, and the regenerative fuel cell energy storage is gradually discharged to meet user loads.

  4. Adolescent Daily and General Maladjustment: Is There Reactivity to Daily Repeated Measures Methodologies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishina, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether repeated exposure to daily surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' daily and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 daily reports tapping experienced or…

  5. The response of SST to insolation and ice sheet variability from MIS 3 to MIS 11 in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina, Aleix; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Flores, José Abel; Martrat, Belen; Grimalt, Joan O.

    2015-12-01

    Here we present a sea surface temperature (SST) record based on the Uk'37 index from the PRGL1 borehole (Promess1) drilled on the upper slope of the Gulf of Lions (GL). This is the first continuous and high-resolution record in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea from marine oxygen isotope stage 3 (MIS) 3 to MIS 11. Due the location of the GL, the SST proxy can be considered to be a reliable tool to study the climate link between high latitude and midlatitude. During glacial inceptions, the northern ice sheet signal via cold northwesterly winds was first recorded in our study area in comparison with southern locations, highlighting the strong sensitivity of this location to high-latitude dynamics. Moreover, the amplitude of the millennial-scale variability in the western Mediterranean basin seems to be the result of both ice sheet and insolation variability.

  6. New developments for future solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, J.; Feustel, J.; Kraft, M.

    The development of a planned solar farm providing 15 to 500 kW of electrical and mechanical energy in regions with high insolation is discussed. In the proposed power plant, 200 to 300 C heat generated in tracking parabolic cylindrical collectors is used to produce high-pressure steam as a source of mechanical energy, electricity or low-temperature heat. The optimization of system operating temperature and collector area with respect to collector and machine efficiency is discussed, and the first plant prototype is presented. Advanced development of the modular collector units and the energy conversion circuit, which consists of the boiler, expansion machine, electrical generator, condenser, cooling tower and control, monitoring and auxiliary devices, is then considered.

  7. Modeling Solar Lyman Alpha Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.; Donnelly, R. F.; London, J.

    1990-01-01

    Solar Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analyses. Models developed with multiple linear regression analysis, including daily values and 81-day running means of solar indices, predict reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. It is shown that the full disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm offers the best proxy for Lyman alpha, and that the total irradiance corrected for sunspot effect also has a high correlation with Lyman alpha.

  8. Holocene evolution of summer winds and marine productivity in the tropical Indian Ocean in response to insolation forcing: data-model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassinot, F. C.; Marzin, C.; Braconnot, P.; Marti, O.; Mathien-Blard, E.; Lombard, F.; Bopp, L.

    2011-02-01

    The relative abundance of Globigerinoides bulloides was used to infer Holocene paleo-productivity changes at ODP Site 723 (1903' N, 5737' E; Oman Margin) and core MD77-191 (0730' N, 7643' E; Southern tip of India). Today, the primary productivity at both sites peaks during the summer season, when monsoon winds result in local Eckman pumping, which brings more nutrients to the surface. On a millennium time-scale, however, the % G.~bulloides records indicate an opposite evolution of paleo-productivity at these sites through the Holocene. The Oman Margin productivity was maximal at ~9 ka (boreal summer insolation maximum) and decreased since then, suggesting a direct response to insolation forcing. On the opposite, the productivity at the southern tip of India was minimum at ~9 ka, and strengthened towards the present. Paleo-reconstructions of wind patterns, marine productivity and foraminifera assemblages were obtained using the IPSL-CM4 climate model coupled to the PISCES marine biogeochemical model and the FORAMCLIM ecophysiological model. These reconstructions are fully coherent with the marine core data. They confirm that the evolution of particulate export production and foraminifera assemblages at our two sites have been directly linked with the strength of the upwelling. Model simulations at 9 ka and 6 ka BP show that the relative evolution between the two sites since the early Holocene can be explained by the weakening but also the southward shift of monsoon winds over the Arabian sea during boreal summer.

  9. Materials and optics for solar energy conversion and advanced lighting technology; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 19-21, 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, Carl M.; Holly, Sandor

    The present conference encompasses topics in the fields of optical switching materials, photovoltaic materials, holographic films, and solar optical materials, as well as insolation and illumination testing and measurement technologies, light source hardware and applications, novel optical techniques in illumination and lighting, and the production of lighting effects in the entertainment industry. Attention is given to thermochromic and electrochromic materials for optical switching and energy-efficient windows, tin oxide antireflection coatings, holographic solar concentration and greenhouse lighting, long-lived glass mirrors for space, exposure testing of solar absorbers, optical projection equipment, medium and short arc metal halide lamps, and nonimaging optics for illumination.

  10. Materials and optics for solar energy conversion and advanced lighting technology; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 19-21, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, C.M.; Holly, S.

    1987-01-01

    The present conference encompasses topics in the fields of optical switching materials, photovoltaic materials, holographic films, and solar optical materials, as well as insolation and illumination testing and measurement technologies, light source hardware and applications, novel optical techniques in illumination and lighting, and the production of lighting effects in the entertainment industry. Attention is given to thermochromic and electrochromic materials for optical switching and energy-efficient windows, tin oxide antireflection coatings, holographic solar concentration and greenhouse lighting, long-lived glass mirrors for space, exposure testing of solar absorbers, optical projection equipment, medium and short arc metal halide lamps, and nonimaging optics for illumination.

  11. To develop a dynamic model of a collector loop for purpose of improved control of solar heating and cooling. Final technical report. [TRNSYS code

    SciTech Connect

    Herczfeld, P R; Fischl, R

    1980-01-01

    The program objectives were to (1) assess the feasibility of using the TRNSYS computer code for solar heating and cooling control studies and modify it wherever possible, and (2) develop a new dynamic model of the solar collector which reflects the performance of the collector under transient conditions. Also, the sensitivity of the performance of this model to the various system parameters such as collector time constants, flow rates, turn-on and turn-off temperature set points, solar insolation, etc., was studied. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

  12. Daily intake of 4-nonylphenol in Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu-Yu; Chen, Mei-Lien; Sung, Fung-Chang; Wang, Paulus Shyi-Gang; Mao, I-Fang

    2007-10-01

    Alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO), alkylphenols combined with ethylene oxide, are a class of nonionic surfactants. APEO have been widely used for industrial, agricultural and household applications, and are biodegraded to more persistent and estrogen-active products, namely, nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), butylphenol (BP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP(1)EO) and nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP(2)EO). This study determined NP levels in commonly consumed foodstuffs to assess daily intake of NP in a Taiwanese population. This study analyzes 318 of samples from 25 types of commonly consumed foodstuffs in northern, central, southern and eastern regions of Taiwan and estimates daily intake of NP in 466 subjects. Moreover, daily NP intake for 3915 additional subjects was estimated by analyzing data from the Nutrition and health survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT). The foodstuff samples were analyzed for five alkylphenol compounds simultaneously by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Additionally, the average compositions of typical foods consumed in Taiwan were investigated. In combination with alkylphenol levels in these foodstuffs, daily intake of NP in Taiwanese was calculated. The average daily intake of NP for the 466 subjects was 28.04+/-25.32 microg/day. Estimated daily intake of NP, based on NP levels in this study as well as the NAHSIT data, was 31.40 microg/day. Rice was the most commonly consumed source of NP, the proportion was 21.46% among daily intake of NP and the following were aquatic products and livestock, which percentage were 17.97% and 17.38%, respectively. Additionally, oysters had the highest NP levels (235.8+/-90.7 ng/g) in four regions of Taiwan, followed by salmon (123.8+/-116.2 ng/g). This study suggested that the average daily NP intake in Taiwan is 4-fold and 8.5-fold higher than daily intake in Germany and New Zealand, respectively and rice was the major source of NP intake. PMID:17512594

  13. Solar collector device

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, K.N.

    1984-09-25

    A solar collector is provided in which a focussing element precisely focusses solar radiation upon a collecting region of a collecting element during all times of the day, without necessitating daily motion of the focussing element. The collecting region is constructed to be more highly absorbing of the solar radiation than any other region of the collector which might be in thermal contact with the collecting region. In some embodiments, the collecting region is a selfdefined portion of the collecting element upon which the solar radiation is focussed at any given time. This is achieved by utilizing a collecting element which locally converts incident solar energy to another form of energy in a non-linear manner as a function of incident solar intensity. For example, the collecting element may be fabricated from a photochromic glass which darkens when impinged upon by the focussed radiation of the sun. The collecting region is automatically self-defined by the local darkened region of the photochromic glass, which traverses the collector as the sun traverses the sky.

  14. Solar collector device

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, K. N.

    1985-06-11

    A solar collector is provided in which a focussing element precisely focusses solar radiation upon a collecting region of a collecting element during all times of the day, without necessitating daily motion of the focussing element. The collecting region is constructed to be more highly absorbing of the solar radiation than any other region of the collector which might be in thermal contact with the collecting region. In some embodiments, the collecting region is a self-defined portion of the collecting element upon which the solar radiation is focussed at any given time. This is achieved by utilizing a collecting element which locally converts incident solar energy to another form of energy in a non-linear manner as a function of incident solar intensity. For example, the collecting element may be fabricated from a photochromic glass which darkens when impinged upon by the focussed radiation of the sun. The collecting region is automatically self-defined by the local darkened region of the photochromic glass, which traverses the collector as the sun traverses the sky.

  15. Solar Cookers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Richard C.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the use of solar cookers in the science classroom. Includes instructions for construction of a solar cooker, an explanation of how solar cookers work, and a number of suggested activities. (DS)

  16. Solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.E.

    1983-01-01

    This text on the thermal conversion of solar energy begins with fundamental principles, which are then developed and applied to a variety of solar conversion systems. In addition to system components-such as flat plate, salt gradient, and concentrating collectors, and thermal storage units-the author discusses active and passive space heating, hot water, air conditioning, dehumidification, air drying, distillation, and swimming pool heating systems. The f-chart system performance estimation techniques active systems, and load-collector-ratio technique for passive systems are presented. Contents: Introduction. Solar kinematics. Availability of Solar Energy. Solar Concentrators. Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer in Solar Systems. Flat Plate Collectors. Thermal Storage of Solar Energy. Solar Space and Hot water Heating Systems. Economics of Solar Energy Systems. Solar Air Conditioning, Refrigeration and Dehumidification. Additional Solar Energy Applications and Collectors. Passive Solar Heating. Appendices.

  17. Doppler observations of solar rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Daily observations of the photospheric equatorial rotation rate using the Doppler effect are made at the Stanford Solar Observatory. These observations show no variations in the rotation rate that exceed the observational error of about 1%. The average rotation rate is indistinguishable from that of sunspots and large-scale magnetic field structures.

  18. Doppler observations of solar rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    Daily observations of the photospheric equatorial rotation rate using the Doppler effect mode at the Sanford Solar Observatory are presented. These observations show no variations in the rotation rate that exceed the observational error of about one percent. The average rotation rate is indistinguishable from that of sunspots and large scale magnetic field structures.

  19. [Daily life activities following cerebrovascular infarct].

    PubMed

    Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Peskine, Anne

    2006-09-15

    Cerebro-vascular disease is the first cause of handicap in France. Disabilities in daily life activities are due to motor, visual and cognitive impairments following a stroke. Difficulties arise while grooming, getting dressed, eating, moving around ... the WHO presents with a new classification of functioning, that has been followed by a recent law in France. The aim is to place the handicapped citizen in daily life and not just to list his/her deficiencies. Rehabilitation after stroke has to establish functional objectives early so as to include daily life goals in re-education. PMID:17002070

  20. Surface solar radiation from geostationary satellites for renewable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laszlo, Istvan; Liu, Hongqing; Heidinger, Andrew; Goldberg, Mitchell

    With the launch of the new Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, GOES-R, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will begin a new era of geostationary remote sensing. One of its flagship instruments, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), will expand frequency and coverage of multispectral remote sensing of atmospheric and surface properties. Products derived from ABI measurements will primarily be heritage meteorological products (cloud and aerosol properties, precipitation, winds, etc.), but some will be for interdisciplinary use, such as for the solar energy industry. The planned rapid observations (5-15 minutes) from ABI provide an opportunity to obtain information needed for solar energy applications where frequent observations of solar radiation reaching the surface are essential for planning and load management. In this paper we describe a physical, radiative-transfer-based algorithm for the retrieval of surface solar irradiance that uses atmospheric and surface parameters derived independently from multispectral ABI radiances. The algorithm is designed to provide basic radiation budget products (total solar irradiance at the surface), as well as products specifically needed for the solar energy industry (average, midday and clear-sky insolation, clear-sky days, diffuse and direct normal radiation, etc.). Two alternative algorithms, which require less ABI atmosphere and surface products or no explicit knowledge of the surface albedo, are also explored along with their limitations. The accuracy of surface solar radiation retrievals are assessed using long-term MODIS and GOES satellite data and surface measurements at the Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) network.

  1. Natural heat storage in a brine-filled solar pond in the Tully Valley of central New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayhurst, Brett; Kappel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The Tully Valley, located in southern Onondaga County, New York, has a long history of unusual natural hydrogeologic phenomena including mudboils (Kappel, 2009), landslides (Tamulonis and others, 2009; Pair and others, 2000), landsurface subsidence (Hackett and others, 2009; Kappel, 2009), and a brine-filled sinkhole or “Solar pond” (fig. 1), which is documented in this report. A solar pond is a pool of salty water (brine) which stores the sun’s energy in the form of heat. The saltwater naturally forms distinct layers with increasing density between transitional zones (haloclines) of rapidly changing specific conductance with depth. In a typical solar pond, the top layer has a low salt content and is often times referred to as the upper convective zone (Lu and others, 2002). The bottom layer is a concentrated brine that is either convective or temperature stratified dependent on the surrounding environment. Solar insolation is absorbed and stored in the lower, denser brine while the overlying halocline acts as an insulating layer and prevents heat from moving upwards from the lower zone (Lu and others, 2002). In the case of the Tully Valley solar pond, water within the pond can be over 90 degrees Fahrenheit (°F) in late summer and early fall. The purpose of this report is to summarize observations at the Tully Valley brine-filled sinkhole and provide supplemental climate data which might affect the pond salinity gradients insolation (solar energy).

  2. Experimental Performance of a Solar Thermoelectric Cogenerator Comprising Thermoelectric Modules and Parabolic Trough Concentrator without Evacuated Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, L.; Kang, Y. P.; Li, C.; Tanemura, S.; Wan, C. L.; Iwamoto, Y.; Shen, Y.; Lin, H.

    2015-06-01

    A prototype practical solar-thermoelectric cogenerator composed of (1) a primary component of a pile of solar-selective absorber (SSA) slab, thermoelectric (TE) modules, and a depressed water flow tube (multichannel cooling heat sink, MCS), and (2) a parabolic trough concentrator with aperture area of 2m 2m and east-west focal axis was constructed. Its cogeneration performance under the best climatic and solar insolation conditions in Guangzhou, China was tested. For simplicity, the evacuated glass tube to cover the primary component was eliminated from the system. Six Bi2Te3 TE modules were arranged in series, directly bonded to the rear surface of the solar absorber slab. The hot-side temperature of the TE module reached up to 152C. The experimentally obtained instantaneous results for the solar to electrical conversion efficiency, heat exchange coefficient of the MCS, and overall system efficiency under the best environmental and solar insolation conditions were about 1.14%, 56.1%, and 49.5%, respectively. To justify these values, an equivalent thermal network diagram based on a single-temperature-node heat transfer model representing the respective system components was used to analyze the thermal transfer and losses of the system. Finally, electrical power of 18 W was generated, with 2 L/min of hot water at 37C being produced and stored in the insulated container.

  3. Early daily trunk shrinkage is highly sensitive to water stress in nectarine trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prez-Pastor, Alejandro; De la Rosa, Jose M.; Dodd, Ian C.; Conesa, Mara R.; Domingo, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    The sensitivity to water stress of different plant water status indicators was evaluated during two consecutive years in early nectarine trees grown in a semi-arid region. Measurements were made post-harvest and two irrigation treatments were applied: a control treatment (CTL), irrigated at 120% of crop evapotranspiration demand to achieve non-limiting water conditions, and a deficit irrigation treatment (DI), that applied around 37% less water than CTL during late postharvest. The plant water status indicators evaluated were midday stem water potential (?stem) and parameters derived from trunk diameter fluctuations (TDF): maximum daily shrinkage (MDS), trunk daily growth rate (TGR), early daily shrinkage measured between 0900 and 1200 h solar time (EDS), and late daily shrinkage (LDS) that occurred between 1200 h solar time and the moment that minimum trunk diameter was reached (typically 1600 h solar time). The most sensitive (highest ratio of signal intensity (SI) to noise) indicators to water stress were ?stem together with EDS. The SI of EDS was greater than that of ?stem, although with greater variability. EDS was a better indicator than MDS, with higher SI and similar variability. Although MDS was linearly related to ?stem down to -1.5 MPa, thereafter MDS decreased with increasing water stress. In contrast, EDS was linearly related to ?stem, although the slope of the regression decreased as the season progressed, as in the case of MDS. Further studies are needed to determine whether EDS is a sensitive indicator of water stress in a range of species.

  4. Homogenization of Chinese Daily Surface Air Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenhui, X.; Quingxiang, L.; Wang, X. L.; Su, Y.; Yani, Z.; Lijuan, C.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme climate events have large potential of impacts on the society and economy. However, analysis of long-term changes in climate extremes need to use homogeneous time series of high resolution climatic data (e.g., daily or sub-daily), to diminish non-climatic influences. Thus, more and more attention has been drawn to the development of high quality daily climatic data. Since both temporal and spatial variations are much larger in daily data than in the corresponding monthly or annual data, it is important and yet more difficult to choose a reference series for homogenization of daily data. We tested and compared different methods to select reference series. The reference series that leads to the best match of detected changepoints with metadata information is selected and used to perform homogeneity test for data time series from stations within the grid box. Specifically, we divided the whole country into 2.5-by-2.5 degree lat-long grid boxes. The time series of the averages of observations at all stations in each grid box was considered to be the series representing the climatic variations/changes in each grid box. We calculated the correlation coefficient of annual data series at each station with the average series of annual data in each grid box, and chose the five stations of highest correlations. Then, we obtained the daily difference series between each chosen station and the average series in each grid box, and applied the PMTred method to test the homogeneity of the daily difference series, We chose the homogeneous station as the reference station for testing inhomogeneities in other station's series in the grid box, using the PMTred method. In addition to testing the daily series, we also tested the corresponding annual and monthly series. We adjusted for change points that are identified in both daily and monthly/annual series and also supported by metadata. Daily maximum and minimum temperatures recorded at 822 Chinese stations were tested in this study. The results show that site relocations are the main source of inhomogeneity. The impacts of inhomogeneities on the estimates of climate trends and extremes were assessed. The resulting daily data set is also compared with a previous version of homogenized temperature data set.

  5. Vestibular loss disrupts daily rhythm in rats.

    PubMed

    Martin, T; Mauvieux, B; Bulla, J; Quarck, G; Davenne, D; Denise, P; Philoxne, B; Besnard, S

    2015-02-01

    Hypergravity disrupts the circadian regulation of temperature (Temp) and locomotor activity (Act) mediated through the vestibular otolithic system in mice. In contrast, we do not know whether the anatomical structures associated with vestibular input are crucial for circadian rhythm regulation at 1 G on Earth. In the present study we observed the effects of bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) on the daily rhythms of Temp and Act in semipigmented rats. Our model of vestibular lesion allowed for selective peripheral hair cell degeneration without any other damage. Rats with BVL exhibited a disruption in their daily rhythms (Temp and Act), which were replaced by a main ultradian period (? <20 h) for 115.8 68.6 h after vestibular lesion compared with rats in the control group. Daily rhythms of Temp and Act in rats with BVL recovered within 1 wk, probably counterbalanced by photic and other nonphotic time cues. No correlation was found between Temp and Act daily rhythms after vestibular lesion in rats with BVL, suggesting a direct influence of vestibular input on the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Our findings support the hypothesis that the vestibular system has an influence on daily rhythm homeostasis in semipigmented rats on Earth, and raise the question of whether daily rhythms might be altered due to vestibular pathology in humans. PMID:25505031

  6. Three computer codes to read, plot, and tabulate operational test-site recorded solar data. [TAPFIL, CHPLOT, and WRTCNL codes

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, S.D.; Sampson, R.J. Jr.; Stonemetz, R.E.; Rouse, S.L.

    1980-07-01

    A computer program, TAPFIL, has been developed by MSFC to read data from an IBM 360 tape for use on the PDP 11/70. The information (insolation, flowrates, temperatures, etc.) from 48 operational solar heating and cooling test sites is stored on the tapes. Two other programs, CHPLOT and WRTCNL, have been developed to plot and tabulate the data. These data will be used in the evaluation of collector efficiency and solar system performance. This report describes the methodology of the programs, their inputs, and their outputs.

  7. Associations among Daily Stressors and Salivary Cortisol: Findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Robert S.; Cichy, Kelly E.; Piazza, Jennifer R.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally-occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1,694 adults (Age=57, Range=33–84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5,995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally-occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. PMID:23856186

  8. Affect- and self-based models of relationships between daily events and daily well-being.

    PubMed

    Nezlek, John B; Plesko, Rebecca M

    2003-05-01

    The present study examined affect- self-based explanatory models of relationships between daily events and daily well-being. Twice a week for up to 10 weeks, participants described the events that occurred each day and provided measures of their daily affect, self-esteem, and depressogenic thinking. Participants also provided trait-level measures of affect, depression, and self-esteem. Measures of daily well-being representing each model covaried jointly and independently with daily negative and positive events. Positive events buffered the effects of negative events on daily self-esteem and daily depressogenic thinking, whereas there was no buffering effect for daily affect. More depressed people were more reactive to positive events, and those higher in trait PA were less reactive to negative events. Buffering effects for self-esteem were pronounced for those with lower trait self-esteem, and buffering effects for daily depressogenic adjustment were now more pronounced for those with higher trait negative affect. The results suggest that affect- and self-based models provide complementary perspectives on relationships between psychological well-being and daily events. PMID:15282906

  9. Comparison of DOE-2 and TRNSYS solar-heating-system simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Eden, A.; Morgan, M.

    1980-12-01

    The analysis and comparison of the output of the solar energy section of DOE-2 called Component Based Simulator (CBS) and TRNSYS are discussed. The adequacy and sensitivity of CBS when various active solar energy collectors and systems were interfaced with a standard space heating system were investigated. The analysis included both single- and double-glazed collectors with selectively and nonselectively coated absorbing surfaces located in four different environments. The results of the study show the agreement between the two programs to be remarkably similar. Graphs are presented to illustrate the minor differences in annual average collector efficiency and annual average part solar as well as the thermal load and insolation levels. In addition, difficulties encountered by the researchers when performing this study and when attempting to model the collector systems with each program's components are discussed and recommendations offered to facilitate the solar simulation process for future CBS users.

  10. High altitude current-voltage measurement of GaAs/Ge solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Russell E., Jr.; Brinker, David J.; Emery, Keith A.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of high-voltage (Voc of 1.2 V) gallium arsenide on germanium tandem junction solar cells at air mass 0.22 showed that the insolation in the red portion of the solar spectrum is insufficient to obtain high fill factor. On the basis of measurements in the LeRC X-25L solar simulator, these cells were believed to be as efficient as 21.68 percent AM0. Solar simulator spectrum errors in the red end allowed the fill factor to be as high as 78.7 percent. When a similar cell's current-voltage characteristic was measured at high altitude in the NASA Lear Jet Facility, a loss of 15 percentage points in fill factor was observed. This decrease was caused by insufficient current in the germanium bottom cell of the tandem stack.

  11. Development of flat-plate solar collectors for the heating and cooling of buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, J. W.; Borzoni, J. T.; Holland, T. H.

    1975-01-01

    The relevant design parameters in the fabrication of a solar collector for heating liquids were examined. The objective was to design, fabricate, and test a low-cost, flat-plate solar collector with high collection efficiency, high durability, and requiring little maintenance. Computer-aided math models of the heat transfer processes in the collector assisted in the design. The preferred physical design parameters were determined from a heat transfer standpoint and the absorber panel configuration, the surface treatment of the absorber panel, the type and thickness of insulation, and the number, spacing and material of the covers were defined. Variations of this configuration were identified, prototypes built, and performance tests performed using a solar simulator. Simulated operation of the baseline collector configuration was combined with insolation data for a number of locations and compared with a predicted load to determine the degree of solar utilization.

  12. Testing the relationship between the solar radiation dose and surface DMS concentrations using in situ data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, C. J.; Bell, T. G.; Lenton, T. M.

    2009-09-01

    The proposed strong positive relationship between dimethylsulphide (DMS) concentration and the solar radiation dose (SRD) received into the surface ocean is tested using data from the Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) programme. In situ, daily data sampled concurrently with DMS concentrations is used for the component variables of the SRD (mixed layer depth, MLD, surface insolation, I0, and a light attenuation coefficient, k) to calculate SRDinsitu. This is the first time in situ data for all of the components, including k, has been used to test the SRD-DMS relationship over large spatial scales. We find a significant correlation (?=0.55 n=65 p<0.01) but the slope of this relationship (0.006 nM/W m-2) is less than previously found at the global (0.019 nM/W m-2) and regional scales (Blanes Bay, Mediterranean, 0.028 nM/W m-2; Sargasso Sea 0.017 nM/W m-2). The correlation is improved (?=0.74 n=65 p<0.01) by replacing the in situ data with an estimated I0 (which assumes a constant 50% removal of the top of atmosphere value; 0.5TOA), a MLD climatology and a fixed value for k following previous work. Equally strong, but non-linear relationships are also found between DMS and both in situ MLD (?=0.61 n=65 p<0.01) and the estimated I0 (?=0.73 n=65 p<0.01) alone. Using a satellite-retrieved, cloud-adjusted surface UVA irradiance to calculate a UV radiation dose (UVRD) with a climatological MLD also provides an equivalent correlation (?=0.67 n=54 p<0.01) to DMS. With this data, MLD appears the dominant control upon DMS concentrations and remains a useful shorthand to prediction without fully resolving the biological processes involved. However, the implied relationship between the incident solar/ultraviolet radiation (modulated by MLD), and sea surface DMS concentrations, is critical for closing a climate feedback loop.

  13. Irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib-Agahi, H.; Jones, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    The potential size of the onfarm-pumped irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems in seven high-insolation states is estimated. The study is restricted to the displacement of three specific fuels: gasoline, diesel and natural gas. The model was developed to estimate the optimal number of parabolic dish modules per farm based on the minimum cost mix of conventional and solar thermal energy required to meet irrigation needs. The study concludes that the potential market size for onfarm-pumped irrigation applications ranges from 101,000 modules when a 14 percent real discount rate is assumed to 220,000 modules when the real discount rate drops to 8 percent. Arizona, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico and Texas account for 98 percent of the total demand for this application, with the natural gas replacement market accounting for the largest segment (71 percent) of the total market.

  14. Texasgulf solar cogeneration program. Mid-term topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The status of technical activities of the Texasgulf Solar Cogeneration Program at the Comanche Creek Sulfur Mine is described. The program efforts reported focus on preparation of a system specification, selection of a site-specific configuration, conceptual design, and facility performance. Trade-off studies performed to select the site-specific cogeneration facility configuration that would be the basis for the conceptual design efforts are described. Study areas included solar system size, thermal energy storage, and field piping. The conceptual design status is described for the various subsystems of the Comanche Creek cogeneration facility. The subsystems include the collector, receiver, master control, fossil energy, energy storage, superheat boiler, electric power generation, and process heat subsystems. Computer models for insolation and performance are also briefly discussed. Appended is the system specification. (LEW)

  15. Turbine sizing of a solar thermal power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.

    1979-01-01

    Since the insolation is intermittent, thermal energy storage is necessary to extend the time of power generation with solar heat past sunset. There are two approaches to specifying the size of turbine-generator units depending on the system operation. In the first approach, the turbine operates at its full capacity when operating on direct solar heat, and at reduced capacity when operating on collected heat out of energy storage. In the second approach, the turbine will always operate at a uniform level either on derated energy from the receiver or from energy storage. Both of these approaches have certain advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, a simple analysis is outlined and exercised to compare the performance and economics of these two approaches.

  16. Some solar dish/heat engine design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis, R.L.

    1984-11-01

    Tradeoff decisions are an essential feature of solar dish/electric system design. The often competing characteristics of the various subsystems require careful analysis before a designer can create an optimal performance, minimal cost final product. Discussed here are design factors such as the dish concentration ratio as a function of operating temperature; the module performance characteristics of Brayton, Rankine, and Stirling heat engines; hybrid operation economics; optimum module size; and thermodynamic effects. It is shown that for heat engines operating at 1370/sup 0/C or above, the dish concentration ratio needs to be at least 2000 and the optimum dish diameter is between 14 m and 19 m. High engine efficiency as a result of increased temperature is shown to be not always desirable for solar modules. The second-law thermodynamic results indicate single insolation reflection is desired over the use of terminal concentrators or multiple reflections.

  17. Development and Testing of Shingle-type Solar Cell Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication and testing of a shingle-type terrestrial solar cell module which produces 98 watts/sq m of exposed module area at 1 kW/sq m insolation and 61 C are reported. These modules make it possible to easily incorporate photovoltaic power generation into the sloping roofs of residential or commercial buildings by simply nailing the modules to the plywood roof sheathing. This design consists of nineteen series-connected 53 mm diameter solar cells arranged in a closely packed hexagon configuration. These cells are individually bonded to the embossed surface of a 3 mm thick thermally tempered hexagon-shaped piece of glass. Polyvinyl butyral is used as the laminating adhesive.

  18. CONC/11: A computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    The CONC/11 computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems is discussed. This program is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. The CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended FORTRAN (similar to FORTRAN 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers. A user's manual is also provided for this program.

  19. Daily soil temperature modeling using neuro-fuzzy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P.

    2014-11-01

    Soil temperature is an important meteorological parameter which influences a number of processes in agriculture, hydrology, and environment. However, soil temperature records are not routinely available from meteorological stations. This work aimed to estimate daily soil temperature using the coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) in arid and semiarid regions. For this purpose, daily soil temperatures were recorded at six depths of 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 cm below the surface at two synoptic stations in Iran. According to correlation analysis, mean, maximum, and minimum air temperatures, relative humidity, sunshine hours, and solar radiation were selected as the inputs of the CANFIS models. It was concluded that, in most cases, the best soil temperature estimates with a CANFIS model can be provided with the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy model and the Gaussian membership function. Comparison of the models' performances at arid and semiarid locations showed that the CANFIS models' performances in arid site were slightly better than those in semiarid site. Overall, the obtained results indicated the capabilities of the CANFIS model in estimating soil temperature in arid and semiarid regions.

  20. Solar Geometry

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    Solar Noon (GMT time) The time when the sun is due south in the ... and sunset.   Daylight average of hourly cosine solar zenith angles (dimensionless) The average cosine of the angle ... overhead during daylight hours.   Cosine solar zenith angle at mid-time between sunrise and solar noon ...

  1. Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  2. Solar production of industrial process hot water. Quarterly performance report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The performance of the Campbell Soup solar hot water facility is tabulated for January through March 1980, from each of the monthly performance reports. The data during this period indicates that the system is operating with good reliability (95 percent in February, 90 percent in March). Of the days that the system was not operating in those months, only one was for work on the system, one was for testing of the flat plate collectors, and the remainder were due to the system not operating because the storage tank was full. The data also show that the system was operating consistently at good thermal efficiency (50 percent). Actual measured system performance is compared with calculated values. The measured energy to storage values is lower than the predicted values primarily due to the collectors receiving less than the predicted insolation during operation. The system was controlled by a clock timer and ran only 6 hours a day, thereby missing available insolation. The system controls have been revised to permit collector operation whenever there is available insolation. On 6 days in March, the system shut down early because the tank filled up, thereby losing about 24 hours of system operation. It is estimated that in March that energy to storage would have been 50 percent higher if the system had not lost operating time due to the storage tank being full. Taking these two effects into account, measured performance compares well with predicted performance.

  3. Solar-Geophysical Data Number 558, February 1991. Part 1 (prompt reports). data for January 1991, December 1990, and late data

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, H.E.

    1991-02-01

    Contents: Detailed index for 1990-1991; Data for January 1991: Solar-terrestrial environment, IUWDS alert periods (Advance and Worldwide), Solar activity indices, Solar flares, Solar radio emission, Stanford mean solar magnetic field; Data for December 1990: Solar active regions, Sudden ionospheric disturbances, Solar radio spectral observations, Cosmic ray measurements by neutron monitor, Geomagnetic indices; Late data: Geomagnetic activity indices November 1990, Interplanetary plasma data: Pioneer Venus solar wind daily values January-October 1990.

  4. Seasonal and spatial variation of organic tracers for biomass burning in PM1 aerosols from highly insolated urban areas.

    PubMed

    van Drooge, B L; Fontal, M; Bravo, N; Fernández, P; Fernández, M A; Muñoz-Arnanz, J; Jiménez, B; Grimalt, J O

    2014-10-01

    PM1 aerosol characterization on organic tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan and its isomers and dehydroabietic acid) was conducted within the AERTRANS project. PM1 filters (N = 90) were sampled from 2010 to 2012 in busy streets in the urban centre of Madrid and Barcelona (Spain) at ground-level and at roof sites. In both urban areas, biomass burning was not expected to be an important local emission source, but regional emissions from wildfires, residential heating or biomass removal may influence the air quality in the cities. Although both areas are under influence of high solar radiation, Madrid is situated in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, while Barcelona is located at the Mediterranean Coast and under influence of marine atmospheres. Two extraction methods were applied, i.e. Soxhlet and ASE, which showed equivalent results after GC-MS analyses. The ambient air concentrations of the organic tracers for biomass burning increased by an order of magnitude at both sites during winter compared to summer. An exception was observed during a PM event in summer 2012, when the atmosphere in Barcelona was directly affected by regional wildfire smoke and levels were four times higher as those observed in winter. Overall, there was little variation between the street and roof sites in both cities, suggesting that regional biomass burning sources influence the urban areas after atmospheric transport. Despite the different atmospheric characteristics in terms of air relative humidity, Madrid and Barcelona exhibit very similar composition and concentrations of biomass burning organic tracers. Nevertheless, levoglucosan and its isomers seem to be more suitable for source apportionment purposes than dehydroabietic acid. In both urban areas, biomass burning contributions to PM were generally low (2 %) in summer, except on the day when wildfire smoke arrive to the urban area. In the colder periods the contribution increase to around 30 %, indicating that regional biomass burning has a substantial influence on the urban air quality. PMID:24477336

  5. Chemical reactions in a solar furnace by direct solar irradiation of the catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, M.; Rosin, H.; Levitan, R.

    1989-02-01

    Concentrated solar radiation has been used to heat air in a volumetric receiver device. Such a receiver, using a wire mesh arrangement placed in the focal zone, can also be used for carrying out a chemical reaction where the catalyst is heated directly by the concentrated solar beam without any intermediary heat transfer fluid. The advantage of such a concept is that the highest temperature of the whole system is at the reaction site and not on the wall of the reactor or in the heat transfer fluid. Thus, higher conversion efficiencies will be obtained. Moreover, as the reaction site is directly irradiated by a very intense solar flux, photochemically enhanced reactions may result under certain conditions. The disadvantage of the approach is the difficulty in insuring uniform insolation and temperature distribution throughout the catalyst surface. Another problem is that a transparent window is required to seal off the reactants from the environment; this may complicate scaling up of the process. In this communication the authors report the results of preliminary experiments demonstrating that catalysed chemical reactions can be carried out by direct solar irradiation of the catalyst.

  6. Geosynthetic clay liners shrinkage under simulated daily thermal cycles.

    PubMed

    Sarabadani, Hamid; Rayhani, Mohammad T

    2014-04-01

    Geosynthetic clay liners are used as part of composite liner systems in municipal solid waste landfills and other applications to restrict the escape of contaminants into the surrounding environment. This is attainable provided that the geosynthetic clay liner panels continuously cover the subsoil. Previous case histories, however, have shown that some geosynthetic clay liner panels are prone to significant shrinkage and separation when an overlying geomembrane is exposed to solar radiation. Experimental models were initiated to evaluate the potential shrinkage of different geosynthetic clay liner products placed over sand and clay subsoils, subjected to simulated daily thermal cycles (60°C for 8 hours and 22°C for 16 hours) modelling field conditions in which the liner is exposed to solar radiation. The variation of geosynthetic clay liner shrinkage was evaluated at specified times by a photogrammetry technique. The manufacturing techniques, the initial moisture content, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to width) of the geosynthetic clay liner were found to considerably affect the shrinkage of geosynthetic clay liners. The particle size distribution of the subsoil and the associated suction at the geosynthetic clay liner-subsoil interface was also found to have significant effects on the shrinkage of the geosynthetic clay liner. PMID:24718363

  7. Heat transparent high intensity high efficiency solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar cell design is described. A surface of each solar cell has a plurality of grooves. Each groove has a vertical face and a slanted face that is covered by a reflecting metal. Light rays are reflected from the slanted face through the vertical face where they traverse a photovoltaic junction. As the light rays travel to the slanted face of an adjacent groove, they again traverse the junction. The underside of the reflecting coating directs the light rays toward the opposite surface of solar cell as they traverse the junction again. When the light rays travel through the solar cell and reach the saw toothed grooves on the under side, the process of reflection and repeatedly traversing the junction again takes place. The light rays ultimately emerge from the solar cell. These solar cells are particularly useful at very high levels of insolation because the infrared or heat radiation passes through the cells without being appreciably absorbed to heat the cell.

  8. Communicating Solar Astronomy to the public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaji, Kentaro; Solar Observatory NAOJ, The

    2015-08-01

    The Sun is the nearest star to us, so that the public is greatly interested in the Sun itself and in solar activity. The Solar Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan is one of the solar research divisions. Various data of the Sun obtained with our instruments, systematically accumulated more than one hundred years since 1910s, are open to not only researchers but also the public as online database. So, we have many chances that the public request solar images for the education and the media. In addition, we release daily solar observation informations on the web and with social media and guide visitors to our observation facilities. It is reviewed about the public relations and outreach activities of the Solar Observatory, including recent solar observation topics.

  9. Spatial modelling of air temperature and precipitation for Andorra (Pyrenees) from daily circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, P.; Ninyerola, M.; Prohom, M.

    2009-04-01

    Based on the daily sea level pressure (SLP) circulation catalogue obtained by Esteban, Martin-Vide and Mases, Int J Climatol 26:1501-1515, (2006) for Western Europe, high-resolution maps of daily maximum and minimum temperature, mean daily precipitation and daily precipitation probability have been obtained for Andorra (Pyrenees). The 20 daily-circulation patterns cover the period 1960-2001 and were generated using new approaches based on the rotated principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering technique. The final maps of Andorra associated with each circulation pattern have been constructed using altitude, latitude, continentality and solar radiation as multiple regression predictors (Ninyerola, Pons and Roure, Int J Climatol 20:1823-1841, 2000). The daily temperature and rainfall series used from Andorran, French and Catalan/Spanish weather stations have been checked for data quality. The results confirm the complexity of the spatial distribution of meteorological phenomena over mountainous areas such as in Andorra, and show the importance of the Mediterranean and Atlantic influence upon the climate of this country of the Pyrenees. On the other hand, different tests have been made showing that the classification results could improve the resulting interpolated climate maps by the use of the circulation-pattern frequencies.

  10. Estimation of the diffuse fraction of daily and monthly average global radiation for Fudhaliyah, Baghdad (Iraq)

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hamdani, N.; Al-Riahi, M.; Tahir, K. )

    1989-01-01

    Separating the global solar radiation on a horizontal surface into direct and diffuse components is required in the simulation of solar energy systems. Many models have been developed for this purpose. The aim of this study is to establish, from the data collected over the period 1985-1986 at Fudhaliyah, daily correlations between (i) diffuse fraction of global radiation and clearness index; (ii) diffuse fraction and fractional sunshine duration; (iii) diffuse fraction and clearness index combined with fractional sunshine duration. In addition, the monthly average values of the above-mentioned correlations were established. Comparison with the most commonly used equation, Page's correlation, gives good agreement for monthly average of the relationship between diffuse fraction and clearness index. An equation for daily diffuse transmissivity values that incorporates a single physically based coefficient, which reflects the maximum clear-sky transmissivity at the study site is presented.

  11. Nimbus-7 ERB Solar Analysis Tape (ESAT) user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Eugene; Hickey, John R.; Kyle, H. Lee; Alton, Bradley M.; Vallette, Brenda J.

    1988-01-01

    Seven years and five months of Nimbus-7 Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) solar data are available on a single ERB Solar Analysis Tape (ESAT). The period covered is November 16, 1978 through March 31, 1986. The Nimbus-7 satellite performs approximately 14 orbits per day and the ERB solar telescope observes the sun once per orbit as the satellite crosses the southern terminator. The solar data were carefully calibrated and screened. Orbital and daily mean values are given for the total solar irradiance plus other spectral intervals (10 solar channels in all). In addition, selected solar activity indicators are included on the ESAT. The ESAT User's Guide is an update of the previous ESAT User's Guide (NASA TM 86143) and includes more detailed information on the solar data calibration, screening procedures, updated solar data plots, and applications to solar variability. Details of the tape format, including source code to access ESAT, are included.

  12. Solar Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Solar Energy's solar panels are collectors for a solar energy system which provides heating for a drive-in bank in Akron, OH. Collectors were designed and manufactured by Solar Energy Products, a firm established by three former NASA employees. Company President, Frank Rom, an example of a personnel-type technology transfer, was a Research Director at Lewis Research Center, which conducts extensive solar heating and cooling research, including development and testing of high-efficiency flat-plate collectors. Rom acquired solar energy expertise which helped the company develop two types of collectors, one for use in domestic/commercial heating systems and the other for drying grain.

  13. Evolution of the banks of thermokarst lakes in Central Yakutia (Central Siberia) due to retrogressive thaw slump activity controlled by insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjourn, A.; Costard, F.; Fedorov, A.; Gargani, J.; Skorve, J.; Mass, M.; Mge, D.

    2015-07-01

    As observed in most regions in the Arctic, the thawing of ice-rich permafrost (thermokarst) has been developing in Central Yakutia. However, the relationship between thermokarst development and climate variations is not well understood in this region, in particular the development rate of thaw slumps. The objective of this paper is to understand the current development of thermokarst by studying the evolution of the banks of thermokarst lakes. We studied retrogressive thaw slumps and highly degraded ice-wedge polygons (baydjarakhs), indicative of thermokarst, using high resolution satellite images taken in 2011-2013 and conducting field studies. The retrogressive thaw slump activity results in the formation of thermocirque with a minimum and maximum average headwall retreat of 0.5 and 3.16 myr- 1 respectively. The thermocirques and the baydjarakhs are statistically more concentrated on the south- to southwest-facing banks of thermokarst lakes. Moreover, the rate of headwall retreat of the thermocirques is the most important on the south-facing banks of the lakes. These observations indicate a control of the current permafrost thaw on the banks of thermokarst lakes by insolation. In the context of recent air temperature increase in Central Yakutia, the rate of thermocirque development may increase in the future.

  14. TRENDS IN ANNUAL AND DAILY PRECIPITATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual precipitation in the Great Plains was generally higher during the last two decades of the 20th century. Corresponding changes in daily precipitation amount, number of rainy days, and distribution throughout the year were investigated for Kingfisher in central Oklahoma. The number of rainy da...

  15. Using Daily Horoscopes To Demonstrate Expectancy Confirmation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Geoffrey D.; Munro, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a classroom demonstration that uses daily horoscopes to show the effect that expectation can have on judgment. Addresses the preparation, procedure, and results of the demonstration, and student evaluations. States that the demonstration appears to be effective for teaching students about expectancy confirmation. (CMK)

  16. INTERPOLATING VANCOUVER'S DAILY AMBIENT PM 10 FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article we develop a spatial predictive distribution for the ambient space- time response field of daily ambient PM10 in Vancouver, Canada. Observed responses have a consistent temporal pattern from one monitoring site to the next. We exploit this feature of the field b...

  17. Big Ideas behind Daily 5 and CAFE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boushey, Gail; Moser, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The Daily 5 and CAFE were born out of The Sister's research and observations of instructional mentors, their intense desire to be able to deliver highly intentional, focused instruction to small groups and individuals while the rest of the class was engaged in truly authentic reading and writing, and their understanding that a one size fits all

  18. Daily Newspaper Circulation and the Young Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweitzer, John C.

    This study attempted to determine the factors involved in young persons' subscribing or nonsubscribing to one of the two local daily morning newspapers in a metropolitan area. The sampling included 192 young persons living in apartment complexes, of whom 109 subscribed to at least one of the two newspapers. The results of the analysis of the

  19. 27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...

  20. 27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...

  1. 27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...

  2. 27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...

  3. 27 CFR 19.829 - Daily records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Records § 19.829 Daily records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing process shall keep accurate... spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of vinegar produced; and (f) The...

  4. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.; Merrigan, M.A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. Sundstrand Corporation is developing a ORC-SDPS candidate for the Space Station that uses toluene as the organic fluid and LiOH as the TES material. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Variability of solar ultraviolet irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J. M.; Donnelly, R. F.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    A model of solar Lyman alpha irradiance developed by multiple linear regression analysis, including the daily values and 81-day running means of the full disk equivalent width of the Helium line at 1083 nm, predicts reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. In contrast, Lyman alpha models calculated from the 10.7-cm radio flux overestimate the observed variations in the rising portion and maximum period of solar cycle, and underestimates them during solar minimum. Models are shown of Lyman alpha based on the He-line equivalent width and 10.7-cm radio flux for those time intervals when no satellite observations exist, namely back to 1974 and after April 1989, when the measurements of the Solar Mesosphere Satellite were terminated.

  6. Performance of the Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, S. J.; Howe, R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Davies, G. R.; Elsworth, Y. P.

    2016-01-01

    The Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON) has been operating with a full complement of six stations since 1992. Over 20 years later, we look back on the network history. The meta-data from the sites have been analysed to assess performance in terms of site insolation, with a brief look at the challenges that have been encountered over the years. We explain how the international community can gain easy access to the ever-growing dataset produced by the network, and finally look to the future of the network and the potential impact of nearly 25 years of technology miniaturisation.

  7. Performance of the Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, S. J.; Howe, R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Davies, G. R.; Elsworth, Y. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON) has been operating with a full complement of six stations since 1992. Over 20 years later, we look back on the network history. The meta-data from the sites have been analysed to assess performance in terms of site insolation, with a brief look at the challenges that have been encountered over the years. We explain how the international community can gain easy access to the ever-growing dataset produced by the network, and finally look to the future of the network and the potential impact of nearly 25 years of technology miniaturisation.

  8. A note on solar elevation dependence of clear sky snow albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    Recent attempts to match shortwave albedo of snow for clear skies using approximate spectral solar fluxes and solutions of the radiative transfer equation for snow were unsuccessful until a separate surface reflection term was introduced. A separate consideration of specular reflection from surface snow grains has been objected to as being ad hoc. Results based on a new parameterization of shortwave radiation are discussed. Compared to the previous radiation models, new model gives higher diffuse insolation and predicts higher albedos. The difference between observed and predicted albedos is substantially reduced without invoking surface reflection.

  9. Solar power from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1977-01-01

    Microwave beaming of satellite-collected solar energy to earth for conversion to useful industrial power is evaluated for feasibility, with attention given to system efficiencies and costs, ecological impact, hardware to be employed, available options for energy conversion and transmission, and orbiting and assembly. Advantages of such a power generation and conversion system are listed, plausible techniques for conversion of solar energy (thermionic, thermal electric, photovoltaic) and transmission to earth (lasers, arrays of mirrors, microwave beams) are compared. Structural fatigue likely to result from brief daily eclipses, 55% system efficiency at the present state of the art, present projections of system costs, and projected economic implications of the technology are assessed. Two-stage orbiting and assembly plans are described.

  10. Characterization of vegetation properties: Canopy modeling of pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pine woodlands; Final report. Modeling topographic influences on solar radiation: A manual for the SOLARFLUX model

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, P.M.; Hetrick, W.A.; Saving, S.C.

    1994-12-31

    This report is comprised of two studies. The first study focuses on plant canopies in pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine woodland, and waste sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory which involved five basic areas of research: (1) application of hemispherical photography and other gap fraction techniques to study solar radiation regimes and canopy architecture, coupled with application of time-domain reflectometry to study soil moisture; (2) detailed characterization of canopy architecture using stand mapping and allometry; (3) development of an integrated geographical information system (GIS) database for relating canopy architecture with ecological, hydrological, and system modeling approaches; (4) development of geometric models that simulate complex sky obstruction, incoming solar radiation for complex topographic surfaces, and the coupling of incoming solar radiation with energy and water balance, with simulations of incoming solar radiation for selected native vegetation and experimental waste cover design sites; and (5) evaluation of the strengths and limitations of the various field sampling techniques. The second study describes an approach to develop software that takes advantage of new generation computers to model insolation on complex topographic surfaces. SOLARFLUX is a GIS-based (ARC/INFO, GRID) computer program that models incoming solar radiation based on surface orientation (slope and aspect), solar angle (azimuth and zenith) as it shifts over time, shadows caused by topographic features, and atmospheric conditions. This manual serves as the comprehensive guide to SOLARFLUX. Included are discussions on modelling insolation on complex surfaces, the theoretical approach, program setup and operation, and a set of applications illustrating characteristics of topographic insolation modelling.

  11. Accurate spin axes and solar system dynamics: Climatic variations for the Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edvardsson, S.; Karlsson, K. G.; Engholm, M.

    2002-03-01

    Celestial mechanical simulations from a purely classical point of view of the solar system, including our Moon and the Mars moons - Phobos and Deimos - are carried out for 2 millions of years before present. Within the classical approximation, the results are derived at a very high level of accuracy. Effects from general relativity for a number of variables are investigated and found to be small. For climatic studies of about 1 Myr, general relativity can safely be ignored. Three different and independent integration schemes are used in order to exclude numerical anomalies. The converged results from all methods are found to be in complete agreement. For verification, a number of properties such as spin axis precession, nutation, and orbit inclination for Earth and Mars have been calculated. Times and positions of equinoxes and solstices are continously monitored. As also observed earlier, the obliquity of the Earth is stabilized by the Moon. On the other hand, the obliquity of Mars shows dramatic variations. Climatic influences due to celestial variables for the Earth and Mars are studied. Instead of using mean insolation as in the usual applications of Milankovitch theory, the present approach focuses on the instantaneous solar radiation power (insolation) at each summer solstice. Solar radiation power is compared to the derivative of the icevolume and these quantities are found to be in excellent agreement. Orbital precessions for the inner planets are studied as well. In the case of Mercury, it is investigated in detail.

  12. Estimating solar access of typical residential rooftops: A case study in San Jose, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen M.; Gupta, Smita; Akbari, Hashem; Pomerantz, Melvin

    2008-03-03

    Shadows cast by trees and buildings can limit the solar access of rooftop solar-energy systems, including photovoltaic panels and thermal collectors. This study characterizes rooftop shading in a residential neighborhood of San Jose, CA, one of four regions analyzed in a wider study of the solar access of California homes.High-resolution orthophotos and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) measurements of surface height were used to create a digital elevation model of all trees and buildings in a 4 km2 residential neighborhood. Hourly shading of roofing planes (the flat elements of roofs) was computed geometrically from the digital elevation model. Parcel boundaries were used to determine the extent to which roofing planes were shaded by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels.In the year in which surface heights were measured (2005), shadows from all sources ("total shading") reduced the insolation received by S-, SW-, and W-facing residential roofing planes in the study area by 13 - 16percent. Shadows cast by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels reduced insolation by no more than 2percent. After 30 years of simulated maximal tree growth, annual total shading increased to 19 - 22percent, and annual extraparcel shading increased to 3 - 4percent.

  13. Break Correction of Swiss Daily and Sub-Daily Temperature Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchmann, Renate; Kuglitsch, Franz; Toreti, Andrea; Brnnimann, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Many applications in climate science require high-quality, long-term data at a high temporal resolution. However, such records are often affected by artificial breaks. The challenging task of homogenizing daily and sub-daily data has only been partially addressed in recent years. Therefore, the number of available datasets providing homogeneous daily and sub-daily series is still small compared to the volume of monthly or annual data. In this study, series of daily maximum (Tmax), daily minimum (Tmin), morning (Tmorn), noon (Tnoon) and evening (Teve), and daily mean (Tmean) temperatures measured in 61 stations of the Swiss climate observation network were corrected for artificial breaks. The break detection for the above mentioned series was accomplished in a former study by using a combination of three different break detection methods. Here the previously determined breakpoints are corrected by applying the method of higher-order moments for autocorrelated data (HOMAD), which is an improved version of the higher-order moments method (HOM), providing an objective choice of regression parameters.

  14. Solar coronal structure near the time of the 1991 July 11 total solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, D. G.; Streete, J.

    1993-05-01

    We present observations of the solar corona in white light at the time of the 1991 July 11 total solar eclipse together with daily observations made during the interval 1991 June 12 to August 16 designed to provide a synoptic context in which data from the total solar eclipse can be interpreted. Included in the daily observations are those from the Mark-III K-coronameter of the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory as well as photographic records of the sun in H-alpha made from the same site. Combining these data with the eclipse observation, we estimate a probable global density distribution of the corona at the time of the eclipse. This indicates that although the eclipse occurred soon after the most recent solar activity cycle maximum, the corona was already organized in a tilted dipole configuration.

  15. Solar stretch

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaich, J.; Bergermann, R.; Schiel, W. )

    1994-05-01

    This article describes a new technique for fabricating solar concentrators using a stretched metal membrane. The article includes an overview of various types of thermal solar technologies and examines the fabrication, testing and application of the solar concentrator in detail. The concentrator is used in conjunction with a Stirling engine and electric generator for conversion to electrical energy.

  16. Buying Solar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joe

    Presented are guidelines for buying solar systems for the individual consumer. This is intended to help the consumer reduce many of the risks associated with the purchase of solar systems, particularly the risks of fraud and deception. Engineering terms associated with solar technology are presented and described to enable the consumer to discuss…

  17. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b?=?2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass and grass-surface minima yielded increased RMSEs compared to those for air temperature at 2m. The sufficiently small RMSEs using the 2-h ahead nowcasts of the air temperature minimum, for the exponential model, demonstrate that the methodology used may be applied operationally but with increased errors for grass minimum temperature and the 4-h nowcasts. PMID:26123473

  18. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2015-06-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass and grass-surface minima yielded increased RMSEs compared to those for air temperature at 2 m. The sufficiently small RMSEs using the 2-h ahead nowcasts of the air temperature minimum, for the exponential model, demonstrate that the methodology used may be applied operationally but with increased errors for grass minimum temperature and the 4-h nowcasts.

  19. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass and grass-surface minima yielded increased RMSEs compared to those for air temperature at 2 m. The sufficiently small RMSEs using the 2-h ahead nowcasts of the air temperature minimum, for the exponential model, demonstrate that the methodology used may be applied operationally but with increased errors for grass minimum temperature and the 4-h nowcasts.

  20. Solar electricity supply isolines of generation capacity and storage.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Wolf; Grossmann, Iris; Steininger, Karl W

    2015-03-24

    The recent sharp drop in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation accompanied by globally rapidly increasing investment in PV plants calls for new planning and management tools for large-scale distributed solar networks. Of major importance are methods to overcome intermittency of solar electricity, i.e., to provide dispatchable electricity at minimal costs. We find that pairs of electricity generation capacity G and storage S that give dispatchable electricity and are minimal with respect to S for a given G exhibit a smooth relationship of mutual substitutability between G and S. These isolines between G and S support the solving of several tasks, including the optimal sizing of generation capacity and storage, optimal siting of solar parks, optimal connections of solar parks across time zones for minimizing intermittency, and management of storage in situations of far below average insolation to provide dispatchable electricity. G-S isolines allow determining the cost-optimal pair (G,S) as a function of the cost ratio of G and S. G-S isolines provide a method for evaluating the effect of geographic spread and time zone coverage on costs of solar electricity. PMID:25755261