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1

Insolation data manual: Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global K(sub T) for 248 National Weather Service stations and Direct normal solar radiation data manual: Long-term, monthly mean, daily totals for 235 National Weather Service stations. Addendum to the Insolation data manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature val...

1990-01-01

2

Handbook of Solar Energy Data for South-Facing Surfaces in the United States. Volume 2: Average Hourly and Total Daily Insolation Data for 235 Localities. Alaska - Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Average hourly and daily total insolation estimates for 235 United States locations are presented. Values are presented for a selected number of array tilt angles on a monthly basis. All units are in kilowatt hours per square meter.

J. H. Smith

1980-01-01

3

Handbook of solar energy data for south-facing surfaces in the United States. Volume 2: Average hourly and total daily insolation data for 235 localities. Alaska - Montana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Average hourly and daily total insolation estimates for 235 United States locations are presented. Values are presented for a selected number of array tilt angles on a monthly basis. All units are in kilowatt hours per square meter.

Smith, J. H.

1980-01-01

4

Direct Normal Solar Radiation Data Manual: Long-Term, Monthly Mean, Daily Totals for 235 National Weather Service Stations. Addendum to the Insolation Data Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Average monthly data are presented that depict the long-term geographic distribution of direct normal solar radiation in the US. Some terms are defined, the ADIPA model for estimating hourly direct normal insolation is described, and its validation is dis...

C. L. Knapp T. L. Stoffel

1982-01-01

5

Direct normal solar radiation data manual: Long-term, monthly mean, daily totals for 235 National Weather Service stations. Addendum to the Insolation Data Manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

Average monthly data are presented that depict the long-term geographic distribution of direct normal solar radiation in the US. Some terms are defined, the model for estimating hourly direct normal insolation is described, and its validation is discussed. Direct normal radiation is then tabulated for 235 National Weather Service Stations, given as monthly and annual averages in units of kJ\\/m(2)-day,

C. L. Knapp; T. L. Stoffel

1982-01-01

6

Insolation data manual and direct normal solar radiation data manual  

SciTech Connect

The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24--25 years of data, generally from 1952--1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/m{sup 2} per day, Btu/ft{sup 2} per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global {bar K}{sub T} (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global {bar K}{sub T} is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

none,

1990-07-01

7

DAILY INSOLATION FORECASTING USING A MULTISTAGE NEURAL NETWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far a single-stage neural network has been proposed to forecast the insolation of the next day. The mean error of the forecast insolation by the single-stage neural network is about 30%. In this paper, a multi-stage neural network is developed for further reduction of the mean error. A first-stage neural network forecasts the average atmospheric pressure of the next

Y KEMMOKU; S ORITA; S NAKAGAWA; T SAKAKIBARA

1999-01-01

8

A calibrated, high-resolution goes satellite solar insolation product for a climatology of Florida evapotranspiration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimates of incoming solar radiation (insolation) from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite observations have been produced for the state of Florida over a 10-year period (1995-2004). These insolation estimates were developed into well-calibrated half-hourly and daily integrated solar insolation fields over the state at 2 km resolution, in addition to a 2-week running minimum surface albedo product. Model results of the daily integrated insolation were compared with ground-based pyranometers, and as a result, the entire dataset was calibrated. This calibration was accomplished through a three-step process: (1) comparison with ground-based pyranometer measurements on clear (noncloudy) reference days, (2) correcting for a bias related to cloudiness, and (3) deriving a monthly bias correction factor. Precalibration results indicated good model performance, with a station-averaged model error of 2.2 MJ m-2/day (13%). Calibration reduced errors to 1.7 MJ m -2/day (10%), and also removed temporal-related, seasonal-related, and satellite sensor-related biases. The calibrated insolation dataset will subsequently be used by state of Florida Water Management Districts to produce statewide, 2-km resolution maps of estimated daily reference and potential evapotranspiration for water management-related activities. ?? 2009 American Water Resources Association.

Paech, S. J.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Sumner, D. M.; Pathak, C. S.; Wu, Q.; Islam, S.; Sangoyomi, T.

2009-01-01

9

Insolation data manual: Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days, and global KT for 248 National Weather Service stations and direct normal solar radiation data manual: Long-term, monthly mean, daily totals for 235 National Weather Service stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data, generally from 1952 to 1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/sq m per day, Btu/sq ft per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global KT (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global KT is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

1990-07-01

10

Solar Insolation and the Sunspot Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze a figure of solar irradiance, derived from ACRIMSAT satellite data, and sunspot number from 1978 to 2003. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

11

Solar microclimatology. [tables (data) on insolation for application to solar energy conversion by electric power plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has become apparent in recent years that solar energy can be used for electric power production by several methods. Because of the diffuse nature of the solar insolation, the area involved in any central power plant design can encompass several square miles. A detailed design of these large area collection systems will require precise knowledge of the local solar insolation. Detailed information will also be needed concerning the temporal nature of the insolation and the local spatial distribution. Therefore, insolation data was collected and analyzed for a network of sensors distributed over an area of several square kilometers in Arizona. The analyses of this data yielded probability distributions of cloud size, velocity, and direction of motion which were compared with data obtained from the National Weather Service. Microclimatological analyses were also performed for suitable modeling parameters pertinent to large scale electric power plant design. Instrumentation used to collect the data is described.

Mckenney, D. B.; Beauchamp, W. T.

1975-01-01

12

Solar Insolation Driven Variations of Mercury's Lithospheric Strength  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury's coupled 3:2 spin-orbit resonance in conjunction with its relatively high eccentricity of 0.2 results in a surface variation in annual average solar insolation and thus equatorial hot and cold regions. This results in an asymmetric temperature distribution in the lithosphere and a long wavelength lateral variation in lithosphere structure and strength that mirrors the insolation pattern. We employ a thermal evolution model for Mercury generating strength envelopes of the lithosphere to demonstrate and quantify the possible effects the insolation pattern has on Mercury's lithosphere. We find the heterogeneity in lithosphere strength is substantial, increases with time, and is accentuated by the differential timing of the mantle contribution to the lithosphere strength. For example, by the end of late heavy bombardment ( 4 Ga) we find a difference in brittle-ductile transition depth of 6 km between the hot and cold equatorial thermal poles and 24 km between the hot equatorial pole and the latitudes ±90°. We also find that a crust thicker than that of the Moon or Mars and dry rheologies for the crust and mantle are favorable when compared with estimates of brittle-ductile transition depths derived from lobate scarps. Regions of stronger and weaker compressive strength imply that the accommodation of radial contraction of Mercury as its interior cooled, manifest as lobate scarps, may not be isotropic, imparting a preferential orientation and distribution to the lobate scarps. Although many of the parameters of the model are poorly constrained for Mercury, the overall lithospheric heterogeneity remains regardless of the choice of parameters. The latitudinal surface temperature variation experienced by Mercury is not unlike that of the Earth's Moon presently and thus one should expect an analogous latitude dependence on lithospheric strength to have developed over time on the Moon as well. Funded by the NSF Astrophysics Research Grants program (AST-0709151).

Williams, Jean-pierre; Ruiz, J.; Rosenburg, M. A.; Aharonson, O.; Phillips, R. J.

2010-10-01

13

Solar Meteorological Research and Training Program. Measurements of Global and Direct Insolation. Final Report. Appendix 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar and meteorological data were taken at Baylor University, including: hourly solar global and direct insolation and meteorological parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, wind direction and speed, atmospheric pressure, and cloud cover. (ERA...

1982-01-01

14

Solar Meteorological Research and Training Program. Measurements of Global and Direct Insolation. Final Report. Appendix 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar and meteorological data taken by Baylor University include: hourly solar global and direct insolation and meteorological parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity, wind direction and speed, atmospheric pressure, and cloud cover. (ERA citati...

1981-01-01

15

Insolation data manual: Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global KT for 248 National Weather Service stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling

C. L. Knapp; T. L. Stoffel; S. D. Whitaker

1980-01-01

16

Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K\\/sub T\\/ for 248 national weather service stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling

C. L. Knapp; T. L. Stoffel; S. D. Whitaker

1980-01-01

17

SOLINS- SOLAR INSOLATION MODEL FOR COMPUTING AVAILABLE SOLAR ENERGY TO A SURFACE OF ARBITRARY ORIENTATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This computer program, SOLINS, was developed to aid engineers and solar system designers in the accurate modeling of the average hourly solar insolation on a surface of arbitrary orientation. The program can be used to study insolation problems specific to residential and commercial applications where the amount of space available for solar collectors is limited by shadowing problems, energy output requirements, and costs. For tandem rack arrays, SOLINS will accommodate the use of augmentation reflectors built into the support structure to increase insolation values at the collector surface. As the use of flat plate solar collectors becomes more prevalent in the building industry, the engineer and designer must have the capability to conduct extensive sensitivity analyses on the orientation and location of solar collectors. SOLINS should prove to be a valuable aid in this area of engineering. SOLINS uses a modified version of the National Bureau of Standards model to calculate the direct, diffuse, and reflected components of total insolation on a tilted surface with a given azimuthal orientation. The model is based on the work of Liu and Jordan with corrections by Kusuda and Ishii to account for early morning and late afternoon errors. The model uses a parametric description of the average day solar climate to generate monthly average day profiles by hour of the insolation level on the collector surface. The model includes accommodation of user specified ground and landscape reflectivities at the collector site. For roof or ground mounted, tilted arrays, SOLINS will calculate insolation including the effects of shadowing and augmentation reflectors. The user provides SOLINS with data describing the array design, array orientation, the month, the solar climate parameter, the ground reflectance, and printout control specifications. For the specified array and environmental conditions, SOLINS outputs the hourly insolation the array will receive during an average day during the month specified, along with the total insolation the collector surface will receive over an average 24-hour period. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 46K of 8 bit bytes. The SOLINS routines were developed in 1979.

Smith, J. H.

1994-01-01

18

Solar radiation flux and insolation data for southern Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather data pertinent to the development of solar energy heating in the Northern Intermountain region were desired for the purpose of assessing the usefulness and potential economics of utilizing solar energy in the region. The data reported herein are for several southern Idaho stations and for Salt Lake City, and are considered to be representative of the area from the

Buchenauer

1975-01-01

19

The Effects of Solar Insolation on Organic-rich Cometary Analogue Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comets are believed to be a rich source of both water and organics to the early Earth. Exposure of comet nuclei to the ultraviolet radiation from the Sun can lead to chemical reactions within these complex bodies that result in a wide variety of complex organic molecules. In general, cometary dust is believed to be comprised of roughly half organic-rich and half inorganic components. Signatures in UV emission spectra of cometary dust (e.g. P/Halley, Hyakutake) suggest the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Likely candidates responsible for these features include pyrene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and napthalene. We have conducted a suite of experiments whereby both volatile-free and volatile-rich organic samples were insolated with a solar lamp (0.250-2.5 ?m) to investigate the chemistry that may occur both in the upper crust in comets (devoid of volatiles), as well as in the ice-rich portion of comet nuclei. Samples include each of the PAHs listed above, independently and in combination with volatiles (e.g. water, CO2, NH3, CH3OH). The samples are intimately mixed, cooled in a liquid nitrogen dewar, and insolated under vaccuum to mimic conditions in space and exposure to solar radiation. The resulting organic components are isolated and analyzed via a GCMS (mass spectrometer) and FTIR (Infrared spectrometer) to identify both the resultant organic molecules and their infrared signatures that may be detected telescopically. This work was supported by a Cottrell Scholar Award from the Research Corporation.

Lederer, Susan M.; Smith, D. C.; Olney, R. D.; Cintala, M. J.

2009-09-01

20

High-resolution ensemble solar radiation estimates through assimilation of coarse-scale retrievals into a simple physical insolation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incident solar radiation flux at the earth's surface is the primary driver of the energy and water exchange between atmosphere and land or ocean, and therefore plays an important role in agriculture, climate research and monitoring, long-range weather prediction and the global hydrologic cycle. In this study a simple physical radiative transfer insolation model is developed for use in

S. Lee; S. A. Margulis

2005-01-01

21

The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance and cost of the 10 MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States were determined. The regional insolation data base is discussed. A range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several cades are presented.

Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.; Richter, P. H.

1979-01-01

22

Study on a Bioethanol Solar Reforming System with the Solar Insolation Fluctuation in Consideration of Heat Chemical Reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bioethanol reforming system (FBSR) with a sunlight heat source is developed as a potential fuel supply system for distributed fuel cells. The temperature distribution of a catalyst layer in the reactor is not stable under conditions of unstable solar radiation and unstable outside air temperature; therefore, it is thought that the inversion rate of a reforming reaction will decrease. In this paper, heat transmission analysis was used in the catalyst layer of the reforming component of an FBSR, and temperature distribution, inversion rate, and process gas composition were investigated. Based on the results, the relationship between weather conditions and a hydrogen-generating rate was determined. When solar insolation was unstable, it turned out that the efficiency of the reforming component is reduced. Fluctuations of the solar insolation over a short period of time affect the hydrogen generating rate of an FBSR. Moreover, the amount of hydrogen production of an FBSR was simulated using meteorological data from a day in March and a day in August in a cold region (Sapporo). The analysis showed that efficiency of the reforming component exceeded 40% for both of the days.

Obara, Shin'ya; El-Sayed, Abeer Galal

23

The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance and cost of four 10 MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States was studied. Each region has different insolation characteristics which result in varying collector field areas, plant performance, capital costs and energy costs. The regional variation in solar plant performance was assessed in relation to the expected rise in the future cost of residential and commercial electricity supplied by conventional utility power systems in the same regions. A discussion of the regional insolation data base is presented along with a description of the solar systems performance and costs. A range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades is given.

Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.; Richter, P. H.

1980-01-01

24

Study on Daily Electric Load Curve Forecasting Method based on Regression Type Hourly Load Modeling with Yearly Load Trends, Day-types and Insolations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a daily load curve forecasting method using hourly regressions. Electric load varies significantly during the day. Many factors, such as weather conditions, hours and day-types, relate to the load behavior. We formulate a daily load curve in set of independent 24-h regression equations that split hourly load into four parts: weather related load (WE), weekday's day-types (DTW), non-weekday's day-types (DTH), and yearly trends (TR). We incorporate temperature, humidity and insolation into the WE part. Non-linear relationships of weather factors and loads are formulated by polynomial functions. Another approach, based on Gaussian functions, is also applied to the modeling for the weather and load relationships. In order to estimate regression coefficients properly, we should consider seasonal load change and estimate the coefficients with statistically enough amounts of data. The proposed method estimates the equations with data from both forecasting year and past years. TR compensates yearly load difference among the data. As TR representations, we propose ‘additive trends model’ and ‘multiple trends model’. Experimental studies on the next day load forecasting are carried out with TEPCO system load. The results indicate effectiveness of (1) combination of ‘polynomial function’ and ‘multiple trends model’ and (2) ‘Day-types’ and ‘Insolation’ in the next day load curve forecasting. Performance of less than 1% MAPE is also observed on the next day weekdays' peak load forecasting.

Haida, Takeshi

25

Insolation and earth's orbital periods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three kinds of insolation are computed both analytically and numerically: (1) the instantaneous insolation (irradiance) at noon, (2) the daily irradiation, and (3) the irradiations received during particular time intervals of the day defined by two constant values of the zenith distance (diurnal irradiations). Also computed are mean irradiances (irradiations divided by the length of the time interval over which

Andre Berger; Marie-France Loutre; Christian Tricot

1993-01-01

26

Crack propagation by differential insolation on desert surface clasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the southwest U.S., cracks in alluvial fan surface clasts have a preferred orientation independent of rock fabric and shape. In this paper, we show that differential insolation of incipient cracks of random orientations predicts a distribution of crack orientations consistent with field observations. In this model, crack growth by hydration and/or thermal weathering is primarily a function of local water content at the crack tip. Crack tips that experience minimal solar insolation maintain a greater average moisture and, hence, weather more rapidly than cracks that experience greater solar insolation. To show this, we used a numerical radiative transfer code to quantify the solar insolation of rectangular cracks at 35° N. latitude with a range of depths and orientations. The amount of solar energy reaching the bottom of each crack was calculated at 5-min intervals over the day for several days of the year to determine hourly, daily, seasonal, and annual energy deposition as a function of crack depth and orientation. By assuming that only crack orientations that effectively shield their interiors and minimize their water loss are able to grow, the pattern of cracks produced by the model is consistent with field observations. The annual average insolation, which controls water retention, is associated with the two primary modes of crack orientation. The effect of daily recharge by summer rains of the North American monsoon system is consistent with the observed deviations from these primary modes. Model results suggest that both the annual average insolation and the daily pattern of rainfall is recorded in the preferred crack orientations of surface clasts in the southwest U.S.

Moores, John E.; Pelletier, Jon D.; Smith, Peter H.

2008-12-01

27

Aerosol-radiation interaction in the cloudless atmosphere during LACE 98 1. Measured and calculated broadband solar and spectral surface insolations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical profile measurements of aerosol particle size distributions and of meteorological parameters (obtained from aircraft, radiosondes, and lidar) are used as input to a spectral radiative transfer model to calculate broadband solar and spectral surface insolations. The calculated values are compared to measured ones gathered with broadband solar pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and a fixed-grating photodiode array spectroradiometer with 512 spectral channels between 500 and 920 nm wavelength. The measurements were obtained during the joint field campaign Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment (LACE) 98 near Berlin/Germany in the summer of 1998. Two cases (days with high and low aerosol loading, respectively) are investigated in detail. Furthermore, a measurement-based sensitivity analysis was carried out focusing on the influence of particle composition (complex refractive index) and of microphysical and humidity growth uncertainties on the calculated surface insolations. Assuming a spectral refractive index of ammonium sulfate for the aerosol particles, on average the global component of the broadband solar surface insolations is 11-20 W m-2 (2-3%) greater than the measured values; the direct portion is 17-28 W m-2 (4-5%) higher, and its diffuse component is 6-7 W m-2 (4-10%) lower in comparison to the measurements. The measured and calculated spectral surface insolations (global portion) agree well in the central visible spectral region (500-600 nm wavelength). Toward larger wavelengths (near infrared) the calculated spectral surface insolations are increasingly higher than the measured ones.

Wendisch, Manfred; Keil, Andreas; Müller, DöRthe; Wandinger, Ulla; Wendling, Peter; Stifter, Armin; Petzold, Andreas; Fiebig, Markus; Wiegner, Matthias; Freudenthaler, Volker; Armbruster, Wolfgang; von Hoyningen-Huene, Wolfgang; Leiterer, Ulrich

2002-11-01

28

Effect of Saturn's Rings on the Upper-Boundary Insolation of Its Atmosphere.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The daily solar radiation incident at the top of Saturn's atmosphere is calculated taking into account the oblateness of the planet and the shadow of the ring system. It is found that the decrease of the daily insolation in winter is important near the so...

E. Vanhemelrijck

1986-01-01

29

Estimating daily solar radiation in the Argentine Pampas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation is an important input to crop growth models used for risk management and assessment purposes. Methods are explored to estimate daily solar radiation in the Argentine Pampas, one of the most important agricultural areas in the world. Two scenarios are considered: (i) sunshine duration data are available for a given location, or (ii) only daily temperature (minimum and

Guillermo P. Podestá; Liliana Núñez; Carlos A. Villanueva; Mar??a A. Skansi

2004-01-01

30

Characterization of terrestrial service environments - The simultaneous occurrence of combined conditions of solar insolation and climatic variables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational methods for occurrences of combined environmental and pollution variables are compared. General statistical data and diurnal statistics on 24 environmental variables are treated. Combinations of variables dealt with include: air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, total insolation; air temperature and weather event (rain, fog); air pollutant and weather event; wind speed, wind direction, and weather event; air temperature, total insolation, and weather event; air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, computed direct insolation levels; air temperature, relative humidity, air pollution.

Thomas, R. E.; Carmichael, D. C.; Carroll, W. F.

1977-01-01

31

Analytical integrated functions for daily solar radiation on slopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a procedure for estimating daily global solar radiation for inclined surfaces having specified slope and aspect for application with surface energy balance models for determining evapotranspiration. Procedures are provided for developing clear sky solar curves and for translating measured solar radiation from a horizontal surface to slopes. The procedure assumes an extensive surface having uniform slope at

Richard G. Allen; Ricardo Trezza; Masahiro Tasumi

2006-01-01

32

Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV-Development of an insolation handbook and instrument package  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing a need for a coordinated approach to resolve energy problems, certain members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) met in September 1974 and agreed to develop an International Energy Program. The International Energy Agency (IEA) was established within the OECD to administer, monitor and execute this International Energy Program. In July 1975, Solar Heating and Cooling was selected as one of the sixteen technology fields for multilateral cooperation. Five project areas, called tasks, were identified for cooperative activities within the IEA Program to Develop and Test Solar Heating and Cooling Systems. The objective of one task was to obtain improved basic resource information for the design and operation of solar heating and cooling systems through a better understanding of the required insolation (solar radiation) and related weather data, and through improved techniques for measurement and evaluation of such data. At the February 1976 initial experts meeting in Norrkoeping, Sweden, the participants developed the objective statement into two subtasks. (1) an insolation handbook; and (2) a portable meteorological instrument package. This handbook is the product of the first subtask. The objective of this handbook is to provide a basis for a dialogue between solar scientists and meteorologists. Introducing the solar scientist to solar radiation and related meteorological data enables him to better express his scientific and engineering needs to the meteorologist; and introducing the meteorologist to the special solar radiation and meteorological data applications of the solar scientist enables him to better meet the needs of the solar energy community.

None

1980-10-01

33

Determination of Hourly Solar Radiation Incident Upon an Inclined Plane from Hourly Measured Global Horizontal Insolation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using only measured hourly values of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface, a method has been developed for computing the corresponding hourly values of global radiation on a surface inclined at any angle and oriented in any direction. The method...

J. W. Bugler

1975-01-01

34

Single and Double ITCZ in Aqua-Planet Models with Globally Uniform Sea Surface Temperature and Solar Insolation: An Interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been known for more than a decade that an aqua-planet model with globally uniform sea surface temperature and solar insolation angle can generate ITCZ (intertropical convergence zone). Previous studies have shown that the ITCZ under such model settings can be changed between a single ITCZ over the equator and a double ITCZ straddling the equator through one of several measures. These measures include switching to a different cumulus parameterization scheme, changes within the cumulus parameterization scheme, and changes in other aspects of the model design such as horizontal resolution. In this paper an interpretation for these findings is offered. The latitudinal location of the ITCZ is the latitude where the balance of two types of attraction on the ITCZ, both due to earth's rotation, exists. The first type is equator-ward and is directly related to the earth's rotation and thus not sensitive to model design changes. The second type is poleward and is related to the convective circulation and thus is sensitive to model design changes. Due to the shape of the attractors, the balance of the two types of attractions is reached either at the equator or more than 10 degrees away from the equator. The former case results in a single ITCZ over the equator and the latter case a double ITCZ straddling the equator.

Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

35

Fourier Analysis of daily solar radiation data in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work has been to obtain a Typical Annual Time Function by the application of a calculation procedure based on a Fourier analysis to solar radiation data 21 stations in Spain. This function allows us to estimate the most probable value of the horizontal daily global solar radiation for every day of the year in a certain

J. M. Baldasano; J. Clar; A. Berna

1988-01-01

36

Intermittency and variability of daily solar irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals the study of variability and intermittency of solar irradiation using an analogy with the turbulence and thus making use of some methodologies used in the study of intermittency of the turbulence. An analysis of the shape of the PDFs corresponding to the increments in the clearness and transmittance indexes, for direct and global radiations, is presented. In addition a study of the relations between the scaling exponents of the structure functions of the clearness and transmittance indexes and the orders of these structure functions has been carried out. According to the study, the range of relative variability is due to changes in the atmospheric components that play a role in the attenuation of solar irradiation. This range of variability is higher in the case of the global irradiation than in the case of the direct. Moreover, the multifractality is showed more intense in sites where, due to local effects, sharper variations in the radiation can be expected, as the case of deserts.

Vindel, J. M.; Polo, J.

2014-06-01

37

Solar irradiance, cosmic rays and cloudiness over daily timescales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although over centennial and greater timescales solar variability may be one of the most influential climate forcing agents, the extent to which solar activity influences climate over shorter time periods is poorly understood. If a link exists between solar activity and climate, it is likely via a mechanism connected to one (or a combination) of the following parameters: total solar irradiance (TSI), ultraviolet (UV) spectral irradiance, or the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux. We present an analysis based around a superposed epoch (composite) approach focusing on the largest TSI increases and decreases (the latter occurring in both the presence and absence of appreciable GCR reductions) over daily timescales. Using these composites we test for the presence of a robust link between solar activity and cloud cover over large areas of the globe using rigorous statistical techniques. We find no evidence that widespread variations in cloud cover at any tropospheric level are significantly associated with changes in the TSI, GCR or UV flux, and further conclude that TSI or UV changes occurring during reductions in the GCR flux are not masking a solar-cloud response. However, we note the detectability of any potential links is strongly constrained by cloud variability.

Laken, Benjamin A.; ?alogovi?, Jasa

2011-12-01

38

Retrieving daily global solar radiation from routine climate variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is an important variable for studies related to solar energy applications, meteorology, climatology, hydrology, and agricultural meteorology. However, solar radiation is not routinely measured at meteorological stations; therefore, it is often required to estimate it using other techniques such as retrieving from satellite data or estimating using other geophysical variables. Over the years, many models have been developed to estimate solar radiation from other geophysical variables such as temperature, rainfall, and sunshine duration. The aim of this study was to evaluate six of these models using data measured at four independent worldwide networks. The dataset included 13 stations from Australia, 25 stations from Germany, 12 stations from Saudi Arabia, and 48 stations from the USA. The models require either sunshine duration hours (Ångstrom) or daily range of air temperature (Bristow and Campbell, Donatelli and Bellocchi, Donatelli and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani) as input. According to the statistical parameters, Ångstrom and Bristow and Campbell indicated a better performance than the other models. The bias and root mean square error for the Ångstrom model were less than 0.25 MJ m2 day-1 and 2.25 MJ m2 day-1, respectively, and the correlation coefficient was always greater than 95 %. Statistical analysis using Student's t test indicated that the residuals for Ångstrom, Bristow and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani are not statistically significant at the 5 % level. In other words, the estimated values by these models are statistically consistent with the measured data. Overall, given the simplicity and performance, the Ångstrom model is the best choice for estimating solar radiation when sunshine duration measurements are available; otherwise, Bristow and Campbell can be used to estimate solar radiation using daily range of air temperature.

Moradi, Isaac; Mueller, Richard; Perez, Richard

2014-05-01

39

Retrieving daily global solar radiation from routine climate variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is an important variable for studies related to solar energy applications, meteorology, climatology, hydrology, and agricultural meteorology. However, solar radiation is not routinely measured at meteorological stations; therefore, it is often required to estimate it using other techniques such as retrieving from satellite data or estimating using other geophysical variables. Over the years, many models have been developed to estimate solar radiation from other geophysical variables such as temperature, rainfall, and sunshine duration. The aim of this study was to evaluate six of these models using data measured at four independent worldwide networks. The dataset included 13 stations from Australia, 25 stations from Germany, 12 stations from Saudi Arabia, and 48 stations from the USA. The models require either sunshine duration hours (Ångstrom) or daily range of air temperature (Bristow and Campbell, Donatelli and Bellocchi, Donatelli and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani) as input. According to the statistical parameters, Ångstrom and Bristow and Campbell indicated a better performance than the other models. The bias and root mean square error for the Ångstrom model were less than 0.25 MJ m2 day-1 and 2.25 MJ m2 day-1, respectively, and the correlation coefficient was always greater than 95 %. Statistical analysis using Student's t test indicated that the residuals for Ångstrom, Bristow and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani are not statistically significant at the 5 % level. In other words, the estimated values by these models are statistically consistent with the measured data. Overall, given the simplicity and performance, the Ångstrom model is the best choice for estimating solar radiation when sunshine duration measurements are available; otherwise, Bristow and Campbell can be used to estimate solar radiation using daily range of air temperature.

Moradi, Isaac; Mueller, Richard; Perez, Richard

2013-08-01

40

Prediction of daily average solar wind velocity from solar magnetic field observations using hybrid intelligent systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid intelligent system, combining theory driven and data driven models, is used to predict the daily solar wind velocity at 1 AU from solar magnetic field observations. The Potential Field Model (theory driven) is used to calculate the coronal magnetic field up to the source surface placed at 2.5R?. The Earth's position is projected onto the source surface using

P. Wintoft; H. Lundstedt

1997-01-01

41

Comparison of methods for estimating daily and hourly diffuse solar radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily and hourly diffuse radiations measured using a pyranometer and shading ring have been compared with the values calculated using several correlations. For the daily diffuse radiation, the correlation of Duffie & Beckman (Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, John Wiley, 1980), Liu & Jordan (Solar Energy, 4(3) (1960) 1–19), Erts et al., (Solar Energy, 28 (1982) 293) and Bruno (Solar

S. K. Srivastava; A. Gaur; O. P. Singh; R. N. Tiwari

1995-01-01

42

Long-term Observations of Electric Field, Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, Wind Speed, Wind Direction, Rainfall Rate and Solar Insolation at a Remote Meteorological Observing Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For nearly two years we observed the electric field at the surface continually and simultaneously with observations of temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, rainfall rate and solar insolation at a remote automated meteorological observing station in Norman, OK. The electric-field observations were made with electric-field mills that were cycled on every few minutes for a period of about 20 seconds, 24 hours a day, seven days a week for the entire period of time. We observed a number of interesting patterns in the observations, some familiar and some not. For example, monthly averages of the observations often yield Carnegie curves, but not always. We noted what appears to be a sunrise effect on some days. We present a representative sample of the observations.

Gallagher, F. W.; Beasley, W. H.; Bansemer, A. R.; Grimsley, D. L.; Byerley, L. G.

2001-12-01

43

Insolation and net long-wave radiation off the Oregon coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insolation, net radiation, and various oceanic and atmospheric variables were measured at sites 13 and about 120 km off the coast of Oregon in July and August 1973. A total of ten 24-hour stations were occupied. The daily mean net solar radiation ranged from 0.10 to 0.40 cal cm-2 min-1, and large spatial variations of radiation in this upwelling region

R. K. Reed; D. Halpern

1975-01-01

44

Estimation of daily solar radiation from routinely observed meteorological data in Chongqing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation is a very important and major variable in crop simulation models. However, it is measured at a very limited number of meteorological stations worldwide. Models were developed to estimate daily solar radiation in Chongqing, one of the most important agricultural areas in China. Several routinely observed meteorological variables including daily maximum and minimum temperatures, daily mean dew point

Mao-Fen Li; Hong-Bin Liu; Peng-Tao Guo; Wei Wu

2010-01-01

45

A new simple parameterization of daily clear-sky global solar radiation including horizon effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of clear-sky global solar radiation is usually an important previous stage for calculating global solar radiation under all sky conditions. This is, for instance, a common procedure to derive incoming solar radiation from remote sensing or by using digital elevation models. In this work, we present a new model to calculate daily values of clear-sky global solar irradiation. The

Gabriel López; F. Javier Batlles; Joaquín Tovar-Pescador

2007-01-01

46

Using satellite-derived insolation data for the site\\/time specific simulation of solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the question of satellite-derived irradiance is addressed on two levels. First, the question of physical accuracy is addressed by comparing satellite-predicted hourly\\/daily global and direct irradiance with controlled ground measurements in climatically distinct environments. This accuracy is compared to the error made as a function of distance when extrapolating the needed data from the closest ground measurement

R. Perez; R. Seals; R. Stewart; A. Zelenka; V. Estrada-Cajigal

1994-01-01

47

Testing activities and results of GaAs space solar cells and PV assemblies for high temperature and insolation applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of this work is the testing of materials and manufacturing processes able to withstand the high temperature conditions typical of the interplanetary space missions towards the Sun (e.g. Mercury). This goal was achieved by means of an optimisation work performed on the space solar cells already existing and \\

E. Ferrando; L. Brambilla; M. Caccivio; A. Zamboni; R. Campesato; C. Flores; G. Gabetta; G. Strobl; M. Nell; L. Gerlach; H. Ritter

2003-01-01

48

Nonlinear Insolation Forcing: A Physical Mechanism for Climate Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper focuses on recent advances in the understanding of nonlinear insolation forcing for climate change. The amplitude-frequency resonances in the insolation variations induced by the Earth's changing obliquity are emergent and may provide a physical mechanism to drive the glaciation cycles. To establish the criterion that nonlinear insolation forcing is responsible for major climate changes, the cooperative phenomena between the frequency and amplitude of the insolation are defined as insolation pulsation. Coupling of the insolation frequency and amplitude variations has established an especially new and interesting series of insolation pulses. These pulses would modulate the insolation in such a way that the mode of insolation variations could be locked to generate the 100-kyr ice age cycle which is a long-time geophysical puzzle. The nonlinear behavior of insolation forcing is tested by energy balance and ice sheet climate models and the physical mechanism behind this forcing is explained in terms of pulse duration in the incoming solar radiation. Calculations of the solar energy flux at the top of the atmosphere show that the duration of the negative and positive insolation pulses is about 2 thousand years which is long enough to prolong glaciation into deep ice ages and cause rapid melting of large ice sheets in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere. We have performed numerical simulations of climate response to nonlinear insolation forcing for the past 2 million years. Our calculated results of temperature fluctuations are in good agreement with the climate cycles as seen in the terrestrial biogenic silica (BDP-96-2) data as well as in the marine oxygen isotope (delta(sup 18)O) records.

Liu, H. S.

1998-01-01

49

Classification of daily solar radiation distributions using a mixture of Dirichlet distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to characterize the fluctuating nature of solar radiation in tropical climate, we classify daily distributions of the clearness index kt by estimating a finite mixture of Dirichlet distributions without assuming any parametric hypothesis on these daily distributions. The method is applied to solar radiation measurements performed in Guadeloupe (16°2N, 61W) where important fluctuations can be observed even within

Ted Soubdhan; Richard Emilion; Rudy Calif

2009-01-01

50

A neural network study of the mapping from solar magnetic fields to the daily average solar wind velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictions of the daily solar wind velocity (V) at 1 AU from the flux tube expansion factor fs are examined with radial basis function neural networks. The flux tube expansion factor is calculated from the potential field model, using Wilcox Solar Observatory magnetograms, with the source surface placed at 2.5 solar radii. The time series extend over 20 years from

Peter Wintoft; Henrik Lundstedt

1999-01-01

51

Insolation signatures of quaternary climatic changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  From a set of simple trigonometrical formulae allowing the computation of long-term variations of the Earth's orbital elements,\\u000a midmonth daily insolations have been computed for each 10-deg latitude and, by steps of 1000 y, for one million years before\\u000a present and one hundred thousand years after present. The deviations from today values and especially from mean values computed\\u000a over the

A. L. Berger

1979-01-01

52

An improved algorithm for estimating incident daily solar radiation from measurements of temperature, humidity, and precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a reformulation of the Bristow–Campbell model for daily solar radiation, developed using daily observations of radiation, temperature, humidity, and precipitation, from 40 stations in contrasting climates. By expanding the original model to include a spatially and temporally variable estimate of clear-sky transmittance, and applying a small number of other minor modifications, the new model produces better results than

Peter E. Thornton; Steven W. Running

1999-01-01

53

Insolation driven variations of Mercury's lithospheric strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury's coupled 3:2 spin-orbit resonance in conjunction with its relatively high eccentricity of ?0.2 and near-zero obliquity results in both a latitudinal and longitudinal variation in annual average solar insolation and thus equatorial hot and cold regions. This results in an asymmetric temperature distribution in the lithosphere and a long wavelength lateral variation in lithosphere structure and strength that mirrors

Jean-Pierre Williams; Javier Ruiz; Margaret A. Rosenburg; Oded Aharonson; Roger J. Phillips

2011-01-01

54

An improved estimation of daily clear-sky biologically EER from broadband global solar radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a relation between biologically effective erythemal radiation (EER) and global solar radiation, the hourly and\\u000a daily clear-sky broadband (310–2,800 nm) global solar radiation (G) and spectral ultraviolet radiation incident on a horizontal\\u000a surface at Esfahan, Iran (32°37?N, 51°40?E) were measured during the period 2001–2005. Good correlations at statistically\\u000a significant levels between the daily values of EER and the daily

Ali A. Sabziparvar; M. M. Farahani

2009-01-01

55

Solar and Lunar Daily Variation at Low Latitudes During Quiet and Disturbed Days.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solar and lunar tides are studied for the H components at Pilar and Trelew as also for Sd sub 1 (Pilar) obtained from their difference, for 1958. It is shown from Sd sub 1 (Pilar) that the S sub q (solar daily variation) variation patterns are similar...

N. B. Trivedi R. P. Kane

1979-01-01

56

REL3.0 LPSA DAILY  

REL3.0 LPSA DAILY Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 3.0 Langley Parameterized Shortwave ... Top-of-atmosphere (TOA) Insolation Pristine-sky Surface Insolation Clear-sky Surface Insolation All-sky Surface ... Spatial Coverage: 8000 km^2 area in Brazil Full Product Page ...

2014-04-02

57

Ability to predict daily solar radiation values from interpolated climate records for use in crop simulation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily solar radiation is a common input in crop growth and development models yet given the sparse coverage it is likely not measured in the area where the growth model is applied. Consequently, solar radiation needs to be estimated from readily available commonly measured meteorological variables. Daily shortwave solar radiation accumulations were estimated using three existing models over the period

R. H. Grant; S. E. Hollinger; K. G. Hubbard; G. Hoogenboom; R. L. Vanderlip

2004-01-01

58

21 CFR 880.6280 - Medical insole.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical insole. 880.6280 Section 880.6280 Food...Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6280 Medical insole. (a) Identification. A medical insole is a device intended for medical...

2010-04-01

59

21 CFR 880.6280 - Medical insole.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Medical insole. 880.6280 Section 880.6280 Food...Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6280 Medical insole. (a) Identification. A medical insole is a device intended for medical...

2009-04-01

60

Exponential approximation for daily average solar heating or photolysis. [of stratospheric ozone layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When incorporating formulations of instantaneous solar heating or photolytic rates as functions of altitude and sun angle into long range forecasting models, it may be desirable to replace the time integrals by daily average rates that are simple functions of latitude and season. This replacement is accomplished by approximating the integral over the solar day by a pure exponential. This gives a daily average rate as a multiplication factor times the instantaneous rate evaluated at an appropriate sun angle. The accuracy of the exponential approximation is investigated by a sample calculation using an instantaneous ozone heating formulation available in the literature.

Cogley, A. C.; Borucki, W. J.

1976-01-01

61

Differential Angstrom model for predicting insolation from hours of sunshine  

SciTech Connect

The Angstrom model for predicting insolation is limited in scope because it gives equal weighting to sunshine hours recorded at any time of the day. The differential Angstrom model presented in this paper removes this limitation and relates insolation, q{sub j}, in the j{sup th} hour to the sunshine duration, n{sub j}, of the same period by the equation: q{sub j} = a{sub j} + b{sub j}. By regression analysis of monthly data, the set of constants a{sub j} and b{sub j} for each hour of each month of the year can be determined. Thus, using the appropriate set of a and b regression coefficients, any sunshine data can be transformed to insolation. The sum of the equation over a day gives the daily insolation from which monthly means can be calculated. The method has been applied to the 1986 and 1988 sunshine data recorded at the University of Papua New Guinea to predict the observed insolation to within 3.5%. The differential Angstrom method has applications in places which have much recorded data on hours of sunshine but have limited observed insolation data.

Yeboah-Amankwah, D.; Agyeman, K.

1990-01-01

62

An improved estimation of daily clear-sky biologically EER from broadband global solar radiation.  

PubMed

To establish a relation between biologically effective erythemal radiation (EER) and global solar radiation, the hourly and daily clear-sky broadband (310-2,800 nm) global solar radiation (G) and spectral ultraviolet radiation incident on a horizontal surface at Esfahan, Iran (32 degrees 37'N, 51 degrees 40'E) were measured during the period 2001-2005. Good correlations at statistically significant levels between the daily values of EER and the daily G were found. The seasonal variability of EER/G is also discussed and the correction factors are determined for inclusion of vertical column ozone and solar zenith angle (SZA) cycles. The comparison of the estimated daily EER against the independent observed EER revealed that under clear sky conditions the estimations are accurate to 10% or better over SZA of 10-60 degrees and column ozone of 250-350 Dobson. The comparison of the results with the similar works that have used shorter period of experimental data showed more accurate estimates. The deduced relations could be used to a rough estimate of the daily EER from G in arid climate regions, where there is no measured UV radiation or there are instrumental and other difficulties encountered in measuring UV radiation. PMID:19219466

Sabziparvar, Ali A; Farahani, M M

2009-05-01

63

General formula for estimation of monthly average daily global solar radiation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation and sunshine duration data from 69 meteorological stations in China was used to develop the formula for estimating the monthly average daily global radiation on a horizontal surface. Several models and correlations that embrace such variables as the fraction of sunshine duration, the latitude and the altitude have been selected, tested and compared to decide which model is

Zhou Jin; Wu Yezheng; Yan Gang

2005-01-01

64

The sea breeze at Venice, as related to daily global solar radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the sea breeze at Venice and on her hinterland is influenced by orography - mainly the Alps — to the north and the Po Valley to the west, the search for a correlation between the frequency of development of the sea breeze and the daily global solar radiation seems to be desirable, and may be useful for the management

Dario Camuffo

1982-01-01

65

Monthly average daily solar radiation and clearness index contour maps over Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using meteorological data spanning more than ten years in Oman, radial basis function neural networks were developed for estimation of the solar radiation and clearness index for any location in Oman, given its longitude, latitude, altitude, sunshine hours and month of the year. Data generated for 25 different locations were then used to plot contour maps for monthly average daily

Ali Al-Lawati; Atsu S. S Dorvlo; Joseph A Jervase

2003-01-01

66

ANN-based modelling and estimation of daily global solar radiation data: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) models for estimating and modelling of daily global solar radiation have been developed. The data used in this work are the global irradiation HG, diffuse irradiation HD, air temperature T and relative humidity Hu. These data are available from 1998 to 2002 at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) website. We have

M. Benghanem; A. Mellit; S. N. Alamri

2009-01-01

67

Insolation Distribution in Titan's Lower Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variable solar heating drives the seasonal variability of Titan’s lower atmospheric dynamics, and therefore its hydrological cycle. Circulation models that have been developed to examine this methane cycle tend to produce a globally oscillating Hadley circulation, the upwelling arm of which follows a diurnal-mean insolation maximum that reaches the pole in summertime (e.g. Mitchell et al., 2006; Schneider et al., 2012). These models use highly simplified parameterizations of radiative transfer, designed to fit Huygens measurements from the equatorial regions; they do not account for the increased attenuation of sunlight at higher latitudes due to Titan’s curvature. Haze scattering in Titan’s atmosphere complicates the calculation of the radiation field that reaches the troposphere. However, based on Huygens DISR measurements, Tomasko et al. (2008) computed solar heating rates as a function of altitude for different latitudes, and at different seasons, including a scattering model. In their results, the maximum heating, during solstice, below ~50 km (i.e., in the troposphere) occurred at mid-latitudes, not the poles as might be assumed from the insolation distribution at the top of the atmosphere. Based on these results, we calculated an insolation distribution near the surface that differs significantly from that used in previous models (Lora et al., 2011). This has implications for the circulation, which we explored with a very simple box model that accounts only for thermally driven advection: Forced with the calculated insolation distribution, the model produces surface temperatures in agreement with observations (Jennings et al. 2009), and a circulation pattern significantly different than the one produced with the simplified distribution from the top of the atmosphere. References: Jennings, D.E., et al.: “Titan’s surface brightness temperatures”. Astrophys. J., Vol. 691, pp. L103-L105, 2009. Lora, J.M., et al.: “Insolation in Titan’s troposphere”. Icarus, Vol. 216, pp. 116-119, 2011. Mitchell, J.L., et al.: “The dynamics behind Titan’s methane clouds”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., Vol. 103, pp. 18421-18426, 2006. Schneider, T., et al.: “Polar methane accumulation and rainstorms on Titan from simulations of the methane cycle”. Nature, Vol. 481, pp. 58-61, 2012. Tomasko, M.G., et al.: “Heat balance in Titan’s atmosphere”. Planet. Space Sci., Vol. 56, pp. 648-659, 2008.

Lora, J. M.; Goodman, P.; Russell, J.; Lunine, J.

2012-04-01

68

Analyzing the temporal and spatial variability of daily surface solar radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal variability of the surface solar radiation is driven by the annual solar cycle and changes in cloud coverage. An improved understanding of this variability increases our understanding of the climate system; in addition this information helps to select locations for solar power plants to ensure the highest stability of the availability of solar energy. Here we present first results of the analysis of the temporal and spatial variability of the surface solar radiation in Germany on the daily time scale. The analysis is performed using the CM SAF Surface Radiation Climate data record available from 1983 to 2005 with a spatial resolution of 0.03 deg. The results of the temporal analyses include the determination of the streaks of bright and dark days and their correlation with respect to Großwetterlagen.

Richter, Lucas; Trentmann, Jörg; Ahrens, Bodo

2014-05-01

69

Relationships between daily UV-A, UV-B, and hemispherical solar radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies elucidated the relationship between total ultraviolet and total solar radiant exposures at four meteorologically different sites: desert, subtropical, urban smog and high altitude. These studies, which have only been briefly summarized elsewhere, demonstrated that at-latitude daily total ultraviolet plotted against daily at-latitude total solar radiant exposure follows well-defined, site- specific relationships; namely, data for month-pairs that are symmetrical about the two solstices plot on the regression line with high correlation coefficients. It was found that the algebraic behavior of the family of regression expressions (DEC, JAN-NOV, FEB-OCT, MAR-SEP, APR- AUG, MAY-JUL, JUN) depend on whether either pollution- related absorption or humidity-related scattering mechanisms predominate one over the other at any given site. More recent studies, which are on-going, have determined the extent to which daily UV-B radiant exposure exhibits the same dependence on latitude, altitude, and local climate atmospheric conditions that was observed for daily UV-A (e.g., total) radiant exposures. It was found that the UV-B histograms for both Arizona and Florida show a much greater degree of scatter than do the UV-A histograms. Solar UV-B radiation is much more sensitive to a combination of atmospheric conditions and ozone than is UV-A, and the differences between the Florida and Arizona UV-B histograms are ascribed to these effects.

Zerlaut, Gene A.; Miyake, Yukiharu

2002-01-01

70

Usability of NASA Satellite Imagery-Based Daily Solar Radiation for Crop Yield Simulation and Management Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the usability of NASA satellite imagery-based daily solar radiation for farm-specific crop yield simulation and management decisions using the Hybrid-Maize model (www.hybridmaize.unl.edu). Solar radiation is one of the key inputs for crop yield simulation. Farm-specific crop management decisions using simulation models require long-term (i.e., 20 years or longer) daily local weather data including solar radiation for assessing crop

H. Yang; K. G. Cassman; P. W. Stackhouse; J. M. Hoell

2007-01-01

71

Clast Breakdown on Desert Surfaces by Differential Insolation of Cracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Southwest US, cracks in surface clasts have a preferred orientation independent of rock fabric, rock shape and local conditions. Differential insolation of incipient cracks of random orientations provides an explanation of this preferred orientation through removal of moisture held in the crack. A study of differential insolation of cracks of different orientations at 35 north latitude was undertaken using a numerical radiative transfer code and idealized crack geometry. The amount of energy reaching the bottom of each crack was calculated at five minute intervals over the day for several days of the year to determine hourly, daily, seasonal and annual deposition of energy depending only on crack orientation and depth. By adding to this a formulation in which only crack orientations which effectively shield their interiors and minimize their water loss are able to grow, the observed pattern of cracks is reproduced, including both expressed modes and their deviations from pure North-South and East-West behavior. Given this formulation, the important timescale for water retention is the annual average insolation which is associated with both modes of the aligned cracks while the daily recharge by summer monsoon rains is responsible for the observed deviations of these modes. Thus, both the annual average insolation and the daily pattern of rainfall are recorded in the cracking patterns of surface rocks in the Southwest.

Moores, J. E.; Pelletier, J. D.; Smith, P. H.

2007-12-01

72

Thermal modeling of packages for normal conditions of transport with insolation  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for each special nuclear materials package, experimental tests or an analysis must be performed to determine the temperature distribution throughout the package when exposed to normal conditions of transport. These normal conditions include two cases - one with insolation and one without insolation. Insolation (total solar heat load) values to be used in the analyses are given in 10 CFR 71.71; however, the manner in which the insolation is to be applied is not specified. Several approaches can be taken: (1) perform a steady-state analysis assuming the insolation is applied continuously, (2) perform a transient analysis assuming the incident insolation is represented by a step function (i.e., insolation is applied and then not applied in 12-hour cycles), or (3) perform a transient analysis where the incident insolation is represented by a more complex function involving variables such as time of day. The purpose of this paper is to present these various approaches and examine the effect they have on package temperature distributions. The DC-1 shipping package with the Z88 can was used for the analyses to represent a typical thin-walled Celotex-based shipping package. The results of the study indicate that the method used in applying the insolation has a significant effect on the outermost portions of the package. Maximum outer container temperatures were found to vary by as much as 19.3{degree}C depending on which insolation method was used. Typically, internal package temperatures are more critical in this type of analysis. Since the total insolation over any 24-hour period is the same for all cases, internal package temperatures (secondary containment vessel, primary containment vessel, content, etc.) are relatively unaffected by the way in which the insolation is applied. Internal package temperatures vary no more than 2{degree}C for the three insolation methods investigated.

Anderson, J.C.; Feldman, M.R.

1995-12-31

73

Deterministic Insolation Model Program Description and User's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple mathematical model is described for estimating the monthly average insolation experienced by a fixed or tracking collector. It is designed to fulfill the need for a rapid, economical method of assessing the availability of solar radiation as a ba...

E. P. French

1978-01-01

74

Mississippi County Community College solar photovoltaic project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A weather station was maintained from April 1978 to April 1980. Daily totals of direct normal and global insolation are given, and an hour-by-hour printout of direct normal, global, and diffuse solar radiation for the entire two year period is included. A number of studies were conducted, including daylighting, energy conservation and management, design tradeoffs, and landscaping. The collector selection

F. K. Deaver; M. M. Johnson; T. Pugh; R. Snowden; W. D. Turner; J. D. Wall; J. G. Williams; J. R. Yeargan

1980-01-01

75

Coastal-inland solar radiation difference study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to quantify the characteristics of solar insolation in the coastal zone and to determine the effect of the sea breeze circulation on the global insolation. In order to satisfy these objectives, a six station sampling network was established in the coastal plain of southeastern North Carolina, where previous evidence has indicated that the sea breeze circulation is almost a daily occurrence from late May through October. Three sites (Sloop Point, Onslow Beach, and Cape Fear Technical Institute (CFTI)) were located near the coast (coastal sites) to assess the insolation at the coast. A site (Clinton) was located in an area seldom affected by the sea breeze (about 100 km from the coast). Two additional sites, Wallace and Ellis Airport, located between the coastal sites and the control site, were to be used to assess the transient impact of the sea breeze upon the insolation. Pyranometers were located at each site to measure the global insolation. Direct normal insolation measured by a pyrheliometer and ultraviolet radiation measured by uv radiometers were observed at the Sloop Point and Clinton sites only. Data were collected during the calendar year 1978. The results of the study indicated that the global insolation had greater variability over the network during the summer season (June, July, and August). During the summer, there was a systematicdiurnal variation of the difference in global insolation between the inland and the coastal sites.

Bach, W.D. Jr.; Vukovich, F.M.

1980-04-01

76

Spatial variations of temperature on a coastal site in Sweden as a response to insolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature and humidity are major factors controlling ecosystem development. In a context of changing climate, the spatial distribution of temperature is likely to be affected, and species distribution might be subsequently modified. In particular, topographic heterogeneity is affecting the micro-climate and thus regulates the expansion or restriction of species in a landscape. During a change of climate, certain species might become restricted to localized refugia, or on the contrary expand from old refugia when the overall landscape becomes favorable. In this research we are using GIS based model of incoming solar radiation and subsequently derived monthly averaged temperatures to increase the understanding of changes in local climate and how it affects species repartition. The model is based on topography and observed variations in atmospheric conditions and is accounting for site latitude, elevation, surface orientation, daily and seasonal shifts in sun angle and the effect of shadows from the surrounding topography. A 2500 km2 forested field site located on the western coast of Sweden, along the Baltic Sea, is investigated both in terms of temperature heterogeneity and plant communities. We derive 50 m resolution insolation maps and analyze the response of monthly temperature to insolation. Surface and near surface temperatures are measured by a dense network of temperature sensors during the spring and summer of 2011 and are used for comparison with the modeled temperature maps. We investigate the potential of this modeling approach to scale climate trend analysis down to local climate change in heterogeneous landscapes. We build on the methodology used by Huang et al. (2008) in a mountain ecosystem and develop it for use on a coastal site that is largely influence by the presence of the sea. The time lag that is appropriate between insolation and subsequent temperature response appears to be influenced by the presence of a large water body and follows an exponential decay from the coastal to the inland measurement sites. We use the insolation and an appropriate time lag dependent on the distance to the sea in a linear regression model to derive estimates of spatially distributed temperature in our landscape. The dataset indicates a strong potential for monthly temperature to be predicted from solar radiation. Huang, S., Rich, P.M., Crabtree, R.L., Potter, C.S., Fu, P., 2008. Modeling Monthly Near-Surface Air Temperature from Solar Radiation and Lapse Rate: Application over Complex Terrain in Yellowstone National Park. Physical Geography 29, 158-178.

Vercauteren, N.; Dahlberg, J.; Lam, N.; Destouni, G.; Hylander, K.

2012-04-01

77

Solar radiation on Mars  

SciTech Connect

Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. In this paper the authors present a procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally, hourly and daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the sun with a special diode on the Viking cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

Appelbaum, J.; Flood, D.J. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA))

1990-01-01

78

Solar radiation on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. Presented here is a procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally, hourly and daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the sun with a special diode on the Viking cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

Appelbaum, Joseph; Flood, Dennis J.

1990-01-01

79

Solar radiation on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. Presented here is a procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally, hourly and daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the sun with a special diode on the Viking cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

Appelbaum, Joseph; Flood, Dennis J.

1989-01-01

80

Effect of daily versus intermittent sunscreen application on solar simulated UV radiation–induced skin response in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute and chronic skin damage occurs as a consequence of solar UV radiation exposure. To diminish such skin damage, the dermatologic community advocates the daily use of sunscreens as part of a sun avoidance strategy. Objective: We determined the effectiveness of a sunscreen product with a sunscreen protection factor (SPF) of 15 applied daily in preventing UV-induced histologic damage

Tania J. Phillips; Jag Bhawan; Mina Yaar; Ysabel Bello; Danielle LoPiccolo; J. Frank Nash

2000-01-01

81

A simplified calibrated model for estimating daily global solar radiation in Madinah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is the most important parameter in defining the energy budget at the surface thereby influencing the hydroclimate. Several empirical models based on air temperature are developed and used in several decision-making needs such as agriculture and energy sector. However, a calibration against direct observations is a priori for implementing such models. A calibrated model is developed for Saudi Arabia (Madinah) based on observations during 2007-2011. The model ( {Rs=A+B\\cdot R{{s}_0}{{{( {{T_{max }}-{T_{min }}} )}}^C}} ) is used to estimate daily solar radiation and results show a correlation coefficient of 0.94. The calibrated model outperforms the uncalibrated model available for this location. To increase the confidence, the calibrated model is also compared with a simple artificial neural network.

Benghanem, M.; Mellit, A.

2013-04-01

82

MATERIAL MODELING OF ORTHOPEDIC INSOLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: An experimental setup is presented for the material characterization of rubber-like sensomotoric insoles. This setup consists of local hardness measurements, quasi-static compression tests and dynamic testing using the 4a Impetus II pendulum test system (1). A correlation between the measure of shore hardness and the stress strain relation of rubber-like materials is presented and verified in order to consider

S. Kolling; M. Neubert; J. Subke; J. Griesemann

2009-01-01

83

Solar Daily Variation Recorded at a Low Latitude Station by East and West Pointing Telescopes During Periods of Maximum and Minimum Solar Activity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An examination was made of the characteristics of the solar daily variations recorded by east and west pointing directional telescopes at Mt. Chacaltaya (altitude = 5200 m, geomagnetic latitude = -4.8 degrees) during the years of maximum (1958) and minimu...

H. S. Ahluwalia V. I. Escobar M. Zubieta R. Anda M. Schreier

1965-01-01

84

[Dosimetry of solar ultraviolet radiation. Daily and monthly changes in Paris].  

PubMed

The intensity of ultraviolet A and B radiations was measured in Paris (48 degrees North) by means of silicon photoelectric cells (Osram Centra dosimeter) from December, 1984 till February, 1986. The results, which must be regarded as approximate, are expressed as physical units (mW/cm2) and biological units (minimal erythema dose/hour). For sunny days two curves are presented separately for UVB and UVA: daily variations in radiation (hourly measurements) and daily variations at 11 hours (solar time) during one year. Maximum irradiation was observed at noon in early July: UVB 0.15 mW/cm2, UVA 5.4 mW/cm2. Between December and July the amount of UVB radiation was multiplied by 14 and that of UVA radiation by 9. For subjects with clear photo-type and when the sun was at its zenith, an MED per hour was obtained from May 1 onwards. Within a day, 30 p. 100 (summer) and 50 p. 100 (winter) of erythema-producing UV intensity were delivered between 11 and 13 hours (solar time). This kind of study has numerous clinical applications: advice regarding exposure to sun rays, dosing of heliotherapy, epidemiological data concerning photodermatitis (circumstances of exposure, UV threshold dose) and photocarcinogenesis (determination of annual MED doses in relation to areas of uncovered skin and occupational exposure to sun rays). Other studies on the French territory will provide a map of UV irradiation. PMID:3631842

Jeanmougin, M; Civatte, J

1987-01-01

85

Solar poloidal magnetic field orientation causing periodicity in daily variation of cosmic ray intensity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed analysis of the Deep River neutron monitor (NM) data for four different phases of solar activity cycle and for four groups of days chosen according to their different geomagnetic conditions is being carried out. It is found that the 60 quiet day (QD) in a year serve a better purpose for investigating the short/long term variation in cosmic ray (CR) intensity. Further, data has been harmonically analysed for the period 1964-95 to investigate the effect of solar poloidal magnetic field (SPMF) orientation in daily variation (diurnal/semi-diurnal) of CR on geomagnetically QD. The phase of the diurnal and semi-diurnal anisotropy vectors on QD has shown a significant shift to early hours when the SPMF in the northern hemisphere (NH) is positive during the periods 1971-79 and 1992-95 as compared to that during the periods 1964-70 and 1981-90 when the SPMF in NH is negative, showing a periodic nature of daily variation in CR intensity with SPMF.

Kumar, Santosh; Agarwal, Rekha; Mishra, Rajesh; Dubey, S. K.

2002-06-01

86

Mississippi County Community College Solar Photovoltaic Project. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A weather station was maintained in Blytheville, Arkansas, from April 1978 to April 1980. Daily totals of direct normal and global insolation are given, and an hour-by-hour printout of direct normal, global, and diffuse solar radiation for the entire two year period is included. A number of studies were conducted, including daylighting, energy conservation and management, design tradeoffs, and landscaping.

W. D. Turner; F. K. Deaver; M. M. Johnson; T. Pugh; R. Snowden; J. D. Wall; J. G. Williams; J. R. Yeargan

1980-01-01

87

Motel solar hot-water installation--Atlanta, Georgia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of hardness of local water, average insolation for site, and daily hot water requirements insures suitability of solar-energy system design. Report describes two units which are designed to supply 81 percent of motel's annual hot water demand based on hypothetical 85 percent occupancy. Report includes drawings, operating and maintenance instructions, and test results for 1 day of operation.

1981-01-01

88

Mississippi County Community College Solar Photovoltaic Project. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A weather station was maintained in Blytheville, Arkansas, from April 1978 to April 1980. Daily totals of direct normal and global insolation are given, and an hour-by-hour printout of direct normal, global, and diffuse solar radiation for the entire two ...

W. D. Turner F. K. Deaver M. M. Johnson T. Pugh R. Snowden

1980-01-01

89

The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in daily global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of present study is to predict daily global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface, based on meteorological variables, using different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, and wind speed values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32 16'N, 48 25'E), are used in this study. In order to consider the effect of each meteorological variable on daily GSR prediction, six following combinations of input variables are considered: (I)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and relative humidity as inputs and daily GSR as output. (II)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (III)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (IV)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and evaporation as inputs and daily GSR as output. (V)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. (VI)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are applied for daily GSR modeling based on six proposed combinations. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data. The comparison of obtained results from ANNs and different conventional GSR prediction (CGSRP) models shows very good improvements (i.e. the predicted values of best ANN model (MLP-V) has a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) about 5.21% versus 10.02% for best CGSRP model (CGSRP 5)). (author)

Behrang, M.A.; Assareh, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Dezful Branch (Iran); Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran)

2010-08-15

90

Effectiveness of insoles on plantar pressure redistribution.  

PubMed

For this study, we compared the effectiveness of different design insoles for redistributing pressure during walking for diabetic patients and for normal control subjects. Comparisons of dynamic plantar foot pressure patterns were made with different support, including shoe-only, flat insole, and three contoured insoles. We custom-molded the three contoured insoles by casting the plantar surface of the foot under the conditions of non-weight-bearing, semi-weight-bearing, and full-weight-bearing. With the F-Scan in-shoe system, the interfacial pressure distribution during walking with different plantar supports was measured at 50 Hz for 10 s. The use of insoles could significantly reduce local peak pressure and pressure-time integral and increase the contact area. Contoured insoles were significantly better than flat insoles with regard to the insole functions in reducing local peak pressures. The insole with the semi-weight-bearing foot shape can offer the greatest peak pressure reduction compared to other insole designs, especially for patients with peak pressure located at the second to third metatarsal heads. PMID:15685465

Tsung, Bonnie Yuk San; Zhang, Ming; Mak, Arthur Fuk Tat; Wong, Margaret Wan Nar

2004-01-01

91

A general model to estimate hourly and daily solar radiation for hydrological studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an important input for hydrological models and snowmelting models, surface solar radiation can be estimated from sunshine duration by the Ångström-Prescott model. This model has site-dependent parameters and thus needs calibrations when applied to individual regions. The calibrations are particularly difficult in highland and mountainous areas because of unavailability of radiation measurements. In this study, a simple model that can explicitly account for radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere is developed to estimate hourly and daily solar radiation. Its inputs are surface meteorological data (sunshine duration, air temperature, and relative humidity), so it can be easily applied to hydrological modeling. The radiation model is compared with the Food and Agricultural Organization radiation model and globally and locally calibrated Ångström-Prescott models at a number of sites in various climate and elevation regions, and it is suggested that the new model is more general and more accurate, especially for estimating hourly solar radiation. The source code of this model is available from the authors upon request.

Yang, Kun; Koike, Toshio

2005-10-01

92

Systematic errors in estimation of insolation by empirical formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic errors in the estimation of surface, insolation,Q, by two popular empirical formulas are investigated statistically by using coincident measurements of the global solar radiation\\u000a and the total cloud cover at JMA observatories over Japan. The results show that Reed’s (1977) widely-accepted formula remarkably\\u000a overestimatesQ under overcast conditions. The overestimation is particularly evident in the summer months. The formula also

Shoichi Kizu

1998-01-01

93

Climatic Variations on Mars 1. Astronomical Theory of Insolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes variations in the solar insolation on Mars that result from oscillations of the orbital eccentricity (0.005 < e < 0.141) and the obliquity (14.9 ø < 0 < 35.5ø) of the planet. Changes in the eccentricity and obliquity are produced by gravitation perturbations from the sun and the other planets, and a detailed account of the time

William R. Ward

1974-01-01

94

Simulated results of a non-valve, daily-cycled, solar-powered carbon\\/methanol refrigerator with a tubular solar collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model (computer program) for simulating non-valve, solar-powered carbon\\/methanol adsorption refrigeration cycles has been developed and validated before. Some further applications of the program in the investigation of the non-valve solar refrigerator are shown in this paper. The fate of four daily phases of temperature change and methanol migrations inside the tubular solar collector is illustrated by the program.

Eric Jing Hu

1996-01-01

95

Single and Double ITCZ in Aqua-Planet Models with Globally and Temporally Uniform Sea Surface Temperature and Solar Insolation: An Interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous studies (Chao 2000, Chao and Chen 2001, Kirtman and Schneider 2000, Sumi 1992) have shown that, by means of one of several model design changes, the structure of the ITCZ in an aqua-planet model with globally uniform SST and solar angle (U-SST-SA) can change between a single ITCZ at the equator and a double ITCZ straddling the equator. These model design changes include switching to a different cumulus parameterization scheme (e.g., from relaxed Arakawa Schubert scheme (RAS) to moist convective adjustment scheme (MCA)), changes within the cumulus parameterization scheme, and changes in other aspects of the model, such as horizontal resolution. Sometimes only one component of the double ITCZ shows up; but still this is an ITCZ away from the equator, quite distinct from a single ITCZ over the equator. Since these model results were obtained by different investigators using different models which have yielded reasonable general circulation, they are considered as reliable. Chao and Chen (2001; hereafter CC01) have made an initial attempt to interpret these findings based on the concept of rotational ITCZ attractors that they introduced. The purpose of this paper is to offer a more complete interpretation.

Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

96

Mean solar quiet daily variations in the earth’s magnetic field along East African longitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar quiet daily (Sq) variation in the earth’s magnetic field along the East African meridian was studied using data of the H, D and Z components recorded with Magnetic Data Acquisition System of SERC. One year data recorded at ten African geomagnetic observatories was used in the analysis of worldwide solar quiet daily variation (Wsq). The study revealed that the focus of Sq (H) in the southern hemisphere lies at the boundary of low and middle latitude region. Noon-time enhancement of Sq (H) was generally noticed at all stations along the meridian, though it is latitudinal dependent in terms of magnitude as it reduces with distance from dip equator. In addition, night-time variations also occur in small magnitude along African meridian in Sq (H) and Sq (Z) which could be attributed to non-ionospheric sources. Semi-diurnal variation was noticed in Sq (D) at all stations except in AAB that is under the influence of electrojet current. Dusk sector calm condition of Sq (D) current was notice in some stations and the same condition was also noticed at dawn sector in some other stations. The usual sunrise maximum and sunset minimum for D component at stations north of dip equator as well as sunrise minimum and sunset maximum was found to increase with distance away from dip equator. Day-time perturbation of Sq current was noticed to be more pronounced in all the three field elements. Mass plots of annual mean hourly value show contrasting phase pattern about the focus in H element and the results of the variations at each region with the associated standard error. It was concluded from the result of correlation coefficients computed that different currents system flowing in opposite directions could be responsible for contrasting patterns.

Bello, O. R.; Rabiu, A. B.; Yumoto, K.; Yizengaw, E.

2014-08-01

97

Prediction of monthly mean daily global solar radiation using Artificial Neural Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a multilayer feed forward (MLFF) neural network based on back propagation algorithm was developed, trained, and tested to predict monthly mean daily global radiation in Tamil Nadu, India. Various geographical, solar and meteorological parameters of three different locations with diverse climatic conditions were used as input parameters. Out of 565 available data, 530 were used for training and the rest were used for testing the artificial neural network (ANN). A 3-layer and a 4-layer MLFF networks were developed and the performance of the developed models was evaluated based on mean bias error, mean absolute percentage error, root mean squared error and Student's t-test. The 3-layer MLFF network developed in this study did not give uniform results for the three chosen locations. Hence, a 4-layer MLFF network was developed and the average value of the mean absolute percentage error was found to be 5.47%. Values of global radiation obtained using the model were in excellent agreement with measured values. Results of this study show that the designed ANN model can be used to estimate monthly mean daily global radiation of any place in Tamil Nadu where measured global radiation data are not available.

Sivamadhavi, V.; Selvaraj, R. Samuel

2012-12-01

98

Estimating daily global solar radiation during the growing season in Northeast China using the Ångström-Prescott model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily global solar radiation is an important input required in most crop models. In the present study, a sunshine-based model, the Ångström-Prescott model, is employed to estimate daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface during the growing season in Northeast China. Data from six control groups are used. The controls include the entire sequence, precipitation days, and non-precipitation days both during the growing season and year-round. Estimations are validated by comparing the calculated values with the corresponding measured values. The results indicate that estimating daily global solar radiation during the growing season using data only from the growing season is better than using year-round data. Classifying days with respect to precipitation and non-precipitation is also unnecessary. The performance on estimating daily global solar radiation during the growing season using the entire data in growing season performs best. A sunshine-based equation is obtained using our method to estimate growing season daily radiation for all meteorological stations in Northeast China. The approved approach is expected to be beneficial to crop models and other agricultural purposes.

Wu, Zhengfang; Du, Haibo; Zhao, Dongsheng; Li, Ming; Meng, Xiangjun; Zong, Shengwei

2012-05-01

99

Forecast of daily solar flare peak flux using regressive and neural network methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a set of daily solar flare peak flux forecast models using the multiple linear regression, auto regression, and artificial neural network methods. We consider input parameters as solar activity data from January 1996 to December 2013 such as sunspot area, X-ray flare peak flux, weighted total flux Tf=1*Fc+10*Fm+100*Fx of previous day, mean flare rates of a given McIntosh sunspot group (Zpc), and a Mount Wilson magnetic classification. The hitting rate is defined as the fraction of events whose absolute differences between the observed and predicted fluxes in a logarithm scale are ? 0.5. The best three input parameters related to the observed flare peak flux are weighted total flare flux of previous day, Mount Wilson magnetic classification, and sunspot area. The hitting rates of flares stronger than M5 class, which is regarded to be significant for space weather forecast, are as follows: 0% for the multiple linear regression method, 30% for the auto regression method, and 69% for the neural network method. Especially, we note that for the forecast of strong flares, the neural network method is much more effective than the other methods.

Shin, Seulki; Lee, Jin-Yi; Moon, Yong-Jae

2014-06-01

100

Insolation and the Precession Index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple nonlinear climate models yield a precession index-like term in the temperature. Despite its importance in the geologic record, the precession index e sin omega, where e is the Earth's orbital eccentricity and omega is the Sun's perigee in the geocentric frame, is not present in the insolation at the top of the atmosphere. Hence there is no one-for-one mapping of 23,000 and 19,000 year periodicities from the insolation to the paleoclimate record; a nonlinear climate model is needed to produce these periods. Two such models, a grey body and an energy balance climate model with an added quadratic term, produce e sin omega terms in temperature. These terms, which without feedback mechanisms achieve extreme values of about plus or minus 0.48 K for the grey body and plus or minus 0.64 K for the energy balance model, simultaneously cool one hemisphere while they warm the other. Moreover, they produce long-term cooling in the northern hemisphere when the Sun's perigee is near northern solstice and long-term warming in the northern hemisphere when the perigee is near southern solstice. Thus this seemingly paradoxical mechanism works against the standard model which requires cool northern summers (Sun far from Earth in northern summer) to build up northern ice sheets, so that if the standard model is correct it may be more efficient than previously thought. Alternatively, the new mechanism could possibly be dominant and indicate southern hemisphere control of the northern ice sheets, wherein the southern oceans undergo a long-term cooling when the Sun is close to the Earth during southern summer. The cold water eventually flows north, cooling the northern hemisphere. This might explain why the northern oceans lag the southern ones when it comes to orbital forcing.

Rubincam, David Parry

2000-01-01

101

Forecasting of preprocessed daily solar radiation time series using neural networks  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present an application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in the renewable energy domain. We particularly look at the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) network which has been the most used of ANNs architectures both in the renewable energy domain and in the time series forecasting. We have used a MLP and an ad hoc time series pre-processing to develop a methodology for the daily prediction of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. First results are promising with nRMSE {proportional_to} 21% and RMSE {proportional_to} 3.59 MJ/m{sup 2}. The optimized MLP presents predictions similar to or even better than conventional and reference methods such as ARIMA techniques, Bayesian inference, Markov chains and k-Nearest-Neighbors. Moreover we found that the data pre-processing approach proposed can reduce significantly forecasting errors of about 6% compared to conventional prediction methods such as Markov chains or Bayesian inference. The simulator proposed has been obtained using 19 years of available data from the meteorological station of Ajaccio (Corsica Island, France, 41 55'N, 8 44'E, 4 m above mean sea level). The predicted whole methodology has been validated on a 1.175 kWc mono-Si PV power grid. Six prediction methods (ANN, clear sky model, combination..) allow to predict the best daily DC PV power production at horizon d + 1. The cumulated DC PV energy on a 6-months period shows a great agreement between simulated and measured data (R{sup 2} > 0.99 and nRMSE < 2%). (author)

Paoli, Christophe; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie-Laure [University of Corsica, CNRS UMR SPE, Corte (France); Voyant, Cyril [University of Corsica, CNRS UMR SPE, Corte (France); Hospital of Castelluccio, Radiotherapy Unit, Ajaccio (France)

2010-12-15

102

Usability of NASA Satellite Imagery-Based Daily Solar Radiation for Crop Yield Simulation and Management Decisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tested the usability of NASA satellite imagery-based daily solar radiation for farm-specific crop yield simulation and management decisions using the Hybrid-Maize model (www.hybridmaize.unl.edu). Solar radiation is one of the key inputs for crop yield simulation. Farm-specific crop management decisions using simulation models require long-term (i.e., 20 years or longer) daily local weather data including solar radiation for assessing crop yield potential and its variation, optimizing crop planting date, and predicting crop yield in a real time mode. Weather stations that record daily solar radiation have sparse coverage and many of them have record shorter than 15 years. Based on satellite imagery and other remote sensed information, NASA has provided estimates of daily climatic data including solar radiation at a resolution of 1 degree grid over the earth surface from 1983 to 2005. NASA is currently continuing to update the database and has plans to provide near real-time data in the future. This database, which is free to the public at http://power.larc.nasa.gov, is a potential surrogate for ground- measured climatic data for farm-specific crop yield simulation and management decisions. In this report, we quantified (1) the similarities between NASA daily solar radiation and ground-measured data atr 20 US sites and four international sites, and (2) the accuracy and precision of simulated corn yield potential and its variability using NASA solar radiation coupled with other weather data from ground measurements. The 20 US sites are in the western Corn Belt, including Iowa, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Kansas. The four international sites are Los Banos in the Philippines, Beijing in China, Cali in Columbia, and Ibatan in Nigeria. Those sites were selected because of their high quality weather record and long duration (more than 20 years on average). We found that NASA solar radiation was highly significantly correlated (mean r2 =0.88**) with the ground measurements at the 20 US sites, while the correlation was poor (mean r2=0.55**, though significant) at the four international sites. At the 20 US sites, the mean root mean square error (RMSE) between NASA solar radiation and the ground data was 2.7 MJ/m2/d, or 19% of the mean daily ground data. At the four international sites, the mean RMSE was 4.0 MJ/m2/d, or 25% of the mean daily ground value. Large differences between NASA solar radiation and the ground data were likely associated with tropical environment or significant variation in elevation within a short distance. When using NASA solar radiation coupled with other weather data from ground measurements, the simulated corn yields were highly significantly correlated (mean r2=0.85**) with those using complete ground weather data at the 20 US sites, while the correlation (mean r2=0.48**) was poor at the four international sites. The mean RMSE between the simulated corn yields of the two batches was 0.50 Mg/ha, or 3% of the mean absolute value using the ground data. At the four international sites, the RMSE of the simulated yields was 1.5 Mg/ha, or 13% of the mean absolute value using the ground data. We conclude that the NASA satellite imagery-based daily solar radiation is a reasonably reliable surrogate for the ground observations for farm-specific crop yield simulation and management decisions, especially at locations where ground-measured solar radiation is unavailable.

Yang, H.; Cassman, K. G.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Hoell, J. M.

2007-12-01

103

REL2 SW DAILY  

... Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2 Shortwave Daily Data in Native Format News:  GEWEX ... Parameters:  Viewing Geometry Incoming Shortwave Radiation Radiative Flux Solar Irradiance Solar ...

2014-04-07

104

Determination of Martian Northern Polar Insolation Levels Using a Geodetic Elevation Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar insolation levels at the Martian polar caps bear significantly on the seasonal and climatic cycling of volatiles on that planet. In the northern hemisphere, the Martian surface slopes downhill from the equator to the pole such that the north polar cap is situated in a 5-km-deep hemispheric-scale depression. This large-scale topographic setting plays an important role in the insolation of the northern polar cap. Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) provide comprehensive, high-accuracy topographical information required to precisely determine polar insolation. In this study, we employ a geodetic elevation model to quantify the north polar insolation and consider implications for seasonal and climatic changes. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

Arrell, J. R.; Zuber, M. T.

2000-01-01

105

A probabilistic model of insolation for the Mojave Desert area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion of mathematical models of insolation characteristics suitable for use in analysis of solar energy systems is presented and shows why such models are essential for solar energy system design. A model of solar radiation for the Mojave Desert area is presented with probabilistic and deterministic components which reflect the occurrence and density of clouds and haze, and mimic their effects on both direct and indirect radiation. Multiple comparisons were made between measured total energy received per day and the corresponding simulated totals. The simulated totals were all within 11 percent of the measured total. The conclusion is that a useful probabilistic model of solar radiation for the Goldstone, California, area of the Mojave Desert has been constructed.

Hester, O. V.; Reid, M. S.

1978-01-01

106

Solar radiation for Mars power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed information about the solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. A procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally and daily variation of the global, direct (or beam), and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated, are presented. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the Viking Lander cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

1991-01-01

107

Lateral wedge insoles for medial knee osteoarthritis: 12 month randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the effect of lateral wedge insoles compared with flat control insoles on improving symptoms and slowing structural disease progression in medial knee osteoarthritis. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Community in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 200 people aged 50 or more with clinical and radiographic diagnosis of mild to moderately severe medial knee osteoarthritis. Interventions Full length 5 degree lateral wedged insoles or flat control insoles worn inside the shoes daily for 12 months. Main outcome measures Primary symptomatic outcome was change in overall knee pain (past week) measured on an 11 point numerical rating scale. Primary structural outcome was change in volume of medial tibial cartilage from magnetic resonance imaging scans. Secondary clinical outcomes included changes in measures of pain, function, stiffness, and health related quality of life. Secondary structural outcomes included progression of medial cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions. Results Between group differences did not differ significantly for the primary outcomes of change in overall pain (?0.3 points, 95% confidence intervals ?1.0 to 0.3) and change in medial tibial cartilage volume (?0.4 mm3, 95% confidence interval ?15.4 to 14.6), and confidence intervals did not include minimal clinically important differences. None of the changes in secondary outcomes showed differences between groups. Conclusion Lateral wedge insoles worn for 12 months provided no symptomatic or structural benefits compared with flat control insoles. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTR12605000503628 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00415259.

2011-01-01

108

Urban aerosol effects on surface insolation and surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban aerosol particulates may play a fundamental role in urban microclimates and city-generated mesoscale circulations via its effects on energy balance of the surface. Key questions that need to be addressed include: (1) How do these particles affect the amount of solar energy reaching the surface and resulting surface temperature? (2) Is the effect the same in all cities? and (3) How does it vary from city to city? Using NASA AERONET in-situ observations, a radiative transfer model, and a regional climate mode (MM5), we assess aerosol effects on surface insolation and surf ace temperature for dense urban-polluted regions. Two big cities, one in a developing country (Beijing, P.R. China) and another in developed country (New York City, USA), are selected for inter-comparison. The study reveals that aerosol effects on surface temperature depends largely on aerosols' optical and chemical properties as well as atmosphere and land surface conditions, such as humidity and land cover. Therefore, the actual magnitudes of aerosol effects differ from city to city. Aerosol measurements from AERONET show both average and extreme cases for aerosol impacts on surface insolation. In general, aerosols reduce surface insolation by 30Wm-2. Nevertheless, in extreme cases, such reduction can exceed 100 Wm-2. Consequently, this reduces surface skin temperature 2-10C in an urban environment.

Jin, M.; Burian, S. J.; Remer, L. A.; Shepherd, M. J.

2007-12-01

109

Modeling of Daily Solar Energy on a Horizontal Surface for Five Main Sites in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents models for global and diffuse solar energy on a horizontal surface for main five sites in Malaysia. The global solar energy is modeled using linear, nonlinear, fuzzy logic, and artificial neural network (ANN) models, while the diffuse solar energy is modeled using linear, nonlinear, and ANN models. Three statistical values are used to evaluate the developed solar

Tamer Khatib; Azah Mohamed; Marwan Mahmoud; K. Sopian

2011-01-01

110

Optimum orientation of tilting solar concentrator arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This note shows that there is a considerable degree of freedom in selecting the orientation of a field of tilting solar concentrators, without changing the path of the sun across the concentrator acceptance angle, and hence without affecting performance. The orientation of a particular array may be chosen to more closely match the natural terrain, thus reducing site preparation costs. Further, a proper choice may improve overall performance in situations where the average daily insolation is asymmetrical about local noon.

Harting, E.; Giutronich, J. E.

111

Multiobjective MPPT\\/charging controller for standalone PV power systems under different insolation and load conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel multiobjective control algorithm for standalone PV power systems that can track the maximum power point of the solar array while limiting the charging\\/discharging current and voltage of the battery under different insolation and load conditions. A state machine model of the multiobjective control algorithm is described. The large-signal stability of the system is analyzed. The

Zhenhua Jiang; Roger A. Dougal

2004-01-01

112

Making full use of the clearness index for parameterizing hourly insolation conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enhanced parameterization of insolation conditions based only on the knowledge of global irradiance is presented. Two limitations associated with the current approach using the clearness index are pointed out: its dependence on solar elevation and its inability to differentiate between different conditions that produce the same global irradiance. Suggestions are provided which could overcome part of these limitations. Arguments

R. Perez; P. Ineichen; R. Seals; A. Zelenka

1990-01-01

113

Assessment of some shock absorbing insoles.  

PubMed

Due to the increase in prescription of insoles to relieve symptoms due to skeletal shocks at heel strike a pilot study was initiated to look at some materials used for this purpose. Five materials were examined (Plastazote, Spenco, Sorbothane, Poron (PPT) and Viscolas) by two methods. The first method used an accelerometer mounted between the teeth of one of the authors (PR) to record skeletal shock. The second method used a force plate to record the shock produced by dropping a ball-bearing onto the insoles from a standard height. The results showed that Plastazote is poor at absorbing shock with Spenco and Sorbothane being quite good. The best insole materials tested were Poron (PPT) and Viscolas with the latter being marginally superior. No account was taken of degradation of the materials in use except that Plastazote worn for 72 hours was also used in the study, this producing the worst results. PMID:3725565

Pratt, D J; Rees, P H; Rodgers, C

1986-04-01

114

A critical review on the estimation of daily global solar radiation from sunshine duration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models such as the Angström–Prescott equation are used to estimate global solar radiation from sunshine duration. In the literature, researchers investigate either the goodness of the model itself or the goodness of the estimation of global solar radiation based on a set of statistical parameters such as R2, RMSE, MBE, MABE, MPE and MAPE. If the former is the objective,

Mehmet Yorukoglu; Ali Naci Celik

2006-01-01

115

The determination of hourly values of total solar radiation from daily summations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curves, based on measured total (direct plus sky) solar radiation data for several stations in the Union of South Africa, are presented which enable the hourly distribution of total solar radiation on a horizontal surface to be determined for any locality, and any time of year on a long-term basis. In addition a graph is given showing the fraction of

Austin Whillier

1956-01-01

116

Improving estimation of hourly, daily, and monthly solar radiation by importing global data sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface solar radiation is an important parameter in hydrological models and crop yield models. This study developed a model to estimate solar radiation from sunshine duration. The model is more accurate and more general than traditional Ångström–Prescott models. It can explicitly account for radiative extinction processes in the atmosphere. Moreover, global data sets that describe the spatial and temporal distribution

Kun Yang; Toshio Koike; Baisheng Ye

2006-01-01

117

An insole point pressure monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Number of people who is suffering with plantar is increasing nowadays. Several causes such as diabetes mellitus, plantar fasciitis, changes in biomechanics, etc. may be diagnosed. Simple treatment, by an expert clinician, is such as inserting a custom-made insole into the patient's shoes for manipulating pressure to the right position. This work aims to develop plantar point pressure measurement, which

Apisit Numchaichanakij; Kitiphol Chitsakul; Suradej Tretriluxana

2011-01-01

118

Orbital insolation, ice volume, and greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SPECMAP models of orbital-scale climate change (Imbrie et al., Paleoceanography 7 (1992) 701, Paleoceanography 8 (1993) 699) are the most comprehensive to date: all major climatic observations were analyzed within the framework of the three orbital signals. Subsequently, tuning of signals in Vostok ice to insolation forcing has fixed the timing of greenhouse-gas changes closely enough to permit an

William F. Ruddiman

2003-01-01

119

Engineering Test of Spike Resistant Insole.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The test was conducted to determine the technical performance and safety characteristics of the spike resistant insole worn in the standard tropical boot when subjected to accelerated usage. It was found that a minimum force 265 pounds was required at poi...

E. W. Mangum

1965-01-01

120

Method for Design and Manufacture of Insoles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for the design and production of improved pressure reducing therapeutic shoe insoles for a person. The method includes the steps of measuring a three dimensional image of a foot and the distribution of plantar pressures applied by a person's foot...

H. Zhang J. S. Ulbrecht P. R. Cavanagh T. B. Hurley

2005-01-01

121

The prediction of long term monthly mean daily solar gains through vertical single and double clear glazing at sites distributed throughout the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple approximate method has been developed for estimating long term monthly mean daily solar heat gains per unit area for vertical windows for sites within the UK. The method enables the monthly mean solar gains through vertical single and double glazing of any orientation to be estimated for each of the Department of Energy degree day regions, using a

G. G. Rodgers; J. K. Page; I. D. Colquhoun; J. L. Thompson

1982-01-01

122

Estimation of monthly average daily and hourly solar radiation impinging on a sloped surface using the isotropic sky model for Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the isotropic sky method of Liu and Jordan is used to theoretically estimate the monthly average daily and hourly solar radiation impinging on an unshaded tilted surface in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The surface receiving solar radiation is assumed to be fixed at a tilt angle, ?, equal to the latitude of Dhahran, Ø and oriented such that

F. A. Al-Sulaiman; B. Ismail

1997-01-01

123

Intraocular pressure (IOP) in relation to four levels of daily geomagnetic and extreme yearly solar activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The link between geomagnetic field activity (GMA), solar activity and intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy individuals was investigated. The IOP of 485 patients (970 eyes) was recorded over three nonconsecutive years (1979, 1986, 1989) which were characterized by maximal solar activity (1979, 1989) or minimal solar activity (1986). The measurements were also correlated with four categories of GMA activity: quiet (level I0), unsettled (II0), active (III0), and stormy (IV0). Participants were also differentiated by age and sex. We found that IOP was lowest on days of level IV0 (stormy) GMA. The drop in IOP concomitant with a decrease in GMA level was more significant during periods of low solar activity and in persons over 65 years of age. There was a trend towards higher IOP values on days of levels II0 and IV0 GMA in years of high solar activity. Differences between the sexes and among individuals younger than 65 years were not significant. Our results show an interesting aspect of environmental influence on the healthy population.

Stoupel, E.; Goldenfeld, M.; Shimshoni, M.; Siegel, R.

1993-03-01

124

Effectiveness of diabetic insoles to reduce foot pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The F-$can system was used to measure peak plantar pressures in 11 diabetics each with a unilateral great toe amputation andan intact contralateral extremity (nonamputated), to evaluate the effectiveness of five footwear-insole strategies : 1) extra-depth shoes without an insole, 2) extra-depth shoes with a Plastizote ™ 1 insole , 3) extra-depth shoes with a Plastizote ™ insole and a

Hisham R. Ashry; Lawrence A. Lavery; Douglas P. Murdoch; Monica Frolich; David C. Lavery

1997-01-01

125

Global forecast model to predict the daily dose of the solar erythemally effective UV radiation.  

PubMed

A worldwide forecast of the erythemally effective ultraviolet (UV) radiation is presented. The forecast was established to inform the public about the expected amount of erythemally effective UV radiation for the next day. Besides the irradiance, the daily dose is forecasted to enable people to choose the appropriate sun protection tools. Following the UV Index as the measure of global erythemally effective irradiance, the daily dose is expressed in units of UV Index hours. In this study, we have validated the model and the forecast against measurements from broadband UV radiometers of the Robertson-Berger type. The measurements were made at four continents ranging from the northern polar circle (67.4 degrees N) to the Antarctic coast (61.1 degrees S). As additional quality criteria the frequency of underestimation was taken into account because the forecast is a tool of radiation protection and made to avoid overexposure. A value closer than one minimal erythemal dose for the most sensitive skin type 1 to the observed value was counted as hit and greater deviations as underestimation or overestimation. The Austrian forecast model underestimates the daily dose in 3.7% of all cases, whereas 1.7% results from the model and 2.0% from the assumed total ozone content. The hit rate could be found in the order of 40%. PMID:15453822

Schmalwieser, Alois W; Schauberger, Günther; Janouch, Michal; Nunez, Manuel; Koskela, Tapani; Berger, Daniel; Karamanian, Gabriel

2005-01-01

126

A general model to estimate hourly and daily solar radiation for hydrological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an important input for hydrological models and snowmelting models, surface solar radiation can be estimated from sunshine duration by the Ångström-Prescott model. This model has site-dependent parameters and thus needs calibrations when applied to individual regions. The calibrations are particularly difficult in highland and mountainous areas because of unavailability of radiation measurements. In this study, a simple model that

Kun Yang; Toshio Koike

2005-01-01

127

Estimation of monthly-mean daily global solar radiation based on MODIS and TRMM products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global solar radiation (GSR) is required in a large number of fields. Many parameterization schemes are developed to estimate it using routinely measured meteorological variables, since GSR is directly measured at a limited number of stations. Even so, meteorological stations are sparse, especially, in remote areas. Satellite signals (radiance at the top of atmosphere in most cases) can be used

Jun Qin; Zhuoqi Chen; Kun Yang; Shunlin Liang; Wenjun Tang

2011-01-01

128

Sensitivity of CERES-Maize simulated yields to uncertainty in soil properties and daily solar radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of CERES-Maize yield predictions to uncertainty in a set of soil-related parameters and solar radiation was evaluated in Pergamino, in the Argentine Pampas. Maize yields were simulated for Pergamino using a 31 years climatic record for a range of values of a group of important model input variables. The input variables considered (and the range evaluated) were: soil

Federico E. Bert; Carlos E. Laciana; Guillermo P. Podestá; Emilio H. Satorre; Angel N. Menéndez

2007-01-01

129

Effect of Estimated Daily Global Solar Radiation Data on the Results of Crop Growth Models  

PubMed Central

The results of previous studies have suggested that estimated daily global radiation (RG) values contain an error that could compromise the precision of subsequent crop model applications. The following study presents a detailed site and spatial analysis of the RG error propagation in CERES and WOFOST crop growth models in Central European climate conditions. The research was conducted i) at the eight individual sites in Austria and the Czech Republic where measured daily RG values were available as a reference, with seven methods for RG estimation being tested, and ii) for the agricultural areas of the Czech Republic using daily data from 52 weather stations, with five RG estimation methods. In the latter case the RG values estimated from the hours of sunshine using the Ångström-Prescott formula were used as the standard method because of the lack of measured RG data. At the site level we found that even the use of methods based on hours of sunshine, which showed the lowest bias in RG estimates, led to a significant distortion of the key crop model outputs. When the Ångström-Prescott method was used to estimate RG, for example, deviations greater than ±10 per cent in winter wheat and spring barley yields were noted in 5 to 6 per cent of cases. The precision of the yield estimates and other crop model outputs was lower when RG estimates based on the diurnal temperature range and cloud cover were used (mean bias error 2.0 to 4.1 per cent). The methods for estimating RG from the diurnal temperature range produced a wheat yield bias of more than 25 per cent in 12 to 16 per cent of the seasons. Such uncertainty in the crop model outputs makes the reliability of any seasonal yield forecasts or climate change impact assessments questionable if they are based on this type of data. The spatial assessment of the RG data uncertainty propagation over the winter wheat yields also revealed significant differences within the study area. We found that RG estimates based on diurnal temperature range or its combination with daily total precipitation produced a bias of to 30 per cent in the mean winter wheat grain yields in some regions compared with simulations in which RG values had been estimated using the Ångström-Prescott formula. In contrast to the results at the individual sites, the methods based on the diurnal temperature range in combination with daily precipitation totals showed significantly poorer performance than the methods based on the diurnal temperature range only. This was due to the marked increase in the bias in RG estimates with altitude, longitude or latitude of given region. These findings in our view should act as an incentive for further research to develop more precise and generally applicable methods for estimating daily RG based more on the underlying physical principles and/or the remote sensing approach.

Trnka, Miroslav; Eitzinger, Josef; Kapler, Pavel; Dubrovsky, Martin; Semeradova, Daniela; Zalud, Zden ek; Formayer, Herbert

2007-01-01

130

Quick use of WEFAX images from METEOSAT to determine daily solar radiation in France  

SciTech Connect

The authors present some preliminary results about 74 days: March 15th to June 30th, 1990. Four WEFAX images per day from the visible channel of METEOSAT have been processed. The main elements of the GISTEL methodology are briefly stated again. The estimated daily global irradiation on the ground is compared with figures measured at 10 stations in the south of France. In order to analyze the main causes of inaccuracy, this comparison is made on several modes: estimated and measured values, estimated and measured weather indexes for normalization, station per station to detect possible geographic errors.

Delorme, C.; Gallo, A.; Olivieri, J. (Univ. of Avignon Energie-Climat (France))

1992-09-01

131

Earth Orbit v2.1: a 3-D visualization and analysis model of Earth's orbit, Milankovitch cycles and insolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Milankovitch theory postulates that periodic variability of Earth's orbital elements is a major climate forcing mechanism, causing, for example, the contemporary glacial-interglacial cycles. There are three Milankovitch orbital parameters: orbital eccentricity, precession and obliquity. The interaction of the amplitudes, periods and phases of these parameters controls the spatio-temporal patterns of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the timing and duration of the seasons. This complexity makes Earth-Sun geometry and Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. Here, we present "Earth Orbit v2.1": an astronomically precise and accurate model that offers 3-D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcing. The model is developed in MATLAB® as a user-friendly graphical user interface. Users are presented with a choice between the Berger (1978a) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. A "demo" mode is also available, which allows the Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other, so that users can isolate the effects of each parameter on orbital geometry, the seasons, and insolation. A 3-D orbital configuration plot, as well as various surface and line plots of insolation and insolation anomalies on various time and space scales are produced. Insolation computations use the model's own orbital geometry with no additional a priori input other than the Milankovitch parameter solutions. Insolation output and the underlying solar declination computation are successfully validated against the results of Laskar et al. (2004) and Meeus (1998), respectively. The model outputs some ancillary parameters as well, e.g., Earth's radius-vector length, solar declination and day length for the chosen date and latitude. Time-series plots of the Milankovitch parameters and several relevant paleoclimatological data sets can be produced. Both research and pedagogical applications are envisioned for the model.

Kostadinov, T. S.; Gilb, R.

2014-06-01

132

Spectral analysis of luni-solar signal in daily meteorological data at Prague-Klementinum 1775 to 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linkages between lunar synodic cycle and select types of meteorological parameters have been suggested in previous studies. In important papers it was demonstrated that extreme precipitation events occur more frequently on the third to fifth day after syzygies. The effect is sometimes called Bowen's signal and similar lunar or semi-lunar modulation was later found also in ozone concentrations, sunshine, thunderstorm frequencies and in global temperatures observed by polar orbiting satellites. In our earlier papers we tried to analyse the possibility that the effect is transient in relation to solar activity. We confirmed the long-term quasi-periodical nearly-parallel changes in expression of lunar signal in 14 century-long daily precipitation series across Europe. The prevailing periods seemed to be similar to 22-year Hale solar magnetic cycle but there was no clear evidence and other similar celestial cycles could not be excluded. A unique set of uninterrupted daily precipitation data from Prague-Klementinum since 1804, published by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, was available. In this study we also made use of a related dataset of daily mean cloudiness that dates back as far as 1775. The cloud cover has been observed in a subjective way but we think its reliability is relatively good. In the case of precipitation we also examined the series of days with daily amount exceeding 10 mm. The data were divided into epochs of synodic months and superposed for 5 or 11 years with a step of one year. We get six sets of mean 29-day synodic signals containing 198-204 records for precipitation and 227-233 records for cloudiness. The temporal occurrence of lunar variation was defined as correlation coefficient ? between semi-lunar cosine function (period 4?/29.53), emulating the Bowen's signal, and the mean signals. The coefficients ? drawn against time created quasi-periodical charts ranging over more than two centuries. The impression of the ever-changing picture of synodic signals was given also by 3D-visualization by Surfer 10.4 surface maps. After removing both short and long-term variations of ? using a band-pass filter (cut-off periods 4 and 64 years) we calculated the power spectra by FFT that were afterwards smoothed with a running mean of 3 data points. A periodicity of 23 years - indicating solar influence - is prominent in the power spectra of cloudiness both for 5 and 11-year superposition and also in the case of the two precipitation series limited to 10 mm daily amounts, but is not present in the general precipitation series. The latter express important peaks in their power spectra near 18 years what might support the idea about the role of lunar Saros cycle of 18.6 years.

Hejkrlík, L.

2012-04-01

133

A 3D Visualization and Analysis Model of the Earth Orbit, Milankovitch Cycles and Insolation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Milankovitch theory postulates that periodic variability of Earth's orbital elements is a major climate forcing mechanism. Although controversies remain, ample geologic evidence supports the major role of the Milankovitch cycles in climate, e.g. glacial-interglacial cycles. There are three Milankovitch orbital parameters: orbital eccentricity (main periodicities of ~100,000 and ~400,000 years), precession (quantified as the longitude of perihelion, main periodicities 19,000-24,000 years) and obliquity of the ecliptic (Earth's axial tilt, main periodicity 41,000 years). The combination of these parameters controls the spatio-temporal patterns of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the timing of the seasons with respect to perihelion, as well as season duration. The complex interplay of the Milankovitch orbital parameters on various time scales makes assessment and visualization of Earth's orbit and insolation variability challenging. It is difficult to appreciate the pivotal importance of Kepler's laws of planetary motion in controlling the effects of Milankovitch cycles on insolation patterns. These factors also make Earth-Sun geometry and Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. Here, an astronomically precise and accurate Earth orbit visualization model is presented. The model offers 3D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcings. Both research and educational uses are envisioned for the model, which is developed in Matlab® as a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). We present the user with a choice between the Berger et al. (1978) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. A "demo" mode is also available, which allows the three Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other (and over much larger ranges than the naturally occurring ones), so the user can isolate the effects of each parameter on orbital geometry, the seasons, and insolation. Users select a calendar date and the Earth is placed in its orbit using Kepler's laws; the calendar can be started on either vernal equinox (March 20) or perihelion (Jan. 3). Global insolation is computed as a function of latitude and day of year, using the chosen Milankovitch parameters. 3D surface plots of insolation and insolation anomalies (with respect to J2000) are then produced. Insolation computations use the model's own orbital geometry with no additional a-priori input other than the Milankovitch parameter solutions. Insolation computations are successfully validated against Laskar et al. (2004) values. The model outputs other relevant parameters as well, e.g. Earth's radius-vector length, solar declination and day length for the chosen date and latitude. Time-series plots of the Milankovitch parameters and EPICA ice core CO2 and temperature data can be produced. Envisioned future developments include computational efficiency improvements, more options for insolation plots on user-chosen spatio-temporal scales, and overlaying additional paleoclimatological proxy data.

Kostadinov, Tihomir; Gilb, Roy

2013-04-01

134

Inverse insolation dependence of Venus' cloud-level convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally accepted that convection in planetary atmospheres is enhanced in low latitudes and in the daytime where incoming solar radiation is intense. Here we demonstrate, using a local convection model, that this tendency is reversed for Venus' cloud-level convection, which is driven by heating of the cloud base by upwelling infrared radiation. The dense lower atmosphere of Venus serves as a heat reservoir, whose temperature is horizontally well homogenized by large-scale dynamics, and thus upwelling infrared flux heats the cloud base almost equally over the entire planet. Since solar radiation preferentially heats the upper part of the cloud and has a stabilizing influence on the atmosphere, convection is relatively suppressed in low latitudes and in the daytime. The inverse insolation dependence seen in the numerical model explains observations of the latitudinal dependence of the convective layer depth and the gravity wave activity. The mechanism suggested in this study should be taken into account in climate modeling of Venus and cloudy exoplanets. How the combination of the opposite effects of the infrared heating and the solar heating determines the global distribution of the convective activity is an issue of universal importance. A long-lifetime Venus balloon floating at cloud heights would be useful for understanding these dynamical processes and the associated material transport.

Imamura, Takeshi; Higuchi, Takehito; Maejima, Yasumitsu; Takagi, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Norihiko; Ikeda, Kohei; Ando, Hiroki

2014-01-01

135

Daily spectral effects on concentrating PV solar cells as affected by realistic aerosol optical depth and other atmospheric conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution addresses the need for more information about the spectral effect affecting solar cells specifically designed for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) applications. Spectral effects result from differences between the actual (dynamically variable) solar spectrum incident on a solar cell in the field and the standard (fixed) solar spectrum used for rating purposes. A methodology is proposed to quantify this spectral effect at any site where basic atmospheric information exists, and predict what semiconductor material(s) may benefit from operating under non-standard conditions. Using the same SMARTS radiative code as for the development of the improved reference spectrum for concentrating PV rating, an analysis of the spectral sensitivity of five specific PV technologies to varying atmospheric factors is presented, using simulated spectra at 5-nm resolution. (The alternative of using the average photon energy (APE) concept was also considered, but proved inappropriate in the present context.) The technologies investigated here include a 21.5%-efficient CIGS cell, a 22%-efficient crystalline silicon cell (both appropriate for low-concentration applications), as well as three high-performance multijunction cells, which are specifically designed for high-concentration applications. To the difference of most previous studies, the approach taken here considers realistic atmospheric conditions. The proposed Daily Spectral Enhancement Factor (DSEF) is obtained from a typical daily-average incident spectrum, which is purposefully weighted to minimize the incidence of large spectral effects at low sun. Calculations of DSEF are performed here at fifteen world sites from an atmospheric monitoring network. These sites have largely different latitudes and climates, and yet are all potentially interesting for CPV applications. Results are obtained for a typical clear day of January and July, and for each of the five PV technologies just mentioned. This analysis provides a preliminary quantitative assessment of how local atmospheric conditions interact with the spectral response of different CPV technologies. Most importantly, it is shown that the effect of aerosol optical depth (AOD, also referred to as atmospheric turbidity) has the largest impact on both the average direct normal irradiance (DNI) during a given month and the cell's DSEF. It is found that DSEF can be as low as 0.993 under clean conditions (low AOD), and as high as 1.215 under hazy conditions (high AOD). Under most conditions, all simulated solar cells perform significantly better than under rating conditions due to the spectral effect alone. There is no important difference in DSEF from cell to cell, except in one instance of very high AOD. The methodology and results proposed here constitute a step towards a better performance prediction of CPV systems, by assessing the variable spectral effect more accurately. It is anticipated that a more detailed simulation, which would also model temperature effects, as well as current-limiting effects in multijunction cells, would indicate even larger DSEF values than found here. Accurate aerosol data with higher spatial resolution in the "sun belt" than what exists today would also be desirable for the development of CPV applications.

Gueymard, Christian A.

2009-08-01

136

Effect of different insoles on postural balance: a systematic review.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the effect of different insoles on postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] A systematic review was conducted of four databases. The papers retrieved were evaluated based on the following inclusion criteria: 1) design: controlled clinical trial; 2) intervention: insole; 3) outcome: change in static postural balance; and 4) year of publication: 2005 to 2012. [Results] Twelve controlled trials were found comparing the effects of different insoles on postural balance. The papers had methodological quality scores of 3 or 4 on the PEDro scale. [Conclusion] Insoles have benefits that favor better postural balance and control. PMID:24259792

Christovão, Thaluanna Calil Lourenço; Neto, Hugo Pasini; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Ferreira, Luiz Alfredo Braun; Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Eliege de Souza, Maria; Franco de Oliveira, Luis Vicente; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

2013-10-01

137

Effect of Different Insoles on Postural Balance: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the effect of different insoles on postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] A systematic review was conducted of four databases. The papers retrieved were evaluated based on the following inclusion criteria: 1) design: controlled clinical trial; 2) intervention: insole; 3) outcome: change in static postural balance; and 4) year of publication: 2005 to 2012. [Results] Twelve controlled trials were found comparing the effects of different insoles on postural balance. The papers had methodological quality scores of 3 or 4 on the PEDro scale. [Conclusion] Insoles have benefits that favor better postural balance and control.

Christovao, Thaluanna Calil Lourenco; Neto, Hugo Pasini; Grecco, Luanda Andre Collange; Ferreira, Luiz Alfredo Braun; Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Eliege de Souza, Maria; Franco de Oliveira, Luis Vicente; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

2013-01-01

138

Estimation of hourly and daily global solar radiation at clear days using an approach based on modified version of gaussian distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of two models, Jain and Baig, based on the modified version of Gaussian distribution function in estimating the daily total of global solar radiation and its distribution through the hours of the day from sunrise to sunset at any clear day is evaluated with our own measured data in the period from June 1992 to May 1993 in

S. M. El Shazly

1996-01-01

139

Surface meteorology and Solar Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

140

Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been well-known that geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation is produced by the global ionospheric currents flowing in the E-region, which are generated by dynamo process via interaction between the neutral wind and ionospheric plasma in a region of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere. Then, to investigate the Sq amplitude is essential for understanding the long-term variations in the ionospheric conductivity and neutral wind of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere. Recently, Elias et al. [2010] reported that the Sq amplitude tends to increase by 5.4-9.9 % in the middle latitudes in a period of 1961-2001. They mentioned that the long-term variation of ionospheric conductivity associated with geomagnetic secular variation mainly determines the Sq trend, but that the rest component is due to ionospheric conductivity enhancement associated with cooling effect in the thermosphere due to increasing greenhouse gas. In the present study, we clarify the characteristics of the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude using the long-term observation data of geomagnetic field and neutral wind. In the present analysis, we used the F10.7 solar flux as a good indicator of the variation in the solar irradiance in the EUV and UV range as well as geomagnetic field data with time resolution of 1 hour observed at 184 geomagnetic stations. The definition of the Sq amplitude is the difference of the H-component between the maximum and minimum every day when the Kp index is less than 4. As a result, the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude at all the geomagnetic stations shows a strong correlation with the solar F10.7 flux which depends on 11-year solar activity. The relationship between the Sq amplitude and F10.7 flux was not linear but nonlinear. This nonlinearity could be interpreted as the decrease of production rate of electrons and ions in the ionosphere for the strong EUV and UV fluxes as already reported by Balan et al. [1993]. In order to minimize the solar activity dependence on the Sq amplitude, we calculated second orders of fitting curve between the F10.7 flux and Sq amplitude during 1950-2011, and examined the residual Sq amplitude defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. The residual Sq amplitude clearly shows increase and decrease trends with the periods of 20 years. Then, it seems that the trends in the residual Sq and Sqp fields are related to the long-term variation in the ionospheric conductivities associated with the secular variation of the ambient magnetic field and the upper atmosphere (for example, plasma and neutral densities). In order to verify qualitatively the above signatures, we need to investigate the long-term variation in the ionospheric conductivities using a calculation tool developed by the IUGONET project.

Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.

2012-12-01

141

Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets.  

PubMed

The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can 'run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375?W?m(-2), which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars. PMID:24336285

Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

2013-12-12

142

Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can `run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375Wm-2, which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars.

Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

2013-12-01

143

Determination of the solar energy microclimate of the United States using satellite data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The determination of total solar energy reaching the ground over the United States using measurements from meteorological satellites as the basic data set is examined. The methods of satellite data processing are described. Uncertainty analysis and comparison of results with well calibrated surface pyranometers are used to estimate the probable error in the satellite-based determination of ground insolation. It is 10 to 15 percent for daily information, and about 5 percent for monthly values. However, the natural space and time variability of insolation is much greater than the uncertainty in the method. The most important aspect of the satellite-based technique is the ability to determine the solar energy reaching the ground over small areas where no other measurements are available. Thus, it complements the widely spaced solar radiation measurement network of ground stations.

Vonderharr, T. H.; Ellis, J. S.

1978-01-01

144

Dependence of cosmic ray solar daily variation (1st, 2nd and 3rd) on heliomagnetic polarity reversals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using 696 station-years of neutron monitor data during the period of 1964-1983 as well as data from muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, a long term variation of cosmic ray solar daily variations (1st, 2nd and 3rd) has been analyzed to study its dependence on the heliomagnetic polarity reversals. It is found that the 1st, 2nd and 3rd harmonic variations show respective counter-clockwise phase shifts on the harmonic dial for the transition from the negative to the positive polarity state. The polarity state is defined as 'positive' ('negative') when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is away (toward) in the Northern Hemisphere and toward (away) in the Southern Hemisphere. It is demonstrated that these phase shifts cannot be explained by one-dimensional diffusion of the pitch angle distribution along the IMF-axis, such as the one presented by Bieber and Pomerantz (1983), but can be explained by three-dimensional treatment of the cosmic ray diffusion-convection in space, developed by Munakata and Nagashima (1986) in considering the drift effect in the heliosphere which was pointed out by Jokipii et al. (1977). According to the theory, the rigidity dependence of the observed phase shift of the 2nd harmonic variation suggests that the power exponent of the rigidity spectrum of the cosmic ray mean free path is less than unity, at least in a rigidity region of about one to several tens of GV.

Nagashima, K.; Tatsuoka, R.; Munakata, K.

1986-05-01

145

A wireless sensor insole for collecting gait data.  

PubMed

This paper presents the status of the EU project WIISEL - Wireless Insole for Independent and Safe Elderly Living, with the focus on sensors and wireless communications. Pressure and inertial sensors are embedded into insoles and a smartphone collects data utilizing Bluetooth Low Energy. PMID:24851988

Rösevall, John; Rusu, Cristina; Talavera, Guillermo; Carrabina, Jordi; Garcia, Joan; Carenas, Carlos; Breuil, Fanny; Reixach, Elisenda; Torrent, Marc; Burkard, Stefan; Colitti, Walter

2014-01-01

146

Daily spectral effects on concentrating PV solar cells as affected by realistic aerosol optical depth and other atmospheric conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution addresses the need for more information about the spectral effect affecting solar cells specifically designed for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) applications. Spectral effects result from differences between the actual (dynamically variable) solar spectrum incident on a solar cell in the field and the standard (fixed) solar spectrum used for rating purposes. A methodology is proposed to quantify this spectral

Christian A. Gueymard

2009-01-01

147

Solar Thermal Conversion Mission Analysis. Volume IV. Mission/System and Economic Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mission/systems and economic analyses performed to examine the dynamic interaction of insolation, demand, and solar power systems are described. These analyses utilized the hourly demand projections and regional insolation data described in the previo...

P. B. Bos R. W. Bruce P. J. Peters R. M. Selter

1974-01-01

148

Estimation of hourly and daily global solar radiation at clear days using an approach based on modified version of gaussian distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of two models, Jain and Baig, based on the modified version of Gaussian distribution function in estimating\\u000a the daily total of global solar radiation and its distribution through the hours of the day from sunrise to sunset at any\\u000a clear day is evaluated with our own measured data in the period from June 1992 to May 1993 in

S. M. El shazly

1996-01-01

149

Solar radiation on Mars: Update 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. A procedure and solar radiation related data are presented from which the daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. Given the optical depth of the Mars atmosphere, the global radiation is calculated from the normalized net flux function based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation. The direct beam was derived from the optical depth using Beer's law, and the diffuse component was obtained from the difference of the global and the direct beam radiation. The optical depths of the Mars atmosphere were derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the cameras used on the two Viking Landers.

Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

1991-01-01

150

Orographic cloud over the eastern slopes of Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii, related to insolation and wind  

SciTech Connect

During the period 1 to 11 June 1978, solar radiation and other meteorological data were gathered at eight stations arranged in a nearly linear transection extending from the coast at Hilo, Hawaii to Mauna Loa Observatory, 60 km inland and 3400 m higher. Solar radiation distributions followed climatological rainfall patterns; the driest areas were sunniest. At the wettest sites, underneath the orographic cloud, measured global solar radiation was only 50% of clear-sky potential, and the diffuse component probably accounted for more than 50% of the global radiation. The orographic cloud developed during the day in upslope winds, and sharply reduced afternoon solar radiation at all sites. Total cloudiness, and hence insolation, varied greatly from day to day due to the passage of trade wind cloud masses and jet stream cirrus.

Garrett, A.J.

1980-07-01

151

Solar and temporal effects on Escherichia coli concentration at a Lake Michigan swimming beach.  

PubMed

Studies on solar inactivation of Escherichia coli in freshwater and in situ have been limited. At 63rd St. Beach, Chicago, Ill., factors influencing the daily periodicity of culturable E. coli, particularly insolation, were examined. Water samples for E. coli analysis were collected twice daily between April and September 2000 three times a week along five transects in two depths of water. Hydrometeorological conditions were continuously logged: UV radiation, total insolation, wind speed and direction, wave height, and relative lake level. On 10 days, transects were sampled hourly from 0700 to 1500 h. The effect of sunlight on E. coli inactivation was evaluated with dark and transparent in situ mesocosms and ambient lake water. For the study, the number of E. coli samples collected (n) was 2,676. During sunny days, E. coli counts decreased exponentially with day length and exposure to insolation, but on cloudy days, E. coli inactivation was diminished; the E. coli decay rate was strongly influenced by initial concentration. In situ experiments confirmed that insolation primarily inactivated E. coli; UV radiation only marginally affected E. coli concentration. The relationship between insolation and E. coli density is complicated by relative lake level, wave height, and turbidity, all of which are often products of wind vector. Continuous importation and nighttime replenishment of E. coli were evident. These findings (i) suggest that solar inactivation is an important mechanism for natural reduction of indicator bacteria in large freshwater bodies and (ii) have implications for management strategies of nontidal waters and the use of E. coli as an indicator organism. PMID:15240311

Whitman, Richard L; Nevers, Meredith B; Korinek, Ginger C; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N

2004-07-01

152

REL2.81 SW DAILY  

... Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2.81 Shortwave Daily Data in Native Format News:  GEWEX ... Parameters:  Viewing Geometry Incoming Shortwave Radiation Radiative Flux Solar Irradiance Solar ...

2014-04-07

153

Insolation Assessment Studies Progress Report: FY 1982/1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During federal Fiscal Years 1982/1983, SERI research in insolation assessment concentrated on Broadband Model Development and Evaluation and Spectral Measurements and Modeling. Other efforts were curtailed because of budget reductions. The most serious im...

1984-01-01

154

Assessment of solar energy as an alternative energy source for the Republic of Panama  

SciTech Connect

A number of different applications of solar energy were selected for an assessment of the potential solar use in the industrial, commercial and agricultural sectors of the Panamanian economy. Various solar technologies are taken into consideration with the solar water heating for industrial, commercial and institutional uses being designated as preferable for a large scale implementation. The anticipated energy saving by using solar energy to provide 50% of the energy contribution for water heating for selected applications is presented. Data showing the cost of materials required for such a solar energy contribution are given. Data for the monthly average of the daily total insolation and the reliability of these data are discussed. Finally, the expected impact of solar energy use in the Republic of Panama is discussed.

Pytlinski, J.T. ( Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez); Soderstrom, K.G.; Bryson, T.; Osorio, A.

1982-01-01

155

Early Pleistocene Glacial Cycles and the Integrated Summer Insolation Forcing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term variations in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation are generally thought to control glaciation. But the intensity of summer insolation is primarily controlled by 20,000-year cycles in the precession of the equinoxes, whereas early Pleistocene glacial cycles occur at 40,000-year intervals, matching the period of changes in Earth's obliquity. The resolution of this 40,000-year problem is that glaciers are sensitive to

Peter Huybers

2006-01-01

156

Clear atmospheric effects on insolation illustrated by broad-band radiometer measurements  

SciTech Connect

Spectral measurements from the Solar Energy Meteorological Research and Training Site - Region II monitoring station - are used to determine some of the effects of the cloudless atmosphere on the surface insolation. The effects illustrated are aerosol scattering and absorption, attenuation by volcanic dust clouds, and water vapor absorption. Parameters determined from the measurements are also compared to the results from a radiative transfer model. The direct and global solar infrared spectrum decreases with increasing dew point. A linear regression between dew point and the direct and global intensities under clear skies resulted in predictive errors less than 10%. The visible portions of the spectrum were not effected. The measured aerosol optical depths were compared to the results of a radiative transfer model. The diffuse-to-direct ratio increased with increasing optical depth in a similar fashion in both the radiative transfer model and measurements. The El Chichon dust cloud reduced the solar direct intensity in late summer of 1982. The effect was most pronounced in the 620-690 nm spectral band, although all bands were reduced. The global intensity was not measurably affected. The Mt. St. Helens dust cloud produced a dramatic insolation reduction over several days, but had no measurable long-term effect.

Spencer, D.W.

1983-01-01

157

Effect of Optimal Daily Fertigation on Migration of Water and Salt in Soil, Root Growth and Fruit Yield of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Solar-Greenhouse  

PubMed Central

Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (P<0.05) increased the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 88% and 209% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to conventional interval fertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (<1.5 mm diameter) growth of cucumber, and eventually increased cucumber economic yield by 6.2% and 8.3% and partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 55% and 75% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to the treatment optimal interval fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving crop yield and the water and fertilizers use efficiency in solar greenhouse.

Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

2014-01-01

158

Effect of optimal daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, root growth and fruit yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in solar-greenhouse.  

PubMed

Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (P<0.05) increased the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 88% and 209% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to conventional interval fertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (<1.5 mm diameter) growth of cucumber, and eventually increased cucumber economic yield by 6.2% and 8.3% and partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 55% and 75% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to the treatment optimal interval fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving crop yield and the water and fertilizers use efficiency in solar greenhouse. PMID:24475204

Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

2014-01-01

159

Estimation of hourly and daily global solar radiation at clear days using an approach based on modified version of gaussian distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of two models, Jain and Baig, based on the modified version of Gaussian distribution function in estimating the daily total of global solar radiation and its distribution through the hours of the day from sunrise to sunset at any clear day is evaluated with our own measured data in the period from June 1992 to May 1993 in Qena / Egypt. The results show a high relative deviation of calculated values from measured ones, especially for Jain model, in the most hours of the day, except for those near to local noon. This misfit behavior is quite obvious in the early morning and late afternoon. A new approach has been proposed in this paper to estimate the daily and hourly global solar radiation. This model performs with very high accuracy on the recorded data in our region. The validity of this approach was verified with new measurements in some clear days in June and August 1994. The resultant very low relative deviation of the calculated values of global solar radiation from the measured ones confirms the high performance of the approach proposed in this work.

El Shazly, S. M.

1996-08-01

160

Seasonal Influence of Insolation on Fine-Resolved Temperature Variation and Snowmelt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study uses GIS-based modeling of incoming solar radiation to quantify fine-resolved spatiotemporal responses of year-round monthly average temperature at different times and locations within a field study area located on the eastern coast of Sweden. A network of temperature sensors measures surface and near-surface temperatures during a year from June 2011 to June 2012. Strong relationships between solar radiation and temperature are exhibited during the growing season (from June to September), but break down in snow cover and snowmelt periods. Surface temperature measurements are here used to estimate snow cover duration, relating the timing of snowmelt to low performance of an existing linear model developed for the investigated site during the growing season. This study demonstrates that linearity between insolation and temperature (1) may only be valid only for solar radiation levels above a certain threshold and (2) is affected by the snow absorption of incoming radiation during snowmelt.

Destouni, G.; Vercauteren, N.; Lyon, S. W.

2013-12-01

161

Daily Care  

MedlinePLUS

... You Need to Know Online Tools Enhancing Daily Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing Dressing & Grooming Dental Care Medical Care Working with the Doctor Treatments ...

162

Insolation Weathering: An Instrumentation and Field Based Study (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Processes of mechanical weathering related to diurnal insolation are largely unexplored. Recent studies (McFadden et al., 2005, Eppes et al., 2010) demonstrated that rocks in a range of environments exhibit preferentially orientated (~N-S) cracks that are hypothesized to form as rocks are heated and cooled during the sun’s daily transit across the sky. In this study, we attempt to better understand the association between rock fracture and directional insolation. In Charlotte, NC we instrumented a ~30 cm diameter granite boulder sitting in full sun exposure with 8 thermocouples, 8 strain rosettes, 6 acoustic emission sensors and a moisture sensor, in order to spatially and temporally correlate rock cracking with rock surface conditions. Temperature and strain are recorded every minute along with a suite of meteorological data, and acoustic emissions are continuously monitored. As part of an NSF REU, in the Providence Mountains of the Mojave Desert of Southern California, we examined every crack greater than 2 cm in length on 1027 desert pavement rocks of varying types and on surfaces of varying age (~1 ka to ~150 ka) in order to examine crack characteristics as a function of rock shape, rock type and rock exposure age. Analysis of preliminary instrumentation data indicates that rock cracking as monitored by AE devices occurs in discrete intervals of events that initially appear to be related to rapid changes in temperature and/or temperature gradients on the rock surface. Using 3-D location software, we are also able to locate the foci of events within the rock to a reasonable degree of certainty. Our data will allow us to begin to quantify the stress and temperature conditions under which cracking occurs. Preliminary analysis of our field data indicates that cracks exhibit preferred strike orientations (~NE) and dip directions (~ESE). These data support the idea that cracking occurs in association with the extreme temperature gradients that arise as rocks are first heated in the morning sun. Rock shape appears to enhance this effect. For example, more cracks are observed parallel to large flat SE facing surfaces as well as to NE oriented long axes of elongated rocks. We also observe correlations with rock type and cracking. For example, the average number of cracks per rock range from 3.4 (Meta-volcanic) to 1.9 (carbonates) to 0.8 (basalts) on a 140 ka surface. There is not an obvious trend through time in crack orientations, and the mode(s) of crack orientations appears to vary with surface age. These differences in orientations may be due to differences in the thermo-dynamic properties of different rock types and minerals, making them susceptible to cracking at different times of the day or year. Alternatively, cracks may have formed during discrete intervals when environmental conditions were favorable. Such conditions may have occurred at different times of the day and/or year throughout the Quaternary.

Eppes, M. C.; Warren, K.; Swami, S.; Folz-Donahue, K.; Evans, S.; Cavendar, J.; Smith, I.; Layzell, A.

2010-12-01

163

Solar absorption cooling plant in Seville  

SciTech Connect

A solar/gas cooling plant at the Engineering School of Seville (Spain) was tested during the period 2008-2009. The system is composed of a double-effect LiBr + water absorption chiller of 174 kW nominal cooling capacity, powered by: (1) a pressurized hot water flow delivered by mean of a 352 m{sup 2} solar field of a linear concentrating Fresnel collector and (2) a direct-fired natural gas burner. The objective of the project is to indentify design improvements for future plants and to serve as a guideline. We focused our attention on the solar collector size and dirtiness, climatology, piping heat losses, operation control and coupling between solar collector and chiller. The daily average Fresnel collector efficiency was 0.35 with a maximum of 0.4. The absorption chiller operated with a daily average coefficient of performance of 1.1-1.25, where the solar energy represented the 75% of generator's total heat input, and the solar cooling ratio (quotient between useful cooling and insolation incident on the solar field) was 0.44. (author)

Bermejo, Pablo; Pino, Francisco Javier; Rosa, Felipe [Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimiento s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

2010-08-15

164

A Wireless Flexible Sensorized Insole for Gait Analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces the design and development of a novel pressure-sensitive foot insole for real-time monitoring of plantar pressure distribution during walking. The device consists of a flexible insole with 64 pressure-sensitive elements and an integrated electronic board for high-frequency data acquisition, pre-filtering, and wireless transmission to a remote data computing/storing unit. The pressure-sensitive technology is based on an optoelectronic technology developed at Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna. The insole is a low-cost and low-power battery-powered device. The design and development of the device is presented along with its experimental characterization and validation with healthy subjects performing a task of walking at different speeds, and benchmarked against an instrumented force platform.

Crea, Simona; Donati, Marco; De Rossi, Stefano Marco Maria; Oddo, Calogero Maria; Vitiello, Nicola

2014-01-01

165

Sensitivity analysis of performance of crop growth simulation models to daily solar radiation estimation methods in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation is the single most important environmental factor driving canopy photosynthesis and transpiration. This weather characteristic is measured only in a limited number of weather stations. Hence, in many situations it has to be estimated from other weather characteristics such as sunshine duration and temperature using empirical relations. In this study, the Ångstrom and Hargreaves formulas have been used

B. F. Farhadi Bansouleh; M. A. Sharifi; H. Van Keulen

2009-01-01

166

Fundamentals of solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text is addressed to upper level graduate students with background in solid state physics and to scientists and engineers involved in solar cell research. The author aims to present fundamental physical principles rather than the state-of-the-art. Specific devices are used to illustrate basic phenomena and to indicate possibilities for innovative design. Contents, abridged: Solar insolation. The calculation of solar

A. L. Farhenbruch; R. H. Bube

1983-01-01

167

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar Energy Falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of March 1985 are presented. (ERA ...

1985-01-01

168

Time-dependent MHD modeling of the global solar corona for year 2007: Driven by daily-updated magnetic field synoptic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we develop a time-dependent MHD model driven by the daily-updated synoptic magnetograms (MHD-DUSM) to study the dynamic evolution of the global corona with the help of the 3D Solar-Interplanetary (SIP) adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) space-time conservation element and solution element (CESE) MHD model (SIP-AMR-CESE MHD Model). To accommodate the observations, the tangential component of the electric field at the lower boundary is specified to allow the flux evolution to match the observed changes of magnetic field. Meanwhile, the time-dependent solar surface boundary conditions derived from the method of characteristics and the mass flux limit are incorporated to couple the observation and the 3D MHD model. The simulated evolution of the global coronal structure during 2007 is compared with solar observations and solar wind measurements from both Ulysses and spacecrafts near the Earth. The MHD-DUSM model is also validated by comparisons with the standard potential field source surface (PFSS) model, the newly improved Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) empirical formula, and the MHD simulation with a monthly synoptic magnetogram (MHD-MSM). Comparisons show that the MHD-DUSM results have good overall agreement with coronal and interplanetary structures, including the sizes and distributions of coronal holes, the positions and shapes of the streamer belts, and the transitions of the solar wind speeds and magnetic field polarities. The MHD-DUSM results also display many features different from those of the PFSS, the WSA, and the MHD-MSM models.

Yang, L. P.; Feng, X. S.; Xiang, C. Q.; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Xuepu; Wu, S. T.

2012-08-01

169

Development of a day-by-day simulation of solar systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Features of the DAYSIM computer program, used to provide accurate daily and long-term performance simulations of solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems are presented and compared in practice with predictions made with the TRNSYS program. DAYSIM employs six to eight time steps per day, with insolation, ambient temperature, and loads input as cosine waves, thus reducing computing time. Numerical modeling of the collector, heat exchanger, piping, pumps, storage, controls, pressure relief valve, domestic hot water demand, space heating and cooling demand, and environmental data is discussed. The comparisons were made for a water-glycol mixture heat carrying fluid system in Madison, Ft. Worth, and Washington weather conditions. The DAYSIM model provided better insolation estimates, whereas better load models are recommended for each programs, as well as inclusion of air system capability.

Duff, W. S.; Favard, G. J.; den Braven, K. R.

170

Simple device measures solar radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple inexpensive thermometer, insolated from surroundings by transparent glass or plastic encasement, measures intensities of solar radiation, or radiation from other sources such as furnaces or ovens. Unit can be further modified to accomplish readings from remote locations.

Humphries, W. R.

1977-01-01

171

POTENTIAL INSOLATION AS A TOPOCLIMATIC CHARACTERISTIC OF DRAINAGE BASINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is derived for characterizing drainage basins and other land areas in terms of their “average” exposure and potential irradiation by the sun. The most efficient trigonometric and graphical procedures for evaluating potential insolation upon sloping surfaces are selected, and the concept of a “theoretical intercepting surface” is employed to describe terrain elements in terms of a single-valued facet.Applications

RICHARD LEE

1964-01-01

172

The effectiveness of shock-absorbing insoles during normal walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a study of the effectiveness of commercially available shock absorbing insoles when used in four different pairs of shoes during normal walking. The measurement method was based on the use of the Fourier Transform of the axial acceleration of the leg measured by an accelerometer mounted at the ankle. The magnitude of shock was measured by the

G. R. JOHNSON

1988-01-01

173

Technical note Assessment of some shock absorbing insoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the increase in prescription of insoles to relieve symptoms due to skeletal shocks at heel strike a pilot study was initiated to look at some materials used for this purpose. Five materials were examined (Plastazote, Spenco, Sorbothane, Poron (PPT) and Viscolas) by two methods. The first method used an accelerometer mounted between the teeth of one of the

D. J. PRATT; P. H. REES; C. RODGERS

1986-01-01

174

An Apparatus to Quantify Anteroposterior and Mediolateral Shear Reduction in Shoe Insoles  

PubMed Central

Background Many of the physiological changes that lead to diabetic foot ulceration, such as muscle atrophy and skin hardening, are manifested at the foot–ground interface via pressure and shear points. Novel shear-reducing insoles have been developed, but their magnitude of shear stiffness has not yet been compared with regular insoles. The aim of this study was to develop an apparatus that would apply shear force and displacement to an insole’s forefoot region, reliably measure deformation, and calculate insole shear stiffness. Methods An apparatus consisting of suspended weights was designed to test the forefoot region of insoles. Three separate regions representing the hallux; the first and second metatarsals; and the third, fourth, and fifth metatarsals were sheared at 20 mm/min for displacements from 0.1 to 1.0 mm in both the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions for two types of insoles (regular and shear reducing). Results Shear reduction was found to be significant for the intervention insoles under all testing conditions. The ratio of a regular insole’s effective stiffness and the experimental insole’s effective stiffness across forefoot position versus shear direction, gait instance versus shear direction, and forefoot position versus gait instance was 270% ± 79%, 270% ± 96%, and 270% ± 86%, respectively. The apparatus was reliable with an average measured coefficient of variation of 0.034 and 0.069 for the regular and shear-reducing insole, respectively. Conclusions An apparatus consisting of suspended weights resting atop three locations of interest sheared across an insole was demonstrated to be capable of measuring the insole shear stiffness accurately, thus quantifying shear-reducing effects of a new type of insole.

Belmont, Barry; Wang, Yancheng; Ammanath, Peethambaran; Wrobel, James S.; Shih, Albert

2013-01-01

175

Effects of total contact insoles on the plantar stress redistribution: a finite element analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To investigate the effects of total contact insoles on the plantar stress redistribution using three-dimensional finite element analysis.Design. The efficacies of stress reduction and redistribution of two total contact insoles with different material combinations were compared with those of a regular flat insole used as a baseline condition.Background. Many specially designed total contact insoles are currently used to reduce

Weng-Pin Chen; Chia-Wei Ju; Fuk-Tan Tang

2003-01-01

176

Estimation of daily global solar radiation in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area: A combinational application of statistical downscaling method and Bayesian inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term daily global solar radiation (GSR) data of the same quality in the 20th century has been needed as a baseline to assess the climate change impact on paddy rice production in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area (MKD: 104.5-107.5oE/8.2-11.2oN). However, though sunshine duration data is available, the accessibility of GSR data is quite poor in MKD. This study estimated the daily GSR in MKD for 30-yr (1978- 2007) by applying the statistical downscaling method (SDM). The estimates of GSR was obtained from four different sources: (1) the combined equations with the corrected reanalysis data of daily maximum/minimum temperatures, relative humidity, sea level pressure, and precipitable water; (2) the correction equation with the reanalysis data of downward shortwave radiation; (3) the empirical equation with the observed sunshine duration; and (4) the observation at one site for short term. Three reanalysis data, i.e., NCEP-R1, ERA-40, and JRA-25, were used. Also the observed meteorological data, which includes many missing data, were obtained from 11 stations of the Vietnamese Meteorological Agency for 28-yr and five stations of the Global Summary of the Day for 30-yr. The observed GSR data for 1-yr was obtained from our station. Considering the use of data with many missing data for analysis, the Bayesian inference was used for this study, which has the powerful capability to optimize multiple parameters in a non-linear and hierarchical model. The Bayesian inference provided the posterior distributions of 306 parameter values relating to the combined equations, the empirical equation, and the correction equation. The preliminary result shows that the amplitude of daily fluctuation of modeled GSR was underestimated by the empirical equation and the correction equation. The combination of SDM and Bayesian inference has a potential to estimate the long- term daily GSR of the same quality even though in the area where the observed data is quite limited.

Iizumi, T.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.; Kotera, A.; Khang, N. D.

2008-12-01

177

Nonlinear response of summer temperature to Holocene insolation forcing in Alaska.  

PubMed

Regional climate responses to large-scale forcings, such as precessional changes in solar irradiation and increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gases, may be nonlinear as a result of complex interactions among earth system components. Such nonlinear behaviors constitute a major source of climate "surprises" with important socioeconomic and ecological implications. Paleorecords are key for elucidating patterns and mechanisms of nonlinear responses to radiative forcing, but their utility has been greatly limited by the paucity of quantitative temperature reconstructions. Here we present Holocene July temperature reconstructions on the basis of midge analysis of sediment cores from three Alaskan lakes. Results show that summer temperatures during 10,000-5,500 calibrated years (cal) B.P. were generally lower than modern and that peak summer temperatures around 5,000 were followed by a decreasing trend toward the present. These patterns stand in stark contrast with the trend of precessional insolation, which decreased by ?10% from 10,000 y ago to the present. Cool summers before 5,500 cal B.P. coincided with extensive summer ice cover in the western Arctic Ocean, persistence of a positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation, predominantly La Niña-like conditions, and variation in the position of the Alaskan treeline. These results illustrate nonlinear responses of summer temperatures to Holocene insolation radiative forcing in the Alaskan sub-Arctic, possibly because of state changes in the Arctic Oscillation and El Niño-Southern Oscillation and associated land-atmosphere-ocean feedbacks. PMID:22084085

Clegg, Benjamin F; Kelly, Ryan; Clarke, Gina H; Walker, Ian R; Hu, Feng Sheng

2011-11-29

178

Rocky Mountain hydroclimate: Holocene variability and the role of insolation, ENSO, and the North American Monsoon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the period of instrumental records, precipitation maximum in the headwaters of the Colorado Rocky Mountains has been dominated by winter snow, with a substantial degree of interannual variability linked to Pacific ocean–atmosphere dynamics. High-elevation snowpack is an important water storage that is carefully observed in order to meet increasing water demands in the greater semi-arid region. The purpose here is to consider Rocky Mountain water trends during the Holocene when known changes in earth's energy balance were caused by precession-driven insolation variability. Changes in solar insolation are thought to have influenced the variability and intensity of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and North American Monsoon and the seasonal precipitation balance between rain and snow at upper elevations. Holocene records are presented from two high elevation lakes located in northwest Colorado that document decade-to-century scale precipitation seasonality for the past ~ 7000 years. Comparisons with sub-tropical records of ENSO indicate that the snowfall-dominated precipitation maxima developed ~ 3000 and 4000 years ago, coincident with evidence for enhanced ENSO/PDO dynamics. During the early-to-mid Holocene the records suggest a more monsoon affected precipitation regime with reduced snowpack, more rainfall, and net moisture deficits that were more severe than recent droughts. The Holocene perspective of precipitation indicates a far broader range of variability than that of the past century and highlights the non-linear character of hydroclimate in the U.S. west.

Anderson, Lesleigh

2012-01-01

179

35 kW water cooled solar cooling package for Sigler-Faigen parts and supply building computer room, Phoenix, Arizona. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of a 35 kW air cooled solar absorption cooling package installed on the Sigler-Faigen warehouse and parts center located in Phoenix, Arizona. The thermal energy required to run the absorption unit is supplied by 88.8 m/sup 2/ of linearly curved Fresnel lens solar concentrating tracking collectors. Summaries are given of performance and problems encountered. Appendices include: job site photographs; summarized tabulated daily performance data; E-systems report of on collector performance; and insolation data from NOAA National Weather Service.

Biermann, W.J.

1982-12-01

180

Satellite estimations of the solar radiation flux at the surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The daily cumulative insolation in a large variety of cloud cases can be estimated within 9 percent of the mean insolation. Satellite capabilities almost equal those of pyranometers at vastly improved spatial resolutions. A pronounced correlation is found between insolation and both zenith angle and cloudiness. Methods of this type will soon be implemented at low cost with small personal computers that could be used as dedicated processors.

Gautier, Catherine

1987-09-01

181

Effect of viscoelastic shoe insoles on vertical impact forces in heel-toe running  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were: 1) to compare the impact forces in running using running shoes with con ventional insoles to the impact forces using running shoes with four different viscoelastic insoles, 2) to discuss possible effects of the viscoelastic insoles on lower leg kinematics, and 3) to explain the force and kinematic results using a mechanical model. Kinetic

B. M. Nigg; W. Herzog; L. J. Read

1988-01-01

182

Vertical and temporal distribution of insolation in gaps in an old-growth coniferous forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of canopy access at the Wind River Canopy Crane Research Facility, hemispherical photog- raphy, and long-term insolation data provided estimates of vertical and temporal distributions of insolation in nine can - opy gaps in a 65 m tall Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) - western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forest. Yearly insolation (long-term data from Portland, Oreg.)

Stuart B. Weiss

2000-01-01

183

Suspended, hot-box solar collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suspended, hot box solar collector is designed to provide approximately double area solar insolation on to a closed, truncated triangular structure which is double-glazed and insulated to collect and store solar heat energy for hot air space heating. Direct solar radiation is collected through sloped front, bottom and top double-glazed windows, with reflected solar rays received through the same

1980-01-01

184

Modelling Sugarcane Growth in Response to Age, Insolation and Temperature.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modelling sugarcane growth in response to age of cane, insolation and air temperature using first-order multiple regression analysis and a non-linear approach is investigated. Data are restricted to one variety from irrigated fields to eliminate the impact of varietal response and rainfall. Ten first-order models are investigated. The predictant is cane yield from 600 field tests. The predictors are cumulative values of insolation, maximum temperature and minimum temperature for 3, 6, 12, 18 months, or for each crop period derived from weather observations near the test plots. The low R-square values indicate that the selected predictor variables could not account for a substantial proportion of the variations of cane yield and the models have limited predictive values. The non-linear model is based on known functional relationships between growth and age, growth and insolation, and growth and maximum temperature. A mathematical expression that integrates the effect of age, insolation and maximum temperature is developed. The constant terms and coefficients of the equation are determined from the requirement that the model must produce results that are reasonable when compared with observed monthly elongation data. The non-linear model is validated and tested using another set of data. Following the successful validation of the model, simulated growth curves in response to age, insolation and maximum temperature are generated by computer. The three-dimensional presentation of the simulation curves provides a simple means for the analysis of the individual factors and their interactions on sugarcane growth. The proposed non-linear model may be useful in estimating potential growth and assessing growth performance. When combined with stalk population data, the model may be used to predict yields. The non-linear model shows that growth is not controlled by one factor alone, nor by a set of factors present in relative minima. Each factor has some definite influence on growth rate, depending upon the intensities of the other factors. However, only one limiting factor is required to cause the growth rate to be greatly reduced. Thus, when investigating sugarcane growth, the simultaneous effect of age, insolation and maximum temperature must be taken into consideration.

How, Karl Tiap Sen

185

Insolation and cross-hemispheric controls on Asian-Australian monsoon variability over the past glacials and interglacials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Asian-Australian summer monsoon (ASM) is primarily a synoptic feature determined by the differential thermal response to solar insolation between the Asian-Australian continents and the western Pacific warm pool (WPWP). Little is known about what process has played a key role in driving long-term ASM variability. Here we present a 180-ka record of terrestrial fluxes into offshore southeastern Papua New Guinea (PNG), a prevailing monsoon area in the WPWP. The terrestrial fluxes were estimated by a 230Th-normalized method, indicating higher terrestrial inputs into the ocean during glacial stages. We argue that the higher terrestrial fluxes are mainly fluvial, which in turn are linked to stronger ASM precipitation on land, though the increased terrestrial flux could be possibly also due to the lowstand or glacial erosion of mountain glaciers. Cross-spectral analysis indicates that the precipitation maxima is controlled by local summer insolation maxima, WPWP SST minima, and East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) maxima in precession frequency bands (21-ka-1). This result suggests that the 21-ka components of the ASM in the past 180,000 years are not only insolation driven but also a dynamic component strengthened by cross-hemispheric pressure gradient resulted from the precession maxima forcing.

Chen, M.

2012-12-01

186

The effectiveness of shock-absorbing insoles during normal walking.  

PubMed

This paper describes a study of the effectiveness of commercially available shock absorbing insoles when used in four different pairs of shoes during normal walking. The measurement method was based on the use of the Fourier Transform of the axial acceleration of the leg measured by an accelerometer mounted at the ankle. The magnitude of shock was measured by the "Shock Factor" which has been defined as the rms acceleration between 50 Hz and 150 Hz expressed as a proportion of that between 10 Hz and 150 Hz. Nine insoles were tested in each pair of shoes and the Shock factor for each combination was compared with the value obtained for the shoes alone. Statistically significant reductions of Shock Factor were noted in 58% of cases; the largest improvement (30% reduction in Shock Factor) was achieved by lightweight Sorbothane. The experimental technique has now been further developed to allow the measurement of Shock Factor by a portable Shock Meter. PMID:3174411

Johnson, G R

1988-08-01

187

African monsoons, an immediate climate response to orbital insolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Croll-Milankovitch astronomical theory of climate1-3 has received strong support from the evidence of a linear climatic forcing by obliquity and precession, although nonlinearity had to be assumed for eccentricity4,5. Moreover, interglacials have appeared to be controlled by the orbital insolation6 although a phase shift of 6,000-5,000 yr is seen between an astronomical climate index and terrestrial climate indicators, dominated

Martine Rossignol-Strick

1983-01-01

188

A comparison of shoe insole materials in plantar pressure relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinical study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of seven shoe insole materials and their ability to relieve areas of high plantar pressure. The following materials were tested: Latex foam, PlastazoteR, DynafoamR, Ortho felt, PPT R, SpencoR, and MoloR. Twenty-six patients with areas of high plantar pressure were tested using each of these materials. The Harris and Beath footprinting

C. LEBER; P. M. EVANSKI

1986-01-01

189

Knee abduction angular impulses during prolonged running with wedged insoles.  

PubMed

Wedged insoles may produce immediate effects on knee abduction angular impulses during running; however, it is currently not known whether these knee abduction angular impulse magnitudes are maintained throughout a run when fatigue sets in. If changes occur, this could affect the clinical utility of wedged insoles in treating conditions such as patellofemoral pain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether knee abduction angular impulses are altered during a prolonged run with wedged insoles. It was hypothesized that knee abduction angular impulses would be reduced following a prolonged run with wedged insoles. Nine healthy runners participated. Runners were randomly assigned to either a 6-mm medial wedge condition or a 6-mm lateral wedge condition and then ran continuously overground for 30 min. Knee abduction angular impulses were quantified at 0 and 30 min using a gait analysis procedure. After 2 days, participants returned to perform the same test but with the other wedge type. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate main effects of wedge condition and time and interactions between wedge condition and time (? = 0.05). Paired t-tests were used for post hoc analysis (? = 0.01). No interaction effects (p = 0.958) were found, and knee abduction angular impulses were not significantly different over time (p = 0.384). Lateral wedge conditions produced lesser knee abduction angular impulses than medial conditions at 0 min (difference of 2.79 N m s, p = 0.006) and at 30 min (difference of 2.76 N m s, p < 0.001). It is concluded that significant knee abduction angular impulse changes within wedge conditions do not occur during a 30-min run. Additionally, knee abduction angular impulse differences between wedge conditions are maintained during a 30-min run. PMID:23636760

Lewinson, Ryan T; Worobets, Jay T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

2013-07-01

190

Insolation Effects on the Lunar Hydrogen Budget: Correlated Observations of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's LEND, LOLA and Diviner Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research we correlate the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO), Diviner radiometer temperature maps that characterize the Moon's thermal environment with maps derived from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) and Lunar Orbiting Laser Altimeter (LOLA). In previous research, we found evidence that the Moon's Hydrogen budget was broadly influenced by insolation effects. In that analysis we implemented a transformation of LOLA's topography maps, thereby isolating poleward-facing and equator-facing slopes. We then integrated the LEND epithermal neutron maps over these regions and found that the epithermal neutron count rates were significantly lower in poleward-facing slopes vs. equivalent equator-facing slopes, yielding a localized "epithermal contrast". This result suggests higher H / H2O concentrations in poleward-facing slopes vs. comparable equator-facing slopes. It is also consistent with findings in terrestrial and Martian environments indicating similar H / H2O slope contrasts. In support of that finding we determined that the epithermal neutron rates over east and west-facing slopes were as predicted equivalent. The above effects were also similar for both North and South Poles. Together, this support indicated surface insolation is an important factor governing the Moon's Hydrogen budget. Temperature effects of insolation are primarily a function of a cosine process a = i cos ?, which predicts the effective solar irradiation a, incident to a given surface as a function of its angular orientation ?, to the source solar irradiation, i. ? is locally a function of several variables including combined: seasonal, diurnal, topographic, latitude and regolith compositional effects which induces locally dependent and time variable temperature conditions. The Moons low obliquity and increased latitude predictably attenuate solar irradiation, which is well correlated with decreased near-surface temperatures towards the poles. Importantly, topographic variance is also a critical factor in ?, that influences a slopes relative orientation to the incident solar irradiation thus inducing localized illumination and temperature conditions. At a given lunar latitude, these factors yield a localized temperature continuum. The temperature differential or 'contrast' between localized poleward-facing and equator-facing slopes approximates the temperature range of this continuum. We extend this research by integrating the Diviner radiometer temperature maps to this analysis. In this effort we will perform a correlative analysis to identify and quantify the temperature contrast between pole-facing and equator-facing slopes used in the LEND analysis. This will allow us to determine the relative contribution of insolation factors e.g. latitude, slope degree and orientation to the poleward direction on epithermal neutron fluences and the Hydrogen budget.

McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I.; Boynton, W. V.; Litvak, M.; Milikh, G. M.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R. D.; Livengood, T. A.; Chin, G.; Harshman, K.; Droege, G.

2012-12-01

191

Poetry Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some might say that a poem a day isn't nearly enough, while the skeptical might say that it is quite enough already, thank you very much. Regardless of that debate, Poetry Daily is a splendid resource that brings visitors new poems from books, magazines and journals currently in print. Visitors to the site will find themselves looking straight at "Today's Poem", which of course features the daily poem, along with links to other works by the author. If one poem is simply not enough, the site also contains an archive that goes back approximately one year. Additionally, the site also contains a "News, Reviews, & Special Features" section, which digests recent news stories about the world of poetry.

192

Constitution Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyone could use a bit of the Constitution added to their daily lives, and this website more than delivers on its promise to deliver "smart conversation about the Constitution". Constitution Daily is an experimental blog edited by the National Constitution Center (NCC) in Philadelphia, and commentary here can include conversations about student privacy rights, the Second Amendment, and the activities of Congress. Visitors can click on the "Issues" section to dive into topic areas that include civility and privacy. After looking at each topic area, visitors can look at an interactive timeline that arranges comments, posts, and discussion on the subject. The site also contains some nice polls, and information about upcoming events at the NCC.

193

Urban air pollution and solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

1981-01-01

194

Framework for the mapping of the monthly average daily solar radiation using an advanced case-based reasoning and a geostatistical technique.  

PubMed

For the effective photovoltaic (PV) system, it is necessary to accurately determine the monthly average daily solar radiation (MADSR) and to develop an accurate MADSR map, which can simplify the decision-making process for selecting the suitable location of the PV system installation. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a framework for the mapping of the MADSR using an advanced case-based reasoning (CBR) and a geostatistical technique. The proposed framework consists of the following procedures: (i) the geographic scope for the mapping of the MADSR is set, and the measured MADSR and meteorological data in the geographic scope are collected; (ii) using the collected data, the advanced CBR model is developed; (iii) using the advanced CBR model, the MADSR at unmeasured locations is estimated; and (iv) by applying the measured and estimated MADSR data to the geographic information system, the MADSR map is developed. A practical validation was conducted by applying the proposed framework to South Korea. It was determined that the MADSR map developed through the proposed framework has been improved in terms of accuracy. The developed MADSR map can be used for estimating the MADSR at unmeasured locations and for determining the optimal location for the PV system installation. PMID:24635702

Lee, Minhyun; Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Park, Hyo Seon

2014-04-15

195

Standing Balance on the Ground --The Influence of Flatfeet and Insoles  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine whether insoles change standing balance on the ground in normal and flat-footed subjects. [Subjects] Twenty subjects with flatfeet and 20 subjects with normal feet were included in this study. [Methods] Body sway was evaluated based on the center of pressure while subjects stood on the ground. Body sway was measured during upright standing with the feet 10?cm apart for 30 seconds. The total locus length and the area of body sway were then measured using a zebris system. Measurements were made under three sets of conditions: using BMZ insoles, which supported the cuboid; using Superfeet insoles, which supported the medial longitudinal arch; and with no insoles. [Results] The 3 insole conditions were compared. On level ground, the total locus length for the Superfeet insole was significantly less than those for the BMZ insole and no insole. [Conclusion] On level ground, Superfeet feet insoles were effective in stabilizing standing balance in both flat-footed and normal-footed subjects.

Takata, Yuichi; Matsuoka, Shinji; Okumura, Nobuhisa; Iwamoto, Koji; Takahashi, Mitsugu; Uchiyama, Eiichi

2014-01-01

196

Standing balance on the ground -the influence of flatfeet and insoles.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine whether insoles change standing balance on the ground in normal and flat-footed subjects. [Subjects] Twenty subjects with flatfeet and 20 subjects with normal feet were included in this study. [Methods] Body sway was evaluated based on the center of pressure while subjects stood on the ground. Body sway was measured during upright standing with the feet 10?cm apart for 30 seconds. The total locus length and the area of body sway were then measured using a zebris system. Measurements were made under three sets of conditions: using BMZ insoles, which supported the cuboid; using Superfeet insoles, which supported the medial longitudinal arch; and with no insoles. [Results] The 3 insole conditions were compared. On level ground, the total locus length for the Superfeet insole was significantly less than those for the BMZ insole and no insole. [Conclusion] On level ground, Superfeet feet insoles were effective in stabilizing standing balance in both flat-footed and normal-footed subjects. PMID:24409010

Takata, Yuichi; Matsuoka, Shinji; Okumura, Nobuhisa; Iwamoto, Koji; Takahashi, Mitsugu; Uchiyama, Eiichi

2013-12-01

197

Solar Radiation Characteristics and Prediction Methodscaratteristiche Metodi di Previsione Della Radiazione Solare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mathematical and statistical studies were carried out in order to provide a ground level solar radiation estimation, starting from meteorological data for given locations. Available insolation and meteorological historical series of Italian localities wer...

F. Barbaliscia

1981-01-01

198

Embedded sensor insole for wireless measurement of gait parameters.  

PubMed

This work presents the development of a portable, wireless activity monitoring system for the estimation of biomechanical gait parameters. The system uses a pair of instrumented insoles able to measure pressure from different points of the foot including four commercial piezoresistive pressure sensors and a three-axis accelerometer, all together integrated in the insole to determine foot forces during stance and swing phases. The system includes two kinds of analysis data, one on line with a RF communications to a computer, and another off line reading the data from SD memory card. Our system has been validated and tested in different trials, extracting several features during walking for ten participants by means of the combined information from the two kinds of sensors. With the combined data from the complete set of sensors, we can obtain highly valuable information on foot movement during the non-contact period, such as supination or pronation characteristics or anomalous movement during flight time. From our preliminary results, the variation of the lateral acceleration of the foot seems to be correlated with the amount of supination. PMID:24375153

Martínez-Martí, Fernando; Martínez-García, María Sofía; García-Díaz, Santiago G; García-Jiménez, Javier; Palma, Alberto J; Carvajal, Miguel A

2014-03-01

199

Changes of postural steadiness following use of prefabricated orthotic insoles.  

PubMed

Orthoses are designed to assist a malaligned foot in adapting to the environment and reduce the frequency of injury. Literature is divided on the benefits of orthotics insoles for postural stability. The current study was conducted to determine the effect of prefabricated orthotic arch supports on postural stabilization. Twelve healthy young adults participated in this study and were tested with and without prefabricated orthotics. Different variables were computed from movement of center of pressure (COP) during orthotic use as suggested in the literature. The mean position of COP was significantly shifted forward and toward the dominant side. Neither the COP movement nor the velocity changes following the use of orthotics revealed significant differences. Mediolateral range of COP movement and the 95% confidence circle area of sway was significantly reduced (P = .022 and 0.048 respectively), but changes in 95% confidence circle and ellipse areas of fractal dimension were not significant (P = .053 and P = .057 respectively). In conclusion, orthotic insoles significantly improved postural sway initially by reducing mediolateral range of postural sway and 95% confidence circle area of sway at the cost of increased fractal dimension area variables and power. PMID:22815281

Bateni, Hamid

2013-04-01

200

Evaluation of Relation between Distance and Insolation Fluctuation Independence based on Coherence and Ensemble Average of Insolation Fluctuations at Two Points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power output fluctuation of high penetration photovoltaic power generation systems (PVSs) may cause negative impacts on the load frequency control (LFC) of an electric power utility. For the cost-effective mitigation, the proper evaluation of apparent electricity demand fluctuation is important, taking the power output of PVSs into account as a negative demand. If the actual power output patterns are independent among several points, the standard deviation (STD) of total power output fluctuation of PVSs located in several points can be estimated based on the addition theorem of variance. Moreover, the central limit theorem may be applied if the probability distribution of insolation fluctuation is the same among several points. As a fundamental study to apply the stochastic methods, this study evaluates the following two factors to determine the distance between two points with which the insolation patterns of two points can be considered as independent: 1) the coherence of insolation fluctuation for various combinations of two points with different distances, 2) the correlation diagram of two different STDs, i.e. the STD of ensemble average insolation fluctuation observed at two points and the averaged STD of each STD of insolation fluctuation at two points. The results suggest that the insolation fluctuation consisting of the cycles shorter than 30min can be considered as independent if the distance between two points is longer than 5km-10km.

Kato, Takeyoshi; Inoue, Takato; Suzuoki, Yasuo

201

Cracks in desert pavement rocks: Further insights into mechanical weathering by directional insolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of cracks is a fundamental first step in the physical weathering of rocks in desert environments. In this study we combine new field data from the Mojave (U.S.), Gobi (Mongolia) and Strzelecki (Australia) deserts that collectively support the hypothesis that meridional cracks (cracks with orientations not readily attributable to rock anisotropies or shape) in boulders or cobbles form due to tensile stresses caused by directional heating and cooling during the sun's daily transit. The new studies indicate that rock size, surface age, and latitude play important roles with respect to their influence on rock fracture. Rock size and pavement surface age exert an influence on the development of rock cracks as the average clast size of mature desert pavements may be at or below the threshold-clast size for thermal cracking of rocks. Latitude-controlled seasonal temperature variations play a key role, as demonstrated by: 1) tightly clustered mean resultant orientations that differ by latitude, as predicted in McFadden et al. (2005), and 2) very cold wintertime temperatures and strong diurnal gradients that may favor crack development in wintertime, given the likelihood for strong clast heating during early morning hours. The consistent evidence for meridional cracks in surfaces of diverse age and desert environments, climate, vegetation, and distance of clast transport indicate that directional insolation may play the key role in initially generating and propagating rock fractures, rather than a secondary role as implied in recent field and modeling studies of physical weathering in deserts.

Eppes, Martha Cary; McFadden, Leslie D.; Wegmann, Karl W.; Scuderi, Louis A.

2010-11-01

202

Variation of solar cell sensitivity and solar radiation on tilted surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The validity is studied that one of various insolation models used to compute solar radiation incident on tilted surfaces from global data measured on horizontal surfaces. The variation of solar cell sensitivity to solar radiation is determined over a wide range of atmospheric condition. A new model was formulated that reduced the deviations between measured and predicted insolation to less than 3 percent. Evaluation of solar cell sensitivity data indicates small change (2-3 percent) in sensitivity from winter to summer for tilted cells. The feasibility of using such global data as a means for calibrating terrestrial solar cells is discussed.

Klucher, T. M.

1978-01-01

203

Cannon of Insolation and the Ice-Age Problem (Kanon der Erdbestrahlung and Seine Anwendung Auf das Eiszeitenproblem).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The planets' motion around the sun and their mutual perturbations; The rotation of the earth; Secular wanderings of the rotational poles of the earth; Terrestrial insolation and its secular changes; Connection between insolation and the temperat...

M. Milankovitch

1969-01-01

204

Solar energy for Cerritos City Hall  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and operation of a solar assisted heat pump system used for space heating and hot water heating for the new 55,000 ft² Cerritas, California city hall are discussed. solar collector panels are coupled through a circulating water loop to a heat pump system. Effects of local insolation and cloud cover on solar collector design trade offs are briefly

1977-01-01

205

Solar energy in Peru  

SciTech Connect

The past, present, and future of Peru is discussed in terms of solar energy development and the social, economic, climatic, and technical factors involved. It is pointed out that there are 3 geographical divisions in Peru including: (1) the foggy coastal strip where rain is infrequent, insolation is low and population is high; (2) the mountainous Andes region with high insolation and many populated high mountain valleys; and (3) the rainy, Amazon basin covered with jungle, and sparcely populated with high but inconsistent insolation. Since there is little competition with other forms of energy, solar energy shows promise. Passive solar heating of buildings, particularly in the Andes region, is described, as well as the use of solar water heaters. Prototypes are described and illustrated. Industrial use of solar heated water in the wool industry as well as solar food drying and solar desalination are discussed. High temperature applications (electrical generators and refrigeration) as well as photovoltaic systems are discussed briefly. It is concluded that social and political factors are holding back the development of solar energy but a start (in the form of prototypes and demonstration programs) is being made. (MJJ)

Pierson, H.

1981-12-01

206

Arkansas solar retrofit guide  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of how solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is reported. The retrofits examined were greenhouses, air heaters and water heaters. The design, construction, and performance of the retrofits are described, along with some information about sun motion and orientation and greenhouse gardening. Appended are maps, tables, and graphs of insolation in Arkansas. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-06-01

207

53 kW water cooled solar cooling package for BDP distribution center, Phoenix, Arizona. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of the 53 kW water-cooled solar absorption unit installed at the rear of the BDP Arizona Distribution Center, Phoenix, Arizona, for use as the primary means of space comfort cooling. Thermal energy required to run the solar absorption unit is supplied by 133.8 m/sup 2/ of concentrating tracking trough-type Acurex collectors. Surplus solar energy is stored in a 9462 liter insulated steel storage tank. Summaries are given of the performance of the system and the problems encountered. Appendices include: job site photographs, summarized tabulated daily performance data; 3M company trip report; and insolation data from NOAA National Weather Service.

Biermann, W.J.

1982-12-01

208

Solar PV-thermoelectric generator hybrid system: case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar photovoltaic (PV) thermoelectric generator (TEG) hybrid system combines the economics of a solar photovoltaic system with the reliability and heating capability of a thermoelectric generator system. The solar system provides power during seasons with abundant sunshine while the thermoelectric generator system provides power and heat as required during seasons with insufficient solar insolation or during extended periods of

G. Moore; W. Peterson

1988-01-01

209

Short-term surface insolation forecasts derived from satellite cloud advection techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-term (1-3 hour) forecasts of surface insolation are of paramount import for producers of solar power producers when integrating with power distribution grids. Results from a radiative transfer model coupled with a satellite-derived cloud advection technique are presented, and compared against the NOAA Surface Radiation (SURFRAD( network for validation purposes. Satellite observations from GOES are used within the AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres-Extended (PATMOS-x) retrieval package to determine cloud properties which are then coupled with GFS wind observations to advect cloud positions forward in time. Advection is performed on a per-pixel basis as well as within self-similar cloud groups identified by a novel cloud-grouping algorithm utilizing thresholds of comparisons with the PATMOS-x input. Advected cloud positions, which account for parallax and shadow locations, are then used to run a single-column radiative transfer model to compute the forecasted surface irradiance value. Forecasts using the advection technique during calendar year 2012 are presented, along with validation results from the SURFRAD network. Issues and benefits from using satellite advection techniques versus traditional numerical weather prediction model forecasts are also presented.

Rogers, M. A.; Miller, S. D.; Heidinger, A. K.; Sengupta, M.

2012-12-01

210

Firm insoles effectively reduce hemolysis in runners during long distance running - a comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background Shock absorbing insoles are effective in reducing the magnitude and rate of loading of peak impact forces generated at foot strike during running, whereas the foot impact force during running has been considered to be an important cause of intravascular hemolysis in long distance runners. Objective of this study was to evaluate the intravascular hemolysis during running and compare the effect of two different types of insoles (Soft and Firm) on hemolysis. Methods Twenty male long and middle distance runners volunteered to participate in this study. We selected two insoles (Soft and Firm) according to their hardness level (SHORE 'A' scale). Participants were randomly assigned to the soft insole (group 1) and firm insole (group 2) group with ten athletes in each group. Each athlete completed one hour of running at the calculated target heart rate (60-70%). Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after running. We measured unconjucated bilirubin (mg/dl), lactate dehydrogenase (?/ml), hemoglobin (g/l) and serum ferritin (ng/ml) as indicators of hemolysis. Results Our study revealed a significant increase in the mean values of unconjucated bilirubin (P < 0.05) while running with soft insoles indicating the occurrence of hemolysis in this group of athletes. Graphical analysis revealed an inverse relationship between hardness of insoles and hemolysis for the observed values. Conclusion Our results indicate that intravascular hemolysis occurs in athletes during long distance running and we conclude that addition of firm insoles effectively reduces the amount of hemolysis in runners compared to soft insoles.

2011-01-01

211

Local effects of partly-cloudy skies on solar and emitted radiations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric aerosol and turbidity measurements were analyzed and the results are presented. The correlation of global insolation with cloud cover fractions for the first complete year's data set was completed. A theoretical model was developed to parameterize the effects of local aerosols upon insolation received at the ground using satellite radiometric data and insolation measurements under clear sky conditions. A February data set, composed of one minute integrated global insolation and direct solar irradiances, cloud cover fractions, meteorological data from nearby weather stations, and GOES East satellite radiometric data was collected to test the model and used to calculate the effects of local aerosols.

Whitney, D. A.; Griffin, T. J.

1983-01-01

212

Estimates of available solar radiation and photovoltaic energy production for various tilted and tracking surfaces throughout the US based on PVFORM, a computerized performance model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved photovoltaic performance model called PVFORM has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. This new model incorporates the latest improvements in solar modelling techniques including the Perez anisotropic solar diffuse model. The PVFORM model has been used to produce tables of average solar radiation availabilities and corresponding direct current energy performance for a photovoltaic module mounted in various tilted and tracking configurations. Solar availabilities are also computed for some vertical and 45 deg. tilted wall surfaces for use in passive solar design. The tables contain average daily solar availabilities and PV energy production for 38 sites throughout the US. Each table contains four average daily values representing the four seasons of the year along with an annual average. Typical weather conditions are also presented for each of the 38 sites. This new model and the set of tables presented in this report are of special importance to solar energy system designers because they provide more accurate estimates of insolation availability on fixed and tracking surfaces by as much as 20%, PVFORM has been shown to be accurate to within 5% to 7% with no observable prediction bias. Use of the PVFORM model or the tabulated data found in this report will enable the architect or engineer to design more cost effective solar energy systems.

Menicucci, D. F.; Fernandez, J. P.

1986-03-01

213

Solar radiation as a forest management tool: A primer and application of principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incident solar radiation received by large land areas cannot be managed or controlled; however, forest management can exert significant effect on local insolation in small areas. Harvest and regeneration patterns can be designed to increase or decrease the radiation level at many sites. The objectives of the management plan can determine the level of insolation desirable. Basic relationships usable

H. G. Halverson; J. L. Smith

1979-01-01

214

U.S. Solar Resource Maps and Tools from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)  

DOE Data Explorer

Solar maps provide monthly average daily total solar resource information on grid cells. The insolation values represent the resource available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal to equal to the latitude of the collector location. [Copied from http://www.nrel.gov/gis/solar.html] Several types of solar maps are made available. The U.S. Solar resource maps show the resource potential for energy from photovoltaics and from concentrating solar power (CSP). Both sets of maps are available in low or high resolution. A dynamic map based on version 2 of PVWATTS calculates electrical energy performance estimates for a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The map of U.S. Solar Measurement Station Locations is also dynamic, showing the spatial distribution of measurement stations across the U.S. that are monitored by programs and agencies such as DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program or NREL's Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements (CONFRRM). Clicking on a station location will take the user to the website of that station. Finally, static map images providing solar resource information averaged by month are also available.

215

Analysis of walking improvement with dynamic shoe insoles, using two accelerometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orthopedics at the rehabilitation hospital found that disorders caused by sports injuries to the feet or caused by lower-back are improved by wearing dynamic shoe insoles, these improve walking balance and stability. However, the relationship of the lower-back and knees and the rate of increase in stability were not quantitatively analyzed. In this study, using two accelerometers, we quantitatively analyzed the reciprocal spatiotemporal contributions between the lower-back and knee of patients with left lower-back pain by means of Relative Power Contribution Analysis. When the insoles were worn, the contribution of the left and right knee relative to the left lower-back pain was up to 26% ( p<0.05) greater than without the insoles. Comparing patients with and without insoles, we found that the variance in the step response analysis of the left and right knee decreased by up to 67% ( p<0.05). This shows an increase in stability.

Tsuruoka, Yuriko; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Shibasaki, Ryosuke; Tsuruoka, Masako

2005-07-01

216

The shock attenuation characteristics of four different insoles when worn in a military boot during running and marching.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken to determine if placing shock absorbing insoles in the boots of Royal Marine recruits would attenuate the peak pressure at the foot-boot interface, when marching at 4.8 kph carrying a 32 kg (70 lb) Bergen and running at 12.8 kph in loose order plus webbing weighing 10 kg (22 lb). Four types of insoles were assessed: viscoelastic polymetric insole (Cambion(R)) polymetric foam insole (PPT(R)) Saran insole (military issue) and Sorbothane(R). There was a fifth control condition in which no insoles were used. Pressure measurements during heel strike and forefoot loading were taken using Paratec equipment with pressure measuring insoles placed in the boots. Data were obtained from eleven subjects and indicated that all the insoles significantly (P<0.05) attenuated the peak pressures generated during heel strike and forefoot loading. The performance of the four insoles in terms of peak pressure attenuation ranked in order with the best first were: Sorbothane Cambion PPT Saran. The Sorbothane insole was substantially and significantly (P<0.05) better than the other insoles in terms of attenuating peak pressures during heel strike. During running, mean peak pressure at heel strike was 494 kPa in the control condition, this was reduced to 377 kPa when wearing Sorbothane insoles (a reduction of 27%). When marching the Sorbothane insoles reduced the mean peak pressure at heel strike from 395 kPa (control) to 303 kPa (23% reduction). During forefoot loading the peak pressure attenuation of all four insoles was similar, although on average the Sorbothane insole performed slightly better than the others and was significantly different (P<0. 05) to the Cambion insole. Mean peak forefoot loading pressure in the control condition when running was 413 kPa, with the Sorbothane insole it was 367 kPa, during marching the respective mean peak pressures were 397 and 323 kPa. It is concluded that of the four types of insoles assessed the Sorbothane insoles attenuated the greatest amounts of the peak pressure generated at heel strike and during forefoot loading when running and marching wearing military boots. PMID:10575068

Windle, C M; Gregory, S M; Dixon, S J

1999-03-01

217

Effectiveness of a lateral-wedge insole on knee varus torque in patients with knee osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kerrigan DC, Lelas JL, Goggins J, Merriman GJ, Kaplan RJ, Felson DT. Effectiveness of a lateral-wedge insole on knee varus torque in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:889-93. Objectives: To test whether a lateral-wedged insole, inclined at 5[deg ] or 10[deg ], significantly reduces knee varus torque during walking in patients with knee osteoarthritis compared with both

D. Casey Kerrigan; Jennifer L. Lelas; Joyce Goggins; Greg J. Merriman; Robert J. Kaplan; David T. Felson

2002-01-01

218

Laterally elevated wedged insoles in the treatment of medial knee osteoarthritis: a prospective randomized controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the clinical effects of laterally wedged insoles and neutrally wedged insoles (used as control) in patients with medial femoro-tibial knee osteoarthritis (OA).Design 6-month prospective randomized controlled study. Patients: outpatients with painful medial femoro-tibial knee OA. Outcome measures: patient's overall assessment of disease activity (5 grade scale), WOMAC index subscales and concomitant treatments. Statistical analysis: Performed as an

J. F. Maillefert; C. Hudry; G. Baron; P. Kieffert; P. Bourgeois; D. Lechevalier; A. Coutaux; M. Dougados

2001-01-01

219

The effect of wedged insoles on the thrust of osteoarthritic knees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. We describe a method of quantifying the lateral\\/medial thrust of the knee which occurs in the early phase of walking. We\\u000a have used this method to evaluate the effects of wedged insoles on the lateral and medial thrust for normal knees and knees\\u000a with unicompartment osteoarthritis (OA). A laterally elevated (valgus) insole decreased the lateral thrust of both normal

K. Ogata; M. Yasunaga; H. Nomiyama

1997-01-01

220

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Exxon Research and Engineering. System Design Final Report, Volume 1. Design Description Seawater Feed (System A).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of a solar powered water desalination system is presented. Design data including insolation and climate of the Yanbu, Saudi Arabia site are included. Two solar desalination designs were developed including: (1) a conceptual baseline plant power...

1985-01-01

221

Plantar Foot Surface Temperatures with Use of Insoles  

PubMed Central

Purpose- Patients with diabetes are often prescribed foot orthoses to help prevent foot ulcer formation. Orthotics are used to redistribute normal and shear stress. Shear stresses are not easily measurable and considered to be responsible for skin breakdown. Local elevation of skin temperature has been implicated as an early sign of impending ulceration especially in regions of high shear stress. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of commonly prescribed insole materials on local changes in plantar foot temperature during normal gait. Methods- Six commonly used foot orthosis materials were tested using the Thermo Trace™ infrared thermometer to measure foot temperature. Ten healthy adult volunteers without any history of diabetes or abnormal sensation participated in the study. During each trial the subject walked on a treadmill with the test material in the dominant foot's shoe, for six minutes at a speed of four miles per hour and rested for six minutes between trials. Four locations on the foot (hallux, first and fifth metatarsal heads, and heel) and the contralateral bicep temperatures were measured at 0, 1, 3, 5 minutes during the rest period. The order of material and skin location testing was randomized. Results- Significant differences were found between baseline temperatures and foot temperatures for all materials. However, no differences were found between materials for any location on the foot. Conclusion- Previous studies have attempted to characterize materials based on laboratory and clinical testing, while other studies have attempted to characterize the effect of pressure on skin temperature. However, no study has previously attempted to characterize foot orthosis materials based on foot temperatures. This study compared foot temperatures of healthy adults based on the material tested. Although this study was unable to distinguish between materials based on foot temperatures, it was able to show a rise in foot temperature with any material used. This study demonstrates a need to a larger study on a population with diabetes.

Hall, Michelle; Shurr, Donald G; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Saltzman, Charles L

2004-01-01

222

Operation and performance of the solar steam system at the Johnson and Johnson plant in Sherman, Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operation of a solar system that produces 174 C (345 F) steam is described and analyzed. The system uses parabolic through collectors to heat pressurized water which then flashes to steam in a flash boiler; This steam is fed into the plant steam main for use in several manufacturing processes. The facility's performance has been monitored continuously since it began operation in January 1980. The collector field typically has delivered energy to the flash boiler at an average daily efficiency of 25 to 35 percent, with an hourly average efficiency ranging from 38 to 42 percent at peak insolation periods. The daily and hourly values for energy collected and steam generated on a clear day in September and presented, as well as a monthly summary for the first 11 months of operation.

Brink, D. F.; Matteo, M. A.; Youngblood, S. B.

223

The Solar Constant since 1600  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze a graph of solar irradiance since 1610. Answer key is provided. They will consider average insolation, percent changes and the link between irradiance and climate change. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

224

The biomechanical effects of a new design of lateral wedge insole on the knee and ankle during walking.  

PubMed

Lateral wedged insoles are a common treatment in individuals with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis of the knee joint. One concern has been the potential for increased foot and ankle pain due to increased eversion. The purpose of this study was to assess the biomechanical effectiveness of a typical lateral wedged insole and a combined insole with a lateral wedge and off-the-shelf anti-pronatory device in shoes while walking. A cross-over randomized design was used where each insole was worn by fifteen healthy subjects while three-dimensional motion data were collected in three different conditions: (1) control condition (with standard shoes), (2) with an insole with a lateral wedge and additional off-the-shelf anti-pronatory support (supporting), and (3) with an insole with a lateral wedge with no additional support (unsupported) in the standard shoes. The unsupported insole significantly increased the amount of ankle/subtalar joint complex eversion than the other experimental conditions, with the supporting insole reducing the ankle/subtalar joint complex eversion, and was found to be more comfortable. Both the supporting and unsupported lateral wedged insoles significantly reduced knee loading (external knee adduction moment reduction 8.5% and 9.1%, respectively), the knee adduction angular impulse. This new design of lateral wedge may offer increased adherence in future osteoarthritis population studies while offering reductions in joint loading. PMID:24054897

Jones, Richard K; Zhang, Min; Laxton, Philip; Findlow, Andrew H; Liu, Anmin

2013-08-01

225

New methods for evaluating physical and thermal comfort properties of orthotic materials used in insoles for patients with diabetes.  

PubMed

Orthotic insoles are commonly used in the treatment of the diabetic foot to prevent ulcerations. Choosing suitable insole material is vital for effective foot orthotic treatment. We examined seven types of orthotic materials. In consideration of the key requirements and end uses of orthotic insoles for the diabetic foot, including accommodation, cushioning, and control, we developed test methods for examining important physical properties, such as force reduction and compression properties, insole-skin friction, and shear properties, as well as thermal comfort properties of fabrication materials. A novel performance index that combines various material test results together was also proposed to quantify the overall performance of the insole materials. The investigation confirms that the insole-sock interface has a lower coefficient of friction and shearing stress than those of the insole-skin interface. It is also revealed that material brand and the corresponding density and cell volume, as well as thickness, are closely associated with the performance of moisture absorption and thermal comfort. On the basis of the proposed performance index, practitioners can better understand the properties and performance of various insole materials, thus prescribing suitable orthotic insoles for patients with diabetic foot. PMID:24933729

Lo, Wai Ting; Yick, Kit Lun; Ng, Sun Pui; Yip, Joanne

2014-05-01

226

Solar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does solar energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to solar energy. Here students read about the uses, benefits, and active and passive methods of solar energy. Information is also presented about limitations, geographical considerations of solar power in the United States, and current uses of solar energy around the world. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of solar energy. Articles and information about a solar power plant in the Mohave Desert, the use of solar energy in Iowa, and statistics about solar energy are provided in a sidebar.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

227

A 3D Earth orbit model; visualization and analysis of Milankovitch cycles and insolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An astronomically precise and accurate Earth orbit graphical model, Earth orbit v2.0, is presented. The model offers 3D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcings. Prevalent paleoclimatic theories invoke Milankovitch cycles as a major forcing mechanism capable of shifting Earth's climate regimes on time scales of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. Variability of eccentricity (ellipticity of orbit), precession (longitude of perihelion) and obliquity (Earth's axial tilt) changes parameters such as amplitude of seasonal insolation, timing of seasons with respect to perihelion, and total annual insolation. Hays et al. (1976) demonstrated a strong link between Milankovitch cycles and paleoclimatological records, which has been confirmed and expanded many times since (e.g. Berger et al., 1994; Berger et al., 2010). The complex interplay of several orbital parameters on various time scales makes assessment and visualization of Earth's orbit and spatio-temporal insolation variability challenging. It is difficult to appreciate the pivotal importance of Kepler's laws of planetary motion in controlling the effects of Milankovitch cycles on insolation patterns on various spatio-temporal scales. These factors also make Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. The model allows substantial user control in a robust, yet intuitive and user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) developed in Matlab. We present the user with a choice between Berger et al. (1978) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. Berger solutions span from -1 Myr to +1 Myr, while Laskar provides solutions from -101 Myr to +21 Myr since J2000. Users can also choose a "demo" mode which allows the three Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other, so the user can isolate the effects of each on orbital geometry and insolation. For example, extreme eccentricity can be chosen, which is useful for illustrating Kepler's laws, and precession can be varied to illustrate its effect on the timing of the seasons. Earth's orbit is plotted in 3D with the chosen real (past, present or future) or demo Milankovitch parameters. Earth is placed in its orbit using Kepler's Laws and the calendar can be started on either vernal equinox (March 20) or perihelion (Jan. 3). The Sun, perihelion, and the equinoxes and solstices are displayed in a plot that can be zoomed, panned and rotated in three dimensions. The model can also output time-series plots at varying scales from Berger and Laskar's solutions. Coupled with the orbit plotting and time-series functionality, global insolation is computed as a function of latitude and day of year, using the chosen Milankovitch parameters. 3D surface plots of insolation and insolation anomalies (compared to J2000) are then produced. Insolation computations use the model's own orbital geometry with no additional a-priori input other than the Milankovitch parameter solutions. Insolation computations are successfully validated against Laskar et al. (2004). Envisioned future developments include more options for insolation plots on user-chosen spatio-temporal scales and overlaying various paleoclimatological proxy data.

Gilb, R. D.; Kostadinov, T. S.

2012-12-01

228

Starting and steady-state characteristics of dc motors powered by solar cell generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of dc motors (series, separately-excited, and shunt motors) powered by a solar cell generator and loaded by two different types of loads, one a constant load and one a ventilator load, were analyzed with respect to the transient (starting) and steady state operation. Direct current motors are employed in photovoltaic water pumping systems; therefore, the understanding of the system operation and the matching of the system components (solar cells, dc motor type, and load type) are important factors of the system design. Since the solar cell generator in a nonlinear and time-dependent power supply with an output that varies with the insolation (hourly and daily), the performance characteristics of the dc motor are different when supplied by a solar cell generator than when supplied by a conventional constant voltage source. The transient solution was obtained by using an available computer program - SUPER SCEPTRE. The separately-excited (or permanent magnet) motor with a ventilator load was found to be the most suitable for the solar cell generator. The series motor is quite acceptable, but the shunt motor gives poor performance. In all cases the ventilator load is more compatible with the solar cell generator than with the constant load.

Appelbaum, J.

1986-03-01

229

Insolation-driven 100,000-year glacial cycles and hysteresis of ice-sheet volume.  

PubMed

The growth and reduction of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets over the past million years is dominated by an approximately 100,000-year periodicity and a sawtooth pattern (gradual growth and fast termination). Milankovitch theory proposes that summer insolation at high northern latitudes drives the glacial cycles, and statistical tests have demonstrated that the glacial cycles are indeed linked to eccentricity, obliquity and precession cycles. Yet insolation alone cannot explain the strong 100,000-year cycle, suggesting that internal climatic feedbacks may also be at work. Earlier conceptual models, for example, showed that glacial terminations are associated with the build-up of Northern Hemisphere 'excess ice', but the physical mechanisms underpinning the 100,000-year cycle remain unclear. Here we show, using comprehensive climate and ice-sheet models, that insolation and internal feedbacks between the climate, the ice sheets and the lithosphere-asthenosphere system explain the 100,000-year periodicity. The responses of equilibrium states of ice sheets to summer insolation show hysteresis, with the shape and position of the hysteresis loop playing a key part in determining the periodicities of glacial cycles. The hysteresis loop of the North American ice sheet is such that after inception of the ice sheet, its mass balance remains mostly positive through several precession cycles, whose amplitudes decrease towards an eccentricity minimum. The larger the ice sheet grows and extends towards lower latitudes, the smaller is the insolation required to make the mass balance negative. Therefore, once a large ice sheet is established, a moderate increase in insolation is sufficient to trigger a negative mass balance, leading to an almost complete retreat of the ice sheet within several thousand years. This fast retreat is governed mainly by rapid ablation due to the lowered surface elevation resulting from delayed isostatic rebound, which is the lithosphere-asthenosphere response. Carbon dioxide is involved, but is not determinative, in the evolution of the 100,000-year glacial cycles. PMID:23925242

Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Saito, Fuyuki; Kawamura, Kenji; Raymo, Maureen E; Okuno, Jun'ichi; Takahashi, Kunio; Blatter, Heinz

2013-08-01

230

Medially posted insoles consistently influence foot pronation in runners with and without anterior knee pain.  

PubMed

Anterior knee pain (AKP) is a common injury among runners and effectively treated with posted insoles and foot orthotics. While clinically effective, the underlying biomechanical mechanisms that bring about these improvements remain debatable. Several methodological factors contribute to the inconsistent biomechanical findings, including errors associated with removing and reattaching markers, inferring foot motion from markers placed externally on a shoe, and redefining segmental coordinate systems between conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of medially posted insoles on lower extremity kinematics in runners with and without AKP while trying to limit the influence of these methodological factors. Kinematics of 16 asymptomatic and 17 runners with AKP were collected while running with and without insoles. Reflective markers were attached to the surface of the calcaneus and kept in place (as opposed to detached) between conditions, eliminating the error associated with reattaching markers and redefining segmental coordinate systems. Using these methods, no significant interactions between insole and injury and the main effect of injury were detected (p>0.05); therefore, means were pooled across injury. Insoles, on average, reduced peak eversion by 3.6° (95% confidence interval -2.9° to -4.3°), peak eversion velocity by 53.2°/s (95% confidence interval -32.9 to -73.4) and eversion range of motion by 1.33 (95% confidence interval -0.8 to -1.9). However, while insoles systematically reduced eversion variables, they had small influences on the transverse plane kinematics of the tibia or knee, indicating that they may bring about their clinical effect by influencing other variables. PMID:23137595

Rodrigues, Pedro; Chang, Ryan; TenBroek, Trampas; Hamill, Joseph

2013-04-01

231

Test facility for solar-cell reference conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test facility, intended primarily for long-term monitoring of the global insolation and its components and the concurrent solar cell performance under a wide variety of measureable atmospheric and weather conditions, is described. Instruments for the measurement of insolation, cell performance, turbidity, water vapor, and cloud cover are described. Preliminary evaluation of the hourly data base generated over a two-month period for a range of sky conditions from clear to overcast is presented.

Klucher, T. M.

1976-01-01

232

Effects of volcanic dust clouds on surface insolation  

SciTech Connect

Clear periods of days from thirty-one months were used to determine the intensities of direct, global, and diffuse solar radiation at the earth's surface in four spectral bands. The solar measurements were made through Schott filters OG1, RG2, RG8, and WG7 with Eppley Normal Incidence Pyrheliometers and Precision Spectral Pyranometers. The spectral band intensities were calculated by finding the difference between the measurements. The diffuse was calculated by subtracting the direct on a horizontal surface from the global. The dust clouds from both the Mt. St. Helens and El Chichon volcanic eruptions affected the measured intensities in these bands. The effect from the Mt. St. Helens cloud was large but short in duration, while the El Chichon effect was smaller but persistent through several months.

Spencer, D.W.; Stewart, W.

1983-06-01

233

Some aspects of the solar radiation incident at the top of the atmospheres of Mercury and Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A formalism has been developed for the calculation of the insolation on the planets Mercury and Venus neglecting any atmospheric absorption. For Mercury, the instantaneous insolation curves are repeated in a 2-tropical-year cycle, the distribution of the solar radiation being perfectly symmetric between both hemispheres. In addition to latitudinal variations, one observes a longitudinal effect expressed by different instantaneous insolation distributions during the course of the time; on the equator, the relative diurnal insolation variability may attain a factor of three. The small obliquity of Venus results in a nearly symmetric solar radiation distribution with respect to the equator except at the poles, where an important seasonal effect has been found. It has to be noted that no longitudinal dependence exists. Finally, the insolation curves are repeated in a nearly half-year cycle.

van Hemelrijck, E.; Vercheval, J.

1981-11-01

234

Solar panel parallel mounting configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

1998-01-01

235

Marketing solar thermal technologies: strategies in Europe, experience in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermal technologies (STTs) are mature in many EU Member States. However, in some EU regions solar applications, and especially the innovative ones (such as solar heating\\/cooling, solar drying, solar-powered desalination), remain at an early stage. The degree of development of each market does not depend on climate conditions (e.g., insolation) or on different technological developments. The major strengths, weaknesses,

Theocharis D Tsoutsos

2002-01-01

236

Daily Bladder Diary  

MedlinePLUS

... Bladder Control for Women : Daily Bladder Diary Daily Bladder Diary The following links are to pages that ... printer so that you have copies of the bladder diary. If you have Adobe's® Acrobat® Reader Software , ...

237

Daily exercise routines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

1990-01-01

238

Solar Thermal Conversion  

SciTech Connect

The thermal conversion process of solar energy is based on well-known phenomena of heat transfer (Kreith 1976). In all thermal conversion processes, solar radiation is absorbed at the surface of a receiver, which contains or is in contact with flow passages through which a working fluid passes. As the receiver heats up, heat is transferred to the working fluid which may be air, water, oil, or a molten salt. The upper temperature that can be achieved in solar thermal conversion depends on the insolation, the degree to which the sunlight is concentrated, and the measures taken to reduce heat losses from the working fluid.

Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

1982-11-01

239

Imaging chronic daily headache.  

PubMed

New imaging technology allows us to study neurologic disorders that have had no previous structural basis. There have been recent reports on the involvement of nociceptive pathways in daily headache. A systematic review was performed using key words "chronic daily headache" and "imaging." This paper reviews the literature on imaging studies performed on daily headache with emphasis on the new imaging technology. PMID:12720600

Aurora, Sheena K

2003-06-01

240

Maximum power point tracking control of photovoltaic generation system under non-uniform insolation by means of monitoring cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photovoltaic power generation system (PV system) is operated under various insolation conditions. Sometimes the PV system is operated under nonuniform insolation, which may generate several maximum output power points on the V-I curve of the PV array and raises serious problem on maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of the system. In order to solve this problem, the authors

Kei Irisawa; Takeshi Saito; I. Takano; Y. Sawada

2000-01-01

241

Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Data Release 5.1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data set contains over 200 parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems.The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree].

Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

242

Assessment of solar energy potential on existing buildings in a region  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for assessing solar insolation potential upon existing building rooftops in a given region comprises: (a) computing Global Horizontal Insolation values based on topographical Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data for the region; computing a Sky Transmissivity parameter as it affects Global Horizontal Insolation based on available climate and cloud cover data for the region; (c) applying an Albedo parameter for ground reflectivity and scattering to determine Diffuse Insolation values; (d) applying a Shading Coefficient based on measuring shadow surface areas in relation to total area from aerial photographs of the region over defined times and periods; (e) determining Total Building Roof Area based on image analysis of aerial photographs of the region, and applying a typical roof slope factor; (f) estimating typical Roof Slope, Type, and Orientation (azimuth) selected from a defined set (vocabulary) of rooftop types based on a visual survey of the region; and (g) calculating Total Building Rooftop Insolation Potential for the given region based the values determined.

2007-12-11

243

Simplified Clear Sky Model for Direct and Diffuse Insolation on Horizontal Surfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed comparison was made between five simple broadband models for clear sky global insolation. Compared models were those of Atwater and Ball, Davies and Hay, Watt, Hoyt, and Lacis and Hansen. A sixth simple model, called the Bird model, has been fo...

R. E. Bird R. L. Hulstrom

1981-01-01

244

Effects of thermal radiation and insolation on passenger compartments of an automobile  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the dynamical simulation model of the thermal environment for automobile passenger compartments which is useful for the development of automobile air-conditioning systems. In our previous research, we proposed the model of this type considering the accuracy and the amount of computation, however, proposed model was insufficient to simulate the effect of thermal radiation and insolation on the thermal

Takuya Kubota; Ryo Watanabe; Hidenori Miyashita

2010-01-01

245

Primary metatarsalgia: the influence of a custom moulded insole and a rockerbar on plantar pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a custom moulded insole and a rockerbar on peak pressure and force impulse as well as on pain scores in subjects with a history of metatarsalgia were studied. In addition the subjects' preference for the type of intervention was determined. Forty-two subjects with a history of primary metatarsalgia were selected. They were all provided with the same

K. POSTEMA; P. E. T. BURM

1998-01-01

246

Improvements to a Simple Physical Model for Estimating Insolation from GOES Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simple physical model to estimate surface insolation from GOES data (described in Gautier et al., 1980) has been improved through some modifications to existing physics (Rayleigh scattering and water vapor absorption), and also the inclusion of ozone absorption, previously neglected. An empirical correction for clouds smaller than the GOES sensor field-of-view has also been introduced. The resulting model is

George R. Diak; Catherine Gautier

1983-01-01

247

Review of Footwear for Cold/Wet Scenarios. Part 2: Socks, Liners, and Insoles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presented herein is the second of a proposed multi-part review on footwear. This report deals mostly with the materials and their properties making up the layer or layers of footwear between the skin and the boot, i.e. socks and removable insoles and line...

W. Dyck

1993-01-01

248

A note on first estimates of surface insolation from GOES8 visible satellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible imagery from geostationary satellites have a long history of providing accurate estimates of surface insolation over large spatial domains and at high horizontal resolution. In 1995, the United States launched its second generation of these geostationary (GOES) satellites, GOES-8 and GOES-9, with somewhat different visible sensor characteristics than their predecessors (GOES 1–7). In this work, we discuss first results

George R. Diak; William L. Bland; John Mecikaski

1996-01-01

249

Use of pressure insoles to calculate the complete ground reaction forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to calculate the complete ground reaction force (GRF) components from the vertical GRF measured with pressure insoles is presented and validated. With this approach it is possible to measure several consecutive steps without any constraint on foot placement and compute a standard inverse dynamics analysis with the estimated GRF.

A. Forner Cordero; H. J. F. M. Koopman

2004-01-01

250

A reliable gyroscope-based gait-phase detection sensor embedded in a shoe insole  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of patient experiments using a new gait-phase detection sensor (GPDS) together with a programmable functional electrical stimulation (FES) system for subjects with a dropped-foot walking dysfunction. The GPDS (sensors and processing unit) is entirely embedded in a shoe insole and detects in real time four phases (events) during the gait cycle: stance, heel off, swing, and

Ion P. I. Pappas; Thierry Keller; Sabine Mangold; Milos R. Popovic; Volker Dietz; Manfred Morari

2004-01-01

251

A long-term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here a new solution for the astronomical computation of the insolation quantities on Earth spanning from -250 Myr to 250 Myr. This solution has been improved with respect to La93 (Laskar et al. \\\\cite{Laskar1993}) by using a direct integration of the gravitational equations for the orbital motion, and by improving the dissipative contributions, in particular in the evolution

J. Laskar; P. Robutel; F. Joutel; M. Gastineau; A. C. M. Correia; B. Levrard

2004-01-01

252

The effect of insoles in therapeutic footwear—A finite element approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current practice in the prevention of recurrence of neuropathic foot ulcers is to prescribe accommodative in-shoe orthoses or insoles which reduce plantar pressure levels at locations of bony prominences, particularly under the metatarsal heads. To date, design of these orthoses has largely been a trial and error process. There is little quantitative information available regarding the effects of thickness and

David Lemmon; T. Y. Shiang; Azfar Hashmi; Jan S. Ulbrecht; Peter R. Cavanagh

1997-01-01

253

Some Recent Research on Solar Energy Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexico is located in the Earth’s sunbelt, where solar energy is plentiful for potential applications of solar energy conversion\\u000a systems. According to several estimations (Renn? et al. 2000), the average insolation over the country’s surface amounts to 5 kWh\\/day, which puts Mexico in a privileged situation for\\u000a the deployment of solar energy technologies. Other renewable energy sources such as: wind,

Camilo A Arancibia-Bulnes; Antonio Jiménez; Oscar Jaramillo; Claudio Estrada

254

Prevention of lower extremity stress fractures: a controlled trial of a shock absorbent insole.  

PubMed Central

A prospective controlled trial was carried out to determine the usefulness of a viscoelastic polymer insole in prevention of stress fractures and stress reactions of the lower extremities. The subjects were 3,025 US Marine recruits who were followed for 12 weeks of training at Parris Island, South Carolina. Polymer and standard mesh insoles were systematically distributed in boots that were issued to members of odd and even numbered platoons. The most important finding was that an elastic polymer insole with good shock absorbency properties did not prevent stress reactions of bone during a 12-week period of vigorous physical training. To control for the confounding effects of running in running shoes, which occurred for about one and one-half hours per week for the first five weeks, we also examined the association of age of shoes and cost of shoes with injury incidence. A slight trend of increasing stress injuries by increasing age of shoes was observed. However, this trend did not account for the similarity of rates in the two insole groups. In addition, we observed a strong trend of decreasing stress injury rate by history of increasing physical activity, as well as a higher stress injury rate in White compared to Black recruits. The results of the trial were not altered after controlling for these factors. This prospective study confirms previous clinical reports of the association of stress fractures with physical activity history. The clinical application of a shock absorbing insole as a preventive for lower extremity stress reactions is not supported in these uniformly trained recruits. The findings are relevant to civilian populations.

Gardner, L I; Dziados, J E; Jones, B H; Brundage, J F; Harris, J M; Sullivan, R; Gill, P

1988-01-01

255

Prevention of lower extremity stress fractures: a controlled trial of a shock absorbent insole.  

PubMed

A prospective controlled trial was carried out to determine the usefulness of a viscoelastic polymer insole in prevention of stress fractures and stress reactions of the lower extremities. The subjects were 3,025 US Marine recruits who were followed for 12 weeks of training at Parris Island, South Carolina. Polymer and standard mesh insoles were systematically distributed in boots that were issued to members of odd and even numbered platoons. The most important finding was that an elastic polymer insole with good shock absorbency properties did not prevent stress reactions of bone during a 12-week period of vigorous physical training. To control for the confounding effects of running in running shoes, which occurred for about one and one-half hours per week for the first five weeks, we also examined the association of age of shoes and cost of shoes with injury incidence. A slight trend of increasing stress injuries by increasing age of shoes was observed. However, this trend did not account for the similarity of rates in the two insole groups. In addition, we observed a strong trend of decreasing stress injury rate by history of increasing physical activity, as well as a higher stress injury rate in White compared to Black recruits. The results of the trial were not altered after controlling for these factors. This prospective study confirms previous clinical reports of the association of stress fractures with physical activity history. The clinical application of a shock absorbing insole as a preventive for lower extremity stress reactions is not supported in these uniformly trained recruits. The findings are relevant to civilian populations. PMID:3056045

Gardner, L I; Dziados, J E; Jones, B H; Brundage, J F; Harris, J M; Sullivan, R; Gill, P

1988-12-01

256

Control Electronics for Solar/Flywheel Power Supply  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Control circuit automatically directs flow of electrical energy to and from motor with flywheel that constitutes storage element of solar-power system. When insolation is sufficient for charging, power is supplied by solar-cell array to load and motor. During periods of darkness, motor made to act as generator, drawing kinetic energy from flywheel and supplying it to load.

Nola, F. J.

1986-01-01

257

Your Health Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Your Health Daily offers daily updates on health and medical news in a well-organized and easy-to-use format. Provided by The New York Times Syndicate, Your Health Daily includes news, features, analysis and columns from a variety of news sources in the United States, Asia and Europe, including Medical Tribune News Service. Users can browse the latest news or choose from 15 "Common Topics" for articles of personal interest. A database of past medical and health articles is available and searchable by topic or keyword. The site provides links to other NYT Syndicate services such as Computer News Daily and TimesFax.

1997-01-01

258

Insolation-driven changes in atmospheric circulation over the past 116,000 years in subtropical Brazil.  

PubMed

During the last glacial period, large millennial-scale temperature oscillations--the 'Dansgaard/Oeschger' cycles--were the primary climate signal in Northern Hemisphere climate archives from the high latitudes to the tropics. But whether the influence of these abrupt climate changes extended to the tropical and subtropical Southern Hemisphere, where changes in insolation are thought to be the main direct forcing of climate, has remained unclear. Here we present a high-resolution oxygen isotope record of a U/Th-dated stalagmite from subtropical southern Brazil, covering the past 116,200 years. The oxygen isotope signature varies with shifts in the source region and amount of rainfall in the area, and hence records changes in atmospheric circulation and convective intensity over South America. We find that these variations in rainfall source and amount are primarily driven by summer solar radiation, which is controlled by the Earth's precessional cycle. The Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles can be detected in our record and therefore we confirm that they also affect the tropical hydrological cycle, but that in southern subtropical Brazil, millennial-scale climate changes are not as dominant as they are in the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:15744298

Cruz, Francisco W; Burns, Stephen J; Karmann, Ivo; Sharp, Warren D; Vuille, Mathias; Cardoso, Andrea O; Ferrari, José A; Dias, Pedro L Silva; Viana, Oduvaldo

2005-03-01

259

Model validation studies of solar systems, Phase III. Monthly report. [Comparison of SOLCOST and FCHART models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison between SOLCOST and FCHART solar system simulation models for solar space heating and service hot water systems, both using air as the collector fluid, is presented. Details of an algorithm for sizing cross-flow heat exchangers for a solar house are given. Also, a mathematical model of the CEM (Center for The Environment and Man) insolation prediction model is

C. B. Winn; N. Duong; D. Hull; L. Lantz

1977-01-01

260

Chronic daily headaches  

PubMed Central

Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

Ahmed, Fayyaz; Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Khalil, Modar

2012-01-01

261

Reduction of abnormal foot pressures in diabetic neuropathy using a new polymer insole material.  

PubMed

The precise pressures and loads under 69 neuropathic feet have been measured during walking using a modified microprocessor-controlled optical system. Abnormally high pressures were demonstrated in 94% of feet with a history of foot ulceration, with pressures as high as 20-30 kg X cm-2 under the forefoot. All subjects were also studied using a new visco-elastic polymer material recently used for insole manufacture. A reduction in pressure was demonstrated that was proportional to peak pressure (linear regression line correlation coefficient of 0.91; P less than 0.001). We conclude that this material causes a significant reduction in the abnormally high pressures recorded under neuropathic feet, and should provide a useful insole for the management of patients at risk of neuropathic foot ulceration. PMID:6546713

Boulton, A J; Franks, C I; Betts, R P; Duckworth, T; Ward, J D

1984-01-01

262

Integrate-and-fire models of insolation-driven entrainment of broadcast spawning in corals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circa-annual cycle of gametogenesis produces mature gametes at the spawning “season” for successful mass spawning of broadcast\\u000a corals. We develop a bioenergetic integrate-and-fire model that reveals how annual insolation rhythms can entrain the gametogenetic\\u000a cycles in tropical hermatypic corals to the appropriate spawning season, since photosynthate is their primary source of energy.\\u000a In the presence of short-term fluctuations in

Bharath Ananthasubramaniam; Roger M. Nisbet; Daniel E. Morse; Francis J. Doyle

2011-01-01

263

The dynamics of the Snowball Earth Hadley circulation for off-equatorial and seasonally varying insolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I study the Hadley circulation of a completely ice-covered Snowball Earth through simulations with a comprehensive atmosphere general circulation model. Because the Snowball Earth atmosphere is an example of a dry atmosphere, these simulations allow me to test to what extent dry theories and idealized models capture the dynamics of realistic dry Hadley circulations. Perpetual off-equatorial as well as seasonally varying insolation is used, extending a previous study for perpetual on-equatorial (equinox) insolation. Vertical diffusion of momentum, representing the momentum transport of dry convection, is fundamental to the momentum budgets of both the winter and summer cells. In the zonal budget, it is the primary process balancing the Coriolis force. In the meridional budget, it mixes meridional momentum between the upper and the lower branch and thereby decelerates the circulation. Because of the latter, the circulation intensifies by a factor of three when vertical diffusion of momentum is suppressed. For seasonally varying insolation, the circulation undergoes rapid transitions from the weak summer into the strong winter regime. Consistent with previous studies in idealized models, these transitions result from a mean-flow feedback, because of which they are insensitive to the treatment of vertical diffusion of momentum. Overall, the results corroborate previous findings for perpetual on-equatorial insolation. They demonstrate that descriptions of realistic dry Hadley circulations, in particular their strength, need to incorporate the vertical momentum transport by dry convection, a process that is neglected in most dry theories and idealized models. An improved estimate of the strength of the Snowball Earth Hadley circulation will also help to better constrain the climate of a possible Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth and its deglaciation threshold.

Voigt, A.

2013-11-01

264

Mediterranean Quaternary sapropels, an immediate response of the African monsoon to variation of insolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rossignol-Strick, M., 1985. Mediterranean Quaternary sapropels, an immediate response of the African monsoon to variation of insolation. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 49: 237--263. In the subsurface of the East Mediterranean Sea, eleven discrete basin-wide, organic- rich, black sapropels were deposited during the last 465 000 years. They are dated by oxygen isotopic chronostratigraphy. The too.st recent sapropel has been shown to

MARTINE ROSSIGNOL-STRICK

1985-01-01

265

A systematic review investigating the efficacy of laterally wedged insoles for medial knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

A conservative management strategy for knee osteoarthritis is the lateral wedge insole (LWI). The theoretical basis for this intervention is to correct tibiofemoral malalignment, thereby reducing pain and optimising function. This systematic review evaluates the evidence on the effectiveness and safety of LWI for the treatment for knee osteoarthritis. A systematic review was performed, searching published (MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library) and unpublished literature from their inception to August 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included that compared the use of LWI with a neutral insole or control intervention for people with medial compartment osteoarthritis. Risk of bias and clinical relevance were assessed, and outcomes were analysed through meta-analysis. From a total of 3,105 citations, 10 studies adhered to the a priori eligibility criteria. These included 1,095 people; 535 participants were allocated to receive LWI insoles compared to 509 in control groups. Eight per cent of papers were of high quality with low risk of bias. There was no statistically significant difference between LWI and neutral insoles for pain, function, analgesic requirement, compliance or complications (p ? 0.07). Those who received LWI demonstrated lower non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug requirements (p < 0.001). To conclude, there is limited evidence to support the prescription of LWI to people with medial compartment osteoarthritis to reduce pain and increase function. However, there remains a paucity of evidence to determine whether LWI outcomes differ in subgroups of the patients, such as severe compared to mild osteoarthritis, obese patients, or whether the angle of LWI is of clinical importance. PMID:23612781

Penny, P; Geere, J; Smith, Toby O

2013-10-01

266

Changes in windlass effect in response to different shoe and insole designs during walking.  

PubMed

Windlass effect occurs during the pre-swing phase of gait cycle in which the peak tensile strain and force of the plantar aponeurosis (PA) is reached. The increased dorsiflexion angle of the 1st metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint is the main causing factor. The aim of this study was to investigate thoroughly in finding the appropriate shoe and insole combination that can effectively decrease the windlass effect. Foot kinematic analyses of 10 normal volunteers (aged 25.2±2.1 years, height of 167.4±9.1 cm, and weight of 66.2±18.1 kg) were performed during gait under the conditions of barefoot, standard shoe (SS) with flat insole (FI) or carbon fiber insole (CFI), and rocker sole shoe (RSS) with FI or CFI. The shoe cover consisting of transparent polymer was used for accurate measurement of kinematic data as specific areas on the cover can be cut away for direct placement of reflective markers onto the skin. Under barefoot condition, the mean of maximum dorsiflexion angle of the 1st MTP joint was measured to be 48.0±7.3°, and decreased significantly to 28.2±5.7° when wearing SS with FI, and 24.1±5.7° when wearing SS with CFI. This angle was further decreased to around 13° when wearing RSS with FI or CFI. Subjects wearing footwear alone can increase the minimum medial longitudinal angle and decrease the maximum plantarflexion angle of metatarsus related to the calcaneus as compared with barefoot condition, resulting in flatter medial foot arch. Results suggested that RSS is the effective footwear in reducing the windlass effect regardless the type of insole inserted. The findings in this study provided us with the evidences in finding the appropriate footwear for treating foot disorders such as plantar fasciitis by effectively reducing the windlass effect. PMID:22884544

Lin, Shih-Cherng; Chen, Carl P C; Tang, Simon F T; Wong, Alice M K; Hsieh, Jui-Hsiang; Chen, Weng-Pin

2013-02-01

267

The effect of cushioning insoles on back and lower extremity pain in an industrial setting.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low back pain and lower extremity pain in a group of factory workers and determine the effect of cushioning insoles on low back pain and lower extremity pain. Data were gathered via questionnaire from 306 employees of an aircraft engine assembly factory. A subset of 40 workers who had reported significant levels of back or lower extremity pain were sampled for four consecutive 12-hour shifts wearing their normal footwear and then a week later for four consecutive shifts wearing cushioning insoles. High levels of low back pain and lower extremity pain were reported by workers on the plant floor, but low back pain was poorly correlated to lower extremity pain (r = 0.371). The effect of insoles on the subset of 40 workers was to lower low back pain by 38%, foot pain by 37%, and knee pain by 38% (p < .001). The reduction in low back pain, however, was not correlated to the reduction in lower extremity pain; workers reporting a decrease in low back pain differed from those reporting less lower extremity pain. PMID:24053218

Jefferson, John R

2013-10-01

268

Sensitivity of Asian and African climate to variations in seasonal insolation, glacial ice cover, sea surface temperature, and Asian orography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of Asian and African climate to prescribed changes in specific high-latitude boundary conditions is examined using the GISS general circulation model (GCM) (8°×10°). In agreement with previous GCM simulations, summer Asian monsoon winds and rainfall were considerably enhanced by the ~8% increase in 11 kyr B.P. insolation; the African monsoon was less responsive to insolation forcing in this

Peter B. DeMenocal; David Rind

1993-01-01

269

Pressure relief and load redistribution by custom-made insoles in diabetic patients with neuropathy and foot deformity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To study the effects of custom-made insoles on plantar pressures and load redistribution in neuropathic diabetic patients with foot deformity.Design. Cross-sectional.Background. Although custom-made insoles are commonly prescribed to diabetic patients, little quantitative data on their mechanical action exists.Methods. Regional in-shoe peak pressures and force-time integrals were measured during walking in the feet of 20 neuropathic diabetic subjects with foot

Sicco A Bus; Jan S Ulbrecht; Peter R Cavanagh

2004-01-01

270

The shock attenuation characteristics of four different insoles when worn in a military boot during running and marching  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to determine if placing shock absorbing insoles in the boots of Royal Marine recruits would attenuate the peak pressure at the foot-boot interface, when marching at 4.8 kph carrying a 32 kg (70 lb) Bergen and running at 12.8 kph in loose order plus webbing weighing 10 kg (22 lb). Four types of insoles were assessed:

CarolM Windle; SarahM Gregory; SharonJ Dixon

1999-01-01

271

Possible daily variation in the color of the blue ocean  

SciTech Connect

Possible daily variations in the color of the blue ocean are inferred from the variations in the particulate organic carbon concentrations in an ocean layer (0-50 m) which should alter the respected refractance of incident solar radiation. (AIP)

Postma, H.; Spitzer, D.

1982-01-01

272

Shaundra Bryant Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from Science City, Shaundra Bryant Daily, an electrical engineer, describes a software program she developed to help girls reflect on their emotions, and how her two passions—science and dance—are connected.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-09-18

273

Hourly direct-normal solar radiation data tapes for the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved estimates of hourly direct-normal insolation have been prepared for the 26 United States sites where the hourly total-hemispheric insolation values have recently been reviewed and corrected by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These computer compatible data tapes covering up to 25 years, are in the NOAA SOLMET format and are intended for use in solar energy

C. M. Randall; M. E. Whitson Jr.; E. C. Boes

1977-01-01

274

Daily Food Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will find daily food recommendations based upon their age, weight, height, and activity level. Standard 2 Objective1: a,b,c It is helpful to have a guide that can give us directions on the type and quantity of foods we should eat daily. Lets first view the basics of our food groups. Click the Food Group Basics link below and see if you can answer the questions provided. Food Group Basics What is the ...

Peterson, Mr.

2011-09-18

275

Performance of insole in reducing plantar pressure on diabetic patients in the early stages of the disease.  

PubMed

It has been well documented that subjects with peripheral neuropathy resulting from diabetes mellitus are at high risk of developing foot ulceration. Decreased sensation, in combination with high underfoot pressures, have been identified as prime etiology factors in the cause of plantar naturopathic ulceration [1]. This study presents the effect of four orthotic treatment techniques in reducing metatarsal head, heel and toes pressure during walking. A pressure measurement study was carried out on a diabetic patients group wearing four insoles, including the insole designed by the computer model proposed in this project. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on plantar pressure in diverse insoles prescribed and manufactured with various techniques on a random group of patients with diabetes mellitus in the early stages of the disease. Four types of insoles were designed and manufactured by methods available in the market; the computer model proposed on this project was used in order to design and manufacture the insole. The results show that every patient requires an individual assessment and often a personalized insole. PMID:21095715

Zequera, Martha L; Solomonidis, Stephan

2010-01-01

276

Contrails reduce daily temperature range.  

PubMed

The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period. PMID:12167846

Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

2002-08-01

277

A Study on Maximum Fluctuation Width within a few Hours regarding Ensemble Average Insolation Observed at Multi-points in Large Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the past studies regarding the insolation fluctuation, the smoothing effect of insolation among different locations would not be enough for the longer cycle than a few ten minutes. This study evaluated the maximum fluctuation width (MFW) within at most 120 min of ensemble average insolation of 40 points, its clearness index, and ensemble average insolation excluding sun-position dependent component. As the results, when the weather condition became worse after the noon in almost all area, the ensemble average insolation significantly reduced, resulting in MFW of 540W/m2 within 120 min. As other example, when the weather recovered during the morning in many areas, MFW was also large. By using the data observed for 6 months, this study calculated the cumulative frequency distribution of MFW of ensemble average insolation, its clearness index, and ensemble average insolation excluding sun-position dependent component. As the results, the absolute value of MFW of ensemble average insolation calculated with 120 min width window ranges mainly between 200-300W/m2. The absolute value of MWF of insolation excluding sun-position dependent component evaluated with 120 min width window is smaller than 200W/m2 in most days, and is not so different from MWF evaluated with 60 min width window. Finally, this study discussed the practical usability of insolation forecast.

Kumazawa, Shinsuke; Kato, Takeyoshi; Honda, Nobuyuki; Koaizawa, Masakazu; Nishino, Shinichi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

278

Diffuse, global and extra-terrestrial solar radiation for Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, equations have been developed to estimate diffuse fraction of the hourly, daily and monthly global insolation on a horizontal surface. These correlations are expressed in terms of Kd, the ratio of diffuse-to-total radiation, and KT, the clearness index. The hourly correlation equations, show a fairly similar trend to that of Orgill and Hollands (1) and Spencer (5)

M. N. A. Hawlader

1984-01-01

279

Effectiveness of a heel cup with an arch support insole on the standing balance of the elderly  

PubMed Central

Background The use of insoles may enhance postural stability and prevent falls. The aim of this study was to design a new insole and to explore the effectiveness of the insole on the standing balance of the healthy elderly. Methods The study was conducted at a community hospital. Patients older than 65 years at an outpatient clinic without abnormal gait patterns, lower limb deformities, or foot pain were enrolled. The participants were assigned to good- and poor-stability groups on the basis of the stability index (SI), using the Biodex® Balance System. A heel cup with an arch support insole was provided. Participants wore the insole for 8 weeks for a minimum of 4 hours/day. A static balance test for SI was performed at the initial meeting and 8 weeks after the assigned insoles were worn for each participant. Results Five participants (10.0%) of 50 total did not finish the study. There were 25 patients in the good-stability group and 20 in the poor-stability group. The SI, before and after intervention, was significantly different for all 45 participants (3.244±0.688 versus 3.064±0.671; P<0.001). The differences in SI before and after the intervention both in the good-stability group (2.764±0.546 versus 2.592±0.538) and the poor-stability group (3.845±0.188 versus 3.655±0.128) were statistically significant (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference on changes of SI were seen between the two groups. Conclusion The results suggest a heel cup with arch support insole is effective in enhancing the standing balance of the elderly. This may be of benefit in preventing falls.

Chen, Tzu-Hsuan; Chou, Li-Wei; Tsai, Mei-Wun; Lo, Ming-Jor; Kao, Mu-Jung

2014-01-01

280

A comparison of the biomechanical effects of valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles in patients with knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Increases in the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) have been associated with increased mechanical load at the knee and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles are common approaches to reducing this loading; however no study has directly compared the biomechanical and clinical effects of these two treatments in patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. A cross-over randomised design was used where each intervention was worn by 28 patients for a two week period. Pre- and post-intervention gait kinematic/kinetic data and clinical outcomes were collected to evaluate the biomechanical and clinical effects on the knee joint. The valgus knee brace and the lateral wedged insole significantly increased walking speed, reduced the early stance EKAM by 7% and 12%, and the knee adduction angular impulse by 8.6 and 16.1% respectively. The lateral wedged insole significantly reduced the early stance EKAM compared to the valgus knee brace (p=0.001). The valgus knee brace significantly reduced the knee varus angle compared to the baseline and lateral wedged insole. Improvements in pain and function subscales were comparable for the valgus knee brace and lateral wedged insole. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in any of the clinical outcomes; however the lateral wedged insoles demonstrated greater levels of acceptance by patients. This is the first study to biomechanically compare these two treatments, and demonstrates that given the potential role of knee loading in osteoarthritis progression, that both treatments reduce this but lateral wedge insoles appear to have a greater effect. PMID:22920242

Jones, Richard K; Nester, Christopher J; Richards, Jim D; Kim, Winston Y; Johnson, David S; Jari, Sanjiv; Laxton, Philip; Tyson, Sarah F

2013-03-01

281

Suppression of insolation heating induced by electromagnetic scatteringdue to fine spheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, i.e., the greatest earthquake in the Japanese history, and the successive disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant have caused a fatal electric power shortage problem in summer in 2011. It is of key importance to reduce electricity demand and to save the energy. About one third of the total electricity demand at the peak consumption in summer is for the air-conditioning in the household and office sectors in Japan. It is, therefore, necessary to think deliberately of the reduction of electric power demand for air-conditioning. In fact, the temperature of materials rises when they are exposed to the sunlight (insolation heating) in particular in summer and the air-conditioning would become necessary for restoring the comfort in insolated housings. The energy for the air-conditioning is spent to pump out the heat changed in the materials of the insolated housings and would be proportional to the temperature to lower down. It is, therefore, clear that the reduction of the energy for the air-conditioning would strongly depend on relaxation of temperature rise or the insulation of insolated materials. Insolation heating could be suppressed when the materials are coated with paint admixed with fine silica spheres (insulating paint). By coating buildings' walls and roofs with such paint, the temperature of interior rooms could be kept lower without air-conditioning. These insulation effects are well known and have been utilized in the past, but have hardly been analyzed theoretically yet. Theoretical analysis would greatly enhance the effects of the suppression of insolation heating. In preceding studies, Ohkawa et al.(2009; 2011) and Mikada et al.(2011) focused on the electromagnetic wave scattering induced by fine spheres and developed the analytical method using superposition of scattered waves from each sphere (the first Born approximation), and indicated that the size of the spheres is one of the parameters affecting the light intensity transmitted through the paint. However, the rigorous results, not using such approximation or considering other parameters than the size of spheres, are still unknown. Such rigorous solution is necessary to find the best structure of the paint for insulating phenomena. In this study, we consider fine spheres randomly distributed in a paint layer coating a material, and analyze its scattering characteristics using the Monte Carlo ray tracing method based on the Mie theory. Three layers (air, paint and iron) are first assumed and a number of photons incident on the paint layer. The optical paths of photons are successively traced. We use their ratio between the number of reflected and transmitted photons and their phases in order toestimate the intensity of near-infrared sunlight that reaches the material (transmission intensity). As a result, it is found that the sphere radius should be less than 0.5 ?m and the refractive index of sphere is less than 1.45 if we want to decrease the transmission intensity to less than about 0.1. We conclude that the introduction of the Monte Carlo simulation has led us to a quantitative analysis of the insulation effects caused by electromagnetic scattering and to find the optimum size and material of spheres to be admixed with paint.

Horie, J.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.; Manaka, Y.; Taniguchi, K.; Ashida, Y.

2013-12-01

282

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

SciTech Connect

Available meteorological data for reporting sites in National Solar Data Network are presented as follows: the insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extra-terrestrial radiation for the solar site; the temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum, and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. Wind speed and direction and relative humidity values for day and night are presented also. (MHR)

Not Available

1981-02-01

283

Upper ocean climate of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene Insolation Maximum - a model study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine thousand years ago (9 ka BP), the Northern Hemisphere experienced enhanced seasonality caused by an orbital configuration close to the minimum of the precession index. To assess the impact of this "Holocene Insolation Maximum" (HIM) on the Mediterranean Sea, we use a regional ocean general circulation model forced by atmospheric input derived from global simulations. A stronger seasonal cycle is simulated by the model, which shows a relatively homogeneous winter cooling and a summer warming with well-defined spatial patterns, in particular, a subsurface warming in the Cretan and western Levantine areas. The comparison between the SST simulated for the HIM and a reconstruction from planktonic foraminifera transfer functions shows a poor agreement, especially for summer, when the vertical temperature gradient is strong. As a novel approach, we propose a reinterpretation of the reconstruction, to consider the conditions throughout the upper water column rather than at a single depth. We claim that such a depth-integrated approach is more adequate for surface temperature comparison purposes in a situation where the upper ocean structure in the past was different from the present-day. In this case, the depth-integrated interpretation of the proxy data strongly improves the agreement between modelled and reconstructed temperature signal with the subsurface summer warming being recorded by both model and proxies, with a small shift to the south in the model results. The mechanisms responsible for the peculiar subsurface pattern are found to be a combination of enhanced downwelling and wind mixing due to strengthened Etesian winds, and enhanced thermal forcing due to the stronger summer insolation in the Northern Hemisphere. Together, these processes induce a stronger heat transfer from the surface to the subsurface during late summer in the western Levantine; this leads to an enhanced heat piracy in this region, a process never identified before, but potentially characteristic of time slices with enhanced insolation.

Adloff, F.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Ku?era, M.; Grimm, R.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Schmiedl, G.; Emeis, K.-C.

2011-10-01

284

Capitol Watch Daily News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Capitol Watch On Line offers content on what's going on in the nations capital daily. A dozen or more headline stories plus a special interests section and links to the Federal News Service and other government sites. "Live chat with candidates and the leaders of our nation" is promised to be coming in 2 weeks.

1999-01-01

285

Assessment of the horizontal, fore-aft component of the ground reaction force from insole pressure patterns by using artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. In this study it was investigated whether an artificial neural network can be used to determine the horizontal, fore-aft component of the ground reaction force from insole pressure patterns.Design. An artificial neural network was applied to map insole pressures and ground reaction forces.Method. To train an artificial neural network insole pressure patterns and ground reaction force data were simultaneously

H. H. C. M. Savelberg; A. L. H. de Lange

1999-01-01

286

Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of effort by mainstream architects in integrating energy-efficient strategies in architectural designing is due to the complexity in a building's energy conscious concepts and theories, the difficulties to visualize and quantify energy consumption, and the late implementing of energy consumption analysis in the conventional design process. This task would be accomplishing by a building system's engineer where results might be determined only after the basic architectural design has been completed. An effective simple tool and method should then be available to assist architects in building's energy-efficient designing at the beginning of the design. The building's energy consumption is directly and mainly influenced by the relationship of the sun, site, and its building configuration. The solar radiations will first impact on the building's envelope, which will have a direct effect on the amount of energy a building will consume. If an architect can define or map the intensity of solar energy on the site's buildable volume, and use this information to determine the levels of solar insolation, a more energy efficient building form can be proposed. This research hypothesis has shared the fundamental techniques of the Solar Envelope projection by Professor Ralph Knowles [Knowles, 1981] of the University of Southern California. However a different approach is taken by including the influence of regional restrictions and the surrounding buildings' shadows when projecting of solar volumes and solar envelope. The research methodology will discuss the development of a computer-based approach to develop a three-dimensional architectural form based on an insolation map related to the design site. The prototype computer program is referred as the Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA). The solar insolation volume of the site is determined by integrating three types of computer-generated models include the Buildable Volume model based on design constraints; the Shading Condition Volumes models based on the shading objects that surrounded the adjacent site; and the Solar Envelope Volume model based on Ralph Knowles's principles and related research. Once the integrated volume is created, the levels of insolation at the volume's surface can then be determined and quantified. Hence, this solar insolation volume can be represented the effective envelope of the potential built-form and can be used as the reference for the solar energy-effective buildings design.

Mahaek, Ekkachai

287

User trial and insulation tests to determine whether shock-absorbing insoles are suitable for use by military recruits during training.  

PubMed

A user trial was undertaken to determine whether a shock-absorbing insole is suitable for military use. Two thicknesses of insole (3 mm and 6 mm) were studied and were issued to 38 Royal Marine recruits to wear in their military boots for weeks 12 to 30 of training. Biomechanical measurements showed that both thicknesses of insole significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the peak pressures generated at heel strike and during forefoot loading when new (relative to a no-insole condition) and that this was well maintained after wear. This was supported by mechanical tests conducted on the insoles. It was concluded that the insoles are sufficiently durable for military use. The main user complaint was that water retention reduced the comfort of the insoles; however, insulation tests conducted with a foot manikin indicated that switching from the current-issue Saran insoles to the trial insoles would not increase the risk of recruits sustaining nonfreezing cold injuries to their feet. PMID:15495732

House, Carol M; Dixon, Sharon J; Allsopp, Adrian J

2004-09-01

288

The use of the direct measurement of solar radiation for the determination of Pasquill Stability Parameter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two schemes for estimating the amount of solar radiation received at the Earth's surface are compared to solar radiation measurements. This data was acquired over a total of 25 days and from 214 individual observations. These observations were grouped into both instantaneous and hourly averaged data. Of the two schemes studied, the insolation parameter Psi performed better than the net

Michael M. Myirski

1987-01-01

289

Reconfiguration strategy for optimization of solar photovoltaic array under non-uniform illumination conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of a solar photovoltaic (SPV) array is affected by variations in temperature, solar insolation and array configuration. At times, the SPV arrays are susceptible to non-uniform illumination due to shading caused by passing cloud, towers, trees etc. The effect of partial shading is critical; it can cause problems such as irregular P-V characteristics (multiple peaks) which makes power optimization

B. Patnaik; P. Sharma; E. Trimurthulu; S. P. Duttagupta; V. Agarwal

2011-01-01

290

Comparative study of peak power tracking techniques for solar storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the power supplied by solar arrays depends upon the insolation, temperature and array voltage, it is necessary to control the operating points to draw the maximum power of the solar array. The object of this paper is to investigate the maximum power tracking algorithms which were often used to compare the tracking efficiencies for the system operating under different

Chihchiang Hua; Chihming Shen

1998-01-01

291

Development of SmartStep: an insole-based physical activity monitor.  

PubMed

In our previous research we developed a SmartShoe--a shoe based physical activity monitor that can reliably differentiate between major postures and activities, accurately estimate energy expenditure of individuals, measure temporal gait parameters, and estimate body weights. In this paper we present the development of the next stage of the SmartShoe evolution--SmartStep, a physical activity monitor that is fully integrated into an insole, maximizing convenience and social acceptance of the monitor. Encapsulating the sensors, Bluetooth Low Energy wireless interface and the energy source within an assembly repeatedly loaded with high forces created during ambulation presented new design challenges. In this preliminary study we tested the ability of the SmartStep to measure the pressure differences between static weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities (such as no load vs. sitting vs. standing) as well as capture pressure variations during walking. We also measured long-term stability of the sensors and insole assembly under cyclic loading in a mechanical testing system. PMID:24111408

Sazonov, Edward S; Hegde, Nagaraj; Tang, Wenlong

2013-01-01

292

Classification of Sky Conditions by the Ranges of Insolation Indices Considering CIE Standard for General Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study introduces a method to classify sky conditions from overcast to clear by the values of insolation indices. Number of sky types and combination of insolation indices to classify sky types were investigated. Fifteen groups were clustered regarding nine indices by nearest centroid sorting method. Then groups were put together into sky conditions by considering the frequency distributions of CIE general sky types for each group and the frequency distribution of groups for each luminance distribution type. Seven sky conditions were found as a result. Indices to discriminate next sky conditions were found and then the most appropriate combination for total discrimination was decided: turbidity, clearness index, brightness and normalized global illuminance. Sky condition discrimination tree on the basis of the value of the indices was formed by a yearly data of International Daylight Measurement Program at Kyoto station and verified by the data of another year. By this method, illuminance and irradiance measurements can be separated into seven sky conditions considering CIE general sky types by the ranges of four indices without sky luminance distribution measurements.

Umemiya, Noriko; Kanou, Takai

293

NOAA Daily Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

Center, Hydrometeorological P.

2011-01-01

294

Daily Food Checklist  

Cancer.gov

The daily food checklist method is a form of food record. The tool is comprised of a list of foods; over the course of a day, a respondent makes a check beside a food each time she or he eats it. The checklist shares an advantage of other record methods in that it does not rely on memory. In addition, it avoids some disadvantages of complete quantitative food records in that it has relatively low respondent and investigator burden.

295

Insolation and Abrupt Climate Change Effects on the Western Pacific Maritime Monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many monsoon-sensitive paleoclimate archives capture the response of the Asian-Australian monsoon system to changes in summer insolation, as well as abrupt climate changes such as the Younger Dryas (YD). The response is commonly a direct one in Holocene and YD archives. In the case of insolation, increased summer insolation leads to increased monsoon rainfall over land, as captured in stalagmite ?18O records from Oman and China. We evaluate this direct response using maritime stalagmite records from the island of Palawan, Philippines (10 N, 119 E). The wet season in Palawan occurs over the same months (June-October) as in Oman, India and China. Therefore, we expected the Palawan stalagmite ?18O record, a proxy of rainfall, to have a similar response to changing insolation and hence, a trend of decreasing monsoon rainfall over the Holocene. However, the Holocene trend in two partially replicated stalagmite ?18O records is opposite to that expected: rainfall increases over the Holocene, despite the decrease of summer insolation over the Holocene. We interpret the Holocene trend observed at Palawan to be the result of an increase in the maritime monsoon that balances the reduction in the land monsoon; an interpretation that is consistent with previously published results from coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model runs. Seawater ?18O reconstructions from marine sediment cores in the western tropical Pacific contain a freshening trend over the Holocene, also supporting the hypothesis of increase maritime monsoon rainfall. The direct relationship between monsoon rainfall over land as recorded in the YD interval in Chinese stalagmite records is also observed in maritime monsoon rainfall during the YD at Palawan: both records get drier during the YD cold interval. This agreement between YD stalagmite records from China and Palawan contrasts sharply with the inverse relationship between these records over the Holocene. We further investigate the nature of the changes in maritime monsoon rainfall in several ways. Output from global climate models in the PMIP2 compilation at 6ka provides a snapshot of conditions in the western Pacific during the mid-Holocene. Also, two global climate models run under transient conditions, LOVECLIM and NCAR CCSM3, are used to investigate the timing and spatial structure of the YD. We test the regional coherency of the Holocene trend in the Palawan stalagmite ?18O record by generating an additional Philippine stalagmite ?18O record from Negros, an island ~450 km east of Palawan. Preliminary data from Negros suggest a complex precipitation response in the Philippines over the Holocene, such that both the monsoon and the western Pacific warm pool influence the regional hydroclimate. Global climate model results from the isotope-enabled NASA GISS ModelE-R model provide further assistance in the interpretation of the multiple stalagmite ?18O records from the Philippines.

Partin, J. W.; Quinn, T. M.; Shen, C.; Cardenas, M.; Siringan, F. P.; Hori, M.; Okumura, Y.; Banner, J. L.; Lin, K.; Jiang, X.; Taylor, F. W.

2013-12-01

296

Air content and O2/N2 tuned chronologies on local insolation signatures in the Vostok ice core are similar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate chronology of ice cores is needed for interpreting the paleoclimatic record and understanding the relation between insolation and climate. A new domain of research in this area has been initially stimulated by the work of M. Bender (2002) linking the record of O2/N2 ratio in the air trapped in the Vostok ice with the local insolation. More recently, it has been proposed that the long-term changes in air content, V, recorded in ice from the high Antarctic plateau is also dominantly imprinted by the local summer insolation (Raynaud et al., 2007). The present paper presents a new V record from Vostok, which is compared with the published Vostok O2/N2 record for the same period of time (150-400 ka BP) by using the same spectral analysis methods. The spectral differences between the two properties and the possible mechanisms linking them with insolation through the surface snow structure and the close-off processes are discussed. The main result of our study is that the two experimentally independent local insolation proxies lead to absolute (orbital) time scales, which agree together within a standard deviation of 0.6 ka. This result strongly adds credibility to the air content of ice and the O2 to N2 ratio of the air trapped in ice as equally reliable and complementary tools for accurate dating of existing and future deep ice cores. References: M. Bender, Orbital tuning chronology for the Vostok climate record supported by trapped gas composition, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 204(2002) 275-289. D. Raynaud, V. Lipenkov, B. Lemieux-Dudon, P. Duval, M.F. Loutre, N. Lhomme, The local insolation signature of air content in Antarctic ice: a new step toward an absolute dating of ice records, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 261(2007) 337-349.

Lipenkov, V.; Raynaud, D.; Loutre, M.-F.; Duval, P.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.

2009-04-01

297

Data Dependent Systems approach to solar energy simulation inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes and illustrates an application of a recently developed methodology called Data Dependent Systems (DDS) to modeling and analysis of solar insolation data. Such an approach is shown to be capable of combining the advantages of deterministic as well as stochastic models. Major dynamic patterns are successfully reproduced by the models. The model characteristics reveal the relation of

S. M. Pandit; K. P. Rajurkar

1983-01-01

298

Adaptation of an adsorptive solar refrigerator to Moroccan climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a model taking account of the real operation of an adsorptive solar refrigerator using activated carbon-methanol pairs, as a function of the climatic conditions: ambient temperature and insolation. The model is used to simulate the operation of the refrigerator in two Moroccan climates: Rabat, temperate and humid, and Marrakech, dry and hot. The numerical simulation

J. J. Guilleminot

1995-01-01

299

Solar Radiation: Absence of Air Pollution Trends at Mauna Loa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of solar radiation made at Mauna Loa, Hawaii over a period of 13 years give no evidence that human activities affect atmospheric turbidity on a global scale. Short-term fluctuations in insolation appear to be associated with naturally produce...

H. T. Ellis R. F. Pueschel

1971-01-01

300

Dairy farm hot water: an economic evaluation of solar collectors vs. heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Two alternative systems for heating water - solar collectors and heat exchangers - were compared to determine the more economical choice by dairy farmers. Btu requirements and discounted payback were estimated for three dairy herd sizes, 40, 90, and 140 cows. The analysis was performed for two locations in Kansas, Dodge City and Topeka. These locations were chosen because their average daily insolation is around 600,000 Btu/ft/sup 2/ which is representative of many of the dairying regions in the western half of the United States. Both the solar hot water and the heat exchanger systems analyzed in this study were sized according to manufacturer specifications. For the basic analysis, it was assumed that the solar collector system was 52% efficient and supplied a solar fraction of about 50%. Performance of the heat exchanger was measured at three levels, 60, 70, and 80%. The fraction of Btu requirements supplied varied with herd size. Herd size is an important factor to consider as farmers select the more appropriate alternative technology. Discounted payback for heat exchangers decreased rapidly as herd size increased, reaching 1 to 2 years, with tax credits, for the 140-cow herd size. Because less hot water per cow is needed in large dairies, heat exchangers will supply a large percentage of the hot water requirements for a 140-cow herd dairy. Heat exchangers appear to be ideally suited, both technically and economically, for commercial-sized dairy herds. Conversely, the discounted payback for solar hot water systems was about the same for all three herd sizes and above the payback level of heat exchangers even at the small herd size. Only for herds of less than 40 cows are solar hot water systems competitive with heat exchangers.

Heid, W.G. Jr.; Williams, E.V.

1982-01-01

301

a Simple Solar, Spectral Model for Studying the Effects of Cloud Cover and Surface Albedo on the Incoming Solar Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of cloud cover and surface albedo on the solar insolation at the surface of the Earth was investigated. The model uses Bird's (1984) clear sky model for direct-normal and diffuse horizontal irradiance as its basis. Bird's model was modified to include inclined surfaces and cloud cover. The clouds were modelled using parameterizations developed by Welch, Cox and Davis

Alfred Merrill Powell Jr.; A. M. Jr

1986-01-01

302

Local effects of partly-cloudy skies on solar and emitted radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer automated data acquisition system for atmospheric emittance, and global solar, downwelled diffuse solar, and direct solar irradiances is discussed. Hourly-integrated global solar and atmospheric emitted radiances were measured continuously from February 1981 and hourly-integrated diffuse solar and direct solar irradiances were measured continuously from October 1981. One-minute integrated data are available for each of these components from February 1982. The results of the correlation of global insolation with fractional cloud cover for the first year's data set. A February data set, composed of one-minute integrated global insolation and direct solar irradiance, cloud cover fractions, meteorological data from nearby weather stations, and GOES East satellite radiometric data, was collected to test the theoretical model of satellite radiometric data correlation and develop the cloud dependence for the local measurement site.

Whitney, D. A.; Venable, D. D.

1982-01-01

303

Feasibility of solar power for Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA, through Project Pathfinder, has put in place an advanced technology program to address future needs of manned space exploration. Included in the missions under study is the establishment of outposts on the surface of Mars. The Surface Power program in Pathfinder is aimed at providing photovoltaic array technology for such an application (as well as for the lunar surface). Another important application is for unmanned precursor missions, such as the photovoltaic-power aircraft, which will scout landing sites and investigate Mars geology for a 1 to 2 year mission without landing on the surface. Effective design and utilization of solar energy depend to a large extent on adequate knowledge of solar radiation characteristics in the region of solar energy system operation. The two major climatic components needed for photovoltaic system designs are the distributions of solar insolation and ambient temperature. These distributions for the Martian climate are given at the two Viking lander locations but can also be used, to the first approximation, for other latitudes. One of the most important results is that there is a large diffuse component of the insolation, even at high optical depth, so that solar energy system operation is still possible. If the power system is to continue to generate power even on high optical opacity days, it is thus important that the photovoltaic system be designed to collect diffuse irradiance as well as direct. In absence of long term insolation and temperature data for Mars, the data presented can be used until updated data are available. The ambient temperature data are given as measured directly by the temperature sensor; the insolation data are calculated from optical depth measurements of the atmosphere.

Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

1991-01-01

304

Design and experimental testing of the performance of an outdoor LiBr/H{sub 2}O solar thermal absorption cooling system with a cold store  

SciTech Connect

A domestic-scale prototype experimental solar cooling system has been developed based on a LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption system and tested during the 2007 summer and autumn months in Cardiff University, UK. The system consisted of a 12 m{sup 2} vacuum tube solar collector, a 4.5 kW LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption chiller, a 1000 l cold storage tank and a 6 kW fan coil. The system performance, as well as the performances of the individual components in the system, were evaluated based on the physical measurements of the daily solar radiation, ambient temperature, inlet and outlet fluid temperatures, mass flow rates and electrical consumption by component. The average coefficient of thermal performance (COP) of the system was 0.58, based on the thermal cooling power output per unit of available thermal solar energy from the 12 m{sup 2} Thermomax DF100 vacuum tube collector on a hot sunny day with average peak insolation of 800 W/m{sup 2} (between 11 and 13.30 h) and ambient temperature of 24 C. The system produced an electrical COP of 3.6. Experimental results prove the feasibility of the new concept of cold store at this scale, with chilled water temperatures as low as 7.4 C, demonstrating its potential use in cooling domestic scale buildings. (author)

Agyenim, Francis; Knight, Ian; Rhodes, Michael [The Welsh School of Architecture, Bute Building, King Edward VII Avenue, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3NB Wales (United Kingdom)

2010-05-15

305

Upper ocean climate of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene Insolation Maximum - a model study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine thousand years ago, the Northern Hemisphere experienced enhanced seasonality caused by an orbital configuration with a minimum of the precession index. To assess the impact of the "Holocene Insolation Maximum" (HIM) on the Mediterranean Sea, we use a regional ocean general circulation model forced by atmospheric input derived from global simulations. A stronger seasonal cycle is simulated in the model, which shows a relatively homogeneous winter cooling and a summer warming with well-defined spatial patterns, in particular a subsurface warming in the Cretan and Western Levantine areas. The comparison between the SST simulated for the HIM and the reconstructions from planktonic foraminifera transfer functions shows a poor agreement, especially for summer, when the vertical temperature gradient is strong. However, a reinterpretation of the reconstructions is proposed, to consider the conditions throughout the upper water column. Such a depth-integrated approach accounts for the vertical range of preferred habitat depths of the foraminifera used for the reconstructions and strongly improves the agreement between modelled and reconstructed temperature signal. The subsurface warming is recorded by both model and proxies, with a light shift to the south in the model results. The mechanisms responsible for the peculiar subsurface pattern are found to be a combination of enhanced downwelling and wind mixing due to strengthened Etesian winds, and enhanced thermal forcing due to the stronger summer insolation in the Northern Hemisphere. Together, these processes induce a stronger heat transfer from the surface to the subsurface during late summer in the Western Levantine; this leads to an enhanced heat piracy in this region.

Adloff, F.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Kucera, M.; Grimm, R.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Schmiedl, G.; Emeis, K.

2011-05-01

306

Insolation and Abrupt Climate Change Effects on the Western Pacific Maritime Monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of the Asian-Australian monsoon system to changes in summer insolation over the Holocene is recorded in many monsoon-sensitive paleoclimate reconstructions. The response is commonly direct; more summer insolation leads to increased monsoon rainfall over land as captured in stalagmite ?18O records from Oman and China. We evaluate this direct response using a maritime stalagmite record from the island of Palawan, Philippines (10 N, 119 E). The wet season in Palawan occurs over the same months (June-October) as in Oman, India and China. Therefore, we expected the stalagmite ?18O record from Palawan, a proxy of rainfall, to have a similar trend of decreasing monsoon rainfall over the Holocene. However, the Holocene trend in stalagmite ?18O is opposite to that expected: rainfall increases over the Holocene. Our explanation for the Holocene trend observed at Palawan is that the increase in the maritime monsoon balances the reduction in the land monsoon; an explanation that is consistent with previously published coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model results. Seawater ?18O reconstructions from marine sediment cores in the western tropical Pacific contain a freshening trend over the Holocene, also supporting the hypothesis of increase maritime monsoon rainfall. However, the decrease in maritime monsoon rainfall during the Younger Dryas at Palawan matches that observed in Chinese stalagmite records, meeting our original expectation of a similar wet season response in the various Asian-Australian monsoon records. One explanation for the similar Younger Dryas response in these monsoon records is the influence of seasonal changes in sea ice coverage, as previously suggested. A stalagmite ?18O record from Borneo (~800 km SE of Palawan), which lacks evidence of the Younger Dryas, provides supporting evidence for this explanation.

Partin, J. W.; Quinn, T. M.; Shen, C.; Cardenas, M. B.; Siringan, F. P.; Banner, J. L.; lin, K.; Taylor, F. W.

2012-12-01

307

A Study of a Two Stage Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of a Photovoltaic System under Partially Shaded Insolation Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A photovoltaic array shows relatively low output power density, and has a greatly drooping Current-Voltage (I-V) characteristic. Therefore, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control is used to maximize the output power of the array. Many papers have been reported in relation to MPPT. However, the Current-Power (I-P) curve sometimes shows multi-local maximum points mode under non-uniform insolation conditions. The operating point of the PV system tends to converge to a local maximum output point which is not the real maximal output point on the I-P curve. Some papers have been also reported, trying to avoid this difficulty. However most of those control systems become rather complicated. Then, the two stage MPPT control method is proposed in this paper to realize a relatively simple control system which can track the real maximum power point even under non-uniform insolation conditions. The feasibility of this control concept is confirmed for steady insolation as well as for rapidly changing insolation by simulation study using software PSIM and LabVIEW. In addition, simulated experiment confirms fundament al operation of the two stage MPPT control.

Kobayashi, Kenji; Takano, Ichiro; Sawada, Yoshio

308

Shock-absorbing insoles reduce the incidence of lower limb overuse injuries sustained during Royal Marine training.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine whether the incidence of lower limb overuse injuries (LLOIs) sustained during Royal Marine training could be reduced by issuing the recruits with shock-absorbing insoles (SAIs) to wear in their military boots. This was a retrospective longitudinal trial conducted in two phases. Injury data from 1,416 recruits issued with standard Saran insoles and 1,338 recruits issued with SAI were compared. The recruits in the two groups were of similar height, body mass, and aerobic fitness and followed the same training course. The incidence of LLOI sustained by the recruits was lower (p < 0.05) in the SAI Group (19.0%) compared to the Saran Insole Group (31.7%). The incidences of lower limb stress fractures, tibial periostitis, tenosynovitis of foot, achilles tendonopathy, other tendonopathy and anterior knee pain were lower (p < 0.05) in the SAI Group. Tibial stress fracture incidence was lower (p < 0.05) in the SAI Group but metatarsal and femoral stress fracture incidences were the same for the two insole groups. Thus, issuing SAIs to military recruits undertaking a sustained, arduous physical training program with a high incidence of LLOI would provide a beneficial reduction in the incidence of LLOI. PMID:23756077

House, Carol; Reece, Allyson; Roiz de Sa, Dan

2013-06-01

309

Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric power systems utilizing energy storage and other enabling technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we evaluate technologies that will enable solar photovoltaics (PV) to overcome the limits of traditional electric power systems. We performed simulations of a large utility system using hourly solar insolation and load data and attempted to provide up to 50% of this system's energy from PV. We considered several methods to avoid the limits of unusable PV

Paul Denholm; Robert M. Margolis

2007-01-01

310

Measured and calculated clear-sky solar radiative fluxes during the Subsonic Aircraft Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeled and measured surface insolations are compared with the purpose of evaluating the ability of a radiative transfer model to predict the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface under clear-sky conditions. Model uncertainties are estimated by performing sensitivity studies for variations in aerosol optical depth, aerosol optical properties, water vapor profiles, ozone content, solar irradiance at the top of

Francisco P. J. Valero; Brett C. Bush

1999-01-01

311

Art & Letters Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users wishing quick and easy access to some of the best writing online will want to examine this site. Art & Letters Daily, updated six days per week, offers links to articles, new book notices and reviews, and essays and opinion pieces in all fields of the humanities. The does not site provide original content, but rather mines a wide array of online newspapers, journals, and other publications and offers links with very brief introductions to the "precious nuggets of real content" on the Web. In addition, the site provides a linked list of the publications and columnists used to glean the reports as well as an archive of past features. Certainly few users will find all of the pieces interesting or pertinent, but the quantity and variety of content and the frequency with which it is updated guarantee that there will be something for almost anyone.

312

AstronomyDaily.Com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy Daily.Com offers real time astronomical data tailored to the viewer's location and time zone. The personalized front page presents a chart of tonight's sky. Diagrams allow users to view the planets in their orbits. Educators and students can find images of today's moon and its phase on the calendar, plus data dealing with its current position and its physical and orbital characteristics. Phil Harrington, a supervisor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, provides two monthly articles; the first assesses a phenomenon in the sky that can be observed with binoculars and the second discusses a phenomenon in the Deep Sky. Viewers can also participate in many discussion forums with other interested astronomers. Although users are required to register in order to view the customized site, no personal identification is requested. This site is also reviewed in the October 3, 2003 NSDL Physical Sciences Report.

313

Math in Daily Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are your odds of hitting it big at the casino? Should you buy or lease a car? How much will you have when you retire? All of these questions involve math, and this latest addition to the Annenberg Media Projects Learner Online site (described in the September 12, 1997 Scout Report) explores the use of basic mathematical concepts in daily decision-making. The exhibit is divided into several topical sections exploring probability and gambling, compound interest and credit cards, population growth, geometry in the home, and ratios and recipes. In addition to an overview of the topic, each section offers several links to selected related sites and online tools, and two feature interactive learning activities.

1998-01-01

314

Los Alamos National Laboratory passive solar program  

SciTech Connect

Progress in passive solar tasks performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for FY-81 is documented. A third volume of the Passive Solar Design Handbook is nearly complete. Twenty-eight configurations of sunspaces were studied using the solar load ratio method of predicting performance; the configuration showing best performance is discussed. The minimum level of insolation needed to generate convective flow in the thermosiphon test rig is noted and measured. Information is also included on test room performance, off-peak auxiliary electric heating for a passive home, free convection experiment, monitored buildings, and technical support to the US Department of Energy.

Neeper, D.A.

1981-01-01

315

Guide to exporting for US solar companies  

SciTech Connect

Reasons for US solar manufacturers to export are discussed; and, after a descision has been made to export solar equipment and technology, how to export and where to export are primary goals. The manual presents some basic information to answer the how and where. It provides information concerning the services which are currently available to facilitate entry into foreign markets and the basic social, economic, and solar insolation data on over 70 foreign markets are presented. Statistical profile information for the 70 countries include population; per capita income; primary languages, literacy rate; ratio of urban and rural areas; monetary unit; population density; GNP; energy production; energy consumption; energy reserves; trade with US. (MCW)

Thompson, P.

1981-06-01

316

Passive solar heating and cooling means  

SciTech Connect

The invention comprises means of controlling the insolation and radiation of passive solar thermal storage columns for heating and cooling of homes and other structures. In one embodiment rotatable insulating panels control the exposure of round thermal storage columns to daytime sunlight and the nighttime sky. A second embodiment allows independent rotation of the column and the insulation panel for further control of the insolation and radiation. In a third embodiment the rotatable insulating panels are positioned in concave depressions formed in vertical thermal storage columns. These columns include individual thermal convection means formed therein and are particularly suited to precast concrete or masonry construction. In a fourth embodiment the rotatable panels are adapted to retrofit existing masonry walls for passive solar thermal storage. The constructions disclosed can be utilized for vertical walls, sloping walls and roofs and flat roofs. Structural support must be modified depending on the orientation, however, the basic modes of operation are suitable for all orientations.

Lee, K.S.

1984-01-10

317

Effect of posture-control insoles on function in children with cerebral palsy: Randomized controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cerebral palsy (CP) is a posture and movement disorder and different therapeutic modalities, such as the use of braces, have sought to favor selective motor control and muscle coordination in such patients. The aim of the proposed study is to determine the effect of the combination of posture-control insoles and ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) improving functional limitation in children with CP. Methods/Design The sample will be composed of 24 children with CP between four and 12 years of age. After the signing of the statement of informed consent, the children will be randomly allocated to two groups: a control group using AFOs alone and an experimental group using both posture-control insoles and AFOs. Evaluations will be performed on five occasions: without any accessory (insoles or AFOs), immediately after, one month after, six months after and one year after AFOs or insole and AFOs use. The evaluation will involve the analysis of gait, static and functional balance, mobility and hypertonia. The three-dimensional assessment of gait will involve the eight-camera SMART-D SMART-D 140® system (BTS Engineering), two Kistler force plates (model 9286BA) and an eight-channel, wireless FREEEMG® electromyography (BTS Engineering). Static balance will be assessed using a Kistler force plate (model 9286BA). Clinical functional balance and mobility will be assessed using the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go Test and Six-Minute Walk Test. The posture-control insoles will be made of ethylene vinyl acetate, with thermal molding for fixation. The fixed orthoses will be made of polypropylene and attached to the ankle region (AFO). The results will be analyzed statistically, with the level significance set to 5% (p < 0.05). Trial Registration Trial Registration Number: RBR6d342s (http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/news/)

2012-01-01

318

An introduction to quiet daily geomagnetic fields  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On days that are quiet with respect to solar-terrestrial activity phenomena, the geomagnetic field has variations, tens of gamma in size, with major spectral components at about 24, 12, 8, and 6 hr in period. These quiet daily field variations are primarily due to the dynamo currents flowing in the E region of the earth's ionosphere, are driven by the global thermotidal wind systems, and are dependent upon the local tensor conductivity and main geomagnetic field vector. The highlights of the behavior and interpretation of these quiet field changes, from their discovery in 1634 until the present, are discussed as an introduction to the special journal issue on Quiet Daily Geomagnetic Fields. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.

Campbell, W. H.

1989-01-01

319

The effect of removing plugs and adding arch support to foam based insoles on plantar pressures in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background Removable plug insoles appear to be beneficial for patients with diabetic neuropathic feet to offload local plantar pressure. However, quantitative evidence of pressure reduction by means of plug removal is limited. The value of additional insole accessories, such as arch additions, has not been tested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of removing plugs from foam based insoles, and subsequently adding extra arch support, on plantar pressures. Methods In-shoe plantar pressure measurements were performed on 26 patients with diabetic neuropathic feet at a baseline condition, in order to identify the forefoot region with the highest mean peak pressure (MPP). This was defined as the region of interest (ROI) for plug removal.The primary outcome was measurement of MPP using the pedar® system in the baseline and another three insole conditions (pre-plug removal, post-plug removal, and post-plug removal plus arch support). Results Among the 26 ROIs, a significant reduction in MPP (32.3%, P<0.001) was found after removing the insole plugs. With an arch support added, the pressure was further reduced (9.5%, P<0.001). There were no significant differences in MPP at non-ROIs between pre- and post-plug removal conditions. Conclusions These findings suggest that forefoot plantar pressure can be reduced by removing plugs and adding arch support to foam-based insoles. This style of insole may therefore be clinically useful in managing patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

2013-01-01

320

Solar Minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium K plage, H alpha plage and sunspot area have been monitored daily on the INTERNET since November of 1992. The plage and sunspot area have been measured by image processing. The purpose of the project is to investigate the degree of correlation between plage area and solar irradiance. The plage variation shows the expected variation produced by solar rotation and the longer secular changes produced by the solar cycle. The H alpha and sunspot plage area reached a minimum in about late 1994 or early 1995. This is in agreement with the K2 spectral index obtained daily from Sacramento Peak Observatory. The Calcium K plage area minimum seems delayed with respect to the others mentioned above. The minimum of the K line plage area is projected to come within the last few months of 1995.

Lopresto, James C.; Mathews, John; Manross, Kevin

1995-12-01

321

Decentralized solar photovoltaic energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emphasis was placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ utilizing a unique solar cell array roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5 percent efficiency at 28 C and 100 mW/sq cm insolation are used to generate 10 kW (peak). An all electric home is considered with lead acid battery storage, DC AC inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

Krupka, M. C.

1980-09-01

322

Integrated solar energy system optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

Young, S. K.

1982-11-01

323

Insolation and glacial-interglacial control on southwestern African hydroclimate over the past 140 000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past climate evolution of southwestern Africa is poorly understood and interpretations of past hydrological changes are sometimes contradictory. Here we present a record of leaf-wax ?D and ?C13 taken from a marine sediment core at 23°S off the coast of Namibia to reconstruct the hydrology and C3 versus C4 vegetation of southwestern Africa over the last 140 000 years (140 ka). We find lower leaf-wax ?D and higher ?C13 (more C4 grasses), which we interpret to indicate wetter Southern Hemisphere (SH) summer conditions and increased seasonality, during SH insolation maxima relative to minima and during the last glacial period relative to the Holocene and the last interglacial period. Nonetheless, the dominance of C4 grasses throughout the record indicates that the wet season remained brief and that this region has remained semi-arid. Our data suggest that past precipitation increases were derived from the tropics rather than from the winter westerlies. Comparison with a record from the Congo Basin indicates that hydroclimate in southwestern Africa has evolved in antiphase with that of central Africa over the last 140 ka.

Collins, James A.; Schefuß, Enno; Govin, Aline; Mulitza, Stefan; Tiedemann, Ralf

2014-07-01

324

In the hot seat: Insolation, ENSO, and vegetation in the African tropics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

climate is changing at rates unprecedented in the Late Holocene with profound implications for tropical ecosystems and the global hydrologic cycle. Understanding the specific climate drivers behind tropical ecosystem change is critical for both future and paleomodeling efforts. However, linkages between climate and vegetation in the tropics have been extremely controversial. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is a satellite-derived index of vegetation productivity with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Here we use regression analysis to show that NDVI variability in Africa is primarily correlated with the interannual extent of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Our results indicate that interannual variability of the ITCZ, rather than sea surface temperatures or teleconnections to middle/high latitudes, drives patterns in African vegetation resulting from the effects of insolation anomalies and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events on atmospheric circulation. Global controls on tropical atmospheric circulation allow for spatially coherent reconstruction of interannual vegetation variability throughout Africa on many time scales through regulation of dry season length and moisture convergence, rather than precipitation amount.

Ivory, Sarah J.; Russell, Joellen; Cohen, Andrew S.

2013-12-01

325

Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars.  

PubMed

Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (approximately 3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. PMID:16222294

Tanaka, Kenneth L

2005-10-13

326

Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (???3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

Tanaka, K. L.

2005-01-01

327

The Biomechanical Effect of the Sensomotor Insole on a Pediatric Intoeing Gait  

PubMed Central

Background. The sensomotor insole (SMI) has clinically been shown to be successful in treating an intoeing gait. We investigated the biomechanical effect of SMI on a pediatric intoeing gait by using three-dimensional gait analysis. Methods. Six patients with congenital clubfeet and four patients with idiopathic intoeing gait were included. There were five boys and five girls with the average age at testing of 5.6 years. The torsional profile of the lower limb was assessed clinically. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed in the same shoes with and without SMI. Results. All clubfeet patients exhibited metatarsal adductus, while excessive femoral anteversion and/or internal tibial torsion was found in patients with idiopathic intoeing gait. SMI showed significant decreased internal rotation of the proximal femur in terminal swing phase and loading response phase. The internal rotation of the tibia was significantly smaller in mid stance phase and terminal stance phase by SMI. In addition, SMI significantly increased the walking speed and the step length. Conclusions. SMI improved abnormal gait patterns of pediatric intoeing gait by decreasing femoral internal rotation through the end of the swing phase and the beginning of the stance phase and by decreasing tibial internal rotation during the stance phase.

Mabuchi, Akiyoshi; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Inoue, Masato; Hayashi, Mitsuhiko; Ishiguro, Naoki; Suzuki, Nobuharu

2012-01-01

328

A computer model to estimate solar radiation in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scarcity of hourly solar radiation data for locations in Vietnam presents difficulties in using simulation packages for assessing the potential of solar energy systems in that country. This paper describes a computer model to generate daily and hourly solar radiation sequences from monthly average daily radiation values, or monthly average daily sunshine hour data. The resulting model has been

B. T. Nguyen; T. L. Pryor

1996-01-01

329

Survey of quantitative data on the solar energy and its spectra distribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a survey of available quantitative data on the total and spectral solar irradiance at ground level and outside the atmosphere. Measurements from research aircraft have resulted in the currently accepted NASA/ASTM standards of the solar constant and zero air mass solar spectral irradiance. The intrinsic variability of solar energy output and programs currently under way for more precise measurements from spacecraft are discussed. Instrumentation for solar measurements and their reference radiation scales are examined. Insolation data available from the records of weather stations are reviewed for their applicability to solar energy conversion. Two alternate methods of solarimetry are briefly discussed.

Thekaekara, M. P.

1976-01-01

330

Use of the direct measurement of solar radiation for the determination of Pasquill stability parameter. Technical report, January-August 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two schemes for estimating the amount of solar radiation received at the earth's surface are compared to solar-radiation measurements. These data were acquired over a total of 25 days and from 214 individual observations. These observations were grouped into both instantaneous and hourly averaged data. Of the two schemes studied, the insolation parameter Psi performed better than the net radiation

Myirski

1987-01-01

331

The dynamics of the Snowball Earth Hadley circulation for off-equatorial and seasonally-varying insolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I study the Hadley circulation of a completely ice-covered Snowball Earth through simulations with a comprehensive atmosphere general circulation model. Because the Snowball Earth atmosphere is an example of a dry atmosphere, these simulations allow me to test to what extent dry theories and idealized models capture the dynamics of dry Hadley circulations. Perpetual off-equatorial as well as seasonally-varying insolation is used, extending a previous study for perpetual on-equatorial (equinox) insolation. Vertical diffusion of momentum, representing the momentum transport of dry convection, is fundamental to the momentum budgets of both the winter and summer cells. In the zonal budget, it is the primary process balancing the Coriolis force. In the meridional budget, it mixes meridional momentum between the upper and the lower branch and thereby decelerates the circulation. Because of the latter, the circulation intensifies by a factor of three when vertical diffusion of momentum is suppressed. For seasonally-varying insolation, the circulation undergoes rapid transitions from the weak summer into the strong winter regime. Consistent with previous studies in idealized models, these transitions result from a mean-flow feedback, because of which they are insensitive to the treatment of vertical diffusion of momentum. Overall, the results corroborate previous findings for perpetual on-equatorial insolation. They demonstrate that an appropriate description of dry Hadley circulations, in particular their strength, needs to incorporate the vertical momentum transport by dry convection, a process that is neglected in most dry theories and idealized models. An improved estimate of the strength of the Snowball Earth Hadley circulation will also help to better constrain the climate of a possible Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth and its deglaciation threshold.

Voigt, A.

2013-08-01

332

Insolation-driven changes in atmospheric circulation over the past 116,000 years in subtropical Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last glacial period, large millennial-scale temperature oscillations-the `Dansgaard\\/Oeschger' cycles-were the primary climate signal in Northern Hemisphere climate archives from the high latitudes to the tropics. But whether the influence of these abrupt climate changes extended to the tropical and subtropical Southern Hemisphere, where changes in insolation are thought to be the main direct forcing of climate, has remained

Francisco W. Cruz; Stephen J. Burns; Ivo Karmann; Warren D. Sharp; Mathias Vuille; Andrea O. Cardoso; José A. Ferrari; Pedro L. Silva Dias; Oduvaldo Viana

2005-01-01

333

A study on a two stage maximum power point tracking control of a photovoltaic system under partially shaded insolation conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photovoltaic (PV) array shows relatively low output power density, and has a greatly drooping current-voltage (I-V) characteristic. Therefore, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control is used to maximize the output power of the PV array. Many papers have been reported in relation to MPPT. However, the current-power (I-P) curve sometimes shows multilocal maximum points mode under nonuniform insolation conditions.

K. Kobayashi; I. Takano; Y. Sawada

2003-01-01

334

Solar-Geophysical Data Number 647, July 1998. Part 1 (Prompt Reports). Data for May, June 1998 and Late Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Data for June 1998; Solar-Terrestrial Environment; ISES Alert Periods (Advance and Worldwide); Solar Activity Indices; Solar Flares; Solar Radio Emission; Stanford Mean Solar Magnetic Field; GOES-7 Daily Electron Fluence; Data for May 1998; Sola...

H. E. Coffey

1998-01-01

335

The Importance of Insolation on the Temperature Variations for the Past 80 kyr in the Chinese Loess Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glacial-interglacial temperature variations in Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) are poorly constrained due to the absence of suitable paleothermometry. Here, we present the first temperature record for the last 80kyr from Lantian county, southern CLP using the newly developed MBT and CBT proxies. The mean annual temperature (MAT) is reconstructed from the calibration equation of methylation and cyclisation indices of bacterial branched Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGTs) membrane lipids to MAT based on a wide collection of global soils. Chronology of the Lantian site is produced by correlating its magnetic susceptibility (MS) to the MS of the OSL-dated Jinyuan site. Our results show a minimum temperature of 11.27°C around MIS 4 and a maximum of 23.36 °C during early Holocene. The temperature shows a sharp drop of up to 10 °C from MIS5 to MIS4 and a more rapid recovery to MIS3 than other records (GISP2 ?18O, Lisiechi ?18O, and Vostok ?18O). Overall, temperature variation shows significant covariance with insolation (35°N, July 1), but only weak correlation with ice volume. Our observations indicate that Northern Hemisphere insolation has major influence on the temperature of the Chinese Loess Plateau for the last 80kyr. Our paleotemperature record from the Chinese Loess Plateau, together with speleothem-deltaO18-based East Asian monsoon records from southern China, demonstrates the importance of insolation on climate in East Asia.

Cupery, D.; Gao, L.; Nie, J.; Liu, W.; Clemens, S. C.; Huang, Y.

2009-12-01

336

Daily Aircraft Routing and Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the daily aircraft routing and scheduling problem (DARSP). It consists of determining daily schedules which maximize the anticipated profits derived from the aircraft of a heterogeneous fleet. This fleet must cover a set of operational flight legs with known departure time windows, durations and profits according to the aircraft type. We present two models for

Guy Desaulniers; Jacques Desrosiers; Yvan Dumas; Marius M. Solomon; François Soumis

1997-01-01

337

Effects of laterally wedged insoles on symptoms and disease progression in medial knee osteoarthritis: a protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Whilst laterally wedged insoles, worn inside the shoes, are advocated as a simple, inexpensive, non-toxic self-administered intervention for knee osteoarthritis (OA), there is currently limited evidence to support their use. The aim of this randomised, double-blind controlled trial is to determine whether laterally wedges insoles lead to greater improvements in knee pain, physical function and health-related quality of life,

Kim Bennell; Kelly-Ann Bowles; Craig Payne; Flavia Cicuttini; Richard Osborne; Anthony Harris; Rana Hinman

2007-01-01

338

Orographic cloud over the eastern slopes of Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii, related to insolation and wind  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the period 1 to 11 June 1978, solar radiation and other meteorological data were gathered at eight stations arranged in a nearly linear transection extending from the coast at Hilo, Hawaii to Mauna Loa Observatory, 60 km inland and 3400 m higher. Solar radiation distributions followed climatological rainfall patterns; the driest areas were sunniest. At the wettest sites, underneath

Alfred J. Garrett

1980-01-01

339

A nonlinear steady-state characteristic performance curve for medium-temperature solar energy collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a numerical simulation model that was employed to investigate the effects of ambient temperature and insolation of the efficiency of compound parabolic concentrating solar energy collectors. The limitations of presently used collector performance characterization curves were investigated and a new approach proposed. The major advantage of the new procedure over those employed previously is that different

P. C. Eames; B. Norton

1991-01-01

340

A solar-powered organic vapour power cycle with electricity generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An economic and technological assessment is made of Rankine-cycle solar power plants employing an organic working fluid such as Freon 12. Consideration extends to global and seasonal patterns of insolation, and the design and performance of flat-plate collector, turbine, and Freon boiler and condenser elements of a system such as the medium-sized house tested at Hatfield, England.

Kenkare, A.

341

Solar radiation in Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation data for two sites in Lebanon are analyzed and presented in a form suitable for their use by practicing engineers. Correlations of the Angstrom-Page type for daily and monthly data are developed. Probability density functions for daily values of global radiation for each month are compared with the results of Liu and Jordan. The atmospheric model developed by

A. A. Sfeir

1981-01-01

342

Solar- und Windenergie zum Pumpen von Wasser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water pumping by means of wind and solar energy becomes more and more attractive by reason of increasing energy prices. Water supply for remote villages especially in developing countries needs hydraulic energy of about 1 to 50 kWh per day. The use of renewable energies like solar and wind seems to be technically successfull and has a good chance to be competitive with conventional energy sources like diesel or electricity in regions with mean wind speeds above 4 5 m/s or high insolation of about 5 kWh/day annual average.

Fritzsche, Albert; Speidel, Klaus

1983-08-01

343

Fast adjustment of the climate system to changes in atmospheric CO2 and solar radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key issue in the study of global climate change is the climate response to external forcing. When radiative forcing is applied to the climate system, the climate system starts to respond, resulting in changes in temperature and other fields. A new quasi-equilibrium climate state is achieved when the global mean net energy balance at the top-of-atmosphere returns to zero. The adjustment of the climate system is governed by different processes on different timescales. Within days to months, the climate system adjusts mainly to the imposed forcing and the change of land surface temperature. On longer timescale of years to centuries, when the ocean temperature starts to respond, changes in sea surface temperature exert a strong control on the adjustment of the climate system. By performing ensemble simulations using Hadley Center climate model, HadCM3L, we investigate climate system response to the applied forcing in the forms of additional atmospheric carbon dioxide and an increase in solar insolation. Both carbon dioxide and solar forcing affects the Earth's radiation balance and carbon dioxide also affects the climate system through its impact on plant stomata. We focus on the daily evolution of climate response within a timescale of one month over land and oceans. We will provide a mechanistic understanding of why increasing atmospheric CO2 causes a reduction in global-mean precipitation in the absence of sea surface temperature change. We will also discuss the adjustment of radiative forcing and the usefulness in radiative forcing as a predictor of equilibrium climate change. A discussion of the climate response from daily to millennium timescale will also be presented.

Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.; Bala, G.

2011-12-01

344

Daily Egyptian Diversity News Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed as part of the online collections at Southern Illinois University-Carbondale's Morris Library, the Daily Egyptian Diversity News Index provides historical insight into the campus climate at this unique school. In 2006, Dr. Seymour Bryson, the associate chancellor for diversity, teamed up with several other colleagues to identify articles in the Daily Egyptian (the University's student newspaper) related to the university's historic minority campus populations. The project entailed surveying microfilm and creating searchable transcripts for online access. Currently, the online archive contains over 1,400 items from the Daily Egyptian, and content includes pieces on African American members of the homecoming court, student activists, musical groups, and student government.

345

Method and Apparatus for Monitoring of Daily Activity in Terms of Ground Reaction Forces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device to record and analyze habitual daily activity in terms of the history of gait-related musculoskeletal loading is disclosed. The device consists of a pressure-sensing insole placed into the shoe or embedded in a shoe sole, which detects contact of the foot with the ground. The sensor is coupled to a portable battery-powered digital data logger clipped to the shoe or worn around the ankle or waist. During the course of normal daily activity, the system maintains a record of time-of-occurrence of all non-spurious foot-down and lift-off events. Off line, these data are filtered and converted to a history of foot-ground contact times, from which measures of cumulative musculoskeletal loading, average walking- and running-specific gait speed, total time spent walking and running, total number of walking steps and running steps, and total gait-related energy expenditure are estimated from empirical regressions of various gait parameters to the contact time reciprocal. Data are available as cumulative values or as daily averages by menu selection. The data provided by this device are useful for assessment of musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health and risk factors associated with habitual patterns of daily activity.

Whalen, Robert T. (Inventor); Breit, Gregory A. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

346

Destruction of Sun-Grazing Comet C-2011 N3 (SOHO) Within the Low Solar Corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of comets in Sun-grazing orbits that survive solar insolation long enough to penetrate into the Suns inner corona provide information on the solar atmosphere and magnetic field as well as on the makeup of the comet. On 6 July 2011, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observed the demise of comet C2011 N3 (SOHO) within the low solar corona in five wavelength bands in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). The comet penetrated to within 0.146 solarradius (100,000 kilometers) of the solar surface before its EUV signal disappeared.

Schrijver, C. J.; Brown, J. C.; Battams, K.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Liu, W.; Hudson, H.; Pesnell, W. D.

2012-01-01

347

An Extended Version of the Richardson Model for Simulating Daily Weather Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Richardson model is a popular technique for stochastic simulation of daily weather variables, including precipitation amount, maximum and minimum temperature, and solar radiation. This model is extended to include two additional variables, daily mean wind speed and dewpoint, because these variables (or related quantities such as relative humidity) are required as inputs for certain ecological\\/vegetation response and agricultural management

Marc B. Parlange; Richard W. Katz

2000-01-01

348

Generating daily weather data for ecosystem modelling in the Congo River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily weather data are an important constraint for diverse applications in ecosystem research. In particular, temperature and precipitation are the main drivers for forest ecosystem productivity. Mechanistic modelling theory heavily relies on daily values for minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation, incident solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit. Although the number of climate measurement stations increased during the last centuries, there

Richard Petritsch; Stephan A. Pietsch

2010-01-01

349

Effects of insolation on habitability and the isotopic history of Martian water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three aspects of the Habitability of the Northern Plains of Mars to organics and terrestrial-like microbial life were assessed. (1) Protection offered by small surface features and; (2) the breakdown of rocks to form soils were examined using a radiative transfer computer model. Two separate sublimation experiments provided a basis to improve; (3) estimates of the amount of available water today and in the past by determining the fractionation of HDO between present-day reservoirs. (1) UV radiation sterilizes the hardiest of terrestrial organisms within minutes on the Martian surface. Small surface features including pits, trenches, flat faces and overhangs may create "safe havens" for organisms by blocking much of the UV flux. In the most favorable cases, this flux is sufficiently reduced such that organic in-fall could accumulate beneath overhanging surfaces and in pits and cracks while terrestrial microorganisms could persist for several tens of martian years. (2) The production of soils on the surface is considered by analogy with the arid US Southwest. Here differential insolation of incipient cracks of random orientations predicts crack orientation distributions consistent with field observations by assuming that only crack orientations which shield their interiors, minimizing their water loss, can grow, eventually disrupting the clast. (3) Disaggregated water ice to simulate the polar caps was produced by flash freezing in liquid nitrogen and crushing. When dust was added to the mixtures, the D/H ratio of the sublimate gas was seen to decrease with time from the bulk ratio. The more dust was added to the mixture, the more pronounced was this effect. The largest fractionation factor observed during these experiments was 2.5. Clean ice was also prepared and overlain by dust to simulate ground ice. Here, the movement of water vapor was modeled using an effective diffusivity that incorporated both adsorption on grains and diffusion. For low temperatures (<-55°C) a significant difference between the diffusivities of H 2 O and HDO was observed. This suggests adsorptive-control within the regolith as energies of interaction are 60-70kJmol -1 . This ability of the martian regolith to preferentially adsorb HDO decouples the ice table and polar caps from the atmosphere and allows for geographic variations in the D/H ratio on Mars.

Moores, John

350

Asthma Prevalence Associated with Geographical Latitude and Regional Insolation in the United States of America and Australia  

PubMed Central

Background It has been proposed that vitamin D deficiency may be responsible for an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases and asthma worldwide. Human ability to generate physiologically required quantities of vitamin D through sun exposure is decreasing with increasing geographical latitude. Objectives Considering that vitamin D deficiency is usually due to lack of outdoor sun exposure, this study is designed to test the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of asthma should be expected at high relative to low geographical latitudes. Methods Linear regression analyses are performed on asthma prevalence in the U.S. adult population vs. geographical latitude, insolation, air temperature, and air pollution (PM2.5) for 97 major metropolitan/micropolitan statistical areas of the continental United States of America and on general population asthma prevalence vs. geographical latitude in eight metropolitan areas of Australia. Results A 10° change in geographical latitude from southern to northern regions of the Eastern Seaboard is associated with a 2% increase in adult asthma prevalence (p<0.001). Total insolation in winter months is almost as strong as latitude in its ability to explain the observed spatial variation in the prevalence of asthma (r2?=?0.43; p<0.001). Similar results are obtained using the Australian data (r2?=?0.73; p<0.01), suggesting a consistent association between the latitude/insolation and asthma prevalence worldwide. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that, as a known modulator of the immune response closely linked with the geographical latitude and erythemal UV irradiation, vitamin D may play an important role in the development/exacerbation of asthma.

Krstic, Goran

2011-01-01

351

Enhanced solar energy options using earth-orbiting mirrors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system of orbiting space reflectors is described, analyzed, and shown to economically provide nearly continuous insolation to preselected ground sites, producing benefits hitherto lacking in conventional solar farms and leading to large reductions in energy costs for such installations. Free-flying planar mirrors of about 1 sq km are shown to be optimum and can be made at under 10 g/sq m of surface, thus minimizing material needs and space transportation costs. Models are developed for both the design of such mirrors and for the analysis of expected ground insolation as a function of orbital parameters, time, and site location. Various applications (agricultural, solar-electric production, weather enhancement, etc.) are described.

Gilbreath, W. P.; Billman, K. W.; Bowen, S. W.

1978-01-01

352

Monte Carlo simulation of the performance of PMMA luminescent solar collectors  

SciTech Connect

A Monte Carlo method has been developed to simulate the performance of luminescent solar collectors (LSC) consisting of a PMMA plate with an attached film (or multiple-film stack) of dye-activated PMMA. Rhodamine 6G and Fluorol 555 have been considered as dopant dyes. Direct and diffuse solar spectra have been simulated in order to compare extreme insolation conditions. Efficiency factors have been determined as a function of the main geometrical and optical parameters of the LSC.

Carrascosa, M.; Agullo-Lopez, F.; Unamuno, S.

1983-10-15

353

Influence of the Solar Luminosity on the Glaciations, sea Level Changes and Resulting Earthquakes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciations were attributed to variations of the Earth's orbit (Milankovitch cycles). But the best ever dated paleoclimatic record (from Devils Hole, Nevada) demonstrated that the end of the last glacial period (termination II) happened 10 000 years before the one suggested by the orbital variations, i.e. the result appeared before the reason. This fact suggests that there is something wrong in the theory. Calcite speleothems luminescence of organics depends exponentially upon soil temperatures that are determined primarily by the solar radiation. So the microzonality of luminescence of speleothems may be used as an indirect Solar Insolation (radiation) proxy index. We obtained luminescence solar insolation proxy records in speleothems (from Jewel Cave, South Dakota, US and Duhlata cave, Bulgaria). These records exhibit very rapid increasing of the solar insolation at 139 kyrs BP responsible for the termination II (the end of the last glaciation) and demonstrate that solar luminosity variations contribute to Earth's heating almost as much as the orbital variations of the Earth's orbit (Milankovitch cycles). The most powerful cycle of the solar luminosity (11500 yrs) is responsible for almost 1/2 of the variations in solar insolation experimental records. Changes in the speed of Earth's rotation during glacial- interglacial transitions produce fracturing of the Earth's crust and major earthquakes along the fractures. The intensity of this process is as higher as faster is the change of the sea level and as higher is its amplitude. Glaciations and deglaciations drive changes of the sea level. Much higher dimensions of this process should be caused by eruptive increasing of solar luminosity, which may be caused only by collision of large asteroids with the Sun. We demonstrate that such collision may cause "Bible Deluge" type of event.

Shopov, Y. Y.; Stoykova, D. A.; Tsankov, L. T.; Sanabria, M. E.; Georgieva, D. I.; Ford, D. C.; Georgiev, L. N.

2002-12-01

354

Monte Carlo simulation of the performance of PMMA luminescent solar collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Monte Carlo method has been developed to simulate the performance of luminescent solar collectors (LSC) consisting of a PMMA plate with an attached film (or multiple-film stack) of dye-activated PMMA. Rhodamine 6G and Fluorol 555 have been considered as dopant dyes. Direct and diffuse solar spectra have been simulated in order to compare extreme insolation conditions. Efficiency factors have

M. Carrascosa; F. Agullo-Lopez; S. Unamuno

1983-01-01

355

Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

1983-01-01

356

Development and testing of shingle-type solar cell molecules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The details of a shingle module design which produces in excess of 97 watts/sq m of module area at 1 kW/sq m insolation and at 60 C are reported. This selected design employs a tempered glass coverplate to provide the primary solar cell structural support. The fabrication and testing of a preproduction module of this design has demonstrated that this selected approach will meet the environmental testing requirements imposed by the contract.

Shepard, N. F.

1978-01-01

357

Solar radiation: absence of air pollution trends at Mauna Loa.  

PubMed

Measurements of solar radiation made at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, over a period of 13 years give no evidence that human activities affect atmospheric turbidity on a global scale. Short-term fluctuations in insolation appear to be associated with naturally produced tropospheric aerosols. The intrusion of volcanic dust into the stratosphere results in prolonged increases in atmospheric opacity due to the extended residence times of aerosols in the stratosphere. PMID:5572907

Ellis, H T; Pueschel, R F

1971-05-21

358

Science Daily: Physics of Sailing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video podcast from Science Daily magazine explores the physics principles that enable modern sailboats to move faster than the wind. Physicist Bryon Anderson, Kent State University, explains the secret that many novice sailors do not know: a sailboat goes fastest when the wind blows from the side, not from directly behind the craft. Dr. Anderson discusses the physics involved, while the video provides illustrations of the interacting forces. Science Daily is a web-based magazine that delivers timely news about discoveries in science and technology, appropriate for all audiences. The web site archives contain more than 40,000 resources that cover all strands of the sciences.

2011-10-01

359

Solar Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is intended to spark pre- and early teen girls' interest in pursuing careers in science through the study of recent solar physics discoveries. The set of daily activities is self-contained, so participation can be carried out on a day-to-day basis depending upon your schedule. One of the great strengths of this project is the interaction with real scientists who have first hand knowledge of the various topics which make up Solar Week. These activities will also be available after the period chosen for Solar Week, without real-time interaction with scientists. This website is designed as a week-long unit. Each day covers a different topic.

360

A simple solar, spectral model for studying the effects of cloud cover and surface albedo on the incoming solar radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of cloud cover and surface albedo on the solar insolation at the surface of the Earth was investigated. The model uses Bird's (1984) clear sky model for direct normal and diffuse horizontal irradiance as its basis. Bird's model was modified to include inclined surfaces and cloud cover. The clouds were modelled using parameterizations developed by Welch, Cox and Davis (1980) and a weighting technique to account for cloud shape using plane parallel calculations. The radiative transfer in the cloud was modelled by a two stream approximation known as the Shuster Schwarzchild method. The model results were compared with clear sky broadband and spectral observations, and cloudy broadband observations. The effects of cloud amount, cloud thickness, cloud type, and surface albedo are demonstrated. Cloud amount and cloud thickness are the predominant cloud factors affecting insolation. High surface albedos tend to slow the decrease in insolation due to increasing cloud cover; while low surface albedos cause greater variation in insolation under the same circumstances.

Powell, A. M., Jr.

361

Satellite-derived photosynthetically available and total solar irradiance at the surface during FIFE's intensive field campaigns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite-derived photosynthetically available and total solar irradiance at the surface during First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment's (FIFE) intensive field compaigns are addressed. Graphs showing photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) vs. Julian Day and insolation vs. Julian Day are included.

Frouin, Robert; Mcpherson, J.

1993-01-01

362

solar thermal power systems advanced solar thermal technology project, advanced subsystems development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary design for a prototype small (20 kWe) solar thermal electric generating unit was completed, consisting of several subsystems. The concentrator and the receiver collect solar energy and a thermal buffer storage with a transport system is used to provide a partially smoothed heat input to the Stirling engine. A fossil-fuel combustor is included in the receiver designs to permit operation with partial or no solar insolation (hybrid). The engine converts the heat input into mechanical action that powers a generator. To obtain electric power on a large scale, multiple solar modules will be required to operate in parallel. The small solar electric power plant used as a baseline design will provide electricity at remote sites and small communities.

1979-01-01

363

Ash loading and insolation at Hanford, Washington during and after the eruption of Mount St. Helens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of volcanic ash suspended in the atmosphere on the incident solar radiation was monitored at the Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS) subsequent to the major eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980. Passage of the ash plume over Hanford resulted in a very dramatic decrease of solar radiation intensity to zero. A reduction in visibility to less than 1 km was observed, as great quantities of ash fell out of the plume onto the ground. Ash loading in the atmosphere remained very high for several days following the eruption, primarily as a result of resuspension from the surface. Visibilities remained low (2 to 8 km) during this period. Estimates of atmospheric turbidity were made from the ratio of diffuse-to-direct solar radiation; these turbidities were used to estimate extinction along a horizontal path, a quantity which can be related to visibility. Comparisons of observed and estimated visibilities were very good, in spite of the rather coarse approximations used in the estimates. Atmospheric clarity and visibility improved to near pre-eruption conditions following a period of rain showers. The diffuse-to-direct ratio of solar radiation provided a useful index for estimating volcanic ash loading of the atmosphere.

Laulainen, N. S.

1982-01-01

364

Insolation measurements with a portable CuS-CdS radiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar radiation measurements were carried out with a portable Cu2S-Cds radiometer. The measurements were found to be accurate to better than 5% (better than 3% when sophisticated metering is employed). Calibration to an Eppley precision pyranometer is discussed.

Windawi, H. M.

1976-01-01

365

Long term evolution and chaotic diffusion of the insolation quantities of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the obliquity of Mars is strongly chaotic, it is not possible to give a solution for its evolution over more than a few million years. Using the most recent data for the rotational state of Mars, and a new numerical integration of the Solar System, we provide here a precise solution for the evolution of Mars' spin over 10

J. Laskar; A. C. M. Correia; M. Gastineau; F. Joutel; B. Levrard; P. Robutel

2004-01-01

366

Nonlinear Climate Responses to Orbital-Insolation during the early Miocene and Pleistocene: The Impact of Unipolar vs. Bipolar Glaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanisms of nonlinear climate response to orbital insolation have been widely explored for the Pleistocene. Many of these conceptual/numerical models link the nonlinear climate response to ice sheet dynamics - commonly the northern hemisphere ice sheet - during an interval of bipolar glaciation. In contrast, the diagnosis of nonlinear climate responses associated with earlier intervals of presumed unipolar (Antarctic) glaciation has received less attention, although published power spectra often suggest the presence of nonlinear responses in the climate and/or depositional systems (e.g., the presence of strong eccentricity band power, which is not present in the insolation forcing). In this study, we explore nonlinear climate responses during the Pleistocene and early Miocene using the estimation of bicoherence, a time series analysis method that is capable of identifying nonlinear interactions in paleoclimate data via the assessment of phase coupling between frequencies. Using this approach, published Pleistocene stable isotope stacks and an early Miocene stable isotope record from Ceara Rise (ODP Leg 154) are compared to each other, and to various proposed nonlinear climate models. Our assessment includes an evaluation of the sensitivity of bicoherence results to a range of plausible noise sources in the climate and depositional systems, using Monte Carlo simulation. Preliminary results suggest distinct nonlinear phase-coupling processes during the early Miocene and Pleistocene. Detailed comparison of these results will provide further insights into the mechanisms that drive a climate system with a unipolar (Antarctic) ice sheet versus that with large bipolar continental ice sheets.

Du, M.; Meyers, S. R.; Hinnov, L. A.

2012-12-01

367

Web searching for daily living  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new concept proposed in this paper is a query free web search that automatically retrieves a web page including information re- lated to the daily activity that we are currently engaged in for auto- matically displaying the page on Internet-connected domestic ap- pliances around us such as televisions. When we are washing a coffee maker, for example, a web

Takuya Maekawa; Yutaka Yanagisawa; Yasushi Sakurai; Yasue Kishino; Koji Kamei; Takeshi Okadome

2009-01-01

368

Analysis of daily temperature fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study daily temperature fluctuations over more than 50 yr in two places on the globe that are separated by more than 3000 km. We analyze the temperature fluctuations ?Ti with respect to the mean noon temperature ?Ti? averaged, for each day of the year, over the whole year, ?Ti = Ti ? ?Ti?. We find that the ?Ti are

Eva Koscielny-Bunde; Armin Bunde; Shlomo Havlin; Yair Goldreich

1996-01-01

369

Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

Dudley, V.E. [EG and G MSI, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-11-01

370

Prescriptive proprioceptive insoles and dental orthotics change the frontal plane position of the atlas (C1), mastoid, malar, temporal, and sphenoid bones: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this series of case studies was to determine if the frontal plane position of the cranial bones and atlas could be altered using dental orthotics, prescriptive insoles, or both concurrently. The cranial radiographs of four patients were reviewed for the study. Three of the patients were diagnosed as having a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction and a preclinical clubfoot deformity. The fourth patient was diagnosed as having a TMJ dysfunction, a preclinical clubfoot deformity and a Catetgory II sacral occipital subluxation, as designated in the chiropractic's Sacro Occipital Technique (SOT). Each patient had a series of four cranial radiographs taken using a modified orthogonal protocol. In two patients, improvement towards orthogonal was achieved when using both prescriptive dental orthotics and prescriptive insoles concurrently. Improvement towards orthogonal was less apparent when using only the prescriptive dental orthotic. No improvement or a negative frontal plane shift was noted when using only the prescriptive proprioceptive insoles. In the third patient, the frontal plane position of the cranial bones and atlas increased (away from orthogonal) when using the generic proprioceptive insoles alone or in combination with a prescriptive dental orthotic. In the fourth patient, the frontal plane position of the cranial bones improved using the dental orthotic. However, the proprioceptive insoles, when used alone or in combination with the dental orthotic, increased the frontal plane position of the cranial bones and atlas. This study demonstrates that changes in the frontal plane position of the cranial and atlas bones can occur when using proprioceptive insoles and/or dental orthotics. PMID:24308104

Rothbart, Brian A

2013-10-01

371

Emerging NOAA Surface Solar Radiation for Solar Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar power has been growing at an annual rate of 40% in recent years. By 2025 it could grow to 10% of U.S. power needs. Sunlight is the fuel for solar power generation technologies, and as such one needs to know the quality and future availability of the fuel for accurate analysis of system performance. Sunlight (solar radiation) at the surface has been routinely estimated in real time from measurements of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) operated by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS). The GOES solar radiation data have been made available in the GOES Surface and Insolation Product (GSIP) suite since January 1996 for the contiguous U.S. every daytime hour at a spatial resolution of ~50 km (GSIP-V1). Since April 2009, solar radiation retrievals have been performed at a higher spatial resolution (~14 km) and cover larger areas (GSIP-V2). The GSIP-V1 data have recently been screened for quality, adjusted for changes in calibration, and parameters useful for the solar energy sector have been derived for the period of 1999-2009. In this presentation, we describe the quality control process and various adjustments applied, and provide examples of selected solar energy parameters (average, midday and clear-sky insolation, clear-sky days, diffuse and direct normal radiation, etc.) and their evaluation. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), one of the flagship instruments of NOAA's new geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will expand frequency and coverage of multispectral remote sensing of atmospheric and surface properties. The planned rapid observations (5-15 minutes) from ABI provide an opportunity to obtain information needed for solar energy applications where frequent observations of solar radiation reaching the surface are essential for planning and load management. The ABI algorithm, that is quite different from the one applied in GSIP-V1 and V2, uses atmospheric and surface data retrieved from multiple narrow bands using algorithms dedicated to the retrieval of these data. The algorithm is currently run with proxy data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the EOS satellites Terra and Aqua and the Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the recently launched Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite. The ABI algorithm will be explained as well as examples will be shown.

Kondratovich, V.; Laszlo, I.; Liu, H.

2012-12-01

372

Solar pumped lasers and their applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1980, NASA has been pursuing high power solar lasers as part of the space power beaming program. Materials in liquid, solid, and gas phases have been evaluated against the requirements for solar pumping. Two basic characteristics of solar insolation, namely its diffuse irradiance and 5800 K blackbody-like spectrum, impose rather stringent requirements for laser excitation. However, meeting these requirements is not insurmountable as solar thermal energy technology has progressed today, and taking advantage of solar pumping lasers is becoming increasingly attractive. The high density photons of concentrated solar energy have been used for mainly electric power generation and thermal processing of materials by the DOE Solar Thermal Technologies Program. However, the photons can interact with materials through many other direct kinetic paths, and applications of the concentrated photons could be extended to processes requiring photolysis, photosynthesis, and photoexcitation. The use of solar pumped lasers on Earth seems constrained by economics and sociopolitics. Therefore, prospective applications may be limited to those that require use of quantum effects and coherency of the laser in order to generate extremely high value products and services when conventional and inexpensive means are ineffective or impossible. The new applications already proposed for concentrated solar photons, such as destruction of hazardous waste, production of renewable fuel, production of fertilizer, and air/water pollution controls, may benefit from the use of inexpensive solar pumped laser matched with the photochemical kinetics of these processes.

Lee, Ja H.

373

Solar excitation of CdS/Cu2S photovoltaic cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar radiation of five typical clear weather days and under a variety of conditions is used to determine the spectral distribution of the photonflux at different planes of a CdS/Cu2S solar cell. The fractions of reflected and absorbed flux are determined at each of the relevant interfaces and active volume elements of the solar cell. The density of absorbed photons is given in respect to spectral and spatial distribution. The variance of the obtained distribution, with changes in insolation and absorption spectra of the active solar cell layers, is indicated. A catalog of typical examples is given in the appendix.

Boer, K. W.

1976-01-01

374

Projected techno-economic improvements for advanced solar thermal power plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The projected characteristics of solar thermal power plants (with outputs up to 10 MWe) employing promising advanced technology subsystems/components are compared to current (or pre-1985) steam-Rankine systems. Improvements accruing to advanced technology development options are delineated. The improvements derived from advanced systems result primarily from achieving high efficiencies via solar collector systems which (1) capture a large portion of the available insolation and (2) concentrate this captured solar flux to attain high temperatures required for high heat engine/energy conversion performance. The most efficient solar collector systems employ two-axis tracking. Attractive systems include the central receiver/heliostat and the parabolic dish.

Fujita, T.; Manvi, R.; Roschke, E. J.

1979-01-01

375

Solar Energy Meteorological Research and Training Site - Region II. Final report, 1977-1982  

SciTech Connect

The Region II Solar Energy Meteorological Research and Training Site (SEMRTS) began operation on October 1, 1977 with the following objectives: establishment of an observation station to produce high quality records of solar radiation and weather data; establishment of an educational program in solar meteorology; and the establishment of a continuing research program. Some highlights included: the Perez model, an anisotropic model of diffuse radiation; the analysis of the effects of the volcanic clouds from Mt. St. Helens and El Chichon on the spectral distribution of insolation; technical and mathematical corrections of past data sets based upon minute-by-minute insolation data; a photovoltaic demonstration for the 1980 Winter Olympics; and analysis of the integration of photovoltaics and wind systems to produce electricity. (LEW)

Stewart, R.; Hamilton, H.L.

1983-01-01

376

Electronic aids for daily living.  

PubMed

Electronic aids to daily living (EADLs) are devices that facilitate the operation of electrical appliances in a given environment for a person with a severe physical disability. These specialized devices can provide tremendous psychological and functional benefits to someone with a severe disability, their family members and caregivers. This article provides an overview of the utility, functionality, access, acquisition, and evaluation of EADLs. It also highlights challenges in obtaining and measuring the benefits of these devices. PMID:19951776

Little, Roger

2010-02-01

377

Gender in Spanish Daily Newspapers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the portrayal of women and men in a Spanish daily newspaper and to find whether there\\u000a were gender differences among the authors of the articles in said newspaper. A content analysis was conducted of 4,060 articles\\u000a and advertisements from 24 issues of a randomly selected, large-circulation, Spanish newspaper. Men were found to

M. Pilar Matud; Carmen Rodríguez; Inmaculada Espinosa

2011-01-01

378

Test-retest reliability of an insole plantar pressure system to assess gait along linear and curved trajectories  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have assessed reliability of insole technology for evaluating foot pressure distribution during linear walking. Since in natural motion straight walking is intermingled with turns, we determined the test-retest reliability of insole assessment for curved as well as linear trajectories, and estimated the minimum number of steps required to obtain excellent reliability for each output variable. Methods Sixteen young healthy participants were recruited. Each performed, two days apart, two sessions of three walking conditions: linear (LIN) and curved, clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW). The Pedar-X system was used to collect pressure distribution. Foot print was analyzed both as a whole and as subdivided into eight regions: medial and lateral heel, medial and lateral arch, I metatarsal head, II-V metatarsal heads, hallux, lateral toes. Reliability was assessed by using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for clinically relevant variables from analysis of 50 steps per trajectory: Peak Force (PF); Peak Pressure (PP); Contact Area (CA); Stance Duration (S). Results When considering whole-foot, all variables showed an ICC >0.80, therefore highly reliable. This was true for both LIN and curved trajectories. There was no difference in ICC of the four variables between left and right foot. When collapsing foot and trajectories, S had a lower ICC than PP and CA, and PP lower than CA. Mean percent error between the values of first and second session was <5%. When separately considering the eight foot regions, ICCs of PF, PP and CA for all regions and trajectories were generally >0.90, indicating excellent reliability. In curved trajectories, S showed smaller ICCs. Since the least ICC value for S was 0.60 in LIN trajectory, we estimated that to achieve an ICC ?0.90 more than 200 steps should be collected. Conclusions High reliability of insole dynamic variables (PF, PP, CA) is obtained with 50 steps using the Pedar-X system. On the contrary, high reliability of temporal variable (S) requires a larger step number. The negligible differences in ICC between LIN and curved trajectory allow use of this device for gait assessment along mixed trajectories in both clinical and research setting.

2014-01-01

379

A Comparison of Ground Reaction Forces Determined by Portable Force-Plate and Pressure-Insole Systems in Alpine Skiing  

PubMed Central

For the determination of ground reaction forces in alpine skiing, pressure insole (PI) systems and portable force plate (FP) systems are well known and widely used in previous studies. The purposes of this study were 1) to provide reference data for the vertical component of the ground reaction forces (vGRF) during alpine skiing measured by the PI and FP systems, and 2) to analyze whether the differences in the vGRF measured by the PI and the FP depend on a skier’s level, skiing mode and pitch. Ten expert and ten intermediate level skiers performed 10 double turns with the skiing technique “Carving in Short Radii” as High Dynamic Skiing mode and “Parallel Ski Steering in Long Radii” as Low Dynamic Skiing mode on both the steep (23 °) and the flat (15 °) slope twice. All subjects skied with both the PI and the FP system simultaneously. During the outside phase, the mean vGRF and the maximum vGRF determined by the FP are greater than the PI (p < 0.01). Additionally during the inside phase, the mean vGRF determined by the FP were greater than the PI (p < 0.01). During the edge changing phases, the mean vGRF determined by the FP were greater than the PI (p < 0.01). However, the minimum vGRF during the edge changing phases determined by the FP were smaller than the PI (p < 0.01) in the High-Steep skiing modes of Experts and Intermediates (p < 0.001). We have found that generally, the PI system underestimates the total vGRF compared to the FP system. However, this difference depends not only the phase in the turn (inside, outside, edge changing), but also is affected by the skier’s level, the skiing mode performed and pitch. Key points Typically, during the steering phases of the ski turns the total vGRFs measured by the pressure-insole system were lower compared to the portable force-plate system. However, in some skiing modes during the edge changing phase, the pressure-insole system overestimates the total vGRF compared to the portable force-plate system. Differences between the forces determined by the both systems depend on the phase in the turn (inside, outside, edge changing) and are affected additionally by the skier’s level, the performed skiing mode and pitch.

Nakazato, Kosuke; Scheiber, Peter; Muller, Erich

2011-01-01

380

Timing of insolation forcing, CO2 and sea level changes around the current and last four interglacial periods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of the roles of different forcings (e.g. orbital variations and greenhouse gases) on climate and sea level requires a paleoclimate chronology with high accuracy. Such a chronology for the past 360 ky was constructed through orbital tuning of O2/N2 ratio of trapped air in the Dome Fuji and Vostok ice cores with local summer insolation (Kawamura et al., 2007). We extend the O2/N2 chronology back to ~500 kyr by analyzing the second Dome Fuji ice core, and find the duration of 11 ka, 5 ka, 9 ka, and 20 ka for MIS 5e, 7e, 9e and 11c interglacial periods in Antarctica, with similar variations in atmospheric CO2. The termination timings are consistent with the rising phase of Northern Hemisphere summer insolation. Marine sediment cores from northern North Atlantic contain millennial-scale signatures in various proxy records (e.g. SST, IRD), including abrupt climatic shifts and bipolar seesaw. Based on the bipolar correlation of millennial-scale events, it is possible to transfer our accurate chronology to marine cores from the North Atlantic. As a first attempt, we correlate the planktonic ?18O and IRD records from the marine core ODP 980 with the ice-core ?18O and CH4 around MIS 11. We find that the durations of interglacial plateaus of planktonic ?18O (proxy for sea surface environments) and benthic ?18O (proxy for ice volume and deep-sea temperature) for MIS 11c are 20 and 15 ka, respectively, which are significantly shorter than originally suggested. These durations are similar to that of Antarctic climate and atmospheric CO2. However, the onsets of interglacial levels in ODP980 for MIS 11 are significantly later than those in Antarctic ?18O and atmospheric CO2 (by as much as ~10 ka), suggesting very long duration (more than one precession cycle) for the complete deglaciation and northern high-latitude warming for Termination V. Atmospheric CO2 may have been the critical forcing for this termination. The long duration of Termination V is consistent with our new ice sheet simulations (extended from the work of Abe-Ouchi et al., 2013) in which an ice-sheet/climate model is forced by insolation and CO2 variations. In the presentation, comparisons for other interglacial periods will also be reported.

Kawamura, K.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Saito, F.

2013-12-01

381

a Simple Solar, Spectral Model for Studying the Effects of Cloud Cover and Surface Albedo on the Incoming Solar Radiation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of cloud cover and surface albedo on the solar insolation at the surface of the Earth was investigated. The model uses Bird's (1984) clear sky model for direct-normal and diffuse horizontal irradiance as its basis. Bird's model was modified to include inclined surfaces and cloud cover. The clouds were modelled using parameterizations developed by Welch, Cox and Davis (1980) and a weighting technique to account for cloud shape using plane-parallel calculations suggested by Welch and Wielicki (1984). The radiative transfer in the cloud was modelled by a two stream approximation known as the Shuster-Schwarzchild method. The model results were compared with clear sky broadband and spectral observations, and cloudy broadband observations. The clear sky spectral observations were obtained from the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) in Golden, Colorado. The broadband observations were obtained from the Solar and Meteorological Research Program at the University of Michigan. The effects of cloud amount, cloud thickness, cloud type, and surface albedo are demonstrated. Cloud amount and cloud thickness are the predominant cloud factors affecting insolation. High surface albedos tend to slow the decrease in insolation due to increasing cloud cover; while low surface albedos cause greater variation in insolation under the same circumstances. The model has the capability to simulate simple mountain obstructions. However, no cases with obstructions are presented. The model produces terrestrial spectra between 0.28 and 4.0 micrometers with a resolution of approximately 10 nm. The goal of this work is to provide researchers with the capability to calculate spectral irradiance for different atmospheric conditions and different collecting surface geometries.

Powell, Alfred Merrill, Jr.

382

The effects of internal latent energy storage on the operational dynamics of a solar-powered absorption cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system diagram and performance equations are presented for a solar-powered absorption cycle heat pump system utilizing latent energy storages internal to the absorption cycle itself. A water-lithium bromide absorption cycle heat pump directly coupled to a flat plate solar collector is considered. Generalized weather functions are used to represent insolation and heating\\/cooling load inputs to the model. All collected

A. W. Harris; C. N. Shen

1978-01-01

383

Sensitivity of Asian and African climate to variations in seasonal insolation, glacial ice cover, sea surface temperature, and Asian orography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general circulation model was used to investigate the sensitivity of Asian and African climate to prescribed changes in boundary conditions with the objective of identifying the relative importance of individual high-latitude glacial boundary conditions on seasonal climate and providing a physical basis for interpreting the paleoclimate record. The circulation model is described and results are presented. Insolation forcing increased summer Asian monsoon winds, while increased high-latitude ice cover strengthened winter Asian trade winds causing decreased precipitation. These factors had little effect on African climate. Cooler North Atlantic sea surface temperatures enhanced winter trade winds over North Africa, southern Asian climate was relatively unaffected. Reducing Asian orography enhanced Asian winter circulation while decreasing the summer monsoon. These model results suggest that African and southern Asian climate respond differently to separate elements of high-latitude climate variability.

Demenocal, Peter B.; Rind, David

1993-01-01

384

Delayed build-up of Arctic ice sheets during 400, 000-year minima in insolation variability confirmed by Chinese loess  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth and decay of the Northern Hemisphere ice volume led to alternations of glacial and interglacial climate. Unfortunately, long-term continuous records of ice-sheet variability in the Northern Hemisphere during the Quaternary period only are scarce because benthic ?18O records represent an integrated signal of changes in ice volume in both polar regions. However, variations in Northern Hemisphere ice sheets influence the Siberian High (an atmospheric pressure system), so variations in the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM)—as recorded in the aeolian dust deposits on the Chinese Loess Plateau—can serve as a useful proxy of Arctic climate variability. Here we present an EAWM proxy record using grain-size variations in two parallel loess sections over the past 900 kyr to address the timing of build-up of Northern hemisphere ice sheets around 413 kyr mimina in eccentricity and precessional variability. These periods are regarded as the astronomical analogues of the present interglacial. The grain-size-inferred intensity of the EAWM records shows that the wind strength of EAWM increased rapidly after the end of most interglacials. However, during periods of low eccentricity and precessional variability around 400 kyr and 800 kyr ago, EAWM remains weak for up to 20 kyr after the end of the interglacial episodes MIS 11, MIS 19 and MIS 21. We conclude that the delayed increase in wind strength of the EAWM was caused by delayed buildup of Arctic ice sheets at the ends of the interglacials at 400 kyr intervals, which had led to much longer climate of interglacial mode at high northern latitudes than expected from the marine oxygen isotope records. During these times, the less severe summer insolation minima at 65° N (modulated by 413-kyr eccentricity cycles) would have suppressed ice and snow accumulation, leading to a weak Siberian High and, consequently, weak EAWM winds. Astronomically driven insolation during the present interglacial and in the near future is characterized by its low-amplitude variability. The close similarity between future insolation and that 400 kyr ago leads us to speculate that the future climate may still remain in interglacial mode for more that ~40 kyr, even in the absence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The difference in timing of the onset of glaciations inferred from the EAMW records and marine ?18O records in this study could not be attributable in chronology uncertainty. We argue that the changes in marine ?18O records at 400 kyr and 800 kyr ago mainly reflect the changes in glaciation in Antarctic regions, as supported by temperature records in the EPICA ice core. The much earlier onset of glacial climate in Antarctic suggests that austral summer insolation in high southern latitudes may also play an important role in driving the alternations of glacial and interglacial at some special orbital configurations, e.g. 400 kyr and 800 kyr ago.

Hao, Qingzhen; Wang, Luo; Oldfield, Frank; Peng, Shuzhen; Qin, Li; Song, Yang; Xu, Bing; Qiao, Yansong; Bloemendal, Jan; Guo, Zhengtang

2014-05-01

385

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

SciTech Connect

The environmental data for the NSDN are presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The solar sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The solar energy sites are in alphabetical sequence within each zone. The tables provide available meteorological data for reporting sites in the NSDN as follows: Insolation - the insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extra-terrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total extra-terrestrial radiation, as a percent. Temperature - the temperature table gives the average, daytime, nightime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. Additional tables are presented for some of these NSDN sites, supplying either wind or relative humidity data, or both. Wind - all of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors. These provide information for two wind tables. The first furnishes wind speed and direction. The second table correlates wind speed with time (hours for a range of speeds) for each day. Humidity - the humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is given. A map illustrating the climate zones is provided.

Not Available

1980-12-01

386

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

SciTech Connect

The environmental data are presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The solar sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The solar energy sites are in alphabetical sequence within each zone. The tables provide available meteorological data for reporting sites in the NSDN as follows: (1) insolation: the insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extra-terrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total extra-terrestrial radiation, as a percent. (2) Temperature: the temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. Additional tables are presented for some of these NSDN sites, supplying either wind or relative humidity data, or both. (1) Wind: all of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors. These provide information for two wind tables. The first furnishes wind speed and direction. The second table correlates wind speed with time (hours for a range of speeds) for each day. (2) Humidity: the humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is given, and a map illustrating the climate zones is provided.

Not Available

1980-04-01

387

New empirical relationships for determining global PAR from measurements of global solar radiation, infrared radiation or sunshine duration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on global solar radiation (H), global photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR), downward infrared sky radiation (IR) and sunshine duration (n) for a 2-year duration are analysed on monthly (monthly mean of daily values) basis at Ilorin (8°32N, 4°34E), Nigeria. The data were taken using a precision spectral pyranometer, quantum sensor, pyrgeometer and Campbell-Stokes recorder, respectively. Two thermistor circuits were built into the pyrgeometer for monitoring the dome and body temperatures so as to take care of the dome heating effect.From monthly values of IR, PAR and H, a correlation model relating the three parameters was established and is of the form: where fp is the ratio of PAR to H. Further analysis showed that the use of maximum likelihood quadratic fit to relate the three parameters does not improve the coefficient of determination. Also from the monthly mean values of PAR and n, equations of the Angstrom-Prescott one-parameter model of linear and quadratic forms are developed for the estimation of global PAR at this location and locations with similar climatic conditions. The advantage of these models over the traditional method of estimating PAR, by assuming it to be of constant ratio to insolation, is that PAR can be estimated even at locations where insolation values are not available since they make use of only solar-related astronomical parameters (extraterrestrial radiation and maximum sunshine duration) and duration of sunshine. The results show that in practice, the simple linear regression model is sufficient and hence the use of a quadratic model is only slightly justifiable. On developing the models based on the two seasons (rainy and dry) encountered here, the rainy season model showed a high correlation coefficient, R, of 0.9793 against the poor R of 0.5075 for the dry season. The poor correlation during the dry season period is probably due to large differences in the characteristics of the sky during this period.

Udo, S. O.; Aro, T. O.

2000-08-01

388

Intervention Study to Improve Quality of Life and Health Problems of Community-Living Elderly Women in Japan by Shoe Fitting and Custom-Made Insoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To maintain and improve foot environment that forms the basis of everyday life of the elderly is an important issue not only from the viewpoint to provide support for functional capacity, but also to maintain the quality of life (QOL) of the elderly. Objective: To determine the effects of shoe-fitting guidance and wearing shoes with custom-made insoles (CMI) on

Ayano Kusumoto; Takao Suzuki; Hideyo Yoshida; Jinhee Kwon

2007-01-01

389

Determination of the quiet daily geomagnetic variations for polar regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel procedure to derive the daily varying quiet level for polar geomagnetic data is presented. Recorded data from selected quiet intervals are weighted and superposed to form the basis for an estimate of the quiet daily curve (QDC) for the variation in each of the recorded components on any selected day. The quiet daily variation is controlled by the level of solar UV and X-ray emissions, and parameters in the solar wind in combination with the actual season and the location of the observatory. The procedure uses the variability in the recorded geomagnetic data rather than international magnetic indices like Kp to determine the quiet intervals in accordance with the concept proposed by Janzhura and Troshichev (2008). A special problem for the estimation of the QDC in polar regions is the influence from the solar wind sector structure acting particularly through the azimuthal component, IMF By, of the interplanetary magnetic field. In the superposition of recordings to estimate the QDC for any given day, the present procedure uses weighting functions to give preference to intervals with quietest conditions, closest to the day in question, exposed to the same face of the sun, and within the same sector of the solar wind. The effects of control parameters for the selection of quiet intervals and smoothing of the initial QDC values are carefully controlled. The procedure is fully automated and delivers quality control parameters in addition to the QDC values. It is considered a further step forward in the processing of geomagnetic data to derive reliable and reproducible QDCs for the difficult high-latitude regions.

Stauning, P.

2011-10-01

390

Nonlinear optics in daily life.  

PubMed

An overview is presented of the impact of NLO on today's daily life. While NLO researchers have promised many applications, only a few have changed our lives so far. This paper categorizes applications of NLO into three areas: improving lasers, interaction with materials, and information technology. NLO provides: coherent light of different wavelengths; multi-photon absorption for plasma-materials interaction; advanced spectroscopy and materials analysis; and applications to communications and sensors. Applications in information processing and storage seem less mature. PMID:24514630

Garmire, Elsa

2013-12-16

391

The effectiveness of shoe insoles for the prevention and treatment of low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background Low back pain (LBP) is a significant public health problem in Western industrialised countries and has been reported to affect up to 80% of adults at some stage in their lives. It is associated with high health care utilisation costs, disability, work loss and restriction of social activities. An intervention of foot orthoses or insoles has been suggested to reduce the risk of developing LBP and be an effective treatment strategy for people suffering from LBP. However, despite the common usage of orthoses and insoles, there is a lack of clear guidelines for their use in relation to LBP. The aim of this review is to investigate the effectiveness of foot orthoses and insoles in the prevention and treatment of non specific LBP. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library was conducted in May 2013. Two authors independently reviewed and selected relevant randomised controlled trials. Quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool and the Downs and Black Checklist. Meta-analysis of study data were conducted where possible. Results Eleven trials were included: five trials investigated the treatment of LBP (n?=?293) and six trials examined the prevention of LBP (n?=?2379) through the use of foot orthoses or insoles. Meta-analysis showed no significant effect in favour of the foot orthoses or insoles for either the treatment trials (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.74, CI 95%: -1.5 to 0.03) or the prevention trials (relative risk (RR) 0.78, CI 95%: 0.50 to 1.23). Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to support the use of insoles or foot orthoses as either a treatment for LBP or in the prevention of LBP. The small number, moderate methodological quality and the high heterogeneity of the available trials reduce the strength of current findings. Future research should concentrate on identification of LBP patients most suited to foot orthoses or insole treatment, as there is some evidence that trials structured along these lines have a greater effect on reducing LBP.

2014-01-01

392

Criteria for the evaluation of laser solar energy converter systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assuming that a parabolic insolation-collection mirror-based solar pumped laser has a collector and heat emitter whose weights are proportional to their areas, and that the weight of the laser is negligible by comparison, the output power/unit weight can be expressed in terms of the efficiencies and working temperatures of the system. This ratio appears to be several times higher for an IBr laser than for one operating on C3F7I, because the solar utilization efficiency is greater for the former despite its lower working temperature.

Harries, W. L.

1985-01-01

393

Environmental data for sites in the national solar data network  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's National Solar Data Program established solar energy systems in residential and commercial buildings across the United States. These solar sites are linked to Vitro Laboratories Division's computer in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Vitro collects and analyzes data from this network to determine the thermal performance of each of the solar systems. The network consists of: (1) sensors which measure key performance parameters at a selected site; (2) a Site Data Acquisition Subsystem (SDAS); (3) telephone transmission circuits; and (4) a Central Data Processing System (CDPS). For the majority of parameters, raw data is collected approximately every five minutes. Solar insolation and certain other parameters, which are subject to rapid variance, are sampled every 32 seconds. Environmental information collected at the sites for the reporting month are presented. The environmental data for the NSDN are presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The solar sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states (as shown in Figure 1). The solar energy sites are in alphabetical sequence within each zone. The tables provide available meteorological data for reporting sites in the NSDN as follows: (1) the insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extra-terrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total extra-terrestrial radiation, as a percent. (2) The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. Additional tables are presented for some of the sites, supplying either wind or relative humidity data or both. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-07-01

394

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

SciTech Connect

The Detartment of Energy's National Solar Data Program established solar energy systems in residential and commercial buildings across the United States. These solar sites are linked to Vitro Laboratories Division's computer in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Vitro collects and analyzes data from this network to determine the thermal performance of each of the solar systems. Environmental information collected at the sites for the month of August 1980 is presented. The environmental data for the NSDN are presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The solar sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The solar energy sites are in alphabetical sequence within each zone. The tables provide available meteorological data for reporting sites in the NSDN as follows: (1) Insolation: the insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extra-terrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total extra-terrestrial radiation, as a percent; (2) Temperature: the temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum, and lnlet-water temperatures for the solar site. Additional tables are presented for some of these NSDN sites, supplying either wind or relative humidity data, or both. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors. These provide information for two wind tables. The first furnishes wind speed and direction. The second table correlates wind speed with time (hours for a range of speeds) for each day. The humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is given. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-08-01

395

The early Holocene thermal maximum in the northern Nordic Seas: An advective signal or a direct response to strong summer insolation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-proxy data representative for the surface and subsurface layer has been compiled for three sites from the eastern Nordic Seas. The surface proxy is alkenone based SST's, while foraminiferal abundance data, Maximum Likelihood foraminiferal based SST estimates, and oxygen isotope measurements on planktic foraminifera were used to reconstruct subsurface conditions. The three sites follow the path of the north flowing North Atlantic Current: the Vøring Plateau, SW Barents Sea and the Barents Sea Margin. The effect of the high summer insolation on the ocean temperatures on the upper part of the water column are explored using a 1-D column model, and allows estimates of changes in ocean heat transport and direct response to the maximum summer early Holocene insolation at high northern latitudes. An early Holocene warm pulse is seen subsurface in the SE Nordic Seas 10.5-9.6 ka BP. With a slight delay, this subsurface warm pulse can be followed to NE Nordic Seas where it peaked at 10-9.4 ka BP. After the culmination of this subsurface warm peak, the maximum early Holocene temperatures are recorded in the surface water masses (9-6 ka BP). Preliminary results using the 1-D column model indicate that the increased summer insolation only influence the upper 20 m of the water column, increasing the temperature there by approximately 1°C compared to the present summer temperature of the mixed layer. A direct response to the high Northern hemisphere summer insolation is thus seen in the surface water masses both in the SE and NE Nordic Seas. However, the high early Holocene insolation did not influence the temperatures underneath the mixed layer depth at any of the studied sites. The earlier subsurface warm peak probably reflects increased northward heat transport released to the Nordic Seas region through the deglaciation, and cannot be seen as a direct response to the external forcing.

Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Andersson, Carin; Chistyakova, Natalia; Dokken, Trond; Ivanova, Elena; Jansen, Eystein; Moros, Matthias; Smedsrud, Lars Henrik

2010-05-01

396

Daily cycles in coastal dunes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

Hunter, R. E.; Richmond, B. M.

1988-01-01

397

49 CFR 230.13 - Daily inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Daily inspection. 230.13 Section 230.13 Transportation...OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General General Inspection Requirements § 230.13 Daily...

2010-10-01

398

Daily Medicine Record for Your Child  

MedlinePLUS

... Acetaminophen and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Safely Daily Medicine Record for Your Child (English) (PDF version - 97KB) ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...

399

Simple solar, spectral model for studying the effects of cloud cover and surface albedo on the incoming solar radiation. Doctoral thesis  

SciTech Connect

The effect of cloud cover and surface albedo on the solar insolation at the surface of the Earth was investigated. The model uses Bird's (1984) clear sky model for direct normal and diffuse horizontal irradiance as its basis. Bird's model was modified to include inclined surfaces and cloud cover. The clouds were modelled using parameterizations developed by Welch, Cox and Davis (1980) and a weighting technique to account for cloud shape using plane parallel calculations. The radiative transfer in the cloud was modelled by a two-stream approximation known as the Shuster Schwarzchild method. The model results were compared with clear sky broadband and spectral observations, and cloudy broadband observations. The effects of cloud amount, cloud thickness, cloud type, and surface albedo are demonstrated. Cloud amount and cloud thickness are the predominant cloud factors affecting insolation. High surface albedos tend to slow the decrease in insolation due to increasing cloud cover; while low surface albedos cause greater variation in insolation under the same circumstances.

Powell, A.M.

1986-01-01

400

The Effect of Daily Stress, Personality, and Age on Daily Negative Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined whether stress reactivity becomes stronger or weaker with age. Daily stress and daily negative affect were modeled using 1,012 subjects from the National Study of Daily Events (NSDE), an 8-day daily diary study. Age ranged from 25 to 74. Data were modeled using within-person HLM techniques. Daily stress and neuroticism interacted in their effect on daily

Daniel K. Mroczek; David M. Almeida

2004-01-01

401

Project Ahupua'a: solar meteorological field measurements on the Island of Hawaii, Summer 1978. 5. Southern flank of Mauna Loa  

SciTech Connect

Between 12-21 June 1978, four instrumented vans were deployed in a nearly linear transect above Na'alehu, along the steep southeastern slope of Mauna Loa. The transect, traversing a pronounced rainfall and insolation gradient, was designed to monitor sunlight and other meteorological variables related to solar energy. Surprisingly, many locations here receive more insolation during winter than during summer. Stronger than normal trade wind conditions prevailed during the period. A minor distrubance moved eastward to the north of the Island of Hawaii on 20 June, weakened the trade winds for nearly 24 h, and offered the opportunity to examine the development of island-generated circulations unhindered by the large scale flow. The amount of insolation recieved at the transect stations was less than the long-term mean. Persistent cloudiness attenuated insolation. Orographic cloud limited morning insolation while a sea breeze-anabatic cloud depleted afternoon insolation. Peak sunlight values were recorded during the mid-morning transition. This pattern occurred on all nine trade wind days. On 20 June, no orographic cloud formed and maximum values of insolation were received at three of the four transect sites. Strong gusty surface winds recorded along the transect may have been associated with a low level jet stream with Mauna Loa acting as a western boundary to the trade wind current. All transect stations experienced nocturnal wind pulses. Wind speed fluctuations, occasionally exceeding 5 m s/sup -1/, occurred with pronounced changes in wind direction. Increasing winds veered toward the prevailing trade wind direction, decreasing winds backed. Low level jet stream instabilities were a likely cause of these fluctuations.

Ekern, P.C.; Becker, R.J.

1982-10-01

402

SciTech Daily Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users wishing quick and easy access to some of the best writing online will want to examine this site. Scitech Daily Review, updated four days per week offers links to articles, new book notices and reviews, and essays and opinion pieces for the fields of science and technology. The site does not provide original content, but rather mines a wide array of online newspapers, journals, and other publications and offer links with very brief introductions to the "precious nuggets of real content" on the Web. In addition, the site provides a linked list of the publications and columnists used to glean the reports as well as an archive of past features. Certainly few users will find all of the pieces interesting or pertinent, but the quantity and variety of content and the frequency with which it is updated guarantee that there will be something for almost anyone.

1998-01-01

403

The Daily Palette Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every day, the staff members at the Daily Palette Digital Collection at the University of Iowa Libraries put up a new artwork by a different Iowa artist. Since the project was launched in 2004, the collection has profiled over 1,000 artists working in the fine arts, literature, video, and the performing arts. Visitors can scroll through the Highlights of Collection section near the bottom of the page for a taste of the very intriguing offerings here. The Subcollections area includes areas like Iowa Writes, Iowa on Stage, and Iowa at 30 Frames per second. This last area has 11 rather intriguing short films, including "Body Beasts," "Back of the Mike," and "Alternative Forms of Energy." Also, Iowa Writes includes over 700 poems, including "Ode to Thresher" and "16th Avenue, Cedar Rapids."

2012-08-10

404

Brown Daily Herald Digital Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1891, the Brown Daily Herald has chronicled "political protest, athletic wins and losses, curricular changes, and students' initiative." Recently, Brown University's Center for Digital Initiatives and the Herald began working together to create this digital archive of the paper. On the site, visitors can learn more about the digitization project, sign up to be part of their LinkedIn group, and also take a look at their online store. Using the archive is quite simple, and visitors are encouraged to view specific issues by year or month, and they can also use a search engine to look for news coverage of particular interest. One rather compelling feature of the site is that returned search results include the page or story in question, along with thumbnails of the other pages in the issues on the bottom of the screen.

405

The Daily Practices of Successful Principals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in daily practice. "The Daily Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of daily practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…

Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.

2011-01-01

406

Monthly-averaged daily shading factor for a collector field  

SciTech Connect

An analytical expression is derived for the monthly-averaged daily shading factor {bar f} for a field of flat plate collectors. The elements of the collector field are oriented towards the equator and tilted with a constant value of tilt angle. Uniform spacing is maintained between various rows of collectors in the field. The expression of {bar f} is found to depend on the site latitude angle, month, length and width of each collector, spacing between any successive rows of collectors, number of collectors in a row, and the value of the tilt angle for collectors. Graphical presentation for the value of {bar f} at wide range of its independent variables is given. The graphs and the analytical expression of {bar f} assist in improving the accuracy of predicting the monthly-averaged daily solar radiation received by a collector field.

Elsayed, M.M. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia))

1991-01-01

407

Large Scale Solar Magnetic Fields: Temporal Variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal evolution of the solar magnetic field during solar cycles 20 21 and 22 has been investigated by means of spherical harmonic decomposition and subsequent time series analysis. A 33 yr and a 25 yr time series of daily magnetic maps of the solar photosphere recorded at the Mount Wilson and NSO\\/Kitt Peak observatories respectively were used to calculate

R. Knaack; J. O. Stenflo

2004-01-01

408

Solar Village--Educational Initiative for Kids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a model of a solar village in the context of the school which does not contribute to air pollution by using only solar energy. Suggests that pupils would be active participants in building systems and understanding the contact between the knowledge of the basic science of solar energy and the technology processes in daily life.…

Hugerat, Muhamad; Ilyian, Salman; Toren, Zehava; Anabosi, Fawzi

2003-01-01

409

Monthly mean hourly global solar radiation estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, selected empirical models were used to estimate the monthly mean hourly global solar radiation from the daily global radiation at three sites in the east coast of Malaysia. The purpose is to determine the most accurate model to be used for estimating the monthly mean hourly global solar radiation in these sites. The hourly global solar radiation

W. B. Wan Nik; M. Z. Ibrahim; K. B. Samo; A. M. Muzathik

410

Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

Reynolds, John S.

411

The application of simulation modeling to the cost and performance ranking of solar thermal power plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small solar thermal power systems (up to 10 MWe in size) were tested. The solar thermal power plant ranking study was performed to aid in experiment activity and support decisions for the selection of the most appropriate technological approach. The cost and performance were determined for insolation conditions by utilizing the Solar Energy Simulation computer code (SESII). This model optimizes the size of the collector field and energy storage subsystem for given engine generator and energy transport characteristics. The development of the simulation tool, its operation, and the results achieved from the analysis are discussed.

Rosenberg, L. S.; Revere, W. R.; Selcuk, M. K.

1981-01-01

412

Evaluation of initial collector field performance at the Langley Solar Building Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal performance of the solar collector field for the NASA Langley Solar Building Test Facility is given for October 1976 through January 1977. A 1,180 square meter solar collector field with seven collector designs helped to provide hot water for the building heating system and absorption air conditioner. The collectors were arranged in 12 rows with nominally 51 collectors per row. Heat transfer rates for each row were calculated and recorded along with sensor, insolation, and weather data every five minutes using a minicomputer. The agreement between the experimental and predicted collector efficiencies was generally within five percentage points.

Boyle, R. J.; Jensen, R. N.; Knoll, R. H.

1977-01-01

413

Model validation and sensitivity analysis of solar collector loops. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The experimental solar collector systems at Middlebury College have been modified to permit short time resolution studies of solar collector loop performance. A variety of experiments have been performed to measure the following system properties: (a) collector efficiency, (b) collector response to step changes in insolation, (c) collector response to the introduction of cold inlet water, and (d) pump cycling as a function of control sensor location and set points. Data from these experiments have been supplied to the solar group at Drexel for validation of their analytical collector loop model.

None

1980-07-30

414

Residential heating costs: A comparison of geothermal solar and conventional resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. These costs are very sensitive to location, being dependent on the local prices of conventional energy supplies, local solar insolation, climate, and the proximity and temperature of potential geothermal resources. The sharp price increases in imported fuels during 1979 and the planned decontrol of domestic oil and natural gas prices have set the stage for geothermal and solar market penetration in the 1980's.

Bloomster, C. H.; Garrett-Price, B. A.; Fassbender, L. L.

1980-08-01

415

Residential heating costs: a comparison of geothermal, solar and conventional resources  

SciTech Connect

The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. These costs are very sensitive to location - being dependent on the local prices of conventional energy supplies, local solar insolation, cimate, and the proximity and temperature of potential geothermal resources. The sharp price increases in imported fuels during 1979 and the planned decontrol of domestic oil and natural gas prices have set the stage for geothermal and solar market penetration in the 1980's.

Bloomster, C.H.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.

1980-08-01

416

Conceptual design of a solar cogeneration facility at Pioneer Mill Co. , Ltd  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported of a conceptual design study of the retrofit of a solar central receiver system to an existing cogeneration facility at a Hawaii raw sugar factory. Background information on the site, the existing facility, and the project organization is given. Then the results are presented o the work to select the site specific configuration, including the working fluid, receiver concept, heliostat field site, and the determination of the solar facility size and of the role of thermal storage. The system selected would use water-steam as its working fluid in a twin-cavity receiver collecting sunlight from 41,420 m/sup 2/ of heliostat mirrors. The lates version of the system specification is appended, as are descriptions of work to measure site insolation and a site insolation mathematical model and interface data for the local utility. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-04-01

417

Modeling topographic influences on solar radiation: A manual for the SOLARFLUX Model  

SciTech Connect

SOLARFLUX is a geographical information system (GIS) based computer program (running under ARC/INFO and GRID) that models incoming solar radiation based on surface orientation (slope and aspect), solar angle (azimuth and zenith) as it shifts over time, shadows caused by topographic features, and atmospheric conditions. A convenient user interface allows specification of program parameters including latitude, time interval for simulation, file name of a topographic surface, atmospheric conditions (transmittivity), and file names for output. The user specifies a topographic surface as an array of elevation values (GRID). SOLARFLUX generates five basic types of output: 1) total direct radiation, 2) duration of direct sunlight, 3) total diffuse radiation, 4) skyview factor, and 5) hemispherical viewsheds of sky obstruction for specified surface locations. This manual serves as the comprehensive guide to SOLARFLUX. Included are discussions on modeling insolation on complex surfaces, our theoretical approach, program setup and operation, and a set of applications illustrating characteristics of topographic insolation modeling.

Rich, P.M.; Hetrick, W.A.; Saving, S.C. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)

1995-11-01

418

Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2 Shortwave Daily Data in Native Format (SRB_REL2_SW_DAILY)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This data set contains upward and downward fluxes, photosynthetically active radiative flux, aerosol and cloud optical depth, cloud fraction, and solar zenith angle measured at three hourly intervals for each day for the entire globe between 07/01/1983 and 10/31/1995. These SW surface radiative parameters were derived with the Shortwave algorithm of the NASA World Climate Research Programme/Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (WCRP/GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1998-07-26] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=Ranges from 1 degree (tropics and subtropics) to 120 degrees (the poles).; Temporal_Resolution=daily; Temporal_Resolution_Range=daily].

Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

419

On the Relation Between Solar Activity and Clear-Sky Terrestrial Irradiance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mauna Loa Observatory record of direct-beam solar irradiance measurements for the years 1958 - 2010 is analysed to investigate the variation of clear-sky terrestrial insolation with solar activity over more than four solar cycles. The raw irradiance data exhibit a marked seasonal cycle, extended periods of lower irradiance due to emissions of volcanic aerosols, and a long-term decrease in atmospheric transmission independent of solar activity. After correcting for these effects, it is found that clear-sky terrestrial irradiance typically varies by ? 0.2±0.1 % over the course of the solar cycle, a change of the same order of magnitude as the variations of the total solar irradiance above the atmosphere. An investigation of changes in the clear-sky atmospheric transmission fails to find a significant trend with sunspot number. Hence there is no evidence for a yet unknown effect amplifying variations of clear-sky irradiance with solar activity.

Feulner, G.

2013-02-01

420

Using Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how solar energy can be used to heat water. Learners first discuss energy usage in their daily lives and then divide into pairs to conduct an experiment in which they use the sun to heat water. As an optional extension, learners can follow this activity with a project to design their own alternative energy invention.

History, American M.

2008-01-01

421

The optimum performance of an irreversible solar-driven Carnot refrigerator and combined heat engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By employing the energetic optimization technique, the optimal performance of a focusing collector-driven, irreversible Carnot refrigerator with three heat sources and a combined heat engine is investigated. A minimum operating parameter and a relation between the maximum overall efficiencies are obtained for the systems under consideration. A minimum value for the total solar insolation needed to overcome internal irreversibilities for start-up of the systems is defined and the effect of the collector design parameters on this value is investigated.

Göktun, Selahattin; Yavuz, Hasbi

1997-12-01

422

Thermal energy storage for organic Rankine cycle solar dynamic space power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An organic Rankine cycle-solar dynamic power system (ORC-SDPS) comprises a concentrator, a radiator, a power conversion unit, and a receiver with a thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem which charges and discharges energy to meet power demands during orbital insolation and eclipse periods. Attention is presently given to the criteria used in designing and evaluating an ORC-SDPS TES, as well as

G. R. Heidenreich; M. B. Parekh

1986-01-01

423

Formation of gullies on Mars: Link to recent climate history and insolation microenvironments implicate surface water flow origin  

PubMed Central

Features seen in portions of a typical midlatitude Martian impact crater show that gully formation follows a geologically recent period of midlatitude glaciation. Geological evidence indicates that, in the relatively recent past, sufficient snow and ice accumulated on the pole-facing crater wall to cause glacial flow and filling of the crater floor with debris-covered glaciers. As glaciation waned, debris-covered glaciers ceased flowing, accumulation zones lost ice, and newly exposed wall alcoves continued as the location for limited snow/frost deposition, entrapment, and preservation. Analysis of the insolation geometry of this pole-facing crater wall, and similar occurrences in other craters at these latitudes on Mars, shows that they are uniquely favored for accumulation of snow and ice, and a relatively more rapid exposure to warmer summer temperatures. We show that, after the last glaciation, melting of residual snow and ice in alcoves could have formed the fluvial channels and sedimentary fans of the gullies. Recent modeling shows that top-down melting can occur in these microenvironments under conditions similar to those currently observed on Mars, if small amounts of snow or frost accumulate in alcoves and channels. Accumulation and melting is even more favored in the somewhat wetter, relatively recent geological past of Mars, after the period of active glaciation.

Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.; Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.

2008-01-01

424

The relationship between reductions in knee loading and immediate pain response whilst wearing lateral wedged insoles in knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Studies of lateral wedge insoles (LWIs) in medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) have shown reductions in the average external knee adduction moment (EKAM) but no lessening of knee pain. Some treated patients actually experience increases in the EKAM which could explain the overall absence of pain response. We examined whether, in patients with painful medial OA, reductions in the EKAM were associated with lessening of knee pain. Each patient underwent gait analysis whilst walking in a control shoe and two LWI's. We evaluated the relationship between change in EKAM and change in knee pain using Spearman Rank Correlation coefficients and tested whether dichotomizing patients into biomechanical responders (decreased EKAM) and non-responders (increased EKAM) would identify those with reductions in knee pain. In 70 patients studied, the EKAM was reduced in both LWIs versus control shoe (-5.21% and -6.29% for typical and supported wedges, respectively). The change in EKAM using LWIs was not significantly associated with the direction of knee pain change. Further, 54% were biomechanical responders, but these persons did not have more knee pain reduction than non-responders. Whilst LWIs reduce EKAM, there is no clearcut relationship between change in medial load when wearing LWIs and corresponding change in knee pain. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 32:1147-1154, 2014. PMID:24903067

Jones, Richard K; Chapman, Graham J; Forsythe, Laura; Parkes, Matthew J; Felson, David T

2014-09-01

425

Cloud cover estimation: Use of GOES imagery in development of cloud cover data base for insolation assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of using digital satellite data to establish a cloud cover data base for the United States, one that would provide detailed information on the temporal and spatial variability of cloud development are studied. Key elements include: (1) interfacing GOES data from the University of Wisconsin Meteorological Data Facility with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's VICAR image processing system and IBIS geographic information system; (2) creation of a registered multitemporal GOES data base; (3) development of a simple normalization model to compensate for sun angle; (4) creation of a variable size georeference grid that provides detailed cloud information in selected areas and summarized information in other areas; and (5) development of a cloud/shadow model which details the percentage of each grid cell that is cloud and shadow covered, and the percentage of cloud or shadow opacity. In addition, comparison of model calculations of insolation with measured values at selected test sites was accomplished, as well as development of preliminary requirements for a large scale data base of cloud cover statistics.

Huning, J. R.; Logan, T. L.; Smith, J. H.

1982-01-01

426

Screen-printed piezoelectric shoe-insole energy harvester using an improved flexible PZT-polymer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports improved screen-printed piezoelectric composites that can be printed on fabrics or flexible substrates. The materials are flexible and are processed at lower temperature (130°C). One main PZT particle size (2?m) was mixed separately with smaller piezoelectric particles (0.1, 0.3 and 0.8?m) with different weight ratios to investigate the piezoelectric property d33. The blended PZT powder was then mixed with 40% polymer binder and printed on Alumina substrates. The applied poling field, temperature and time were 8MV/m, 160°C and 10min, respectively. The optimum material gives a d33 of 36pC/N with particle sizes of 2?m and 0.8?m and mixed percentages of 82% and 18%, respectively. A screen-printed piezoelectric shoe-insoles (PSI) has been developed as a self-powered force mapping sensor. The PSI was simulated, fabricated and tested. ANSYS results show that one element of PSI sole can produce an open- circuit voltage of 3V when a human of average weight of 70kg makes a gait strike. Experimental results show that one element produced 2V which is less than the simulated results because of the reduction of poling field for the practical device.

Almusallam, A.; Torah, R. N.; Zhu, D.; Tudor, M. J.; Beeby, S. P.

2013-12-01

427

Solar energy utilization in the USSR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conditions for solar energy utilization in the USSR are not too favorable. Only in the country's southern regions is there sufficient insolation to make solar energy utilization economic. In higher latitudes, only seasonal use of solar energy is reasonable. Up to now, the main application of solar energy has been to produce low-temperature heat for hot water production, drying of agricultural goods, space heating and thermal treatment of concrete. A substantial proportion of the solar heating installations are flat plate solar collectors. The total installed area of solar collectors slightly exceeds 100,000 square meters. The collectors are produced by large- and small-scale industry. Where selective coatings are applied to the absorber plates, black nickel or chromium are the main coating materials. Recently launched new projects aim to develop and produce advanced collectors, with enhanced efficiency and reliability. There has been substantial progress in developing photovoltaic (PV) cells for space applications, but terrestrial application of PV is still in a very early stage. Annual production of PV cells totals about 100 kW, based on mono- or polycrystalline silicon. R&D work on thin-film PV cells is in progress. Work is in progress on the development of automated production lines to manufacture 1 MW/yr of crystalline and amorphous silicon. A 5-MW tower-type demonstration plant, with a circular heliostat field, uses steam as the working fluid. Experience with this plant has revealed several disadvantages, including commonwealth of independent states.

Shpilrain, E. E.

1991-05-01

428

Cokriging estimation of daily suspended sediment loads  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with daily river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated daily loads were compared with the daily measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated daily sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured daily values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating daily sediment loads with CK when daily discharge data is available. The estimated daily loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the daily S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Li, Z.; Zhang, Y. -K.; Schilling, K.; Skopec, M.

2006-01-01

429

Correlations for the estimation of hourly global solar radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical correlations for estimating the ratios of monthly mean hourly to daily global solar radiation received on horizontal surfaces have been compared and their validities tested. The correlation of Collares-Pereira and Rabl [Solar Energy, 22, (1979) 155] yields the best results, while the correlations of Liu and Jordan [Solar Energy, 4 (1960) 19], and Garg and Garg [Solar & Wind

S. K. Srivastava; O. P. Singh; G. N. Pandey

1995-01-01

430

Correlation between solar activity and Earth's ionospheric electron content during the 23rd solar cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beginning of the 23rd solar cycle (May 1996 to December 2008) coincided with the start of the catalogue of global ionospheric modeling using GPS data. Comparison between solar activity parameters and GPS-derived Total Electron Content (TEC) is now possible for the whole of solar cycle 23. In this study, we compared the daily sunspot number and F10.7 cm flux with the daily mean global TEC values during the entire last solar cycle. In order to better understand the ionization response, we show correlations between the daily F10.7cm delivered by NGDC-NOAA (National Geophysical Data Center - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and the daily sunspot number from SIDC (Solar Influences Data Analysis Center) with the daily mean latitudinal TEC values extracted from CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) GPS-based global ionospheric maps for the period 1995-2009. The correlations were investigated for different daily mean latitudinal ionospheric TEC: (1) expressed in geographic and geomagnetic coordinates; (2) with respect to the seasons and; (3) with respect to the different phases of the solar cycle. In general, results show in the north and south hemispheres a different ionospheric response (TEC) to solar activity (F10.7cm). Moreover, the switch from geographic to geomagnetic coordinates does not change the observed correlation between TEC and solar parameters. Finally, a larger correlation is observed at N20°-30° during the transition phase in the solar cycle.

Bergeot, N.; Legrand, J.; Burston, R.; Bruyninx, C.; Defraigne, P.; Chevalier, J.; Clette, F.; Marque, C.; Lefevre, L.

2010-12-01

431

Insolation regime in Siberia as a major factor controlling diatom production in Lake Baikal during the past 800,000 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique diatom biostratigraphy of the Brunhes chron in Lake Baikal revealed by detailed studies of pelagic diatom paleo-assemblages, indicates that dramatic changes in insolation during the past 800kaBP produced surprisingly rapid diatom speciation and extinctions. The orbitally-tuned age model allows the diatom assemblages to be compared with individual marine isotopic stages and substages during the Brunhes. Most of the