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1

Handbook of solar energy data for south-facing surfaces in the United States. Volume 2: Average hourly and total daily insolation data for 235 localities. Alaska - Montana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Average hourly and daily total insolation estimates for 235 United States locations are presented. Values are presented for a selected number of array tilt angles on a monthly basis. All units are in kilowatt hours per square meter.

Smith, J. H.

1980-01-01

2

A calibrated, high-resolution goes satellite solar insolation product for a climatology of Florida evapotranspiration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimates of incoming solar radiation (insolation) from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite observations have been produced for the state of Florida over a 10-year period (1995-2004). These insolation estimates were developed into well-calibrated half-hourly and daily integrated solar insolation fields over the state at 2 km resolution, in addition to a 2-week running minimum surface albedo product. Model results of the daily integrated insolation were compared with ground-based pyranometers, and as a result, the entire dataset was calibrated. This calibration was accomplished through a three-step process: (1) comparison with ground-based pyranometer measurements on clear (noncloudy) reference days, (2) correcting for a bias related to cloudiness, and (3) deriving a monthly bias correction factor. Precalibration results indicated good model performance, with a station-averaged model error of 2.2 MJ m-2/day (13%). Calibration reduced errors to 1.7 MJ m -2/day (10%), and also removed temporal-related, seasonal-related, and satellite sensor-related biases. The calibrated insolation dataset will subsequently be used by state of Florida Water Management Districts to produce statewide, 2-km resolution maps of estimated daily reference and potential evapotranspiration for water management-related activities. ?? 2009 American Water Resources Association.

Paech, S.J.; Mecikalski, J.R.; Sumner, D.M.; Pathak, C.S.; Wu, Q.; Islam, S.; Sangoyomi, T.

2009-01-01

3

Predicting Daily Insolation with Hourly Cloud Height and Coverage.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation information is used in crop growth, boundary layer, entomological and plant pathological models, and in determining the potential use of active and passive solar energy systems. Yet solar radiation is among the least measured meteorological variables.A semi-physical model based on standard meteorological data was developed to estimate solar radiation received at the earth's surface. The radiation model includes the effects of Rayleigh scattering, absorption by water vapor and permanent gases, and absorption and scattering by aerosols and clouds. Cloud attenuation is accounted for by assigning transmission coefficients based on cloud height and amount. The cloud transmission coefficients for various heights and coverages were derived empirically from hourly observations of solar radiation in conjunction with corresponding cloud observations at West Lafayette, Indiana. The model was tested with independent data from West Lafayette and Indianapolis, Madison, WI, Omaha, NE, Columbia, MO, Nashville, TN, Seattle, WA, Los Angeles, CA, Phoenix, AZ, Lake Charles, LA, Miami, FL, and Sterling, VA. For each of these locations a 16% random sample of days was drawn within each of the 12 months in a year for testing the model. Excellent agreement between predicted and observed radiation values was obtained for all stations tested. Mean absolute errors ranged from 1.05 to 1.80 MJ m2 day1 and root-mean-square errors ranged from 1.31 to 2.32 MJ m2 day1. The model's performance judged by relative error was found to be independent of season and cloud amount for all locations tested.

Meyers, T. P.; Dale, R. F.

1983-04-01

4

Influence of topographic complexity on solar insolation estimates for the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, AZ  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rugged topography along the Colorado River in Glen and Grand Canyons, exemplifies features common to canyon-bound streams and rivers of the arid southwest. Physical relief influences regulated river systems, especially those that are altered, and have become partially reliant on aquatic primary production. We measured and modeled instantaneous solar flux in a topographically complex environment to determine where differences in daily, seasonal and annual solar insolation occurred in this river system. At a system-wide scale, topographic complexity generates a spatial and temporal mosaic of varying solar insolation. This solar variation is a predictable consequence of channel orientation, geomorphology, elevation angles and viewshed. Modeled estimates for clear conditions corresponded closely with observed measurements for both instantaneous photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD: ??mol m-2 s-1) and daily insolation levels (relative error 2.3%, CI ??0.45, S.D. 0.3, n = 29,813). Mean annual daily insolation levels system-wide were estimated to be 36 mol m-2 d -1 (17.5 S.D.), and seasonally varied on average from 13.4-57.4 mol m-2 d-1, for winter and summer, respectively. In comparison to identical areas lacking topographic effect (idealized plane), mean daily insolation levels were reduced by 22% during summer, and as much as 53% during winter. Depending on outlying topography, canyon bound regions having east-west (EW) orientations had higher seasonal variation, averaging from 8.1 to 61.4 mol m-2 d-1, for winter and summer, respectively. For EW orientations, 70% of mid-channel sites were obscured from direct incidence during part of the year; and of these sites, average diffuse light conditions persisted for 19.3% of the year (70.5 days), and extended upwards to 194 days. This predictive model has provided an initial quantitative step to estimate and determine the importance of autotrophic production for this ecosystem, as well as a broader application for other canyon systems. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Yard, M. D.; Bennett, G. E.; Mietz, S. N.; Coggins, Jr. , L. G.; Stevens, L. E.; Hueftle, S.; Blinn, D. W.

2005-01-01

5

Solar microclimatology. [tables (data) on insolation for application to solar energy conversion by electric power plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has become apparent in recent years that solar energy can be used for electric power production by several methods. Because of the diffuse nature of the solar insolation, the area involved in any central power plant design can encompass several square miles. A detailed design of these large area collection systems will require precise knowledge of the local solar insolation. Detailed information will also be needed concerning the temporal nature of the insolation and the local spatial distribution. Therefore, insolation data was collected and analyzed for a network of sensors distributed over an area of several square kilometers in Arizona. The analyses of this data yielded probability distributions of cloud size, velocity, and direction of motion which were compared with data obtained from the National Weather Service. Microclimatological analyses were also performed for suitable modeling parameters pertinent to large scale electric power plant design. Instrumentation used to collect the data is described.

Mckenney, D. B.; Beauchamp, W. T.

1975-01-01

6

Effects of the Mount Pinatubo eruption on solar insolation: Four case studies  

SciTech Connect

The Southwest Technology Development Institute staff analyzed solar insolation data from four sites recorded during the years 1990 through 1992. Analyses were performed to identify and quantify the effects on insolation caused by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines on June 15th and 16th, 1991. The four monitoring stations that supplied the raw data for this report were: The Southwest Region Experiment Station in Las Cruces, New Mexico; The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado; The Solar Insolation Monitor Program station operated by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company in Carrisa Plains, California; and The Solar Insolation monitor station at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Data from each of the sites were recorded by dedicated datalogging equipment. Every effort was made to prevent data acquisition system problems (e.g., drift of the datalogger clock) from influencing the accuracy of the results.

Rosenthal, A.L.; Robert, J.M. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Southwest Technology Development Inst.

1993-05-01

7

Power Flow Simulations of a More Renewable California Grid Utilizing Wind and Solar Insolation Forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time series power flow analyses of the California electricity grid are performed with extensive addition of intermittent renewable power. The study focuses on the effects of replacing non-renewable and imported (out-of-state) electricity with wind and solar power on the reliability of the transmission grid. Simulations are performed for specific days chosen throughout the year to capture seasonal fluctuations in load, wind, and insolation. Wind farm expansions and new wind farms are proposed based on regional wind resources and time-dependent wind power output is calculated using a meteorological model and the power curves of specific wind turbines. Solar power is incorporated both as centralized and distributed generation. Concentrating solar thermal plants are modeled using local insolation data and the efficiencies of pre-existing plants. Distributed generation from rooftop PV systems is included using regional insolation data, efficiencies of common PV systems, and census data. The additional power output of these technologies offsets power from large natural gas plants and is balanced for the purposes of load matching largely with hydroelectric power and by curtailment when necessary. A quantitative analysis of the effects of this significant shift in the electricity portfolio of the state of California on power availability and transmission line congestion, using a transmission load-flow model, is presented. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to determine the effects of forecasting errors in wind and insolation on load-matching and transmission line congestion.

Hart, E. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Dvorak, M. J.

2008-12-01

8

Sensitivity of simulated climate to latitudinal distribution of solar insolation reduction in solar radiation management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering has been proposed as a potential option to counteract climate change. We perform a set of idealized geoengineering simulations using Community Atmosphere Model version 3.1 developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research to investigate the global hydrological implications of varying the latitudinal distribution of solar insolation reduction in SRM methods. To reduce the solar insolation we have prescribed sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere. The radiative forcing in the geoengineering simulations is the net forcing from a doubling of CO2 and the prescribed stratospheric aerosols. We find that for a fixed total mass of sulfate aerosols (12.6 Mt of SO4), relative to a uniform distribution which nearly offsets changes in global mean temperature from a doubling of CO2, global mean radiative forcing is larger when aerosol concentration is maximum at the poles leading to a warmer global mean climate and consequently an intensified hydrological cycle. Opposite changes are simulated when aerosol concentration is maximized in the tropics. We obtain a range of 1 K in global mean temperature and 3% in precipitation changes by varying the distribution pattern in our simulations: this range is about 50% of the climate change from a doubling of CO2. Hence, our study demonstrates that a range of global mean climate states, determined by the global mean radiative forcing, are possible for a fixed total amount of aerosols but with differing latitudinal distribution. However, it is important to note that this is an idealized study and thus not all important realistic climate processes are modeled.

Modak, A.; Bala, G.

2014-08-01

9

Effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs  

SciTech Connect

This study determines the performance and cost of four 10 MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States. The solar plants are conceptualized to begin commercial operation in the year 2000. It is assumed that major subsystem performance will have improved substantially as compared to that of pilot plants currently operating or under construction. The net average annual system efficiency is therefore roughly twice that of current solar thermal electric power plant designs. Similarly, capital costs reflecting goals based on high-volume mass production that are considered to be appropriate for the year 2000 have been used. These costs, which are approximately an order of magnitude below the costs of current experimental projects, are believed to be achievable as a result of the anticipated sizeable solar penetration into the energy market in the 1990 to 2000 timeframe. The paraboloidal dish, central receiver, cylindrical parabolic trough, and compound parabolic concentrators comprise the advanced collector concepts studied. All concepts exhibit their best performance when sited in regional areas such as the sunbelt where the annual insolation is high. The regional variation in solar plant performance has been assessed in relation to the expected rise in the future cost of residential and commercial electricity in the same regions. A discussion of the regional insolation data base, a description of the solar systems performance and costs, and a presentation of a range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades are given.

Latta, A.F.; Bowyer, J.M.; Fujita, T.; Richter, P.H.

1980-02-01

10

Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations  

SciTech Connect

Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

1980-10-01

11

The Effects of Solar Insolation on Organic-rich Cometary Analogue Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comets are believed to be a rich source of both water and organics to the early Earth. Exposure of comet nuclei to the ultraviolet radiation from the Sun can lead to chemical reactions within these complex bodies that result in a wide variety of complex organic molecules. In general, cometary dust is believed to be comprised of roughly half organic-rich and half inorganic components. Signatures in UV emission spectra of cometary dust (e.g. P/Halley, Hyakutake) suggest the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Likely candidates responsible for these features include pyrene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and napthalene. We have conducted a suite of experiments whereby both volatile-free and volatile-rich organic samples were insolated with a solar lamp (0.250-2.5 ?m) to investigate the chemistry that may occur both in the upper crust in comets (devoid of volatiles), as well as in the ice-rich portion of comet nuclei. Samples include each of the PAHs listed above, independently and in combination with volatiles (e.g. water, CO2, NH3, CH3OH). The samples are intimately mixed, cooled in a liquid nitrogen dewar, and insolated under vaccuum to mimic conditions in space and exposure to solar radiation. The resulting organic components are isolated and analyzed via a GCMS (mass spectrometer) and FTIR (Infrared spectrometer) to identify both the resultant organic molecules and their infrared signatures that may be detected telescopically. This work was supported by a Cottrell Scholar Award from the Research Corporation.

Lederer, Susan M.; Smith, D. C.; Olney, R. D.; Cintala, M. J.

2009-09-01

12

Atmospheric effects on insolation in the Brazilian Amazon: Observed modification of solar radiation by clouds and smoke and derived single scattering albedo of fire aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five aerosol and solar flux monitoring sites were established in Brazil for the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazônia (LBA) project. The first two sites were developed in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso in January 1999, while the others were initiated in September 1999 in Amazonas, Para, and near Brasilia (later relocated to Acre). Daily insolation [photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and total solar] for 1999 and 9 months of 2000 was determined from flux measurements, and the daily fraction of theoretical cloud-free, background-aerosol insolation, fB(day), was evaluated for each site. Observed daily shortfall (MJ m-2 d-1) of PAR insolation due to clouds and aerosols (relative to modeled values for background aerosol), and the instantaneous reductions of PAR irradiance due to high aerosol optical thickness (AOT) smoke events are presented for 1999 at Alta Floresta. The ratio of PAR flux to total solar flux (PAR fraction) was examined for all atmospheric conditions during 1999, and the observed dependence of this parameter on column water vapor and smoke AOT was quantified. No significant relationship with cloud amount (as quantified) was found. Instantaneous PAR irradiance measurements and concurrent, cloud-cleared aerosol data from collocated CIMEL sunphotometers were used with a radiative transfer model to investigate the optical properties of smoke aerosols during the burning season. In particular, the single scattering albedo (SSA) was evaluated in the PAR spectral range for AOT440 nm values ranging from 0.8 to 3.0. These estimates were compared with the operational retrievals of the same parameter from algorithms developed by AERONET for CIMEL sunphotometer radiance measurements.

Schafer, J. S.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Yamasoe, M. A.; Artaxo, P.

2002-10-01

13

The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the performance and cost of four 10-MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States. Each region has different insolation characteristics which result in varying collector field areas, plant performance, capital costs, and energy costs. The paraboloidal dish, central receiver, cylindrical parabolic trough, and compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) comprise the advanced concepts studied. This paper contains a discussion of the regional insolation data base, a description of the solar systems' performances and costs, and a presentation of a range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades.

Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.

1979-01-01

14

The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance and cost of the 10 MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States were determined. The regional insolation data base is discussed. A range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several cades are presented.

Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.; Richter, P. H.

1979-01-01

15

Sensitivity of simulated climate to latitudinal distribution of solar insolation reduction in SRM geoengineering methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering has been proposed as a potential option to counteract climate change. We perform a set of idealized geoengineering simulations to understand the global hydrological implications of varying the latitudinal distribution of solar insolation reduction in SRM methods. We find that for a fixed total mass of sulfate aerosols (12.6 Mt of SO4), relative to a uniform distribution which mitigates changes in global mean temperature, global mean radiative forcing is larger when aerosol concentration is maximum at the poles leading to a warmer global mean climate and consequently an intensified hydrological cycle. Opposite changes are simulated when aerosol concentration is maximized in the tropics. We obtain a range of 1 K in global mean temperature and 3% in precipitation changes by varying the distribution pattern: this range is about 50% of the climate change from a doubling of CO2. Hence, our study demonstrates that a range of global mean climate states, determined by the global mean radiative forcing, are possible for a fixed total amount of aerosols but with differing latitudinal distribution, highlighting the need for a careful evaluation of SRM proposals.

Modak, A.; Bala, G.

2013-10-01

16

The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance and cost of four 10 MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States was studied. Each region has different insolation characteristics which result in varying collector field areas, plant performance, capital costs and energy costs. The regional variation in solar plant performance was assessed in relation to the expected rise in the future cost of residential and commercial electricity supplied by conventional utility power systems in the same regions. A discussion of the regional insolation data base is presented along with a description of the solar systems performance and costs. A range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades is given.

Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.; Richter, P. H.

1980-01-01

17

Changes in stratospheric aerosols and solar insolation due to Mt. Pinatubo eruption as observed over the western Pacific  

SciTech Connect

The authors present the results of sunphotometer and pyranometer readings taken from ships in the western Pacific in the latitude range 30{degrees}N to 30{degrees}S, following the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. The sunphotometer data shows a definite columnar rise in aerosol content via optical thickness following the eruption. The pyranometer showed a drop in solar insolation, which was actually larger than what would have been expected from models based on the aerosol increase.

Hayasaka, Tadahiro; Hashida, Gen; Takizawa, Iwao; Tanaka, Masayuki [Tohoku Univ. (Japan)] [Tohoku Univ. (Japan); Iwasaka, Naoto [Tokyo Univ. of Mercantile Marine (Japan)] [Tokyo Univ. of Mercantile Marine (Japan)

1994-06-15

18

Automated forecasts of daily global solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a joint effort, the Techniques Development Laboratory (TDL) of the National Weather Service and the Air Resources Laboratories (ARL) of the Environmental Research Laboratories have developed a method for producing daily forecasts of incoming global solar energy for periods one to two days in advance. Statistical regression was used to relate measurements of solar radiation to National Weather Service

Jensenius

1983-01-01

19

Handbook of solar energy data for south-facing surfaces in the United States. Volume 1: An insolation, array shadowing, and reflector augmentation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quick reference for obtaining estimates of available solar insolation for numerous locations and array angles is presented. A model and a computer program are provided which considered the effects of array shadowing reflector augmentation as design variables.

Smith, J. H.

1980-01-01

20

Study on Daily Electric Load Curve Forecasting Method based on Regression Type Hourly Load Modeling with Yearly Load Trends, Day-types and Insolations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a daily load curve forecasting method using hourly regressions. Electric load varies significantly during the day. Many factors, such as weather conditions, hours and day-types, relate to the load behavior. We formulate a daily load curve in set of independent 24-h regression equations that split hourly load into four parts: weather related load (WE), weekday's day-types (DTW), non-weekday's day-types (DTH), and yearly trends (TR). We incorporate temperature, humidity and insolation into the WE part. Non-linear relationships of weather factors and loads are formulated by polynomial functions. Another approach, based on Gaussian functions, is also applied to the modeling for the weather and load relationships. In order to estimate regression coefficients properly, we should consider seasonal load change and estimate the coefficients with statistically enough amounts of data. The proposed method estimates the equations with data from both forecasting year and past years. TR compensates yearly load difference among the data. As TR representations, we propose ‘additive trends model’ and ‘multiple trends model’. Experimental studies on the next day load forecasting are carried out with TEPCO system load. The results indicate effectiveness of (1) combination of ‘polynomial function’ and ‘multiple trends model’ and (2) ‘Day-types’ and ‘Insolation’ in the next day load curve forecasting. Performance of less than 1% MAPE is also observed on the next day weekdays' peak load forecasting.

Haida, Takeshi

21

27Solar Irradiance Changes and the Sunspot Cycle Irradiance (also called insolation) is a measure of the amount of sunlight power  

E-print Network

27Solar Irradiance Changes and the Sunspot Cycle Irradiance (also called insolation) is a measure the solar irradiance and sunspot number since January 1979 according to NOAA's National Geophysical Data climate. The solar irradiance data obtained by the ACRIM satellite, measures the total number of watts

22

Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV-Development of an insolation handbook and instrument package  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing a need for a coordinated approach to resolve energy problems, certain members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) met in September 1974 and agreed to develop an International Energy Program. The International Energy Agency (IEA) was established within the OECD to administer, monitor and execute this International Energy Program. In July 1975, Solar Heating and Cooling was selected as one of the sixteen technology fields for multilateral cooperation. Five project areas, called tasks, were identified for cooperative activities within the IEA Program to Develop and Test Solar Heating and Cooling Systems. The objective of one task was to obtain improved basic resource information for the design and operation of solar heating and cooling systems through a better understanding of the required insolation (solar radiation) and related weather data, and through improved techniques for measurement and evaluation of such data. At the February 1976 initial experts meeting in Norrkoeping, Sweden, the participants developed the objective statement into two subtasks. (1) an insolation handbook; and (2) a portable meteorological instrument package. This handbook is the product of the first subtask. The objective of this handbook is to provide a basis for a dialogue between solar scientists and meteorologists. Introducing the solar scientist to solar radiation and related meteorological data enables him to better express his scientific and engineering needs to the meteorologist; and introducing the meteorologist to the special solar radiation and meteorological data applications of the solar scientist enables him to better meet the needs of the solar energy community.

None

1980-10-01

23

Single and Double ITCZ in Aqua-Planet Models with Globally Uniform Sea Surface Temperature and Solar Insolation: An Interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been known for more than a decade that an aqua-planet model with globally uniform sea surface temperature and solar insolation angle can generate ITCZ (intertropical convergence zone). Previous studies have shown that the ITCZ under such model settings can be changed between a single ITCZ over the equator and a double ITCZ straddling the equator through one of several measures. These measures include switching to a different cumulus parameterization scheme, changes within the cumulus parameterization scheme, and changes in other aspects of the model design such as horizontal resolution. In this paper an interpretation for these findings is offered. The latitudinal location of the ITCZ is the latitude where the balance of two types of attraction on the ITCZ, both due to earth's rotation, exists. The first type is equator-ward and is directly related to the earth's rotation and thus not sensitive to model design changes. The second type is poleward and is related to the convective circulation and thus is sensitive to model design changes. Due to the shape of the attractors, the balance of the two types of attractions is reached either at the equator or more than 10 degrees away from the equator. The former case results in a single ITCZ over the equator and the latter case a double ITCZ straddling the equator.

Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

24

Nonlinear Insolation Forcing: A Physical Mechanism for Climate Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper focuses on recent advances in the understanding of nonlinear insolation forcing for climate change. The amplitude-frequency resonances in the insolation variations induced by the Earth's changing obliquity are emergent and may provide a physical mechanism to drive the glaciation cycles. To establish the criterion that nonlinear insolation forcing is responsible for major climate changes, the cooperative phenomena between the frequency and amplitude of the insolation are defined as insolation pulsation. Coupling of the insolation frequency and amplitude variations has established an especially new and interesting series of insolation pulses. These pulses would modulate the insolation in such a way that the mode of insolation variations could be locked to generate the 100-kyr ice age cycle which is a long-time geophysical puzzle. The nonlinear behavior of insolation forcing is tested by energy balance and ice sheet climate models and the physical mechanism behind this forcing is explained in terms of pulse duration in the incoming solar radiation. Calculations of the solar energy flux at the top of the atmosphere show that the duration of the negative and positive insolation pulses is about 2 thousand years which is long enough to prolong glaciation into deep ice ages and cause rapid melting of large ice sheets in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere. We have performed numerical simulations of climate response to nonlinear insolation forcing for the past 2 million years. Our calculated results of temperature fluctuations are in good agreement with the climate cycles as seen in the terrestrial biogenic silica (BDP-96-2) data as well as in the marine oxygen isotope (delta(sup 18)O) records.

Liu, H. S.

1998-01-01

25

Ecological Modelling 143 (2001) 227243 A globally applicable model of daily solar irradiance  

E-print Network

Ecological Modelling 143 (2001) 227­243 A globally applicable model of daily solar irradiance at many ground stations, the total daily solar irradiance (Rs) received at the earth's surface to measured solar irradiance. In a global comparison for the year 1987, VP-RAD-estimated and satellite

Hunt Jr., E. Raymond

26

Site insolation and wind power characteristics. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

Design and operation of either large or small scale solar and wind energy conversion systems should be based, in part, on knowledge of expected solar and wind power trends. For this purpose, historic solar and wind data available at 101 National Weather Service stations were processed statistically. Preliminary planning data are provided for selected daily average solar and wind power conditions occurring and persisting for time periods of interest. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Empirical probabilities were constructed from the historic data to provide a reasonable inference of the chance of similar climatological conditions occurring at any given time in the future. (Diurnal wind power variations were also considered.) Ratios were also generated at each station to relate the global radiation data to insolation on a south-facing surface inclined at various angles. In addition, joint probability distributions were derived to show the proportion of days with solar and wind power within selected intervals.

Bray, R E

1980-08-01

27

The reliance of insolation pattern on surface aspect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sun's radiated energy is an important source in realizing the green technology concept construction. When interacting with the atmosphere and objects on the Earth's surface incoming solar radiation (insolation) will create insolation patterns that are ambiguous and as a result need to be investigated further. This paper explores the insolation pattern and ambiguities against topographic surfaces in the context of direct, diffuse, and reflectance irradiance. The topography is modeled from LiDAR data as Digital Surface Model (DSM) and Digital Terrain Model (DTM). The generated DSM and DTM were converted to Triangular Irregular Network (TIN) format within the Arc GIS environment before the insolation pattern could be visualized. The slope and aspect of the topography has an impact on the insolation which is the emphasis of this paper. The main outcome from the study is the insolation map and plots of relationship between the insolation and surface aspect. The findings from this study should contribute to the sustainable practices of green building technology.

Saad, N. Md; Hamid, J. R. Abdul; Mohd Suldi, A.

2014-02-01

28

An improved algorithm for estimating incident daily solar radiation from measurements of temperature, humidity, and precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a reformulation of the Bristow–Campbell model for daily solar radiation, developed using daily observations of radiation, temperature, humidity, and precipitation, from 40 stations in contrasting climates. By expanding the original model to include a spatially and temporally variable estimate of clear-sky transmittance, and applying a small number of other minor modifications, the new model produces better results than

Peter E. Thornton; Steven W. Running

1999-01-01

29

Pluto's Insolation History: Latitudinal Variations and Effects on Atmospheric Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since previous insolation modeling in the early 1990’s, new atmospheric pressure data, increased computational power, and the upcoming flyby of the Pluto system by NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft have generated new motivation and increased capabilities for the study of Pluto’s complex long-term (million-years) insolation history. The two primary topics of interest in studying Pluto’s insolation history are the variations in insolation patterns when integrated over different intervals and the evolution of diurnal insolation patterns over the last several decades. We find latitudinal dichotomies when comparing average insolation over timescales of days, decades, centuries, and millennia. Depending on the timescales of volatile migration, some consequences of these insolation patterns may be manifested in the surface features revealed by New Horizons. For any single rotation of Pluto there is a latitude that receives more insolation relative to the others. Often this is the sub-subsolar latitude but it can also be an arctic circle latitude when near-polar regions of Pluto experience the "midnight sun". We define the amount of that greatest insolation value over the course of one rotation as the "maximum diurnal insolation" (MDI). We find that MDI is driven to its highest values when Pluto’s obliquity creates a long arctic summer (or “midnight sun”) beginning just after perihelion. Pluto’s atmospheric pressure, as measured through stellar occultation observations during the past three decades, appears to correlate with Pluto's currently occurring midnight sun as quantified by the MDI parameter. If insolation (as parameterized by the MDI value) is the single dominant factor driving Pluto's atmospheric pressure, this “Midnight Sun Model” predicts that Pluto's maximum atmospheric pressure will be reached in 2017 followed by a steady decline. Pluto's maximum diurnal insolation value begins dropping after 2017 due to two factors: Pluto’s sub-solar point becomes more equatorial (lessening the midnight sun effect) and the planet continues to recede toward aphelion. This work was supported in part by the NASA New Horizons mission to Pluto under SwRI Subcontract 299433Q.

Earle, Alissa M.; Binzel, Richard P.

2014-11-01

30

Impacts of storage upon solar plants: general principles and seasonal applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order for central solar electric plants to make a sizable impact on this nation's energy supply, they must be close to and economically competitive with the alternatives. Such plants will have to contend with daily-, seasonal-, and weather-induced variations in solar availability (insolation). Thus, there will generally be a need for storage of solar energy either to achieve reliability

Iannucci

1981-01-01

31

Exponential approximation for daily average solar heating or photolysis. [of stratospheric ozone layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When incorporating formulations of instantaneous solar heating or photolytic rates as functions of altitude and sun angle into long range forecasting models, it may be desirable to replace the time integrals by daily average rates that are simple functions of latitude and season. This replacement is accomplished by approximating the integral over the solar day by a pure exponential. This gives a daily average rate as a multiplication factor times the instantaneous rate evaluated at an appropriate sun angle. The accuracy of the exponential approximation is investigated by a sample calculation using an instantaneous ozone heating formulation available in the literature.

Cogley, A. C.; Borucki, W. J.

1976-01-01

32

ASHMET: A computer code for estimating insolation incident on tilted surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer code, ASHMET, was developed by MSFC to estimate the amount of solar insolation incident on the surfaces of solar collectors. Both tracking and fixed-position collectors were included. Climatological data for 248 U. S. locations are built into the code. The basic methodology used by ASHMET is the ASHRAE clear-day insolation relationships modified by a clearness index derived from SOLMET-measured solar radiation data to a horizontal surface.

Elkin, R. F.; Toelle, R. G.

1980-01-01

33

Reconstruction of daily solar UV irradiation from 1893 to 2002 in Potsdam, Germany.  

PubMed

Long-term records of solar UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface are scarce. Radiative transfer calculations and statistical models are two options used to reconstruct decadal changes in solar UV radiation from long-term records of measured atmospheric parameters that contain information on the effect of clouds, atmospheric aerosols and ground albedo on UV radiation. Based on earlier studies, where the long-term variation of daily solar UV irradiation was derived from measured global and diffuse irradiation as well as atmospheric ozone by a non-linear regression method [Feister et al. (2002) Photochem Photobiol 76:281-293], we present another approach for the reconstruction of time series of solar UV radiation. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with measurements of solar UV irradiation taken at the Meteorological Observatory in Potsdam, Germany, as well as measured parameters with long-term records such as global and diffuse radiation, sunshine duration, horizontal visibility and column ozone. This study is focussed on the reconstruction of daily broad-band UV-B (280-315 nm), UV-A (315-400 nm) and erythemal UV irradiation (ER). Due to the rapid changes in cloudiness at mid-latitude sites, solar UV irradiance exhibits appreciable short-term variability. One of the main advantages of the statistical method is that it uses doses of highly variable input parameters calculated from individual spot measurements taken at short time intervals, which thus do represent the short-term variability of solar irradiance. PMID:17318610

Junk, Jürgen; Feister, Uwe; Helbig, Alfred

2007-08-01

34

A model for calculating direct and diffuse solar radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for computing both direct and diffuse solar radiation for a cloudy sky is developed, using King and Buckius (1979) calculations of the direct component for a clear sky. Data on daily global insolation incidents on a horizontal surface at Ibadan/Nigeria, calculated for the year 1977, pertained to dew point temperature, visibility, and daily sunshine duration for the city, while a second set of data represented total daily insolation. Out of two cloudiness coefficients, 1.0 and 0.75, the latter gave results that compared favorably with the data. Charts indicating the monthly average values of daily direct and diffuse radiation and daily global insolation, using the two coefficients, are given. It is suggested that the model be applied to other geographical regions.

Ideriah, F. J. K.

35

A Temperature-Based Model for Estimating Monthly Average Daily Global Solar Radiation in China  

PubMed Central

Since air temperature records are readily available around the world, the models based on air temperature for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air temperature data are available in China. PMID:24605046

Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin

2014-01-01

36

SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Solar-collector field experimental tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar-collection field subsystem of the solar-powered desalination pilot project located at Yanbu in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been operated successfully for two years. It has been demonstrated that during a one-year period, the solar-collector field can, on the average, provide about 2500 kWh of thermal energy a day for days with a daily insolation total greater than

J. C. Zimmerman; N. Al-Abbadi

1987-01-01

37

Single and Double ITCZ in Aqua-Planet Models with Globally and Temporally Uniform Sea Surface Temperature and Solar Insolation: An Interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous studies (Chao 2000, Chao and Chen 2001, Kirtman and Schneider 2000, Sumi 1992) have shown that, by means of one of several model design changes, the structure of the ITCZ in an aqua-planet model with globally uniform SST and solar angle (U-SST-SA) can change between a single ITCZ at the equator and a double ITCZ straddling the equator. These model design changes include switching to a different cumulus parameterization scheme (e.g., from relaxed Arakawa Schubert scheme (RAS) to moist convective adjustment scheme (MCA)), changes within the cumulus parameterization scheme, and changes in other aspects of the model, such as horizontal resolution. Sometimes only one component of the double ITCZ shows up; but still this is an ITCZ away from the equator, quite distinct from a single ITCZ over the equator. Since these model results were obtained by different investigators using different models which have yielded reasonable general circulation, they are considered as reliable. Chao and Chen (2001; hereafter CC01) have made an initial attempt to interpret these findings based on the concept of rotational ITCZ attractors that they introduced. The purpose of this paper is to offer a more complete interpretation.

Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

38

Geomagnetic lunar and solar daily variations during the last 100 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes long-term changes in the geomagnetic lunar (L) and solar (S) daily variations. We analyze the eastward component of the geomagnetic field observed at eight midlatitude stations during 1903-2012. The amplitude and phase for the semidiurnal component of the L and S variations are examined. Both L and S amplitudes correlate with the solar activity index F10.7, revealing a prominent 11 year solar cycle. In both cases, the correlation is slightly better with ?(F10.7) than F10.7. The sensitivity of the L variation to solar activity is comparable with that of the S variation. The solar cycle effect is also found in the phase of the S variation but not apparent in the phase of the L variation. The ratio in the amplitude of the L to S variation shows a long-term decrease (approximately 10% per century), which may be due to a reduction in lunar tidal waves from the lower atmosphere to the upper atmosphere in association with climate change.

Yamazaki, Y.; Kosch, M. J.

2014-08-01

39

A simplified calibrated model for estimating daily global solar radiation in Madinah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is the most important parameter in defining the energy budget at the surface thereby influencing the hydroclimate. Several empirical models based on air temperature are developed and used in several decision-making needs such as agriculture and energy sector. However, a calibration against direct observations is a priori for implementing such models. A calibrated model is developed for Saudi Arabia (Madinah) based on observations during 2007-2011. The model is used to estimate daily solar radiation and results show a correlation coefficient of 0.94. The calibrated model outperforms the uncalibrated model available for this location. To increase the confidence, the calibrated model is also compared with a simple artificial neural network.

Benghanem, M.; Mellit, A.

2014-01-01

40

Solar Radiation, Microclimate, and Water Balance in Complex Terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incoming solar radiation (insolation) is the major source of energy at the earth's surface, and is a primary driver of water flux. In particular, insolation directly affects local temperature, which in turn affects evapotranspiration rates. Three components of topography determine local insolation: 1) elevation, with greater insolation at higher elevations; 2) surface orientation, with decreased insolation at larger angles of

P. M. Rich; T. L. Riggs; M. S. Witkowski

2002-01-01

41

Insolation and the Precession Index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple nonlinear climate models yield a precession index-like term in the temperature. Despite its importance in the geologic record, the precession index e sin omega, where e is the Earth's orbital eccentricity and omega is the Sun's perigee in the geocentric frame, is not present in the insolation at the top of the atmosphere. Hence there is no one-for-one mapping of 23,000 and 19,000 year periodicities from the insolation to the paleoclimate record; a nonlinear climate model is needed to produce these periods. Two such models, a grey body and an energy balance climate model with an added quadratic term, produce e sin omega terms in temperature. These terms, which without feedback mechanisms achieve extreme values of about plus or minus 0.48 K for the grey body and plus or minus 0.64 K for the energy balance model, simultaneously cool one hemisphere while they warm the other. Moreover, they produce long-term cooling in the northern hemisphere when the Sun's perigee is near northern solstice and long-term warming in the northern hemisphere when the perigee is near southern solstice. Thus this seemingly paradoxical mechanism works against the standard model which requires cool northern summers (Sun far from Earth in northern summer) to build up northern ice sheets, so that if the standard model is correct it may be more efficient than previously thought. Alternatively, the new mechanism could possibly be dominant and indicate southern hemisphere control of the northern ice sheets, wherein the southern oceans undergo a long-term cooling when the Sun is close to the Earth during southern summer. The cold water eventually flows north, cooling the northern hemisphere. This might explain why the northern oceans lag the southern ones when it comes to orbital forcing.

Rubincam, David Parry

2000-01-01

42

Insolation on exoplanets with eccentricity and obliquity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pattern of insolation on an extrasolar planet has profound implications for its climate and habitability. A planet’s insolation regime depends on its orbital eccentricity, the obliquity of its spin axis, its rotation rate, and its longitude of vernal equinox. For example, although a planet receives the same time-averaged insolation at both poles, the peak insolation at its poles can differ by a factor up to 27, depending on its eccentricity and equinox. This is of particular interest for planets with polar icecaps (or lakes and seas), like Mercury, Earth, and Mars (or Titan). The nearly 600 exoplanets now with known eccentricities span a wide range of eccentricity from essentially zero up to near unity; but their obliquities are still unknown, and also may range widely. Including both non-zero eccentricity and obliquity together vastly broadens the variety of global insolation patterns on extrasolar planets. This applies especially to planets in synchronous rotation, or in other spin-orbit resonances (like Mercury), which can exhibit quite complicated and unusual insolation patterns. For example, regions of eternal daylight and endless night occur only on synchronous exoplanets, whose rotation periods equal their orbital periods; but the peak and time-averaged insolation can vary by factors of at least 32 and 88, respectively, over a planet with a rotation period of half its orbital period, an eccentricity of 0.20, and an obliquity of 60°. Patterns of both mean and peak insolation display various symmetries with respect to latitude and longitude on the planet’s surface. Most of these are relatively simple and easily understood; for example, a resonant planet whose orbital period is half of an odd multiple of its rotation period (as in Mercury’s 3/2 resonance) experiences identical insolation patterns at longitudes 180° apart. However, such half-odd resonances also exhibit a totally unexpected symmetry of the time-averaged insolation with respect to the planet’s equator, not shared by the peak insolation, or by any whole-number resonances. This emergent symmetry can be understood by Fourier analysis of the time-varying insolation.

Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

2013-09-01

43

Determination of Semivariogram Models to Krige Hourly and Daily Solar Irradiance in Western Nebraska(.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, linear and spherical semivariogram models were determined for use in kriging hourly and daily solar irradiation for every season of the year. The data used to generate the models were from 18 weather stations in western Nebraska. The models generated were tested using cross validation. The performance of the spherical and linear semivariogram models were compared with each other and also with the semivariogram models based on the best fit to the sample semivariogram of a particular day or hour. There were no significant differences in the performance of the three models. This result and the comparable errors produced by the models in kriging indicated that the linear and spherical models could be used to perform kriging at any hour and day of the year without deriving an individual semivariogram model for that day or hour.The seasonal mean absolute errors associated with kriging, within the network, when using the spherical or the linear semivariograms models were between 10% and 13% of the mean irradiation for daily irradiation and between 12% and 20% for hourly irradiation. These errors represent an improvement of 1%-2% when compared with replacing data at a given site with the data of the nearest weather station.

Merino, G. G.; Jones, D.; Stooksbury, D. E.; Hubbard, K. G.

2001-06-01

44

Prediction of monthly mean daily global solar radiation using Artificial Neural Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a multilayer feed forward (MLFF) neural network based on back propagation algorithm was developed, trained, and tested to predict monthly mean daily global radiation in Tamil Nadu, India. Various geographical, solar and meteorological parameters of three different locations with diverse climatic conditions were used as input parameters. Out of 565 available data, 530 were used for training and the rest were used for testing the artificial neural network (ANN). A 3-layer and a 4-layer MLFF networks were developed and the performance of the developed models was evaluated based on mean bias error, mean absolute percentage error, root mean squared error and Student's t-test. The 3-layer MLFF network developed in this study did not give uniform results for the three chosen locations. Hence, a 4-layer MLFF network was developed and the average value of the mean absolute percentage error was found to be 5.47%. Values of global radiation obtained using the model were in excellent agreement with measured values. Results of this study show that the designed ANN model can be used to estimate monthly mean daily global radiation of any place in Tamil Nadu where measured global radiation data are not available.

Sivamadhavi, V.; Selvaraj, R. Samuel

2012-12-01

45

A probabilistic model of insolation for the Mojave Desert area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion of mathematical models of insolation characteristics suitable for use in analysis of solar energy systems is presented and shows why such models are essential for solar energy system design. A model of solar radiation for the Mojave Desert area is presented with probabilistic and deterministic components which reflect the occurrence and density of clouds and haze, and mimic their effects on both direct and indirect radiation. Multiple comparisons were made between measured total energy received per day and the corresponding simulated totals. The simulated totals were all within 11 percent of the measured total. The conclusion is that a useful probabilistic model of solar radiation for the Goldstone, California, area of the Mojave Desert has been constructed.

Hester, O. V.; Reid, M. S.

1978-01-01

46

21 CFR 880.6280 - Medical insole.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6280 Medical insole. (a)...

2014-04-01

47

Usability of NASA Satellite Imagery-Based Daily Solar Radiation for Crop Yield Simulation and Management Decisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tested the usability of NASA satellite imagery-based daily solar radiation for farm-specific crop yield simulation and management decisions using the Hybrid-Maize model (www.hybridmaize.unl.edu). Solar radiation is one of the key inputs for crop yield simulation. Farm-specific crop management decisions using simulation models require long-term (i.e., 20 years or longer) daily local weather data including solar radiation for assessing crop yield potential and its variation, optimizing crop planting date, and predicting crop yield in a real time mode. Weather stations that record daily solar radiation have sparse coverage and many of them have record shorter than 15 years. Based on satellite imagery and other remote sensed information, NASA has provided estimates of daily climatic data including solar radiation at a resolution of 1 degree grid over the earth surface from 1983 to 2005. NASA is currently continuing to update the database and has plans to provide near real-time data in the future. This database, which is free to the public at http://power.larc.nasa.gov, is a potential surrogate for ground- measured climatic data for farm-specific crop yield simulation and management decisions. In this report, we quantified (1) the similarities between NASA daily solar radiation and ground-measured data atr 20 US sites and four international sites, and (2) the accuracy and precision of simulated corn yield potential and its variability using NASA solar radiation coupled with other weather data from ground measurements. The 20 US sites are in the western Corn Belt, including Iowa, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Kansas. The four international sites are Los Banos in the Philippines, Beijing in China, Cali in Columbia, and Ibatan in Nigeria. Those sites were selected because of their high quality weather record and long duration (more than 20 years on average). We found that NASA solar radiation was highly significantly correlated (mean r2 =0.88**) with the ground measurements at the 20 US sites, while the correlation was poor (mean r2=0.55**, though significant) at the four international sites. At the 20 US sites, the mean root mean square error (RMSE) between NASA solar radiation and the ground data was 2.7 MJ/m2/d, or 19% of the mean daily ground data. At the four international sites, the mean RMSE was 4.0 MJ/m2/d, or 25% of the mean daily ground value. Large differences between NASA solar radiation and the ground data were likely associated with tropical environment or significant variation in elevation within a short distance. When using NASA solar radiation coupled with other weather data from ground measurements, the simulated corn yields were highly significantly correlated (mean r2=0.85**) with those using complete ground weather data at the 20 US sites, while the correlation (mean r2=0.48**) was poor at the four international sites. The mean RMSE between the simulated corn yields of the two batches was 0.50 Mg/ha, or 3% of the mean absolute value using the ground data. At the four international sites, the RMSE of the simulated yields was 1.5 Mg/ha, or 13% of the mean absolute value using the ground data. We conclude that the NASA satellite imagery-based daily solar radiation is a reasonably reliable surrogate for the ground observations for farm-specific crop yield simulation and management decisions, especially at locations where ground-measured solar radiation is unavailable.

Yang, H.; Cassman, K. G.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Hoell, J. M.

2007-12-01

48

Solar radiation for Mars power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed information about the solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. A procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally and daily variation of the global, direct (or beam), and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated, are presented. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the Viking Lander cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

1991-01-01

49

Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

2009-01-01

50

Solar Cooking  

... (kWh/m2/day) Amount of electromagnetic energy (solar radiation) incident on the surface of the earth. Also referred to as total or global solar radiation.   Midday insolation (kWh/m2/day) Average ...

2014-09-25

51

Modeling of Daily Solar Energy on a Horizontal Surface for Five Main Sites in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents models for global and diffuse solar energy on a horizontal surface for main five sites in Malaysia. The global solar energy is modeled using linear, nonlinear, fuzzy logic, and artificial neural network (ANN) models, while the diffuse solar energy is modeled using linear, nonlinear, and ANN models. Three statistical values are used to evaluate the developed solar

Tamer Khatib; Azah Mohamed; Marwan Mahmoud; K. Sopian

2011-01-01

52

Long term evolution and chaotic diffusion of the insolation quantities of Mars.  

E-print Network

of Mars, relying on Laskar's secular solu- tion of the Solar System, based on more than 600 orbital The parameters of Mars' orbit and spin axis orientation control the global distribution and seasonal intensityLong term evolution and chaotic diffusion of the insolation quantities of Mars. J. Laskar,a, A. C

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

53

Clinical Cosmobiology - Sudden Cardiac Death and Daily / Monthly Geomagnetic, Cosmic Ray and Solar Activity - the Baku Study (2003-2005)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part of results of collaborative studies for revealing an influence of the periodical changes of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray activities on the sudden cardiac death (SCD) mortality is described in this paper. The data covering daily and monthly temporal distribution of SCD (788 patients in 36 months in 2003-2005), taken from all of emergency and first medical aid stations of grand Baku area, were analyzed and compared with certain cosmophysical parameters. It was obtained that SCD is higher on the highest and lowest daily levels of geomagnetic activity. Days with SCD are accompanied by higher cosmic ray (neutron) activity. The monthly number of SCD was inversely related to solar and geomagnetic activities while was positively linked with cosmic ray activity level. It was concluded that cosmic ray activity could be considered as one of regulating external/environmental factors in human homeostasis.

Stoupel, E.; Babayev, E. S.; Mustafa, F. R.; Abramson, E.; Israelevich, P.; Sulkes, J.

2006-12-01

54

Effectiveness of diabetic insoles to reduce foot pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The F-$can system was used to measure peak plantar pressures in 11 diabetics each with a unilateral great toe amputation andan intact contralateral extremity (nonamputated), to evaluate the effectiveness of five footwear-insole strategies : 1) extra-depth shoes without an insole, 2) extra-depth shoes with a Plastizote ™ 1 insole , 3) extra-depth shoes with a Plastizote ™ insole and a

Hisham R. Ashry; Lawrence A. Lavery; Douglas P. Murdoch; Monica Frolich; David C. Lavery

1997-01-01

55

Prefabricated Insoles and Modifications in Sports Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over-the-counter, ready-made, or prefabricated insoles are marketed widely for relief of foot pain. Shoe stores, sporting\\u000a goods stores, grocery stores, drug stores have shelves filled with such inserts in all different shapes and sizes. One is\\u000a able to type “shoe insert” or “over-the-counter foot insert” into a search engine and find more than one million choices.\\u000a It is not uncommon

David M. Davidson

56

Temperature based daily incoming solar radiation modeling based on gene expression programming, neuro-fuzzy and neural network computing techniques.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correct observation/estimation of surface incoming solar radiation (RS) is very important for many agricultural, meteorological and hydrological related applications. While most weather stations are provided with sensors for air temperature detection, the presence of sensors necessary for the detection of solar radiation is not so habitual and the data quality provided by them is sometimes poor. In these cases it is necessary to estimate this variable. Temperature based modeling procedures are reported in this study for estimating daily incoming solar radiation by using Gene Expression Programming (GEP) for the first time, and other artificial intelligence models such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). Traditional temperature based solar radiation equations were also included in this study and compared with artificial intelligence based approaches. Root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) RMSE-based skill score (SSRMSE), MAE-based skill score (SSMAE) and r2 criterion of Nash and Sutcliffe criteria were used to assess the models' performances. An ANN (a four-input multilayer perceptron with ten neurons in the hidden layer) presented the best performance among the studied models (2.93 MJ m-2 d-1 of RMSE). A four-input ANFIS model revealed as an interesting alternative to ANNs (3.14 MJ m-2 d-1 of RMSE). Very limited number of studies has been done on estimation of solar radiation based on ANFIS, and the present one demonstrated the ability of ANFIS to model solar radiation based on temperatures and extraterrestrial radiation. By the way this study demonstrated, for the first time, the ability of GEP models to model solar radiation based on daily atmospheric variables. Despite the accuracy of GEP models was slightly lower than the ANFIS and ANN models the genetic programming models (i.e., GEP) are superior to other artificial intelligence models in giving a simple explicit equation for the phenomenon which shows the relationship between the input and output parameters. This study provided new alternatives for solar radiation estimation based on temperatures.

Landeras, G.; López, J. J.; Kisi, O.; Shiri, J.

2012-04-01

57

Reconstruction of daily solar UV irradiation from 1893 to 2002 in Potsdam, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term records of solar UV radiation reaching the Earth’s surface are scarce. Radiative transfer calculations and statistical\\u000a models are two options used to reconstruct decadal changes in solar UV radiation from long-term records of measured atmospheric\\u000a parameters that contain information on the effect of clouds, atmospheric aerosols and ground albedo on UV radiation. Based\\u000a on earlier studies, where the long-term

Jürgen Junk; Uwe Feister; Alfred Helbig

2007-01-01

58

Reconstruction of daily solar UV irradiation by an artificial neural network (ANN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term records of solar UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface are scarce. Radiative transfer calculations and statistical models are two options to re-construct decadal changes in solar UV radiation from long-term records of measured atmospheric parameters that contain information on the effect of clouds, atmospheric aerosols and ground albedo on UV radiation. Based on earlier studies, where the long-term variation

Uwe Feister; Jürgen Junk

2006-01-01

59

RESEARCH PAPER: Forecast daily indices of solar activity, F10.7, using support vector regression method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 10.7 cm solar radio flux (F10.7), the value of the solar radio emission flux density at a wavelength of 10.7 cm, is a useful index of solar activity as a proxy for solar extreme ultraviolet radiation. It is meaningful and important to predict F10.7 values accurately for both long-term (months-years) and short-term (days) forecasting, which are often used as inputs in space weather models. This study applies a novel neural network technique, support vector regression (SVR), to forecasting daily values of F10.7. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of SVR in short-term F10.7 forecasting. The approach, based on SVR, reduces the dimension of feature space in the training process by using a kernel-based learning algorithm. Thus, the complexity of the calculation becomes lower and a small amount of training data will be sufficient. The time series of F10.7 from 2002 to 2006 are employed as the data sets. The performance of the approach is estimated by calculating the norm mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. It is shown that our approach can perform well by using fewer training data points than the traditional neural network.

Huang, Cong; Liu, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jing-Song

2009-06-01

60

Bulk Insolation Models as Predictors for Locations for High Lunar Hydrogen Concentrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study we consider the bulk effects of surface illumination on topography (insolation) and the possible thermodynamic effects on the Moon's hydrogen budget. Insolation is important as one of the dominant loss processes governing distributions of hydrogen volatiles on the Earth, Mars and most recently Mercury. We evaluated three types of high latitude > 65 deg., illumination models that were derived from the Lunar Observing Laser Altimetry (LOLA) digital elevation models (DEM)'s. These models reflect varying accounts of solar flux interactions with the Moon's near-surface. We correlate these models with orbital collimated epithermal neutron measurements made by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND). LEND's measurements derive the Moon's spatial distributions of hydrogen concentration. To perform this analysis we transformed the topographic model into an insolation model described by two variables as each pixels 1) slope and 2) slope angular orientation with respect to the pole. We then decomposed the illumination models and epithermal maps as a function of the insolation model and correlate the datasets.

Mcclanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I.G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Starr, R. D.; Evans, L. G.; Sanin, A.; Livengood, T.; Sagdeev, R.; Milikh, G.

2013-01-01

61

Comparison of shoe insole materials by neural network analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two insole materials within the shoe are compared using neural network analysis. Seven male subjects without\\u000a locomotor disorders walk on a treadmill at a controlled speed and cadence wearing a common shoe and no socks, under three\\u000a conditions; these are two types of insole of the same thickness, and a no insole condition. Pressure-related data from under

J. G. Barton; A. Lees

1996-01-01

62

Effect of Estimated Daily Global Solar Radiation Data on the Results of Crop Growth Models  

PubMed Central

The results of previous studies have suggested that estimated daily global radiation (RG) values contain an error that could compromise the precision of subsequent crop model applications. The following study presents a detailed site and spatial analysis of the RG error propagation in CERES and WOFOST crop growth models in Central European climate conditions. The research was conducted i) at the eight individual sites in Austria and the Czech Republic where measured daily RG values were available as a reference, with seven methods for RG estimation being tested, and ii) for the agricultural areas of the Czech Republic using daily data from 52 weather stations, with five RG estimation methods. In the latter case the RG values estimated from the hours of sunshine using the Ångström-Prescott formula were used as the standard method because of the lack of measured RG data. At the site level we found that even the use of methods based on hours of sunshine, which showed the lowest bias in RG estimates, led to a significant distortion of the key crop model outputs. When the Ångström-Prescott method was used to estimate RG, for example, deviations greater than ±10 per cent in winter wheat and spring barley yields were noted in 5 to 6 per cent of cases. The precision of the yield estimates and other crop model outputs was lower when RG estimates based on the diurnal temperature range and cloud cover were used (mean bias error 2.0 to 4.1 per cent). The methods for estimating RG from the diurnal temperature range produced a wheat yield bias of more than 25 per cent in 12 to 16 per cent of the seasons. Such uncertainty in the crop model outputs makes the reliability of any seasonal yield forecasts or climate change impact assessments questionable if they are based on this type of data. The spatial assessment of the RG data uncertainty propagation over the winter wheat yields also revealed significant differences within the study area. We found that RG estimates based on diurnal temperature range or its combination with daily total precipitation produced a bias of to 30 per cent in the mean winter wheat grain yields in some regions compared with simulations in which RG values had been estimated using the Ångström-Prescott formula. In contrast to the results at the individual sites, the methods based on the diurnal temperature range in combination with daily precipitation totals showed significantly poorer performance than the methods based on the diurnal temperature range only. This was due to the marked increase in the bias in RG estimates with altitude, longitude or latitude of given region. These findings in our view should act as an incentive for further research to develop more precise and generally applicable methods for estimating daily RG based more on the underlying physical principles and/or the remote sensing approach.

Trnka, Miroslav; Eitzinger, Josef; Kapler, Pavel; Dubrovsky, Martin; Semeradova, Daniela; Zalud, Zden ek; Formayer, Herbert

2007-01-01

63

SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Solar-collector field experimental tests  

SciTech Connect

The solar-collection field subsystem of the solar-powered desalination pilot project located at Yanbu in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been operated successfully for two years. It has been demonstrated that during a one-year period, the solar-collector field can, on the average, provide about 2500 kWh of thermal energy a day for days with a daily insolation total greater than 4000 Wh/m/sup 2/. This is a yearlong solar-collector field average efficiency of 22.5%. In Yanbu, from October 1, 1985, until September 30, 1986, there were only 21 days (5.8%) when the daily direct-normal insolation was less than the mid-60% to 70% range with a peak output of 51 kW per solar collector. It has also been demonstrated that the Power Kinetics, Inc., square-dish solar collector has a problem due to the fixed aperture (outboard focus) that seriously hurts the performance of the solar collector during the summer months at this latitude. A location at latitudes greater than +-35/degree/ would see greatly improved daylong summer performance. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Zimmerman, J.C.; Al-Abbadi, N.

1987-06-01

64

Comment on “Strong signature of the active Sun in 100 years of terrestrial insolation data” by W. Weber  

PubMed Central

An analysis of ground-based observations of solar irradiance was recently published in this journal, reporting an apparent increase of solar irradiance on the ground of the order of 1% between solar minima and maxima [1]. Since the corresponding variations in total solar irradiance on top of the atmosphere are accurately determined from satellite observations to be of the order of 0.1% only [2], the one order of magnitude stronger effect in the terrestrial insolation data was interpreted as evidence for cosmic-ray induced aerosol formation in the atmosphere. In my opinion, however, this result does not reflect reality. Using the energy budget of Earth's surface, I show that changes of ground-based insolation with the solar cycle of the order of 1% between solar minima and maxima would result in large surface air temperature variations which are inconsistent with the instrumental record. It would appear that the strong variations of terrestrial irradiance found by [1] are due to the uncorrected effects of volcanic or local aerosols and seasonal variations. Taking these effects into account, I find a variation of terrestrial insolation with solar activity which is of the same order as the one measured from space, bringing the surface energy budget into agreement with the solar signal detected in temperature data. PMID:22279242

Feulner, Georg

2011-01-01

65

Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets.  

PubMed

The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can 'run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375?W?m(-2), which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars. PMID:24336285

Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

2013-12-12

66

Insolation in Titan's troposphere Juan M. Lora a,  

E-print Network

Insolation in Titan's troposphere Juan M. Lora a, , Paul J. Goodman b , Joellen L. Russell b Accepted 18 August 2011 Available online 31 August 2011 Keywords: Titan Radiative transfer a b s t r a c t Seasonality in Titan's troposphere is driven by latitudinally varying insolation. We show that the latitu

Russell, Joellen

67

Surface meteorology and Solar Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

68

Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the amplitude of the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been well-known that geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation is produced by global ionospheric currents flowing in the E-region from middle latitudes to the magnetic equator. These currents are generated by a dynamo process via interaction between the neutral wind and ionospheric plasma in a region of the thermosphere and ionosphere. From the Ohm's equation, the ionospheric currents strongly depend on the ionospheric conductivity, polarization electric field and neutral wind. Then, to investigate the Sq amplitude is essential for understanding the long-term variations in the ionospheric conductivity and neutral wind of the thermosphere and ionosphere. Elias et al. [2010] found that the Sq amplitude tends to increase by 5.4-9.9 % in the middle latitudes from 1961 to 2001. They mentioned that the long-term variation of ionospheric conductivity associated with geomagnetic secular variation mainly determines the Sq trend, but that the rest component is ionospheric conductivity enhancement associated with cooling effects in the thermosphere due to increasing the greenhouse gases. In this talk, we clarify the characteristics of the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude using the long-term observation data of geomagnetic field and neutral wind. These observation data have been provided by the IUGONET (Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork) project. In the present analysis, we used the F10.7 flux as an indicator of the variation in the solar irradiance in the EUV and UV range, geomagnetic field data with time resolution of 1 hour. The definition of the Sq amplitude is the difference of the H-component between the maximum and minimum per day when the Kp index is less than 4. As a result, the Sq amplitude at all the stations strongly depends on 11-year solar activity, and tends to enhance more during the high activities (19- and 22- solar cycles) than during the low activity (20-solar cycle). The Fourier spectra of the F10.7 flux and Sq amplitude at Guam (13.59N, 144.87E) showed that the common peaks appear at the periods of 5.5, 7,5 and 10.5 years with the coherence of more than 0.9 while the spectrum peaks around 0.5 and 1.0 year appear only in the Sq amplitude. The former peak of the Sq amplitude is due to the solar activity while the latter is a cause of the upper atmosphere variation. In order to minimize the solar activity dependence of the Sq amplitude, we calculated the residual Sq amplitude using a second degree polynomial curve between the F10.7 and Sq amplitude during 1957-2010, and examined the residual Sq field defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. The residual Sq amplitude showed a clear tendency to increase and decrease during the periods of 1957-1992 and 1993-2010, respectively. It should be noted that the residual Sq amplitude around 2010 is almost the same level as that around 1970. In order to verify qualitatively the above signatures, we need to investigate the long-term variation in the ionospheric conductivities calculated with the IRI-2007 and MSIS-00 models.

Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Tsuda, T.

2011-12-01

69

Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been well-known that geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation is produced by the global ionospheric currents flowing in the E-region, which are generated by dynamo process via interaction between the neutral wind and ionospheric plasma in a region of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere. Then, to investigate the Sq amplitude is essential for understanding the long-term variations in the ionospheric conductivity and neutral wind of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere. Recently, Elias et al. [2010] reported that the Sq amplitude tends to increase by 5.4-9.9 % in the middle latitudes in a period of 1961-2001. They mentioned that the long-term variation of ionospheric conductivity associated with geomagnetic secular variation mainly determines the Sq trend, but that the rest component is due to ionospheric conductivity enhancement associated with cooling effect in the thermosphere due to increasing greenhouse gas. In the present study, we clarify the characteristics of the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude using the long-term observation data of geomagnetic field and neutral wind. In the present analysis, we used the F10.7 solar flux as a good indicator of the variation in the solar irradiance in the EUV and UV range as well as geomagnetic field data with time resolution of 1 hour observed at 184 geomagnetic stations. The definition of the Sq amplitude is the difference of the H-component between the maximum and minimum every day when the Kp index is less than 4. As a result, the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude at all the geomagnetic stations shows a strong correlation with the solar F10.7 flux which depends on 11-year solar activity. The relationship between the Sq amplitude and F10.7 flux was not linear but nonlinear. This nonlinearity could be interpreted as the decrease of production rate of electrons and ions in the ionosphere for the strong EUV and UV fluxes as already reported by Balan et al. [1993]. In order to minimize the solar activity dependence on the Sq amplitude, we calculated second orders of fitting curve between the F10.7 flux and Sq amplitude during 1950-2011, and examined the residual Sq amplitude defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. The residual Sq amplitude clearly shows increase and decrease trends with the periods of 20 years. Then, it seems that the trends in the residual Sq and Sqp fields are related to the long-term variation in the ionospheric conductivities associated with the secular variation of the ambient magnetic field and the upper atmosphere (for example, plasma and neutral densities). In order to verify qualitatively the above signatures, we need to investigate the long-term variation in the ionospheric conductivities using a calculation tool developed by the IUGONET project.

Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.

2012-12-01

70

Estimation of the monthly average daily solar radiation using geographic information system and advanced case-based reasoning.  

PubMed

The photovoltaic (PV) system is considered an unlimited source of clean energy, whose amount of electricity generation changes according to the monthly average daily solar radiation (MADSR). It is revealed that the MADSR distribution in South Korea has very diverse patterns due to the country's climatic and geographical characteristics. This study aimed to develop a MADSR estimation model for the location without the measured MADSR data, using an advanced case based reasoning (CBR) model, which is a hybrid methodology combining CBR with artificial neural network, multiregression analysis, and genetic algorithm. The average prediction accuracy of the advanced CBR model was very high at 95.69%, and the standard deviation of the prediction accuracy was 3.67%, showing a significant improvement in prediction accuracy and consistency. A case study was conducted to verify the proposed model. The proposed model could be useful for owner or construction manager in charge of determining whether or not to introduce the PV system and where to install it. Also, it would benefit contractors in a competitive bidding process to accurately estimate the electricity generation of the PV system in advance and to conduct an economic and environmental feasibility study from the life cycle perspective. PMID:23548030

Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Lee, Minhyun; Park, Hyo Seon

2013-05-01

71

A probabilistic model of insolation for the Mojave desert-area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary solar model has been developed for the area around the JPL's Goldstone Space Communications Complex. The model has the capability of producing any or all of the following outputs: (1) a clear sky theoretical amount of radiation, (2) solar radiation for clear sky, cloudy sky or partially clear sky depending on certain probabilistic parameters, and (3) an array of average solar energy reception rates (solar intensities) in kW/sq m for a specified length of time. This model is based on the ASHRAE clear day model, which is modulated by the effects of clouds. The distribution of clouds for any given time is determined by the combination of statistical procedures, measured insolation values over a six-months period, and a data bank of 19 years of cloud cover information.

Hester, O. V.; Reid, M. S.

1978-01-01

72

GOES surface insolation to estimate wetlands evapotranspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incoming solar radiation derived from GOES-8 satellite observations, in combination with local meteorological measurements, were used to model evapotranspiration from a wetland. The wetland experiment was conducted in the Paynes Prairie Preserve, North Central Florida during a growing season characterized by significant convective activity. The satellite solar radiation measurements generally agreed with pyranometer data gathered at the site. The satellite

Jennifer M. Jacobs; David A. Myerssupas; Martha C. Anderson; George R. Diak

2002-01-01

73

Comparison of shoe insole materials by neural network analysis.  

PubMed

The effects of two insole materials within the shoe are compared using neural network analysis. Seven male subjects without locomotor disorders walk on a treadmill at a controlled speed and cadence wearing a common shoe and no socks, under three conditions; these are two types of insole of the same thickness, and a no insole condition. Pressure-related data from under the foot, within the shoe, are obtained by the MICRO-EMED system during walking. A back-propagation neural network is trained to associate sets of pressure-related data with the insole conditions. Subsequently neural network analysis is performed to reveal the abstract rules that govern the decision-making processes within the neural network, based on the synergistic interactions between the measured variables. Data are also analysed using ANOVA. The neural network analysis finds trends in the way in which the trained neural network responds. The interpretation of those trends gives a delicate description of the dynamic behaviour of the insoles despite the fact that no significant differences are found using ANOVA. It is concluded that neural network analysis can distinguish between insole behaviour during use, even though these differences are not significantly different based on statistical tests. PMID:9039748

Barton, J G; Lees, A

1996-11-01

74

Solar Wind-Driven Radiation Belt Response Functions at Sub-Daily Time Scales Using SAMPEX Orbit-Averaged Electron Fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comprehensive studies of radiation belt dynamics using linear prediction filters (LPFs) were first published by Nagai (1988) and Baker et al. (1990). These studies focused primarily on short-term predictions of daily averaged radiation flux at geostationary orbit using either global magnetospheric indices, or the speed of the solar wind impinging the Earth's magnetosphere. Using daily solar wind data from the NSSDC's OMNI database and SAMPEX 2-6MeV omni-directional electron fluxes at various magnetic L-shells, Vassiliadis et al. (2002) combined linear response functions across L-shells to provide a novel means of visualizing the dynamic response of relativistic radiation belt electrons to solar wind input. Several physical interpretations and implications were gleaned from the results, including a demonstration of strong seasonal and solar cycle dependent variations in the global response function, as well as the existence of an immediate and short-lived, quasi-adiabatic peak in the response functions just outside of the slot region, but inside the heart of the outer electron belt. Our recent studies have demonstrated the ability of autoregressive (AR) filters to remove autocorrelations associated primarily with the diurnal variation observed in radiation belt data sets. Here we extend prior work by the previously mentioned authors by effectively removing diurnal variations in SAMPEX orbit-averaged electron data, and analyzing the linear prediction filters at sub-daily time scales. Several interesting new features become visible only at this higher time resolution, including a substantial negative response in the hours immediately following a solar wind event for L-shells from approximately 4.5-8, as well as significant temporal structure to the quasi-adiabatic peak observed by Vassiliadis and colleagues. The main features observed at daily time scales become readily apparent when the filters are smoothed appropriately.

Rigler, E. J.; Baker, D. N.; Vassiliadis, D.; Kanekal, S. G.; Klimas, A. J.

2002-05-01

75

Comparison of bacterial DNA profiles of footwear insoles and soles of feet for the forensic discrimination of footwear owners.  

PubMed

It is crucial to identify the owner of unattended footwear left at a crime scene. However, retrieving enough DNA for DNA profiling from the owner's foot skin (plantar skin) cells from inside the footwear is often unsuccessful. This is sometimes because footwear that is used on a daily basis contains an abundance of bacteria that degrade DNA. Further, numerous other factors related to the inside of the shoe, such as high humidity and temperature, can encourage bacterial growth inside the footwear and enhance DNA degradation. This project sought to determine if bacteria from inside footwear could be used for footwear trace evidence. The plantar skins and insoles of shoes of volunteers were swabbed for bacteria, and their bacterial community profiles were compared using bacterial 16S rRNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Sufficient bacteria were recovered from both footwear insoles and the plantar skins of the volunteers. The profiling identified that each volunteer's plantar skins harbored unique bacterial communities, as did the individuals' footwear insoles. In most cases, a significant similarity in the bacterial community was identified for the matched foot/insole swabs from each volunteer, as compared with those profiles from different volunteers. These observations indicate the probability to discriminate the owner of footwear by comparing the microbial DNA fingerprint from inside footwear with that of the skin from the soles of the feet of the suspected owner. This novel strategy will offer auxiliary forensic footwear evidence for human DNA identification, although further investigations into this technique are required. PMID:22729347

Goga, Haruhisa

2012-09-01

76

Clear atmospheric effects on insolation illustrated by broad-band radiometer measurements  

SciTech Connect

Spectral measurements from the Solar Energy Meteorological Research and Training Site - Region II monitoring station - are used to determine some of the effects of the cloudless atmosphere on the surface insolation. The effects illustrated are aerosol scattering and absorption, attenuation by volcanic dust clouds, and water vapor absorption. Parameters determined from the measurements are also compared to the results from a radiative transfer model. The direct and global solar infrared spectrum decreases with increasing dew point. A linear regression between dew point and the direct and global intensities under clear skies resulted in predictive errors less than 10%. The visible portions of the spectrum were not effected. The measured aerosol optical depths were compared to the results of a radiative transfer model. The diffuse-to-direct ratio increased with increasing optical depth in a similar fashion in both the radiative transfer model and measurements. The El Chichon dust cloud reduced the solar direct intensity in late summer of 1982. The effect was most pronounced in the 620-690 nm spectral band, although all bands were reduced. The global intensity was not measurably affected. The Mt. St. Helens dust cloud produced a dramatic insolation reduction over several days, but had no measurable long-term effect.

Spencer, D.W.

1983-01-01

77

Solar radiation on Mars: Update 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. A procedure and solar radiation related data are presented from which the daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. Given the optical depth of the Mars atmosphere, the global radiation is calculated from the normalized net flux function based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation. The direct beam was derived from the optical depth using Beer's law, and the diffuse component was obtained from the difference of the global and the direct beam radiation. The optical depths of the Mars atmosphere were derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the cameras used on the two Viking Landers.

Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

1991-01-01

78

The specification of personalised insoles using additive manufacturing.  

PubMed

Research has been conducted to explore a process that delivers insoles for personalised footwear for the high street using additive manufacturing (AM) and to evaluate the use of such insoles in terms of discomfort. Therefore, the footwear personalisation process was first identified: (1) foot capture; (2) anthropometric measurements; (3) insole design; and (4) additive manufacturing. In order to explore and evaluate this process, recreational runners were recruited. They had both feet scanned and 15 anthropometric measurements taken. Personalised insoles were designed from the scans and manufactured using AM. Participants were fitted with footwear under two experimental conditions: personalised and control, which were compared in terms of discomfort. The mean ratings for discomfort variables were generally low for both conditions and no significant differences were detected between conditions. In general, the personalisation process showed promise in terms of the scan data, although the foot capture position may not be considered 'gold standard'. Polyamide, the material used for the insoles, demonstrated positive attributes: visual inspection revealed no signs of breaking. The footwear personalisation process described and explored in this study shows potential and can be considered a good starting point for designer and researchers. PMID:22316969

Salles, André S; Gyi, Diane E

2012-01-01

79

An evaluation of personalised insoles developed using additive manufacturing.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the short and medium term use of personalised insoles, produced by combining additive manufacturing (AM) with three-dimensional (3-D) foot scanning and computer aided design (CAD) systems. For that, 38 runners (19 pairings) were recruited. The experimental conditions were: personalised and control. The personalised condition consisted of trainers fitted with personalised glove fit insoles manufactured using AM and using foot scans to match the plantar geometry of the feet. The control condition consisted of the same trainers fitted with insoles also manufactured using AM but using scans of the original insole shape. Participants were allocated to one of the experimental conditions and wore the trainers for 3 months. Over this period they attended three laboratory sessions (at months 0, 1.5 and 3) and completed an Activity Diary after each training session. The footwear was evaluated in terms of discomfort and biomechanics. Lower discomfort ratings were found in the heel area (P ? 0.05) and for overall fit (P ? 0.05), with the personalised insole. However, discomfort was reported under the arch region for both conditions. With regard to the biomechanical data, differences between conditions were detected for ankle dorsiflexion at footstrike (P ? 0.05), maximum ankle eversion (P ? 0.05) and peak mean pressure under the heel (P ? 0.01): the personalised condition had lower values which may reduce injury risk. The personalisation of the geometry of insoles through advances in AM together with 3-D scanning and CAD technologies can provide benefits and has potential. PMID:23083421

Salles, Andre S; Gyi, Diane E

2013-01-01

80

Effect of optimal daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, root growth and fruit yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in solar-greenhouse.  

PubMed

Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (P<0.05) increased the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 88% and 209% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to conventional interval fertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (<1.5 mm diameter) growth of cucumber, and eventually increased cucumber economic yield by 6.2% and 8.3% and partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 55% and 75% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to the treatment optimal interval fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving crop yield and the water and fertilizers use efficiency in solar greenhouse. PMID:24475204

Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

2014-01-01

81

Effect of Optimal Daily Fertigation on Migration of Water and Salt in Soil, Root Growth and Fruit Yield of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Solar-Greenhouse  

PubMed Central

Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (P<0.05) increased the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 88% and 209% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to conventional interval fertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (<1.5 mm diameter) growth of cucumber, and eventually increased cucumber economic yield by 6.2% and 8.3% and partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 55% and 75% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to the treatment optimal interval fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving crop yield and the water and fertilizers use efficiency in solar greenhouse. PMID:24475204

Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

2014-01-01

82

Smart Insole: A Wearable System for Gait Analysis Electrical Engineering  

E-print Network

of the natural gait model. In this paper, we present a novel portable system, called Smart Insole, to address surgery, and the corresponding treatment and training can be customized according to an individual the Gait Lab. A standard gait lab is roughly a 1200 square foot facility. In order to achieve com

He, Lei

83

Solar absorption cooling plant in Seville  

SciTech Connect

A solar/gas cooling plant at the Engineering School of Seville (Spain) was tested during the period 2008-2009. The system is composed of a double-effect LiBr + water absorption chiller of 174 kW nominal cooling capacity, powered by: (1) a pressurized hot water flow delivered by mean of a 352 m{sup 2} solar field of a linear concentrating Fresnel collector and (2) a direct-fired natural gas burner. The objective of the project is to indentify design improvements for future plants and to serve as a guideline. We focused our attention on the solar collector size and dirtiness, climatology, piping heat losses, operation control and coupling between solar collector and chiller. The daily average Fresnel collector efficiency was 0.35 with a maximum of 0.4. The absorption chiller operated with a daily average coefficient of performance of 1.1-1.25, where the solar energy represented the 75% of generator's total heat input, and the solar cooling ratio (quotient between useful cooling and insolation incident on the solar field) was 0.44. (author)

Bermejo, Pablo; Pino, Francisco Javier; Rosa, Felipe [Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimiento s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

2010-08-15

84

An Apparatus to Quantify Anteroposterior and Mediolateral Shear Reduction in Shoe Insoles  

PubMed Central

Background Many of the physiological changes that lead to diabetic foot ulceration, such as muscle atrophy and skin hardening, are manifested at the foot–ground interface via pressure and shear points. Novel shear-reducing insoles have been developed, but their magnitude of shear stiffness has not yet been compared with regular insoles. The aim of this study was to develop an apparatus that would apply shear force and displacement to an insole’s forefoot region, reliably measure deformation, and calculate insole shear stiffness. Methods An apparatus consisting of suspended weights was designed to test the forefoot region of insoles. Three separate regions representing the hallux; the first and second metatarsals; and the third, fourth, and fifth metatarsals were sheared at 20 mm/min for displacements from 0.1 to 1.0 mm in both the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions for two types of insoles (regular and shear reducing). Results Shear reduction was found to be significant for the intervention insoles under all testing conditions. The ratio of a regular insole’s effective stiffness and the experimental insole’s effective stiffness across forefoot position versus shear direction, gait instance versus shear direction, and forefoot position versus gait instance was 270% ± 79%, 270% ± 96%, and 270% ± 86%, respectively. The apparatus was reliable with an average measured coefficient of variation of 0.034 and 0.069 for the regular and shear-reducing insole, respectively. Conclusions An apparatus consisting of suspended weights resting atop three locations of interest sheared across an insole was demonstrated to be capable of measuring the insole shear stiffness accurately, thus quantifying shear-reducing effects of a new type of insole. PMID:23567000

Belmont, Barry; Wang, Yancheng; Ammanath, Peethambaran; Wrobel, James S.; Shih, Albert

2013-01-01

85

Investigation of Daily Variations of Cosmic Ray Fluxes in the Beginning of 24th Solar Activity Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed a study of daily variations of secondary Cosmic Rays (CR) using data on charged and neutral CR fluxes measured by particle detectors of Aragats Space Environmental Center (ASEC) and Space Environmental Analysis and Viewing Network (SEVAN), which continuously register different species of secondary CR with dif- ferent threshold energies and incident angles. Data at the beginning of

Ashot Chilingarian; Bagrat Mailyan

86

Batteries for solar electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the small scale storage of solar electricity in cases when no main back-up supply is available. A systems optimization study of the solar cell\\/battery is included with an analysis of solar cell size based on battery capacity for specific insolation patterns and load constraints. Various types of batteries are considered, noting that the following parameters are important:

J. Jensen; C. Perram; R. M. dell

1979-01-01

87

Fundamentals of solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text is addressed to upper level graduate students with background in solid state physics and to scientists and engineers involved in solar cell research. The author aims to present fundamental physical principles rather than the state-of-the-art. Specific devices are used to illustrate basic phenomena and to indicate possibilities for innovative design. Contents, abridged: Solar insolation. The calculation of solar

A. L. Farhenbruch; R. H. Bube

1983-01-01

88

Nonlinear response of summer temperature to Holocene insolation forcing in Alaska.  

PubMed

Regional climate responses to large-scale forcings, such as precessional changes in solar irradiation and increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gases, may be nonlinear as a result of complex interactions among earth system components. Such nonlinear behaviors constitute a major source of climate "surprises" with important socioeconomic and ecological implications. Paleorecords are key for elucidating patterns and mechanisms of nonlinear responses to radiative forcing, but their utility has been greatly limited by the paucity of quantitative temperature reconstructions. Here we present Holocene July temperature reconstructions on the basis of midge analysis of sediment cores from three Alaskan lakes. Results show that summer temperatures during 10,000-5,500 calibrated years (cal) B.P. were generally lower than modern and that peak summer temperatures around 5,000 were followed by a decreasing trend toward the present. These patterns stand in stark contrast with the trend of precessional insolation, which decreased by ?10% from 10,000 y ago to the present. Cool summers before 5,500 cal B.P. coincided with extensive summer ice cover in the western Arctic Ocean, persistence of a positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation, predominantly La Niña-like conditions, and variation in the position of the Alaskan treeline. These results illustrate nonlinear responses of summer temperatures to Holocene insolation radiative forcing in the Alaskan sub-Arctic, possibly because of state changes in the Arctic Oscillation and El Niño-Southern Oscillation and associated land-atmosphere-ocean feedbacks. PMID:22084085

Clegg, Benjamin F; Kelly, Ryan; Clarke, Gina H; Walker, Ian R; Hu, Feng Sheng

2011-11-29

89

Rocky Mountain hydroclimate: Holocene variability and the role of insolation, ENSO, and the North American Monsoon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the period of instrumental records, precipitation maximum in the headwaters of the Colorado Rocky Mountains has been dominated by winter snow, with a substantial degree of interannual variability linked to Pacific ocean–atmosphere dynamics. High-elevation snowpack is an important water storage that is carefully observed in order to meet increasing water demands in the greater semi-arid region. The purpose here is to consider Rocky Mountain water trends during the Holocene when known changes in earth's energy balance were caused by precession-driven insolation variability. Changes in solar insolation are thought to have influenced the variability and intensity of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and North American Monsoon and the seasonal precipitation balance between rain and snow at upper elevations. Holocene records are presented from two high elevation lakes located in northwest Colorado that document decade-to-century scale precipitation seasonality for the past ~ 7000 years. Comparisons with sub-tropical records of ENSO indicate that the snowfall-dominated precipitation maxima developed ~ 3000 and 4000 years ago, coincident with evidence for enhanced ENSO/PDO dynamics. During the early-to-mid Holocene the records suggest a more monsoon affected precipitation regime with reduced snowpack, more rainfall, and net moisture deficits that were more severe than recent droughts. The Holocene perspective of precipitation indicates a far broader range of variability than that of the past century and highlights the non-linear character of hydroclimate in the U.S. west.

Anderson, Lesleigh

2012-01-01

90

Impacts of different types of insoles on postural stability in older adults.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the effects of different types of insoles on postural stability in older adults. Four types of commercially available insoles were selected including the cupped insoles, textured insoles, rigid insoles, and soft insoles. The experiment included a static stance session and a walking session. In the static stance session, the participants stood upright on a force platform as still as possible, with feet together, arms by the side and looking straight ahead. The mean velocity of center-of-pressure time series obtained from the force platform was used to assess static postural stability. In the walking session, the participants walked on a treadmill at their self-selected comfortable speed for 4.5 min in each insole condition. Dynamic postural stability was assessed using the margin of stability. It was found that static postural stability was not affected by insoles, but cupped insoles improved dynamic postural stability, and rigid insole was associated with better dynamic postural stability compared to soft insoles. These findings can aid in better understanding the insole design features associated with improved postural stability in older adults. PMID:25034519

Qu, Xingda

2015-01-01

91

SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIAL IN JORDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is aimed to constitute a database for the researchers interested in utilizing solar power in Jordan. It presents the investigation for seven sites distributed on all territory of the country. Based on long-term measured solar irradiation levels, provided by the National Energy Research Center, solar insolation profiles as well as solar irradiance characteristics are estimated. The obtained results

Yaser Anagreh; Ahmad Bataineh; Muhammad Al-Odat

92

Vibrating insoles and balance control in elderly people.  

PubMed

Somatosensory function declines with age, and such changes have been associated with diminished motor performance. Input noise can enhance sensory and motor function. We asked young and elderly participants to stand quietly on vibrating gel-based insoles, and calculated sway parameters and random-walk variables. In our 27 participants, application of noise resulted in a reduction in seven of eight sway parameters in young participants and all of the sway variables in elderly participants. Elderly participants showed greater improvement than young people in two variables, mediolateral range (p=0.008), and critical mean square displacement (p=0.012). Noise-based devices, such as randomly vibrating insoles, could ameliorate age-related impairments in balance control. PMID:14550702

Priplata, Attila A; Niemi, James B; Harry, Jason D; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Collins, James J

2003-10-01

93

Knee abduction angular impulses during prolonged running with wedged insoles.  

PubMed

Wedged insoles may produce immediate effects on knee abduction angular impulses during running; however, it is currently not known whether these knee abduction angular impulse magnitudes are maintained throughout a run when fatigue sets in. If changes occur, this could affect the clinical utility of wedged insoles in treating conditions such as patellofemoral pain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether knee abduction angular impulses are altered during a prolonged run with wedged insoles. It was hypothesized that knee abduction angular impulses would be reduced following a prolonged run with wedged insoles. Nine healthy runners participated. Runners were randomly assigned to either a 6-mm medial wedge condition or a 6-mm lateral wedge condition and then ran continuously overground for 30 min. Knee abduction angular impulses were quantified at 0 and 30 min using a gait analysis procedure. After 2 days, participants returned to perform the same test but with the other wedge type. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate main effects of wedge condition and time and interactions between wedge condition and time (? = 0.05). Paired t-tests were used for post hoc analysis (? = 0.01). No interaction effects (p = 0.958) were found, and knee abduction angular impulses were not significantly different over time (p = 0.384). Lateral wedge conditions produced lesser knee abduction angular impulses than medial conditions at 0 min (difference of 2.79 N m s, p = 0.006) and at 30 min (difference of 2.76 N m s, p < 0.001). It is concluded that significant knee abduction angular impulse changes within wedge conditions do not occur during a 30-min run. Additionally, knee abduction angular impulse differences between wedge conditions are maintained during a 30-min run. PMID:23636760

Lewinson, Ryan T; Worobets, Jay T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

2013-07-01

94

African monsoons, an immediate climate response to orbital insolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Croll-Milankovitch astronomical theory of climate1-3 has received strong support from the evidence of a linear climatic forcing by obliquity and precession, although nonlinearity had to be assumed for eccentricity4,5. Moreover, interglacials have appeared to be controlled by the orbital insolation6 although a phase shift of 6,000-5,000 yr is seen between an astronomical climate index and terrestrial climate indicators, dominated

Martine Rossignol-Strick

1983-01-01

95

Assessment and ground-based correction of the Level-3 MODIS daily aerosol optical depth: Implications in the context of surface solar radiation prediction and numerical weather modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Level-3 MODIS (L3M) aerosol optical depth (AOD) product offers interesting features for surface solar radiation and numerical weather modeling applications. However, most of the validation efforts so far have been focused on Level-2 (L2M) products and only rarely on L3M. We compare the Collection 5.1 L3M AOD (Terra dataset) available since 2000 against observed daily AOD values at 550 nm from more than 500 AERONET ground stations. The aim is to check the advisability of this dataset for surface solar radiation calculations using numerical weather models. Overall, the mean error (ME) is 0.03 (17%, relative to the mean observed AOD), with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.14 (73%), albeit these values are found highly dependent on geographical region. For AOD values above about 0.3 the expected error (EE) is found higher than that of the L2M product. We propose specific parameterizations for the EE of the L3M AOD, as well as for both its ME and its standard deviation. We also found that, roughly, half of the uncertainty of the L3M AOD dataset might be attributable to its sub-pixel variability. Finally, we used a radiative transfer model to investigate how the L3M AOD uncertainty propagates into the direct normal (DNI) and global horizontal (GHI) irradiances evaluation. Overall, for AODs smaller than 0.5, the induced uncertainty in DNI due to AOD alone is below 15% on average, and below 5% for GHI (for a solar zenith angle of 30 degrees). But the uncertainty in AOD is highly spatially variable, so is that in irradiance. These results suggest the necessity of a correction method to reduce the bias of the L3M AOD. Ground-based AOD measurements can be also used in a data fusion procedure. We present the results of a preliminary study using optimal interpolation of L3M daily AOD data based on daily AERONET AOD measurements in the US in the period since June to August 2009. The method removes the data gaps in the original dataset, assesses the spatial distribution of uncertainty and corrects the resultant gridded-AOD based on point-wise ground measurements. Overall, based on a cross-validation procedure, the method was able to reduce the ME from 0.013 (9%) to -0.002 (-2%), the RMSE from 0.084 (59%) to 0.070 (49%) and increase the correlation coefficient from 10% to 92%. Fig 1 shows the time series of the mean daily AOD for the original (blue) and the data-fused (red) datasets over the study region. The methodology shall allow creating an accurate and long-term gridded-AOD database suitable to be ingested in numerical weather models so that the effect in the atmospheric system of AOD and its daily variability can be better assessed. Such a dataset is crucial for DNI calculations at surface.

Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Dudhia, J.; Pozo-Vazquez, D.

2012-12-01

96

Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

2009-03-01

97

Solar drying in the Caribbean  

SciTech Connect

The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) has estimated that a quarter of crops are lost through inadequate handling after harvesting. The use of solar dryers can reduce these losses and improve the quality of food. Oliver Headley of the University of the West Indies overviews a range of dryers developed in the Caribbean region. Solar dryers have been used in various parts of the Caribbean for the past eighteen years. The main types are: closed cycle dryers with separate flat plate collector; open cycle dryers with roof vanes against direct sunlight; open cycle dryers with rockbed heat storage units; open cycle dryers with chimneys for air circulation; wire basket dryers with flow through ventilation; barn roof collectors feeding packed bed dryers. During the dry season (January to April), mean daily insolation in a typical Caribbean island is about 25 MJ/m{sup 2}. With such an abundant resource, solar crop drying emerged as a preferred method for the preservation of perishable commodities. In territories without fossil fuel reserves solar energy is an obvious alternative since it does not involve expenditure of scarce foreign exchange. Research and development work in solar crop drying was conducted both at experimental sites in the University and in rural districts throughout the region. Several types of dryer were designed and tested.

Headley, O. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica))

1992-03-01

98

IHT: Tools for Computing Insolation Absorption by Particle Laden Flows  

SciTech Connect

This report describes IHT, a toolkit for computing radiative heat exchange between particles. Well suited for insolation absorption computations, it is also has potential applications in combustion (sooting flames), biomass gasification processes and similar processes. The algorithm is based on the 'Photon Monte Carlo' approach and implemented in a library that can be interfaced with a variety of computational fluid dynamics codes to analyze radiative heat transfer in particle-laden flows. The emphasis in this report is on the data structures and organization of IHT for developers seeking to use the IHT toolkit to add Photon Monte Carlo capabilities to their own codes.

Grout, R. W.

2013-10-01

99

Daily Care  

MedlinePLUS

... in daily life . Help the person remain as independent as possible. Offer opportunities for choice. Establish a familiar routine . Sign up for our e-Newsletter for care tips and news. ALZConnected ® Connect with our online caregiver community at ...

100

Embedded sensor insole for wireless measurement of gait parameters.  

PubMed

This work presents the development of a portable, wireless activity monitoring system for the estimation of biomechanical gait parameters. The system uses a pair of instrumented insoles able to measure pressure from different points of the foot including four commercial piezoresistive pressure sensors and a three-axis accelerometer, all together integrated in the insole to determine foot forces during stance and swing phases. The system includes two kinds of analysis data, one on line with a RF communications to a computer, and another off line reading the data from SD memory card. Our system has been validated and tested in different trials, extracting several features during walking for ten participants by means of the combined information from the two kinds of sensors. With the combined data from the complete set of sensors, we can obtain highly valuable information on foot movement during the non-contact period, such as supination or pronation characteristics or anomalous movement during flight time. From our preliminary results, the variation of the lateral acceleration of the foot seems to be correlated with the amount of supination. PMID:24375153

Martínez-Martí, Fernando; Martínez-García, María Sofía; García-Díaz, Santiago G; García-Jiménez, Javier; Palma, Alberto J; Carvajal, Miguel A

2014-03-01

101

Changes of postural steadiness following use of prefabricated orthotic insoles.  

PubMed

Orthoses are designed to assist a malaligned foot in adapting to the environment and reduce the frequency of injury. Literature is divided on the benefits of orthotics insoles for postural stability. The current study was conducted to determine the effect of prefabricated orthotic arch supports on postural stabilization. Twelve healthy young adults participated in this study and were tested with and without prefabricated orthotics. Different variables were computed from movement of center of pressure (COP) during orthotic use as suggested in the literature. The mean position of COP was significantly shifted forward and toward the dominant side. Neither the COP movement nor the velocity changes following the use of orthotics revealed significant differences. Mediolateral range of COP movement and the 95% confidence circle area of sway was significantly reduced (P = .022 and 0.048 respectively), but changes in 95% confidence circle and ellipse areas of fractal dimension were not significant (P = .053 and P = .057 respectively). In conclusion, orthotic insoles significantly improved postural sway initially by reducing mediolateral range of postural sway and 95% confidence circle area of sway at the cost of increased fractal dimension area variables and power. PMID:22815281

Bateni, Hamid

2013-04-01

102

Standing Balance on the Ground --The Influence of Flatfeet and Insoles  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine whether insoles change standing balance on the ground in normal and flat-footed subjects. [Subjects] Twenty subjects with flatfeet and 20 subjects with normal feet were included in this study. [Methods] Body sway was evaluated based on the center of pressure while subjects stood on the ground. Body sway was measured during upright standing with the feet 10?cm apart for 30 seconds. The total locus length and the area of body sway were then measured using a zebris system. Measurements were made under three sets of conditions: using BMZ insoles, which supported the cuboid; using Superfeet insoles, which supported the medial longitudinal arch; and with no insoles. [Results] The 3 insole conditions were compared. On level ground, the total locus length for the Superfeet insole was significantly less than those for the BMZ insole and no insole. [Conclusion] On level ground, Superfeet feet insoles were effective in stabilizing standing balance in both flat-footed and normal-footed subjects. PMID:24409010

Takata, Yuichi; Matsuoka, Shinji; Okumura, Nobuhisa; Iwamoto, Koji; Takahashi, Mitsugu; Uchiyama, Eiichi

2014-01-01

103

Urban air pollution and solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

1981-01-01

104

27-day variations of the phase and amplitude of 1-st and 2-nd harmonics CR solar-daily anisotropy according to NM Mt. Hermon: effects in total intensity and different multiplicities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After correction NM data on snow effect according to our work presented for Moscow COSPAR 40-th Assembly (Dorman et al. “Snow effect for total NM intensity and different multiplicities on Mt. Hermon during 1998 - 2014”) we determined 27-day variations in the phase and amplitude of the 1-st and 2-nd harmonics CR solar-daily anisotropy according to NM Mt. Hermon in total neutron intensity and different multiplicities. Obtained results for total neutron intensity we compare with results on other CR stations in dependence of altitude and cut-off rigidity. Results for different multiplicities we use for estimation rigidity spectrum of the CR 27-day variations in the 1-st and 2-nd harmonics CR solar-daily anisotropy. We estimate also the long-term changes in the 27-day variations of CR anisotropy and its connection with 27-day variations of solar activity.

Lev, Dorman; Zukerman, Igor; Pustilnik, Lev; Dai, Uri; Shternlib, Abracham; Shai Applbaum, David; Kazantsev, Vasilii; Kozliner, Lev; Ben Israel, Isaac

105

Framework for the mapping of the monthly average daily solar radiation using an advanced case-based reasoning and a geostatistical technique.  

PubMed

For the effective photovoltaic (PV) system, it is necessary to accurately determine the monthly average daily solar radiation (MADSR) and to develop an accurate MADSR map, which can simplify the decision-making process for selecting the suitable location of the PV system installation. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a framework for the mapping of the MADSR using an advanced case-based reasoning (CBR) and a geostatistical technique. The proposed framework consists of the following procedures: (i) the geographic scope for the mapping of the MADSR is set, and the measured MADSR and meteorological data in the geographic scope are collected; (ii) using the collected data, the advanced CBR model is developed; (iii) using the advanced CBR model, the MADSR at unmeasured locations is estimated; and (iv) by applying the measured and estimated MADSR data to the geographic information system, the MADSR map is developed. A practical validation was conducted by applying the proposed framework to South Korea. It was determined that the MADSR map developed through the proposed framework has been improved in terms of accuracy. The developed MADSR map can be used for estimating the MADSR at unmeasured locations and for determining the optimal location for the PV system installation. PMID:24635702

Lee, Minhyun; Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Park, Hyo Seon

2014-04-15

106

GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS WITH BATTERY STORAGES CONTROL BASED ON INSOLATION FORECASTING USING WEATHER FORECAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an insolation forecasting method and simulation results of a control method of grid-connected photovoltaic systems with battery storages. First, it predicts the global irradiance every one hour by using weather forecast every three hours, and corrects the prediction accuracy by 14 kinds of weather change patterns. Second, it estimates tomorrow's photovoltaic generated power from the insolation forecasting,

Takae Shimada; Kosuke Kurokawa

2006-01-01

107

A novel shear reduction insole effect on the thermal response to walking stress, balance, and gait.  

PubMed

Shear stresses have been implicated in the formation of diabetes-related foot ulcers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a novel shear-reducing insole on the thermal response to walking, balance, and gait. Twenty-seven diabetes peripheral neuropathy patients were enrolled and asked to take 200 steps in both intervention and standard insoles. Thermal foot images of the feet were taken at baseline (1) following a 5-minute temperature acclimatization and (2) after walking. Testing order was randomized, and a 5-minute washout period was used between testing each insole condition. Sudomotor function was also assessed. Gait and balance were measured under single and dual task conditions using a validated body worn sensor system. The mean age was 65.1 years, height was 67.3 inches, weight was 218 pounds, and body mass index was 33.9, 48% were female, and 82% had type 2 diabetes. After walking in both insole conditions, foot temperatures increased significantly in standard insoles. The intervention insole significantly reduced forefoot and midfoot temperature increases (64.1%, P = .008; 48%, P = .046) compared to standard insoles. There were significant negative correlations with sudomotor function and baseline temperatures (r = .53-.57). The intervention demonstrated 10.4% less gait initiation double support time compared to standard insoles (P = .05). There were no differences in static balance measures. We found significantly lower forefoot and midfoot temperature increases following walking with shear-reducing insoles compared to standard insoles. We also found improvements in gait. These findings merit future study for the prevention of foot ulcer. PMID:25107709

Wrobel, James S; Ammanath, Peethambaran; Le, Tima; Luring, Christopher; Wensman, Jeffrey; Grewal, Gurtej S; Najafi, Bijan; Pop-Busui, Rodica

2014-11-01

108

Constitution Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyone could use a bit of the Constitution added to their daily lives, and this website more than delivers on its promise to deliver "smart conversation about the Constitution". Constitution Daily is an experimental blog edited by the National Constitution Center (NCC) in Philadelphia, and commentary here can include conversations about student privacy rights, the Second Amendment, and the activities of Congress. Visitors can click on the "Issues" section to dive into topic areas that include civility and privacy. After looking at each topic area, visitors can look at an interactive timeline that arranges comments, posts, and discussion on the subject. The site also contains some nice polls, and information about upcoming events at the NCC.

109

Solar Radiation on Mars: Tracking Photovoltaic Array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A photovoltaic power source for surface-based operation on Mars can offer many advantages. Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars and the insolation on various types of collector surfaces are necessary for effective design of future planned photovoltaic systems. In this article we have presented analytical expressions for solar radiation calculation and solar radiation data for single axis (of various types) and two axis tracking surfaces and compared the insulation to horizontal and inclined surfaces. For clear skies (low atmospheric dust load) tracking surfaces resulted in higher insolation than stationary surfaces, whereas for highly dusty atmospheres, the difference is small. The insolation on the different types of stationary and tracking surfaces depend on latitude, season and optical depth of the atmosphere, and the duration of system operation. These insolations have to be compared for each mission.

Appelbaum, Joseph; Flood, Dennis J.; Crutchik, Marcos

1994-01-01

110

Variation of solar cell sensitivity and solar radiation on tilted surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The validity is studied that one of various insolation models used to compute solar radiation incident on tilted surfaces from global data measured on horizontal surfaces. The variation of solar cell sensitivity to solar radiation is determined over a wide range of atmospheric condition. A new model was formulated that reduced the deviations between measured and predicted insolation to less than 3 percent. Evaluation of solar cell sensitivity data indicates small change (2-3 percent) in sensitivity from winter to summer for tilted cells. The feasibility of using such global data as a means for calibrating terrestrial solar cells is discussed.

Klucher, T. M.

1978-01-01

111

Sensitivity of Asian and African climate to variations in seasonal insolation, glacial ice cover, sea surface temperature and Asian orography  

SciTech Connect

The authors are interested in the general question of how low and high latitude regions interact on a climatic scale. Here they present results for modeled climatic influences in Asia and Africa, due to boundary condition changes in surrounding regions. The factors varied were the amount of solar insolation, the extent of glacial ice cover in high latitude areas, the north Atlantic sea surface temperatures, and the height of the Asian orography elevations. Results of using the GISS general circulation model, with these different imposed boundary conditions are then observed for their impact on the seasonal climate of the Asian and African monsoons. These results are then looked at in light of paleoclimatic evidence to see if these influences might be a major factor in driving the climate changes in Asia and Africa.

DeMenocal, P.B. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States)); Rind, D. (Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States))

1993-04-20

112

Analysis of walking improvement with dynamic shoe insoles, using two accelerometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orthopedics at the rehabilitation hospital found that disorders caused by sports injuries to the feet or caused by lower-back are improved by wearing dynamic shoe insoles, these improve walking balance and stability. However, the relationship of the lower-back and knees and the rate of increase in stability were not quantitatively analyzed. In this study, using two accelerometers, we quantitatively analyzed the reciprocal spatiotemporal contributions between the lower-back and knee of patients with left lower-back pain by means of Relative Power Contribution Analysis. When the insoles were worn, the contribution of the left and right knee relative to the left lower-back pain was up to 26% ( p<0.05) greater than without the insoles. Comparing patients with and without insoles, we found that the variance in the step response analysis of the left and right knee decreased by up to 67% ( p<0.05). This shows an increase in stability.

Tsuruoka, Yuriko; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Shibasaki, Ryosuke; Tsuruoka, Masako

2005-07-01

113

Local effects of partly-cloudy skies on solar and emitted radiations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric aerosol and turbidity measurements were analyzed and the results are presented. The correlation of global insolation with cloud cover fractions for the first complete year's data set was completed. A theoretical model was developed to parameterize the effects of local aerosols upon insolation received at the ground using satellite radiometric data and insolation measurements under clear sky conditions. A February data set, composed of one minute integrated global insolation and direct solar irradiances, cloud cover fractions, meteorological data from nearby weather stations, and GOES East satellite radiometric data was collected to test the model and used to calculate the effects of local aerosols.

Whitney, D. A.; Griffin, T. J.

1983-01-01

114

U.S. Solar Resource Maps and Tools from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)  

DOE Data Explorer

Solar maps provide monthly average daily total solar resource information on grid cells. The insolation values represent the resource available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal to equal to the latitude of the collector location. [Copied from http://www.nrel.gov/gis/solar.html] Several types of solar maps are made available. The U.S. Solar resource maps show the resource potential for energy from photovoltaics and from concentrating solar power (CSP). Both sets of maps are available in low or high resolution. A dynamic map based on version 2 of PVWATTS calculates electrical energy performance estimates for a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The map of U.S. Solar Measurement Station Locations is also dynamic, showing the spatial distribution of measurement stations across the U.S. that are monitored by programs and agencies such as DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program or NREL's Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements (CONFRRM). Clicking on a station location will take the user to the website of that station. Finally, static map images providing solar resource information averaged by month are also available.

115

The biomechanical effects of a new design of lateral wedge insole on the knee and ankle during walking.  

PubMed

Lateral wedged insoles are a common treatment in individuals with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis of the knee joint. One concern has been the potential for increased foot and ankle pain due to increased eversion. The purpose of this study was to assess the biomechanical effectiveness of a typical lateral wedged insole and a combined insole with a lateral wedge and off-the-shelf anti-pronatory device in shoes while walking. A cross-over randomized design was used where each insole was worn by fifteen healthy subjects while three-dimensional motion data were collected in three different conditions: (1) control condition (with standard shoes), (2) with an insole with a lateral wedge and additional off-the-shelf anti-pronatory support (supporting), and (3) with an insole with a lateral wedge with no additional support (unsupported) in the standard shoes. The unsupported insole significantly increased the amount of ankle/subtalar joint complex eversion than the other experimental conditions, with the supporting insole reducing the ankle/subtalar joint complex eversion, and was found to be more comfortable. Both the supporting and unsupported lateral wedged insoles significantly reduced knee loading (external knee adduction moment reduction 8.5% and 9.1%, respectively), the knee adduction angular impulse. This new design of lateral wedge may offer increased adherence in future osteoarthritis population studies while offering reductions in joint loading. PMID:24054897

Jones, Richard K; Zhang, Min; Laxton, Philip; Findlow, Andrew H; Liu, Anmin

2013-08-01

116

Effects of volcanic dust clouds on surface insolation  

SciTech Connect

Clear periods of days from thirty-one months were used to determine the intensities of direct, global, and diffuse solar radiation at the earth's surface in four spectral bands. The solar measurements were made through Schott filters OG1, RG2, RG8, and WG7 with Eppley Normal Incidence Pyrheliometers and Precision Spectral Pyranometers. The spectral band intensities were calculated by finding the difference between the measurements. The diffuse was calculated by subtracting the direct on a horizontal surface from the global. The dust clouds from both the Mt. St. Helens and El Chichon volcanic eruptions affected the measured intensities in these bands. The effect from the Mt. St. Helens cloud was large but short in duration, while the El Chichon effect was smaller but persistent through several months.

Spencer, D.W.; Stewart, W.

1983-06-01

117

Estimation of clear-sky insolation using satellite and ground meteorological data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground based pyranometer measurements were combined with meteorological data from the Tiros N satellite in order to estimate clear-sky insolations at five U.S. sites for five weeks during the spring of 1979. The estimates were used to develop a semi-empirical model of clear-sky insolation for the interpretation of input data from the Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS). Using only satellite data, the estimated standard errors in the model were about 2 percent. The introduction of ground based data reduced errors to around 1 percent. It is shown that although the errors in the model were reduced by only 1 percent, TOVS data products are still adequate for estimating clear-sky insolation.

Staylor, W. F.; Darnell, W. L.; Gupta, S. K.

1983-01-01

118

Medially posted insoles consistently influence foot pronation in runners with and without anterior knee pain.  

PubMed

Anterior knee pain (AKP) is a common injury among runners and effectively treated with posted insoles and foot orthotics. While clinically effective, the underlying biomechanical mechanisms that bring about these improvements remain debatable. Several methodological factors contribute to the inconsistent biomechanical findings, including errors associated with removing and reattaching markers, inferring foot motion from markers placed externally on a shoe, and redefining segmental coordinate systems between conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of medially posted insoles on lower extremity kinematics in runners with and without AKP while trying to limit the influence of these methodological factors. Kinematics of 16 asymptomatic and 17 runners with AKP were collected while running with and without insoles. Reflective markers were attached to the surface of the calcaneus and kept in place (as opposed to detached) between conditions, eliminating the error associated with reattaching markers and redefining segmental coordinate systems. Using these methods, no significant interactions between insole and injury and the main effect of injury were detected (p>0.05); therefore, means were pooled across injury. Insoles, on average, reduced peak eversion by 3.6° (95% confidence interval -2.9° to -4.3°), peak eversion velocity by 53.2°/s (95% confidence interval -32.9 to -73.4) and eversion range of motion by 1.33 (95% confidence interval -0.8 to -1.9). However, while insoles systematically reduced eversion variables, they had small influences on the transverse plane kinematics of the tibia or knee, indicating that they may bring about their clinical effect by influencing other variables. PMID:23137595

Rodrigues, Pedro; Chang, Ryan; TenBroek, Trampas; Hamill, Joseph

2013-04-01

119

Insolation-driven 100,000-year glacial cycles and hysteresis of ice-sheet volume.  

PubMed

The growth and reduction of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets over the past million years is dominated by an approximately 100,000-year periodicity and a sawtooth pattern (gradual growth and fast termination). Milankovitch theory proposes that summer insolation at high northern latitudes drives the glacial cycles, and statistical tests have demonstrated that the glacial cycles are indeed linked to eccentricity, obliquity and precession cycles. Yet insolation alone cannot explain the strong 100,000-year cycle, suggesting that internal climatic feedbacks may also be at work. Earlier conceptual models, for example, showed that glacial terminations are associated with the build-up of Northern Hemisphere 'excess ice', but the physical mechanisms underpinning the 100,000-year cycle remain unclear. Here we show, using comprehensive climate and ice-sheet models, that insolation and internal feedbacks between the climate, the ice sheets and the lithosphere-asthenosphere system explain the 100,000-year periodicity. The responses of equilibrium states of ice sheets to summer insolation show hysteresis, with the shape and position of the hysteresis loop playing a key part in determining the periodicities of glacial cycles. The hysteresis loop of the North American ice sheet is such that after inception of the ice sheet, its mass balance remains mostly positive through several precession cycles, whose amplitudes decrease towards an eccentricity minimum. The larger the ice sheet grows and extends towards lower latitudes, the smaller is the insolation required to make the mass balance negative. Therefore, once a large ice sheet is established, a moderate increase in insolation is sufficient to trigger a negative mass balance, leading to an almost complete retreat of the ice sheet within several thousand years. This fast retreat is governed mainly by rapid ablation due to the lowered surface elevation resulting from delayed isostatic rebound, which is the lithosphere-asthenosphere response. Carbon dioxide is involved, but is not determinative, in the evolution of the 100,000-year glacial cycles. PMID:23925242

Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Saito, Fuyuki; Kawamura, Kenji; Raymo, Maureen E; Okuno, Jun'ichi; Takahashi, Kunio; Blatter, Heinz

2013-08-01

120

Medial Knee Osteoarthritis Treated by Insoles or Braces: A Randomized Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background   There is controversial evidence regarding whether foot orthoses or knee braces improve pain and function or correct malalignment\\u000a in selected patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the medial knee compartment. However, insoles are safe and less costly than\\u000a knee bracing if they relieve pain or improve function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We therefore asked whether laterally wedged insoles or valgus braces would reduce pain,

Tom M. van Raaij; Max Reijman; Reinoud W. Brouwer; Sita M. A. Bierma-Zeinstra; Jan A. N. Verhaar

2010-01-01

121

Matching of DC motors to photovoltaic generators for maximum daily gross mechanical energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The matching to solar-cell generators of both separately excited and series DC motors driving pumping loads is addressed. It is shown that the maximum gross mechanical power can be obtained at slightly higher voltages and slightly lower currents compared to the maximum electrical-power points on the solar-cell generator characteristics at different insolation levels. Guidelines for constructing the loci of the

M. M. Saied

1988-01-01

122

Solar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does solar energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to solar energy. Here students read about the uses, benefits, and active and passive methods of solar energy. Information is also presented about limitations, geographical considerations of solar power in the United States, and current uses of solar energy around the world. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of solar energy. Articles and information about a solar power plant in the Mohave Desert, the use of solar energy in Iowa, and statistics about solar energy are provided in a sidebar.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

123

The Solar Constant since 1600  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze a graph of solar irradiance since 1610. Answer key is provided. They will consider average insolation, percent changes and the link between irradiance and climate change. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

124

Utility scale hybrid wind–solar thermal electrical generation: A case study for Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a hybrid wind–solar power plant in southwestern Minnesota is modeled for a 2-yr period using hourly wind and solar insolation data. The wind portion of the plant consists of four interconnected wind farms within a radius of 90km. The solar component of the plant is a parabolic trough solar thermal electric generating system using a heat transfer

J. P. Reichling; F. A. Kulacki

2008-01-01

125

On the Origins of the Ice Ages: Insolation Forcing, Age Models, and Nonlinear Climate Change  

E-print Network

On the Origins of the Ice Ages: Insolation Forcing, Age Models, and Nonlinear Climate Change by Peter Huybers Submitted to the Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences in partial .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences May, 2004 Certified by

Huybers, Peter

126

Sensitivity of Modeled Cretaceous Climate to Insolation Forcing Created by Varying Earth-Sun Orbital Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhythmic sedimentation patterns observed within the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway, such as those in the Bridge Creek Limestone Member of the Greenhorn Limestone Formation exposed near Pueblo, Colorado, appear to be a response to episodic climate change. These climatic variations could, in turn, be forced by the periodic insolation change over the North American continent created by Milankovitch -scale Earth-Sun

Thomas J. Glancy Jr.; T. J. Jr

1992-01-01

127

Cracks in desert pavement rocks: Further insights into mechanical weathering by directional insolation  

E-print Network

Cracks in desert pavement rocks: Further insights into mechanical weathering by directional August 2010 Keywords: Desert pavements Physical weathering Desert geomorphology Insolation weathering Fractures The formation of cracks is a fundamental first step in the physical weathering of rocks in desert

Ahmad, Sajjad

128

Geography, insolation, and vitamin D in nineteenth century US African-American and white statures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a new source of nineteenth century US state prison records I contrast the biological living conditions of comparable African-Americans and whites. Although blacks and whites today in the US reach similar terminal statures, nineteenth century African-American statures were consistently shorter than those of whites. Greater insolation (vitamin D production) is shown to be associated with taller black and white

Scott Alan Carson

2009-01-01

129

Millennial-scale variability in Red Sea circulation in response to Holocene insolation forcing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess how insolation-driven climate change superimposed on sea level rise and millennial events influenced the Red Sea during the Holocene, we present new paleoceanographic records from two sediment cores to develop a comprehensive reconstruction of Holocene circulation dynamics in the basin. We show that the recovery of the planktonic foraminiferal fauna after the Younger Dryas was completed

Gabriele Trommer; Michael Siccha; Eelco J. Rohling; Katherine Grant; Stefan Schouten; Christoph Hemleben; Michal Kucera

2010-01-01

130

Complementary roles of orbital insolation and North Atlantic Deep Water during Late Pleistocene interglacials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-standing dilemma of the Milankovitch hypothesis involves the observation that the Holocene deglaciation was comparable in extent to previous late Pleistocene interglacials even though insolation forcing was less. In this paper we propose an explanation that is based on an observed complementary relationship between eccentricity and North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) production rates. A ?13C record from the South

Thomas J. Crowley; Kwang-Yul Kim

1992-01-01

131

Hemispheric Insolation Forcing of the Indian Ocean and Asian Monsoon: Local versus Remote Impacts*  

E-print Network

changes in several numerical experiments with a coupled ocean­atmosphere model. The focus to South and East Asia, while the SH insolation change has a remote and seasonal-scale delayed effect Academy of Sciences, 10 Fenghui South Road, Hi-Tech Zone, P.O. Box 17, Xi'An 710075, China. E-mail: liuxd

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

132

A reliable gyroscope-based gait-phase detection sensor embedded in a shoe insole  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of patient experiments using a new gait-phase detection sensor (GPDS) together with a programmable functional electrical stimulation (FES) system for subjects with a dropped-foot walking dysfunction. The GPDS (sensors and processing unit) is entirely embedded in a shoe insole and detects in real time four phases (events) during the gait cycle: stance, heel off, swing, and

Ion P. I. Pappas; Thierry Keller; Sabine Mangold; Milos R. Popovic; Volker Dietz; Manfred Morari

2004-01-01

133

Quantifying stair gait stability in young and older adults, with modifications to insole hardness.  

PubMed

Stair gait falls are prevalent in older adults aged 65 years and older. Extrinsic variables such as changes to insole hardness are important factors that can compromise the balance control system and increase the incidence of falls, especially since age-related decline in the cutaneous sensation is common. Balance measurements such as the minimum center of mass/base of support (COM-BOS, termed 'stability margin') and COM-BOS medial/lateral range provide information about stability during stair gait. This study was conducted to investigate stair gait stability of young and older adults, with modifications to insole hardness. Twenty healthy adults (10 young adults, 10 older adults) were recruited (mean age = 23.1, SD 2.1; mean age = 73.2, SD 5.5) and instructed to descend a 4 step staircase, for a total of 40 trials. All participants wore similar canvas shoes of varying sizes, and corresponding insole hardnesses (barefoot, soft, medium, hard). Kinematic equipment utilized 12 infrared markers anteriorly placed on the individual to record COM motion and BOS location. The findings from the study demonstrated that older adults were less stable during stair descent. Consequently, insole conditions revealed that the barefoot condition may increase the likelihood of falls, as opposed to the other insole hardnesses (soft, medium and hard). These results suggest that older adults while barefoot are putting themselves at a great risk of falling during stair descent. Since age-related changes are inevitable and the preferred footwear of choice inside the home is bare feet, this is a crucial issue that should be addressed. PMID:24954148

Antonio, Patrick J; Perry, Stephen D

2014-07-01

134

Solar panel parallel mounting configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

1998-01-01

135

Fundamentals of solar heating  

SciTech Connect

Economic aspects of solar heating are covered, including simple payback methods and life-cycle costing. Basic thermodynamic principles are reviewed. Insolation is introduced. Kinds of heat losses and methods of calculating heating loads are discussed. Flat-plate collector design is covered, including thermal analysis, performance, and sizing. Heat storage is briefly discussed. The basic theory and design of heat distribution systems are described. Integration of the collector and storage into an active solar system is discussed, and some applications are presented. Solar swimming pool heating is covered. The SOLRAD program that is used in the study of collector orientation is listed. (LEW)

Schubert, R.C.; Ryan, L.D.

1981-01-01

136

Solar Thermal Conversion  

SciTech Connect

The thermal conversion process of solar energy is based on well-known phenomena of heat transfer (Kreith 1976). In all thermal conversion processes, solar radiation is absorbed at the surface of a receiver, which contains or is in contact with flow passages through which a working fluid passes. As the receiver heats up, heat is transferred to the working fluid which may be air, water, oil, or a molten salt. The upper temperature that can be achieved in solar thermal conversion depends on the insolation, the degree to which the sunlight is concentrated, and the measures taken to reduce heat losses from the working fluid.

Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

1982-11-01

137

Marketing solar thermal technologies: strategies in Europe, experience in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermal technologies (STTs) are mature in many EU Member States. However, in some EU regions solar applications, and especially the innovative ones (such as solar heating\\/cooling, solar drying, solar-powered desalination), remain at an early stage. The degree of development of each market does not depend on climate conditions (e.g., insolation) or on different technological developments. The major strengths, weaknesses,

Theocharis D Tsoutsos

2002-01-01

138

Receiver For Solar Air Turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar receiver heats air to temperature high enough to drive gas turbine. Receiver has thermal output of about 70 kilowatts. Pointing downward at focal position of solar reflector, proposed receiver accepts intense concentrated sunlight. Although temperatures in receiver may rise to 1,500 degrees F (816 degrees C) or more, calculations show receiver loses less than 10 percent of insolation by convection through aperture. Receiver designed for 30-year life without scheduled maintenance or replacement.

Kofal, A.; Shannon, R.; Zimmerman, D. K.

1985-01-01

139

Performance characteristics of point-focusing distributed-receiver solar Brayton systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to variations in solar insolation, it may be necessary or desirable to operate solar energy systems continuously in off-design conditions. Design of solar energy systems should maximize system efficiency at the design point and throughout the range of operational solar insolation. The solar power system considered in this study consists of a point-focusing concentrator, a cavity receiver, an open cycle gas turbine engine, and a heat regenerator. A computer simulation model was developed to predict off-design system performance. Results showing system efficiency and associated subsystems interface requirements are presented for various turbine inlet temperatures and engine speeds.

El Gabalawi, N.

1980-01-01

140

Climate sensitivity to changes in solar insolation in a simple coupled climate model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple coupled ocean, atmosphere and sea-ice model is presented. The idealised model consists of a zonally averaged land and ocean strip of constant angular width extending from pole to pole. The meridional energy transport in the ocean is modelled by contributions from the large scale thermohaline overturning cells and from horizontal diffusive fluxes. The atmospheric meridional energy transports are

J. Bendtsen

2002-01-01

141

Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Data Release 5.1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data set contains over 200 parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems.The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree].

Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

142

Some Recent Research on Solar Energy Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexico is located in the Earth’s sunbelt, where solar energy is plentiful for potential applications of solar energy conversion\\u000a systems. According to several estimations (Renn? et al. 2000), the average insolation over the country’s surface amounts to 5 kWh\\/day, which puts Mexico in a privileged situation for\\u000a the deployment of solar energy technologies. Other renewable energy sources such as: wind,

Camilo A Arancibia-Bulnes; Antonio Jiménez; Oscar Jaramillo; Claudio Estrada

143

Mediterranean Quaternary sapropels, an immediate response of the African monsoon to variation of insolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rossignol-Strick, M., 1985. Mediterranean Quaternary sapropels, an immediate response of the African monsoon to variation of insolation. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 49: 237--263. In the subsurface of the East Mediterranean Sea, eleven discrete basin-wide, organic- rich, black sapropels were deposited during the last 465 000 years. They are dated by oxygen isotopic chronostratigraphy. The too.st recent sapropel has been shown to

MARTINE ROSSIGNOL-STRICK

1985-01-01

144

The effect of cushioning insoles on back and lower extremity pain in an industrial setting.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low back pain and lower extremity pain in a group of factory workers and determine the effect of cushioning insoles on low back pain and lower extremity pain. Data were gathered via questionnaire from 306 employees of an aircraft engine assembly factory. A subset of 40 workers who had reported significant levels of back or lower extremity pain were sampled for four consecutive 12-hour shifts wearing their normal footwear and then a week later for four consecutive shifts wearing cushioning insoles. High levels of low back pain and lower extremity pain were reported by workers on the plant floor, but low back pain was poorly correlated to lower extremity pain (r = 0.371). The effect of insoles on the subset of 40 workers was to lower low back pain by 38%, foot pain by 37%, and knee pain by 38% (p < .001). The reduction in low back pain, however, was not correlated to the reduction in lower extremity pain; workers reporting a decrease in low back pain differed from those reporting less lower extremity pain. PMID:24053218

Jefferson, John R

2013-10-01

145

Response of the Labrador Sea to insolation forcing during the most recent five interglaciations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Labrador Sea is connected to the global climate system via both winter water column convection and interactions with Greenland Ice Sheet. A chronology of Labrador Sea temperatures is therefore necessary to understand larger scale North Atlantic climate. Here, we report northeast Labrador Sea near-surface ocean temperatures for the most recent five interglaciations. We estimate temperatures using planktic foraminiferal Mg/Ca from Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral), picked from Eirik Drift sediment core MD99-2227, located to the south of Greenland. Preliminary data from Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1 and 5e suggest that Labrador Sea near-surface ocean temperatures did not correlate proportionately with boreal summer insolation, with MIS 5e temperatures being no warmer than MIS 1. To investigate whether this relationship between temperature and insolation existed for other interglaciations, we will examine Mg/Ca-derived temperatures for MIS 7, 9, and 11, which represent a range in boreal summer insolation values. This record will improve our ability to predict the response of the Labrador Sea to future increases in radiative forcing and attendant melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

Winsor, K.; Carlson, A. E.; Klinkhammer, G. P.; Welke, B.; Hoffman, J.

2013-12-01

146

Solar energy and the residence - Some systems aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility, in an energy-flow sense, of providing heating, cooling, and electrical power for individual homes using some form of solar energy converter on the roof of each residence is considered. A model for home power requirements and solar insolation which reflects residence construction, local weather, and geographic location is developed. This is used to demonstrate that 50-90% of the

R. C. Neville

1977-01-01

147

Control Electronics for Solar/Flywheel Power Supply  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Control circuit automatically directs flow of electrical energy to and from motor with flywheel that constitutes storage element of solar-power system. When insolation is sufficient for charging, power is supplied by solar-cell array to load and motor. During periods of darkness, motor made to act as generator, drawing kinetic energy from flywheel and supplying it to load.

Nola, F. J.

1986-01-01

148

A Fuzzy-Based Maximum Power Point Tracker for Body Mounted Solar Panels in LEO Satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar panels are the power subsystem components which provide satellite electrical power. Solar panels characteristics depend on environmental conditions (insolation level, temperature and etc.). In this paper, design and simulation of fuzzy-based MPPT for the body mounted solar panel in a LEO satellite are presented. To show how good the proposed technique is; we applied it into a real system.

M. Taherbaneh; M. B. Menhaj

2007-01-01

149

High-Performance Algorithms for Drift Avoidance and Fast Tracking in Solar MPPT System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power available at the output of solar arrays keeps changing with solar insolation and ambient temperature. Expensive and inefficient, the solar arrays must be operated at maximum power point (MPP) continuously for economic reasons. Of the numerous algorithms for this purpose, perturb and observe (P&O) is a standard. A derivative of gradient ascent method used in the optimization theory,

Ashish Pandey; Nivedita Dasgupta; Ashok Kumar Mukerjee

2008-01-01

150

The role of CO2 and insolation in explaining interglacial diversity and the origin of the Mid-Brunhes Event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use two climate models, LOVECLIM and CCSM3, to simulate the climate response to insolation and CO2 forcings during the nine interglacials of the last 800,000 years. The results show that the difference between the interglacials is explained by both direct radiative effects of the forcings, their synergism and indirect dynamical effects which involve, for example in CCSM3, the sea-level pressure anomalies in the North Pacific and Southern Oceans and the surface conditions of the Nordic Seas. Moreover, the relative impacts of insolation and CO2 on different climatic variables and on different regions are quantified through simulations with LOVECLIM and using the factor separation technique. The results show that the relative contribution of insolation and CO2 on the warmth intensity varies from one interglacial to another. They also show that CO2 plays a dominant role on the variations of the global annual mean temperature and the southern high latitude temperature and sea ice, whereas, insolation plays a dominant role on the variations of monsoon precipitation, vegetation and of the northern high latitude temperature and sea ice. Our simulations also help to understand the origin of the Mid-Brunhes Transition (MBE) which is characterized by change in the interglacial amplitude about 430,000 years ago. As far as the surface climate is concerned, MBE appears mainly in the variables dominated by CO2 and it is not clear in the variables dominated by insolation. This explains the absence of MBE in some regional records. However, the oceanic response to insolation is more complex depending significantly on the interactions between the atmosphere and the ocean. Insolation alone can induce a MBE in some oceanic processes which are critical for the carbon cycle. This might contribute to the understanding of the origin of the MBE in the atmospheric CO2 concentration.

Yin, Qiuzhen; Berger, Andre; Herold, Nicholas

2014-05-01

151

Upper ocean climate of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene Insolation Maximum - a model study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine thousand years ago (9 ka BP), the Northern Hemisphere experienced enhanced seasonality caused by an orbital configuration close to the minimum of the precession index. To assess the impact of this "Holocene Insolation Maximum" (HIM) on the Mediterranean Sea, we use a regional ocean general circulation model forced by atmospheric input derived from global simulations. A stronger seasonal cycle is simulated by the model, which shows a relatively homogeneous winter cooling and a summer warming with well-defined spatial patterns, in particular, a subsurface warming in the Cretan and western Levantine areas. The comparison between the SST simulated for the HIM and a reconstruction from planktonic foraminifera transfer functions shows a poor agreement, especially for summer, when the vertical temperature gradient is strong. As a novel approach, we propose a reinterpretation of the reconstruction, to consider the conditions throughout the upper water column rather than at a single depth. We claim that such a depth-integrated approach is more adequate for surface temperature comparison purposes in a situation where the upper ocean structure in the past was different from the present-day. In this case, the depth-integrated interpretation of the proxy data strongly improves the agreement between modelled and reconstructed temperature signal with the subsurface summer warming being recorded by both model and proxies, with a small shift to the south in the model results. The mechanisms responsible for the peculiar subsurface pattern are found to be a combination of enhanced downwelling and wind mixing due to strengthened Etesian winds, and enhanced thermal forcing due to the stronger summer insolation in the Northern Hemisphere. Together, these processes induce a stronger heat transfer from the surface to the subsurface during late summer in the western Levantine; this leads to an enhanced heat piracy in this region, a process never identified before, but potentially characteristic of time slices with enhanced insolation.

Adloff, F.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Ku?era, M.; Grimm, R.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Schmiedl, G.; Emeis, K.-C.

2011-10-01

152

Solar Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solar Week is a week of online curriculum with daily topics on the Sun, including Sun as a Star, the Sun Close Up, Solar Activity, Eclipses, and Careers. Each day contains a game, an activity, topical questions, a related Life Science topic, teacher information, and an Ask the Scientist page.

2010-12-06

153

Chronic daily headaches  

PubMed Central

Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches. PMID:23024563

Ahmed, Fayyaz; Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Khalil, Modar

2012-01-01

154

Immediate Effect of Postural Insoles on Gait Performance of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Preliminary Randomized Controlled Double-blind Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Improved gait efficiency is one of the goals of therapy for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Postural insoles can allow more efficient gait by improving biomechanical alignment. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of postural insoles on gait performance of children with CP classified as levels I or II of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). [Subjects and Methods] the study was a randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial. After meeting the legal aspects and the eligibility criteria, 10 children between four and 12?years old were randomly divided into a two groups: a control group (n=5), and an experimental group (n=5). Children in the control group used a placebo insoles, and children in the experimental group used postural insoles. Evaluation consisted of three-dimensional gait analysis under three conditions: barefoot, shoes without insoles and shoes with postural insoles or shoes with placebo insoles. [Results] Regarding the immediate effects of insole use, significant improvements in gait velocity and cadence were observed in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. [Conclusion] The use of postural insoles led to improvements in gait velocity and cadence of the children with cerebral palsy classified as levels I or II of the GMFCS. PMID:25140083

Neto, Hugo Pasini; Grecco, Luanda Andre Collange; Duarte, Natalia Almeida Carvalho; Christovao, Thaluanna Calil Lourenco; Franco de Oliveira, Luis Vicente; Dumont, Arislander Jonathan Lopes; Galli, Manuela; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

2014-01-01

155

Insolation and Abrupt Climate Change Effects on the Western Pacific Maritime Monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many monsoon-sensitive paleoclimate archives capture the response of the Asian-Australian monsoon system to changes in summer insolation, as well as abrupt climate changes such as the Younger Dryas (YD). The response is commonly a direct one in Holocene and YD archives. In the case of insolation, increased summer insolation leads to increased monsoon rainfall over land, as captured in stalagmite ?18O records from Oman and China. We evaluate this direct response using maritime stalagmite records from the island of Palawan, Philippines (10 N, 119 E). The wet season in Palawan occurs over the same months (June-October) as in Oman, India and China. Therefore, we expected the Palawan stalagmite ?18O record, a proxy of rainfall, to have a similar response to changing insolation and hence, a trend of decreasing monsoon rainfall over the Holocene. However, the Holocene trend in two partially replicated stalagmite ?18O records is opposite to that expected: rainfall increases over the Holocene, despite the decrease of summer insolation over the Holocene. We interpret the Holocene trend observed at Palawan to be the result of an increase in the maritime monsoon that balances the reduction in the land monsoon; an interpretation that is consistent with previously published results from coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model runs. Seawater ?18O reconstructions from marine sediment cores in the western tropical Pacific contain a freshening trend over the Holocene, also supporting the hypothesis of increase maritime monsoon rainfall. The direct relationship between monsoon rainfall over land as recorded in the YD interval in Chinese stalagmite records is also observed in maritime monsoon rainfall during the YD at Palawan: both records get drier during the YD cold interval. This agreement between YD stalagmite records from China and Palawan contrasts sharply with the inverse relationship between these records over the Holocene. We further investigate the nature of the changes in maritime monsoon rainfall in several ways. Output from global climate models in the PMIP2 compilation at 6ka provides a snapshot of conditions in the western Pacific during the mid-Holocene. Also, two global climate models run under transient conditions, LOVECLIM and NCAR CCSM3, are used to investigate the timing and spatial structure of the YD. We test the regional coherency of the Holocene trend in the Palawan stalagmite ?18O record by generating an additional Philippine stalagmite ?18O record from Negros, an island ~450 km east of Palawan. Preliminary data from Negros suggest a complex precipitation response in the Philippines over the Holocene, such that both the monsoon and the western Pacific warm pool influence the regional hydroclimate. Global climate model results from the isotope-enabled NASA GISS ModelE-R model provide further assistance in the interpretation of the multiple stalagmite ?18O records from the Philippines.

Partin, J. W.; Quinn, T. M.; Shen, C.; Cardenas, M.; Siringan, F. P.; Hori, M.; Okumura, Y.; Banner, J. L.; Lin, K.; Jiang, X.; Taylor, F. W.

2013-12-01

156

Tips for Daily Life  

MedlinePLUS

... chapter Join our online community Tips for Daily Life Coping skills will help you handle day-to- ... challenges, maximize your independence and live a meaningful life with your diagnosis. Accepting changes Creating a coping ...

157

Shaundra Bryant Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from Science City, Shaundra Bryant Daily, an electrical engineer, describes a software program she developed to help girls reflect on their emotions, and how her two passions—science and dance—are connected.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-09-18

158

Tips for Daily Living  

MedlinePLUS

... Read Stroke Prevention Tips Read Encouraging Messages More Post-Stroke Tips Regaining Independence Technology for People with ... for Improving Fine Motor Skills One-side Neglect Post-Stroke Planning Daily Money Management Paying for Long- ...

159

Loudness in Daily Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Acquiring a comprehensive understanding of how people perceive loudness in daily environments requires us to take the study\\u000a of loudness out of artificial controlled laboratories and observe the perception of loudness under more ecologically valid\\u000a conditions. In doing so, we find that some assumptions made in the laboratories do not apply to daily environments.

Hugo Fastl; Mary Florentine

160

Daily Food Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will find daily food recommendations based upon their age, weight, height, and activity level. Standard 2 Objective1: a,b,c It is helpful to have a guide that can give us directions on the type and quantity of foods we should eat daily. Lets first view the basics of our food groups. Click the Food Group Basics link below and see if you can answer the questions provided. Food Group Basics What is the ...

Peterson, Mr.

2011-09-18

161

Contrails reduce daily temperature range.  

PubMed

The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period. PMID:12167846

Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

2002-08-01

162

USAF solar thermal applications overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Process heat applications were compared to solar thermal technologies. The generic process heat applications were analyzed for solar thermal technology utilization, using SERI's PROSYS/ECONOMAT model in an end use matching analysis and a separate analysis was made for solar ponds. Solar technologies appear attractive in a large number of applications. Low temperature applications at sites with high insolation and high fuel costs were found to be most attractive. No one solar thermal technology emerges as a clearly universal or preferred technology, however,, solar ponds offer a potential high payoff in a few, selected applications. It was shown that troughs and flat plate systems are cost effective in a large number of applications.

Hauger, J. S.; Simpson, J. A.

1981-01-01

163

Comparative study of peak power tracking techniques for solar storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the power supplied by solar arrays depends upon the insolation, temperature and array voltage, it is necessary to control the operating points to draw the maximum power of the solar array. The object of this paper is to investigate the maximum power tracking algorithms which were often used to compare the tracking efficiencies for the system operating under different

Chihchiang Hua; Chihming Shen

1998-01-01

164

Upper ocean climate of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene Insolation Maximum - a model study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine thousand years ago, the Northern Hemisphere experienced enhanced seasonality caused by an orbital configuration with a minimum of the precession index. To assess the impact of the "Holocene Insolation Maximum" (HIM) on the Mediterranean Sea, we use a regional ocean general circulation model forced by atmospheric input derived from global simulations. A stronger seasonal cycle is simulated in the model, which shows a relatively homogeneous winter cooling and a summer warming with well-defined spatial patterns, in particular a subsurface warming in the Cretan and Western Levantine areas. The comparison between the SST simulated for the HIM and the reconstructions from planktonic foraminifera transfer functions shows a poor agreement, especially for summer, when the vertical temperature gradient is strong. However, a reinterpretation of the reconstructions is proposed, to consider the conditions throughout the upper water column. Such a depth-integrated approach accounts for the vertical range of preferred habitat depths of the foraminifera used for the reconstructions and strongly improves the agreement between modelled and reconstructed temperature signal. The subsurface warming is recorded by both model and proxies, with a light shift to the south in the model results. The mechanisms responsible for the peculiar subsurface pattern are found to be a combination of enhanced downwelling and wind mixing due to strengthened Etesian winds, and enhanced thermal forcing due to the stronger summer insolation in the Northern Hemisphere. Together, these processes induce a stronger heat transfer from the surface to the subsurface during late summer in the Western Levantine; this leads to an enhanced heat piracy in this region.

Adloff, F.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Kucera, M.; Grimm, R.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Schmiedl, G.; Emeis, K.

2011-05-01

165

Crosbyton Solar Power Project. Volume 8: Preliminary design of 55-MWe solar-fossil hybrid electric power plant at Crosbyton, Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents the preliminary design and the construction cost for a 5 MWe Solar Hybrid Electric Energy Plant (SHEEP) to be built at Crosbyton, Texas. The plant has been designed to serve as a small size, commercially operable power plant which fully demonstrates the function, performance, and cost of this solar technology and integrated steam management concept. Good lifetime performance at minimum cost were the critical design objectives. The major solar components of this plant are ten 203 foot diameter stationary tilted quartersphere solar bowls. Each with a slender 58 foot solar receiver which tracks the solar focus produced by the bowl. At peak insolation the ten bowls will produce sufficient steam to generate 5 MWe. This plant has only a few minutes of thermal storage capability. The plant has a fossil boiler (oil or gas fired) which is integrated into the solar-turbine steam loop to provide supplemental steam for electric generation at night or during periods of low insolation.

1982-02-01

166

The Impact of Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing on Surface Insolation and Spring Snowmelt in the Southern Sierra Nevada  

E-print Network

; Giorgi et al. 2002). In an analysis of the changes in summer cli- mate, air pollution, and clear, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (Manuscript received 19 September 2005 via the reduction in the surface insolation by aerosols. The effect of this forcing on low-level air

Liou, K. N.

167

IMPROVING WEIGHT BEARING ASYMMETRY IN UNILATERAL LOWER LIMB AMPUTEES BY USE OF AN INSOLE PRESSURE SENSOR-BASED  

E-print Network

69 IMPROVING WEIGHT BEARING ASYMMETRY IN UNILATERAL LOWER LIMB AMPUTEES BY USE OF AN INSOLE asymmetry with more weight on the non-affected limb (e.g. [1]). Over the long term, asymmetric weight sensor-based electro-tactile biofeedback system in improving weight bearing asymmetry in lower limb

Payan, Yohan

168

Abstract--This article presents the development of a prototype insole derived from natural rubber from Hevea  

E-print Network

, with polyurethane, ethylene vinyl acetate, microcellular rubber and cork, for diabetics with neuropathy [9]. Bernard for people who have diabetic foot. The active element of this insole is the electronic circuit that monitors will open a new approach in an attempt to solve the problem of diabetic foot. I. INTRODUCTION iabetes

Carvalho, João Luiz

169

Enhanced solar energy options using earth-orbiting mirrors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system of orbiting space reflectors is described, analyzed, and shown to economically provide nearly continuous insolation to preselected ground sites, producing benefits hitherto lacking in conventional solar farms and leading to large reductions in energy costs for such installations. Free-flying planar mirrors of about 1 sq km are shown to be optimum and can be made at under 10

W. P. Gilbreath; K. W. Billman; S. W. Bowen

1978-01-01

170

Daily bowel care program  

MedlinePLUS

... constipation (hard bowel movements). A daily bowel care program can help you avoid embarrassment and spend less ... Following a regular bowel program may often help prevent accidents. Learn to be aware of small signs that you need to have a bowel movement ...

171

Daily Food Plan  

MedlinePLUS

... for their age and gender. Height, feet: feet Height, inches: inches Physical Activity: Amount of moderate or vigorous activity (such as brisk walking, jogging, biking, aerobics, or yard work) you do in addition to your normal daily routine , most days. Physical Activity:

172

Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

Texas Child Care, 1993

1993-01-01

173

Daily Life with Glaucoma  

MedlinePLUS

Daily Life with Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: Your friend's name: Your ... can be useful and comforting. Don't let glaucoma limit your life Don’t let glaucoma limit ...

174

Dairy farm hot water: an economic evaluation of solar collectors vs. heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Two alternative systems for heating water - solar collectors and heat exchangers - were compared to determine the more economical choice by dairy farmers. Btu requirements and discounted payback were estimated for three dairy herd sizes, 40, 90, and 140 cows. The analysis was performed for two locations in Kansas, Dodge City and Topeka. These locations were chosen because their average daily insolation is around 600,000 Btu/ft/sup 2/ which is representative of many of the dairying regions in the western half of the United States. Both the solar hot water and the heat exchanger systems analyzed in this study were sized according to manufacturer specifications. For the basic analysis, it was assumed that the solar collector system was 52% efficient and supplied a solar fraction of about 50%. Performance of the heat exchanger was measured at three levels, 60, 70, and 80%. The fraction of Btu requirements supplied varied with herd size. Herd size is an important factor to consider as farmers select the more appropriate alternative technology. Discounted payback for heat exchangers decreased rapidly as herd size increased, reaching 1 to 2 years, with tax credits, for the 140-cow herd size. Because less hot water per cow is needed in large dairies, heat exchangers will supply a large percentage of the hot water requirements for a 140-cow herd dairy. Heat exchangers appear to be ideally suited, both technically and economically, for commercial-sized dairy herds. Conversely, the discounted payback for solar hot water systems was about the same for all three herd sizes and above the payback level of heat exchangers even at the small herd size. Only for herds of less than 40 cows are solar hot water systems competitive with heat exchangers.

Heid, W.G. Jr.; Williams, E.V.

1982-01-01

175

Data monitoring and information availability - A key to solar energy utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Widespread use of solar energy heating and cooling systems is dependent upon their price competitiveness with other systems in the marketplace. There are indications that the degree of accuracy of existing solar insolation data is such that systems must be oversized by 50 percent. Refinement of the solar insolation data could result in a substantial cost reduction of solar heating and cooling systems making these units more competitive with conventional systems. This paper describes a system, the Sunfall Monitor, that provides this capability. The system monitors and records on tape in computer-compatible format the values of the direct and total solar irradiance. Provisions are also incorporated for evaluation of solar cell, collector and absorber material samples. Concepts and discussions for application of the device in relationship to research/development and the solar energy heating and cooling acts conclude the paper.

Kemp, A. J.

1975-01-01

176

Local effects of partly-cloudy skies on solar and emitted radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer automated data acquisition system for atmospheric emittance, and global solar, downwelled diffuse solar, and direct solar irradiances is discussed. Hourly-integrated global solar and atmospheric emitted radiances were measured continuously from February 1981 and hourly-integrated diffuse solar and direct solar irradiances were measured continuously from October 1981. One-minute integrated data are available for each of these components from February 1982. The results of the correlation of global insolation with fractional cloud cover for the first year's data set. A February data set, composed of one-minute integrated global insolation and direct solar irradiance, cloud cover fractions, meteorological data from nearby weather stations, and GOES East satellite radiometric data, was collected to test the theoretical model of satellite radiometric data correlation and develop the cloud dependence for the local measurement site.

Whitney, D. A.; Venable, D. D.

1982-01-01

177

Feasibility of solar power for Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA, through Project Pathfinder, has put in place an advanced technology program to address future needs of manned space exploration. Included in the missions under study is the establishment of outposts on the surface of Mars. The Surface Power program in Pathfinder is aimed at providing photovoltaic array technology for such an application (as well as for the lunar surface). Another important application is for unmanned precursor missions, such as the photovoltaic-power aircraft, which will scout landing sites and investigate Mars geology for a 1 to 2 year mission without landing on the surface. Effective design and utilization of solar energy depend to a large extent on adequate knowledge of solar radiation characteristics in the region of solar energy system operation. The two major climatic components needed for photovoltaic system designs are the distributions of solar insolation and ambient temperature. These distributions for the Martian climate are given at the two Viking lander locations but can also be used, to the first approximation, for other latitudes. One of the most important results is that there is a large diffuse component of the insolation, even at high optical depth, so that solar energy system operation is still possible. If the power system is to continue to generate power even on high optical opacity days, it is thus important that the photovoltaic system be designed to collect diffuse irradiance as well as direct. In absence of long term insolation and temperature data for Mars, the data presented can be used until updated data are available. The ambient temperature data are given as measured directly by the temperature sensor; the insolation data are calculated from optical depth measurements of the atmosphere.

Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

1991-01-01

178

Simulation of a solar evacuated collector with black fluid  

SciTech Connect

The use of black fluids in an evacuated tube solar collector for intermediate temperatures is analyzed, and an operation mathematical model is proposed. The model is unidimensional and the integral equation for the mass, momentum and energy conservation balances are used. An expression for the pressure drop in the tube is obtained by integrating the momentum equation. The energy conservation equation is integrated analytically for constant insolation and numerically for transient insolation. An adjustment in the global emissivity value for the black fluid was made to make the representation in the mathematical model, and a discussion between the calculated and the experimental results is made.

Samano, A.; Fernandez, A.

1983-06-01

179

NOAA Daily Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

Center, Hydrometeorological P.

2011-01-01

180

Ice sheets, insolation and CO2 during the interglacial MIS-13  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 13, an interglacial about 500,000 years ago, has been seen as the coolest interglacial of the past 800,000 years in proxy records of the Southern Ocean and Antarctica. Its CO2 concentration is also lower than that of other interglacials and is about 40 ppmv lower than at pre-industrial time. It is also an obviously weak interglacial in marine oxygen isotope records. Its sea level could be 20 m lower than today if the benthic ?18O is assumed to be a signal of only ice volume. All these let assume that ice sheets other than Greenland might have existed in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) during MIS-13. However, this is questioned by the fact that diverse proxy records from the NH suggest that MIS-13 was as warm as or even warmer than other interglacials. Here we investigate the NH ice sheet configuration during MIS-13 through a modeling approach involving two climate models and two ice sheets models. An offline NH ice sheet model (NHISM) is forced by precipitation and temperature fields provided by transient simulations made with the climate model LOVECLIM. These 50,000-year long transient simulations cover the whole peak of MIS-13.1 (including the two peaks MIS-13.11, -13.13 and the stadial MIS-13.12) and take into account changes in CO2 concentration, insolation and ice sheets which are provided by simulations of a climate-ice sheet coupled model (CLIMBER-SICOPOLIS). LOVECLIM-NHISM and CLIMBER-SICOPOLIS give similar results although small differences exist. Interestingly, both pairs of models simulate no significant additional ice sheets in the NH at the two peaks MIS-13.11 and -13.13. This means that the effect of a 40ppmv lower CO2 concentration is counterbalanced by higher summer insolation when NH summer occurs at perihelion. However, a non-negligible Scandinavian ice sheet is simulated during the stadial MIS-13.12. This time, in the framework of a NH summer occurring at aphelion (like today), the lower CO2 concentration can initiate an additional ice sheets in the NH. More information about how climate and ice sheets respond to different forcings will be further discussed.

Yin, Qiuzhen; Berger, Andre; Ganopolski, Andrey; Goelzer, Heiko; Guo, Zhengtang; Huybrechts, Philippe

2014-05-01

181

Daily Food Checklist  

Cancer.gov

The daily food checklist method is a form of food record. The tool is comprised of a list of foods; over the course of a day, a respondent makes a check beside a food each time she or he eats it. The checklist shares an advantage of other record methods in that it does not rely on memory. In addition, it avoids some disadvantages of complete quantitative food records in that it has relatively low respondent and investigator burden.

182

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary  

SciTech Connect

Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

183

The effect of removing plugs and adding arch support to foam based insoles on plantar pressures in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background Removable plug insoles appear to be beneficial for patients with diabetic neuropathic feet to offload local plantar pressure. However, quantitative evidence of pressure reduction by means of plug removal is limited. The value of additional insole accessories, such as arch additions, has not been tested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of removing plugs from foam based insoles, and subsequently adding extra arch support, on plantar pressures. Methods In-shoe plantar pressure measurements were performed on 26 patients with diabetic neuropathic feet at a baseline condition, in order to identify the forefoot region with the highest mean peak pressure (MPP). This was defined as the region of interest (ROI) for plug removal.The primary outcome was measurement of MPP using the pedar® system in the baseline and another three insole conditions (pre-plug removal, post-plug removal, and post-plug removal plus arch support). Results Among the 26 ROIs, a significant reduction in MPP (32.3%, P<0.001) was found after removing the insole plugs. With an arch support added, the pressure was further reduced (9.5%, P<0.001). There were no significant differences in MPP at non-ROIs between pre- and post-plug removal conditions. Conclusions These findings suggest that forefoot plantar pressure can be reduced by removing plugs and adding arch support to foam-based insoles. This style of insole may therefore be clinically useful in managing patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PMID:23895323

2013-01-01

184

Simulating last interglacial climate with NorESM: role of insolation and greenhouse gases in the timing of peak warmth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last interglacial (LIG, ~130-116 ka, ka = 1000 yr ago) is characterized by high-latitude warming and is therefore often considered as a possible analogue for future warming. However, in contrast to predicted future greenhouse warming, the LIG climate is largely governed by variations in insolation. Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations were relatively stable and similar to pre-industrial values, with the exception of the early LIG when, on average, GHGs were slightly lower. We performed six time-slice simulations with the low-resolution version of the Norwegian Earth System Model covering the LIG. In four simulations only the orbital forcing was changed. In two other simulations, representing the early LIG, additionally the GHG forcing was reduced. With these simulations we investigate (1) the different effects of GHG versus insolation forcing on the temperatures during the LIG; (2) whether reduced GHGs can explain the low temperatures reconstructed for the North Atlantic; and (3) the timing of the observed LIG peak warmth. Our simulations show that the insolation forcing results in seasonal and hemispheric differences in temperature. In contrast, a reduction in the GHG forcing causes a global and seasonal-independent cooling. Furthermore, we compare modelled temperatures with proxy-based LIG sea-surface temperatures along a transect in the North Atlantic. The modelled North Atlantic summer sea-surface temperatures capture the general trend of the reconstructed summer temperatures, with low values in the early LIG, a peak around 125 ka, and a steady decrease towards the end of the LIG. Simulations with reduced GHG forcing improve the model-data fit as they show lower temperatures in the early LIG. Furthermore we show that the timing of maximum summer and winter surface temperatures is in line with the local summer and winter insolation maximum at most latitudes. Two regions where the maximum local insolation and temperature do not occur at the same time are Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. The austral summer insolation has a late maximum at ~115 ka. In contrast the austral summer temperatures in Antarctica show maxima at both ~130 ka and ~115 ka, and the Southern Ocean temperatures peak only at ~130 ka. This is probably due to the integrating effect of the ocean, storing heat from other seasons and resulting in relatively warm austral summer temperatures. Reducing the GHG concentrations in the early LIG (125 and 130 ka) results in a similar timing of peak warmth, except over Antarctica. There, the lower austral summer temperatures at 130 ka shift the maximum warmth to a single peak at 115 ka.

Langebroek, P. M.; Nisancioglu, K. H.

2014-07-01

185

Prospects for the construction of solar furnaces for industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The various techniques and prototype installations employed to absorb and concentrate solar energy for use in applications requiring 100-4000 C temperatures are explored. Mention is made of the Pericles heliostat field and the THEK distributed parabolic concentrator installations, and attention is focused on viable concepts useful for industrial purposes. The Odeillo solar furnace provided design guidelines and requirements for industrial usage. It was found that the reliability of the furnace depends on the annual insolation, that the solar furnaces must be designed to meet specific thermal goals, that simplification and optimization are needed for the orientation and focusing mechanisms, and that solar furnaces are ideally suited for developing nations which experience high levels of insolation. A stepped paraboloid is described for improving the efficiency of a heliostat system, while still employing plane parallel mirrors.

La Blanchetais, Ch. H.

186

Measured and calculated clear-sky solar radiative fluxes during the Subsonic Aircraft Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeled and measured surface insolations are compared with the purpose of evaluating the ability of a radiative transfer model to predict the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface under clear-sky conditions. Model uncertainties are estimated by performing sensitivity studies for variations in aerosol optical depth, aerosol optical properties, water vapor profiles, ozone content, solar irradiance at the top of

Francisco P. J. Valero; Brett C. Bush

1999-01-01

187

Program for solar energy meteorological research and training site (Region 3). Annual progress report, October 1, 1978September 30, 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

This solar atlas shows graphically and in tabular form how the insolation and some climatological parameters vary with season, location, and in some cases, time of day. The close connection between solar energy availability and the meteorology is shown in many of the contour maps, and the 3-D projections plots display well the effect of cloudiness, and tilt angle of

J. B. Kline; A. S. Mikhail; W. L. Meyer; C. G. Justus

1980-01-01

188

A close-form solution for the maximum-power operating point of a solar cell array  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar cell array is inherently a nonlinear device consisting of several solar cell modules connected in series-parallel combinations to provide the desired DC voltage and current. At a fixed insolation level, the terminal voltage decreases nonlinearly as the load current increases. Due to this nonlinearity, it is difficult to determine analytically the operating point at which the output power

S. M. Alghuwainem

1997-01-01

189

Guide to exporting for US solar companies  

SciTech Connect

Reasons for US solar manufacturers to export are discussed; and, after a descision has been made to export solar equipment and technology, how to export and where to export are primary goals. The manual presents some basic information to answer the how and where. It provides information concerning the services which are currently available to facilitate entry into foreign markets and the basic social, economic, and solar insolation data on over 70 foreign markets are presented. Statistical profile information for the 70 countries include population; per capita income; primary languages, literacy rate; ratio of urban and rural areas; monetary unit; population density; GNP; energy production; energy consumption; energy reserves; trade with US. (MCW)

Thompson, P.

1981-06-01

190

[Quantification of gait using insole type foot pressure monitor : clinical application for chronic hemiplegia].  

PubMed

Home-based stroke hemiplegia patients tend to fall easily. Poor toe clearance is reported to be one of the causes of falling, although there are many other related factors. We developed a low-priced insole type portable foot pressure measurement device, and measured the foot pressure distribution and the foot pressure-time curve of 20 chronic hemiplegia patients and compared them with 36 healthy controls. We also analyzed the outdoor gait of a chronic hemiplegia patient on flat ground, on rough terrain, walking up stairs and on a downward slope. The result was that the load rate of the unaffected heel was significantly increased in hemiplegic gait, and there was a significant negative correlation between the affected side stance phase rate and gait time for 10 m distance (r = -0.73, P < 0.01). The primary role of the unaffected side and the poor toe clearance on the affected side were assured in the uneven ground gait, and it was suggested that chronic hemiplegia patients tend to be highly dependent on their unaffected side during indoor and outdoor gait. PMID:24633184

Naito, Yutaro; Kimura, Yoshiko; Hashimoto, Takashi; Mori, Masao; Takemoto, Yoshimi

2014-03-01

191

Insolation and glacial-interglacial control on southwestern African hydroclimate over the past 140 000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past climate evolution of southwestern Africa is poorly understood and interpretations of past hydrological changes are sometimes contradictory. Here we present a record of leaf-wax ?D and ?C13 taken from a marine sediment core at 23°S off the coast of Namibia to reconstruct the hydrology and C3 versus C4 vegetation of southwestern Africa over the last 140 000 years (140 ka). We find lower leaf-wax ?D and higher ?C13 (more C4 grasses), which we interpret to indicate wetter Southern Hemisphere (SH) summer conditions and increased seasonality, during SH insolation maxima relative to minima and during the last glacial period relative to the Holocene and the last interglacial period. Nonetheless, the dominance of C4 grasses throughout the record indicates that the wet season remained brief and that this region has remained semi-arid. Our data suggest that past precipitation increases were derived from the tropics rather than from the winter westerlies. Comparison with a record from the Congo Basin indicates that hydroclimate in southwestern Africa has evolved in antiphase with that of central Africa over the last 140 ka.

Collins, James A.; Schefuß, Enno; Govin, Aline; Mulitza, Stefan; Tiedemann, Ralf

2014-07-01

192

Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (???3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

Tanaka, K.L.

2005-01-01

193

Solar Angles and Tracking Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the daily and annual cycles of solar angles used in power calculations to maximize photovoltaic power generation. They gain an overview of solar tracking systems that improve PV panel efficiency by following the sun through the sky.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

194

Relative impact of insolation and Warm Pool surface temperature on the East Asia Summer Monsoon during the MIS-13 interglacial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 13, an interglacial about 500 000 years ago, the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) was suggested exceptionally strong by different proxies in China. However, MIS-13 is a weak interglacial in marine oxygen isotope records and has relatively low CO2 and CH4 concentrations compared to other interglacials of the last 800 000 years. In the mean time, the sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions show that the Western Pacific Warm Pool was relatively warm during MIS-13. Based on climate modeling experiments, this study aims at investigating whether this Warm Pool warming could explain the exceptionally strong EASM occurring during the relatively cool interglacial MIS-13. The individual contributions of insolation and of the Warm Pool SST as well as their synergism are quantified through experiments with the Hadley Centre atmosphere model, HadAM3 and using the factor separation technique. The SST over the Warm Pool region has been increased based on geological reconstructions. Our results show that the pure impact of a strong summer insolation contributes to strengthen significantly the summer precipitation in northern China but only little in southern China. The pure impact of enhanced Warm Pool SST reduces, slightly, the summer precipitation in both northern and southern China. However, the synergism between insolation and enhanced Warm Pool SST contributes to a large increase of summer precipitation in southern China but to a decrease in northern China. Therefore, the ultimate role of enhanced Warm Pool SST reinforces the impact of insolation in southern China but reduces its impact in northern China. We conclude that enhanced SST over the Warm Pool region does help to explain the strong MIS-13 EASM precipitation in southern China as recorded in proxy data, but other explanation is needed for explaining the exceptionally strong EASM in northern China.

Yin, Q. Z.; Singh, U. K.; Berger, A.; Guo, Z. T.; Crucifix, M.

2014-03-01

195

Adaptive multi-airbag foot pressure redistribution insole design using image-based rapid pressure measuring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, a novel adaptive multi-airbag foot pressure redistribution insole design and manufacturing methodologies using image-based rapid pressure measuring system is proposed. The in-house made rapid foot pressure measurement system is constructed with a body weight spring scale and an image-based foot\\/ground contact pattern identification scanning mechanism. The basic principle of measuring system is that, when the body weight

C. C. Chang; M. Y. Lee

2003-01-01

196

A solar powered vaccine storage refrigerator that can be powered by a single truck battery  

SciTech Connect

In developing countries, kerosene powered vaccine storage refrigerators are gradually being replaced by PV powered units. The weak link in these solar powered systems is typically the deep cycle battery bank. When the batteries fail, replacements will probably have to be imported. Often the logistics of funding, recycling and transportation of these batteries may be difficult to arrange. Sun Frost has developed a vaccine refrigerator that will run on a single 100 amp battery, an automotive battery if need be. Vaccine is stored in the refrigerator section of these units, while the freezer section is used to freeze ice packs to transport the vaccine. This new dual compressor model keeps the battery bank in a shallow cycle mode by shutting off the freezer compartment when the battery is significantly discharged. The PV system can then keep the refrigerator compartment running while shallow cycling the battery even during the most severe weather conditions. The system operation has been simulated by using daily solar data. Results show that the operation of the freezer will rarely be interrupted. Another advantage is that if this system is installed in a location where insolation levels are lower than expected, the refrigerator compartment will maintain reliable operation for keeping the vaccines cold, while only the freezer's ice making capabilities would be effected.

Schlussler, L.

1999-07-01

197

A strong linear relationship between equatorial Pacific nutrient utilization and seasonal insolation: a 1 million year history of equatorial upwelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is little agreement among models in predicting the average state of the tropical Pacific when subjected to enhanced greenhouse gas forcing. This uncertainty emphasizes the importance of reconstructing past variability in tropical Pacific climate, through episodes of significant and estimable radiative forcing. Thus far, efforts along these lines have concentrated primarily on inferences of sea surface temperature variability from deep-sea. Here we discuss the zonal gradient in the nitrogen isotopic composition of sediment across the equatorial Pacific, which reflects nutrient delivery to the surface and, by extension, ocean dynamical properties. Over the last 1.2 million years, the variability of eastern equatorial Pacific upwelling strength / thermocline depth (as inferred from relative nitrate utilization) was highly correlated with local seasonal insolation and therefore planetary precession. By contrast, upwelling strength / thermocline depth was insensitive to the 100,000 year cycle that dominated many other aspects of the Pleistocene ice ages, including greenhouse gas concentrations. A strong linear relationship between eastern equatorial Pacific upper ocean dynamics and seasonal insolation over the past 1.2 million years suggests a predictable response of one primary determinant of tropical Pacific climate change.A direct comparison between ??15N (the zonal equatorial Pacific sediment ?15N gradient) and boreal fall insolation. ??15N reflects changes in relative nitrate utilization that is likely driven by changes in upwelling strength.

Rafter, P. A.; Charles, C. D.

2012-12-01

198

Optimization of significant insolation distribution parameters – A new approach towards BIPV system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

System efficiency and payback time are yet to attain a commercially viable level for solar photovoltaic energy projects. Despite huge development in prediction of solar radiation data, there is a gap in extraction of pertinent information from such data. Hence the available data cannot be effectively utilized for engineering application. This is acting as a barrier for the emerging technology.

D. Paul; S. N. Mandal; D. Mukherjee; S. R. Bhadra Chaudhuri

2010-01-01

199

Integrated solar energy system optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

Young, S. K.

1982-11-01

200

ArchDaily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Billed as the "world's most visited architecture website,â ArchDaily is a treasure trove of materials on new building projects, architectural trends, design matters, and competitions. Along the top of its homepage, visitors can delve into areas that include News, Articles, Materials, Software, and Interviews. This last area is a great place to start as it includes fabulous conversations with notables such as Jeanne Gang, Jean-Louis Cohen, and Andreas G. Gjertsen. Moving along, the Materials section offers specific technical information on equipment, finishes, installation techniques, and structural work. The Projects area contains information on new and compelling works, such as the Soundcloud Headquarters in Berlin and the Bagnoli Futura in Italy.

201

Math in Daily Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are your odds of hitting it big at the casino? Should you buy or lease a car? How much will you have when you retire? All of these questions involve math, and this latest addition to the Annenberg Media Projects Learner Online site (described in the September 12, 1997 Scout Report) explores the use of basic mathematical concepts in daily decision-making. The exhibit is divided into several topical sections exploring probability and gambling, compound interest and credit cards, population growth, geometry in the home, and ratios and recipes. In addition to an overview of the topic, each section offers several links to selected related sites and online tools, and two feature interactive learning activities.

1998-01-01

202

New daily persistent headache  

PubMed Central

New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. PMID:23024565

Tyagi, Alok

2012-01-01

203

Math in Daily Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Math in the "real world" happens all the time, and it can involve everything from buying a car to following a simple (or complex) recipe. The "Math in Daily Life" site offers up a series of interesting ways to get students thinking about how math works in everyday life. Created by Annenberg Media, this set of interactive exercises looks at the manifestation of mathematical principles in areas of life such as home decorating, finances, and of course, cooking. In each section, users will find hands-on exercises that complement well-written essays that help introduce visitors to seven different topical areas. Finally, the site includes a list of relevant websites, including links to The Math Forum, the U.S. Census Bureau, and The Metric Conversion Card.

204

An introduction to quiet daily geomagnetic fields  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On days that are quiet with respect to solar-terrestrial activity phenomena, the geomagnetic field has variations, tens of gamma in size, with major spectral components at about 24, 12, 8, and 6 hr in period. These quiet daily field variations are primarily due to the dynamo currents flowing in the E region of the earth's ionosphere, are driven by the global thermotidal wind systems, and are dependent upon the local tensor conductivity and main geomagnetic field vector. The highlights of the behavior and interpretation of these quiet field changes, from their discovery in 1634 until the present, are discussed as an introduction to the special journal issue on Quiet Daily Geomagnetic Fields. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.

Campbell, W. H.

1989-01-01

205

The Immediate Effect of Lateral Wedge Insoles, With and Without a Subtalar Strap, on the Lateral Trunk Lean Motion in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background: Orthotic interventions for knee osteoarthritis (OA) aim to reduce mechanical loading on the medial compartment of the knee and may lessen the lateral trunk lean as the most important compensatory gait strategy. The lateral wedge insole is a known orthotic intervention for knee OA. However, the question whether the addition of a subtalar strap to the wedge improves its effect has not been addressed in the literature. Objective: To compare the effects of lateral wedge insoles, with and without a subtalar strap, on the lateral trunk lean in patients with knee OA. Methods: Twenty-three patients aged over 40 years, with grade I or II OA of the medial compartment of one knee, based on the American College of Rheumatology criteria, were included in this study. The patients were diagnosed with OA based on a clinical examination, and the diagnosis was confirmed with radiographs. A 3-dimensional motion measurement system was used to collect the gait data for 3 different conditions: (1) with no insole, (2) with a lateral wedge insole, and (3) with a lateral wedge insole and a subtalar strap. The immediate effect of the 3 test conditions on the lateral trunk lean was compared during a gait cycle a stance phase and at the point of midstance. Results: Based on the laboratory coordinate system, the 3 conditions had no significant effect on the lateral trunk lean during a gait cycle and a stance phase and at the point of midstance in patients with knee OA. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that the lateral wedge insoles, with and without a subtalar strap, had no immediate effect on the lateral trunk lean in patients with knee OA. However, the long-term effect of lateral wedge insoles on the lateral trunk lean in these patients requires further investigation. PMID:24600533

Esfandiari, Elham; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Yazdi, Hamid Reza; Foroughi, Nasim; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali

2013-01-01

206

Asthma Prevalence Associated with Geographical Latitude and Regional Insolation in the United States of America and Australia  

PubMed Central

Background It has been proposed that vitamin D deficiency may be responsible for an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases and asthma worldwide. Human ability to generate physiologically required quantities of vitamin D through sun exposure is decreasing with increasing geographical latitude. Objectives Considering that vitamin D deficiency is usually due to lack of outdoor sun exposure, this study is designed to test the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of asthma should be expected at high relative to low geographical latitudes. Methods Linear regression analyses are performed on asthma prevalence in the U.S. adult population vs. geographical latitude, insolation, air temperature, and air pollution (PM2.5) for 97 major metropolitan/micropolitan statistical areas of the continental United States of America and on general population asthma prevalence vs. geographical latitude in eight metropolitan areas of Australia. Results A 10° change in geographical latitude from southern to northern regions of the Eastern Seaboard is associated with a 2% increase in adult asthma prevalence (p<0.001). Total insolation in winter months is almost as strong as latitude in its ability to explain the observed spatial variation in the prevalence of asthma (r2?=?0.43; p<0.001). Similar results are obtained using the Australian data (r2?=?0.73; p<0.01), suggesting a consistent association between the latitude/insolation and asthma prevalence worldwide. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that, as a known modulator of the immune response closely linked with the geographical latitude and erythemal UV irradiation, vitamin D may play an important role in the development/exacerbation of asthma. PMID:21494627

Krsti?, Goran

2011-01-01

207

Racing strategy and car design for staged solar car races using simulation of environmental and vehicular parameters  

SciTech Connect

This paper develops an algorithm for a racing strategy such that the overall elapsed time for a solar car in a staged race is minimized within the constraints of energy availability. Additionally, factors (operating parameters) affecting car operation are explored, as well as opportunities to maximize car efficiency through design. The end product is computer program in which various environmental and vehicular parameters are entered, and the car's speed for any particular race course segment is the output. These operating parameters include external environmental factors such as insolation (including present and predicted), road distance and grade, speed limits, and wind velocity. The vehicle operating parameters include such factors as drag, drivetrain performance and efficiency, and solar system and battery characteristics and efficiencies. With the algorithm developed in this paper, the speed is varied for different road segments of each daily leg of the race. At the end of each road segment, the optimum speed for all the remaining segments is determined, based on the current and expected environmental and vehicle operating conditions for the rest of the road segments. This algorithm takes into consideration a non-efficient battery system and accommodates motor efficiency data. The car's energy usage for each segment of the course is simulated for various speeds and the local segment environmental conditions.

Seitzmeyer, R.L.; Morehouse, J.H.

1999-07-01

208

Effects of dewatering on chinook salmon redds: tolerance of four developmental phases to daily dewaterings  

SciTech Connect

Four intergravel developmental phases of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were dewatered experimentally in artificial redds. The redds consisted of aquaria containing a gravel mix and supplied with 4 liters of water per minute at 10 C. Cleavage eggs and embryos (the egg phases), and eleutheroembryos and pre-emergent alevins (the alevin phases) were dewatered 20 consecutive times in 22-day tests. The egg phases were considerably more tolerant than alevins. Some cleavage eggs were killed by 12- and 16-hour daily dewaterings, but embryos survived up to 22-hour daily dewaterings. Embryos also tolerated extended, multiple dewaterings (over 60% survival for four consecutive 118-hour periods) and one-time, continuous dewatering for up to 12 consecutive days (over 80% survival). In contrast, about half the eleutheroembryos were killed by 4-hour daily dewaterings, and nearly all pre-emergent alevins were killed by 1-hour daily dewaterings. Intergravel temperatures were affected by insolation and air temperature. Intergravel temperatures increased to lethal levels during dewatering of cleavage eggs in early fall, and limited their survival. Growth of egg phases from some females was retarded by dewatering, but this phenomenon was not consistent for all egg groups. The size of surviving eleutheroembryos decreased as the length of daily dewatering periods increased.

Becker, C.D.; Neitzel, D.A.; Fickeisen, D.H.

1982-09-01

209

Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

Krupka, M. C.

1980-09-01

210

Joining of engineering thermoplastics by concentrated beam insolation—a feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today most manufacturing technologies and facilities are being developed for efficient and environmentally friendly production. However, regardless of what type of material processing technology we use, we need energy. Solar energy, although often called alternative or even new energy source, is probably the oldest energy source available on earth. In this paper the attempts made by the authors to explore

L. A Stoynov; Prasad K. D. V Yarlagadda

2003-01-01

211

Ash loading and insolation at Hanford, Washington during and after the eruption of Mount St. Helens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of volcanic ash suspended in the atmosphere on the incident solar radiation was monitored at the Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS) subsequent to the major eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980. Passage of the ash plume over Hanford resulted in a very dramatic decrease of solar radiation intensity to zero. A reduction in visibility to less than 1 km was observed, as great quantities of ash fell out of the plume onto the ground. Ash loading in the atmosphere remained very high for several days following the eruption, primarily as a result of resuspension from the surface. Visibilities remained low (2 to 8 km) during this period. Estimates of atmospheric turbidity were made from the ratio of diffuse-to-direct solar radiation; these turbidities were used to estimate extinction along a horizontal path, a quantity which can be related to visibility. Comparisons of observed and estimated visibilities were very good, in spite of the rather coarse approximations used in the estimates. Atmospheric clarity and visibility improved to near pre-eruption conditions following a period of rain showers. The diffuse-to-direct ratio of solar radiation provided a useful index for estimating volcanic ash loading of the atmosphere.

Laulainen, N. S.

1982-01-01

212

The engineering analysis of solar radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A necessary precursor to construction of well-designed, efficient, and economically viable solar energy systems is the engineering analysis not only of the systems themselves but also of the solar radiation that will drive them. This paper presents the first steps in such an analysis to support the design of solar thermal power systems. A rationale for development of an integrated approach to this analysis is outlined, and elements of the approach are described. A dynamic computer simulation of a conceptual system was employed in an initial sensitivity analysis to explore how performance estimates might be affected by the precision and amount of detail in solar radiation data used as model input. A measurement program, including instrumentation, used to characterize precisely and in detail the solar resource at one location is described as is a probabilistic model derived from it, for predicting insolation as a function of time.

Reid, M. S.; Hamilton, C. L.; Hester, O. V.

1978-01-01

213

Effects of shock-absorbing insoles during transition from natural grass to artificial turf in young soccer players a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Background : Playing soccer on artificial turf can provoke pain in young players. Using shock-absorbing insoles (SAIs) can result in decreased pain perception. We sought to investigate the pain and comfort intensity experienced during the switch from natural grass to third-generation artificial turf and with the use of SAIs on artificial turf during training in young soccer players. Methods : In a prospective randomized controlled study, 75 players were included from the youth teams of U15, U17, and U19. Pain intensity and comfort were assessed after training on only grass turf for 3 months. Randomization stratified by team level and age was performed; the intervention group received SAIs, and the control group used their own insoles. Assessments were repeated after 3 weeks on artificial turf (baseline) and 3 more weeks (follow-up) on artificial turf with SAIs/usual insoles. Results : Pain intensity increased and comfort decreased significantly after 3 weeks of training on artificial grass compared with natural grass (P < .05). The addition of SAIs resulted in significantly reduced pain intensity compared with the usual insoles (P < .05). Conclusions : The switch to artificial turf is associated with less comfort and more pain during training in young soccer players. The use of SAIs led to lower pain intensity, highlighting a protective role of the insoles after 6 weeks of training on artificial turf. PMID:25275731

Kaalund, Søren; Madeleine, Pascal

2014-09-01

214

Telluride School, Telluride, Colorado solar-energy-system performance evaluation, February 1982 - April 1982  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Colorado with a passive/active hybrid solar energy system designed to supply 40% of the heating load is discussed. The school is equipped with a 1428 square foot, double glazed Trombe wall, a 1392 square foot greenhouse with collection tube, and an auxiliary oil fired boiler. Monthly performance data are tabulated for the overall system and for the Trombe wall, greenhouse, and greenhouse storage. System operation is illustrated by graphs of typical Trombe wall insolation and temperatures and typical greenhouse insolation and temperatures.

Welch, K. M.

215

Warmer daily temperatures since 1951  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Days and nights have indeed become warmer over the past 60 years, a new study finds. Although several observation-based studies have shown that daily average temperatures as well as daily maximum and minimum temperatures have increased over the past few decades, controversy has remained as to how the observed trends in extreme and average temperatures are related to each other: Are the warming trends in extreme temperatures a result of a shifting mean climate, or have temperatures become more variable? Using a global observational data set of daily temperatures, Donat and Alexander compared the probability distributions of daily maximum and minimum temperatures over two 30-year periods, 1951-1980 and 1981-2010. The authors show that the maximum and minimum daily temperatures all over the globe have significantly shifted toward higher values during the latter period. They further show that the distributions have become skewed toward the hotter part of the distribution; changes are greater for daily minimum (nighttime) temperatures than for the daily maximum (daytime) temperatures. The authors conclude that the distribution of global daily temperatures has indeed become “more extreme” compared to the middle of the twentieth century. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2012GL052459, 2012)

Bhattacharya, Atreyee

2012-09-01

216

Daily Texan October 17, 2013  

E-print Network

Daily Texan October 17, 2013 University sign shop dedicated to quality University Sign Shop to make a sign. On any given day, the University Sign Shop is processing 2 to 10 work orders for the university. Photo Credit: Charlie Pearce | Daily Texan Staff Published on October 17, 2013 at 12:55 am Last

Johnston, Daniel

217

Assessment of energy conservation using solar energy in Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tables of measured and calculated data which indicate the amount of fossil energy that could be conserved by using solar and wind energy in Kansas are presented. Data include solar energy received; estimated energy consumption; energy available daily from direct use of solar energy for an average home; minimum potential daily and annual energy savings using solar energy for space

J. T. Pytlinski

1978-01-01

218

Destruction of Sun-Grazing Comet C-2011 N3 (SOHO) Within the Low Solar Corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of comets in Sun-grazing orbits that survive solar insolation long enough to penetrate into the Suns inner corona provide information on the solar atmosphere and magnetic field as well as on the makeup of the comet. On 6 July 2011, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observed the demise of comet C2011 N3 (SOHO) within the low solar corona in five wavelength bands in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). The comet penetrated to within 0.146 solarradius (100,000 kilometers) of the solar surface before its EUV signal disappeared.

Schrijver, C. J.; Brown, J. C.; Battams, K.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Liu, W.; Hudson, H.; Pesnell, W. D.

2012-01-01

219

The Solar Decathlon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In October 2002, teams of students from universities around the US competed in the Solar Decathlon, an eleven-day event that challenges the participants "to design, build, and operate the most effective and efficient solar-powered house." The Solar Decathlon homepage features information about the contest, the different designs, and the experiences of each team. Contestants also share their insight into energy conservation and solar power by providing some tips for consumers. An especially interesting section is the contest diaries, where the participants record their progress and challenges in a daily journal. The next Solar Decathlon will not be held until 2005.

2002-01-01

220

Prescriptive proprioceptive insoles and dental orthotics change the frontal plane position of the atlas (C1), mastoid, malar, temporal, and sphenoid bones: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this series of case studies was to determine if the frontal plane position of the cranial bones and atlas could be altered using dental orthotics, prescriptive insoles, or both concurrently. The cranial radiographs of four patients were reviewed for the study. Three of the patients were diagnosed as having a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction and a preclinical clubfoot deformity. The fourth patient was diagnosed as having a TMJ dysfunction, a preclinical clubfoot deformity and a Catetgory II sacral occipital subluxation, as designated in the chiropractic's Sacro Occipital Technique (SOT). Each patient had a series of four cranial radiographs taken using a modified orthogonal protocol. In two patients, improvement towards orthogonal was achieved when using both prescriptive dental orthotics and prescriptive insoles concurrently. Improvement towards orthogonal was less apparent when using only the prescriptive dental orthotic. No improvement or a negative frontal plane shift was noted when using only the prescriptive proprioceptive insoles. In the third patient, the frontal plane position of the cranial bones and atlas increased (away from orthogonal) when using the generic proprioceptive insoles alone or in combination with a prescriptive dental orthotic. In the fourth patient, the frontal plane position of the cranial bones improved using the dental orthotic. However, the proprioceptive insoles, when used alone or in combination with the dental orthotic, increased the frontal plane position of the cranial bones and atlas. This study demonstrates that changes in the frontal plane position of the cranial and atlas bones can occur when using proprioceptive insoles and/or dental orthotics. PMID:24308104

Rothbart, Brian A

2013-10-01

221

Solar energy harvesting in the epicuticle of the oriental hornet ( Vespa orientalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oriental hornet worker correlates its digging activity with solar insolation. Solar radiation passes through the epicuticle,\\u000a which exhibits a grating-like structure, and continues to pass through layers of the exo-endocuticle until it is absorbed by the pigment melanin in the brown-colored cuticle or xanthopterin in the yellow-colored\\u000a cuticle. The correlation between digging activity and the ability of the cuticle

Marian Plotkin; Idan Hod; Arie Zaban; Stuart A. Boden; Darren M. Bagnall; Dmitry Galushko; David J. Bergman

2010-01-01

222

Method and Apparatus for Monitoring of Daily Activity in Terms of Ground Reaction Forces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device to record and analyze habitual daily activity in terms of the history of gait-related musculoskeletal loading is disclosed. The device consists of a pressure-sensing insole placed into the shoe or embedded in a shoe sole, which detects contact of the foot with the ground. The sensor is coupled to a portable battery-powered digital data logger clipped to the shoe or worn around the ankle or waist. During the course of normal daily activity, the system maintains a record of time-of-occurrence of all non-spurious foot-down and lift-off events. Off line, these data are filtered and converted to a history of foot-ground contact times, from which measures of cumulative musculoskeletal loading, average walking- and running-specific gait speed, total time spent walking and running, total number of walking steps and running steps, and total gait-related energy expenditure are estimated from empirical regressions of various gait parameters to the contact time reciprocal. Data are available as cumulative values or as daily averages by menu selection. The data provided by this device are useful for assessment of musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health and risk factors associated with habitual patterns of daily activity.

Whalen, Robert T. (Inventor); Breit, Gregory A. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

223

Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

1983-01-01

224

Development and testing of shingle-type solar cell molecules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The details of a shingle module design which produces in excess of 97 watts/sq m of module area at 1 kW/sq m insolation and at 60 C are reported. This selected design employs a tempered glass coverplate to provide the primary solar cell structural support. The fabrication and testing of a preproduction module of this design has demonstrated that this selected approach will meet the environmental testing requirements imposed by the contract.

Shepard, N. F.

1978-01-01

225

Timing of insolation forcing, CO2 and sea level changes around the current and last four interglacial periods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of the roles of different forcings (e.g. orbital variations and greenhouse gases) on climate and sea level requires a paleoclimate chronology with high accuracy. Such a chronology for the past 360 ky was constructed through orbital tuning of O2/N2 ratio of trapped air in the Dome Fuji and Vostok ice cores with local summer insolation (Kawamura et al., 2007). We extend the O2/N2 chronology back to ~500 kyr by analyzing the second Dome Fuji ice core, and find the duration of 11 ka, 5 ka, 9 ka, and 20 ka for MIS 5e, 7e, 9e and 11c interglacial periods in Antarctica, with similar variations in atmospheric CO2. The termination timings are consistent with the rising phase of Northern Hemisphere summer insolation. Marine sediment cores from northern North Atlantic contain millennial-scale signatures in various proxy records (e.g. SST, IRD), including abrupt climatic shifts and bipolar seesaw. Based on the bipolar correlation of millennial-scale events, it is possible to transfer our accurate chronology to marine cores from the North Atlantic. As a first attempt, we correlate the planktonic ?18O and IRD records from the marine core ODP 980 with the ice-core ?18O and CH4 around MIS 11. We find that the durations of interglacial plateaus of planktonic ?18O (proxy for sea surface environments) and benthic ?18O (proxy for ice volume and deep-sea temperature) for MIS 11c are 20 and 15 ka, respectively, which are significantly shorter than originally suggested. These durations are similar to that of Antarctic climate and atmospheric CO2. However, the onsets of interglacial levels in ODP980 for MIS 11 are significantly later than those in Antarctic ?18O and atmospheric CO2 (by as much as ~10 ka), suggesting very long duration (more than one precession cycle) for the complete deglaciation and northern high-latitude warming for Termination V. Atmospheric CO2 may have been the critical forcing for this termination. The long duration of Termination V is consistent with our new ice sheet simulations (extended from the work of Abe-Ouchi et al., 2013) in which an ice-sheet/climate model is forced by insolation and CO2 variations. In the presentation, comparisons for other interglacial periods will also be reported.

Kawamura, K.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Saito, F.

2013-12-01

226

Test-retest reliability of an insole plantar pressure system to assess gait along linear and curved trajectories  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have assessed reliability of insole technology for evaluating foot pressure distribution during linear walking. Since in natural motion straight walking is intermingled with turns, we determined the test-retest reliability of insole assessment for curved as well as linear trajectories, and estimated the minimum number of steps required to obtain excellent reliability for each output variable. Methods Sixteen young healthy participants were recruited. Each performed, two days apart, two sessions of three walking conditions: linear (LIN) and curved, clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW). The Pedar-X system was used to collect pressure distribution. Foot print was analyzed both as a whole and as subdivided into eight regions: medial and lateral heel, medial and lateral arch, I metatarsal head, II-V metatarsal heads, hallux, lateral toes. Reliability was assessed by using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for clinically relevant variables from analysis of 50 steps per trajectory: Peak Force (PF); Peak Pressure (PP); Contact Area (CA); Stance Duration (S). Results When considering whole-foot, all variables showed an ICC >0.80, therefore highly reliable. This was true for both LIN and curved trajectories. There was no difference in ICC of the four variables between left and right foot. When collapsing foot and trajectories, S had a lower ICC than PP and CA, and PP lower than CA. Mean percent error between the values of first and second session was <5%. When separately considering the eight foot regions, ICCs of PF, PP and CA for all regions and trajectories were generally >0.90, indicating excellent reliability. In curved trajectories, S showed smaller ICCs. Since the least ICC value for S was 0.60 in LIN trajectory, we estimated that to achieve an ICC ?0.90 more than 200 steps should be collected. Conclusions High reliability of insole dynamic variables (PF, PP, CA) is obtained with 50 steps using the Pedar-X system. On the contrary, high reliability of temporal variable (S) requires a larger step number. The negligible differences in ICC between LIN and curved trajectory allow use of this device for gait assessment along mixed trajectories in both clinical and research setting. PMID:24903003

2014-01-01

227

Unravelling daily human mobility motifs  

PubMed Central

Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These networks, called here motifs, are sufficient to capture up to 90 per cent of the population in surveys and mobile phone datasets for different countries. Each individual exhibits a characteristic motif, which seems to be stable over several months. Consequently, daily human mobility can be reproduced by an analytically tractable framework for Markov chains by modelling periods of high-frequency trips followed by periods of lower activity as the key ingredient. PMID:23658117

Schneider, Christian M.; Belik, Vitaly; Couronne, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Gonzalez, Marta C.

2013-01-01

228

Satellite-derived photosynthetically available and total solar irradiance at the surface during FIFE's intensive field campaigns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite-derived photosynthetically available and total solar irradiance at the surface during First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment's (FIFE) intensive field compaigns are addressed. Graphs showing photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) vs. Julian Day and insolation vs. Julian Day are included.

Frouin, Robert; Mcpherson, J.

1993-01-01

229

Building-integrated solar photovoltaic systems—a hybrid solar cooled ventilation technique for hot climate applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents two low-cost photovoltaic utilization schemes (1–50 kW) for ventilation and air conditioning loads. Both schemes can be controlled by novel dynamic on-line power tracking regulator. This ensures maximum power utilization and energy efficiency under varying conditions of solar insolation levels. The system could be used to conserve electric energy through the decrease of electric demand particularly in

A. M Sharaf; M. M AboulNaga; R El Diasty

2000-01-01

230

solar thermal power systems advanced solar thermal technology project, advanced subsystems development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary design for a prototype small (20 kWe) solar thermal electric generating unit was completed, consisting of several subsystems. The concentrator and the receiver collect solar energy and a thermal buffer storage with a transport system is used to provide a partially smoothed heat input to the Stirling engine. A fossil-fuel combustor is included in the receiver designs to permit operation with partial or no solar insolation (hybrid). The engine converts the heat input into mechanical action that powers a generator. To obtain electric power on a large scale, multiple solar modules will be required to operate in parallel. The small solar electric power plant used as a baseline design will provide electricity at remote sites and small communities.

1979-01-01

231

COMPARISON OF TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE WITH NASA/NATIONAL SOLAR OBSERVATORY SPECTROMAGNETOGRAPH DATA IN SOLAR CYCLES 22 AND 23  

E-print Network

COMPARISON OF TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE WITH NASA/NATIONAL SOLAR OBSERVATORY SPECTROMAGNETOGRAPH DATA with spacecraft measurements of total solar irradiance (TSI) variations for 8 yr beginning with the declining. Daily averages of total solar irradiance (TSI) observations from several spacecraft radiometers over

232

COMPARISON OF TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE WITH NASA/NATIONAL SOLAR OBSERVATORY SPECTROMAGNETOGRAPH DATA IN SOLAR CYCLES 22 AND 23  

E-print Network

COMPARISON OF TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE WITH NASA/NATIONAL SOLAR OBSERVATORY SPECTROMAGNETOGRAPH DATA with spacecraft measurements of total solar irradiance (TSI) variations for 8 yr beginning with the declining in terrestrial climate. Daily averages of total solar irradiance (TSI) observations from several spacecraft

233

Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

Dudley, V.E. [EG and G MSI, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-11-01

234

Climatology: Contrails reduce daily temperature range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

Travis, David J.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Lauritsen, Ryan G.

2002-08-01

235

Sensitivity of Asian and African climate to variations in seasonal insolation, glacial ice cover, sea surface temperature, and Asian orography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general circulation model was used to investigate the sensitivity of Asian and African climate to prescribed changes in boundary conditions with the objective of identifying the relative importance of individual high-latitude glacial boundary conditions on seasonal climate and providing a physical basis for interpreting the paleoclimate record. The circulation model is described and results are presented. Insolation forcing increased summer Asian monsoon winds, while increased high-latitude ice cover strengthened winter Asian trade winds causing decreased precipitation. These factors had little effect on African climate. Cooler North Atlantic sea surface temperatures enhanced winter trade winds over North Africa, southern Asian climate was relatively unaffected. Reducing Asian orography enhanced Asian winter circulation while decreasing the summer monsoon. These model results suggest that African and southern Asian climate respond differently to separate elements of high-latitude climate variability.

Demenocal, Peter B.; Rind, David

1993-01-01

236

Considerations in the design of solar engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic problem is to develop simple engines to convert solar radiation into useful work. Chapters are included on solar insolation and solar collectors, both flat plate and concentrators. The initial research centered on the Stirling engine. It became obvious that the displacement piston was an expensive means to add the reject heat. The displacement piston was eliminated by rotating the entire engine through the heat source for 180 degrees of rotation and cooling over the remaining 180 degrees. This modification resulted in the development of a new engine. Limited studies were conducted on the gas inside the heat ring. Pressure versus time was measured for air and Freon 12 when subjected to radiation. Freon 12 responded significantly better. Since friction is a deterrent to solar engine development, methods to minimize friction are discussed.

Ryan, L. D.

1980-12-01

237

Winter to Spring Transition in Europe 48-45 degrees N: From Temperature Control by Advection to Control by Insolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As established in previous studies, and analyzed further herein for the years 1988-1998, warm advection from the North Atlantic is the predominant control of the surface-air temperature in northern-latitude Europe in late winter. This thesis is supported by the substantial correlation Cti between the speed of the southwesterly surface winds over the eastern North Atlantic, as quantified by a specific Index Ina, and the 2-meter level temperature Ts over central Europe (48-54 deg N; 5-25 deg E), for January, February and early March. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation Cti drops drastically (quite often it is negative). The change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-air temperature. As (a) the sun rises higher in the sky, (b) the snows melt (the surface absorptivity can increase by a factor of 3.0), (c) the ocean-surface winds weaken, and (d) the temperature difference between land and ocean (which we analyze) becomes small, absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control of the continental temperature. We define the onset of spring by this transition, which evaluated for the period of our study occurs at pentad 16 (Julian Date 76, that is, March 16). The control by insolation means that the surface is cooler under cloudy conditions than under clear skies. This control produces a much smaller interannual variability of the surface temperature and of the lapse rate than prevailing in winter, when the control is by advection. Regional climatic data would be of greatest value for agriculture and forestry if compiled for well-defined seasons. For continental northern latitudes, analysis presented here of factors controlling the surface temperature appears an appropriate tool for this task.

Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Hu, H.; Jusem, J. C.; Starr, D.

1999-01-01

238

The effect of insoles on the incidence and severity of low back pain among workers whose job involves long-distance walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and incidence of low back pain in general society is high. Workers whose job involves walking long distances have an even higher tendency to suffer from low back pain. A positive effect of insoles in reducing low back pain was found in professional sports players. This was not examined on people whose job involves walking long distances. In

S. Shabat; T. Gefen; M. Nyska; Y. Folman; R. Gepstein

2005-01-01

239

Emerging NOAA Surface Solar Radiation for Solar Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar power has been growing at an annual rate of 40% in recent years. By 2025 it could grow to 10% of U.S. power needs. Sunlight is the fuel for solar power generation technologies, and as such one needs to know the quality and future availability of the fuel for accurate analysis of system performance. Sunlight (solar radiation) at the surface has been routinely estimated in real time from measurements of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) operated by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS). The GOES solar radiation data have been made available in the GOES Surface and Insolation Product (GSIP) suite since January 1996 for the contiguous U.S. every daytime hour at a spatial resolution of ~50 km (GSIP-V1). Since April 2009, solar radiation retrievals have been performed at a higher spatial resolution (~14 km) and cover larger areas (GSIP-V2). The GSIP-V1 data have recently been screened for quality, adjusted for changes in calibration, and parameters useful for the solar energy sector have been derived for the period of 1999-2009. In this presentation, we describe the quality control process and various adjustments applied, and provide examples of selected solar energy parameters (average, midday and clear-sky insolation, clear-sky days, diffuse and direct normal radiation, etc.) and their evaluation. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), one of the flagship instruments of NOAA's new geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will expand frequency and coverage of multispectral remote sensing of atmospheric and surface properties. The planned rapid observations (5-15 minutes) from ABI provide an opportunity to obtain information needed for solar energy applications where frequent observations of solar radiation reaching the surface are essential for planning and load management. The ABI algorithm, that is quite different from the one applied in GSIP-V1 and V2, uses atmospheric and surface data retrieved from multiple narrow bands using algorithms dedicated to the retrieval of these data. The algorithm is currently run with proxy data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the EOS satellites Terra and Aqua and the Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the recently launched Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite. The ABI algorithm will be explained as well as examples will be shown.

Kondratovich, V.; Laszlo, I.; Liu, H.

2012-12-01

240

Solar Pumped Lasers and Their Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1980, NASA has been pursuing high power solar lasers as part of the space power beaming program. Materials in liquid, solid, and gas phases have been evaluated against the requirements for solar pumping. Two basic characteristics of solar insolation, namely its diffuse irradiance and 5800 K blackbody-like spectrum, impose rather stringent requirements for laser excitation. However, meeting these requirements is not insurmountable as solar thermal energy technology has progressed today, and taking advantage of solar pumping lasers is becoming increasingly attractive. The high density photons of concentrated solar energy have been used for mainly electric power generation and thermal processing of materials by the DOE Solar Thermal Technologies Program. However, the photons can interact with materials through many other direct kinetic paths, and applications of the concentrated photons could be extended to processes requiring photolysis, photosynthesis, and photoexcitation. The use of solar pumped lasers on Earth seems constrained by economics and sociopolitics. Therefore, prospective applications may be limited to those that require use of quantum effects and coherency of the laser in order to generate extremely high value products and services when conventional and inexpensive means are ineffective or impossible. The new applications already proposed for concentrated solar photons, such as destruction of hazardous waste, production of renewable fuel, production of fertilizer, and air/water pollution controls, may benefit from the use of inexpensive solar pumped laser matched with the photochemical kinetics of these processes.

Lee, Ja H.

1991-01-01

241

Projected techno-economic improvements for advanced solar thermal power plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The projected characteristics of solar thermal power plants (with outputs up to 10 MWe) employing promising advanced technology subsystems/components are compared to current (or pre-1985) steam-Rankine systems. Improvements accruing to advanced technology development options are delineated. The improvements derived from advanced systems result primarily from achieving high efficiencies via solar collector systems which (1) capture a large portion of the available insolation and (2) concentrate this captured solar flux to attain high temperatures required for high heat engine/energy conversion performance. The most efficient solar collector systems employ two-axis tracking. Attractive systems include the central receiver/heliostat and the parabolic dish.

Fujita, T.; Manvi, R.; Roschke, E. J.

1979-01-01

242

Solar excitation of CdS/Cu2S photovoltaic cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar radiation of five typical clear weather days and under a variety of conditions is used to determine the spectral distribution of the photonflux at different planes of a CdS/Cu2S solar cell. The fractions of reflected and absorbed flux are determined at each of the relevant interfaces and active volume elements of the solar cell. The density of absorbed photons is given in respect to spectral and spatial distribution. The variance of the obtained distribution, with changes in insolation and absorption spectra of the active solar cell layers, is indicated. A catalog of typical examples is given in the appendix.

Boer, K. W.

1976-01-01

243

Solar Energy Meteorological Research and Training Site - Region II. Final report, 1977-1982  

SciTech Connect

The Region II Solar Energy Meteorological Research and Training Site (SEMRTS) began operation on October 1, 1977 with the following objectives: establishment of an observation station to produce high quality records of solar radiation and weather data; establishment of an educational program in solar meteorology; and the establishment of a continuing research program. Some highlights included: the Perez model, an anisotropic model of diffuse radiation; the analysis of the effects of the volcanic clouds from Mt. St. Helens and El Chichon on the spectral distribution of insolation; technical and mathematical corrections of past data sets based upon minute-by-minute insolation data; a photovoltaic demonstration for the 1980 Winter Olympics; and analysis of the integration of photovoltaics and wind systems to produce electricity. (LEW)

Stewart, R.; Hamilton, H.L.

1983-01-01

244

Daily Log 2009 September 2009  

E-print Network

-00488 Reported: 09/30/09 1530 Occurred: Same Incident: Receiving Stolen Property Location: Off Campus Bookstore Location: Parking Lot I Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Two vehicle accident; no injuries. #12;Daily of breathing problems and vomiting; transported to hospital by ambulance. Report #: 2009-00484 Reported: 09

Boyce, Richard L.

245

Daily practices, consumption and citizenship.  

PubMed

This paper promotes a reflection on the relationship between daily practices and consumption. Understanding how conflicts, resistance and consensus are generated from daily consumption practices opens up possibilities for reflecting on the construction of sustainability in the context of diversity, one of the landmarks of the globalized world. Within this socio-cultural context, the central issue is: can consumption generate citizenship practices? The concepts of subject and agent help one think about collective action and subjectivation processes and their interferences on the collective consuming behavior. Based on empirical data from a research carried out in the municipality of Estrela in 2007, in the Taquari Valley - Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil) on local reality consumption practices, it was possible to conclude that various reasoning mechanisms and values underlie the daily consumption practices. Citizenship construction, based on consumption practices, depends on the subject's reflection capacity on his/her daily practices or on what goes through the circulation of environmental information based on sociability spaces. PMID:22011770

Mazzarino, Jane M; Morigi, Valdir J; Kaufmann, Cristine; Farias, Alessandra M B; Fernandes, Diefersom A

2011-12-01

246

The Solarex Solar Power Industrial Facility  

E-print Network

by the array is condi tioned to charge the 3 MWH battery bank and directly power the OC loads during the day. At night and during low solar insolation the batter ies supply power or make up the difference benveen demand and array capacity. A 300 KW OC... determined by the battery bank and loads. MeasurEfllents indicate that while peak po.ver tracking this converter will operate at efficiencies approaching 9~h. Under certain environmental conditions and when th battery is fully charged and energy dE!!1...

Macomber, H. L.; Bumb, D. R.

1984-01-01

247

Value of thermal storage in solar IPH systems  

SciTech Connect

The value of thermal storage for three solar industrial process heat systems has been determined for storage capacities of 3 to 4000 hours. The dominant source of storage value is backup fuel savings with additional value derived from increased capital equipment utilization and elimination. A computer simulation was used to model the operation of the solar IPH system and predict the amount of fuel saved by heat delivered from storage. Sensitivity of storage value to process temperature, collector cost, load profile, insolation, and storage efficiency have been calculated. Storage values ranged from near zero to as high as $42/kWh of storage capacity.

Hock, S.M.; Karpuk, M.E.

1980-12-01

248

UVIS CCD Daily Monitor A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program obtains full-frame, four-amp readout bias and dark frames as part of a daily monitor of the behavior of the WFC3/UVIS CCD. All images are post-flashed at a level of 12 e-; a separate program {13559} will be used to obtain un-flashed UVIS darks to monitor non-postflashed behavior. The frames from this proposal, in addition to those that are obtained as part of the WFC3/UVIS anneal program {13554}, will be used to create superbias and superdark calibration reference files for the Calibration Database System {CDBS}.This is the first of three daily monitoring programs of Cycle 21 {the others are 13557 and 13558}. It covers November 2, 2013 through February 24, 2014. The combination of the three programs provides full coverage of Cycle 21.

Bourque, Matthew

2013-10-01

249

UVIS CCD Daily Monitor B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program obtains full-frame, four-amp readout bias and dark frames as part of a daily monitor of the behavior of the WFC3/UVIS CCD. All images are post-flashed at a level of 12 e-; a separate program {13559} will be used to obtain un-flashed UVIS darks to monitor non-postflashed behavior. The frames from this program, in addition to those that are obtained as part of the WFC3/UVIS anneal program {13554}, will be used to create superbias and superdark calibration reference files for the Calibration Database System {CDBS}.This program is the second of three daily monitoring programs of Cycle 21 {the others being 13556 and 13558}. This program spans February 24, 2013 through June 18, 2014. The combination of this and the other programs span the entirety of Cycle 21.

Bourque, Matthew

2013-10-01

250

UVIS CCD Daily Monitor C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program obtains full-frame, four-amp readout bias and dark frames as part of a daily monitor of the behavior of the WFC3/UVIS CCD. All images are post-flashed at a level of 12 e-; a separate program {13559} will be used to obtain un-flashed UVIS darks to monitor non-postflashed behavior. The frames from this program, in addition to those that are obtained as part of the WFC3/UVIS anneal program {13554}, will be used to create superbias and superdark calibration reference files for the Calibration Database System {CDBS}.This program is the second of three daily monitoring programs of Cycle 21 {the others being 13556 and 13557}. This program spans June 18, 2013 through November 4, 2014. The combination of this and the other programs span the entirety of Cycle 21.

Bourque, Matthew

2013-10-01

251

Toward cinematizing our daily lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a cinematographic video production system to create movie-like attractive footage from our indoor daily life.\\u000a Since the system is designed for ordinary users in non-studio environments, it is composed of standard hardware components,\\u000a provides a simple interface, and works in near real-time of 5?~?6 frames\\/sec. The proposed system reconstructs a visual hull\\u000a from acquired multiple videos and then

Hansung Kim; Ryuuki Sakamoto; Itaru Kitahara; Tomoji Toriyama; Kiyoshi Kogure

2009-01-01

252

Gender in Spanish Daily Newspapers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the portrayal of women and men in a Spanish daily newspaper and to find whether there\\u000a were gender differences among the authors of the articles in said newspaper. A content analysis was conducted of 4,060 articles\\u000a and advertisements from 24 issues of a randomly selected, large-circulation, Spanish newspaper. Men were found to

M. Pilar Matud; Carmen Rodríguez; Inmaculada Espinosa

2011-01-01

253

Update on Chronic Daily Headache  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Chronic daily headache (CDH), defined as a primary headache occurring at least 15 days per month, is a problem of worldwide\\u000a scope, which is seen in 3% to 5% of the population. Though it has been recognized since ancient times, only recently have\\u000a there been attempts to define and classify it. CDH usually consists of a mixture of migraine and

James R. Couch

2011-01-01

254

Cloud cover estimation: Use of GOES imagery in development of cloud cover data base for insolation assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of using digital satellite data to establish a cloud cover data base for the United States, one that would provide detailed information on the temporal and spatial variability of cloud development are studied. Key elements include: (1) interfacing GOES data from the University of Wisconsin Meteorological Data Facility with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's VICAR image processing system and IBIS geographic information system; (2) creation of a registered multitemporal GOES data base; (3) development of a simple normalization model to compensate for sun angle; (4) creation of a variable size georeference grid that provides detailed cloud information in selected areas and summarized information in other areas; and (5) development of a cloud/shadow model which details the percentage of each grid cell that is cloud and shadow covered, and the percentage of cloud or shadow opacity. In addition, comparison of model calculations of insolation with measured values at selected test sites was accomplished, as well as development of preliminary requirements for a large scale data base of cloud cover statistics.

Huning, J. R.; Logan, T. L.; Smith, J. H.

1982-01-01

255

Screen-printed piezoelectric shoe-insole energy harvester using an improved flexible PZT-polymer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports improved screen-printed piezoelectric composites that can be printed on fabrics or flexible substrates. The materials are flexible and are processed at lower temperature (130°C). One main PZT particle size (2?m) was mixed separately with smaller piezoelectric particles (0.1, 0.3 and 0.8?m) with different weight ratios to investigate the piezoelectric property d33. The blended PZT powder was then mixed with 40% polymer binder and printed on Alumina substrates. The applied poling field, temperature and time were 8MV/m, 160°C and 10min, respectively. The optimum material gives a d33 of 36pC/N with particle sizes of 2?m and 0.8?m and mixed percentages of 82% and 18%, respectively. A screen-printed piezoelectric shoe-insoles (PSI) has been developed as a self-powered force mapping sensor. The PSI was simulated, fabricated and tested. ANSYS results show that one element of PSI sole can produce an open- circuit voltage of 3V when a human of average weight of 70kg makes a gait strike. Experimental results show that one element produced 2V which is less than the simulated results because of the reduction of poling field for the practical device.

Almusallam, A.; Torah, R. N.; Zhu, D.; Tudor, M. J.; Beeby, S. P.

2013-12-01

256

Response of the high-resolution Chinese loess grain size record to the 50°N integrated winter insolation during the last 500,000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

global ice volume change regulates the Earth's climate and has been characterized by 100,000 year cycles over the last 700,000 years. The Asian inland winter climate change is proposed to show primary 100,000 year cycles that mimic ice volume changes. Here we calibrate the age of a high-resolution grain size record over the last 500,000 years with a grain size age model. The results show a primary 41,000 year cycle and a weaker 100,000 year cycle during the last ~ 500,000 years. We suggest that the primary 41,000 year cycle in the grain size record can be ascribed to the 50°N integrated winter insolation. Our findings suggest that ice volume changes have a limited effect on the Asian inland winter climate. Asian continental winter climate changes respond to the 50°N integrated winter insolation in addition to ice volume changes.

Chen, Jiasheng; Liu, Xiuming; Kravchinsky, Vadim A.

2014-09-01

257

Relative impact of insolation and the Indo-Pacific warm pool surface temperature on the East Asia summer monsoon during the MIS-13 interglacial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Marine Isotope Stage (MIS)-13, an interglacial about 500 000 years ago, the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) was suggested exceptionally strong by different proxies in China. However, MIS-13 is a weak interglacial in marine oxygen isotope records and has relatively low CO2 and CH4 concentrations compared to other interglacials of the last 800 000 years. In the meantime, the sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions have shown that the warm pool was relatively warm during MIS-13. Based on climate modeling experiments, this study aims at investigating whether a warmer Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) can explain the exceptionally strong EASM occurring during the relatively cool interglacial MIS-13. The relative contributions of insolation and of the IPWP SST as well as their synergism are quantified through experiments with the Hadley Centre atmosphere model, HadAM3, and using the factor separation technique. The SST of the IPWP has been increased based on geological reconstructions. Our results show that the pure impact of a strong summer insolation contributes to strengthen significantly the summer precipitation in northern China but only little in southern China. The pure impact of enhanced IPWP SST reduces, slightly, the summer precipitation in both northern and southern China. However, the synergism between insolation and enhanced IPWP SST contributes to a large increase of summer precipitation in southern China but to a slight decrease in northern China. Therefore, the ultimate role of enhanced IPWP SST is to reinforce the impact of insolation in southern China but reduce its impact in northern China. We conclude that a warmer IPWP helps to explain the strong MIS-13 EASM precipitation in southern China as recorded in proxy data, but another explanation is needed for northern China.

Yin, Q. Z.; Singh, U. K.; Berger, A.; Guo, Z. T.; Crucifix, M.

2014-09-01

258

Solar Energy Reporting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Last year the people of Cleveland, Ohio were troubled by natural gas shortages during one of the coldest winters on record. The severe winter generated a great deal of interest in solar energy as an alternative source of heat. Home owners, home builders and civic officials wanted to know just how much solar energy is available in Cleveland. Now they get a daily report through the city's news media, from information supplied as a community service by NASA's Lewis Research Center. Lewis routinely makes daily measurements of solar energy as part of its continuing research in behalf of the Department of Energy. The measuring device is a sun sensor called a pyranometer (upper photo) located atop a building at the NASA Center. To make the information conveniently available to news media, Lewis developed a Voice Output Integrating Insolometer, an automated system that acquires information from the sun sensor and translates it into a recorded telephone message. The Lewis pyranometer collects sun data for 15 hours daily and measures the total solar energy yield. For reporting to the public, the information is electronically converted to a specific reading. A media representative calling in gets a voice-synthesized announcement of a two or three digit number; the number corresponds to the kilowatt-hours of solar energy that would be available to a typical 500-square-foot solar collector system. Response in Cleveland has been favorable and interest is developing in other parts of the country.

1978-01-01

259

Influence of pressure-relief insoles developed for loaded gait (backpackers and obese people) on plantar pressure distribution and ground reaction forces.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to test the effects of two pressure relief insoles developed for backpackers and obese people on the ground reaction forces (GRF) and plantar pressure peaks during gait; and to compare the GRF and plantar pressures among normal-weight, backpackers, and obese participants. Based on GRF, plantar pressures, and finite element analysis two insoles were manufactured: flat cork-based insole with (i) corkgel in the rearfoot and forefoot (SLS1) and with (ii) poron foam in the great toe and lateral forefoot (SLS2). Gait data were recorded from 21 normal-weight/backpackers and 10 obese participants. The SLS1 did not influence the GRF, but it relieved the pressure peaks for both backpackers and obese participants. In SLS2 the load acceptance GRF peak was lower; however, it did not reduce the plantar pressure peaks. The GRF and plantar pressure gait pattern were different among the normal-weight, backpackers and obese participants. PMID:24468683

Peduzzi de Castro, Marcelo; Abreu, Sofia; Pinto, Viviana; Santos, Rubim; Machado, Leandro; Vaz, Mario; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

2014-07-01

260

The Daily Martian Weather Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science Team features the results of a detailed study of the Martian atmosphere in the form of a daily weather report and precise atmospheric measurements for the planet Mars. Atmospheric temperature and pressure profiles which have been archived with NASA's Planetary Data System are also available on this site. These profiles illustrate the vertical structure of the atmosphere of Mars. The site also includes links to many images of Martian atmospheric and weather phenomena (with captions) from the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MGS MOC), the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) and the Hubble Space Telescope.

Team, Mars G.; University, Stanford

261

Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

2013-01-01

262

Residential heating costs: a comparison of geothermal, solar and conventional resources  

SciTech Connect

The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. These costs are very sensitive to location - being dependent on the local prices of conventional energy supplies, local solar insolation, cimate, and the proximity and temperature of potential geothermal resources. The sharp price increases in imported fuels during 1979 and the planned decontrol of domestic oil and natural gas prices have set the stage for geothermal and solar market penetration in the 1980's.

Bloomster, C.H.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.

1980-08-01

263

Conceptual design of a solar cogeneration facility at Pioneer Mill Co. , Ltd  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported of a conceptual design study of the retrofit of a solar central receiver system to an existing cogeneration facility at a Hawaii raw sugar factory. Background information on the site, the existing facility, and the project organization is given. Then the results are presented o the work to select the site specific configuration, including the working fluid, receiver concept, heliostat field site, and the determination of the solar facility size and of the role of thermal storage. The system selected would use water-steam as its working fluid in a twin-cavity receiver collecting sunlight from 41,420 m/sup 2/ of heliostat mirrors. The lates version of the system specification is appended, as are descriptions of work to measure site insolation and a site insolation mathematical model and interface data for the local utility. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-04-01

264

Schrepel, Eric From: SolarRichard  

E-print Network

are producing power from the sun. Conservation is the first step to energy independence using Solar Photovoltaic Power. I have daily energy production in Watt Hours from my Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System for the pastSchrepel, Eric From: SolarRichard Sent: Thursday, April 15, 2004 10:00 PM To: Jenkins, Kris Subject

265

Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

Reynolds, John S.

266

Algorithm for solar radiation on mountain slopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalized algorithm provides the daily total of potential solar radiation on any sloping surface at any latitude. The algorithm can be coded as subroutines of a computer model that requires solar radiation as a variable. The required inputs are Julian dates and the latitude, inclination, and aspect of the slope. In addition to computing potential solar radiation, the routine

Lloyd W. Swift; L. W. Jr

1976-01-01

267

Solar Village--Educational Initiative for Kids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a model of a solar village in the context of the school which does not contribute to air pollution by using only solar energy. Suggests that pupils would be active participants in building systems and understanding the contact between the knowledge of the basic science of solar energy and the technology processes in daily life.…

Hugerat, Muhamad; Ilyian, Salman; Toren, Zehava; Anabosi, Fawzi

2003-01-01

268

Solar collection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar dishes, photovoltaics, passive solar building and solar hot water systems, Trombe walls, hot air panels, hybrid solar heating systems, solar grain dryers, solar greenhouses, solar hot water worhshops, and solar workshops are discussed. These solar technologies are applied to residential situations.

Cole, S. I.

1984-08-01

269

Daily cycles in coastal dunes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.

1988-01-01

270

Orbital Resonance and Solar Cycles  

E-print Network

We present an analysis of planetary moves, encoded in DE406 ephemerides. We show resonance cycles between most planets in Solar System, of differing quality. The most precise resonance - between Earth and Venus, which not only stabilizes orbits of both planets, locks planet Venus rotation in tidal locking, but also affects the Sun: This resonance group (E+V) also influences Sunspot cycles - the position of syzygy between Earth and Venus, when the barycenter of the resonance group most closely approaches the Sun and stops for some time, relative to Jupiter planet, well matches the Sunspot cycle of 11 years, not only for the last 400 years of measured Sunspot cycles, but also in 1000 years of historical record of "severe winters". We show, how cycles in angular momentum of Earth and Venus planets match with the Sunspot cycle and how the main cycle in angular momentum of the whole Solar system (854-year cycle of Jupiter/Saturn) matches with climatologic data, assumed to show connection with Solar output power and insolation. We show the possible connections between E+V events and Solar global p-Mode frequency changes. We futher show angular momentum tables and charts for individual planets, as encoded in DE405 and DE406 ephemerides. We show, that inner planets orbit on heliocentric trajectories whereas outer planets orbit on barycentric trajectories.

P. A. Semi

2009-03-29

271

The effect of lateral wedge insoles in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis: balancing biomechanics with pain neuroscience.  

PubMed

Results on the effects of lateral wedge insoles (LWIs) in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) are ambiguous and not fully understood. Because of the low cost of this intervention and its clinical utility, attention to LWIs is worth considering. Current insights on the efficacy of LWIs are mainly focused on changing biomechanical aspects, such as the external knee adduction moment, in an attempt to influence pain, functional ability and structural progression. It is however appropriate to interpret the effectiveness of LWIs in a broader concept than the pure biomechanical approach. Given our current understanding of OA-related pain, including the involvement of the central nervous system and nociception-motor interactions, concepts of pain neuroscience should be taken into account. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the biomechanical effect of LWIs. It aims to discuss the degree to which such biomechanical effect translates to clinical effects (symptom relief, function recovery and reduction of structural progression). In order to explain these clinical effects, this paper balances biomechanics with pain neuroscience. A literature search was performed and reviewed using a narrative approach. Many studies investigated the effect of LWIs on dynamic knee joint loading, and beneficial biomechanical effects (reduction in knee adduction moment) were observed in patients with mild to moderate medial knee OA, in particular when using full-length LWIs. However, despite beneficial biomechanical effects, there is insufficient evidence for clinically important effects or significant reductions in disease progression. Evaluating the effects of LWIs, our current understanding of OA pain should be taken into account, as LWIs may be part of a comprehensive biopsychosocial treatment. Future work on all of the variables that could influence clinical outcomes in order to decide in which subgroups of patients LWIs are (most) effective is necessary. PMID:24844545

Baert, Isabel A C; Nijs, Jo; Meeus, Mira; Lluch, Enrique; Struyf, Filip

2014-11-01

272

Delayed build-up of Arctic ice sheets during 400,000-year minima in insolation variability.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the past variability of climate at high northern latitudes during astronomical analogues of the present interglacial may help to inform our understanding of future climate change. Unfortunately, long-term continuous records of ice-sheet variability in the Northern Hemisphere only are scarce because records of benthic (18)O content represent an integrated signal of changes in ice volume in both polar regions. However, variations in Northern Hemisphere ice sheets influence the Siberian High (an atmospheric pressure system), so variations in the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM)--as recorded in the aeolian dust deposits on the Chinese Loess Plateau--can serve as a useful proxy of Arctic climate variability before the ice-core record begins. Here we present an EAWM proxy record using grain-size variations in two parallel loess sections representative of sequences across the whole of the Chinese Loess Plateau over the past 900,000?years. The results show that during periods of low eccentricity and precessional variability at approximately 400,000-year intervals, the grain-size-inferred intensity of the EAWM remains weak for up to 20,000?years after the end of the interglacial episode of high summer monsoon activity and strong pedogenesis. In contrast, there is a rapid increase in the EAWM after the end of most other interglacials. We conclude that, for both the 400,000-year interglacials, the weak EAWM winds maintain a mild, non-glacial climate at high northern latitudes for much longer than expected from the conventional loess and marine oxygen isotope records. During these times, the less-severe summer insolation minima at 65°?N (ref. 4) would have suppressed ice and snow accumulation, leading to a weak Siberian High and, consequently, weak EAWM winds. PMID:23034648

Hao, Qingzhen; Wang, Luo; Oldfield, Frank; Peng, Shuzhen; Qin, Li; Song, Yang; Xu, Bing; Qiao, Yansong; Bloemendal, Jan; Guo, Zhengtang

2012-10-18

273

Multialtitude airborne observations of insolation effects of forest fire smoke aerosols at BOREAS: Estimates of aerosol optical parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fire disturbance, as part of the natural cycle of the boreal ecosystem renewal, proved a significant factor in the acquisition scheduling of optical remote imagery at the northern study site of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), conducted in northern/central Canada during the July/August months of 1994. One such episode, between July 28 and 31, was due entirely to smoke transported over the study site from nearby and distant downwind fires. Noon insolation was reduced from 800 W/m2 on July 28 to 680 W/m2 on July 31 and incident PAR radiation from 320 to 250 W/m2. During the July 31 smoke episode the compact airborne spectrographic imager (CASI) was flown at 150, 300, 900, 1500, and 3200 m agl over a forested site, while measuring the scene-reflected radiance as well as upwelling and downwelling irradiances in the spectral range 403 and 916 nm (2.5 nm resolution). These multialtitude observations of upwelling and downwelling irradiance and the hemispherical reflectance are used to estimate at two wavelengths, 550 and 672 nm, the vertical profiles of aerosol optical depth, attenuation coefficient, and single-scattering albedo representative of the smoke aerosols encountered at BOREAS. For smoke aerosols from distant fires (high altitude) the single-scattering albedo was 0.9 and the attenuation coefficient was 0.32 km-1 at 672 nm, whereas for smoke aerosols from nearby fires, values of 0.6 and 0.60 km-1 were found. This is qualitatively consistent with differences expected for distant primarily sulfate aerosols and higher soot aerosols for nearby flaming fires.

Miller, John R.; O'Neill, Norman T.

1997-12-01

274

Ecosystem responses to changes in daily-scale atmospheric variability (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study seeks to address some ways in which daily-scale atmospheric variability affects the functioning and composition of terrestrial ecosystems. Daily-scale atmospheric variability is defined here by the coefficients of variation of daily atmospheric variables, including downward surface solar radiation, precipitation, and temperature. This variability is of critical importance for terrestrial ecosystems because fundamental ecological processes are nonlinear with respect to environmental variables; a classic example is the saturating relationship between photosynthesis and solar radiation. Interestingly, changes in daily-scale atmospheric variability have recently been identified in satellite datasets, lending even more significance to the connections between this variability and terrestrial ecosystems. To address this issue, a suite of simulations are being carried out with the Ecosystem Demography 2 (ED2) model forced with different representations of daily-scale atmospheric variability. The objectives of these simulations are to assess how ecosystem functioning and composition may have been affected by the observed changes in daily-scale variability and to gain some perspective on the potential impacts of the future changes in daily-scale atmospheric variability projected by climate models. The experiments are designed to control for other aspects of the atmospheric state, including climatic mean and interannual variability. Particular attention is being given to sectors where observed changes in daily-scale variability have been particularly large, including tropical forests and the forests of northeastern North America.

Medvigy, D.; Xu, X.; Trugman, A. T.

2013-12-01

275

Validated, unified model for optics and heat transfer in line-axis concentrating solar energy collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rigorous numerical simulation model for the prediction of the combined optical and thermofluid behaviour of line-axis concentrating solar energy collectors combines two-dimensional steady-state finite element analysis of convective heat transfer and ray-trace techniques. The optical analysis considers both direct and diffuse insolation components and is therefore useful for the analysis of compound parabolic concentrating collectors. Experiments using Mach-Zehnder interferometry

P. C. Eames; B. Norton

1993-01-01

276

Comparison of Total Solar Irradiance with NASA/NSO Spectromagnetograph Data in Solar Cycles 22 and 23.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accurate understanding of global solar variability is of clear astrophysical interest and is also vital to distinguish natural from anthropogenic causes of long-term changes in terrestrial climate. Daily averages of total solar irradiance (TSI) observatio...

H. P. Jones, D. D. Branston, P. B. Jones, M. D. Popescu

2003-01-01

277

Solar energy utilization in the USSR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conditions for solar energy utilization in the USSR are not too favorable. Only in the country's southern regions is there sufficient insolation to make solar energy utilization economic. In higher latitudes, only seasonal use of solar energy is reasonable. Up to now, the main application of solar energy has been to produce low-temperature heat for hot water production, drying of agricultural goods, space heating and thermal treatment of concrete. A substantial proportion of the solar heating installations are flat plate solar collectors. The total installed area of solar collectors slightly exceeds 100,000 square meters. The collectors are produced by large- and small-scale industry. Where selective coatings are applied to the absorber plates, black nickel or chromium are the main coating materials. Recently launched new projects aim to develop and produce advanced collectors, with enhanced efficiency and reliability. There has been substantial progress in developing photovoltaic (PV) cells for space applications, but terrestrial application of PV is still in a very early stage. Annual production of PV cells totals about 100 kW, based on mono- or polycrystalline silicon. R&D work on thin-film PV cells is in progress. Work is in progress on the development of automated production lines to manufacture 1 MW/yr of crystalline and amorphous silicon. A 5-MW tower-type demonstration plant, with a circular heliostat field, uses steam as the working fluid. Experience with this plant has revealed several disadvantages, including commonwealth of independent states.

Shpilrain, E. E.

1991-05-01

278

Products to Aid in Daily Living  

MedlinePLUS

... Products to Aid in Daily Living Share Print Products to Aid in Daily Living The materials and ... Check back for an update to this message. Product List Product/Services Topics Care Services Information and ...

279

Azimuth Dependence of Solar Radiation on Inclined Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, the daily variation pattern of global solar radiation on an inclined surface is estimated by assuming the symmetrical daily variation of global solar radiation. The author carried out an experiment to examine the azimuth dependences of solar radiation on an inclined surface. In the experiment, the amount of solar radiation was found to be greater on a westward-facing surface than on an eastward-facing surface throughout the year.

Shibata, Noboru

1998-09-01

280

Azimuth Dependence of Solar Radiation on Inclined Surfaces III  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, the daily variation pattern of global solar radiation on an inclined surface is estimated by assuming the symmetrical daily variation of global solar radiation. The author carried out an experiment to examine the azimuth dependence of solar radiation on an inclined surface. In the experiment, the amount of solar radiation was found to be greater on a westward-facing surface than on an eastward-facing surface throughout the year.

Shibata, Noboru

2005-01-01

281

The Daily Palette Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every day, the staff members at the Daily Palette Digital Collection at the University of Iowa Libraries put up a new artwork by a different Iowa artist. Since the project was launched in 2004, the collection has profiled over 1,000 artists working in the fine arts, literature, video, and the performing arts. Visitors can scroll through the Highlights of Collection section near the bottom of the page for a taste of the very intriguing offerings here. The Subcollections area includes areas like Iowa Writes, Iowa on Stage, and Iowa at 30 Frames per second. This last area has 11 rather intriguing short films, including "Body Beasts," "Back of the Mike," and "Alternative Forms of Energy." Also, Iowa Writes includes over 700 poems, including "Ode to Thresher" and "16th Avenue, Cedar Rapids."

2012-08-10

282

The apparent sidereal daily variation of cosmic-ray intensity at 42 m w. e. underground at Hobart, Tasmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The apparent sidereal daily variation of cosmic ray intensity underground at Hobart during 1958 is examined. There is a large\\u000a annual mean apparent sidereal effect and a comparable anti-sidereal effect, associated with pronounced month by month changes\\u000a in phase and amplitude of the solar daily variation. A technique is devised which permits the daily variation (d.v.) in sidereal\\u000a time to

R. M. Jacklyn

1963-01-01

283

Daily Chemical Bulk Storage Inspection Form  

E-print Network

Daily Chemical Bulk Storage Inspection Form Chemical Bulk Storage Form Approved by: Paul Jennette, CVM Last revised by: Barbara English Revision date: 3/19/14 Daily_Chemical://sp.ehs.cornell.edu/env/bulk-material-storage/chemical-bulk- storage/Documents/Daily_Chemical

Pawlowski, Wojtek

284

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

1987-07-01

285

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

1987-01-01

286

Solar astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

1991-01-01

287

Solar radiation management impacts on agriculture in China: A case study in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

via solar radiation management could affect agricultural productivity due to changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation. To study rice and maize production changes in China, we used results from 10 climate models participating in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G2 scenario to force the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model. G2 prescribes an insolation reduction to balance a 1% a-1 increase in CO2 concentration (1pctCO2) for 50 years. We first evaluated the DSSAT model using 30 years (1978-2007) of daily observed weather records and agriculture practices for 25 major agriculture provinces in China and compared the results to observations of yield. We then created three sets of climate forcing for 42 locations in China for DSSAT from each climate model experiment: (1) 1pctCO2, (2) G2, and (3) G2 with constant CO2 concentration (409 ppm) and compared the resulting agricultural responses. In the DSSAT simulations: (1) Without changing management practices, the combined effect of simulated climate changes due to geoengineering and CO2 fertilization during the last 15 years of solar reduction would change rice production in China by -3.0 ± 4.0 megaton (Mt) (2.4 ± 4.0%) as compared with 1pctCO2 and increase Chinese maize production by 18.1 ± 6.0 Mt (13.9 ± 5.9%). (2) The termination of geoengineering shows negligible impacts on rice production but a 19.6 Mt (11.9%) reduction of maize production as compared to the last 15 years of geoengineering. (3) The CO2 fertilization effect compensates for the deleterious impacts of changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation due to geoengineering on rice production, increasing rice production by 8.6 Mt. The elevated CO2 concentration enhances maize production in G2, contributing 7.7 Mt (42.4%) to the total increase. Using the DSSAT crop model, virtually all of the climate models agree on the sign of the responses, even though the spread across models is large. This suggests that solar radiation management would have little impact on rice production in China but could increase maize production.

Xia, Lili; Robock, Alan; Cole, Jason; Curry, Charles L.; Ji, Duoying; Jones, Andy; Kravitz, Ben; Moore, John C.; Muri, Helene; Niemeier, Ulrike; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, Simone; Watanabe, Shingo; Yoon, Jin-Ho

2014-07-01

288

Estimating Daily Surface Soil Moisture Using a Daily Diagnostic Soil Moisture Equation  

E-print Network

Estimating Daily Surface Soil Moisture Using a Daily Diagnostic Soil Moisture Equation Feifei Pan1 moisture for scheduling irri- gation: errors in the estimated soil moisture are cumulative and frequent recalibrations are needed. A simple and robust approach to estimation of daily soil moisture using a daily

Pan, Feifei

289

Visual stimuli in daily life.  

PubMed

People of all ages, but especially children and adolescents, are increasingly exposed to visual stimuli. Typical environmental stimuli that can trigger epileptic seizures in susceptible persons are televisions (TVs), computers, videogames (VGs), discothèque lights, venetian blinds, striped walls, rolling stairs (escalators), striped clothing, and sunlight reflected from snow or the sea or interrupted by trees during a ride in a car or train. Less common stimuli are rotating helicopter blades, disfunctioning fluorescent lighting, welding lights, etc. New potentially provocative devices turn up now and then unexpectedly. During the last decades especially, displays have become increasingly dominant in many of our daily-life activities. We therefore focus mainly on the characteristics of artificial light and on current and future developments in video displays and videogames. Because VG playing has been shown also to have positive effects, a rating system might be developed for provocativeness to inform consumers about the content. It is important that patients with epilepsy be informed adequately about their possible visual sensitivity. PMID:14706037

Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée G A; van der Beld, Gerrit; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Groen, Paul

2004-01-01

290

Sedoanalgesia in pediatric daily surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The present report was focused on clinical advantages of sedoanalgesia in the pediatric outpatient surgical cases. Method: Sedoanalgesia has been used to sedate patients for a variety of pediatric procedures in our department between 2007 and 2010. This is a retrospective review of 2720 pediatric patients given ketamine for sedation with midazolam premedication. Ketamine was given intravenously (1-2 mg/kg) together with atropine (0.02 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.1 mg/kg) + a local infiltration anesthetic 2 mg/kg 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride. Result: Median age of the patients included in the study was 5.76 ± 2.12 (0-16 years). The main indications for ketamine include circumcision (69%), inguinal pathologies (inguinal hernia (17%), orchidopexy (2.68%), hydrocele (3.38%), hypospadias (1.94%), urethral fistula repair (0.33%), urethral dilatation (0.25%), and other conditions. All of our patients were discharged home well. In this regard, we have the largest group of patients ever given ketamine. Conclusion: Sedoanalgesia might be used as a quite effective method for daily surgical procedures in children. PMID:23936597

Ozkan, Aybars; Okur, Mesut; Kaya, Murat; Kaya, Ertugrul; Kucuk, Adem; Erbas, Mesut; Kutlucan, Leyla; Sahan, Leyla

2013-01-01

291

Holocene climate variations in the western Antarctic Peninsula: evidence for sea ice extent predominantly controlled by changes in insolation and ENSO variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Antarctic ice sheet is particularly sensitive to global warming and its evolution and impact on global climate over the next few decades remains difficult to predict. In this context, investigating past sea ice conditions around Antarctica is of primary importance. Here, we document changes in sea ice presence, upper water column temperatures (0-200 m) and primary productivity over the last 9000 yr BP (before present) in the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) margin from a sedimentary core collected in the Palmer Deep Basin. Employing a multi-proxy approach, based on the combination of two biomarkers proxies (highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkenes for sea ice and TEX86L for temperature) and micropaleontological data (diatom assemblages), we derived new Holocene records of sea ice conditions and upper water column temperatures. The early Holocene (9000-7000 yr BP) was characterized by a cooling phase with a short sea ice season. During the mid-Holocene (~7000-3800 yr BP), local climate evolved towards slightly colder conditions and a prominent extension of the sea ice season occurred, promoting a favorable environment for intensive diatom growth. The late Holocene (the last ~2100 yr) was characterized by warmer temperatures and increased sea ice presence, accompanied by reduced local primary productivity, likely in response to a shorter growing season compared to the early or mid-Holocene. The gradual increase in annual sea ice duration over the last 7000 yr might have been influenced by decreasing mean annual and spring insolation, despite increasing summer insolation. We postulate that, in addition to precessional changes in insolation, seasonal variability, via changes in the strength of the circumpolar Westerlies and upwelling activity, was further amplified by the increasing frequency/amplitude of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, between 3800 and 2100 yr BP, the lack of correlation between ENSO and climate variability in the WAP suggests that other climatic factors might have been more important in controlling WAP climate at this time.

Etourneau, J.; Collins, L. G.; Willmott, V.; Kim, J.-H.; Barbara, L.; Leventer, A.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Bianchini, A.; Klein, V.; Crosta, X.; Massé, G.

2013-07-01

292

Holocene climate variations in the western Antarctic Peninsula: evidence for sea ice extent predominantly controlled by insolation and ENSO variability changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Antarctic ice sheet is particularly sensitive to global warming and its evolution and impact on global climate over the next few decades remains difficult to predict. In this context, investigating past sea ice conditions around Antarctica is of primary importance. Here, we document changes in sea ice presence, upper water column temperatures (0-200 m) and primary productivity over the last 9000 yr BP (before present) in the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) margin from a sedimentary core collected in the Palmer Deep basin. Employing a multi-proxy approach, we derived new Holocene records of sea ice conditions and upper water column temperatures, based on the combination of two biomarkers proxies (highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkenes for sea ice and TEXL86 for temperature) and micropaleontological data (diatom assemblages). The early Holocene (9000-7000 yr BP) was characterized by a cooling phase with a short sea ice season. During the mid-Holocene (~ 7000-3000 yr BP), local climate evolved towards slightly colder conditions and a prominent extension of the sea ice season occurred, promoting a favorable environment for intensive diatom growth. The late Holocene (the last ~ 3000 yr) was characterized by more variable temperatures and increased sea ice presence, accompanied by reduced local primary productivity likely in response to a shorter growing season compared to the early or mid-Holocene. The stepwise increase in annual sea ice duration over the last 7000 yr might have been influenced by decreasing mean annual and spring insolation despite an increasing summer insolation. We postulate that in addition to precessional changes in insolation, seasonal variability, via changes in the strength of the circumpolar Westerlies and upwelling activity, was further amplified by the increasing frequency/amplitude of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, between 4000 and 2100 yr BP, the lack of correlation between ENSO and climate variability in the WAP suggests that other climatic factors might have been more important in controlling WAP climate at this time.

Etourneau, J.; Collins, L. G.; Willmott, V.; Kim, J. H.; Barbara, L.; Leventer, A.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Bianchini, A.; Klein, V.; Crosta, X.; Massé, G.

2013-01-01

293

Simulations of the Eemian interglacial and the subsequent glacial inception with an OAGCM driven by orbitally-induced changes in insolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eemian was the last interglacial prior to the Holocene and is linked to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e. We present multi-centennial climate simulations of the Eemian and the subsequent glacial inception. These simulations were performed with the coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model ECHO-G (atmosphere model ECHAM 4 at T30 resolution coupled to the HOPE-G ocean model at T42). The simulations are performed as equilibrium experiments with orbital parameters and greenhouse gas concentrations set to values of 125,000 and 115,000 years before present (BP). These dates represent periods with enhanced and weakened seasonal cycles of insolation on the northern hemisphere. Comparisons with pollen-based reconstructions of European temperatures show that the model simulates realistic spatial temperature patterns for the warm phase of the Eemian (GRL, 2005, L11703). Especially winter temperatures are affected by changes in atmospheric circulation and Arctic sea ice coverage. The reduction in summer insolation at 115,000 years BP leads to a perennial snow-coverage over parts of North America, which is continuously expanding during the simulated period of 3000 years. This is connected with a continuous increase of Arctic sea ice volume and a long-term global cooling trend. Consistent with geological records the snow accumulation starts in north-eastern Canada. In this region southward winds transport cold Arctic air into the continent. The accumulation of snow on the North American continent is equivalent to a decrease in oceanic sea level at a rate of 18 cm/century at the end of the simulation. In summary, in these simulations orbitally-induced changes in insolation are sufficient to explain the reconstructed temperature patterns as well as to trigger the onset of a glaciation.

Kaspar, F.; Cubasch, U.

2005-12-01

294

Corrigendum to "Upper ocean climate of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene Insolation Maximum - a model study" published in Clim. Past, 7, 1103-1122, 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine thousand years ago (9 ka BP), the Northern Hemisphere experienced enhanced seasonality caused by an orbital configuration close to the minimum of the precession index. To assess the impact of this "Holocene Insolation Maximum" (HIM) on the Mediterranean Sea, we use a regional ocean general circulation model forced by atmospheric input derived from global simulations. A stronger seasonal cycle is simulated by the model, which shows a relatively homogeneous winter cooling and a summer warming with well-defined spatial patterns, in particular, a subsurface warming in the Cretan and western Levantine areas. The comparison between the SST simulated for the HIM and a reconstruction from planktonic foraminifera transfer functions shows a poor agreement, especially for summer, when the vertical temperature gradient is strong. As a novel approach, we propose a reinterpretation of the reconstruction, to consider the conditions throughout the upper water column rather than at a single depth. We claim that such a depth-integrated approach is more adequate for surface temperature comparison purposes in a situation where the upper ocean structure in the past was different from the present-day. In this case, the depth-integrated interpretation of the proxy data strongly improves the agreement between modelled and reconstructed temperature signal with the subsurface summer warming being recorded by both model and proxies, with a small shift to the south in the model results. The mechanisms responsible for the peculiar subsurface pattern are found to be a combination of enhanced downwelling and wind mixing due to strengthened Etesian winds, and enhanced thermal forcing due to the stronger summer insolation in the Northern Hemisphere. Together, these processes induce a stronger heat transfer from the surface to the subsurface during late summer in the western Levantine; this leads to an enhanced heat piracy in this region, a process never identified before, but potentially characteristic of time slices with enhanced insolation.

Adloff, F.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Ku?era, M.; Grimm, R.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Schmiedl, G.; Emeis, K.-C.

2011-11-01

295

Terrestrial cooling and solar variability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observational evidence from surface temperature records is presented and discussed which suggests a significant cooling trend over the Northern Hemisphere from 1940 to the present. This cooling trend is associated with an increase of the latitudinal gradient of temperature and the lapse rate, as predicted by climate models with decreased solar input and feedback mechanisms. Evidence suggests that four of these 80- to 100-year cycles of global surface temperature fluctuation may have occurred, and in succession, from 1600 to the present. Interpretation of sunspot activity were used to infer a direct thermal response of terrestrial temperature to solar variability on the time scale of the Gleissberg cycle (90 years, an amplitude of the 11-year cycles). A physical link between the sunspot activity and the solar parameter is hypothesized. Observations of sensible heat flux by stationary planetary waves and transient eddies, as well as general circulation modeling results of these processes, were examined from the viewpoint of the hypothesis of cooling due to reduced insolation.

Agee, E. M.

1982-01-01

296

Mapping daily evapotranspiration at Landsat spatial scales during the BEAREX'08 field campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robust spatial information about environmental water use at field scales and daily to seasonal timesteps will benefit many applications in agriculture and water resource management. This information is particularly critical in arid climates where freshwater resources are limited or expensive, and groundwater supplies are being depleted at unsustainable rates to support irrigated agriculture as well as municipal and industrial uses. Gridded evapotranspiration (ET) information at field scales can be obtained periodically using land-surface temperature-based surface energy balance algorithms applied to moderate resolution satellite data from systems like Landsat, which collects thermal-band imagery every 16 days at a resolution of approximately 100 m. The challenge is in finding methods for interpolating between ET snapshots developed at the time of a clear-sky Landsat overpass to provide complete daily time-series over a growing season. This study examines the efficacy of a simple gap-filling algorithm designed for applications in data-sparse regions, which does not require local ground measurements of weather or rainfall, or estimates of soil texture. The algorithm relies on general conservation of the ratio between actual ET and a reference ET, generated from satellite insolation data and standard meteorological fields from a mesoscale model. The algorithm was tested with ET retrievals from the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) surface energy balance model and associated DisALEXI flux disaggregation technique, which uses Landsat-scale thermal imagery to reduce regional ALEXI maps to a finer spatial resolution. Daily ET at the Landsat scale was compared with lysimeter and eddy covariance flux measurements collected during the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment of 2008 (BEAREX08), conducted in an irrigated agricultural area in the Texas Panhandle under highly advective conditions. The simple gap-filling algorithm performed reasonably at most sites, reproducing observed cumulative ET to within 5-10% over the growing period from emergence to peak biomass in both rainfed and irrigated fields.

Anderson, Martha C.; Kustas, William P.; Alfieri, Joseph G.; Gao, Feng; Hain, Christopher; Prueger, John H.; Evett, Steven; Colaizzi, Paul; Howell, Terry; Chávez, José L.

2012-12-01

297

Cokriging estimation of daily suspended sediment loads  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with daily river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated daily loads were compared with the daily measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated daily sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured daily values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating daily sediment loads with CK when daily discharge data is available. The estimated daily loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the daily S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Li, Z.; Zhang, Y. -K.; Schilling, K.; Skopec, M.

2006-01-01

298

Empirical Correlations of Global Solar Radiation with Meteorological data for Onne, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple linear regression models were developed to estimate the monthly average daily global solar radiation using ten parameters during a period of sixteen years (1984 to 1999) for Onne, Nigeria; the extraterrestrial radiation, average daily temperature, ratio of minimum and maximum daily temperature, relative humidity, ratio of sunshine duration, solar declination, average soil temperature, average pan evaporimeter, average rain fall

Louis E. Akpabio; Sunday O. Udo; Sunday E. Etuk

2004-01-01

299

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system was developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power System solar receiver for space station application. The solar receiver incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain thermal energy storage (TES) canisters within the vapor space with a toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe. Part of this thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of earth orbit, the stored energy in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. A developmental heat pipe element was constructed that contains axial arteries and a distribution wick connecting the toluene heater and the TES units to the solar insolation surface of the heat pipe. Tests were conducted to demonstrate the heat pipe, TES units, and the heater tube operation. The heat pipe element was operated at design input power of 4.8 kW. Thermal cycle tests were conducted to demonstrate the successful charge and discharge of the TES units. Axial power flux levels up to 15 watts/sq cm were demonstrated and transient tests were conducted on the heat pipe element. Details of the heat pipe development and test procedures are presented.

Keddy, E.; Sena, J. Tom; Merrigan, M.; Heidenreich, Gary; Johnson, Steve

1988-06-01

300

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system was developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power System solar receiver for space station application. The solar receiver incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain thermal energy storage (TES) canisters within the vapor space with a toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe. Part of this thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of earth orbit, the stored energy in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. A developmental heat pipe element was constructed that contains axial arteries and a distribution wick connecting the toluene heater and the TES units to the solar insolation surface of the heat pipe. Tests were conducted to demonstrate the heat pipe, TES units, and the heater tube operation. The heat pipe element was operated at design input power of 4.8 kW. Thermal cycle tests were conducted to demonstrate the successful charge and discharge of the TES units. Axial power flux levels up to 15 watts/sq cm were demonstrated and transient tests were conducted on the heat pipe element. Details of the heat pipe development and test procedures are presented.

Keddy, E.; Sena, J. Tom; Merrigan, M.; Heidenreich, Gary; Johnson, Steve

1988-01-01

301

Fort Hood solar total energy project: technical support and systems integration. Third semiannual report, May 1, 1979-October 31, 1979  

SciTech Connect

Work on the Fort Hood STES which was planned by DOE as a Large Scale Experiment for the Solar Total Energy Program is described. The history of the design evolution and management of the project which began in 1973 is summarized. The project was discontinued by DOE in December 1979. Supporting studies underway at the time are reported including: (1) reassessment of energy loads, (2) revised system concept, (3) plant sizing calculations, and (4) insolation variation measurement planning. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-02-01

302

Irrigation market for solar-thermal parabolic-dish systems  

SciTech Connect

The potential size of the onfarm-pumped irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems in seven high-insolation states is estimated. The study is restricted to the displacement of three specific fuels: gasoline, diesel and natural gas. A model was developed to estimate the optimal number of parabolic dish modules per farm based on the minimum cost mix of conventional and solar thermal energy required to meet irrigation needs. Results indicate that the near-term market for such systems depends not only on the type of crop and method of irrigation, but also on the optimal utilization of each added module, which in turn depends on the price of conventional fuel, real discount rate, marginal cost of the solar thermal power system, local insolation level and parabolic dish system efficiency. The study concludes that the potential market size for onfarm-pumped irrigation applications ranges from 101,000 modules when a 14% real discount rate is assumed to 220,000 modules when the real discount rate drops to 8%. Arizona, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico and Texas account for 98% of the total demand for this application, with the natural gas replacement market accounting for the largest segment (71%) of the total market.

Habib-agahi, H.; Jones, S.C.

1981-09-01

303

Contribution of Nonionospheric Currents to the Quiet Daily Magnetic Variations at the Earth’s Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

current systems should produce a daily variation in the earth's surface magnetic field. It is the purpose of this paper to examine each of these magnetospheric current systems and to calculate their contributions to the earth's surface magnetic field. Because these variations will be compared with the average Sq pattern, only the case of perpendicular incidence of the solar wind

W. P. Olson; Douglas Astronautics

1970-01-01

304

Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

Munsell, Devon R.

305

Noise in pressure transducer readings produced by variations in solar radiation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Variations in solar radiation can produce noise in readings from gauge pressure transducers when the transducer cable is exposed to direct sunlight. This noise is a result of insolation-induced heating and cooling of the air column in the vent tube of the transducer cable. A controlled experiment was performed to assess the impact of variations in solar radiation on transducer readings. This experiment demonstrated that insolation-induced fluctuations in apparent pressure head can be as large as 0.03 m. The magnitude of these fluctuations is dependent on cable color, the diameter of the vent tube, and the length of the transducer cable. The most effective means of minimizing insolation-induced noise is to use integrated transducer-data logger units that fit within a well. Failure to address this source of noise can introduce considerable uncertainty into analyses of hydraulic tests when the head change is relatively small, as is often the case for tests in highly permeable aquifers or for tests using distant observation wells.

Cain, III, S. F.; Davis, G. A.; Loheide, II, S. P.; Butler, Jr. , J. J.

2004-01-01

306

Solar cogeneration: Cimarron River station, Central Telephone and Utilities-Western Power  

SciTech Connect

The site-specific conceptual design progress is described for a solar central receiver cogeneration facility at a Kansas utility. The process is described which led to the selection of the preferred solar cogeneration facility. The status of the conceptual design is presented. The evaluation of system performance is described. A test program is described that is to determine the magnitude of impact that local environmental factors have on collector system performance and to measure the direct normal insolation at the cogeneration facility site. The system specification is appended. (LEW)

Harder, J.E.

1981-04-01

307

Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat, phase 1 design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The system consists of 42,420 sq ft of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors are oriented in a North-South configuration and track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) is circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370 F and 450 F respectively. These temperatures are constantly maintained via a variable flow rate through the collectors (the flow rate varies in direct proportion to the level of insolation). Superheated steam is the final product of the solar energy system. Final steam quality at the steam generator is 420 F and 165 Psia.

1980-08-01

308

The 1-kW solar Stirling experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this experiment was to demonstrate electrical power generation using a small free-piston Stirling engine and linear alternator in conjunction with a parabolic solar collector. A test bed collector, formerly used at the JPL Table Mountain Observatory, was renovated and used to obtain practical experience and to determine test receiver performance. The collector was mounted on a two-axis tracker, with a cold water calorimeter mounted on the collector to measure its efficiency, while a separate, independently tracking radiometer was used to measure solar insolation. The solar receiver was designed to absorb energy from the collector, then transfer the resulting thermal energy to the Stirling engine. Successful testing of receiver/collector assembly yielded valuable inputs for design of the Stirling engine heater head.

Giandomenico, A.

1981-05-01

309

Small solar thermal electric power plants with early commercial potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cost-effective small solar thermal electric power plants (1- to 10-MW nominal size) offer an attractive way of helping the world meet its future energy needs. The paper describes the characteristics of a conceptual near-term plant (about 1 MW) and a potential 1990 commercial version. The basic system concept is one in which steam is generated using two-axis tracking, parabolic dish, and point-focusing collectors. The steam is transported through low-loss piping to a central steam turbine generator unit where it is converted to electricity. The plants have no energy storage and their output power level varies with the solar insolation level. This system concept, which is firmly based on state-of-the-art technology, is projected to offer one of the fastest paths for U.S. commercialization of solar thermal electric power plants through moderate technology advances and mass production.

Jones, H. E.; Bisantz, D. J.; Clayton, R. N.; Heiges, H. H.; Ku, A. C.

1979-01-01

310

Daily Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.…

Einolf, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

311

Solar Lentigo  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Solar Lentigo Information for adults A A A This image displays many solar lentigos due to the patient having many sunburns as a child and teenager. Overview A solar lentigo (plural, solar lentigines), also known as a ...

312

Solar Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about solar energy and how to calculate the amount of solar energy available at a given location and time of day on Earth. The importance of determining incoming solar energy for solar devices is discussed.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

313

Feasibility Study on the Use of a Solar Thermoelectric Cogenerator Comprising a Thermoelectric Module and Evacuated Tubular Collector with Parabolic Trough Concentrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed a new solar thermoelectric cogeneration system consisting of an evacuated tubular solar collector (ETSC) with a parabolic trough concentrator (PTC) and thermoelectric modules (TEMs) to supply both thermal energy and electricity. The main design concepts are (1) the hot side of the TEM is bonded to the solar selective absorber installed in an evacuated glass tube, (2) the cold side of the TEM is also bonded to the heat sink, and (3) the outer circulated water is heated by residual solar energy after TEM generation. We present an example solar thermal simulation based on energy balance and heat transfer as used in solar engineering to predict the electrical conversion efficiency and solar thermal conversion efficiency for different values of parameters such as the solar insolation, concentration ratio, and TEM ZT values.

Miao, L.; Zhang, M.; Tanemura, S.; Tanaka, T.; Kang, Y. P.; Xu, G.

2012-06-01

314

Adolescent daily and general maladjustment: is there reactivity to daily repeated measures methodologies?  

PubMed

The present study examined whether repeated exposure to daily surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' daily and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 daily reports tapping experienced or experienced and witnessed negative events, or they completed no daily reports. General maladjustment was measured in 2-week intervals before, at the end of, and 2 weeks after the daily report study. Daily maladjustment either decreased or did not change across the 5 daily report exposures. General maladjustment decreased across the three 2-week intervals. Combined, results indicate that short-term daily report studies do not place youth at risk for increased maladjustment. PMID:22288493

Nishina, Adrienne

2012-01-01

315

Weather, season, and daily stroke admissions in Hong Kong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies examining daily temperature and stroke incidence have given conflicting results. We undertook this retrospective study of all stroke admissions in those aged 35 years old and above to Hong Kong public hospitals from 1999 through 2006 in order to better understand the effects of meteorological conditions on stroke risk in a subtropical setting. We used Poisson Generalized Additive Models with daily hemorrhagic (HS) and ischemic stroke (IS) counts separately as outcomes, and daily mean temperature, humidity, solar radiation, rainfall, air pressure, pollutants, flu consultation rates, day of week, holidays, time trend and seasonality as predictors. Lagged effects of temperature, humidity and pollutants were also considered. A total of 23,457 HS and 107,505 IS admissions were analyzed. Mean daily temperature had a strong, consistent, negative linear association with HS admissions over the range (8.2-31.8°C) observed. A 1°C lower average temperature over the same day and previous 4 days (lags 0-4) being associated with a 2.7% (95% CI: 2.0-3.4%, P < .0.0001) higher admission rate after controlling for other variables. This association was stronger among older subjects and females. Higher lag 0-4 average change in air pressure from previous day was modestly associated with higher HS risk. The association between IS and temperature was weaker and apparent only below 22°C, with a 1°C lower average temperature (lags 0-13) below this threshold being associated with a 1.6% (95% CI:1.0-2.2%, P < 0.0001) higher IS admission rate. Pollutant levels were not associated with HS or IS. Future studies should examine HS and IS risk separately.

Goggins, William B.; Woo, Jean; Ho, Suzanne; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Chau, P. H.

2012-09-01

316

Surface Solar Radiation from Geostationary Satellites for Renewable Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation available at the surface has been routinely derived in real time from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS) in a processing system known as the GOES Surface and Insolation Product (GSIP) system. The GSIP system has recently been upgraded to provide retrievals experimentally at a spatial resolution of ~ 4 km. The planned rapid observations (5-15 minutes) from the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on the upcoming GOES-R satellite will enhance the capabilities realized in the current GCIP for solar resources where frequent observations of solar radiation reaching the surface are essential for planning and load management. The algorithms used in GSIP and with ABI are based on radiative transfer, represented in look-up-tables, and internally retrieve clear-sky and cloudy-sky transmittances (GSIP), or use atmospheric and surface parameters derived independently from multispectral radiances (ABI) for calculating these transmittances. Tests, performed using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, have shown that the ABI algorithm is superior to the GSIP algorithm. The algorithms are designed to provide basic radiation budget products (e.g., total solar irradiance at the surface), as well as products specifically needed in the solar energy sector (average, midday and clear-sky insolation, clear-sky days, diffuse and direct normal radiation, etc.). The accuracy of surface solar radiation retrievals are assessed using long-term GOES and MODIS satellite data and surface measurements at the Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) network.

Laszlo, I.; Kondratovich, V.; Liu, H.

2011-12-01

317

March 1982 environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

SciTech Connect

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-03-01

318

An experimental study of a new solar still - The wiping spherical still  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical and experimental results of the functioning of a spherical solar water distiller which includes a curved, turning glass wiper are presented. A review of past and present solar still apparatus is presented, along with an analytical examination of insolation characteristics. Numerical models are constructed of the performance of solar stills, noting the enhanced gain with less materials available by using spherically shaped plexiglass for the transparent upper surface. Attachment of a curved glass wiper, which extends from the top center of the dome to the collector tray and is made to revolve around the dome's inner surface by either an electric motor, or a wind-powered shaft, or by means of a motor driven by solar cells, is shown to keep the transparency higher and thus augment the efficiency of the still to 14 percent better performance than with a flat plate solar still.

Makki, A.

319

When Daily Deal Services Meet Twitter: Understanding Twitter as a Daily Deal Marketing Platform  

E-print Network

When Daily Deal Services Meet Twitter: Understanding Twitter as a Daily Deal Marketing Platform, Yuseong-gu Daejeon, Korea +82-42-350-7837 chungcw@kaist.edu ABSTRACT Twitter, a microblogging service Twitter for marketing purpose; daily deal providers such as Groupon and LivingSocial are not only engaged

Chung, Chin-Wan

320

Adolescent Daily and General Maladjustment: Is There Reactivity to Daily Repeated Measures Methodologies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined whether repeated exposure to daily surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' daily and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 daily reports tapping experienced or…

Nishina, Adrienne

2012-01-01

321

Solar index generation and delivery  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Index, or, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar Index, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978. The purpose was to enhance public awareness to solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar Index represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80 gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The Index is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which also has applications to space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems and which supplies economic analyses for such solar energy systems. The Index is generated for approximately 68 geographic locations in the country on a daily basis. The definition of the Index, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time and a plan for the future are described. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the Index, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST program) and future efforts.

Lantz, L.J.

1980-01-01

322

Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

2012-09-01

323

Big Bear Solar Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) is located at the end of a causeway in a mountain lake more than 2 km above sea level. The site has more than 300 sunny days a year and a natural inversion caused by the lake which makes for very clean images. BBSO is the only university observatory in the US making high-resolution observations of the Sun. Its daily images are posted at http://www.bbso.njit.e...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

324

The 1991 Japan Solar Energy Society. Japan Wind Energy Association Joint Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thie paper summarizes the lectures presented at the research presentation conference held by the Japan Solar Energy Society and the Japan Wind Energy Association. The contents include a lecture relating to photovoltaic cells intended for efficiency improvement; a lecture relating to a light power generation system including the field test reports, improvements on peripheral devices and output characteristics; a lecture relating to optical chemistry; a lecture relating to heat pumps utilizing solar heat and well water; a lecture relating air conditioning utilizing photovoltaic cells; a lecture relating to heat systems utilizing solar heat directly; a lecture relating to heat collection; a lecture relating to cold heat for cooling using earth tubes; a lecture relating to direct utilization of ground water heat and solar heat; a lecture relating to underground heat storage; a lecture relating to accumulation of cold heat and hot heat; a lecture relating to insolation on the amount of insolation and spectroscopy; a lecture relating to light collection intended of energy saving; a lecture relating to improving materials including light collecting plates and thin films; a lecture relating to development and characteristics of solar cars; and a lecture relating to wind energy.

1991-09-01

325

Comparison of geothermal, solar, and conventional space heating costs in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. These costs are very sensitive to location - being dependent on the local prices of conventional energy supplies, local solar insolation, climate, and the proximity and temperature of potential geothermal resources. Geothermal district heating systems will become economically feasible in most urban centers north of a line extending roughly from Los Angeles to Baltimore. West of the Rockies high temperature (> 90/sup 0/C) geothermal energy will predominate and will be transported up to 50 miles to the urban centers. East of the Rockies low temperature (60 to 90/sup 0/C) geothermal energy will predominate and will be located within ten miles of the urban centers. Solar heating systems, with conventional heating backup, will become economically feasible throughout the country. The most economical applications will be in suburban and rural areas in the intermountain West and into the Great Plains region. Conventional heating will remain most economic: (1) in urban centers in the South (where annual heat demand is low); (2) in Northern urban centers which are too distant from geothermal resources; and (3) in suburban and rural areas with low solar insolation. Conventional energy will supplement solar energy in most locations.

Bloomster, C.H.; Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.

1980-01-01

326

Solar and Photovoltaic Data from the University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory (UO SRML)  

DOE Data Explorer

The UO SRML is a regional solar radiation data center whose goal is to provide sound solar resource data for planning, design, deployment, and operation of solar electric facilities in the Pacific Northwest. The laboratory has been in operation since 1975. Solar data includes solar resource maps, cumulative summary data, daily totals, monthly averages, single element profile data, parsed TMY2 data, and select multifilter radiometer data. A data plotting program and other software tools are also provided. Shade analysis information and contour plots showing the effect of tilt and orientation on annual solar electric system perfomance make up a large part of the photovoltaics data.(Specialized Interface)

327

Aerosols reduce solar radiation over China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solar radiation measurements taken from 1961 to 2000 at stations throughout China were used to characterize long term trends in radiation levels. It was found that since 1961, there have been significant decreases in China in daily surface solar radiation and monthly sunshine duration.

Al., Che E.; Agu

328

The sun’s total and spectral irradiance for solar energy applications and solar radiation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the most recent composite time series of total solar irradiance spaceborne measurements, a solar constant value of 1366.1 Wm?2 is confirmed, and simple quadratic expressions are proposed to predict its daily value from the Zurich sunspot number, the MgII index, or the 10.7 cm radio flux index. Whenever these three indices are available on a daily basis (since 1978),

Christian A. Gueymard

2004-01-01

329

Simulation of the last glacial cycle by a coupled, sectorially averaged climate-ice sheet model. II. Response to insolation and CO2 variations  

SciTech Connect

The 2D climate model of Gallee et al. (1991) for the Northern Hemisphere is asynchronously coupled to an ice-sheet model, and the coupled model (named the paleoclimate model, PCM) is used to assess the effects of certain processes on producing plausible ice age simulations using astronomical insolation data and CO[sub 2] data from the Vostok ice core. In the PCM, the net mass balance of each ice sheet is computed in the climate model; it is given explicitly by the difference between the calculated local snow precipitation and the local ablation derived from the balance of the heat fluxes taken at the mean altitude of the ice sheet in question. Results of sensitivity experiments showed that ablation is more important to the ice sheet response than the variations in snow precipitation. 97 refs.

Gallee, H.; Van Ypersele, J.P.; Fichefet, T.; Marsiat, I.; Tricot, C.; Berger, A. (Louvain, Univ. Catholique, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium))

1992-10-01

330

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Exxon Research and Engineering. System design final report, Volume 1. Design description seawater feed (System A)  

SciTech Connect

The design of a solar powered water desalination system is presented. Design data including insolation and climate of the Yanbu, Saudi Arabia site are included. Two solar desalination designs were developed including: (1) a conceptual baseline plant powered by a solar central receiver-heliostat field, and (2) a pilot plant that demonstrates and evaluates the design features of the baseline plant. The desalination process involves a hybrid reverse osmosis/multiple effect distillation process. The performance and economics of the design plants are analyzed. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

331

2010 Daily Fire Log Date & Time  

E-print Network

and transported to Campbell Co. jail. Fire/Smoke/Sprinkler Alarm Log December 2010 Report #: 2010-00571 Reported responded and cleared the scene; subject transported to Campbell County jail. #12;2010 Daily Fire Log CAD

Boyce, Richard L.

332

2010 Daily Log Report #: 2010-00262  

E-print Network

of Marijuana Report #: 2010-00256 Reported: 06/17/10 0851 Occurred: Same Incident: Traffic Crash Location: Lot;2010 Daily Log Report #: 2010-00249 Reported: 06/03/10 1702 Occurred: Same Incident: Medical Emergency

Boyce, Richard L.

333

Daily Crime Log Wednesday, June 25, 2014  

E-print Network

Daily Crime Log Wednesday, June 25, 2014 8:53:25 AM Calendar Year: 2014 Date/Time Reported Offense) CO A 17-year-old juvenile was issued a Carbondale City notice to appear and released. (140619001) LOT

334

AMSR2 Daily Arctic Sea Ice - 2014  

NASA Video Gallery

In this animation, the daily Arctic sea ice and seasonal land cover change progress through time, from March 21, 2014 through the 3rd of August, 2014. Over the water, Arctic sea ice changes from da...

335

Early daily trunk shrinkage is highly sensitive to water stress in nectarine trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity to water stress of different plant water status indicators was evaluated during two consecutive years in early nectarine trees grown in a semi-arid region. Measurements were made post-harvest and two irrigation treatments were applied: a control treatment (CTL), irrigated at 120% of crop evapotranspiration demand to achieve non-limiting water conditions, and a deficit irrigation treatment (DI), that applied around 37% less water than CTL during late postharvest. The plant water status indicators evaluated were midday stem water potential (?stem) and parameters derived from trunk diameter fluctuations (TDF): maximum daily shrinkage (MDS), trunk daily growth rate (TGR), early daily shrinkage measured between 0900 and 1200 h solar time (EDS), and late daily shrinkage (LDS) that occurred between 1200 h solar time and the moment that minimum trunk diameter was reached (typically 1600 h solar time). The most sensitive (highest ratio of signal intensity (SI) to noise) indicators to water stress were ?stem together with EDS. The SI of EDS was greater than that of ?stem, although with greater variability. EDS was a better indicator than MDS, with higher SI and similar variability. Although MDS was linearly related to ?stem down to -1.5 MPa, thereafter MDS decreased with increasing water stress. In contrast, EDS was linearly related to ?stem, although the slope of the regression decreased as the season progressed, as in the case of MDS. Further studies are needed to determine whether EDS is a sensitive indicator of water stress in a range of species.

Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro; De la Rosa, Jose M.; Dodd, Ian C.; Conesa, María R.; Domingo, Rafael

2014-05-01

336

Homogenization of Chinese Daily Surface Air Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme climate events have large potential of impacts on the society and economy. However, analysis of long-term changes in climate extremes need to use homogeneous time series of high resolution climatic data (e.g., daily or sub-daily), to diminish non-climatic influences. Thus, more and more attention has been drawn to the development of high quality daily climatic data. Since both temporal and spatial variations are much larger in daily data than in the corresponding monthly or annual data, it is important and yet more difficult to choose a reference series for homogenization of daily data. We tested and compared different methods to select reference series. The reference series that leads to the best match of detected changepoints with metadata information is selected and used to perform homogeneity test for data time series from stations within the grid box. Specifically, we divided the whole country into 2.5-by-2.5 degree lat-long grid boxes. The time series of the averages of observations at all stations in each grid box was considered to be the series representing the climatic variations/changes in each grid box. We calculated the correlation coefficient of annual data series at each station with the average series of annual data in each grid box, and chose the five stations of highest correlations. Then, we obtained the daily difference series between each chosen station and the average series in each grid box, and applied the PMTred method to test the homogeneity of the daily difference series, We chose the homogeneous station as the reference station for testing inhomogeneities in other station's series in the grid box, using the PMTred method. In addition to testing the daily series, we also tested the corresponding annual and monthly series. We adjusted for change points that are identified in both daily and monthly/annual series and also supported by metadata. Daily maximum and minimum temperatures recorded at 822 Chinese stations were tested in this study. The results show that site relocations are the main source of inhomogeneity. The impacts of inhomogeneities on the estimates of climate trends and extremes were assessed. The resulting daily data set is also compared with a previous version of homogenized temperature data set.

Wenhui, X.; Quingxiang, L.; Wang, X. L.; Su, Y.; Yani, Z.; Lijuan, C.

2012-04-01

337

Daily Occupational Stressors and Marital Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined daily fluctuations in marital behavior (anger and withdrawal) as a function of same-day job stressors, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). Forty-three couples provided daily diary reports of their workload and negative social interactions at work on 5 consecutive days. Within-subject analyses demonstrate that husbands and wives reported greater marital anger and withdrawal following negative social interactions at

Lisa B. Story; Rena Repetti

2006-01-01

338

Variability of daily precipitation over Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study identified coherent daily precipitation regions in Nigeria by analyzing the spatial and temporal homogeneity of daily precipitation; investigating the dependence of wet day amount (WDAMT) and percentage of wet day (PWD) on latitude, longitude, elevation and distance from the ocean and finally regionalizing the daily precipitation stations. Non-parametric spatial homogeneity test was carried out on daily precipitation over 23 stations in Nigeria between 1992 and 2000 while the temporal analysis was done from 1971 to 2000. Regression analysis was used to determine the dependence of WDAMT and PWD on latitude, longitude, elevation and distance from the ocean. Principal component and cluster analyses were conducted to regionalize the precipitation stations. Seven homogeneous groups of stations were identified. Elevation explains 19.9 and 4.8 % of the variance in WDAMT and PWD, respectively, while latitude explains 76.2 % of variance in PWD. Eight principal components that explain 63.1 % of the variance in the daily precipitation data were retained for cluster analysis. Precipitation in the six daily precipitation regions that emerged from the cluster analysis is influenced by the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone, latitude, distance from ocean and southwesterlies while the northern region alone is influenced by the African Easterly Wave. In addition, precipitation in all the regions is influenced by topography. Low to medium spatial coherence exists in the precipitation regions. The spatial variations of PWD and WDAMT have implications for agricultural productivity and water resources in different parts of the country.

Adeniyi, M. O.

2014-08-01

339

Variability of daily precipitation over Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study identified coherent daily precipitation regions in Nigeria by analyzing the spatial and temporal homogeneity of daily precipitation; investigating the dependence of wet day amount (WDAMT) and percentage of wet day (PWD) on latitude, longitude, elevation and distance from the ocean and finally regionalizing the daily precipitation stations. Non-parametric spatial homogeneity test was carried out on daily precipitation over 23 stations in Nigeria between 1992 and 2000 while the temporal analysis was done from 1971 to 2000. Regression analysis was used to determine the dependence of WDAMT and PWD on latitude, longitude, elevation and distance from the ocean. Principal component and cluster analyses were conducted to regionalize the precipitation stations. Seven homogeneous groups of stations were identified. Elevation explains 19.9 and 4.8 % of the variance in WDAMT and PWD, respectively, while latitude explains 76.2 % of variance in PWD. Eight principal components that explain 63.1 % of the variance in the daily precipitation data were retained for cluster analysis. Precipitation in the six daily precipitation regions that emerged from the cluster analysis is influenced by the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone, latitude, distance from ocean and southwesterlies while the northern region alone is influenced by the African Easterly Wave. In addition, precipitation in all the regions is influenced by topography. Low to medium spatial coherence exists in the precipitation regions. The spatial variations of PWD and WDAMT have implications for agricultural productivity and water resources in different parts of the country.

Adeniyi, M. O.

2014-11-01

340

Natural heat storage in a brine-filled solar pond in the Tully Valley of central New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tully Valley, located in southern Onondaga County, New York, has a long history of unusual natural hydrogeologic phenomena including mudboils (Kappel, 2009), landslides (Tamulonis and others, 2009; Pair and others, 2000), landsurface subsidence (Hackett and others, 2009; Kappel, 2009), and a brine-filled sinkhole or “Solar pond” (fig. 1), which is documented in this report. A solar pond is a pool of salty water (brine) which stores the sun’s energy in the form of heat. The saltwater naturally forms distinct layers with increasing density between transitional zones (haloclines) of rapidly changing specific conductance with depth. In a typical solar pond, the top layer has a low salt content and is often times referred to as the upper convective zone (Lu and others, 2002). The bottom layer is a concentrated brine that is either convective or temperature stratified dependent on the surrounding environment. Solar insolation is absorbed and stored in the lower, denser brine while the overlying halocline acts as an insulating layer and prevents heat from moving upwards from the lower zone (Lu and others, 2002). In the case of the Tully Valley solar pond, water within the pond can be over 90 degrees Fahrenheit (°F) in late summer and early fall. The purpose of this report is to summarize observations at the Tully Valley brine-filled sinkhole and provide supplemental climate data which might affect the pond salinity gradients insolation (solar energy).

Hayhurst, Brett; Kappel, William M.

2014-01-01

341

Intent to quit among daily and non-daily college student smokers  

PubMed Central

Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking category as it relates to readiness to quit among current smokers. Of the 4438 students at six Southeast colleges who completed an online survey, 69.7% (n = 3094) were non-smokers, 6.6% (n = 293) were quitters, 7.1% (n = 317) were native non-daily smokers, 6.4% (n = 283) were converted non-daily smokers and 10.2% (n = 451) were daily smokers. There were differences in sociodemographics, substance use (alcohol, marijuana, other tobacco products) in the past 30 days and psychosocial factors among these subgroups of students (P < 0.001). Among current smokers, there were differences in cigarettes smoked per day, recent quit attempts, self-identification as a smoker, self-efficacy and motivation to quit (P < 0.001). After controlling for important factors, converted non-daily smokers were more likely to be ready to quit in the next month versus native non-daily smokers (OR = 2.15, CI 1.32–3.49, P = 0.002). Understanding differences among young adults with different smoking patterns and histories is critical in developing interventions targeting psychosocial factors impacting cessation among this population. PMID:23197630

Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

2013-01-01

342

36 January/February 2008 Vol 98 No 1 Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association Background: The use of cushioned or shock-absorbing insoles has been suggested as  

E-print Network

the impact forces associated with running, thereby protecting against overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of cushioned insoles reduced impact forces during running forces, tibial accelerations, lower-extremity kinematics, and subject- perceived comfort were recorded

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

343

Optimization of the absorption efficiency of an amorphous-silicon thin-film tandem solar cell backed by a metallic surface-relief grating.  

PubMed

The rigorous coupled-wave approach was used to compute the plane-wave absorptance of a thin-film tandem solar cell with a metallic surface-relief grating as its back reflector. The absorptance is a function of the angle of incidence and the polarization state of incident light; the free-space wavelength; and the period, duty cycle, the corrugation height, and the shape of the unit cell of the surface-relief grating. The solar cell was assumed to be made of hydrogenated amorphous-silicon alloys and the back reflector of bulk aluminum. The incidence and the grating planes were taken to be identical. The AM1.5 solar irradiance spectrum was used for computations in the 400-1100 nm wavelength range. Inspection of parametric plots of the solar-spectrum-integrated (SSI) absorption efficiency and numerical optimization using the differential evolution algorithm were employed to determine the optimal surface-relief grating. For direct insolation, the SSI absorption efficiency is maximizable by appropriate choices of the period, the duty cycle, and the corrugation height, regardless of the shape of the corrugation in each unit cell of the grating. A similar conclusion also holds for diffuse insolation, but the maximum efficiency for diffuse insolation is about 20% smaller than for direct insolation. Although a tin-doped indium-oxide layer at the front and an aluminum-doped zinc-oxide layer between the semiconductor material and the backing metallic layer change the optimal depth of the periodic corrugations, the optimal period of the corrugations does not significantly change. PMID:23400058

Solano, Manuel; Faryad, Muhammad; Hall, Anthony S; Mallouk, Thomas E; Monk, Peter B; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

2013-02-10

344

Daily soil temperature modeling using neuro-fuzzy approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil temperature is an important meteorological parameter which influences a number of processes in agriculture, hydrology, and environment. However, soil temperature records are not routinely available from meteorological stations. This work aimed to estimate daily soil temperature using the coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) in arid and semiarid regions. For this purpose, daily soil temperatures were recorded at six depths of 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 cm below the surface at two synoptic stations in Iran. According to correlation analysis, mean, maximum, and minimum air temperatures, relative humidity, sunshine hours, and solar radiation were selected as the inputs of the CANFIS models. It was concluded that, in most cases, the best soil temperature estimates with a CANFIS model can be provided with the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy model and the Gaussian membership function. Comparison of the models' performances at arid and semiarid locations showed that the CANFIS models' performances in arid site were slightly better than those in semiarid site. Overall, the obtained results indicated the capabilities of the CANFIS model in estimating soil temperature in arid and semiarid regions.

Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P.

2014-01-01

345

Development of flat-plate solar collectors for the heating and cooling of buildings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relevant design parameters in the fabrication of a solar collector for heating liquids were examined. The objective was to design, fabricate, and test a low-cost, flat-plate solar collector with high collection efficiency, high durability, and requiring little maintenance. Computer-aided math models of the heat transfer processes in the collector assisted in the design. The preferred physical design parameters were determined from a heat transfer standpoint and the absorber panel configuration, the surface treatment of the absorber panel, the type and thickness of insulation, and the number, spacing and material of the covers were defined. Variations of this configuration were identified, prototypes built, and performance tests performed using a solar simulator. Simulated operation of the baseline collector configuration was combined with insolation data for a number of locations and compared with a predicted load to determine the degree of solar utilization.

Ramsey, J. W.; Borzoni, J. T.; Holland, T. H.

1975-01-01

346

CONC/11: A computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CONC/11 computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems is discussed. This program is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. The CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended FORTRAN (similar to FORTRAN 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers. A user's manual is also provided for this program.

Jaffe, L. D.

1984-01-01

347

Development and Testing of Shingle-type Solar Cell Modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, fabrication and testing of a shingle-type terrestrial solar cell module which produces 98 watts/sq m of exposed module area at 1 kW/sq m insolation and 61 C are reported. These modules make it possible to easily incorporate photovoltaic power generation into the sloping roofs of residential or commercial buildings by simply nailing the modules to the plywood roof sheathing. This design consists of nineteen series-connected 53 mm diameter solar cells arranged in a closely packed hexagon configuration. These cells are individually bonded to the embossed surface of a 3 mm thick thermally tempered hexagon-shaped piece of glass. Polyvinyl butyral is used as the laminating adhesive.

Shepard, N. F., Jr.

1979-01-01

348

Irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential size of the onfarm-pumped irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems in seven high-insolation states is estimated. The study is restricted to the displacement of three specific fuels: gasoline, diesel and natural gas. The model was developed to estimate the optimal number of parabolic dish modules per farm based on the minimum cost mix of conventional and solar thermal energy required to meet irrigation needs. The study concludes that the potential market size for onfarm-pumped irrigation applications ranges from 101,000 modules when a 14 percent real discount rate is assumed to 220,000 modules when the real discount rate drops to 8 percent. Arizona, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico and Texas account for 98 percent of the total demand for this application, with the natural gas replacement market accounting for the largest segment (71 percent) of the total market.

Habib-Agahi, H.; Jones, S. C.

1981-01-01

349

Receiver design in solar-heated gas turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conversion of solar energy in a gas turbine plant is discussed. The distribution of solar radiation inside the receiver cavity is addressed, employing a radiation heat transfer calculation which yields the local temperatures on the receiver inner walls, the radiation loss of the receiver, and the useful heat absorbed by the working medium. Three-dimensional temperature fields and thermal stress fields are calculated. The influence of the geometric and thermodynamic parameters on strain in the tubes is investigated, allowing for thermal stress and stresses resulting from the pressure of the working medium. The steady state behavior of the receiver under variable insolation is then considered, distinguishing between constant and variable-speed gas turbine operation.

Bammert, K.; Seifert, P.

350

Texasgulf solar cogeneration program. Mid-term topical report  

SciTech Connect

The status of technical activities of the Texasgulf Solar Cogeneration Program at the Comanche Creek Sulfur Mine is described. The program efforts reported focus on preparation of a system specification, selection of a site-specific configuration, conceptual design, and facility performance. Trade-off studies performed to select the site-specific cogeneration facility configuration that would be the basis for the conceptual design efforts are described. Study areas included solar system size, thermal energy storage, and field piping. The conceptual design status is described for the various subsystems of the Comanche Creek cogeneration facility. The subsystems include the collector, receiver, master control, fossil energy, energy storage, superheat boiler, electric power generation, and process heat subsystems. Computer models for insolation and performance are also briefly discussed. Appended is the system specification. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-02-01

351

Chronic daily headache: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Chronic daily headache is defined as the presence of a headache on 15 days or more per month for at least three months. The most common types of chronic daily headache are chronic migraines and chronic tension-type headaches. If a red flag for a secondary cause of headache is present, magnetic resonance imaging of the head should be performed. All patients should be asked about medication overuse, which can increase the frequency of headaches. Patients who overuse medications for abortive therapy for headache should be encouraged to stop the medications entirely and consider prophylactic treatment. Several prophylactic treatments for chronic daily headache can reduce headache frequency and severity, as well as improve overall quality of life. Nonpharmacologic treatments include relaxation techniques, cognitive behavior therapy, acupuncture, osteopathic manipulation, and cervical exercises. Pharmacologic therapies include amitriptyline, gabapentin, onabotulinumtoxinA, propranolol, tizanidine, topiramate, and valproate. PMID:24784123

Yancey, Joseph R; Sheridan, Richard; Koren, Kelly G

2014-04-15

352

MathMastery.com: Daily Brains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Six days a week, a new math problem is posted on this Web site to intrigue and challenge grade school students. Each Daily Brain has a different theme, considering some mathematical perspective of science, history, geography, and more. After solving the problem, or for a little help, students can look at a step-by-step solution that is also posted online. All old Daily Brains are kept in an archive, and as of May 2003, they numbered around 400. The problems are mostly intended for students between fourth and sixth grades.

2007-12-12

353

Seasonal and spatial variation of organic tracers for biomass burning in PM1 aerosols from highly insolated urban areas.  

PubMed

PM1 aerosol characterization on organic tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan and its isomers and dehydroabietic acid) was conducted within the AERTRANS project. PM1 filters (N?=?90) were sampled from 2010 to 2012 in busy streets in the urban centre of Madrid and Barcelona (Spain) at ground-level and at roof sites. In both urban areas, biomass burning was not expected to be an important local emission source, but regional emissions from wildfires, residential heating or biomass removal may influence the air quality in the cities. Although both areas are under influence of high solar radiation, Madrid is situated in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, while Barcelona is located at the Mediterranean Coast and under influence of marine atmospheres. Two extraction methods were applied, i.e. Soxhlet and ASE, which showed equivalent results after GC-MS analyses. The ambient air concentrations of the organic tracers for biomass burning increased by an order of magnitude at both sites during winter compared to summer. An exception was observed during a PM event in summer 2012, when the atmosphere in Barcelona was directly affected by regional wildfire smoke and levels were four times higher as those observed in winter. Overall, there was little variation between the street and roof sites in both cities, suggesting that regional biomass burning sources influence the urban areas after atmospheric transport. Despite the different atmospheric characteristics in terms of air relative humidity, Madrid and Barcelona exhibit very similar composition and concentrations of biomass burning organic tracers. Nevertheless, levoglucosan and its isomers seem to be more suitable for source apportionment purposes than dehydroabietic acid. In both urban areas, biomass burning contributions to PM were generally low (2 %) in summer, except on the day when wildfire smoke arrive to the urban area. In the colder periods the contribution increase to around 30 %, indicating that regional biomass burning has a substantial influence on the urban air quality. PMID:24477336

van Drooge, B L; Fontal, M; Bravo, N; Fernández, P; Fernández, M A; Muñoz-Arnanz, J; Jiménez, B; Grimalt, J O

2014-10-01

354

Damage to Human Hair Caused by Repeated Bleaching Combined with Daily Weathering during Daily Life Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although it is well known that chemical oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide damages human hair, little is known about the effects of bleaching during daily life activities which may alter hair components. Objective: To determine the effects of bleaching combined with daily weathering on lipids and amino acids in hair. Methods: Levels of lipids and amino acids were analyzed

Y. Masukawa; Hisashi Tsujimura; H. Tanamachi; H. Narita; Genji Imokawa

2004-01-01

355

Generating daily weather data for ecosystem modelling in the Congo River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily weather data are an important constraint for diverse applications in ecosystem research. In particular, temperature and precipitation are the main drivers for forest ecosystem productivity. Mechanistic modelling theory heavily relies on daily values for minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation, incident solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit. Although the number of climate measurement stations increased during the last centuries, there are still regions with limited climate data. For example, in the WMO database there are only 16 stations located in Gabon with daily weather measurements. Additionally, the available time series are heavily affected by measurement errors or missing values. In the WMO record for Gabon, on average every second day is missing. Monthly means are more robust and may be estimated over larger areas. Therefore, a good alternative is to interpolate monthly mean values using a sparse network of measurement stations, and based on these monthly data generate daily weather data with defined characteristics. The weather generator MarkSim was developed to produce climatological time series for crop modelling in the tropics. It provides daily values for maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and solar radiation. The monthly means can either be derived from the internal climate surfaces or prescribed as additional inputs. We compared the generated outputs observations from three climate stations in Gabon (Lastourville, Moanda and Mouilla) and found that maximum temperature and solar radiation were heavily overestimated during the long dry season. This is due to the internal dependency of the solar radiation estimates to precipitation. With no precipitation a cloudless sky is assumed and thus high incident solar radiation and a large diurnal temperature range. However, in reality it is cloudy in the Congo River Basin during the long dry season. Therefore, we applied a correction factor to solar radiation and temperature range based on the ratio of values on rainy days and days without rain, respectively. For assessing the impact of our correction, we simulated the ecosystem behaviour using the climate data from Lastourville, Moanda and Mouilla with the mechanistic ecosystem model Biome-BGC. Differences in terms of the carbon, nitrogen and water cycle were subsequently analysed and discussed.

Petritsch, Richard; Pietsch, Stephan A.

2010-05-01

356

Heat transparent high intensity high efficiency solar cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved solar cell design is described. A surface of each solar cell has a plurality of grooves. Each groove has a vertical face and a slanted face that is covered by a reflecting metal. Light rays are reflected from the slanted face through the vertical face where they traverse a photovoltaic junction. As the light rays travel to the slanted face of an adjacent groove, they again traverse the junction. The underside of the reflecting coating directs the light rays toward the opposite surface of solar cell as they traverse the junction again. When the light rays travel through the solar cell and reach the saw toothed grooves on the under side, the process of reflection and repeatedly traversing the junction again takes place. The light rays ultimately emerge from the solar cell. These solar cells are particularly useful at very high levels of insolation because the infrared or heat radiation passes through the cells without being appreciably absorbed to heat the cell.

Evans, J. C., Jr. (inventor)

1982-01-01

357

INTERPOLATING VANCOUVER'S DAILY AMBIENT PM 10 FIELD  

EPA Science Inventory

In this article we develop a spatial predictive distribution for the ambient space- time response field of daily ambient PM10 in Vancouver, Canada. Observed responses have a consistent temporal pattern from one monitoring site to the next. We exploit this feature of the field b...

358

Daily Reporting Rainfall Station CAPE YORK RIVERS  

E-print Network

Daily Reporting Rainfall Station CAPE YORK RIVERS Manual Heavy Rainfall Station Manual River Station Telemetry Rainfall Station Telemetry River Station Revised: Nov 2011 MAP 919.1 FLOOD WARNING River Pormpuraaw Kowanyama Southwell Croydon Yappar R Blackbull Siding M itchellR StaatenR Dorunda TM

Greenslade, Diana

359

Changes in the intensity of daily precipitation  

E-print Network

Changes in the intensity of daily precipitation over the UK Timothy J. Osborn Mike Hulme Phil D.J. Hennessy, 1995: Potential impacts of global warming on the frequency and magnitude of heavy precipitation of surface temperature and precipitation over Europe in the current and 2xCO2 climates using the UKMO climate

Feigon, Brooke

360

Modeling and Forecasting Electric Daily Peak Loads  

E-print Network

Modeling and Forecasting Electric Daily Peak Loads Using Abductive Networks R. E. Abdel-Aal Department of Computer Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia techniques including neural networks have been used for this purpose. This paper proposes the alternative

Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

361

Objective Prediction of Daily Precipitation and Cloudiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between present weather and concurrent daily 700-mb circulation is studied for the winter season in the United States. All weather data are averaged within 40 climatologically homogeneous circles and expressed asnumerical index giving the propor- tion of precipitation or cloudiness within each circle at map time. The synoptic climatology of the resulting weather index is analyzed, and schematic

William H. Klein; Curtis W. Crockett; James F. Andrews

1965-01-01

362

Springs-neaps cycles in daily total seabed light: Daylength-induced changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In shallow, tidal seas, daily total seabed light is determined largely by the interaction of the solar elevation cycle, the tidal cycle in water depth, and any temporal variability in turbidity. Since tidal range, times of low water, and often turbidity vary in regular ways over the springs-neaps cycle, daily total seabed light exhibits cycles of the same periodicity. Corresponding cycles are likely to be induced in the daily total primary production of benthic algae and plants, particularly those light-limited specimens occupying the lower reaches of a sub-tidal population. Consequently, this effect is an important control on the growth patterns, depth distribution and survival of, for example, macroalgal forests and seagrass meadows.

Roberts, E. M.; Bowers, D. G.; Davies, A. J.

2014-04-01

363

The case for solar/hydrogen energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available solar technologies for producing H2-based fuels for all uses by the turn of the century are discussed. Although the annual global insolation is over 20 times the total remaining fossil fuels, the source is diffuse and variable, and areas of greatest input are not collocated with sites of greatest use. Therefore, the H2 supply must be transportable and storable, and the production facilities require large areas. Hydrogen fuels have a naturally occurring, nearly limitless supply, water, are nonpolluting, recyclable, and have the highest energy conversion efficiency of all liquid fuels. The production energy sources feasible before the year 2000 are identified as thermal heat engines, solar cells, hydroelectric plants, and wind turbines. Water electrolysis is concluded to be the sole method available for solar/hydrogen systems, and it is shown that ocean cryotanker transport of H2 fuels could be accomplished at the same efficiency and cost as with LNG fuels. Systems for production and/or storage of H2 fuels for the home, in automobiles, and on ocean platforms are described, and an international program to develop the H2-based fuel system is recommended.

Escher, W. J. D.

364

Solar Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational brief provides an overview of solar activity, including a description of Earth's magnetosphere and of various solar phenomena such as the solar wind, Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), sunspots, solar flares, and others. A list of links to additional material is also provided.

365

Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

Eaton, William W.

366

Solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

Rapp, D.

367

Solar Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

1979-01-01

368

Thermal energy storage for organic Rankine cycle solar dynamic space power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An organic Rankine cycle-solar dynamic power system (ORC-SDPS) comprises a concentrator, a radiator, a power conversion unit, and a receiver with a thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem which charges and discharges energy to meet power demands during orbital insolation and eclipse periods. Attention is presently given to the criteria used in designing and evaluating an ORC-SDPS TES, as well as the automated test facility employed. It is found that a substantial data base exists for the design of an ORC-SDPS TES subsystem.

Heidenreich, G. R.; Parekh, M. B.

369

Nimbus-7 ERB Solar Analysis Tape (ESAT) user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seven years and five months of Nimbus-7 Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) solar data are available on a single ERB Solar Analysis Tape (ESAT). The period covered is November 16, 1978 through March 31, 1986. The Nimbus-7 satellite performs approximately 14 orbits per day and the ERB solar telescope observes the sun once per orbit as the satellite crosses the southern terminator. The solar data were carefully calibrated and screened. Orbital and daily mean values are given for the total solar irradiance plus other spectral intervals (10 solar channels in all). In addition, selected solar activity indicators are included on the ESAT. The ESAT User's Guide is an update of the previous ESAT User's Guide (NASA TM 86143) and includes more detailed information on the solar data calibration, screening procedures, updated solar data plots, and applications to solar variability. Details of the tape format, including source code to access ESAT, are included.

Major, Eugene; Hickey, John R.; Kyle, H. Lee; Alton, Bradley M.; Vallette, Brenda J.

1988-01-01

370

Estimating solar access of typical residential rooftops: A case study in San Jose, CA  

SciTech Connect

Shadows cast by trees and buildings can limit the solar access of rooftop solar-energy systems, including photovoltaic panels and thermal collectors. This study characterizes rooftop shading in a residential neighborhood of San Jose, CA, one of four regions analyzed in a wider study of the solar access of California homes.High-resolution orthophotos and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) measurements of surface height were used to create a digital elevation model of all trees and buildings in a 4 km2 residential neighborhood. Hourly shading of roofing planes (the flat elements of roofs) was computed geometrically from the digital elevation model. Parcel boundaries were used to determine the extent to which roofing planes were shaded by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels.In the year in which surface heights were measured (2005), shadows from all sources ("total shading") reduced the insolation received by S-, SW-, and W-facing residential roofing planes in the study area by 13 - 16percent. Shadows cast by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels reduced insolation by no more than 2percent. After 30 years of simulated maximal tree growth, annual total shading increased to 19 - 22percent, and annual extraparcel shading increased to 3 - 4percent.

Levinson, Ronnen M.; Gupta, Smita; Akbari, Hashem; Pomerantz, Melvin

2008-03-03

371

Heavy metals in common foodstuff: Daily intake  

SciTech Connect

Lately, toxic effects of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) as well as desirable ones of some others (Ni, Mn, Zn) have been a field of thorough investigation. The main way of human body fortification in metals is through foodchain depending on the kind and quantity of the consumed food, according to dietary habits. The purpose of this study is the calculation of metals daily intake through common foodstuff of Greek inhabitants. The calculation is based on results from quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn in common foodstuff from the market of the city of Thessaloniki. The daily food consumption data is derived from three sources: (a) answers to a questionnaire distributed to families of the city of Thessaloniki, (b) nutrition data provided by the Agricultural Bank of Greece and (c) nutrition data according to international bibliography.

Tsoumbaris, P.; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H. (Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

1994-07-01

372

Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring in Daily Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous monitoring of blood pressure in daily life could improve early detection of cardiovascular disorders, as well as promoting healthcare. Conventional ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) equipment can measure blood pressure at regular intervals for 24 hours, but is limited by long measuring time, low sampling rate, and constrained measuring posture. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for continuous real-time measurement of blood pressure during daily activities. Our method is based on blood pressure estimation from pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation, which formula we improved to take into account changes in the inner diameter of blood vessels. Blood pressure estimation results using our new method showed a greater precision of measured data during exercise, and a better accuracy than the conventional PWV method.

Lopez, Guillaume; Shuzo, Masaki; Ushida, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Keita; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Imai, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akio; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

373

Daily urinary excretion of bisphenol A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Concerns over dietary exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, have been raised because BPA is contained in\\u000a resins and plastics commonly used for the preservation of food and beverages. The purpose of the present study was to assess\\u000a daily intake levels of BPA in a group of male subjects by measuring total urinary BPA (free BPA plus BPA

Chikako Arakawa; Kayumi Fujimaki; Jun Yoshinaga; Hideki Imai; Shigeko Serizawa; Hiroaki Shiraishi

2004-01-01

374

The epidemiology of chronic daily headache  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic daily headache (CDH) is a fairly common but disabling disorder that disproportionately affects women and afflicts\\u000a individuals across all stages of adulthood. It is a dynamic disorder, marked by relatively high rates of remission and incidence.\\u000a To some extent, this may be due to the accepted, but not empirically supported, cut-point of 15 headache days per month. The\\u000a purpose

Lynn A. Midgette; Ann I. Scher

2009-01-01

375

[Daily life of an epileptic child].  

PubMed

The daily life of an epileptic child will be affected by the constraints of the medical follow-up, the consequences on the cognitive functions and behaviour, the impact on the schooling and professional activity, recreation, social and family life. If certain factors associated with a less good quality of life have been identified (intellectual disability or handicap associated, drug-resistant epilepsy, combination therapy, low socio-economic level maternal, absence of aetiology identified, number of consultations and hospitalizations in the last few months...), the daily life is affected even in cases of epilepsy isolated well stabilized. The challenge of taking account of the impact of epilepsy on the daily lives of the first episode and throughout the monitoring is capital in order to best preserve the quality of life of the child and his family. This approach is the subject of a collaborative work with other actors medical and paramedical personnel, and need the constitution of a network. The establishment of therapeutic education projects on the model of diabetes mellitus could be valuable. PMID:23424923

Ville, Dorothée

2012-12-01

376

Daily variations in TOMS total ozone data  

SciTech Connect

The spatial and seasonal distributions of daily fluctuations in total ozone from 60{degree}N to 60{degree}S are analyzed by using 14.5 years of total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) data on a 5{degree} latitude by 15{degree} longitude grid. Root mean square day to day differences maximize near 30 Dobson units (DU) in the midlatitudes of both hemispheres from late fall to early spring. The contributions of these fluctuations due to planetary- and medium-scale waves are analyzed using sinusoidal zonal wave filtering. Daily midlatitude variations from planetary-scale waves are smaller than those from medium-scale waves and mainly occur from late fall to early spring, while strong medium-scale variations persist throughout fall, winter, and spring. An exception is the southern hemisphere high latitudes, where contortions and breakup of the polar vortex cause large daily variations on planetary scales during September and October. Tropical total ozone fluctuations due to planetary-scale waves are slightly larger than those due to medium-scale waves in all seasons. A climatological table of monthly RMS day to day total ozone changes is provided as a reference.{copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

Allen, D.R.; Reck, R.A. [Global Climate Change Program, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (United States)] [Global Climate Change Program, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (United States)

1997-06-01

377

Copula-based daily rainfall disaggregation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A daily rainfall disaggregation model, which uses a copula to model the dependence structure between total depth, total duration of wet periods, and the maximum proportional depth of a wet period, is presented. The wet(1)-dry(0) binary sequence is modeled by the nonrandomized Bartlett-Lewis model with diurnal effect incorporated before superimposing the AR(1) depth process submodel. Unlike previous studies, the model is structured such that all wet day data available are considered in the analysis, without the need to discard any good quality daily data embedded in a month having some missing data. This increased the data size, thus improving the modeling process. Further, the daily data are classified according to the total duration of wet periods duration within the day. In this way a large proportion of the model parameters become seasonal invariant, the overriding factor being the total duration of wet periods. The potential of the developed model has been demonstrated by disaggregating both the data set used in developing the model parameters and also a 12 year continuous rainfall data set not used in the model parameterization. Gross rainfall statistics of several aggregation levels down to 6 min have been very well reproduced by the disaggregation model. The copula dependence structure and the variation of the depth process submodel parameters with the total duration of wet periods are also very well captured by the presented model.

Gyasi-Agyei, Yeboah

2011-07-01

378

Intraindividual coupling of daily stress and cognition.  

PubMed

Most psychological theories predict associations among processes that transpire within individuals. However, these theories are often tested by examining relationships at the between-persons (BP) rather than the within-persons (WP) level. The authors examined the WP and BP relationships between daily stress and daily variability in cognitive performance. Daily stress and cognitive performance were assessed on 6 occasions in 108 older adults and 68 young adults. WP variability in stress predicted WP variability in response times (RTs) on a 2-back working memory task in both younger and older adults. That is, RTs were slower on high-stress days compared with low-stress days. There was evidence of an amplified WP stress effect in the older adults on a serial attention task. There was no evidence of stress effects on simple versions of these tasks that placed minimal demands on working memory. These results are consistent with theories that postulate that stress-related cognitive interference competes for attentional resources. PMID:16953716

Sliwinski, Martin J; Smyth, Joshua M; Hofer, Scott M; Stawski, Robert S

2006-09-01

379

Hemodynamic comparison of twice daily metoprolol tartrate with once daily metoprolol succinate in congestive heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo compare the hemodynamic effects of twice daily metoprolol tartrate (MT) and once daily metoprolol succinate (MS) in congestive heart failure patients.BACKGROUNDAdverse hemodynamic effects with MT demonstrated during initiation persist with drug readministration during chronic therapy.METHODSPatients were randomly assigned to 6.25 mg MT or 25 mg MS orally and the dose was gradually increased to a target of 50 mg

Marrick L Kukin; Michael M Mannino; Ronald S Freudenberger; Jill Kalman; Cathleen Buchholz-Varley; Ofelia Ocampo

2000-01-01

380

Solar Collectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar Energy's solar panels are collectors for a solar energy system which provides heating for a drive-in bank in Akron, OH. Collectors were designed and manufactured by Solar Energy Products, a firm established by three former NASA employees. Company President, Frank Rom, an example of a personnel-type technology transfer, was a Research Director at Lewis Research Center, which conducts extensive solar heating and cooling research, including development and testing of high-efficiency flat-plate collectors. Rom acquired solar energy expertise which helped the company develop two types of collectors, one for use in domestic/commercial heating systems and the other for drying grain.

1980-01-01

381

Dynamic conversion of solar generated heat to electricity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effort undertaken during this program led to the selection of the water-superheated steam (850 psig/900 F) crescent central receiver as the preferred concept from among 11 candidate systems across the technological spectrum of the dynamic conversion of solar generated heat to electricity. The solar power plant designs were investigated in the range of plant capacities from 100 to 1000 Mw(e). The investigations considered the impacts of plant size, collector design, feed-water temperature ratio, heat rejection equipment, ground cover, and location on solar power technical and economic feasibility. For the distributed receiver systems, the optimization studies showed that plant capacities less than 100 Mw(e) may be best. Although the size of central receiver concepts was not parametrically investigated, all indications are that the optimal plant capacity for central receiver systems will be in the range from 50 to 200 Mw(e). Solar thermal power plant site selection criteria and methodology were also established and used to evaluate potentially suitable sites. The result of this effort was to identify a site south of Inyokern, California, as typically suitable for a solar thermal power plant. The criteria used in the selection process included insolation and climatological characteristics, topography, and seismic history as well as water availability.

Powell, J. C.; Fourakis, E.; Hammer, J. M.; Smith, G. A.; Grosskreutz, J. C.; Mcbride, E.

1974-01-01

382

Dual axis sun tracking system with PV cell as the sensor, utilizing hybrid electrical characteristics of the cell to determine insolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and implementation of a novel two axis sun tracking system which utilizes no external light sensors to make PV cell facing in the direction of maximum irradiation to promote system efficiency. The novelty lies in the practical utilization of solar panels as the sensors. The hybrid of the solar cell's electrical attributes is used to

S. Dasgupta; Freddy Wilyanto Suwandi; S. K. Sahoo; S. K. Panda

2010-01-01

383

North American Satelite Climatology of 3d Solar Cloud Effects and its Applicability for Renewable Energy Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 5-channel record begins in 1981 and represents three decades of cloud measurements from NOAA's polar-orbiting satellite series. The Pathfinder Atmospheres Extended (PATMOS-x) product employs this record to generate a suite of products including cloud micro- and macro-physical field properties and solar fluxes. In this study we use this product to generate a climatology of solar insolation anomalies over North America due to cloud three-dimensional radiative effects. Specifically, a metric based on measurements of small-scale visible channel variability and sensor-viewing angle identifies areas with significant cloud heterogeneity, an indicator that 3D radiative transfer calculations might differ significantly from those of a traditional plane-parallel model. A stochastic radiative transfer model is employed to simulate the 3D effect on surface and top of the atmosphere solar fluxes, and regional trends in cloud forcing and the implications for solar surface fluxes are explored.

Foster, M. J.; Heidinger, A. K.

2011-12-01

384

The dual-bed hydrogen production process as being developed by the Florida Solar Energy Center. Process study  

SciTech Connect

Clovis Linkous of the Florida Solar Energy Center is developing a dual-bed hydrogen production process. The idea is to break the water splitting process into two separate chemical reactions, each with roughly {1/2} the electrochemical potential of direct water dissociation. This enables the dual-bed process to utilize a much broader range of sunlight photons than conventional photoelectrochemical (PEC) systems. However, it requires twice as many photons per unit of hydrogen produced. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate and quantify the trade-offs presented by the dual bed process and determine if it holds economic potential as a hydrogen production technology. The capital cost of a /solar-based water dissociation system is roughly proportional to the solar collection surface area. Thus, the economics rely on how much hydrogen can be produced per unit of solar insolation.

DiPietro, J.P.; Skolnik, E.G. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

1997-06-01

385

Photovoltaic solar array technology required for three wide scale generating systems for terrestrial applications: rooftop, solar farm, and satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three major options for wide-scale generation of photovoltaic energy for terrestrial use are considered: (1) rooftop array, (2) solar farm, and (3) satellite station. The rooftop array would use solar cell arrays on the roofs of residential or commercial buildings; the solar farm would consist of large ground-based arrays, probably in arid areas with high insolation; and the satellite station would consist of an orbiting solar array, many square kilometers in area. The technology advancement requirements necessary for each option are discussed, including cost reduction of solar cells and arrays, weight reduction, resistance to environmental factors, reliability, and fabrication capability, including the availability of raw materials. The majority of the technology advancement requirements are applicable to all three options, making possible a flexible basic approach regardless of the options that may eventually be chosen. No conclusions are drawn as to which option is most advantageous, since the feasibility of each option depends on the success achieved in the technology advancement requirements specified.

Berman, P. A.

1972-01-01

386

Solar Geometry  

Solar Noon (GMT time) The time when the sun is due south in the northern hemisphere or due north in the southern ... The average cosine of the angle between the sun and directly overhead during daylight hours.   Cosine solar ...

2014-09-25

387

Solar Flares  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page details and resources that help support an understanding of solar flares on our sun. When we are drawing a sun on a piece of paper, they usually look like this: Cartoon Picture of a Sun The spiky lines have a name - Solar Flares. This is when the sun releases gas and heat into the atmosphere. Click on this picture to see what a solar flare looks like. Picture of a Solar Flare 2 In this video, you ...

Verlengia, Mrs.

2011-12-10

388

Solar Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a “Solar distillation” is a technology for producing potable water from brackish and underground water of low-quality at low\\u000a cost. It can reduce water-scarcity problems together with other water purification technologies. Solar distillation is analogous\\u000a to natural hydrological cycle. It uses an apparatus called a solar still in which water is evaporated using solar energy,\\u000a a form of renewable energy, and

Rahul Dev; Gopal Nath Tiwari

389

Daily lsa-saf evapotranspiration product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF), some models have been implemented in view to characterize continental surfaces by using information obtained from MSG and EPS satellites. In this context a method has been developed in order to monitor the flux of water (Evapotranspiration) between the land surface and the atmosphere. The method is based on a physical approach in which radiative data derived from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites together with land-cover information are used to constrain a physical model of energy exchange between the soil-vegetation system and the atmosphere. The implemented algorithm provides instantaneous ET estimates over four regions defined in the MSG FOV (the defined regions cover Europe, Africa and the west of south America), with MSG spatial resolution (3km at sub satellite point) and a temporal time step of 30 minutes. The scope of the method is limited to evaporation from terrestrial surfaces rather than from lakes or oceans. The instantaneous product has been validated over different vegetation cover and climatic conditions, providing evidence that the algorithm is able to reproduce ET estimates with accuracy equivalent to the accuracy of ET obtained from observations. In 2009 the instantaneous ET product has been declared pre-operational by EUMETSAT, allowing the product to be disseminated to a larger community of users (http://landsaf.meteo.pt). In some areas like agriculture, hydrology, water management, ecology and climate studies the main concern is not instantaneous but accumulated values over days, months or longer periods. To encompass the need for these community of users, a daily ET product in which daily evapotranspiration is obtained as temporal integration of instantaneous values has been developed. In this contribution we will present the methodology used to obtain instantaneous ET estimates and the procedure applied to derive daily-cumulated values. Examples at local and regional scale will be presented.

Arboleda Rodallega, Alirio; Ghilain, Nicolas; Meulenberghs, Francoise

2010-05-01

390

Buying Solar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are guidelines for buying solar systems for the individual consumer. This is intended to help the consumer reduce many of the risks associated with the purchase of solar systems, particularly the risks of fraud and deception. Engineering terms associated with solar technology are presented and described to enable the consumer to discuss…

Dawson, Joe

391

BOREAS TE-21 Daily Surface Meteorological Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-21 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the meteorology of boreal forest areas. Daily meteorological data were derived from half-hourly BOREAS tower flux (TF) and Automatic Meteorological Station (AMS) mesonet measurements collected in the Southern and Northern Study Areas (SSA and NSA) for the period of 01 Jan 1994 until 31 Dec 1994. The data were stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Kimball, John; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

2000-01-01

392

iDailyDiary 3.1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The most intimate of all prose may be in fact the world of the personal diary. In the digital age, diaries can be placed online for full disclosure or kept in a secretive file on a computer desktop. With this program, visitors can keep a diary that contains various image files, such as animated GIFs or different icons. Users can also create as many diaries as they want, and they may also enter links to other diary pages. This version of iDailyDiary 3.1 is compatible with computers running Windows 95 and newer.

2004-01-01

393

Daily Lesson Plan: Thirsty for Drought Relief  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Daily Lesson Plan from the New York Times Learning Network, students explore a variety of drought-related issues and research possible courses of action as part of a "drought preparedness taskforce." Based on New York Times coverage of drought in Arizona (story link provided), this exercise offers an active, interdisciplinary way to learn about water conservation and the ecological and economic effects of drought. Designed for grades 6-8 or 9-12, this exercise can be completed in one class period. The site includes useful Web links and a printer-friendly version of the lesson plan. Free registration is required.

Anderson, Bridget.; Chan, Priscilla.

2003-01-01

394

Periodicities of solar flare and its relations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Daily flare index during period between March 1975 and May 1978, were studied by using power spectral analysis method. There are periodicities between 4.5 days to 21.7 days. Our results confirm the periodicity around 12.5 days found by several authors. This periodicity was attributed to the rotation of solar core. Long term periodicities were given where 88 and 320 days periodicities were confirmed. The relation between these periodicities and other solar activities periodicity were given.

Hady, Ahmed A.

1995-01-01

395

SOHO: The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The SOHO homepage offers a wealth of information about the SOHO mission and spacecraft. The Latest Images shows the daily solar images from the SOHO instruments. Included in the SOHO archive are catalogues; ancillary, summary, and synoptic data; and telemetry. Information is also available about the mission of the SOHO project, instruments used, and institutions involved in the project. The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft is a mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

1998-01-01

396

Insignificant solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examine the claim that solar-terrestrial interaction, as measured by sunspots, solar wind velocity, and geomagnetic activity, might play a role in triggering earthquakes. We count the number of earthquakes having magnitudes that exceed chosen thresholds in calendar years, months, and days, and we order these counts by the corresponding rank of annual, monthly, and daily averages of the solar-terrestrial variables. We measure the statistical significance of the difference between the earthquake-number distributions below and above the median of the solar-terrestrial averages by ?2 and Student's t tests. Across a range of earthquake magnitude thresholds, we find no consistent and statistically significant distributional differences. We also introduce time lags between the solar-terrestrial variables and the number of earthquakes, but again no statistically significant distributional difference is found. We cannot reject the null hypothesis of no solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes.

Love, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Jeremy N.

2013-01-01

397

Tilted Solar Panels  

Radiation on equator-pointed tilted surfaces (kWh/m2/day) Radiation on tilted surfaces is calculated from the monthly average insolation ... The optimum angle provides the monthly averaged maximum radiation.   Minimum radiation for equator-pointed tilted surfaces ...

2014-09-25

398

Chronic daily headache in the elderly.  

PubMed

Disabling headache disorders are ubiquitous in all age groups, including the elderly, yet they are under-recognized, underdiagnosed and undertreated worldwide. Surveys and clinic-based research reports on headache disorders in elderly populations are extremely limited in number. Chronic daily headache (CDH) is an important and growing subtype of primary headache disorders, associated with increased burden and disruption to quality of life. CDH can be divided into two forms, based on headache duration. Common forms of primary headache disorders of long duration (>4 hours) were comprehensively defined in the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). These include chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. Rarer short-duration (<4 hours) forms of CDH are chronic cluster headache, chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT, and hypnic headache. Accurate diagnosis, management, and relief of the burden of CDH in the elderly population present numerous unique challenges as the "aging world" continues to grow. In order to implement appropriate coping strategies for the elderly, it is essential to establish the correct diagnosis at each step and to exercise caution in differentiating from secondary causes, while always taking into consideration the unique needs and limitations of the aged body. PMID:24173611

Özge, Aynur

2013-12-01

399

Spacial Statistical Correlation of Solar Energy and Eliophany over Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simoultaneous occurrence of pre-determined levels of daily energy amounts or eliophany is analyzed for more than four hundreds of couples of sites all over the Italian territory. This approach could be very helpful both for the design of a large scale solar feeding network and for the evaluation of the spacial characteristics of solar radiation. The results show that

Francesco Barbaliscia; Piergiorgio Masullo; Giacomo Ravaioli

1986-01-01

400

A simulation of solar energy at the ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

The daily regime of the global solar radiation at the ground has been calculated at the six stations of the Canadian radiation network situated in Quebec with a numerical model simulating solar energy transfer through the atmosphere. Humidity, background pollution and ground surface albedo data were interpolated in time and space from the known monthly climatology. Cloud data were inferred

G. Paulin

1980-01-01

401

Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning  

SciTech Connect

Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as the temporal capacity of the back-up system. These plants can work like a conventional power plant and compete in the energy stock market avoiding intermittence in electricity production. This work presents a comparisons of statistical models based on time series applied to predict half daily values of global solar irradiance with a temporal horizon of 3 days. Half daily values consist of accumulated hourly global solar irradiance from solar raise to solar noon and from noon until dawn for each day. The dataset of ground solar radiation used belongs to stations of Spanish National Weather Service (AEMet). The models tested are autoregressive, neural networks and fuzzy logic models. Due to the fact that half daily solar irradiance time series is non-stationary, it has been necessary to transform it to two new stationary variables (clearness index and lost component) which are used as input of the predictive models. Improvement in terms of RMSD of the models essayed is compared against the model based on persistence. The validation process shows that all models essayed improve persistence. The best approach to forecast half daily values of solar irradiance is neural network models with lost component as input, except Lerida station where models based on clearness index have less uncertainty because this magnitude has a linear behaviour and it is easier to simulate by models. (author)

Martin, Luis; Marchante, Ruth; Cony, Marco [Investigaciones y Recursos Solares Avanzados (IrSOLaV), Tres Cantos 2 8045 (Spain); Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Polo, Jesus; Navarro, Ana [Energy Department, CIEMAT, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

2010-10-15

402

Solar Sailing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar sailing is a topic of growing technical and popular interest. Solar sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to destinations within (and beyond) the solar system that are currently beyond our technical reach. The lecture will describe solar sails, how they work, and what they will be used for in the exploration of space. It will include a discussion of current plans for solar sails and how advanced technology, such as nanotechnology, might enhance their performance. Much has been accomplished recently to make solar sail technology very close to becoming an engineering reality and it will soon be used by the world s space agencies in the exploration of the solar system and beyond. The first part of the lecture will summarize state-of-the-art space propulsion systems and technologies. Though these other technologies are the key to any deep space exploration by humans, robots, or both, solar-sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to distant and difficult destinations. The second part of the lecture will describe the fundamentals of space solar sail propulsion and will describe the near-, mid- and far-term missions that might use solar sails as a propulsion system. The third part of the lecture will describe solar sail technology and the construction of current and future sailcraft, including the work of both government and private space organizations.

Johnson, Les

2009-01-01

403

A method for characterization and inter-comparison of sites with regard to solar energy utilization by statistical analysis of their solar radiation data as performed for three sites in the Israel Negev region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the characterization and inter-comparison of sites with regard to their suitability for utilization of solar energy based upon the statistical analysis of their solar radiation intensities is presented. In this method each monthly data set of the daily global, horizontal beam and diffuse radiation intensities was analyzed and the following parameters were determined: monthly average daily radiation

Amiran Ianetz; Vera Lyubansky; Ilan Setter; Efim G. Evseev; Avraham I. Kudish

2000-01-01

404

40 CFR 75.45 - Daily quality assurance criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Daily quality assurance criteria. 75.45 Section 75.45 Protection of...Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.45 Daily quality assurance criteria. The owner or operator shall...

2011-07-01

405

40 CFR 75.45 - Daily quality assurance criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Daily quality assurance criteria. 75.45 Section 75.45 Protection of...Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.45 Daily quality assurance criteria. The owner or operator shall...

2013-07-01

406

40 CFR 75.45 - Daily quality assurance criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Daily quality assurance criteria. 75.45 Section 75.45 Protection of...Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.45 Daily quality assurance criteria. The owner or operator shall...

2010-07-01

407

40 CFR 75.45 - Daily quality assurance criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Daily quality assurance criteria. 75.45 Section 75.45 Protection of...Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.45 Daily quality assurance criteria. The owner or operator shall...

2012-07-01

408

27 CFR 19.736 - Daily production records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily production records. 19.736 Section 19.736...DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Account § 19.736 Daily production records. (a) Spirits production....

2010-04-01

409

27 CFR 19.740 - Daily storage records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily storage records. 19.740 Section 19.740 Alcohol...DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Storage Account § 19.740 Daily storage records. (a) General. Proprietors...

2010-04-01

410

Ozone and Daily Mortality in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Background Controversy remains regarding the relationship between ambient ozone and mortality worldwide. In mainland China, the largest developing country, there has been no prior study investigating the acute effect of O3 on death risk. Given the changes in types of air pollution from conventional coal combustion to the mixed coal combustion/motor vehicle emissions in China’s large cities, it is worthwhile to investigate the acute effect of O3 on mortality outcomes in the country. Objectives We conducted a time-series study to investigate the relation between O3 and daily mortality in Shanghai using 4 years of daily data (2001–2004). Methods We used the generalized additive model with penalized splines to analyze mortality, O3 pollution, and covariate data in warm and cold seasons. We considered daily counts of all-cause mortality and several cause-specific subcategories (respiratory and cardiovascular). We also examined these associations among several subpopulations based on age and sex. Results O3 was significantly associated with total and cardiovascular mortality in the cold season but not in the warm season. In the whole-year analysis, an increase of 10 ?g/m3 of 2-day average (lag01) O3 corresponds to 0.45% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.16–0.73%], 0.53% (95% CI, 0.10–0.96%), and 0.35% (95% CI, ?0.40 to 1.09%) increase of total nonaccidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. In the cold season, the estimates increased to 1.38% (95% CI, 0.68–2.07%), 1.53% (95% CI, 0.54–2.52%), and 0.95% (95% CI, ?0.71 to 2.60%), respectively. In the warm season, we did not observe significant associations for both total and cause-specific mortality. The results were generally insensitive to model specifications such as lag structure of O3 concentrations and degree of freedom for time trend. Multipollutant models indicate that the effect of O3 was not confounded by particulate matter ? 10 ?m in diameter (PM10) or by sulfur dioxide; however, after adding nitrogen dioxide into the model, the association of O3 with total and cardiovascular mortality became statistically insignificant. Conclusions O3 pollution has stronger health effects in the cold than in the warm season in Shanghai. Our analyses also strengthen the rationale for further limiting levels of O3 pollution in outdoor air in the city. PMID:16882530

Zhang, Yunhui; Huang, Wei; London, Stephanie J.; Song, Guixiang; Chen, Guohai; Jiang, Lili; Zhao, Naiqing; Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

2006-01-01

411

Investigation of daily covering material for biocells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioreactor landfilling, with the acceptance of landfill Directive 1999/31/EC has lost its actuality in European Union; at the same time, this method can still be used for acceleration of biowaste degradation and biogas production. One of the possibilities to reduce the disposal of biowaste is to use biocells for its anaerobic pre-treatment before landfilling. The daily filling up of such a cell requires isolation of the main volume to limit gas emissions, reduce smells, etc. Bioprocesses that are of the utmost importance for biocell treatment are often not taken into account in selection of materials to be used as daily landfill covers. Based on physical, chemical and biological methods the investigations have been carried out into different covering materials offered in the market, with identification of parameters that are the most important for daily covering the biocells. It is found that the materials fitted best this purpose should be of biological origin and consist of small bio-particles with large surface, without the inhibitors of anaerobic processes such as sulphuric compounds. Bioreaktoru pielietošana atkritumu uzglab?šanas sf?r?, sakar? ar Direkt?vas 1999/31/EC pie?emšanu, ir zaud?jusi savu aktualit?ti, ta?u š? metode v?l joproj?m var tikt izmantota bioatkritumu no?rd?šanai un biog?zes ražošanai. Viena no iesp?j?m k? samazin?t bioatkritumu izvietošanu ir bioš?nu izmantošana bioatkritumu anaerobai pirmsapstr?dei pirms to noglab?šanas. Š?nas piepild?šana ikdien? prasa nepieciešam?bu izol?t liel?ko t?s da?u, lai samazin?tu g?zes emisiju, smakas, utt. Materi?li, kas ikdien? tiek izmantoti atkritumu p?rkl?šanai, nepietiekami ietekm? bioprocesus, kas pamat? ir galvenais bioš?nas izmantošanas m?r?is. Šaj? sakar? ir veikta daž?du tirdzniec?b? pieejamu p?rkl?juma materi?lu izp?te, pielietojot virkni fizik?lo, ??misko un biolo?isko metožu, un nosakot svar?g?kos parametrus, kas ir b?tiski šo materi?lu izmantošanai ikdien? k? bioš?nas p?rkl?jumu. P?t?jumu rezult?t? noteikts, ka visatbilstoš?kie ir materi?li ar biolo?isko izcelsmi, sast?voši no maz?m bio da?i??m ar lielu laukumu bez anaerobo procesu inhibitoriem, piem?ram, s?ra komponent?m.

Bendere, R.; Smigins, R.; Medne, O.; Berzina-Cimdina, L.; Rugele, K.

2014-02-01

412

Optimization of tilt angle for solar panel: Case study for Madinah, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the optimal choice of the tilt angle for the solar panel in order to collect the maximum solar irradiation. In this paper, the collector surface is assumed to be facing toward equator. The study is based upon the measured values of daily global and diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface. It is shown that the optimal

M. Benghanem

2011-01-01

413

Solar-energy availability in the north-eastern Arabian peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar energy potential of north-east Saudi Arabia is investigated based on measurements of a complete year's data at a coastal location near Dhahran. High resolution, real time solar radiation data were collected and processed. Hourly, daily and monthly statistics of solar radiation were made from the 1 min averaged recorded values. Clearness index is discussed on the basis of

Ahmet Z. Sahin; Ahmet Aksakal; Mehmet Sunar

1999-01-01

414

Solar spectral irradiance, 120 to 190nm, October 13, 1981January 3, 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning on October 13, 1981 a two channel spectrometer aboard the Solar Mesosphere Explorer has been obtaining daily measurements of full disc solar irradiance. These observations cover the spectral interval 120 to 305nm with approx..75nm spectral resolution. The relative accuracy of the measurements from day to day over the first three solar rotations is approximately 1%. In this report we

G. J. Rottman; C. A. Barth; R. J. Thomas; G. H. Mount; G. M. Lawrence; D. W. Rusch; R. W. Sanders; G. E. Thomas

1982-01-01

415

Buffer thermal energy storage for an air Brayton solar engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of latent-heat buffer thermal energy storage to a point-focusing solar receiver equipped with an air Brayton engine was studied. To demonstrate the effect of buffer thermal energy storage on engine operation, a computer program was written which models the recuperator, receiver, and thermal storage device as finite-element thermal masses. Actual operating or predicted performance data are used for all components, including the rotating equipment. Based on insolation input and a specified control scheme, the program predicts the Brayton engine operation, including flows, temperatures, and pressures for the various components, along with the engine output power. An economic parametric study indicates that the economic viability of buffer thermal energy storage is largely a function of the achievable engine life.

Strumpf, H. J.; Barr, K. P.

1981-01-01

416

Mars orbits with daily repeating ground traces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper derives orbits at Mars with ground traces that repeat at the same times every solar day (sol). A relay orbiter in such an orbit would pass over insitu probes at the same times every sol, ensuring consistent coverage and simplifying mission design and operations. 42 orbits in five classes are characteried: 14 cicular equatorial prograde orbits; 14 circular equatorial retrograde orbits; 11 circular sun synchrounous orbits; 2 eccentroc equatorial orbits; 1 eccentric critcally inclined orbit. the paper reports on the performance of a relay orbiter in some of the orbits.

Noreen, Gary K.; Kerridge, Stuart; Diehl, Roger; neelon, Joseph; Ely, Todd; Turner, Andrew

2003-01-01

417

Apparent Relations Between Solar Activity and Solar Tides Caused by the Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar storm is a storm of ions and electrons from the Sun. Large solar storms are usually preceded by solar flares, phenomena that can be characterized quantitatively from Earth. Twenty-five of the thirty-eight largest known solar flares were observed to start when one or more tide-producing planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Jupiter) were either nearly above the event positions (less than 10 deg. longitude) or at the opposing side of the Sun. The probability for this to happen at random is 0.039 percent. This supports the hypothesis that the force or momentum balance (between the solar atmospheric pressure, the gravity field, and magnetic field) on plasma in the looping magnetic field lines in solar corona could be disturbed by tides, resulting in magnetic field reconnection, solar flares, and solar storms. Separately, from the daily position data of Venus, Earth, and Jupiter, an 11-year planet alignment cycle is observed to approximately match the sunspot cycle. This observation supports the hypothesis that the resonance and beat between the solar tide cycle and nontidal solar activity cycle influences the sunspot cycle and its varying magnitudes. The above relations between the unpredictable solar flares and the predictable solar tidal effects could be used and further developed to forecast the dangerous space weather and therefore reduce its destructive power against the humans in space and satellites controlling mobile phones and global positioning satellite (GPS) systems.

Hung, Ching-Cheh

2007-01-01

418

Illinois Digital Newspaper Collection: The Daily Illini  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digitization of historically important and interesting newspapers continues apace, and this latest collection is quite a find. The Illinois Digital Newspaper Collection is a project of the History, Philosophy, and Newspaper Library at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Library. Their first project is the digitization of select years from the Daily Illini, which is the student newspaper on campus. Currently, visitors can browse and search papers from 1916 to 1936, and there are plans to include the years 1937 to 1945 in the near future. Interested parties can also search by keyword across articles, advertisements and photo captions. One can imagine that this type of archive would be of interest to social historians, journalists, and anyone who wishes to peer into the world of campus life in the Roaring 20s and the not-so-Roaring 30s.

2008-01-01

419

Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Iron and folic acid supplementation has been the preferred intervention to improve iron stores and prevent anaemia among pregnant women, and it may also improve other maternal and birth outcomes. Objectives To assess the effects of daily oral iron supplements for pregnant women, either alone or in conjunction with folic acid, or with other vitamins and minerals as a public health intervention. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (2 July 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (2 July 2012) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effects of oral preventive supplementation with daily iron, iron + folic acid or iron + other vitamins and minerals during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results We included 60 trials. Forty-three trials, involving more than 27,402 women, contributed data and compared the effects of daily oral supplements containing iron versus no iron or placebo. Overall, women taking iron supplements were less likely to have low birthweight newborns (below 2500 g) compared with controls (8.4% versus 10.2%, average risk ratio (RR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.97, 11 trials, 8480 women) and mean birthweight was 30.81 g greater for those infants whose mothers received iron during pregnancy (average mean difference (MD) 30.81; 95% CI 5.94 to 55.68, 14 trials, 9385 women). Preventive iron supplementation reduced the risk of maternal anaemia at term by 70% (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.46, 14 trials, 2199 women) and iron deficiency at term by 57% (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.66, seven trials, 1256 women). Although the difference between groups did not reach statistical significance, women who received iron supplements were more likely than controls to report side effects (25.3% versus 9.91%) (RR 2.36; 95% CI 0.96 to 5.82, 11 trials, 4418 women), particularly at doses 60 mg of elemental iron or higher. Women receiving iron were on average more likely to have higher haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations at term and in the postpartum period, but were at increased risk of Hb concentrations greater than 130g/L during pregnancy and at term. Twenty-three studies were conducted in countries that in 2011 had some malaria risk in parts of the country. In some of these countries/territories, malaria is present only in certain areas or up to a particular altitude. Only two of these reported malaria outcomes. There is no evidence that iron supplementation increases placental malaria. For some outcomes heterogeneity was higher than 50%. Authors’ conclusions Prenatal supplementation with daily iron are effective to reduce the risk of low birthweight, and to prevent maternal anaemia and iron deficiency in pregnancy. Associated maternal side effects and particularly high Hb concentrations during pregnancy at currently used doses suggest the need to update recommendations on doses and regimens for routine iron supplementation. PMID:23235616

Pena-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

2014-01-01

420

Behaviour of daily river flow: Chaotic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to provide evidence of the chaotic behavior of the daily river flow data at Lubuk Paku station on the Pahang River in the Pahang River Basin in Malaysia. Four nonlinear dynamic methods are employed: (1) phase space reconstruction; (2) average mutual information algorithm; (3) false nearest neighbors algorithm; and (4) correlation dimension method. First, average mutual information method is used to determine a first minimum of delay time. Second, the sufficient embedding dimension is estimated using the false nearest neighbour algorithm. The time delay and sufficient dimension are used in phase space reconstruction. The presence of chaos in river flow has been analyzed through the correlation dimension method. The correlation dimension is less than 3. Hence, we can conclude that low correlation dimension presence by examined river flow time series data Lubuk Paku station on the Pahang River, Malaysia.

Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi

2013-04-01

421

[Thyroid tumors in daily clinical settings].  

PubMed

Due to the widespread use of neck ultrasonography, physicians often encounter thyroid nodules in daily clinical settings. Most of them are benign such as adenomatous goiter or follicular adenoma; however, some malignant tumors can be contaminated. Thyroid malignancies are classified into several histological varieties including papillary, follicular, anaplastic, medullary thyroid carcinomas and so on. Each histological type of thyroid carcinoma has distinct biological characteristics and should be diagnosed and treated differentially. The majority of thyroid cancers fortunately have a favorable prognosis, while some of them need a multidisciplinary treatment by specialists. In order to minimize patients' anxiety, physicians have to be knowledgeable about these features and discriminate risky tumors from others properly. PMID:23214069

Toda, Kazuhisa; Sugitani, Iwao

2012-11-01

422

Council on Foreign Relations: Daily Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council on Foreign Relations produces an impressive array of background papers, online debates, op-ed pieces, and articles every year. International relations gurus, policy pundits, and members of the public benefit widely from these works, and those persons who haven't looked over the Council's "Daily Analysis" yet, may wish to do so now. Here visitors can read analytical briefs written by staff members on issues of the day, complete with links to "the news, analysis, commentary, and primary source materials that put the facts in context." The briefs are arranged chronologically, and recent pieces include "Is Brain Drain Good For Africa?", "China's Olympic Moment", and "Picking Presidents and Foreign Policy". These briefs are a great way to get acquainted with important news developments from around the world, and it's easy to see how educators might want to draw on the site as a resource for political science or international relations courses.

2008-01-01

423

Cultural differences in daily support experiences.  

PubMed

Previous research has suggested that Asian Americans (AAs) are less likely to mobilize social support, and find support to be less helpful, when compared with European Americans (EAs). In a 10-day daily diary study of AA and EA college students, we hypothesized that AAs would activate support less frequently than EAs for both stressful and positive events, a cultural difference that would be mediated by group harmony values. We also predicted that AAs would find support to be less helpful, and we explored differences in the sources of support used. Results confirmed that cultural differences in support use were partially mediated by the value of maintaining group harmony through emotional restraint. AAs also perceived received support to be less helpful and more frequently used discretionary rather than kinship support sources. Findings suggest that naturalistic support experiences differ markedly for these groups, with implications for help-seeking behavior and mental health services. PMID:20658885

Wang, Shu-wen; Shih, Josephine H; Hu, Alison W; Louie, Jennifer Y; Lau, Anna S

2010-07-01

424

Determination of Thermal State of Charge in Solar Heat Receivers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research project at Howard University seeks to develop analytical and numerical capabilities to study heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics, and the prediction of the performance of solar heat receivers for space applications. Specifically, the study seeks to elucidate the effects of internal and external thermal radiation, geometrical and applicable dimensionless parameters on the overall heat transfer in space solar heat receivers. Over the last year, a procedure for the characterization of the state-of-charge (SOC) in solar heat receivers for space applications has been developed. By identifying the various factors that affect the SOC, a dimensional analysis is performed resulting in a number of dimensionless groups of parameters. Although not accomplished during the first phase of the research, data generated from a thermal simulation program can be used to determine values of the dimensionless parameters and the state-of-charge and thereby obtain a correlation for the SOC. The simulation program selected for the purpose is HOTTube, a thermal numerical computer code based on a transient time-explicit, axisymmetric model of the total solar heat receiver. Simulation results obtained with the computer program are presented the minimum and maximum insolation orbits. In the absence of any validation of the code with experimental data, results from HOTTube appear reasonable qualitatively in representing the physical situations modeled.

Glakpe, E. K.; Cannon, J. N.; Hall, C. A., III; Grimmett, I. W.

1996-01-01

425

Ozone and daily mortality in Shanghai, China  

SciTech Connect

Given the changes in types of air pollution from conventional coal combustion to the mixed coal combustion/motor vehicle emissions in China's large cities, it is worthwhile to investigate the acute effect of O{sub 3} on mortality outcomes in the country. We conducted a time-series study to investigate the relation between O{sub 3} and daily mortality in Shanghai using 4 years of daily data (2001-2004). O{sub 3} was found to be significantly associated with total and cardiovascular mortality in the cold season but not in the warm season. In the whole-year analysis, an increase of 10 pg/m{sup 3} of 2-day average O{sub 3} corresponds to 0.45% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.16-0.73%), 0.53% (95% CI, 0.10-0.96%), and 0.35% (95% CI, -0.40 to 1.09%) increase of total nonaccidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. In the cold season, the estimates increased to 1.38% (95% CI , 0.68-2.07%), 1.53% (95% CI, 0.54-2.52%), and 0.95% (95% CI, -0.71 to 2.60%), respectively. In the warm season, we did not observe significant associations for both total and causespecific mortality. The results were generally insensitive to model specifications such as lag structure of O{sub 3} concentrations and degree of freedom for time trend. Multipoflutant models indicate that the effect of O{sub 3} was not confounded by particulate matter {<=} 10 {mu} m in diameter (PM10) or by sulfur dioxide; however, after adding nitrogen dioxide into the model, the association of O{sub 3} with total and cardiovascular mortality became statistically insignificant.

Zhang, Y.H.; Huang, W.; London, S.J.; Song, G.X.; Chen, G.H.; Jiang, L.L.; Zhao, N.Q.; Chen, B.H.; Kan, H.D. [NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2006-08-15

426

Charcoal-methanol adsorption refrigerator powered by a compound parabolic concentrating solar collector  

SciTech Connect

A compound parabolic concentrating solar collector (CPC) of concentration ratio 3.9 and aperture area 2.0 m[sup 2] was used to power an intermittent solid adsorption refrigerator and ice maker using activated charcoal (carbon) as the adsorbing medium and methanol as the working fluid. The copper tube receiver of the CPC was packed with 2.5 kg of imported adsorbent 207E3, which was only utilized when the performance of activated charcoal (ACJ1, produced from local coconut shells) was found to be inferior to the imported adsorbent. Up to 1 kg of ice at an evaporator temperature of [minus]6[degrees]C was produced, with the net solar coefficient of performance (COP) being of the order of 0.02. Maximum receiver/adsorbent temperature recorded was 154[degrees]C on a day when the insolation was 26.8 MJ/m[sup [minus]2]. Temperatures in excess of 150[degrees]C are undesirable since they favour the conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether, a noncondensable gas which inhibits both condensation and adsorption. The major advantage of this system is its ability to produce ice even on overcast days (insolation [approximately] 10 MJ/m[sup [minus]2]).

Headley, O.StC.; Kothdiwala, A.F.; McDoom, I.A. (Univ. of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago))

1994-08-01

427

Experimental Analysis of a Reduced Daily Bluegill Limit in Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a reduced daily limit (from 30 to 10 fish\\/d) on the size structure of bluegills Lepomis macrochirus in eight Minnesota lakes was measured with a controlled and replicated experiment. Bluegills from four treatment lakes (daily limit of 10 fish) and four control lakes (daily limit of 30 fish) were sampled in 2 years prior to regulation implementation

Peter C. Jacobson

2005-01-01

428

Solar radiation potential in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

The primary input in solar energy applications is the solar radiation data. In places of interest, the long term correlations can be developed using the other meterological parameters. Bright sunshine hours are the mostly applied parameter. In this work, a quadratic equation of modified Angstrom type is used to estimate the global irradiances of the fifty stations in the country. These stations are located between 36/sup 0/ and 42/sup 0/ N latitudes. Moreover, the information of the beam and diffuse components of radiation on both the hourly and daily basis are necessary for the detailed system analyses. The general approach is to split the daily medium global radiation to its components, and to predict their hourly variations during a day. These values can also be converted to non-horizontal surfaces with the given inclination and orientation. To this end, there exist important relations deducted from the measured data. Among them the interrelationships of Liu and Jordon are applied to predict the hourly radiation components on any plane for the same fifty locations. The most significant computer output tables are collected to form a ''Solar Radiation Handbook of Turkey''. Any required information on solar radiation can be obtained in detail from these tables.

Tasdemiroglu, E.

1983-12-01

429

The lunar daily geomagnetic variation and its dependence on sunspot number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed spherical harmonic model of the lunar daily geomagnetic variation, L, is presented and discussed. This model, which is based on a vastly greater data-set than hitherto, is compared to an earlier model of the solar daily geomagnetic variation, S, which is based on the same data. The dependence of L on sunspot number, as measured by the Wolf ratio, is found to be less than that of S by a factor of 2. It is confirmed that the dependence of S, L and E-region conductivity with sunspot cycle differ significantly from one another, casting doubt on that region as the principal location for the L and S dynamo currents.

Çelik, Cengiz

2014-11-01

430

Solar radiation on variously oriented sloping surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly average daily irradiation on surfaces tilted towards the equator and also inclined at various azimuth angles are estimated for two locations in Lesotho and the results are presented. The isotropic model suggested by Liu and Jordan (Trans. of Ashrae, 526, 1962) along with the modified equation of Klein (Solar Energy, 19, 4, 1977) are employed for the estimation purposes.

K GOPINATHAN

1991-01-01

431

Development and comparison of HP-41C software to predict solar irradiation of tilted surfaces, based upon cloud cover factors  

SciTech Connect

Summarized is a comparison between predicted and measured solar radiation and cloud cover data from NOAA weather stations and Solar Energy Meterological Research and Training Sites at various locations throughout the US, based upon a semiempirical method which was used recently to generate synthetic insolation data for correlation with measured solar performance under the SUEDE program. This method is unique, since it predicts irradiation of a tilted surface from sky cover estimates by weather observers, using a modified ASHRAE method to compute direct and diffuse insolation on a clear day. Data comparisons were made using an HP-41C programmable calculator, card reader, printer, and eight magnetic cards. Although a more detailed study with a larger data base is desirable, these particular findings, using hourly summations to obtain monthly averages in 1980, indicate that approximately -5 to 15% difference between measured and calculated monthly results is typical of continental US sites. A sensitivity study indicated that monthly percentage differences are reduced by centering ASHRAE constants and earth declination on the 15th day of each month instead of the 21st day.

Nawrocki, A.D.; Anderson, S.P.

1982-01-01

432

Daily ozone cycle in the stratosphere: global, regional and seasonal behaviour modelled with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) is utilised to study the daily ozone cycle and underlying photochemical and dynamical processes. The analysis is focused on the daily ozone cycle in the middle stratosphere at 5 hPa where satellite-based trend estimates of stratospheric ozone are most biased by diurnal sampling effects and drifting satellite orbits. The simulated ozone cycle shows a minimum after sunrise and a maximum in the late afternoon. Further, a seasonal variation of the daily ozone cycle in the stratosphere was found. Depending on season and latitude, the peak-to-valley difference of the daily ozone cycle varies mostly between 3 and 5% (0.4 ppmv) with respect to the midnight ozone volume mixing ratio. The maximal variation of 15% (0.8 ppmv) is found at the polar circle in summer. The global pattern of the strength of the daily ozone cycle is mainly governed by the solar zenith angle and the sunshine duration. In addition, we find synoptic-scale variations in the strength of the daily ozone cycle. These variations are often anti-correlated to regional temperature anomalies and are due to the temperature dependence of the rate coefficients k2 and k3 of the Chapman cycle reactions. Further, the NOx catalytic cycle counteracts the accumulation of ozone during daytime and leads to an anti-correlation between anomalies in NOx and the strength of the daily ozone cycle. Similarly, ozone recombines with atomic oxygen which leads to an anti-correlation between anomalies in ozone abundance and the strength of the daily ozone cycle. At higher latitudes, an increase of the westerly (easterly) wind cause a decrease (increase) in the sunshine duration of an air parcel leading to a weaker (stronger) daily ozone cycle.

Schanz, A.; Hocke, K.; Kämpfer, N.

2014-07-01