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1

Modular solar insolation panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular system of solar insolation panels having sun tracking capability and adapted to be installed directly upon a roof structure and integrated with the surrounding roofing, is comprised of prismatic lenses embodied in a multiplicity of transparent tubes disposed in normal relation to the traverse plane of the sun, and arranged upon an insulation panel and with corner fittings

Meckler

1981-01-01

2

Handbook of Solar Energy Data for South-Facing Surfaces in the United States. Volume 2: Average Hourly and Total Daily Insolation Data for 235 Localities. Alaska - Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Average hourly and daily total insolation estimates for 235 United States locations are presented. Values are presented for a selected number of array tilt angles on a monthly basis. All units are in kilowatt hours per square meter.

J. H. Smith

1980-01-01

3

Clear sky solar insolation data for Islamabad.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monthly average values of both integrated and instantaneous clear sky solar radiation components for Islamabad territory have been presented and discussed. The components include total, direct normal, direct horizontal, global and diffuse radiations, sun ...

P. Akhter A. Baig A. Mufti

1990-01-01

4

Frequency distribution of daily insolation at Cairo (30°N, 31°E), Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present analysis, the daily totals of global solar radiation falling on a horizontal surface at Cairo (30°N, 31°E) during the period 1980 to 1987 have been processed, analysed and presented. Mean annual, monthly and daily totals, the diurnal variation, frequency distribution of daily totals, frequency of extended periods with daily totals of global solar radiation less than 4.29,

A. I. Salem; A. H. Bassyouni

1991-01-01

5

Rate of solar insolation change and the glacial/interglacial transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate changes are driven largely by variations in the distribution of solar insolation associated with changes in the Earth's orbital parameters. Here we define the rate of solar insolation change (RSIC) as a parameter to evaluate and quantify solar heating changes through time. We propose that RSIC may control the timing of transitions between warm and cold periods through its control on the rate of climate changes. Specifically, the glacial/interglacial transitions took place when the 65°N July insolation experienced the most rapid changes; interglacials start with a maximum positive RSIC and end with a maximum negative RISC. The RSIC curve thus provides a new astronomically tuned method for dating interglacials. The 65°N July RISC curves average a 4.7 ky lead compared to ice sheet changes as indicated by Bassinot et al. [1994] for the last 0.9 Ma, possibly implying a more rapid response of monsoonal climate to the insolation heating.

Ji, Junfeng; Balsam, William; Chen, Xing; Chen, Jun; Chen, Yang; Wang, Hongtao

2006-02-01

6

Power Flow Simulations of a More Renewable California Grid Utilizing Wind and Solar Insolation Forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time series power flow analyses of the California electricity grid are performed with extensive addition of intermittent renewable power. The study focuses on the effects of replacing non-renewable and imported (out-of-state) electricity with wind and solar power on the reliability of the transmission grid. Simulations are performed for specific days chosen throughout the year to capture seasonal fluctuations in load, wind, and insolation. Wind farm expansions and new wind farms are proposed based on regional wind resources and time-dependent wind power output is calculated using a meteorological model and the power curves of specific wind turbines. Solar power is incorporated both as centralized and distributed generation. Concentrating solar thermal plants are modeled using local insolation data and the efficiencies of pre-existing plants. Distributed generation from rooftop PV systems is included using regional insolation data, efficiencies of common PV systems, and census data. The additional power output of these technologies offsets power from large natural gas plants and is balanced for the purposes of load matching largely with hydroelectric power and by curtailment when necessary. A quantitative analysis of the effects of this significant shift in the electricity portfolio of the state of California on power availability and transmission line congestion, using a transmission load-flow model, is presented. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to determine the effects of forecasting errors in wind and insolation on load-matching and transmission line congestion.

Hart, E. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Dvorak, M. J.

2008-12-01

7

Daily efficiency of solar collectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the daily efficiency of flat-plate solar collectors working at constant flow rate can be evaluated with a simple algorithm when their structural features are known. It is also shown that long-term performances can be calculated starting from monthly values of global radiation.

Bartoli, B.; Cuomo, V.; Francesca, M.; Serio, C.; Barone, G.; Mattarelli, P.

1982-03-01

8

The Effects of Solar Insolation on Organic-rich Cometary Analogue Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comets are believed to be a rich source of both water and organics to the early Earth. Exposure of comet nuclei to the ultraviolet radiation from the Sun can lead to chemical reactions within these complex bodies that result in a wide variety of complex organic molecules. In general, cometary dust is believed to be comprised of roughly half organic-rich and half inorganic components. Signatures in UV emission spectra of cometary dust (e.g. P/Halley, Hyakutake) suggest the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Likely candidates responsible for these features include pyrene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and napthalene. We have conducted a suite of experiments whereby both volatile-free and volatile-rich organic samples were insolated with a solar lamp (0.250-2.5 ?m) to investigate the chemistry that may occur both in the upper crust in comets (devoid of volatiles), as well as in the ice-rich portion of comet nuclei. Samples include each of the PAHs listed above, independently and in combination with volatiles (e.g. water, CO2, NH3, CH3OH). The samples are intimately mixed, cooled in a liquid nitrogen dewar, and insolated under vaccuum to mimic conditions in space and exposure to solar radiation. The resulting organic components are isolated and analyzed via a GCMS (mass spectrometer) and FTIR (Infrared spectrometer) to identify both the resultant organic molecules and their infrared signatures that may be detected telescopically. This work was supported by a Cottrell Scholar Award from the Research Corporation.

Lederer, Susan M.; Smith, D. C.; Olney, R. D.; Cintala, M. J.

2009-09-01

9

Study on a Bioethanol Solar Reforming System with the Solar Insolation Fluctuation in Consideration of Heat Chemical Reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bioethanol reforming system (FBSR) with a sunlight heat source is developed as a potential fuel supply system for distributed fuel cells. The temperature distribution of a catalyst layer in the reactor is not stable under conditions of unstable solar radiation and unstable outside air temperature; therefore, it is thought that the inversion rate of a reforming reaction will decrease. In this paper, heat transmission analysis was used in the catalyst layer of the reforming component of an FBSR, and temperature distribution, inversion rate, and process gas composition were investigated. Based on the results, the relationship between weather conditions and a hydrogen-generating rate was determined. When solar insolation was unstable, it turned out that the efficiency of the reforming component is reduced. Fluctuations of the solar insolation over a short period of time affect the hydrogen generating rate of an FBSR. Moreover, the amount of hydrogen production of an FBSR was simulated using meteorological data from a day in March and a day in August in a cold region (Sapporo). The analysis showed that efficiency of the reforming component exceeded 40% for both of the days.

Obara, Shin'ya; El-Sayed, Abeer Galal

10

Sensitivity of simulated climate to latitudinal distribution of solar insolation reduction in SRM geoengineering methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering has been proposed as a potential option to counteract climate change. We perform a set of idealized geoengineering simulations to understand the global hydrological implications of varying the latitudinal distribution of solar insolation reduction in SRM methods. We find that for a fixed total mass of sulfate aerosols (12.6 Mt of SO4), relative to a uniform distribution which mitigates changes in global mean temperature, global mean radiative forcing is larger when aerosol concentration is maximum at the poles leading to a warmer global mean climate and consequently an intensified hydrological cycle. Opposite changes are simulated when aerosol concentration is maximized in the tropics. We obtain a range of 1 K in global mean temperature and 3% in precipitation changes by varying the distribution pattern: this range is about 50% of the climate change from a doubling of CO2. Hence, our study demonstrates that a range of global mean climate states, determined by the global mean radiative forcing, are possible for a fixed total amount of aerosols but with differing latitudinal distribution, highlighting the need for a careful evaluation of SRM proposals.

Modak, A.; Bala, G.

2013-10-01

11

Site insolation and wind power characteristics: technical report Midwest region  

SciTech Connect

This phase of the Site Insolation and Wind Power Characteristics Study was performed to provide statistical information on the expected future availability of solar and wind power at various sites in the Midwest Region of the US Historic data (SOLMET), at 22 National Weather Service stations with hourly solar insolation and collateral meteorological information, were interrogated to provide an estimate of future trends. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Selected insolation and wind power conditions were investigated for their occurrence and persistence, for defined periods of time, on a monthly basis. Global horizontal insolation is related to inclined surfaces at each site. Ratios are provided, monthly, for multiplying global insolation to obtain insolation estimates on south-facing surfaces inclined at different angles with respect to the horizontal. Also, joint probability distribution tables are constructed showing the number of occurrences, out of a finite sample size, of daily average solar and wind power within selected intervals, by month. Information of this nature is intended as an aid to preliminary planning activities for the design and operation of solar and wind energy utilization and conversion systems.

None

1980-08-01

12

Aerosol-radiation interaction in the cloudless atmosphere during LACE 98 1. Measured and calculated broadband solar and spectral surface insolations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical profile measurements of aerosol particle size distributions and of meteorological parameters (obtained from aircraft, radiosondes, and lidar) are used as input to a spectral radiative transfer model to calculate broadband solar and spectral surface insolations. The calculated values are compared to measured ones gathered with broadband solar pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and a fixed-grating photodiode array spectroradiometer with 512 spectral

Manfred Wendisch; Andreas Keil; Dörthe Müller; Ulla Wandinger; Peter Wendling; Armin Stifter; Andreas Petzold; Markus Fiebig; Matthias Wiegner; Volker Freudenthaler; Wolfgang Armbruster; Wolfgang von Hoyningen-Huene; Ulrich Leiterer

2002-01-01

13

A stochastic insolation model for tilted surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conversion factor, for estimating the instantaneous insolation on a surface with any orientation, from the insolation on a horizontal surface, was developed. This conversion factor was obtained by incorporating the non-istropic component of diffuse radiation in the insolation model. Thus, a serious inconsistency between the observed phenomenon and the modeling of solar radiation was dispensed with. The accuracy of

V. M. Puri

1976-01-01

14

Design and fabrication of terrestrial photovoltaic solar generators for field testing in regions of intensitive insolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and production of photovoltaic solar energy converters is described for three different applications: a transmitter station, a navigation buoy, and a laboratory building. The collectors consisted of interconnected 5 cm x 5 cm silicon solar cells encapsulated in glass or glass fiber reinforced acrylic resin. The largest device delivered 2000 W of electrical power.

H. D. Wegmann

1979-01-01

15

Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV-Development of an insolation handbook and instrument package  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing a need for a coordinated approach to resolve energy problems, certain members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) met in September 1974 and agreed to develop an International Energy Program. The International Energy Agency (IEA) was established within the OECD to administer, monitor and execute this International Energy Program. In July 1975, Solar Heating and Cooling was selected as one of the sixteen technology fields for multilateral cooperation. Five project areas, called tasks, were identified for cooperative activities within the IEA Program to Develop and Test Solar Heating and Cooling Systems. The objective of one task was to obtain improved basic resource information for the design and operation of solar heating and cooling systems through a better understanding of the required insolation (solar radiation) and related weather data, and through improved techniques for measurement and evaluation of such data. At the February 1976 initial experts meeting in Norrkoeping, Sweden, the participants developed the objective statement into two subtasks. (1) an insolation handbook; and (2) a portable meteorological instrument package. This handbook is the product of the first subtask. The objective of this handbook is to provide a basis for a dialogue between solar scientists and meteorologists. Introducing the solar scientist to solar radiation and related meteorological data enables him to better express his scientific and engineering needs to the meteorologist; and introducing the meteorologist to the special solar radiation and meteorological data applications of the solar scientist enables him to better meet the needs of the solar energy community.

Not Available

1980-10-01

16

A unified approach to orbital, solar, and lunar forcing based on the Earth’s latitudinal insolation/temperature gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread empirical evidence suggests that extraterrestrial forcing influences the Earth’s climate, but how this could occur remains unclear. Here we describe a new approach to this problem that unifies orbital, solar and lunar forcing based on their common control of the Earth’s latitudinal insolation gradient (LIG). The LIG influences the climate system through differential solar heating between the tropics and the poles that gives rise to the latitudinal temperature gradient (LTG), which drives the Earth’s atmospheric and (wind driven) ocean circulation. We use spectral analysis of recent changes in the Earth’s LTG to support earlier work on orbital timescales (Davis and Brewer, 2009) that suggests the climate system may be unusually sensitive to changes in the LIG. Identification of LIG forcing of the LTG is possible because the LIG varies according to seasonally specific periodicities based on obliquity in summer (41 kyr orbital and 18.6 yr lunar cycle), and precession (21 kyr orbital cycle) and total solar irradiance (11 yr solar cycle) in winter. We analyse changes in the Northern Hemisphere LTG over the last 120 years and find significant (99%) peaks in spectral frequencies corresponding to 11 years in winter and 18.6 years in summer, consistent with LIG forcing. The cross-seasonal and multi-frequency nature of the LIG signal, and the diffuse effect of the LTG driver on the climate system may account for the complexity of the response to extraterrestrial forcing as seen throughout the climatic record. This hypersensitivity of the LTG to the LIG appears poorly reproduced in climate models, but would be consistent with the controversial theory that the LTG is finely balanced to maximise entropy.

Davis, Basil A. S.; Brewer, Simon

2011-07-01

17

Site insolation and wind power characteristics: technical report western region (south section)  

SciTech Connect

This phase of the Site Insolation and Wind Power Characteristics Study was performed to provide statistical information on the expected future availability of solar and wind power at various sites in the Western Region (South Section) of the US Historic data (SOLMET), at 22 National Weather Service stations with hourly solar insolation and collateral meteorological information, were interrogated to provide an estimate of future trends. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Selected insolation and wind power conditions were investigated for their occurrence and persistence, for defined periods of time, on a monthly basis. Global horizontal insolation is related to inclined surfaces at each site. Ratios are provided, monthly, for multiplying global insolation to obtain insolation estimates on south-facing surfaces inclined at different angles with respect to the horizontal. Also, joint probability distribution tables are constructed showing the number of occurrences, out of a finite sample size, of daily average solar and wind power within selected intervals, by month. Information of this nature is intended as an aid to preliminary planning activities for the design and operation of solar and wind energy utilization and conversion systems.

None

1980-08-01

18

Site insolation and wind power characteristics: technical report western region (north section)  

SciTech Connect

This phase of the Site Insolation and Wind Power Characteristics Study was performed to provide statistical information on the expected future availability of solar and wind power at various sites in the Western Region (North Section) of the US Historic data (SOLMET), at 21 National Weather Service stations with hourly solar insolation and collateral meteorological information, were interrogated to provide an estimate of future trends. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Selected insolation and wind power conditions were investigated for their occurrence and persistence, for defined periods of time, on a monthly basis. Global horizontal insolation is related to inclined surfaces at each site. Ratios are provided, monthly, for multiplying global insolation to obtain insolation estimates on south-facing surfaces inclined at different angles with respect to the horizontal. Also, joint probability distribution tables are constructed showing the number of occurrences, out of a finite sample size, of daily average solar and wind power within selected intervals, by month. Information of this nature is intended as an aid to preliminary planning activities for the design and operation of solar and wind energy utilization and conversion systems.

None

1980-08-01

19

Insolation assessment studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research in insolation assessment concentrated on broadband model development and evaluation and spectral measurements and modeling. The need for high quality data was shown by evaluation of models used to form the SOLMET and ERSATZ data bases. Comparisons of model estimates with high quality data show mean bias errors as great as 20%. Particularly, models results were poor for cloudy conditions. Advances in spectral research include development of a simple spectral model (SPECTRAL) and industry development of portable spectroradiometers. Both were used to generate spectral irradiance standards and to study the effects of clouds, air mass, and turbidity on solar cell performance.

1984-05-01

20

Estimating Insolation Incident on Tilted Surfaces: Solar radiation on several types of solar collectors is calculated from ASHRAE relationships.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. In designing or analyzing a solar-energy system, the principal question is how much energy system can deliver to meet load demands. One of the main parameters determ...

1983-01-01

21

Daily total global solar radiation modeling from several meteorological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the modeling of the daily total global solar radiation in Adana city of Turkey using multi-linear\\u000a regression (MLR), multi-nonlinear regression (MNLR) and feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Several daily\\u000a meteorological data, i.e., measured sunshine duration, air temperature and wind speed and date of the year, i.e., monthly\\u000a and daily, were used as independent variables to the

Mehmet Bilgili; Muammer Ozgoren

2011-01-01

22

Daily total global solar radiation modeling from several meteorological data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the modeling of the daily total global solar radiation in Adana city of Turkey using multi-linear regression (MLR), multi-nonlinear regression (MNLR) and feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Several daily meteorological data, i.e., measured sunshine duration, air temperature and wind speed and date of the year, i.e., monthly and daily, were used as independent variables to the MLR, MNLR and ANN models. In order to determine the relationship between the total global solar radiation and other meteorological data, and also to obtain the best independent variables, the MLR and MNLR analyses were performed with the "Stepwise" method in the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program. Thus, various models consisting of the combination of the independent variables were constructed and the best input structure was investigated. The performances of all models in the training and testing data sets were compared with the measured daily global solar radiation values. The obtained results indicated that the ANN method was better than the other methods in modeling daily total global solar radiation. For the ANN model, mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), correlation coefficient ( R) and coefficient of determination ( R 2) for the training/testing data set were found to be 0.89/1.00 MJ/m2 day, 7.88/9.23%, 0.9824/0.9751, and 0.9651/0.9508, respectively.

Bilgili, Mehmet; Ozgoren, Muammer

2011-05-01

23

Study on Daily Electric Load Curve Forecasting Method based on Regression Type Hourly Load Modeling with Yearly Load Trends, Day-types and Insolations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a daily load curve forecasting method using hourly regressions. Electric load varies significantly during the day. Many factors, such as weather conditions, hours and day-types, relate to the load behavior. We formulate a daily load curve in set of independent 24-h regression equations that split hourly load into four parts: weather related load (WE), weekday's day-types (DTW),

Takeshi Haida

2009-01-01

24

Solar irradiance, cosmic rays and cloudiness over daily timescales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although over centennial and greater timescales solar variability may be one of the most influential climate forcing agents, the extent to which solar activity influences climate over shorter time periods is poorly understood. If a link exists between solar activity and climate, it is likely via a mechanism connected to one (or a combination) of the following parameters: total solar irradiance (TSI), ultraviolet (UV) spectral irradiance, or the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux. We present an analysis based around a superposed epoch (composite) approach focusing on the largest TSI increases and decreases (the latter occurring in both the presence and absence of appreciable GCR reductions) over daily timescales. Using these composites we test for the presence of a robust link between solar activity and cloud cover over large areas of the globe using rigorous statistical techniques. We find no evidence that widespread variations in cloud cover at any tropospheric level are significantly associated with changes in the TSI, GCR or UV flux, and further conclude that TSI or UV changes occurring during reductions in the GCR flux are not masking a solar-cloud response. However, we note the detectability of any potential links is strongly constrained by cloud variability.

Laken, Benjamin A.; ?alogovi?, Jasa

2011-12-01

25

Retrieving daily global solar radiation from routine climate variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is an important variable for studies related to solar energy applications, meteorology, climatology, hydrology, and agricultural meteorology. However, solar radiation is not routinely measured at meteorological stations; therefore, it is often required to estimate it using other techniques such as retrieving from satellite data or estimating using other geophysical variables. Over the years, many models have been developed to estimate solar radiation from other geophysical variables such as temperature, rainfall, and sunshine duration. The aim of this study was to evaluate six of these models using data measured at four independent worldwide networks. The dataset included 13 stations from Australia, 25 stations from Germany, 12 stations from Saudi Arabia, and 48 stations from the USA. The models require either sunshine duration hours (Ångstrom) or daily range of air temperature (Bristow and Campbell, Donatelli and Bellocchi, Donatelli and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani) as input. According to the statistical parameters, Ångstrom and Bristow and Campbell indicated a better performance than the other models. The bias and root mean square error for the Ångstrom model were less than 0.25 MJ m2 day-1 and 2.25 MJ m2 day-1, respectively, and the correlation coefficient was always greater than 95 %. Statistical analysis using Student's t test indicated that the residuals for Ångstrom, Bristow and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani are not statistically significant at the 5 % level. In other words, the estimated values by these models are statistically consistent with the measured data. Overall, given the simplicity and performance, the Ångstrom model is the best choice for estimating solar radiation when sunshine duration measurements are available; otherwise, Bristow and Campbell can be used to estimate solar radiation using daily range of air temperature.

Moradi, Isaac; Mueller, Richard; Perez, Richard

2013-08-01

26

Using satellite-derived insolation data for the site/time specific simulation of solar energy systems  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the question of satellite-derived irradiance is addressed on two levels. First, the question of physical accuracy is addressed by comparing satellite-predicted hourly/daily global and direct irradiance with controlled ground measurements in climatically distinct environments. This accuracy is compared to the error made as a function of distance when extrapolating the needed data from the closest ground measurement site. Second, the question of end-use accuracy is addressed by comparing satellite- derived, photovoltaic-utility load-match benchmarks with actual benchmarks for three US electric utilities where ground measurements were available.

Perez, R.; Seals, R.; Stewart, R. (State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)); Zelenka, A. (Swiss Meteorological Institute, Zurich (Switzerland)); Estrada-Cajigal, V. (Solartronics, Morelos (Mexico))

1994-12-01

27

Pluto Insolation and the South Polar Cap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pluto's south polar cap is a puzzle. The planet's southern cap may be brighter than the north, even though it was the south pole which faced the Sun on Pluto's recent approach to perihelion. One would think that the brighter pole would be the one which received less insolation: volatiles would be expected to sublimate from the sunny south and condense in the north, enlarging the north polar cap with fresh and bright frost. Thus the north pole should be brighter than the south. However, it may be the other way around, although the evidence is not entirely clear. One suggested explanation of the (possible) paradox is that the south polar cap has, over the last several million years, received less insolation than the north, accumulating a larger supply of volatiles. However, expressing the solar insolation in terms of Pluto's orbital elements clearly shows that both the north and south poles have received nearly the same amount of sunlight over the past several million years. Hence any difference between the polar caps cannot be ascribed to a difference in the amount of long-term insolation received at each pole. Thus any difference between the poles, if there is one, must invoke conditions peculiar to Pluto's climate system, rather than rely on insolation alone.

Rubincam, D. P.

2009-05-01

28

Site insolation and wind power characteristics. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

Design and operation of either large or small scale solar and wind energy conversion systems should be based, in part, on knowledge of expected solar and wind power trends. For this purpose, historic solar and wind data available at 101 National Weather Service stations were processed statistically. Preliminary planning data are provided for selected daily average solar and wind power conditions occurring and persisting for time periods of interest. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Empirical probabilities were constructed from the historic data to provide a reasonable inference of the chance of similar climatological conditions occurring at any given time in the future. (Diurnal wind power variations were also considered.) Ratios were also generated at each station to relate the global radiation data to insolation on a south-facing surface inclined at various angles. In addition, joint probability distributions were derived to show the proportion of days with solar and wind power within selected intervals.

Bray, R E

1980-08-01

29

Analytical model for the daily energy input/output relationship for solar collector systems  

SciTech Connect

Input/output regression lines are often used for presentation of solar-collector-array performance from different systems and climates. Usually, for well-performing solar-collector systems, a very linear relationship is experienced between daily solar irradiation H and daily energy collected Q in an input/output diagram. To explain and analyze the experimental curves, a model is developed based on conventional short-term collector theory.

Perers, B.; Zinko, H.; Holst, P.

1985-01-01

30

ASHMET: A computer code for estimating insolation incident on tilted surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer code, ASHMET, was developed by MSFC to estimate the amount of solar insolation incident on the surfaces of solar collectors. Both tracking and fixed-position collectors were included. Climatological data for 248 U. S. locations are built into the code. The basic methodology used by ASHMET is the ASHRAE clear-day insolation relationships modified by a clearness index derived from

R. F. Elkin; R. G. Toelle

1980-01-01

31

Insolation Resource Assessment Program Plan. Fiscal Year 1979--Fiscal Year 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Insolation Resource Assessment Program is to collect, standardize, certify, process,, and archive geophysical data for solar energy applications. The principal solar parameters to be measured are global, direct, diffuse and total radiat...

1979-01-01

32

An improved algorithm for estimating incident daily solar radiation from measurements of temperature, humidity, and precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a reformulation of the Bristow–Campbell model for daily solar radiation, developed using daily observations of radiation, temperature, humidity, and precipitation, from 40 stations in contrasting climates. By expanding the original model to include a spatially and temporally variable estimate of clear-sky transmittance, and applying a small number of other minor modifications, the new model produces better results than

Peter E. Thornton; Steven W. Running

1999-01-01

33

Solar and Lunar Daily Variation at Low Latitudes During Quiet and Disturbed Days.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solar and lunar tides are studied for the H components at Pilar and Trelew as also for Sd sub 1 (Pilar) obtained from their difference, for 1958. It is shown from Sd sub 1 (Pilar) that the S sub q (solar daily variation) variation patterns are similar...

N. B. Trivedi R. P. Kane

1979-01-01

34

Differential Angstrom model for predicting insolation from hours of sunshine  

SciTech Connect

The Angstrom model for predicting insolation is limited in scope because it gives equal weighting to sunshine hours recorded at any time of the day. The differential Angstrom model presented in this paper removes this limitation and relates insolation, q{sub j}, in the j{sup th} hour to the sunshine duration, n{sub j}, of the same period by the equation: q{sub j} = a{sub j} + b{sub j}. By regression analysis of monthly data, the set of constants a{sub j} and b{sub j} for each hour of each month of the year can be determined. Thus, using the appropriate set of a and b regression coefficients, any sunshine data can be transformed to insolation. The sum of the equation over a day gives the daily insolation from which monthly means can be calculated. The method has been applied to the 1986 and 1988 sunshine data recorded at the University of Papua New Guinea to predict the observed insolation to within 3.5%. The differential Angstrom method has applications in places which have much recorded data on hours of sunshine but have limited observed insolation data.

Yeboah-Amankwah, D.; Agyeman, K.

1990-01-01

35

Insolation Distribution in Titan's Lower Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variable solar heating drives the seasonal variability of Titan’s lower atmospheric dynamics, and therefore its hydrological cycle. Circulation models that have been developed to examine this methane cycle tend to produce a globally oscillating Hadley circulation, the upwelling arm of which follows a diurnal-mean insolation maximum that reaches the pole in summertime (e.g. Mitchell et al., 2006; Schneider et al., 2012). These models use highly simplified parameterizations of radiative transfer, designed to fit Huygens measurements from the equatorial regions; they do not account for the increased attenuation of sunlight at higher latitudes due to Titan’s curvature. Haze scattering in Titan’s atmosphere complicates the calculation of the radiation field that reaches the troposphere. However, based on Huygens DISR measurements, Tomasko et al. (2008) computed solar heating rates as a function of altitude for different latitudes, and at different seasons, including a scattering model. In their results, the maximum heating, during solstice, below ~50 km (i.e., in the troposphere) occurred at mid-latitudes, not the poles as might be assumed from the insolation distribution at the top of the atmosphere. Based on these results, we calculated an insolation distribution near the surface that differs significantly from that used in previous models (Lora et al., 2011). This has implications for the circulation, which we explored with a very simple box model that accounts only for thermally driven advection: Forced with the calculated insolation distribution, the model produces surface temperatures in agreement with observations (Jennings et al. 2009), and a circulation pattern significantly different than the one produced with the simplified distribution from the top of the atmosphere. References: Jennings, D.E., et al.: “Titan’s surface brightness temperatures”. Astrophys. J., Vol. 691, pp. L103-L105, 2009. Lora, J.M., et al.: “Insolation in Titan’s troposphere”. Icarus, Vol. 216, pp. 116-119, 2011. Mitchell, J.L., et al.: “The dynamics behind Titan’s methane clouds”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., Vol. 103, pp. 18421-18426, 2006. Schneider, T., et al.: “Polar methane accumulation and rainstorms on Titan from simulations of the methane cycle”. Nature, Vol. 481, pp. 58-61, 2012. Tomasko, M.G., et al.: “Heat balance in Titan’s atmosphere”. Planet. Space Sci., Vol. 56, pp. 648-659, 2008.

Lora, J. M.; Goodman, P.; Russell, J.; Lunine, J.

2012-04-01

36

Physical match: insole and shoe.  

PubMed

In this case report, the authors show an interesting case of a physical match between an insole and a suspect shoe that was connected to the crime scene by a blood drop. Several pairs of shoes were seized and inspected. On the insoles of the main suspect's shoes, two different types of prints were seen, one was clear and the other image was faint. A physical match examination was conducted and the authors could place the right insole inside the right shoe. The insole was apparently glued to the shoe by the sweat, heat and dirt inside the shoe, and not by the manufacturer. In this case, the critical questions were how conclusive can the complexity of the random contours be, and whether the physical match between the two objects could pass the "Daubert challenge." PMID:12877297

Shor, Yaron; Kennedy, Robert B; Tsach, Tsadok; Volkov, Nikolai; Novoselsky, Yehuda; Vinokurov, Asya

2003-07-01

37

Daily, Monthly and Annual Variations in Solar Ultraviolet Irradiance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar ultraviolet-B (290-320 nm: UV-B), ultraviolet A (320-400 nm: UV-A) and Total (300-3000 nm) irradiances on the ground had been measured at Shonan Campus of Tokai University, Hiratsuka (35 deg N) for two years from October 1990 to September 1992, usin...

S. Takeshita N. Sudo T. Sakata M. Sasaki

1993-01-01

38

ASHMET: A computer code for estimating insolation incident on tilted surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer code, ASHMET, was developed by MSFC to estimate the amount of solar insolation incident on the surfaces of solar collectors. Both tracking and fixed-position collectors were included. Climatological data for 248 U. S. locations are built into the code. The basic methodology used by ASHMET is the ASHRAE clear-day insolation relationships modified by a clearness index derived from SOLMET-measured solar radiation data to a horizontal surface.

Elkin, R. F.; Toelle, R. G.

1980-05-01

39

Ability to predict daily solar radiation values from interpolated climate records for use in crop simulation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily solar radiation is a common input in crop growth and development models yet given the sparse coverage it is likely not measured in the area where the growth model is applied. Consequently, solar radiation needs to be estimated from readily available commonly measured meteorological variables. Daily shortwave solar radiation accumulations were estimated using three existing models over the period

R. H. Grant; S. E. Hollinger; K. G. Hubbard; G. Hoogenboom; R. L. Vanderlip

2004-01-01

40

Reconstruction of daily solar UV irradiation from 1893 to 2002 in Potsdam, Germany.  

PubMed

Long-term records of solar UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface are scarce. Radiative transfer calculations and statistical models are two options used to reconstruct decadal changes in solar UV radiation from long-term records of measured atmospheric parameters that contain information on the effect of clouds, atmospheric aerosols and ground albedo on UV radiation. Based on earlier studies, where the long-term variation of daily solar UV irradiation was derived from measured global and diffuse irradiation as well as atmospheric ozone by a non-linear regression method [Feister et al. (2002) Photochem Photobiol 76:281-293], we present another approach for the reconstruction of time series of solar UV radiation. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with measurements of solar UV irradiation taken at the Meteorological Observatory in Potsdam, Germany, as well as measured parameters with long-term records such as global and diffuse radiation, sunshine duration, horizontal visibility and column ozone. This study is focussed on the reconstruction of daily broad-band UV-B (280-315 nm), UV-A (315-400 nm) and erythemal UV irradiation (ER). Due to the rapid changes in cloudiness at mid-latitude sites, solar UV irradiance exhibits appreciable short-term variability. One of the main advantages of the statistical method is that it uses doses of highly variable input parameters calculated from individual spot measurements taken at short time intervals, which thus do represent the short-term variability of solar irradiance. PMID:17318610

Junk, Jürgen; Feister, Uwe; Helbig, Alfred

2007-02-22

41

Comparison between measurements and models for daily solar irradiation on tilted surfaces in Athens, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparison of several models against measurements of daily total solar radiation on surfaces of various tilts and azimuths in Athens. Such measurements are carried out at the Institute of Meteorology and Physics of the Atmospheric Environment, National Observatory of Athens and are the first of this kind in Greece. The models encounter a constant surface albedo

B. M. Synodinou

1997-01-01

42

Spatial variations of temperature on a coastal site in Sweden as a response to insolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature and humidity are major factors controlling ecosystem development. In a context of changing climate, the spatial distribution of temperature is likely to be affected, and species distribution might be subsequently modified. In particular, topographic heterogeneity is affecting the micro-climate and thus regulates the expansion or restriction of species in a landscape. During a change of climate, certain species might become restricted to localized refugia, or on the contrary expand from old refugia when the overall landscape becomes favorable. In this research we are using GIS based model of incoming solar radiation and subsequently derived monthly averaged temperatures to increase the understanding of changes in local climate and how it affects species repartition. The model is based on topography and observed variations in atmospheric conditions and is accounting for site latitude, elevation, surface orientation, daily and seasonal shifts in sun angle and the effect of shadows from the surrounding topography. A 2500 km2 forested field site located on the western coast of Sweden, along the Baltic Sea, is investigated both in terms of temperature heterogeneity and plant communities. We derive 50 m resolution insolation maps and analyze the response of monthly temperature to insolation. Surface and near surface temperatures are measured by a dense network of temperature sensors during the spring and summer of 2011 and are used for comparison with the modeled temperature maps. We investigate the potential of this modeling approach to scale climate trend analysis down to local climate change in heterogeneous landscapes. We build on the methodology used by Huang et al. (2008) in a mountain ecosystem and develop it for use on a coastal site that is largely influence by the presence of the sea. The time lag that is appropriate between insolation and subsequent temperature response appears to be influenced by the presence of a large water body and follows an exponential decay from the coastal to the inland measurement sites. We use the insolation and an appropriate time lag dependent on the distance to the sea in a linear regression model to derive estimates of spatially distributed temperature in our landscape. The dataset indicates a strong potential for monthly temperature to be predicted from solar radiation. Huang, S., Rich, P.M., Crabtree, R.L., Potter, C.S., Fu, P., 2008. Modeling Monthly Near-Surface Air Temperature from Solar Radiation and Lapse Rate: Application over Complex Terrain in Yellowstone National Park. Physical Geography 29, 158-178.

Vercauteren, N.; Dahlberg, J.; Lam, N.; Destouni, G.; Hylander, K.

2012-04-01

43

Coastal-inland solar radiation difference study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to quantify the characteristics of solar insolation in the coastal zone and to determine the effect of the sea breeze circulation on the global insolation. In order to satisfy these objectives, a six station sampling network was established in the coastal plain of southeastern North Carolina, where previous evidence has indicated that the sea breeze circulation is almost a daily occurrence from late May through October. Three sites (Sloop Point, Onslow Beach, and Cape Fear Technical Institute (CFTI)) were located near the coast (coastal sites) to assess the insolation at the coast. A site (Clinton) was located in an area seldom affected by the sea breeze (about 100 km from the coast). Two additional sites, Wallace and Ellis Airport, located between the coastal sites and the control site, were to be used to assess the transient impact of the sea breeze upon the insolation. Pyranometers were located at each site to measure the global insolation. Direct normal insolation measured by a pyrheliometer and ultraviolet radiation measured by uv radiometers were observed at the Sloop Point and Clinton sites only. Data were collected during the calendar year 1978. The results of the study indicated that the global insolation had greater variability over the network during the summer season (June, July, and August). During the summer, there was a systematicdiurnal variation of the difference in global insolation between the inland and the coastal sites.

Bach, W.D. Jr.; Vukovich, F.M.

1980-04-01

44

Novel Distributed Power Generating System of PV-ECaSS Using Solar Energy Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the construction and the performance of a distributed power generating system of photovoltaics (PV) using solar energy estimation. Instead of conventional batteries a new storage device, called energy capacitor system (ECaSS), is used for its various advantages. A procedure is described to estimate the PV output power by calculating solar radiation. To calculate the daily insolation, Hottel's

Susumu Yamashiro

2007-01-01

45

Solar radiation on Mars  

SciTech Connect

Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. Presented here is a procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally, hourly and daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the sun with a special diode on the Viking cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

Appelbaum, J.; Flood, D.J.

1989-08-01

46

SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Solar-collector field experimental tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar-collection field subsystem of the solar-powered desalination pilot project located at Yanbu in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been operated successfully for two years. It has been demonstrated that during a one-year period, the solar-collector field can, on the average, provide about 2500 kWh of thermal energy a day for days with a daily insolation total greater than

J. C. Zimmerman; N. Al-Abbadi

1987-01-01

47

Daily Variation of Cosmogenic Nuclide Be-7 Concentration in the Atmosphere and Solar Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of cosmogenic radioisotop e Be-7 in air were daily observed at Yamagata University during 2000 and 2002. From the power spectral analysis, the periodicity of the period of 26 days is shown for the daily Be-7 concentrations. The folding analysis shows that the phase delay of the Be-7 concentration was roughly 8 days to the sunspot number. These results indicate that the Be-7 concentrations in the air at ground level have 26-day periodicity as a component of time variations and it is caused by the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays.

Sakurai, H.; Aoki, Tosiya; Gandou, Tosiyuki; Kato, Wataru; Gunju, Shuichi; Tokanai, Fuyuki

2003-07-01

48

Comparison of marine insolation estimating methods in the adriatic sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare insolation results calculated from two well-known empirical formulas (Seckel and Beaudry’s SB73 formula and the\\u000a original Smithsonian (SMS) formula) and a radiative transfer model using input data predicted from meteorological weather-forecast\\u000a models, and review the accuracy of each method. Comparison of annual mean daily irradiance values for clear-sky conditions\\u000a between the two formulas shows that, relative to the

Do-Seong Byun; Nadia Pinardi

2007-01-01

49

Diffuse solar radiation-daily and monthly values as affected by snow cover  

SciTech Connect

It is generally recognized that surface albedo (terrain reflectance) has a significant effect on the diffuse fraction of global radiation. In colder climates, ground snow cover could be expected to alter the terrain reflectance significantly. The objective of this paper was to study the effect of ground snow cover on the diffuse fraction of the daily and the monthly average global radiation and to develop empirical relationships which would permit the calculation of the diffuse solar component.

Kierkus, W.T.; Colborne, W.G. (Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada))

1989-01-01

50

Insolation patterns on synchronous exoplanets with obliquity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previous paper [Dobrovolskis, A.R., 2007. Icarus 192, 1-23] showed that eccentricity can have profound effects on the climate, habitability, and detectability of extrasolar planets. This complementary study shows that obliquity can have comparable effects. The known exoplanets exhibit a wide range of orbital eccentricities, but those within several million kilometers of their suns are generally in near-circular orbits. This fact is widely attributed to the dissipation of tides in the planets. Tides in a planet affect its spin even more than its orbit, and such tidally evolved planets often are assumed to be in synchronous rotation, so that their rotation periods are identical to their orbital periods. The canonical example of synchronous spin is the way that our Moon always keeps nearly the same hemisphere facing the Earth. Tides also tend to reduce the planet's obliquity (the angle between its spin and orbital angular velocities). However, orbit precession can cause the rotation to become locked in a "Cassini state", where it retains a nearly constant non-zero obliquity. For example, our Moon maintains an obliquity of about 6.7° with respect to its orbit about the Earth. In comparison, stable Cassini states can exist for practically any obliquity up to ˜90° or more for planets of binary stars, or in multi-planet systems with high mutual inclinations, such as are produced by scattering or by the Kozai mechanism. This work considers planets in synchronous rotation with circular orbits, but arbitrary obliquity ?; this affects the distribution of insolation over the planet's surface, particularly near its poles. For ?=0, one hemisphere bakes in perpetual sunshine, while the opposite hemisphere experiences eternal darkness. As ? increases, the region of permanent daylight and the antipodal realm of endless night both shrink, while a more temperate area of alternating day and night spreads in longitude, and especially in latitude. The regions of permanent day or night disappear at ?=90°. The insolation regime passes through several more transitions as ? continues to increase toward 180°, but the surface distribution of insolation remains non-uniform in both latitude and longitude. Thus obliquity, like eccentricity, can protect certain areas of the planet from the worst extremes of temperature and solar radiation, and can improve the planet's habitability. These results also have implications for the direct detectability of extrasolar planets, and for the interpretation of their thermal emissions.

Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

2009-11-01

51

Determination of Martian Northern Polar Insolation Levels Using a Geodetic Elevation Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar insolation levels at the Martian polar caps bear significantly on the seasonal and climatic cycling of volatiles on that planet. In the northern hemisphere, the Martian surface slopes downhill from the equator to the pole such that the north polar cap is situated in a 5-km-deep hemispheric-scale depression. This large-scale topographic setting plays an important role in the insolation

J. R. Arrell; M. T. Zuber

2000-01-01

52

ASHMET: a computer code for estimating insolation incident on tilted surfaces  

SciTech Connect

A computer code, ASHMET, has been developed by MSFC to estimate the amount of solar insolation incident on the surfaces of solar collectors. Both tracking and fixed-position collectors have been included. Climatological data for 248 US locations are built into the code. This report describes the methodology of the code, and its input and output. The basic methodology used by ASHMET is the ASHRAE clear-day insolation relationships modified by a clearness index derived from SOLMET-measured solar radiation data to a horizontal surface.

Elkin, R.F.; Toelle, R.G.

1980-05-01

53

Effect of daily versus intermittent sunscreen application on solar simulated UV radiation–induced skin response in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute and chronic skin damage occurs as a consequence of solar UV radiation exposure. To diminish such skin damage, the dermatologic community advocates the daily use of sunscreens as part of a sun avoidance strategy. Objective: We determined the effectiveness of a sunscreen product with a sunscreen protection factor (SPF) of 15 applied daily in preventing UV-induced histologic damage

Tania J. Phillips; Jag Bhawan; Mina Yaar; Ysabel Bello; Danielle LoPiccolo; J. Frank Nash

2000-01-01

54

A simplified calibrated model for estimating daily global solar radiation in Madinah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is the most important parameter in defining the energy budget at the surface thereby influencing the hydroclimate. Several empirical models based on air temperature are developed and used in several decision-making needs such as agriculture and energy sector. However, a calibration against direct observations is a priori for implementing such models. A calibrated model is developed for Saudi Arabia (Madinah) based on observations during 2007-2011. The model ( {Rs=A+B\\cdot R{{s}_0}{{{( {{T_{max }}-{T_{min }}} )}}^C}} ) is used to estimate daily solar radiation and results show a correlation coefficient of 0.94. The calibrated model outperforms the uncalibrated model available for this location. To increase the confidence, the calibrated model is also compared with a simple artificial neural network.

Benghanem, M.; Mellit, A.

2013-04-01

55

Cost analysis of commerical solar absorption coolers using a detailed simulation procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commerical solar absorption systems are now available for residential space cooling purposes. We have undertaken a cost analysis, based on a detailed simulation procedure, of a two-ton system to cool a proposed residence in Kufra, Libya. The meteorological data used for this study are measured daily insolation, ambient temperature and humidity records for an entire cooling season. The performance curves

A. H. Uppal; T. Muneer

1987-01-01

56

Development of a day-by-day simulation of solar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Features of the DAYSIM computer program, used to provide accurate daily and long-term performance simulations of solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems are presented and compared in practice with predictions made with the TRNSYS program. DAYSIM employs six to eight time steps per day, with insolation, ambient temperature, and loads input as cosine waves, thus reducing computing time. Numerical

W. S. Duff; G. J. Favard; K. R. den Braven

1981-01-01

57

Relation between daily variation of cosmogenic nuclide be-7 concentration in atmosphere and solar activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily concentration of Be-7 in air at a ground level has been continuously observing since 1993. As Be-7 is a radioisotope with the half-life of 53 days, which is prod uced by nuclear interactions between cosmic rays and atmosphere, it might be responsible to short time variations of the solar activities such as the rotation period of the sun 27 days. The Be-7 produced at troposphere falls into the ground as aerosol and hence the concentration of it in air is affected by the weather conditions. Although the anti-correlation between the production of cosmogenic nuclides and sunspots numbers in the 11 -yaer solar cycles is evident, the main factor of daily variation of Be-7 concentration in atmosphere is not clear. The Be 7 samples in a- day are collected in a glass filter with a high volume air sampler with the sampling rate of 1000 Litter/min. The radioactivity of Be-7 in the filter is measured with a high -purity germanium gamma ray detector. The time variations of the concentration of Be-7 are analyzed for 730 days at the solar maximum from 2000 to 2002. The power spectral analysis shows that the periodicities of 18 days and 28 days. The folding analysis, also, shows that the Be-7 is anti-correlated to the modulation of the sunspots number. Since the periodicity of 27 days for sunspots indicates the rotation of the sun , the periodicity of 28 days for Be-7 implies a relationship between the concentration of Be-7 in air and the sunspots number. We will describe the relationship between the Be-7 concentration and the sunspots number considering the weather conditions in the ground in detail.

Sakurai, H.; Shouji, Y.; Osaki, M.; Gunji, S.; Tokanai, F.

58

Calculation of Monthly Average Insolation on Tilted Surfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several simplified design procedures for solar energy systems require monthly average meteorological data. Monthly average daily totals of the solar radiation incident on a horizontal surface are available. However, radiation data on tilted surfaces, requ...

S. A. Klein

1976-01-01

59

Insolation on exoplanets with eccentricity and obliquity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pattern of insolation on an extrasolar planet has profound implications for its climate and habitability. A planet's insolation regime depends on its orbital eccentricity, the obliquity of its spin axis, its rotation rate, and its longitude of vernal equinox. For example, although a planet receives the same time-averaged insolation at both poles, the peak insolation at its poles can differ by a factor up to 27, depending on its eccentricity and equinox. This is of particular interest for planets with polar icecaps (or lakes and seas), like Mercury, Earth, and Mars (or Titan). The nearly 600 exoplanets now with known eccentricities span a wide range of eccentricity from essentially zero up to near unity; but their obliquities are still unknown, and also may range widely. Including both non-zero eccentricity and obliquity together vastly broadens the variety of global insolation patterns on extrasolar planets. This applies especially to planets in synchronous rotation, or in other spin-orbit resonances (like Mercury), which can exhibit quite complicated and unusual insolation patterns. For example, regions of eternal daylight and endless night occur only on synchronous exoplanets, whose rotation periods equal their orbital periods; but the peak and time-averaged insolation can vary by factors of at least 32 and 88, respectively, over a planet with a rotation period of half its orbital period, an eccentricity of 0.20, and an obliquity of 60°. Patterns of both mean and peak insolation display various symmetries with respect to latitude and longitude on the planet's surface. Most of these are relatively simple and easily understood; for example, a resonant planet whose orbital period is half of an odd multiple of its rotation period (as in Mercury's 3/2 resonance) experiences identical insolation patterns at longitudes 180° apart. However, such half-odd resonances also exhibit a totally unexpected symmetry of the time-averaged insolation with respect to the planet's equator, not shared by the peak insolation, or by any whole-number resonances. This emergent symmetry can be understood by Fourier analysis of the time-varying insolation.

Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

2013-09-01

60

Lateral wedge insoles for medial knee osteoarthritis: 12 month randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the effect of lateral wedge insoles compared with flat control insoles on improving symptoms and slowing structural disease progression in medial knee osteoarthritis. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Community in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 200 people aged 50 or more with clinical and radiographic diagnosis of mild to moderately severe medial knee osteoarthritis. Interventions Full length 5 degree lateral wedged insoles or flat control insoles worn inside the shoes daily for 12 months. Main outcome measures Primary symptomatic outcome was change in overall knee pain (past week) measured on an 11 point numerical rating scale. Primary structural outcome was change in volume of medial tibial cartilage from magnetic resonance imaging scans. Secondary clinical outcomes included changes in measures of pain, function, stiffness, and health related quality of life. Secondary structural outcomes included progression of medial cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions. Results Between group differences did not differ significantly for the primary outcomes of change in overall pain (?0.3 points, 95% confidence intervals ?1.0 to 0.3) and change in medial tibial cartilage volume (?0.4 mm3, 95% confidence interval ?15.4 to 14.6), and confidence intervals did not include minimal clinically important differences. None of the changes in secondary outcomes showed differences between groups. Conclusion Lateral wedge insoles worn for 12 months provided no symptomatic or structural benefits compared with flat control insoles. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTR12605000503628 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00415259.

2011-01-01

61

Insoles Provide Little Arthritis Pain Relief  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Insoles provide little arthritis pain relief: review (*this news item will not be available after ... for people with knee osteoarthritis, suggests a new review of past studies. Researchers found that across 12 ...

62

Prediction of monthly mean daily global solar radiation using Artificial Neural Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a multilayer feed forward (MLFF) neural network based on back propagation algorithm was developed, trained, and tested to predict monthly mean daily global radiation in Tamil Nadu, India. Various geographical, solar and meteorological parameters of three different locations with diverse climatic conditions were used as input parameters. Out of 565 available data, 530 were used for training and the rest were used for testing the artificial neural network (ANN). A 3-layer and a 4-layer MLFF networks were developed and the performance of the developed models was evaluated based on mean bias error, mean absolute percentage error, root mean squared error and Student's t-test. The 3-layer MLFF network developed in this study did not give uniform results for the three chosen locations. Hence, a 4-layer MLFF network was developed and the average value of the mean absolute percentage error was found to be 5.47%. Values of global radiation obtained using the model were in excellent agreement with measured values. Results of this study show that the designed ANN model can be used to estimate monthly mean daily global radiation of any place in Tamil Nadu where measured global radiation data are not available.

Sivamadhavi, V.; Selvaraj, R. Samuel

2012-12-01

63

Relationship between daily variation of cosmogenic nuclide Be-7 concentration in atmosphere and solar activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily Be-7 concentrations in air at the height of 15 m are continuously observed at 38°15.2?N, 140°20.9?E, between 2000 and 2001. The average concentration and the relative standard deviation were 4.0 mBq/m3 and 50% in 2000-2001, respectively. The Be-7 concentrations increased 2.5% with the decrease in the sunspot numbers by 6.7% for the term of two years. From the power spectral analysis, the periodicity of 26 days is shown for the daily Be-7 concentrations. The folding analysis indicates that the time variation of the Be-7 concentration is similar to that of the ground-based neutron counting rate, and the phase delay for the minimum portion of Be-7 concentration was roughly 8 days to the maximum sunspot number. These results indicate that the Be-7 concentrations in the air at ground level have 26 day periodicity as a component of time variations and the time variation is caused by the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays, which corresponds to the variation of the sunspot number due to the rotation of the sun.

Sakurai, H.; Shouji, Y.; Osaki, M.; Aoki, T.; Gandou, T.; Kato, W.; Takahashi, Y.; Gunji, S.; Tokanai, F.

64

Calculation of monthly average insolation on tilted surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several simplified design procedures for solar energy systems require monthly average meteorological data. Monthly average daily totals of the solar radiation incident on a horizontal surface are available. However, radiation data on tilted surfaces, required by the design procedures, are generally not available. A simple method of estimating the average daily radiation for each calendar month on surfaces facing directly

S. A. Klein

1976-01-01

65

Multiobjective MPPT\\/charging controller for standalone PV power systems under different insolation and load conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel multiobjective control algorithm for standalone PV power systems that can track the maximum power point of the solar array while limiting the charging\\/discharging current and voltage of the battery under different insolation and load conditions. A state machine model of the multiobjective control algorithm is described. The large-signal stability of the system is analyzed. The

Zhenhua Jiang; Roger A. Dougal

2004-01-01

66

Solar Wind-Driven Radiation Belt Response Functions at Sub-Daily Time Scales Using SAMPEX Orbit-Averaged Electron Fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive studies of radiation belt dynamics using linear prediction filters (LPFs) were first published by Nagai (1988) and Baker et al. (1990). These studies focused primarily on short-term predictions of daily averaged radiation flux at geostationary orbit using either global magnetospheric indices, or the speed of the solar wind impinging the Earth's magnetosphere. Using daily solar wind data from the

E. J. Rigler; D. N. Baker; D. Vassiliadis; S. G. Kanekal; A. J. Klimas

2002-01-01

67

Satellite-measured insolation in the United States, Mexico, and South America  

SciTech Connect

The development, testing and applications of a method for estimating insolation from satellite measurements are described. Data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) are used to estimate daily total insolation on a horizontal surface at 1/sup 0/ spacings in latitude and longitude for the continental United States, Mexico, and parts of South America. Examples of monthly mean values and root-mean-square spatial variability are given. Except during periods following a satellite change, the monthly means appear to be accurate to about 5%. Compared to long-term, surface-measured insolation in the United States, the satellite-derived means for the report period (1982-1983) are somewhat low, especially in the central and southwestern United States. Lowest standard deviation areas tend to be associated with areas of high mean insolation, such as deserts, where high values tend to persist from day to day. The rms spatial variability, which has not been reported before for such an extensive geographical region, is important in assessing the reliability of interpolations or extrapolations from sites with measured insolation to other locations.

Justus, C.G.; Paris, M.V.; Tarpley, J.D.

1986-08-01

68

Pluto Insolation and the South Polar Cap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pluto's south polar cap is a puzzle. The planet's southern cap may be brighter than the north, even though it was the south pole which faced the Sun on Pluto's recent approach to perihelion. One would think that the brighter pole would be the one which received less insolation: volatiles would be expected to sublimate from the sunny south and

D. P. Rubincam

2009-01-01

69

Two estimation methods for monthly mean hourly total irradiation on tilted surfaces from monthly mean daily horizontal irradiation from solar radiation data of Ajaccio, Corsica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sizing of a photovoltaic or a thermal solar system is generally based on monthly mean values of daily solar radiation on tilted surfaces. Many authors have demonstrated that it will be better to use monthly mean values of hourly radiation, particularly taking into account the Sun's position and to predict long-term performances of solar systems. (Liu and Jordan, 1963;

G. Notton; M. Muselli; A. Louche

1996-01-01

70

Solar UV radiation modulates daily production and DNA damage of marine bacterioplankton from a productive upwelling zone (36°S), Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In upwelling ecosystems, such as the Humboldt Current system (HCS) off Concepción, the effects of solar radiation on bacterioplankton incorporation rates have been related to previous light acclimation and responses to irradiance. In this paper, we study the daily effect of Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm) and ultraviolet radiation UVR (280–400 nm) on bacterial secondary production (BSP). We also considered the

Klaudia L. Hernández; Renato A. Quiñones; Giovanni Daneri; María E. Farias; E. Walter Helbling

2007-01-01

71

Delivering personalised insoles to the high street using additive manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was undertaken to explore a process that delivers insoles for personalised footwear to the high street using additive manufacturing (AM) and to evaluate such insoles in terms of discomfort and lower extremity biomechanics. During the development of the process, five elements were identified: foot capture, anthropometric measurements, insole design, manufacture of the parts and physical biomechanical evaluation. In order

Andre S. Salles; Diane E. Gyi

2012-01-01

72

Insolation-oriented model of photovoltaic module using Matlab/Simulink  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a novel model of photovoltaic (PV) module which is implemented and analyzed using Matlab/Simulink software package. Taking the effect of sunlight irradiance on the cell temperature, the proposed model takes ambient temperature as reference input and uses the solar insolation as a unique varying parameter. The cell temperature is then explicitly affected by the sunlight intensity. The output current and power characteristics are simulated and analyzed using the proposed PV model. The model verification has been confirmed through an experimental measurement. The impact of solar irradiation on cell temperature makes the output characteristic more practical. In addition, the insolation-oriented PV model enables the dynamics of PV power system to be analyzed and optimized more easily by applying the environmental parameters of ambient temperature and solar irradiance. (author)

Tsai, Huan-Liang [Electrical Engineering Department, Da-Yeh University, No. 168, University Rd., Dah-Tsuen, Chang-Hua, 51591 Taiwan (China)

2010-07-15

73

Solar curing of concrete blocks, Phase III. Quarterly technical status report, 1 February 1979-31 December 1979  

SciTech Connect

The operational history of an industrial process solar hot water system for curing concrete blocks at a Pennsylvania facility is given, including difficulties with the data recording system, pipe rusting, cracking and desilvering of mirrors, and routine maintenance. The system employs slat-type collectors. The data reduction procedures are described and results are given including plots of direct insolation energy collected and process energy delivered for sunny days in the spring, summer and fall, and daily summary data including insolation, temperature and efficiency data as well as energy delivered. (LEW)

Not Available

1980-01-01

74

The estimation of daily, clear-sky solar radiation intercepted by a tilted surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of solar energy that is intercepted by surfaces of any orientation is estimated from a new model of the clear-sky, spatial distribution of solar radiation. The model uses direct, isotropic reflected, and anisotropic diffuse radiation. The effects of azimuth, tilt, season, latitude, atmospheric turbidity, and reflectivity of the surroundings were studied. A general relationship between orientation and intercepted

T. A. Weiss; G. O. G. Loef

1977-01-01

75

Temperature based daily incoming solar radiation modeling based on gene expression programming, neuro-fuzzy and neural network computing techniques.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correct observation/estimation of surface incoming solar radiation (RS) is very important for many agricultural, meteorological and hydrological related applications. While most weather stations are provided with sensors for air temperature detection, the presence of sensors necessary for the detection of solar radiation is not so habitual and the data quality provided by them is sometimes poor. In these cases it is necessary to estimate this variable. Temperature based modeling procedures are reported in this study for estimating daily incoming solar radiation by using Gene Expression Programming (GEP) for the first time, and other artificial intelligence models such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). Traditional temperature based solar radiation equations were also included in this study and compared with artificial intelligence based approaches. Root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) RMSE-based skill score (SSRMSE), MAE-based skill score (SSMAE) and r2 criterion of Nash and Sutcliffe criteria were used to assess the models' performances. An ANN (a four-input multilayer perceptron with ten neurons in the hidden layer) presented the best performance among the studied models (2.93 MJ m-2 d-1 of RMSE). A four-input ANFIS model revealed as an interesting alternative to ANNs (3.14 MJ m-2 d-1 of RMSE). Very limited number of studies has been done on estimation of solar radiation based on ANFIS, and the present one demonstrated the ability of ANFIS to model solar radiation based on temperatures and extraterrestrial radiation. By the way this study demonstrated, for the first time, the ability of GEP models to model solar radiation based on daily atmospheric variables. Despite the accuracy of GEP models was slightly lower than the ANFIS and ANN models the genetic programming models (i.e., GEP) are superior to other artificial intelligence models in giving a simple explicit equation for the phenomenon which shows the relationship between the input and output parameters. This study provided new alternatives for solar radiation estimation based on temperatures.

Landeras, G.; López, J. J.; Kisi, O.; Shiri, J.

2012-04-01

76

Temperature climate effects on thermosiphon solar water heater productivity  

SciTech Connect

A low cost, two-tank thermosiphon solar water heater was monitored since August 1979 to evaluate its performance. A consistent daily demand profile was maintained throughout the measurement period. All energy flows into and out of the auxiliary heater were monitored in order to evaluate the impact of the solar water heater on auxiliary energy consumption. Results show that 50% of the annual energy load will be supplied by the solar water heater. Results also show that system production is a linear function of insolation only, independent of ambient temperature changes.

Lampcov, B.

1980-01-01

77

SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Solar-collector field experimental tests  

SciTech Connect

The solar-collection field subsystem of the solar-powered desalination pilot project located at Yanbu in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been operated successfully for two years. It has been demonstrated that during a one-year period, the solar-collector field can, on the average, provide about 2500 kWh of thermal energy a day for days with a daily insolation total greater than 4000 Wh/m/sup 2/. This is a yearlong solar-collector field average efficiency of 22.5%. In Yanbu, from October 1, 1985, until September 30, 1986, there were only 21 days (5.8%) when the daily direct-normal insolation was less than the mid-60% to 70% range with a peak output of 51 kW per solar collector. It has also been demonstrated that the Power Kinetics, Inc., square-dish solar collector has a problem due to the fixed aperture (outboard focus) that seriously hurts the performance of the solar collector during the summer months at this latitude. A location at latitudes greater than +-35/degree/ would see greatly improved daylong summer performance. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Zimmerman, J.C.; Al-Abbadi, N.

1987-06-01

78

A general model for estimation of daily global solar radiation using air temperatures and site geographic parameters in Southwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of daily global solar radiation (Rs) from routinely measured temperature data has been widely developed and used in many different areas of the world. However, many of them are site specific. It is assumed that a general model for estimating daily Rs using temperature variables and geographical parameters could be achieved within a climatic region. This paper made an attempt to develop a general model to estimate daily Rs using routinely measured temperature data (maximum (Tmax, °C) and minimum (Tmin, °C) temperatures) and site geographical parameters (latitude (La, °N), longitude (Ld, °E) and altitude (Alt, m)) for Guizhou and Sichuan basin of southwest China, which was classified into the hot summer and cold winter climate zone. Comparison analysis was carried out through statistics indicators such as root mean squared error of percentage (RMSE%), modeling efficiency (ME), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and mean bias error (MBE). Site-dependent daily Rs estimating models were calibrated and validated using long-term observed weather data. A general formula was then obtained from site geographical parameters and the better fit site-dependent models with mean RMSE% of 38.68%, mean MBE of 0.381 MJ m-2 d-1, mean CRM of 0.04 and mean ME value of 0.713.

Li, Mao-Fen; Fan, Li; Liu, Hong-Bin; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei

2013-01-01

79

Estimation of monthly average daily and hourly solar radiation impinging on a sloped surface using the isotropic sky model for Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the isotropic sky method of Liu and Jordan is used to theoretically estimate the monthly average daily and hourly solar radiation impinging on an unshaded tilted surface in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The surface receiving solar radiation is assumed to be fixed at a tilt angle, ?, equal to the latitude of Dhahran, Ø and oriented such that

F. A. Al-Sulaiman; B. Ismail

1997-01-01

80

Comment on "Strong signature of the active Sun in 100 years of terrestrial insolation data" by W. Weber  

PubMed Central

An analysis of ground-based observations of solar irradiance was recently published in this journal, reporting an apparent increase of solar irradiance on the ground of the order of 1% between solar minima and maxima [1]. Since the corresponding variations in total solar irradiance on top of the atmosphere are accurately determined from satellite observations to be of the order of 0.1% only [2], the one order of magnitude stronger effect in the terrestrial insolation data was interpreted as evidence for cosmic-ray induced aerosol formation in the atmosphere. In my opinion, however, this result does not reflect reality. Using the energy budget of Earth's surface, I show that changes of ground-based insolation with the solar cycle of the order of 1% between solar minima and maxima would result in large surface air temperature variations which are inconsistent with the instrumental record. It would appear that the strong variations of terrestrial irradiance found by [1] are due to the uncorrected effects of volcanic or local aerosols and seasonal variations. Taking these effects into account, I find a variation of terrestrial insolation with solar activity which is of the same order as the one measured from space, bringing the surface energy budget into agreement with the solar signal detected in temperature data.

Feulner, Georg

2011-01-01

81

Early Pleistocene glacial cycles and the integrated summer insolation forcing.  

PubMed

Long-term variations in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation are generally thought to control glaciation. But the intensity of summer insolation is primarily controlled by 20,000-year cycles in the precession of the equinoxes, whereas early Pleistocene glacial cycles occur at 40,000-year intervals, matching the period of changes in Earth's obliquity. The resolution of this 40,000-year problem is that glaciers are sensitive to insolation integrated over the duration of the summer. The integrated summer insolation is primarily controlled by obliquity and not precession because, by Kepler's second law, the duration of the summer is inversely proportional to Earth's distance from the Sun. PMID:16794041

Huybers, Peter

2006-06-22

82

Ultraviolet insolation drives seasonal and diurnal space weather variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present several findings that improve the understanding of the seasonal and diurnal variation in auroral and magnetospheric activity. The total ionospheric conductivity in the nightside auroral oval from UV insolation (?P) is calculated, and its seasonal and diurnal variation is shown to correlate very highly with that of the Am and AL indices of geomagnetic activity (r = 0.89 and r = 0.75, respectively). Such excellent correlations with Am have been previously obtained by other researchers using instead the acute angle between the Earth's dipole axis and the Earth-Sun line, ?. However, the ionospheric conductivity formulation provides a more physical model to explain the equinoctial (McIntosh) effect. Namely, the level of geomagnetic activity is well-ordered by whether the nightside auroral oval is sunlit in one hemisphere or neither. We improve calculations of the expected pattern of seasonal and diurnal variations in the solar wind input. The elliptical nature of the Earth's orbit results in observed interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) strengths about 7% larger in January than June. When the Sun's spin axis tilt to the ecliptic plane is considered, the predicted IMF southward component (Bs) maximizes in February, as is observed. We also calculate the seasonal and diurnal variation of a more general solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function, EKL. EKL proves to have little (0.5%) diurnal variation and has a seasonal variation of about 14%. For the first time, the seasonal and diurnal variation in the ?PC, the polar cap flux (from Polar UVI observations, cross-calibrated to a DMSP-based standard) and in magnetotail stretching (the b2i index) are presented. Magnetotail stretching proves to correlate better (r = -0.57) with EKL than with ?P. ?PC correlates better with ?P, but the correlation (r = -0.49) is not nearly as strong as that for the indices of geomagnetic activity, Am and AL. Our survey of the seasonal and diurnal variation of the magnetosphere thus shows that some aspects (geomagnetic indices) correlate best with UV insolation, while others (magnetotail stretching) correlate best with solar wind input.

Newell, Patrick T.; Sotirelis, Thomas; Skura, Joseph P.; Meng, Ching-I.; Lyatsky, Wladislav

2002-10-01

83

Ultraviolet Insolation Drives Seasonal and Diurnal Space Weather Variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present several findings which improve understanding of the seasonal and diurnal variation in auroral and magnetospheric activity. The total ionospheric conductivity in the nightside auroral oval from UV insolation (SP) is calculated, and its seasonal and diurnal variation is shown to correlate very highly with that of the AL and Am indices of geomagnetic activity (r=0.89 and r=0.75 respectively). Such excellent correlations with Am have been previously obtained by other researchers using instead the acute angle between the Earth's dipole axis and the Earth-Sun line, y. However the ionospheric conductivity formulation provides a more physical model to explain the equinoctial (McIntosh) effect. Namely, the level of geomagnetic activity is well-ordered by whether the nightside auroral oval is sunlit in one hemisphere or neither. We improve calculations of the expected pattern of seasonal and diurnal variations in the solar wind input. The elliptical nature of the Earth's orbit results in observed interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) strengths about 7% larger in January than June. When the sun's spin axis tilt to the ecliptic plane is considered, the predicted IMF southward component (Bs) maximizes in February, as is observed. We also calculate the seasonal and diurnal variation of a more general solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function, EKL. EKL proves to have very little (0.5%) diurnal variation, and has a seasonal variation of about 14%. For the first time, the seasonal and diurnal variation in the FPC, the polar cap flux (from Polar UVI observations, cross-calibrated to a DMSP-based standard) and in magnetotail stretching (the b2i index) are presented. Magnetotail stretching proves to correlate better (r=-0.57) with EKL than with SP. FPC correlates better with SP, but the correlation (r=0.46) is not nearly so strong as for the indices of geomagnetic activity, Am and AL. Our survey of the seasonal and diurnal variation of the magnetosphere thus shows that some aspects (geomagnetic indices) correlate best with UV insolation, while others (magnetotail stretching) correlate best with solar wind input.

Newell, P. T.; Sotirelis, T.; Meng, C. I.; Skura, J.; Lyatsky, W.

2001-12-01

84

One Year of Terra-CERES data (Reflected Solar Radiation) Daily data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation displays a little over one year of Terra-CERES data (March 1, 2000 to May 25, 2001) at one day resolution. The data are 2.5 degree resolution. The band is reflected solar radiation (often referred to as shortwave in the literature). Bright areas correspond to cloudtops or snowcover.

Bridgman, Tom; Wielicki, Bruce; Wong, Takmeng; Barkstrom, Bruce

2001-06-20

85

SOLERAS - University Research Project: Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlas of satellite insolation in the United States, Mexico and South America  

SciTech Connect

A summary is given of the development, testing and applications of the satellite insolation estimation project of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys through Aerospace Remote Sensing (AgRISTARS) program. The NOAA/AgRISTARS procedure uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) to estimate daily total insolation (on a horizontal surface) at an array of 1 x 1 latitude-longitude locations throughout the continental United States, Mexico, and parts of South America. This methodology is compared with some other satellite techniques in terms of accuracy and applicability. Summary maps of monthly average daily total insolation for the period July 1982 through December 1983, as well as annual total maps for 1983, are presented for all three geographic coverage areas. As measures of temporal and spatial variability, monthly and annual data are also presented for the standard deviation of the daily insolation values about the monthly mean, and for root-mean-square values of both north-south and east-west differences over 1 latitude or longitude spacing. From the estimated error analysis the monthly mean values appear to be accurate to about 5% of the mean value, except for the western part of the United States when GOES-1 was put back into temporary service as the western GOES satellite.

Not Available

1986-01-01

86

Quick use of WEFAX images from METEOSAT to determine daily solar radiation in France  

SciTech Connect

The authors present some preliminary results about 74 days: March 15th to June 30th, 1990. Four WEFAX images per day from the visible channel of METEOSAT have been processed. The main elements of the GISTEL methodology are briefly stated again. The estimated daily global irradiation on the ground is compared with figures measured at 10 stations in the south of France. In order to analyze the main causes of inaccuracy, this comparison is made on several modes: estimated and measured values, estimated and measured weather indexes for normalization, station per station to detect possible geographic errors.

Delorme, C.; Gallo, A.; Olivieri, J. (Univ. of Avignon Energie-Climat (France))

1992-09-01

87

Remote sensing as a biomass and insolation assessment tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamentals supporting the use of remote sensing to assess natural resources are briefly reviewed. The extraction of information from images is developed from basic principles and related specifically to assessment of insolation and biomass energy resources. Both insolation and biomass resource assessments are shown to be currently inadequate. The number (density) of ground measurements falls short of that desired

E. L. Maxwell; C. Riordan; G. Folger

1982-01-01

88

Total and non-isotropic diffuse insolation on tilted surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper extends the Liu and Jordan (1977) correlations between direct and diffuse insolation to predict instantaneous fluxes on surfaces in any orientation, and introduces a new procedure to allow for anisotropic as well as isotropic diffuse radiation. An expression is derived for total insolation on a horizontal surface, and a correlation equation is written for the ratio of the

V. M. Puri; R. Jimenez; M. Menzer; F. A. Costello

1980-01-01

89

Spectral analysis of luni-solar signal in daily meteorological data at Prague-Klementinum 1775 to 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linkages between lunar synodic cycle and select types of meteorological parameters have been suggested in previous studies. In important papers it was demonstrated that extreme precipitation events occur more frequently on the third to fifth day after syzygies. The effect is sometimes called Bowen's signal and similar lunar or semi-lunar modulation was later found also in ozone concentrations, sunshine, thunderstorm frequencies and in global temperatures observed by polar orbiting satellites. In our earlier papers we tried to analyse the possibility that the effect is transient in relation to solar activity. We confirmed the long-term quasi-periodical nearly-parallel changes in expression of lunar signal in 14 century-long daily precipitation series across Europe. The prevailing periods seemed to be similar to 22-year Hale solar magnetic cycle but there was no clear evidence and other similar celestial cycles could not be excluded. A unique set of uninterrupted daily precipitation data from Prague-Klementinum since 1804, published by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, was available. In this study we also made use of a related dataset of daily mean cloudiness that dates back as far as 1775. The cloud cover has been observed in a subjective way but we think its reliability is relatively good. In the case of precipitation we also examined the series of days with daily amount exceeding 10 mm. The data were divided into epochs of synodic months and superposed for 5 or 11 years with a step of one year. We get six sets of mean 29-day synodic signals containing 198-204 records for precipitation and 227-233 records for cloudiness. The temporal occurrence of lunar variation was defined as correlation coefficient ? between semi-lunar cosine function (period 4?/29.53), emulating the Bowen's signal, and the mean signals. The coefficients ? drawn against time created quasi-periodical charts ranging over more than two centuries. The impression of the ever-changing picture of synodic signals was given also by 3D-visualization by Surfer 10.4 surface maps. After removing both short and long-term variations of ? using a band-pass filter (cut-off periods 4 and 64 years) we calculated the power spectra by FFT that were afterwards smoothed with a running mean of 3 data points. A periodicity of 23 years - indicating solar influence - is prominent in the power spectra of cloudiness both for 5 and 11-year superposition and also in the case of the two precipitation series limited to 10 mm daily amounts, but is not present in the general precipitation series. The latter express important peaks in their power spectra near 18 years what might support the idea about the role of lunar Saros cycle of 18.6 years.

Hejkrlík, L.

2012-04-01

90

Variation of solar cell sensitivity and solar radiation on tilted surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical study was performed (1) to evaluate the validity of various insolation models used to compute solar radiation incident on tilted surfaces from global data measured on horizontal surfaces and (2) to determine the variation of solar cell sensitivity to solar radiation over a wide range of atmospheric condition. Evaluation of the insolation data indicates that the isotropic sky

T. M. Klucher

1978-01-01

91

ARIMA representation for daily solar irradiance and surface air temperature time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models are used to compare long-range temporal variability of the total solar irradiance (TSI) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface air temperature series. The comparison shows that one and the same type of the model is applicable to represent the TSI and air temperature series. In terms of the model type surface air temperature imitates closely that for the TSI. This may mean that currently no other forcing to the climate system is capable to change the random walk type variability established by the varying activity of the rotating Sun. The result should inspire more detailed examination of the dependence of various climate series on short-range fluctuations of TSI.

Kärner, Olavi

2009-06-01

92

Performance characteristics of point-focusing distributed-receiver solar Brayton systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to variations in solar insolation, it may be necessary or desirable to operate solar energy systems continuously in off-design conditions. Design of solar energy systems should maximize system efficiency at the design point and throughout the range of operational solar insolation. The solar power system considered in this study consists of a point-focusing concentrator, a cavity receiver, an open

N. El Gabalawi

1980-01-01

93

Effect of a textured insole on balance and gait symmetry.  

PubMed

Asymmetry of standing balance and gait is common in individuals with neurological disorders, and achieving symmetrical stance and gait is an important goal of rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a novel discomfort-induced approach (that is based on using a single textured insole) on the alteration in the symmetry of gait and balance. Eleven healthy subjects (6 females and 5 males, mean age of 28.0 ± 4.1 years) were tested using the Computerized Dynamic Posturography and GaitRite systems when standing or walking while wearing standard footwear with the textured insole positioned either in the left or in the right shoe, and without the insole. Significant immediate effect of the textured insole was seen in the outcome measures of static (weight bearing) and dynamic (weight symmetry index, strength symmetry) balance tests (p < 0.05) as well as in gait symmetry (single support and swing phases) (p < 0.05). The results of the study indicate that a textured insole can significantly modify the symmetry of stance and gait in healthy individuals. Pilot data from individuals with stroke also showed a reduction in the asymmetry of gait when walking with the single textured insole in the shoe on the unaffected side. This outcome provides support for future studies on the efficacy of the textured insole in minimizing asymmetry of gait and posture in individuals in need. PMID:23979014

Aruin, Alexander S; Kanekar, Neeta

2013-08-27

94

Orographic cloud over the eastern slopes of Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii, related to insolation and wind  

SciTech Connect

During the period 1 to 11 June 1978, solar radiation and other meteorological data were gathered at eight stations arranged in a nearly linear transection extending from the coast at Hilo, Hawaii to Mauna Loa Observatory, 60 km inland and 3400 m higher. Solar radiation distributions followed climatological rainfall patterns; the driest areas were sunniest. At the wettest sites, underneath the orographic cloud, measured global solar radiation was only 50% of clear-sky potential, and the diffuse component probably accounted for more than 50% of the global radiation. The orographic cloud developed during the day in upslope winds, and sharply reduced afternoon solar radiation at all sites. Total cloudiness, and hence insolation, varied greatly from day to day due to the passage of trade wind cloud masses and jet stream cirrus.

Garrett, A.J.

1980-07-01

95

Daily spectral effects on concentrating PV solar cells as affected by realistic aerosol optical depth and other atmospheric conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution addresses the need for more information about the spectral effect affecting solar cells specifically designed for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) applications. Spectral effects result from differences between the actual (dynamically variable) solar spectrum incident on a solar cell in the field and the standard (fixed) solar spectrum used for rating purposes. A methodology is proposed to quantify this spectral effect at any site where basic atmospheric information exists, and predict what semiconductor material(s) may benefit from operating under non-standard conditions. Using the same SMARTS radiative code as for the development of the improved reference spectrum for concentrating PV rating, an analysis of the spectral sensitivity of five specific PV technologies to varying atmospheric factors is presented, using simulated spectra at 5-nm resolution. (The alternative of using the average photon energy (APE) concept was also considered, but proved inappropriate in the present context.) The technologies investigated here include a 21.5%-efficient CIGS cell, a 22%-efficient crystalline silicon cell (both appropriate for low-concentration applications), as well as three high-performance multijunction cells, which are specifically designed for high-concentration applications. To the difference of most previous studies, the approach taken here considers realistic atmospheric conditions. The proposed Daily Spectral Enhancement Factor (DSEF) is obtained from a typical daily-average incident spectrum, which is purposefully weighted to minimize the incidence of large spectral effects at low sun. Calculations of DSEF are performed here at fifteen world sites from an atmospheric monitoring network. These sites have largely different latitudes and climates, and yet are all potentially interesting for CPV applications. Results are obtained for a typical clear day of January and July, and for each of the five PV technologies just mentioned. This analysis provides a preliminary quantitative assessment of how local atmospheric conditions interact with the spectral response of different CPV technologies. Most importantly, it is shown that the effect of aerosol optical depth (AOD, also referred to as atmospheric turbidity) has the largest impact on both the average direct normal irradiance (DNI) during a given month and the cell's DSEF. It is found that DSEF can be as low as 0.993 under clean conditions (low AOD), and as high as 1.215 under hazy conditions (high AOD). Under most conditions, all simulated solar cells perform significantly better than under rating conditions due to the spectral effect alone. There is no important difference in DSEF from cell to cell, except in one instance of very high AOD. The methodology and results proposed here constitute a step towards a better performance prediction of CPV systems, by assessing the variable spectral effect more accurately. It is anticipated that a more detailed simulation, which would also model temperature effects, as well as current-limiting effects in multijunction cells, would indicate even larger DSEF values than found here. Accurate aerosol data with higher spatial resolution in the "sun belt" than what exists today would also be desirable for the development of CPV applications.

Gueymard, Christian A.

2009-08-01

96

Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the amplitude of the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been well-known that geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation is produced by global ionospheric currents flowing in the E-region from middle latitudes to the magnetic equator. These currents are generated by a dynamo process via interaction between the neutral wind and ionospheric plasma in a region of the thermosphere and ionosphere. From the Ohm's equation, the ionospheric currents strongly depend on the ionospheric conductivity, polarization electric field and neutral wind. Then, to investigate the Sq amplitude is essential for understanding the long-term variations in the ionospheric conductivity and neutral wind of the thermosphere and ionosphere. Elias et al. [2010] found that the Sq amplitude tends to increase by 5.4-9.9 % in the middle latitudes from 1961 to 2001. They mentioned that the long-term variation of ionospheric conductivity associated with geomagnetic secular variation mainly determines the Sq trend, but that the rest component is ionospheric conductivity enhancement associated with cooling effects in the thermosphere due to increasing the greenhouse gases. In this talk, we clarify the characteristics of the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude using the long-term observation data of geomagnetic field and neutral wind. These observation data have been provided by the IUGONET (Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork) project. In the present analysis, we used the F10.7 flux as an indicator of the variation in the solar irradiance in the EUV and UV range, geomagnetic field data with time resolution of 1 hour. The definition of the Sq amplitude is the difference of the H-component between the maximum and minimum per day when the Kp index is less than 4. As a result, the Sq amplitude at all the stations strongly depends on 11-year solar activity, and tends to enhance more during the high activities (19- and 22- solar cycles) than during the low activity (20-solar cycle). The Fourier spectra of the F10.7 flux and Sq amplitude at Guam (13.59N, 144.87E) showed that the common peaks appear at the periods of 5.5, 7,5 and 10.5 years with the coherence of more than 0.9 while the spectrum peaks around 0.5 and 1.0 year appear only in the Sq amplitude. The former peak of the Sq amplitude is due to the solar activity while the latter is a cause of the upper atmosphere variation. In order to minimize the solar activity dependence of the Sq amplitude, we calculated the residual Sq amplitude using a second degree polynomial curve between the F10.7 and Sq amplitude during 1957-2010, and examined the residual Sq field defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. The residual Sq amplitude showed a clear tendency to increase and decrease during the periods of 1957-1992 and 1993-2010, respectively. It should be noted that the residual Sq amplitude around 2010 is almost the same level as that around 1970. In order to verify qualitatively the above signatures, we need to investigate the long-term variation in the ionospheric conductivities calculated with the IRI-2007 and MSIS-00 models.

Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Tsuda, T.

2011-12-01

97

Remote Sensing as a Biomass and Insolation Assessment Tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fundamentals supporting the use of remote sensing to assess natural resources are briefly reviewed. The extraction of information from images is developed from basic principles and related specifically to assessment of insolation and biomass energy re...

E. L. Maxwell C. Riordan G. Folger

1982-01-01

98

Solar and temporal effects on Escherichia coli concentration at a Lake Michigan swimming beach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies on solar inactivation of Escherichia coli in freshwater and in situ have been limited. At 63rd St. Beach, Chicago, Ill., factors influencing the daily periodicity of culturable E. coli, particularly insolation, were examined. Water samples for E. coli analysis were collected twice daily between April and September 2000 three times a week along five transects in two depths of water. Hydrometeorological conditions were continuously logged: UV radiation, total insolation, wind speed and direction, wave height, and relative lake level. On 10 days, transects were sampled hourly from 0700 to 1500 h. The effect of sunlight on E. coli inactivation was evaluated with dark and transparent in situ mesocosms and ambient lake water. For the study, the number of E. coli samples collected (n) was 2,676. During sunny days, E. coli counts decreased exponentially with day length and exposure to insolation, but on cloudy days, E. coli inactivation was diminished; the E. coli decay rate was strongly influenced by initial concentration. In situ experiments confirmed that insolation primarily inactivated E. coli; UV radiation only marginally affected E. coli concentration. The relationship between insolation and E. coli density is complicated by relative lake level, wave height, and turbidity, all of which are often products of wind vector. Continuous importation and nighttime replenishment of E. coli were evident. These findings (i) suggest that solar inactivation is an important mechanism for natural reduction of indicator bacteria in large freshwater bodies and (ii) have implications for management strategies of nontidal waters and the use of E. coli as an indicator organism.

Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Korinek, Ginger C.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

2004-01-01

99

Solar and Temporal Effects on Escherichia coli Concentration at a Lake Michigan Swimming Beach†  

PubMed Central

Studies on solar inactivation of Escherichia coli in freshwater and in situ have been limited. At 63rd St. Beach, Chicago, Ill., factors influencing the daily periodicity of culturable E. coli, particularly insolation, were examined. Water samples for E. coli analysis were collected twice daily between April and September 2000 three times a week along five transects in two depths of water. Hydrometeorological conditions were continuously logged: UV radiation, total insolation, wind speed and direction, wave height, and relative lake level. On 10 days, transects were sampled hourly from 0700 to 1500 h. The effect of sunlight on E. coli inactivation was evaluated with dark and transparent in situ mesocosms and ambient lake water. For the study, the number of E. coli samples collected (n) was 2,676. During sunny days, E. coli counts decreased exponentially with day length and exposure to insolation, but on cloudy days, E. coli inactivation was diminished; the E. coli decay rate was strongly influenced by initial concentration. In situ experiments confirmed that insolation primarily inactivated E. coli; UV radiation only marginally affected E. coli concentration. The relationship between insolation and E. coli density is complicated by relative lake level, wave height, and turbidity, all of which are often products of wind vector. Continuous importation and nighttime replenishment of E. coli were evident. These findings (i) suggest that solar inactivation is an important mechanism for natural reduction of indicator bacteria in large freshwater bodies and (ii) have implications for management strategies of nontidal waters and the use of E. coli as an indicator organism.

Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Korinek, Ginger C.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

2004-01-01

100

Does Shoe Insole Modification Prevent Stress Fractures? A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress fractures can be debilitating in athletes and military personnel. Insoles may lower stress fracture rates by improving\\u000a biomechanics, lessening fatigue, and attenuating impact. The objective of this study was to systematically review the best\\u000a evidence on the use of insoles as a method of stress fracture prevention in a high-risk population. Using MEDLINE, Cochrane,\\u000a Current Controlled Trials, UK National

Rebecca A. Snyder; Joseph P. DeAngelis; Michael C. Koester; Kurt P. Spindler; Warren R. Dunn

2009-01-01

101

Making full use of the clearness index for parameterizing hourly insolation conditions  

SciTech Connect

An enhanced parameterization of insolation conditions based only on the knowledge of global irradiance is presented. Two limitations associated with the current approach using the clearness index are pointed out: its dependence on solar elevation and its inability to differentiate between different conditions that produce the same global irradiance. Suggestions are provided which could overcome part of these limitations. Arguments are substantiated with solid experimental evidence. It is further shown that noticeable gains in accuracy for the decomposition of global into direct and diffuse irradiance are possible if one makes optimum use of the information available within a global irradiance time series.

Perez, R.; Ineichen, P.; Seals, R.; Zelenka, A. (Atmospheric Sciences Research Center, Albany, NY (USA))

1990-01-01

102

Sever's injury: treatment with insoles provides effective pain relief.  

PubMed

Sever's injury (apophysitis calcanei) is considered to be the dominant cause of heel pain among children between 8 and 15 years. The traditional advice is to reduce and modify the level of physical activity. Recommended treatment in general is the same as for adults with Achilles tendon pain. The purpose of the study was to find out if insoles, of two different types, were effective in relieving heel pain in a group of boys (n=38) attending a Sports Medicine Clinic for heel pain diagnosed as Sever's injury. The type of insole was randomized, and self-assessed pain during physical activity in the treatment phase with insoles was compared with pain in the corresponding pre- and post-treatment phases without insoles. There were no other treatments added and the recommendations were to stay on the same activity level. All patients maintained their high level of physical activity throughout the study period. Significant pain reduction during physical activity when using insoles was found. Application of two different types of insoles without any immobilization, other treatment, or modification of sport activities results in significant pain relief in boys with Sever's injury. PMID:20492591

Perhamre, S; Janson, S; Norlin, R; Klässbo, M

2010-05-12

103

Estimation of the monthly average daily solar radiation using geographic information system and advanced case-based reasoning.  

PubMed

The photovoltaic (PV) system is considered an unlimited source of clean energy, whose amount of electricity generation changes according to the monthly average daily solar radiation (MADSR). It is revealed that the MADSR distribution in South Korea has very diverse patterns due to the country's climatic and geographical characteristics. This study aimed to develop a MADSR estimation model for the location without the measured MADSR data, using an advanced case based reasoning (CBR) model, which is a hybrid methodology combining CBR with artificial neural network, multiregression analysis, and genetic algorithm. The average prediction accuracy of the advanced CBR model was very high at 95.69%, and the standard deviation of the prediction accuracy was 3.67%, showing a significant improvement in prediction accuracy and consistency. A case study was conducted to verify the proposed model. The proposed model could be useful for owner or construction manager in charge of determining whether or not to introduce the PV system and where to install it. Also, it would benefit contractors in a competitive bidding process to accurately estimate the electricity generation of the PV system in advance and to conduct an economic and environmental feasibility study from the life cycle perspective. PMID:23548030

Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Lee, Minhyun; Park, Hyo Seon

2013-04-18

104

Comparison of bacterial DNA profiles of footwear insoles and soles of feet for the forensic discrimination of footwear owners.  

PubMed

It is crucial to identify the owner of unattended footwear left at a crime scene. However, retrieving enough DNA for DNA profiling from the owner's foot skin (plantar skin) cells from inside the footwear is often unsuccessful. This is sometimes because footwear that is used on a daily basis contains an abundance of bacteria that degrade DNA. Further, numerous other factors related to the inside of the shoe, such as high humidity and temperature, can encourage bacterial growth inside the footwear and enhance DNA degradation. This project sought to determine if bacteria from inside footwear could be used for footwear trace evidence. The plantar skins and insoles of shoes of volunteers were swabbed for bacteria, and their bacterial community profiles were compared using bacterial 16S rRNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Sufficient bacteria were recovered from both footwear insoles and the plantar skins of the volunteers. The profiling identified that each volunteer's plantar skins harbored unique bacterial communities, as did the individuals' footwear insoles. In most cases, a significant similarity in the bacterial community was identified for the matched foot/insole swabs from each volunteer, as compared with those profiles from different volunteers. These observations indicate the probability to discriminate the owner of footwear by comparing the microbial DNA fingerprint from inside footwear with that of the skin from the soles of the feet of the suspected owner. This novel strategy will offer auxiliary forensic footwear evidence for human DNA identification, although further investigations into this technique are required. PMID:22729347

Goga, Haruhisa

2012-06-23

105

The specification of personalised insoles using additive manufacturing.  

PubMed

Research has been conducted to explore a process that delivers insoles for personalised footwear for the high street using additive manufacturing (AM) and to evaluate the use of such insoles in terms of discomfort. Therefore, the footwear personalisation process was first identified: (1) foot capture; (2) anthropometric measurements; (3) insole design; and (4) additive manufacturing. In order to explore and evaluate this process, recreational runners were recruited. They had both feet scanned and 15 anthropometric measurements taken. Personalised insoles were designed from the scans and manufactured using AM. Participants were fitted with footwear under two experimental conditions: personalised and control, which were compared in terms of discomfort. The mean ratings for discomfort variables were generally low for both conditions and no significant differences were detected between conditions. In general, the personalisation process showed promise in terms of the scan data, although the foot capture position may not be considered 'gold standard'. Polyamide, the material used for the insoles, demonstrated positive attributes: visual inspection revealed no signs of breaking. The footwear personalisation process described and explored in this study shows potential and can be considered a good starting point for designer and researchers. PMID:22316969

Salles, André S; Gyi, Diane E

2012-01-01

106

Insolation Weathering: An Instrumentation and Field Based Study (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Processes of mechanical weathering related to diurnal insolation are largely unexplored. Recent studies (McFadden et al., 2005, Eppes et al., 2010) demonstrated that rocks in a range of environments exhibit preferentially orientated (~N-S) cracks that are hypothesized to form as rocks are heated and cooled during the sun’s daily transit across the sky. In this study, we attempt to better understand the association between rock fracture and directional insolation. In Charlotte, NC we instrumented a ~30 cm diameter granite boulder sitting in full sun exposure with 8 thermocouples, 8 strain rosettes, 6 acoustic emission sensors and a moisture sensor, in order to spatially and temporally correlate rock cracking with rock surface conditions. Temperature and strain are recorded every minute along with a suite of meteorological data, and acoustic emissions are continuously monitored. As part of an NSF REU, in the Providence Mountains of the Mojave Desert of Southern California, we examined every crack greater than 2 cm in length on 1027 desert pavement rocks of varying types and on surfaces of varying age (~1 ka to ~150 ka) in order to examine crack characteristics as a function of rock shape, rock type and rock exposure age. Analysis of preliminary instrumentation data indicates that rock cracking as monitored by AE devices occurs in discrete intervals of events that initially appear to be related to rapid changes in temperature and/or temperature gradients on the rock surface. Using 3-D location software, we are also able to locate the foci of events within the rock to a reasonable degree of certainty. Our data will allow us to begin to quantify the stress and temperature conditions under which cracking occurs. Preliminary analysis of our field data indicates that cracks exhibit preferred strike orientations (~NE) and dip directions (~ESE). These data support the idea that cracking occurs in association with the extreme temperature gradients that arise as rocks are first heated in the morning sun. Rock shape appears to enhance this effect. For example, more cracks are observed parallel to large flat SE facing surfaces as well as to NE oriented long axes of elongated rocks. We also observe correlations with rock type and cracking. For example, the average number of cracks per rock range from 3.4 (Meta-volcanic) to 1.9 (carbonates) to 0.8 (basalts) on a 140 ka surface. There is not an obvious trend through time in crack orientations, and the mode(s) of crack orientations appears to vary with surface age. These differences in orientations may be due to differences in the thermo-dynamic properties of different rock types and minerals, making them susceptible to cracking at different times of the day or year. Alternatively, cracks may have formed during discrete intervals when environmental conditions were favorable. Such conditions may have occurred at different times of the day and/or year throughout the Quaternary.

Eppes, M. C.; Warren, K.; Swami, S.; Folz-Donahue, K.; Evans, S.; Cavendar, J.; Smith, I.; Layzell, A.

2010-12-01

107

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, June 1985  

SciTech Connect

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of June 1985 are presented. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

108

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, May 1985  

SciTech Connect

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of May 1985 are presented. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

109

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, April 1985  

SciTech Connect

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of April 1985 was presented. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

110

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of March 1985 are presented. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-03-01

111

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar Energy Falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, April 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of April 1985 was presented. (ERA ...

1985-01-01

112

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar Energy Falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of March 1985 are presented. (ERA ...

1985-01-01

113

An evaluation of personalised insoles developed using additive manufacturing.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the short and medium term use of personalised insoles, produced by combining additive manufacturing (AM) with three-dimensional (3-D) foot scanning and computer aided design (CAD) systems. For that, 38 runners (19 pairings) were recruited. The experimental conditions were: personalised and control. The personalised condition consisted of trainers fitted with personalised glove fit insoles manufactured using AM and using foot scans to match the plantar geometry of the feet. The control condition consisted of the same trainers fitted with insoles also manufactured using AM but using scans of the original insole shape. Participants were allocated to one of the experimental conditions and wore the trainers for 3 months. Over this period they attended three laboratory sessions (at months 0, 1.5 and 3) and completed an Activity Diary after each training session. The footwear was evaluated in terms of discomfort and biomechanics. Lower discomfort ratings were found in the heel area (P ? 0.05) and for overall fit (P ? 0.05), with the personalised insole. However, discomfort was reported under the arch region for both conditions. With regard to the biomechanical data, differences between conditions were detected for ankle dorsiflexion at footstrike (P ? 0.05), maximum ankle eversion (P ? 0.05) and peak mean pressure under the heel (P ? 0.01): the personalised condition had lower values which may reduce injury risk. The personalisation of the geometry of insoles through advances in AM together with 3-D scanning and CAD technologies can provide benefits and has potential. PMID:23083421

Salles, Andre S; Gyi, Diane E

2012-10-22

114

Solar absorption cooling plant in Seville  

SciTech Connect

A solar/gas cooling plant at the Engineering School of Seville (Spain) was tested during the period 2008-2009. The system is composed of a double-effect LiBr + water absorption chiller of 174 kW nominal cooling capacity, powered by: (1) a pressurized hot water flow delivered by mean of a 352 m{sup 2} solar field of a linear concentrating Fresnel collector and (2) a direct-fired natural gas burner. The objective of the project is to indentify design improvements for future plants and to serve as a guideline. We focused our attention on the solar collector size and dirtiness, climatology, piping heat losses, operation control and coupling between solar collector and chiller. The daily average Fresnel collector efficiency was 0.35 with a maximum of 0.4. The absorption chiller operated with a daily average coefficient of performance of 1.1-1.25, where the solar energy represented the 75% of generator's total heat input, and the solar cooling ratio (quotient between useful cooling and insolation incident on the solar field) was 0.44. (author)

Bermejo, Pablo; Pino, Francisco Javier; Rosa, Felipe [Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimiento s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

2010-08-15

115

USAF solar thermal applications overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process heat applications were compared to solar thermal technologies. The generic process heat applications were analyzed for solar thermal technology utilization, using SERI's PROSYS\\/ECONOMAT model in an end use matching analysis and a separate analysis was made for solar ponds. Solar technologies appear attractive in a large number of applications. Low temperature applications at sites with high insolation and high

J. S. Hauger; J. A. Simpson

1981-01-01

116

Simultaneous estimation of daily solar radiation and humidity from observed temperature and precipitation: an application over complex terrain in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using daily observations of temperature, precipitation, radiation, and humidity from 24 stations spanning a large elevation gradient in Austria, we tested several previously defined algorithms for estimating daily radiation and humidity. The estimation algorithms were first tested independently, and then combined, resulting in a combined algorithm for estimating both radiation and humidity that relies only on temperature and precipitation inputs.

Peter E. Thornton; Hubert Hasenauer; Michael A. White

2000-01-01

117

Insolation changes on Pluto caused by orbital element variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insolation at Pluto for 3 epochs during the history of the planet : t = -1, 0, and 0.5, where t is the time in millions of years AD, is compared. The extreme values of t coincide respectively with a maximum (126 deg) and a minimum (102 deg) value of the obliquity. The eccentricity and the longitude of the

E. Vanhemelrijck

1984-01-01

118

Insolation changes on pluto caused by orbital element variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we compare changes in the insolation at Pluto, corresponding to three epochs during the dynamical history of the planet: t = - 1, 0 and 0.5, where t is the time in millions of years A.D. The two extreme values of t coincide respectively with a maximum (126 ‡) and a minimum (102 ‡) value of the

E. Hemelrijck

1985-01-01

119

Insolation changes on Pluto caused by orbital element variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a comparison is presented of the changes in the insolation at Pluto, corresponding to three epochs during the dynamical history of the planet: t = -1, 0 and 0.5, where t is the time in millions of years A.D. The two extreme value of t coincide respectively with a maximum (126 deg) and a minimum (102 deg)

E. van Hemelrijck

1985-01-01

120

The effectiveness of shock-absorbing insoles during normal walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a study of the effectiveness of commercially available shock absorbing insoles when used in four different pairs of shoes during normal walking. The measurement method was based on the use of the Fourier Transform of the axial acceleration of the leg measured by an accelerometer mounted at the ankle. The magnitude of shock was measured by the

G. R. JOHNSON

1988-01-01

121

INSOLENT RACING, ROUGH NARRATIVE The Harlem Renaissance's Impolite Queers  

Microsoft Academic Search

I have long known that some queers can be astonishingly rude. I, however, did not, until recently, understand the way queer insolence has a peculiar significance for the literary articulation of characters whose interactions with race and sexuality are at odds with the dominant culture. Possibly, when one begins to investigate the overlapping representations of race and same-sex sexuality during

Michael L. Cobb

2000-01-01

122

Rocky Mountain hydroclimate: Holocene variability and the role of insolation, ENSO, and the North American Monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the period of instrumental records, precipitation maximum in the headwaters of the Colorado Rocky Mountains has been dominated by winter snow, with a substantial degree of interannual variability linked to Pacific ocean-atmosphere dynamics. High-elevation snowpack is an important water storage that is carefully observed in order to meet increasing water demands in the greater semi-arid region. The purpose here is to consider Rocky Mountain water trends during the Holocene when known changes in earth's energy balance were caused by precession-driven insolation variability. Changes in solar insolation are thought to have influenced the variability and intensity of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and North American Monsoon and the seasonal precipitation balance between rain and snow at upper elevations. Holocene records are presented from two high elevation lakes located in northwest Colorado that document decade-to-century scale precipitation seasonality for the past ~ 7000 years. Comparisons with sub-tropical records of ENSO indicate that the snowfall-dominated precipitation maxima developed ~ 3000 and 4000 years ago, coincident with evidence for enhanced ENSO/PDO dynamics. During the early-to-mid Holocene the records suggest a more monsoon affected precipitation regime with reduced snowpack, more rainfall, and net moisture deficits that were more severe than recent droughts. The Holocene perspective of precipitation indicates a far broader range of variability than that of the past century and highlights the non-linear character of hydroclimate in the U.S. west.

Anderson, Lesleigh

2012-07-01

123

Solar energy system performance evaluation: Summerwood Associates, House G, Old Saybrook, connecticut, June 1980 - May 1981  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An active solar energy system designed to supply 62% of the space heating and 100% of the hot water is described. It is equipped with flat plate collectors with pyramidal optics reflectors, a 600-gallon concrete storge tank, and an auxiliary system consisting of a dual-source heat pump with electrical resistance heater. The solar fraction of space and water heating was 36%, substantially less than was expected, due to less solar energy being collected than was calculated. The solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance are also given as well as outdoor temperature, heating degree-days, and daily insolation. The performance of the total system and of the collector, storage, hot water and space heating subsystems is analyzed, and the system operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions are reported. The system is described and the sensors used are discussed.

Raymond, M.

124

Thermochromic gels for control of insolation  

SciTech Connect

Thermochromic gels consist of a mixture of water, gelling agent, and a polyether reaction compound. They show a drastic increase of scattering when a characteristic switching temperature is surpassed. The hemispherical transmission consequently decreases from about 90 to 50% for a 1-mm-thick layer sandwiched between two glass panes. The increase in scattering is caused by a dramatic increase in number density and particle size of created scattering centers. The latter consists of agglomerated polyether chains with reduced water content, i.e., increased index of refraction. Our measurements cover the directional-directional transmission, as well as the directional-hemispherical transmission and reflection, using a double- beam spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. For structural information a light-scattering apparatus was employed. Multiflux calculations allow predictions of the switching behaviour for nonvertical incidence and for arbitrarily thick layers. The thermochromic material is a low-cost, nontoxic product. The achieved switching action is reliable however, it may need improvement to allow application in solar architecture.

Beck, A.; Hoffmann, T.; Koerner, W.; Fricke, J. (Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany))

1993-05-01

125

Estimating monthly means of daily totals of direct normal solar radiation and of total solar radiation on a south-facing, 45 deg, tilted surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model relating direct normal (DIV) radiation data with total horizontal (TH) radiation data was developed. With the model solar engineers can estimate DN for any site for which TH data is available. Total radiated energy on a tilted surface (TT) is also of interest to solar engineers. Empirically derived functions relating DN and TH and TT and TH are

E. C. Boes; I. J. Hall

1977-01-01

126

Long-term prediction of solar and geomagnetic activity daily time series using singular spectrum analysis and fuzzy descriptor models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of the various conditions that affect space weather, Sun-driven phenomena are the most dominant. Cyclic solar activity has a significant effect on the Earth, its climate, satellites, and space missions. In recent years, space weather hazards have become a major area of investigation, especially due to the advent of satellite technology. As such, the design of reliable alerting and warning systems is of utmost importance, and international collaboration is needed to develop accurate short-term and long-term prediction methodologies. Several methods have been proposed and implemented for the prediction of solar and geomagnetic activity indices, but problems in predicting the exact time and magnitude of such catastrophic events still remain. There are, however, descriptor systems that describe a wider class of systems, including physical models and non-dynamic constraints. It is well known that the descriptor system is much tighter than the state-space expression for representing real independent parametric perturbations. In addition, the fuzzy descriptor models as a generalization of the locally linear neurofuzzy models are general forms that can be trained by constructive intuitive learning algorithms. Here, we propose a combined model based on fuzzy descriptor models and singular spectrum analysis (SSA) (FD/SSA) to forecast a number of geomagnetic activity indices in a manner that optimizes a fuzzy descriptor model for each of the principal components obtained from singular spectrum analysis and recombines the predicted values so as to transform the geomagnetic activity time series into natural chaotic phenomena. The method has been applied to predict two solar and geomagnetic activity indices: geomagnetic aa and solar wind speed (SWS) of the solar wind index. The results demonstrate the higher power of the proposed method-- compared to other methods -- for predicting solar activity.

Mirmomeni, M.; Kamaliha, E.; Shafiee, M.; Lucas, C.

2009-09-01

127

Modelling Sugarcane Growth in Response to Age, Insolation and Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling sugarcane growth in response to age of cane, insolation and air temperature using first-order multiple regression analysis and a non-linear approach is investigated. Data are restricted to one variety from irrigated fields to eliminate the impact of varietal response and rainfall. Ten first-order models are investigated. The predictant is cane yield from 600 field tests. The predictors are cumulative

Karl Tiap Sen How; K. T. S

1986-01-01

128

Knee abduction angular impulses during prolonged running with wedged insoles.  

PubMed

Wedged insoles may produce immediate effects on knee abduction angular impulses during running; however, it is currently not known whether these knee abduction angular impulse magnitudes are maintained throughout a run when fatigue sets in. If changes occur, this could affect the clinical utility of wedged insoles in treating conditions such as patellofemoral pain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether knee abduction angular impulses are altered during a prolonged run with wedged insoles. It was hypothesized that knee abduction angular impulses would be reduced following a prolonged run with wedged insoles. Nine healthy runners participated. Runners were randomly assigned to either a 6-mm medial wedge condition or a 6-mm lateral wedge condition and then ran continuously overground for 30 min. Knee abduction angular impulses were quantified at 0 and 30 min using a gait analysis procedure. After 2 days, participants returned to perform the same test but with the other wedge type. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate main effects of wedge condition and time and interactions between wedge condition and time (? = 0.05). Paired t-tests were used for post hoc analysis (? = 0.01). No interaction effects (p = 0.958) were found, and knee abduction angular impulses were not significantly different over time (p = 0.384). Lateral wedge conditions produced lesser knee abduction angular impulses than medial conditions at 0 min (difference of 2.79 N m s, p = 0.006) and at 30 min (difference of 2.76 N m s, p < 0.001). It is concluded that significant knee abduction angular impulse changes within wedge conditions do not occur during a 30-min run. Additionally, knee abduction angular impulse differences between wedge conditions are maintained during a 30-min run. PMID:23636760

Lewinson, Ryan T; Worobets, Jay T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

2013-04-16

129

African monsoons, an immediate climate response to orbital insolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Croll-Milankovitch astronomical theory of climate1-3 has received strong support from the evidence of a linear climatic forcing by obliquity and precession, although nonlinearity had to be assumed for eccentricity4,5. Moreover, interglacials have appeared to be controlled by the orbital insolation6 although a phase shift of 6,000-5,000 yr is seen between an astronomical climate index and terrestrial climate indicators, dominated

Martine Rossignol-Strick

1983-01-01

130

Estimating Monthly Means of Daily Totals of Direct Normal Solar Radiation and of Total Solar Radiation on a South-Facing, 45 exp 0 , Tilted Surface.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Direct Normal, DN, radiation data is presently available for only a few sites in the country while total horizontal, TH, radiation is available for many locations. If a mathematical function relating DN and TH were established, solar engineers could estim...

E. C. Boes I. J. Hall

1977-01-01

131

Kinetic Gait Analysis Using a Low-Cost Insole.  

PubMed

Abnormal gait caused by stroke or other pathological reasons can greatly impact the life of an individual. Being able to measure and analyze that gait is often critical for rehabilitation. Motion analysis labs and many current methods of gait analysis are expensive and inaccessible to most individuals. The low-cost, wearable, and wireless insole-based gait analysis system in this study provides kinetic measurements of gait by using low-cost force sensitive resistors. This paper describes the design and fabrication of the insole and its evaluation in six control subjects and four hemiplegic stroke subjects. Subject-specific linear regression models were used to determine ground reaction force plus moments corresponding to ankle dorsiflexion / plantarflexion, knee flexion / extension, and knee abduction / adduction. Comparison with data simultaneously collected from a clinical motion analysis laboratory demonstrated that the insole results for ground reaction force and ankle moment were highly correlated (all > 0.95) for all subjects, while the two knee moments were less strongly correlated (generally > 0.80). This provides a means of cost-effective and efficient healthcare delivery of mobile gait analysis that can be used anywhere from large clinics to an individuals home. PMID:23475336

Howell, A; Kobayashi, T; Hayes, H; Foreman, K; Bamberg, S

2013-03-07

132

Solar panel design considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements and parameters of photovoltaic solar array design for space applications are presented. Orbit conditions of insolation, electrical power requirements and panel geometry are discussed. The relation of solar cell spectral response, surface spectral characteristics and temperature control is presented and the use of spectrally selective surfaces is examined. The effects of electrical circuit design and space environment on

W. H. Evans; A. E. Mann; I. Weiman; W. V. Wright

1961-01-01

133

Insolation and Resulting Surface Temperatures of Study Regions on the Moon and Implications for Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The imaging spectrometer MERTIS (Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer) is part of the payload of ESA's BepiColombo mission, which is scheduled for launch in 2014 (Hiesinger et al., 2010). The instrument consists of an IR-spectrometer and radiometer, which observe the surface in the wavelength range of 7-14 and 7-40µm, respectively. The four scientific objectives are to a) study Mercury's surface composition, b) identify rock-forming minerals, c) globally map the surface mineralogy and d) study surface temperature and thermal inertia (Hiesinger et al., 2010; Helbert et al., 2005). Previous studies of the lunar surface have shown that thermal emission contributes to the observed signal from the surface and can influence the spectral characteristics, e.g. the depth of absorption bands (e.g. Clark, 2009; Pieters et al., 2009; Sunshine et al., 2009). Therefore accurate knowledge of the solar insolation and resulting thermal variations is needed. In order to calculate insolation and surface temperatures, we use a numerical model which has been described by Bauch et al. (2009). Surface temperatures are depending on the surface and subsurface bulk thermophysical properties, such as bulk density, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, emissivity, and albedo. Topography also influences surface temperatures, as it changes the angle of solar incidence, but also leads to shadowed areas, e.g. the floors of polar craters. The model solves the one-dimensional heat transfer equation, based on a depth and temperature dependent thermal inertia. The surface boundary condition is based on the energy balance relation; the energy entering a surface equals the energy leaving the surface. In addition to the direct solar insolation, reflectance and scattering from adjacent surface regions also influence the surface temperatures. In preparation of the MERTIS experiment, we performed detailed thermal models of the lunar surface, which we extrapolated to Mercury. For our simulation, we use topography data from the Moon and transfer them as model regions to the surface of Mercury. When calculated with lunar parameters, this allows us to compare the results to lunar temperature measurements of the Apollo, Clementine and Chandrayaan missions (e.g. Keihm and Langseth (1973), Lawson et al. (2000), Pieters et al. (2009)). It also allows a direct comparison of the insolation and thermal variation between craters on the lunar and mercurian surface. Hiesinger, H. et al. (2010), PSS 58, 144-165; Helbert, J. et al. (2005), LPSC XXXVI, Abstract #1753; Clark, R.N. (2009), Science 326, 562-564; Pieters, C.M. et al. (2009), Science 326, 568-572; Sunshine, J.M. et al. (2009), Science 326, 565-568; Bauch, K.E. et al. (2009) LPSC XL, Abstract #1789; Keihm, S.J. and Langseth, M.G. (1973), Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 4th, 2503-2513; Lawson, S.L. et al. (2000), JGR 105, E5, 4273-4290

Bauch, Karin E.; Hiesinger, Harald

2010-05-01

134

USAF solar thermal applications overview. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process heat applications were compared to solar thermal technologies. The generic process heat applications were analyzed for solar thermal technology utilization, using SERI's PROSYS\\/ECONOMAT model in an end use matching analysis and a separate analysis was made for solar ponds. Solar technologies appear attractive in a large number of applications. Low temperature applications at sites with high insolation and high

J. S. Hauger; J. A. Simpson

1981-01-01

135

Urban air pollution and solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

1981-10-01

136

Relative Accuracy of 1Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global

D. R. Myers; S. M. Wilcox

2009-01-01

137

High-resolution ensemble surface insolation estimates through assimilation of coarse-scale retrievals into a simple physical model: 1. Physical model development and accuracy tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple physical radiative transfer insolation model (mG-model) is developed for use in both prediction (part 1) and data assimilation applications (part 2). The primary novel aspect of the model is the use of the Visible Infrared Solar-infrared Split window Technique (VISST) pixel-level cloud product. The parsimony of the model and high-resolution VISST cloud product allows for the computationally efficient

Songweon Lee; Steven A. Margulis

2007-01-01

138

Estimation of daily global solar radiation in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area: A combinational application of statistical downscaling method and Bayesian inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term daily global solar radiation (GSR) data of the same quality in the 20th century has been needed as a baseline to assess the climate change impact on paddy rice production in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area (MKD: 104.5-107.5oE/8.2-11.2oN). However, though sunshine duration data is available, the accessibility of GSR data is quite poor in MKD. This study estimated the daily GSR in MKD for 30-yr (1978- 2007) by applying the statistical downscaling method (SDM). The estimates of GSR was obtained from four different sources: (1) the combined equations with the corrected reanalysis data of daily maximum/minimum temperatures, relative humidity, sea level pressure, and precipitable water; (2) the correction equation with the reanalysis data of downward shortwave radiation; (3) the empirical equation with the observed sunshine duration; and (4) the observation at one site for short term. Three reanalysis data, i.e., NCEP-R1, ERA-40, and JRA-25, were used. Also the observed meteorological data, which includes many missing data, were obtained from 11 stations of the Vietnamese Meteorological Agency for 28-yr and five stations of the Global Summary of the Day for 30-yr. The observed GSR data for 1-yr was obtained from our station. Considering the use of data with many missing data for analysis, the Bayesian inference was used for this study, which has the powerful capability to optimize multiple parameters in a non-linear and hierarchical model. The Bayesian inference provided the posterior distributions of 306 parameter values relating to the combined equations, the empirical equation, and the correction equation. The preliminary result shows that the amplitude of daily fluctuation of modeled GSR was underestimated by the empirical equation and the correction equation. The combination of SDM and Bayesian inference has a potential to estimate the long- term daily GSR of the same quality even though in the area where the observed data is quite limited.

Iizumi, T.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.; Kotera, A.; Khang, N. D.

2008-12-01

139

Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

2009-03-01

140

Solar heated commercial wood drying kiln  

SciTech Connect

A project involving the demonstration of active solar heating - flat plate air collector techniques applied to the lumber kiln drying process is presented. This demonstration included the detailed building and mechanical planning, design, product research, construction and use with monitoring of a SOLAR KILN. The solar kiln was sized for small scale commercial kiln drying needs (up to 4000 board feet per load) and incorporated techniques and technology appropriate for small scale and remote rural locations. The project site, located in the Sierra foothills of California, elevation 3000 feet (1600 Btu/day-ft/sup 2/ average daily solar insolation); is not served by the electrical utilities. To provide power for the air circulating direct current blower motor, a photovoltaic array was incorporated into the kiln construction. The solar kiln is derivative of other small scale flat plate air collector kilns previously built in the United States, most notably the experimental kiln work at the United States Forest Products Laboratory. However, this project more thorougly addressed the need for even temperature controls by increasing the efficiency of the collectors and incorporating thermal storage (rock bins) to reduce night time and cloudy day temperature fluctuations. Through a 12 month testing period, the solar kiln has proven effective as a low cost alternate to air drying for relatively rapid, controlled, drying of local hardwoods.

Gold, J.; Boyd, B.

1982-10-31

141

Study of Solar Radiation Factor for the Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plant in Typical Chinese Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studied the effect radiation of the parabolic trough concentrator thoroughly, and it was revealed that Incident Direct Insolation (IDR) should be used to evaluate the solar resource for locating a PTSTP plant, instead of Direct Normal Insolation (DNI), for it takes latitude into consideration. Lhasa, with latitude of 29.43, and Naiman, with latitude of 43.47, were studied respectively,

Hang Qu; Xiao Yu; Qinglai Fan; Jun Zhao

2011-01-01

142

Assessment of the Level-3 MODIS daily aerosol optical depth in the context of surface solar radiation and numerical weather modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Level-3 MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) product offers interesting features for surface solar radiation and numerical weather modeling applications. Remarkably, the Collection 5.1 dataset extends over more than a decade, and provides daily values of AOD over a global regular grid of 1°×1° spatial resolution. However, most of the validation efforts so far have focused on Level-2 products (10-km, at original resolution) and only rarely on Level-3 (at aggregated spatial resolution of 1°×1°). In this contribution, we compare the Level-3 Collection 5.1 MODIS AOD dataset available since 2000 against observed daily AOD values at 550 nm from more than 500 AERONET ground stations around the globe. One aim of this study is to check the advisability of this MODIS dataset for surface shortwave solar radiation calculations using numerical weather models. Overall, the mean error of the dataset is 0.03 (17%, relative to the mean ground-observed AOD), with a root mean square error of 0.14 (73%, relative to the same), albeit these values are found highly dependent on geographical region. For AOD values below about 0.3 the expected error is found very similar to that of the Level-2 product. However, for larger AOD values, higher errors are found. Consequently, we propose new functions for the expected error of the Level-3 AOD, as well as for both its mean error and its standard deviation. Additionally, we investigate the role of pixel count vis-à-vis the reliability of the AOD estimates. Our results show that a higher pixel count does not necessarily turn into a more reliable AOD estimate. Therefore, we recommend to verify this assumption in the dataset at hand if the pixel count is meant to be used. We also explore to what extent the spatial aggregation from Level-2 to Level-3 influences the total uncertainty in the Level-3 AOD. In particular, we found that, roughly, half of the error might be attributable to Level-3 AOD sub-pixel variability. Finally, we use a~radiative transfer model to investigate how the Level-3 AOD uncertainty propagates into the calculated direct normal (DNI) and global horizontal (GHI) irradiances. Overall, results indicate that, for Level-3 AODs smaller than 0.5, the induced uncertainty in DNI due to the AOD uncertainty alone is below 15% on average, and below 5% for GHI (for a solar zenith angle of 30°. However, the uncertainty in AOD is highly spatially variable, and so is that in irradiance.

Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Dudhia, J.; Gueymard, C. A.; Pozo-Vázquez, D.

2012-09-01

143

SERI (Solar Energy Research Institute) solar radiation resource assessment project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earth receives vast amounts of energy from the sun in the form of incident solar radiation. Solar radiation drives the earth's weather and sustains life. As a result of the increasing costs, uncertain availability, and potentially severe environmental impacts of other sources of energy, insolation is being considered as a clean renewable energy source for our needs for heating,

R. L. Hulstrom; E. Maxwell; C. Riordan; M. Rymes; T. Stoffel

1989-01-01

144

The effect of wearing an insole with an arch pad on postural stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background : It is not clear if wearing insole would help injured athlete and elderly people. The aim of this study was to investigate an effect of a commercially available shoe insole on postural stability in healthy young adults. Methods : The subjects were 22 college students(20±4 yrs old, mean ± standard deviation (S.D.), 14 males, 8 females). We measured

Koki KIMURA; Nobusuke MITSUI; Kojiro IDE; Shuzo KUMAGAI

145

Football boot insoles and sensitivity to extent of ankle inversion movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The capacity of the plantar sole of the foot to convey information about foot position is reduced by conventional smooth boot insoles, compared with barefoot surface contact.Objective: To test the hypothesis that movement discrimination may be restored by inserting textured replacement insoles, achieved by changing footwear conditions and measuring the accuracy of judgments of the extent of ankle inversion

G Waddington; R Adams

2003-01-01

146

Guidebook for Solar Process-Heat Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential for solar process heat in Arizona is reviewed and some of the general technical aspects of solar are explored, such as insolation, siting, and process analysis. The major aspects of a solar plant design are then presented to include general ...

R. Fazzolare G. Mignon L. Campoy F. Luttmann

1981-01-01

147

Solar energy in Peru  

SciTech Connect

The past, present, and future of Peru is discussed in terms of solar energy development and the social, economic, climatic, and technical factors involved. It is pointed out that there are 3 geographical divisions in Peru including: (1) the foggy coastal strip where rain is infrequent, insolation is low and population is high; (2) the mountainous Andes region with high insolation and many populated high mountain valleys; and (3) the rainy, Amazon basin covered with jungle, and sparcely populated with high but inconsistent insolation. Since there is little competition with other forms of energy, solar energy shows promise. Passive solar heating of buildings, particularly in the Andes region, is described, as well as the use of solar water heaters. Prototypes are described and illustrated. Industrial use of solar heated water in the wool industry as well as solar food drying and solar desalination are discussed. High temperature applications (electrical generators and refrigeration) as well as photovoltaic systems are discussed briefly. It is concluded that social and political factors are holding back the development of solar energy but a start (in the form of prototypes and demonstration programs) is being made. (MJJ)

Pierson, H.

1981-12-01

148

Program for Solar Energy Meteorological Research and Training Site (Region 3). Annual Progress Report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This solar atlas shows graphically and in tabular form how the insolation and some climatological parameters vary with season, location, and in some cases, time of day. The close connection between solar energy availability and the meteorology is shown in...

J. B. Kline A. S. Mikhail W. L. Meyer C. G. Justus

1980-01-01

149

The International Energy Agency's program to develop a portable meteorological instrument package for solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and validation of specifications for portable meteorological instrument packages for solar energy applications by the International Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development is presented. The specifications are indicated in the form of guidelines for the accuracy and precision of measurements of direct and global insolation, insolation and IR irradiation on an inclined surface, the

M. R. Riches

1980-01-01

150

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Exxon Research and Engineering. System Design Final Report, Volume 1. Design Description Seawater Feed (System A).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of a solar powered water desalination system is presented. Design data including insolation and climate of the Yanbu, Saudi Arabia site are included. Two solar desalination designs were developed including: (1) a conceptual baseline plant power...

1985-01-01

151

Estimates of available solar radiation and photovoltaic energy production for various tilted and tracking surfaces throughout the US based on PVFORM, a computerized performance model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved photovoltaic performance model called PVFORM has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. This new model incorporates the latest improvements in solar modelling techniques including the Perez anisotropic solar diffuse model. The PVFORM model has been used to produce tables of average solar radiation availabilities and corresponding direct current energy performance for a photovoltaic module mounted in various tilted and tracking configurations. Solar availabilities are also computed for some vertical and 45 deg. tilted wall surfaces for use in passive solar design. The tables contain average daily solar availabilities and PV energy production for 38 sites throughout the US. Each table contains four average daily values representing the four seasons of the year along with an annual average. Typical weather conditions are also presented for each of the 38 sites. This new model and the set of tables presented in this report are of special importance to solar energy system designers because they provide more accurate estimates of insolation availability on fixed and tracking surfaces by as much as 20%, PVFORM has been shown to be accurate to within 5% to 7% with no observable prediction bias. Use of the PVFORM model or the tabulated data found in this report will enable the architect or engineer to design more cost effective solar energy systems.

Menicucci, D. F.; Fernandez, J. P.

1986-03-01

152

Analysis of walking improvement with dynamic shoe insoles, using two accelerometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orthopedics at the rehabilitation hospital found that disorders caused by sports injuries to the feet or caused by lower-back are improved by wearing dynamic shoe insoles, these improve walking balance and stability. However, the relationship of the lower-back and knees and the rate of increase in stability were not quantitatively analyzed. In this study, using two accelerometers, we quantitatively analyzed the reciprocal spatiotemporal contributions between the lower-back and knee of patients with left lower-back pain by means of Relative Power Contribution Analysis. When the insoles were worn, the contribution of the left and right knee relative to the left lower-back pain was up to 26% (p<0.05) greater than without the insoles. Comparing patients with and without insoles, we found that the variance in the step response analysis of the left and right knee decreased by up to 67% (p<0.05). This shows an increase in stability.

Tsuruoka, Yuriko; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Shibasaki, Ryosuke; Tsuruoka, Masako

2005-07-01

153

Late Pleistocene variations in Antarctic sea ice I: effect of orbital insolation changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of orbitally induced insolation changes on Antarctic sea-ice cover are examined by means of a dynamic-thermodynamic seaice model. Results are compared with modified CLIMAP 18 000 B.P. sea-ice reconstructions. Calculations suggest that changes in insolation receipt had only a minor influence on Pleistocene sea-ice distributions. The small response can be explained by a number of factors: albedo effects reduce the insolation perturbation at the surface; some of the shortwave radiation entering the ocean contributes to bottom ablation rather than lateral melting; the radiation perturbation at the upper surface of the ice must go to warming the surface to the melting point before melting ensues; and, finally, the relatively high heat capacity of open water dampens the surface temperature response to altered seasonal insolation perturbations.

Crowley, Thomas J.; Parkinson, Claire L.

1988-10-01

154

Late Pleistocene variations in Antarctic sea ice I: effect of orbital insolation changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of orbitally induced insolation changes on Antarctic sea-ice cover are examined by means of a dynamic-thermodynamic seaice model. Results are compared with modified CLIMAP 18 000 B.P. sea-ice reconstructions. Calculations suggest that changes in insolation receipt had only a minor influence on Pleistocene sea-ice distributions. The small response can be explained by a number of factors: albedo effects

Thomas J Crowley; Claire L Parkinson

1988-01-01

155

Significant contribution of insolation to Eemian melting of the Greenland ice sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eemian (130 to 114 ky BP) was characterized by a warmer Northern Hemisphere climate and by higher summer insolation. As a result, the Greenland ice sheet was 30 to 60% smaller than today. The primary driver of this retreat was enhanced surface melt. Although most energy for melt is provided by short wave radiation, temperature is regarded as the key parameter to determine surface melt. In this model study, we show that Eemian changes in insolation were as important as Eemian temperature changes. For this, four regional climate model simulations are preformed with Eemian or preindustrial climate and with Eemian or preindustrial orbital parameters. These four simulations separate the individual contributions of insolation and temperature on the Eemian ablation increase. About 55% of the Eemian ablation increase, compared to preindustrial climate, is due to increased temperatures. The other 45% is due to stronger insolation and non-linear effects. Temperature-melt relations neglecting insolation fail to reproduce this effect. These result show that the direct effect of insulation cannot be neglected if simplified melt relations are used. Furthermore, it shows that the Eemian is not a good analogue of future Greenland melt. Since insolation changes not significantly on timescales of one century, the response of the Greenland ice sheet to future warming is less strong than on the Eemian warming.

van de Berg, W. J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Ettema, J.; van Meijgaard, E.; Kaspar, F.

2012-04-01

156

Lesson from the past: present insolation minimum holds potential for glacial inception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The community of climatologists predicts a progressive global warming [IPCC Fourth Assessment Report—Climate Change, 2007. The Scientific Basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge] that will not be interrupted by a glacial inception for the next 50 ka [Berger and Loutre, 2002. An exceptionally long Interglacial ahead? Science 297, 1287 1288]. These predictions are based on continuously increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and on the orbital forcing that will provide only muted insolation variations for the next 50 ka. To assess the potential climate development without human interference, we analyse climate proxy records from Europe and the North Atlantic of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (423 362 ka BP), an interval when insolation variations show a strong linear correlation with those of the recent past and the future. This analysis suggests that the insolation minimum at 397 ka BP, which provides the best available analogue to the present insolation minimum, terminated interglacial conditions in Europe. At that time, tundra steppe vegetation spread in Central Europe and pine forests dominated in the eastern Mediterranean region. Because the intensities of the 397 ka BP and present insolation minima are very similar, we conclude that under natural boundary conditions the present insolation minimum holds the potential to terminate the Holocene interglacial. Our findings support the Ruddiman hypothesis [Ruddiman, W., 2003. The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Era began thousands of years ago. Climate Change 61, 261 293], which proposes that early anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission prevented the inception of a glacial that would otherwise already have started.

Müller, Ulrich C.; Pross, Jörg

2007-12-01

157

Science Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Daily is a web-based magazine that delivers timely news about discoveries in science and technology, appropriate for all audiences. Articles are often accompanied by streaming video or podcasts; all are written in language a non-scientist can understand. The web site archives contain more than 40,000 resources on topics that include medicine, the brain, plants and animals, earth science, climate, space, matter and energy, computers, mathematics, and paleontology. The web site has been the recipient of numerous awards since its inception in 1995.

2008-03-08

158

Preliminary assessment of solar enhanced oil recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several qualitative reasons why steam EOR may be well suited to solar energy: (1) Sufficient land for the solar power requirements is available, (2) no thermal storage or backup system is required, (3) most of the steam EOR potential is in California, where insolation is high and tolerance of air pollution prohibitively low, (4) the energy form is

Bergeron

1979-01-01

159

Parametric model of solar cooker performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model for prediction of the cooking power of a solar cooker based on three controlled parameters (solar intercept area, overall heat loss coefficient, and absorber plate thermal conductivity) and three uncontrolled variables (insolation, temperature difference, and load distribution). The model basis is a fundamental energy balance equation. Coefficients for each term in the model were determined

P. A Funk; D. L Larson

1998-01-01

160

Materials performance in the Solar Central Receiver Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 10 MW\\/sub e\\/ Solar Central Receiver Pilot Plant, which is to be built at Barstow, California, is designed to provide development, fabrication, and operating data necessary to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the solar central receiver concept. The Pilot Plant consists of approximately 2000 reflecting heliostats which redirect solar insolation to a central receiver mounted on a tower. The

J. C. Swearengen; S. L. Robinson

1979-01-01

161

Study of combined \\/photovoltaic-thermal\\/ solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical analysis of a combined photovoltaic-thermal energy system for converting solar energy is presented. Optical concentration is employed to intensify the available solar energy density. The thermal energy extraction works both to cool the solar cells and to provide heat energy. Overall system efficiencies (total output energy, both thermal and electrical, divided by the available insolation) are shown to

R. C. Neville

1981-01-01

162

Regional Per Capita Solar Electric Footprint for the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report, we quantify the state-by-state per-capita 'solar electric footprint' for the United States. We use state-level data on population, electricity consumption, economic activity and solar insolation, along with solar photovoltaic (PV) array pa...

F. Denholm R. Margolis

2007-01-01

163

Atmospheric Tides, 2, The Solar and Lunar Semidiurnal Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar and lunar semidiurnal wind and temperature oscillations from the surface to 400 km are simulated for average solar activity conditions utilizing the numerical tidal model described in part 1. Hough mode decomposition of the solstitial solar semidiurnal tide excited by HzO and O3 insolation absorption below 80 km indicates that it is characterized by a predominance of (2, 2)

Jeffrey M. Forbes

1982-01-01

164

Alternative energy sources 6: Vol. 1: Solar energy and applications  

SciTech Connect

This volume provides information on insolation, solar collectors, and thermal energy storage. Phase change energy storage, chemical energy storage and heat pipes are also included as topics of discussion. The volume highlights solar drying, desalination, and heat pumps. Papers regarding solar energy applications are provided in this volume.

Verziroglu, T.N.

1985-01-01

165

MPPT algorithm implementation for solar photovoltaic module using microcontroller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm is widely used control technique that varies the electrical operating point to extract maximum power available from the solar cell of photovoltaic (PV) module. Since the solar cells have nonlinear i-v characteristics, the efficiency of PV module is very low and power output depends on solar insolation level and ambient temperature. Moreover there is

B. R. Sanjeeva Reddy; P. Badari Narayana; Praveen Jambholkar; K. Srinivasa Reddy

2011-01-01

166

Solar electricity generation—A comparative view of technologies, costs and environmental impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of solar power plants in regions of high insolation is a promising option for an environmentally compatible electricity supply strategy. Today, approximately 80% of the solar generated electricity is provided by solar thermal power plants, while 20% is supplied by photovoltaic systems. Decision-makers have the choice among the following solar technologies: (1) parabolic trough; (2) central receiver; (3)

Franz Trieb; Ole Langni?; Helmut Klai?

1997-01-01

167

Self-regulating maximum power point tracking for solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the electric power supplied by solar arrays is dependent upon the insolation, temperature and array voltage, it is necessary to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in order to move the solar array operating voltage close to the peak power point, thus drawing the maximum power from the solar array. The solar panel is integrated with a dc-dc converter,

S. Armstrong; W. G. Hurley

2004-01-01

168

Solar Thermal Technologies Benefits Assessment: Objectives, Methodologies and Results for 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic and social benefits of developing cost competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) were assessed. The analysis was restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high insolation/high energy price states. Three fuel price scenarios and thr...

W. R. Gates

1982-01-01

169

Insolation and CO2 Contribution to the interglacial climates of the past 800,000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The individual contributions of insolation and greenhouse gases (GHG) to the interglacial climates of the past 800,000 years, as well as their combined effects and synergism, are quantified through simulations with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity and using the factor separation technique. The interglacials are compared in terms of their forcings and climate response. Our results show that MIS-9 is the warmest interglacial and MIS-13 the coolest. GHG are responsible for a large part of the difference between the global annual mean temperatures of the interglacials as a direct result of the greenhouse effect. However, insolation plays a significant role through its seasonal and regional impacts, particularly during the local summer of both hemispheres. Analysis of the individual effects of insolation and GHG shows that their relative importance on the interglacial intensity varies from one interglacial to another. MIS-9 is the warmest GHG-induced interglacial and MIS-17 the coolest. MIS-9 is also the warmest insolation-induced interglacial and MIS-7 the coolest, the insolation-induced cooling of MIS-7 beating its GHG-induced warming and making it one of the cool interglacials. In the explanation of the generally warmer post-MBE interglacials, boreal winter - or equivalently austral summer - is a key season and the Southern Hemisphere plays a more important role than the Northern Hemisphere as it warms significantly during both seasons (Yin and Berger, 2010). Our simulations also show that the variations in the global tree fraction and desert fraction are mainly controlled by insolation, being almost independent of the GHG concentration changes. This is due to the fact that, being given the warm interglacial conditions, the tree fraction is not sensitive to temperature change but sensitive to precipitation change which, at the regional scale, is mainly controlled by insolation. The response of the sea ice in the Arctic is different from that in the Southern Ocean. In the Arctic, the winter sea-ice maximum shows no apparent variation between the interglacials and the variation of the summer ice minimum is mostly explained by insolation. In the Southern Ocean, both the winter ice maximum and summer ice minimum show significant variations. The former one is mainly controlled by GHG, but in the latter GHG and insolation are equally important. The mechanisms responsible for all these features will be discussed.

Yin, Q.; Berger, A. L.

2010-12-01

170

Cumulated insolation: a simple explanation of Milankovitch's forcing on climate changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of the sudden melting of the ice sheets during the glacial terminations is explained in this paper as the consequence of the combined role of the minima and the maxima of mean summer insolation on the Northern Hemisphere, providing a new contribution to understand the mechanisms ruling glacial forcing. Indeed, no satisfactory answer has been provided so far to the question why one specific maximum, after a series of consecutive maxima of insolation, has the potentiality to trigger a deglaciation. The explanation proposed in this paper accounts for a pre-conditioning factor, represented by "mild" (warmer) minimum, followed by a sufficiently warm maximum as the conditions that cause the end of a glacial cycle. These conditions are realized whenever the sum of the values of each consecutive minima and maxima ("cumulated insolation") on the curve of mean summer insolation at 65° N exceeds 742 Watt m-2. The comparison of the succession of these cumulated insolation values with the astronomically tuned Oxygen isotopes record provides a satisfactory match with the occurrence of all the glacial terminations in the last 800 ka.

Marra, F.

2013-10-01

171

Solar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does solar energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to solar energy. Here students read about the uses, benefits, and active and passive methods of solar energy. Information is also presented about limitations, geographical considerations of solar power in the United States, and current uses of solar energy around the world. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of solar energy. Articles and information about a solar power plant in the Mohave Desert, the use of solar energy in Iowa, and statistics about solar energy are provided in a sidebar.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

172

Modeling of Daily Pan Evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily pan evaporation estimations are achieved by a suitable Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for the meteorological data recorded from Automated GroWheather meteorological station near Lake Egirdir which lies in the Lake District of western Turkey. In this station six meteorological variables are measured simultaneously, namely, air temperature, water temperature, solar radiation, air pressure, wind speed and relative humidity. Since

Özlem Terzi; M. Erol Keskin

2005-01-01

173

SERI (Solar Energy Research Institute) solar radiation resource assessment project: FY 1988 annual progress reort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earth receives vast amounts of energy from the sun in the form of incident solar radiation. Solar radiation drives the earth's weather and sustains life. As a result of the increasing costs, uncertain availability, and potentially severe environmental impacts of other sources of energy, insolation is being considered as a clean renewable energy source for our needs for heating,

R. L. Hulstrom; E. Maxwell; C. Riordan; M. Rymes; T. Stoffel

1989-01-01

174

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar Energy Falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, May 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of May 1985 are presented. (ERA ci...

1985-01-01

175

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar Energy Falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, June 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of June 1985 are presented. (ERA c...

1985-01-01

176

Matching of DC motors to photovoltaic generators for maximum daily gross mechanical energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The matching to solar-cell generators of both separately excited and series DC motors driving pumping loads is addressed. It is shown that the maximum gross mechanical power can be obtained at slightly higher voltages and slightly lower currents compared to the maximum electrical-power points on the solar-cell generator characteristics at different insolation levels. Guidelines for constructing the loci of the

M. M. Saied

1988-01-01

177

Marketing solar thermal technologies: strategies in Europe, experience in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermal technologies (STTs) are mature in many EU Member States. However, in some EU regions solar applications, and especially the innovative ones (such as solar heating\\/cooling, solar drying, solar-powered desalination), remain at an early stage. The degree of development of each market does not depend on climate conditions (e.g., insolation) or on different technological developments. The major strengths, weaknesses,

Theocharis D Tsoutsos

2002-01-01

178

Solar energy education. Renewable energy: A background text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the Sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the Sun's composition and the relationship between the Earth, Sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy.

179

Starting and steady-state characteristics of dc motors powered by solar cell generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of dc motors (series, separately-excited, and shunt motors) powered by a solar cell generator and loaded by two different types of loads, one a constant load and one a ventilator load, were analyzed with respect to the transient (starting) and steady state operation. Direct current motors are employed in photovoltaic water pumping systems; therefore, the understanding of the system operation and the matching of the system components (solar cells, dc motor type, and load type) are important factors of the system design. Since the solar cell generator in a nonlinear and time-dependent power supply with an output that varies with the insolation (hourly and daily), the performance characteristics of the dc motor are different when supplied by a solar cell generator than when supplied by a conventional constant voltage source. The transient solution was obtained by using an available computer program - SUPER SCEPTRE. The separately-excited (or permanent magnet) motor with a ventilator load was found to be the most suitable for the solar cell generator. The series motor is quite acceptable, but the shunt motor gives poor performance. In all cases the ventilator load is more compatible with the solar cell generator than with the constant load.

Appelbaum, J.

1986-03-01

180

Solar Thermal Conversion  

SciTech Connect

The thermal conversion process of solar energy is based on well-known phenomena of heat transfer (Kreith 1976). In all thermal conversion processes, solar radiation is absorbed at the surface of a receiver, which contains or is in contact with flow passages through which a working fluid passes. As the receiver heats up, heat is transferred to the working fluid which may be air, water, oil, or a molten salt. The upper temperature that can be achieved in solar thermal conversion depends on the insolation, the degree to which the sunlight is concentrated, and the measures taken to reduce heat losses from the working fluid.

Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

1982-11-01

181

Medial Knee Osteoarthritis Treated by Insoles or Braces: A Randomized Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background   There is controversial evidence regarding whether foot orthoses or knee braces improve pain and function or correct malalignment\\u000a in selected patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the medial knee compartment. However, insoles are safe and less costly than\\u000a knee bracing if they relieve pain or improve function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We therefore asked whether laterally wedged insoles or valgus braces would reduce pain,

Tom M. van Raaij; Max Reijman; Reinoud W. Brouwer; Sita M. A. Bierma-Zeinstra; Jan A. N. Verhaar

2010-01-01

182

Time calibration of sedimentary sections based on insolation cycles using combined cross-correlation: dating the gone Badenian stratotype (Middle Miocene, Paratethys, Vienna Basin, Austria) as an example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross-correlation between insolation intensities and a combination of sedimentary characters is introduced to obtain precise time calibration of sedimentary cycles. The first step is to transfer the section scale into ages using power spectra comparing the main periods with orbital cycles, while in the second step the standardized values of sedimentary signals are cross-correlated with the standardized insolation curve. As an example for the applicability of the method, we investigated calcium carbonate, organic carbon in a 9-m sampled section from the historical Badenian stratotype at Baden/Sooss (Lower Austria). Comparing courses of geochemical parameters between the historical stratotype and a nearby drilled 102-m scientific core resulted in continuation of the core section into the stratotype. Cross-correlation between magnetic susceptibility (MS) combined with the negatively correlated calcium carbonate content of the drilled section on the one side and summer solar insolation at 65° northern latitude on the other resulted in an extremely significant correlation between -14.221 and -13.982 Ma. This is younger than the before estimated time frame (-14.379 to -14.142 Ma) based on cross-correlation between MS and the orbital 100-kyr eccentricity and 41-kyr obliquity cycles. The direct continuation of the drilled section by the stratotype covering a time span of 17.7 kyr consequently dates the Badenian stratotype between -13.982 and -13.964 Ma. Therefore, the upper limit of the stratotype, assigned to the Early Badenian, puts it close to the Langhian/Seravallian boundary at -13.82 Ma, demonstrating the need for revising the Badenian stratigraphic subdivision based on orbital cycles, especially the middle Badenian Wielician substage.

Hohenegger, Johann; Wagreich, Michael

2012-01-01

183

Gully formation on Mars: Two recent phases of formation suggested by links between morphology, slope orientation and insolation history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unusual 80 km diameter Noachian-aged Asimov crater in Noachis Terra (46°S, 5°E) is characterized by extensive Noachian-Hesperian crater fill and a younger superposed annulus of valleys encircling the margins of the crater floor. These valleys provide an opportunity to study the relationships of gully geomorphology as a function of changing slope orientation relative to solar insolation. We found that the level of development of gullies was highly correlated with slope orientation and solar insolation. The largest and most complex gully systems, with the most well-developed fluvial landforms, are restricted to pole-facing slopes. In contrast, gullies on equator-facing slopes are smaller, more poorly developed and integrated, more highly degraded, and contain more impact craters. We used a 1D version of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique GCM, and slope geometries (orientation and angle), driven by predicted spin-axis/orbital parameter history, to assess the distribution and history of surface temperatures in these valleys during recent geological history. Surface temperatures on pole-facing slopes preferential for water ice accumulation and subsequent melting are predicted to occur as recently as 0.5-2.1 Ma, which is consistent with age estimates of gully activity elsewhere on Mars. In contrast, the 1D model predicts that water ice cannot accumulate on equator-facing slopes until obliquities exceed 45°, suggesting they are unlikely to have been active over the last 5 Ma. The correlation of the temperature predictions and the geological evidence for age differences suggests that there were two phases of gully formation in the last few million years: an older phase in which top-down melting occurred on equator-facing slopes and a younger more robust phase on pole-facing slopes. The similarities of small-scale fluvial erosion features seen in the gullies on Mars and those observed in gullies cut by seasonal and perennial snowmelt in the Antarctic Dry Valleys supports a top-down melting origin for these gullies on Mars.

Morgan, Gareth A.; Head, James W.; Forget, François; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Spiga, Aymeric

2010-08-01

184

Maximum power point tracking control of photovoltaic generation system under non-uniform insolation by means of monitoring cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photovoltaic power generation system (PV system) is operated under various insolation conditions. Sometimes the PV system is operated under nonuniform insolation, which may generate several maximum output power points on the V-I curve of the PV array and raises serious problem on maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of the system. In order to solve this problem, the authors

Kei Irisawa; Takeshi Saito; I. Takano; Y. Sawada

2000-01-01

185

Evaluation on penetration rate of cloud for incoming solar radiation using geostationary satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar surface insolation (SSI) represents how much solar radiance reaches the Earth's surface in a specified area and is an important parameter in various fields such as surface energy research, meteorology, and climate change. This study calculates insolation using Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT-1R) data with a simplified cloud factor over Northeast Asia. For SSI retrieval from the geostationary satellite data, the physical model of Kawamura is modified to improve insolation estimation by considering various atmospheric constituents, such as Rayleigh scattering, water vapor, ozone, aerosols, and clouds. For more accurate atmospheric parameterization, satellite-based atmospheric constituents are used instead of constant values when estimating insolation. Cloud effects are a key problem in insolation estimation because of their complicated optical characteristics and high temporal and spatial variation. The accuracy of insolation data from satellites depends on how well cloud attenuation as a function of geostationary channels and angle can be inferred. This study uses a simplified cloud factor that depends on the reflectance and solar zenith angle. Empirical criteria to select reference data for fitting to the ground station data are applied to suggest simplified cloud factor methods. Insolation estimated using the cloud factor is compared with results of the unmodified physical model and with observations by ground-based pyranometers located in the Korean peninsula. The modified model results show far better agreement with ground truth data compared to estimates using the conventional method under overcast conditions.

Yeom, Jong-Min; Han, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Jae-Jin

2012-05-01

186

Some Recent Research on Solar Energy Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexico is located in the Earth’s sunbelt, where solar energy is plentiful for potential applications of solar energy conversion\\u000a systems. According to several estimations (Renn? et al. 2000), the average insolation over the country’s surface amounts to 5 kWh\\/day, which puts Mexico in a privileged situation for\\u000a the deployment of solar energy technologies. Other renewable energy sources such as: wind,

Camilo A Arancibia-Bulnes; Antonio Jiménez; Oscar Jaramillo; Claudio Estrada

187

Geography, insolation, and vitamin D in nineteenth century US African-American and white statures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a new source of nineteenth century US state prison records I contrast the biological living conditions of comparable African-Americans and whites. Although blacks and whites today in the US reach similar terminal statures, nineteenth century African-American statures were consistently shorter than those of whites. Greater insolation (vitamin D production) is shown to be associated with taller black and white

Scott Alan Carson

2009-01-01

188

Effects of thermal radiation and insolation on passenger compartments of an automobile  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the dynamical simulation model of the thermal environment for automobile passenger compartments which is useful for the development of automobile air-conditioning systems. In our previous research, we proposed the model of this type considering the accuracy and the amount of computation, however, proposed model was insufficient to simulate the effect of thermal radiation and insolation on the thermal

Takuya Kubota; Ryo Watanabe; Hidenori Miyashita

2010-01-01

189

A reliable gyroscope-based gait-phase detection sensor embedded in a shoe insole  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of patient experiments using a new gait-phase detection sensor (GPDS) together with a programmable functional electrical stimulation (FES) system for subjects with a dropped-foot walking dysfunction. The GPDS (sensors and processing unit) is entirely embedded in a shoe insole and detects in real time four phases (events) during the gait cycle: stance, heel off, swing, and

Ion P. I. Pappas; Thierry Keller; Sabine Mangold; Milos R. Popovic; Volker Dietz; Manfred Morari

2004-01-01

190

Prevention of lower extremity stress fractures: a controlled trial of a shock absorbent insole.  

PubMed Central

A prospective controlled trial was carried out to determine the usefulness of a viscoelastic polymer insole in prevention of stress fractures and stress reactions of the lower extremities. The subjects were 3,025 US Marine recruits who were followed for 12 weeks of training at Parris Island, South Carolina. Polymer and standard mesh insoles were systematically distributed in boots that were issued to members of odd and even numbered platoons. The most important finding was that an elastic polymer insole with good shock absorbency properties did not prevent stress reactions of bone during a 12-week period of vigorous physical training. To control for the confounding effects of running in running shoes, which occurred for about one and one-half hours per week for the first five weeks, we also examined the association of age of shoes and cost of shoes with injury incidence. A slight trend of increasing stress injuries by increasing age of shoes was observed. However, this trend did not account for the similarity of rates in the two insole groups. In addition, we observed a strong trend of decreasing stress injury rate by history of increasing physical activity, as well as a higher stress injury rate in White compared to Black recruits. The results of the trial were not altered after controlling for these factors. This prospective study confirms previous clinical reports of the association of stress fractures with physical activity history. The clinical application of a shock absorbing insole as a preventive for lower extremity stress reactions is not supported in these uniformly trained recruits. The findings are relevant to civilian populations.

Gardner, L I; Dziados, J E; Jones, B H; Brundage, J F; Harris, J M; Sullivan, R; Gill, P

1988-01-01

191

Experience in constructing a solar energy cadastral survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic purposes of a solar energy cadastral survey incorporating objective numerical data based on an adequate stochastic model are outlined. The survey is intended to provide a data base for exploitation and storage of solar energy and for forecasting of favorable insolation conditions, with benefits in electric power, communications, refrigeration and heating, irrigation, and water resources management. The microstructure of

R. B. Salieva

1977-01-01

192

Solar radiation for the state of Arkansas. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

After brief reviews of the nature of solar radiation, pyrheliometers and pyranometers, and the geometric relationship between the sun and the earth, information is given for the state of Arkansas on the amount of solar energy that is typically available for each month of the year as well as for a complete year. The insolation is given in terms of

W. D. Turner; I. H. Jr. Battle

1980-01-01

193

Incorporating Solar Electric Power into Rural Electrification Programs—A Case Study of Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, photovoltaic (PV) solar electric technology has matured to the point where solar power is now cost competitive with fossil fuel generators for use in remote, low power (<5 kW) applications. This technology is ideally suited for rural electrification in developing countries due to the high availability of solar insolation and the low power requirements in these regions.

PRITPAL SINGH

1991-01-01

194

A Fuzzy-Based Maximum Power Point Tracker for Body Mounted Solar Panels in LEO Satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar panels are the power subsystem components which provide satellite electrical power. Solar panels characteristics depend on environmental conditions (insolation level, temperature and etc.). In this paper, design and simulation of fuzzy-based MPPT for the body mounted solar panel in a LEO satellite are presented. To show how good the proposed technique is; we applied it into a real system.

M. Taherbaneh; M. B. Menhaj

2007-01-01

195

Microcontroller based intelligent DC\\/DC converter to track Maximum Power Point for solar photovoltaic module  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is widely used control technique to extract maximum power available from the solar cell of photovoltaic (PV) module. Since the solar cells have non-linear i-v characteristics. The efficiency of PV module is very low and power output depends on solar insolation level and ambient temperature, so maximization of power output with greater efficiency is of

Y. P. Siwakoti; Bhupendra Bimal Chhetri; Brijesh Adhikary; Diwakar Bista

2010-01-01

196

January 1981 environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

SciTech Connect

Insolation, temperature, wind, and humidity data recorded during the month of January 1981, at the National Solar Data Network for residential and commercial building solar demonstration sites throughout the United States are presented. The insolation tables present the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation. The temperature tables give the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar sites. Additional tables are presented for some of the sites, supplying either wind or relative humidity data, or both. These data are used to determine the thermal performance of the solar systems. (WHK)

Not Available

1981-01-01

197

Performance Analysis and Optimization of the University of Pennsylvania Retrofitted Solar Heated Philadelphia Row Home. Progress Report, October 15, 1976--August 15, 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, specification and purchasing phase of the instrumentation and data acquisition system needed for the performance analysis and optimization of the solar heating system, and for the acquisition of Philadelphia weather and insolation data is comp...

N. Lior

1977-01-01

198

Messtechnische Erfassung zweier Haeuser der gruenen Solararchitektur. Schlussbericht. (Measurements on two buildings constructed along the principles of green solar architecture. Final report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During two period cycles the energetic behaviour of two buildings constructed according to the principles of green solar architecture has been observed. Weather data such as insolation, strength and direction of the wind, air temperature and humidity have...

G. Mack J. Werner J. Dick G. Noetzel J. L. Servant

1989-01-01

199

Obliquity signals at low latitudes: a result of the cross-equatorial tropical insolation gradient?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the near-zero obliquity-induced insolation changes at the tropics, an obliquity signal is present in various sediment records at low latitudes. A number of hypotheses have been brought forward to explain the presence of obliquity at the tropics, especially in North-African records of monsoon strength. Firstly, the latitude of the tropics changes from 22° to 24.5°, shifting the area under the influence of the monsoon by ~300 km, which could influence its poleward penetration. A second hypothesis involves the strengthening of the austral winter insolation gradient at times of high obliquity, forcing stronger trade winds which become part of the North-African monsoonal south-westerlies, intensifying the North-African summer monsoon. Thirdly, influences of higher latitudes, where obliquity-induced changes in insolation are larger, could strengthen the North-African monsoon through increased northerly moisture transport into the monsoon region and a strengthened Asian low pressure system. The fourth hypothesis is based on the insolation gradient, specifically the cross-equatorial insolation gradient between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. This insolation gradient drives the differential sensible heating between the two limbs of the winter hemisphere Hadley Cell and therefore the strength of the monsoon. This hypothesis suggests that the obliquity signal in the tropics arises without influence from higher latitudes. Using a high-resolution coupled climate model, EC-Earth, we can oppose the first three hypotheses. Comparing two experiments of low and high obliquity we find a more northward North-African monsoon during high obliquity, as suggested by the first hypothesis. However, we find that precession has a much larger effect on the northward extend of the North-African monsoon. Also, we find a very small increase in trade wind strength over the South-Atlantic for obliquity. Furthermore, spectral analysis shows that the winter hemispheric insolation gradient varies mostly with precession and very little with obliquity, contradicting the second hypothesis. Concerning the third hypothesis, in our EC-Earth experiments we find only small changes in moisture transport from the north into North-Africa which are negligible compared to changes in moisture transport from the tropical Atlantic. We also do not find evidence that the North-African monsoon strength is influenced by the Asian continental heat low. The lack of influence from higher latitudes on the North-African monsoon and the increased moisture transport from the tropical Atlantic suggest that the obliquity signal arises from the tropics themselves. Furthermore, across the whole tropics we find that during high obliquity cross-equatorial winds and moisture transport as well as the Hadley circulation are stronger during both boreal and austral summer. This is in agreement with a strengthened cross-equatorial insolation gradient, suggesting that this gradient forces the obliquity variations in the tropics without requiring the higher latitudes.

Bosmans, Joyce; Hilgen, Frederik; Lourens, Lucas

2013-04-01

200

Insolation cycles as a major control of equatorial indian ocean primary production  

PubMed

Analysis of a continuous sedimentary record taken in the Maldives indicates that strong primary production fluctuations (70 to 390 grams of carbon per square meter per year) have occurred in the equatorial Indian Ocean during the past 910,000 years. The record of primary production is coherent and in phase with the February equatorial insolation, whereas it shows diverse phase behavior with delta18O, depending on the orbital frequency (eccentricity, obliquity, or precession) examined. These observations imply a direct control of productivity in the equatorial oceanic system by insolation. In the equatorial Indian Ocean, productivity is driven by the wind intensity of westerlies, which is related to the Southern Oscillation; therefore, it is suggested that a precession forcing on the Southern Oscillation is responsible for the observed paleoproductivity dynamics. PMID:9367955

Beaufort; Lancelot; Camberlin; Cayre; Vincent; Bassinot; Labeyrie

1997-11-21

201

Firm insoles effectively reduce hemolysis in runners during long distance running - a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Shock absorbing insoles are effective in reducing the magnitude and rate of loading of peak impact forces generated at foot\\u000a strike during running, whereas the foot impact force during running has been considered to be an important cause of intravascular\\u000a hemolysis in long distance runners. Objective of this study was to evaluate the intravascular hemolysis during running and\\u000a compare the

Kamal Janakiraman; Shweta Shenoy; Jaspal Singh Sandhu

2011-01-01

202

Mediterranean Quaternary sapropels, an immediate response of the African monsoon to variation of insolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rossignol-Strick, M., 1985. Mediterranean Quaternary sapropels, an immediate response of the African monsoon to variation of insolation. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 49: 237--263. In the subsurface of the East Mediterranean Sea, eleven discrete basin-wide, organic- rich, black sapropels were deposited during the last 465 000 years. They are dated by oxygen isotopic chronostratigraphy. The too.st recent sapropel has been shown to

MARTINE ROSSIGNOL-STRICK

1985-01-01

203

A systematic review investigating the efficacy of laterally wedged insoles for medial knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

A conservative management strategy for knee osteoarthritis is the lateral wedge insole (LWI). The theoretical basis for this intervention is to correct tibiofemoral malalignment, thereby reducing pain and optimising function. This systematic review evaluates the evidence on the effectiveness and safety of LWI for the treatment for knee osteoarthritis. A systematic review was performed, searching published (MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library) and unpublished literature from their inception to August 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included that compared the use of LWI with a neutral insole or control intervention for people with medial compartment osteoarthritis. Risk of bias and clinical relevance were assessed, and outcomes were analysed through meta-analysis. From a total of 3,105 citations, 10 studies adhered to the a priori eligibility criteria. These included 1,095 people; 535 participants were allocated to receive LWI insoles compared to 509 in control groups. Eight per cent of papers were of high quality with low risk of bias. There was no statistically significant difference between LWI and neutral insoles for pain, function, analgesic requirement, compliance or complications (p ? 0.07). Those who received LWI demonstrated lower non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug requirements (p < 0.001). To conclude, there is limited evidence to support the prescription of LWI to people with medial compartment osteoarthritis to reduce pain and increase function. However, there remains a paucity of evidence to determine whether LWI outcomes differ in subgroups of the patients, such as severe compared to mild osteoarthritis, obese patients, or whether the angle of LWI is of clinical importance. PMID:23612781

Penny, P; Geere, J; Smith, Toby O

2013-04-24

204

Atmospheric opacity, surface insolation, and dust lifting over 3 Mars years with the Mars Exploration Rovers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Exploration Rover optical depth record [4] now spans >3 Mars years at each of two sites. The record provides ground truth for orbital remote sensing, context for rover-based observations and for rover operations, and a measurement of a key component in atmospheric dynamics. Dust devil activity in Gusev is seen to be controlled by surface insolation, which is controlled by seasonal effects and dust opacity.

Lemmon, M. T.

2011-10-01

205

Integrate-and-fire models of insolation-driven entrainment of broadcast spawning in corals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circa-annual cycle of gametogenesis produces mature gametes at the spawning “season” for successful mass spawning of broadcast\\u000a corals. We develop a bioenergetic integrate-and-fire model that reveals how annual insolation rhythms can entrain the gametogenetic\\u000a cycles in tropical hermatypic corals to the appropriate spawning season, since photosynthate is their primary source of energy.\\u000a In the presence of short-term fluctuations in

Bharath Ananthasubramaniam; Roger M. Nisbet; Daniel E. Morse; Francis J. Doyle

2011-01-01

206

Performance evaluation of two-dimensional compound elliptic lens concentrators using a yearly distributed insolation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical performance of a two-dimensional compound elliptic lens (2D-CEL) for a photovoltaic static concentrator module has been studied as a function of half-acceptance angle using an yearly distributed insolation model. The maximum yearly averaged optical concentration ratio of 1.75 was obtained for global radiation when the 2D-CEL was installed at a tilt angle equal to the latitude of Tokyo (N35°).

K. Yoshioka; A. Suzuki; T. Saitoh

1999-01-01

207

The effect of cushioning insoles on back and lower extremity pain in an industrial setting.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low back pain and lower extremity pain in a group of factory workers and determine the effect of cushioning insoles on low back pain and lower extremity pain. Data were gathered via questionnaire from 306 employees of an aircraft engine assembly factory. A subset of 40 workers who had reported significant levels of back or lower extremity pain were sampled for four consecutive 12-hour shifts wearing their normal footwear and then a week later for four consecutive shifts wearing cushioning insoles. High levels of low back pain and lower extremity pain were reported by workers on the plant floor, but low back pain was poorly correlated to lower extremity pain (r = 0.371). The effect of insoles on the subset of 40 workers was to lower low back pain by 38%, foot pain by 37%, and knee pain by 38% (p < .001). The reduction in low back pain, however, was not correlated to the reduction in lower extremity pain; workers reporting a decrease in low back pain differed from those reporting less lower extremity pain. [Workplace Health Saf 2013;61(10):451-457.]. PMID:24053218

Jefferson, John R

2013-09-23

208

Geochemical Support for Insolation Linked Nannofossil Productivity Changes During the Mid-Pliocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have linked the ratio of strontium to calcium (Sr/Ca) in coccolith carbonate to the growth rate and productivity of the coccolithophorid marine algae, though not all of the factors controlling the geochemical signature in this nannofossil carbonate are well defined. We set out to investigate species effects on nannofossil Sr/Ca by constructing Sr/Ca records from size fractioned nannofossils which parallel mid-Pliocene abundance counts from sediments at Ceara Rise ODP Site 926 (Gibbs et al., 2004). Our results show that coarse fraction (8.0 to 20.0 microns) nannofossil Sr/Ca varies in a manner similar to Northern Hemisphere insolation. Specifically, Sr/Ca is high when insolation is high and vice versa. Gibbs et al. (2004) found that abundances of the nannofossil genera, Discoaster, Sphenolithus and Florisphaera, also varied with Northern Hemisphere insolation suggesting an environmental (precession related) control on their productivity. Assuming that Sr/Ca in our coarse fraction is predominantly driven by variability in these genera, and in particular Discoaster which is typically larger than 8.0 microns and abundant throughout the interval, the coincidence of Sr/Ca maxima with maximum abundance would be consistent with studies that have shown an increase in nannofossil Sr/Ca with growth and calcification rates. This idea is being tested by the comparison of nannofossil abundances in the size-fractionated samples used for geochemical analyses with bulk carbonate nannofossil abundances from Gibbs et al. (2004).

Waite, A. J.; Diester-Haass, L.; Gibbs, S. J.; Rickaby, R.; Billups, K.

2005-12-01

209

Analysis of a direct radiation solar dehumidification system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SERI researchers investigated a desiccant dehumidifier that is regenerated by direct absorption of solar radiation using a simplified numerical model (DESSIM) of the adsorption and desorption processes. This paper presents estimates of the performance of a solar-fired air conditioning system (ventilation cycle) containing the dehumidifier/collector. The researchers also considered the effects of dehumidifier NTUs, heat exchanger performance, and insolation levels. The direct radiation system can operate effectively at low insolation levels and thus may have some advantages in some geographic areas.

Schultz, K.; Barlow, R.; Pesaran, A.; Kreith, F.

1985-08-01

210

Development and comparison of HP41C software to predict solar irradiation of tilted surfaces, based upon cloud cover factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summarized is a comparison between predicted and measured solar radiation and cloud cover data from NOAA weather stations and Solar Energy Meterological Research and Training Sites at various locations throughout the US, based upon a semiempirical method which was used recently to generate synthetic insolation data for correlation with measured solar performance under the SUEDE program. This method is unique,

A. D. Nawrocki; S. P. Anderson

1982-01-01

211

Solar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dispersion relation for a plasma oscillating in a static magnetic field is derived by the Laplace transform method. The plasma oscillations are found to be unstable in frequency bands around multiples of the gyrofrequency. A numerical application to spot magnetic fields at coronal distances indicates sufficient amplification to make plausible the theory of the origin of solar \\

Hari K. Sen

1952-01-01

212

Design, development, and testing of an improvised solar water-heater-cum-steam-cooker by Fresnel reflecting solar concentrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of solar water heater varies depending upon many parameters, such as operating temperature, mass flow rate, solar insolation, collector orientations, solar time, wind conditions, ambient temperature, selectivity of the absorber surface, etc. A Linear Fresnel reflecting concentrator in a planar configuration using commercially available mirror strips of reflectivity approximately 0.7 in conjunction with a reverse flat plate selective and non-selective absorber surface has been designed and developed. The performance studies of the solar water heater-cum-steam cooker have been carried out. The efficiencies of the devices were found to be about 60% and 55% for selective and non-selective surfaces, respectively. This solar energy device can be made useful in the domestic sector by operating it year around in our solar insolation condition.

Khan, M. K.; Khan, Abdul J.

1992-11-01

213

Study of combined /photovoltaic-thermal/ solar energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical analysis of a combined photovoltaic-thermal energy system for converting solar energy is presented. Optical concentration is employed to intensify the available solar energy density. The thermal energy extraction works both to cool the solar cells and to provide heat energy. Overall system efficiencies (total output energy, both thermal and electrical, divided by the available insolation) are shown to reach values close to 40%, with predicted capital costs less than 0.1 cent per kWh.

Neville, R. C.

214

A comparison of the biomechanical effects of valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles in patients with knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Increases in the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) have been associated with increased mechanical load at the knee and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles are common approaches to reducing this loading; however no study has directly compared the biomechanical and clinical effects of these two treatments in patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. A cross-over randomised design was used where each intervention was worn by 28 patients for a two week period. Pre- and post-intervention gait kinematic/kinetic data and clinical outcomes were collected to evaluate the biomechanical and clinical effects on the knee joint. The valgus knee brace and the lateral wedged insole significantly increased walking speed, reduced the early stance EKAM by 7% and 12%, and the knee adduction angular impulse by 8.6 and 16.1% respectively. The lateral wedged insole significantly reduced the early stance EKAM compared to the valgus knee brace (p=0.001). The valgus knee brace significantly reduced the knee varus angle compared to the baseline and lateral wedged insole. Improvements in pain and function subscales were comparable for the valgus knee brace and lateral wedged insole. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in any of the clinical outcomes; however the lateral wedged insoles demonstrated greater levels of acceptance by patients. This is the first study to biomechanically compare these two treatments, and demonstrates that given the potential role of knee loading in osteoarthritis progression, that both treatments reduce this but lateral wedge insoles appear to have a greater effect. PMID:22920242

Jones, Richard K; Nester, Christopher J; Richards, Jim D; Kim, Winston Y; Johnson, David S; Jari, Sanjiv; Laxton, Philip; Tyson, Sarah F

2012-08-21

215

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, July 1985  

SciTech Connect

Yanbu is located in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia on the Red Sea at a latitude of 24.1 degrees North and a longitude of 37.8 degrees East. It was selected as the location for the Soleras Solar Powered Desalination Plant. This preliminary report describes the direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu Solar Powered Desalination site during the month of July 1985.

Not Available

1986-01-01

216

Assessment of the horizontal, fore-aft component of the ground reaction force from insole pressure patterns by using artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. In this study it was investigated whether an artificial neural network can be used to determine the horizontal, fore-aft component of the ground reaction force from insole pressure patterns.Design. An artificial neural network was applied to map insole pressures and ground reaction forces.Method. To train an artificial neural network insole pressure patterns and ground reaction force data were simultaneously

H. H. C. M. Savelberg; A. L. H. de Lange

1999-01-01

217

Diffuse, global and extra-terrestrial solar radiation for Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, equations have been developed to estimate diffuse fraction of the hourly, daily and monthly global insolation on a horizontal surface. These correlations are expressed in terms of Kd, the ratio of diffuse-to-total radiation, and KT, the clearness index. The hourly correlation equations, show a fairly similar trend to that of Orgill and Hollands (1) and Spencer (5)

M. N. A. Hawlader

1984-01-01

218

A Study on Forecast of Ensemble Average Insolation in Utility Service Area Considering Diversity of Forecast Error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A photovoltaic power generation system (PVS) is one of the promising measures to develop a low carbon society. Because of the unstable power output characteristics, a robust forecast method must be employed for realizing the high penetration of PVS into an electric power system. Considering the difference in power output patterns among PVSs dispersed in the service area of electric power system, the forecast error would vary among locations, resulting in the reduced forecast error of the ensemble average power output of high penetration PVS. In this paper, by using the multi-point data of insolation observed in Chubu area during four months, we evaluated the forecast error of the ensemble average insolation of 11 districts, and compared it with the forecast error of individual district. As the results, the number of periods with the forecast error larger than the average insolation during four months is reduced by 16 hours for the ensemble average insolation compared with the average value of individual forecast. The largest forecast error during four months is also reduced to 0.45 kWh/m2 for the ensemble average insolation from 0.68 kWh/m2 on average of 11 districts.

Suzuki, Kouki; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

219

The Effects of Various Kinds of Lateral Wedge Insoles on Performance of Individuals with Knee Joint Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background: Knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most incapacitating diseases affecting older population, which is associated with pain and functional limitation. Various kinds of conservative treatment have been used to decrease knee pain and to improve the quality of life of the subjects suffering from this disease. There are discrepancies in the clinical effects reported for the use of lateral wedge insole in spite of being used as one of the first conservative mechanical treatments for patients with medial compartments of knee OA. Methods: A total of 36 subjects with medial knee compartment OA were recruited in this research project. Subjects were randomized into two groups to receive 3- and 7-mm lateral wedge insoles based on the date of birth of the participants. Some parameters such as severity of knee pain, Tibiofemoral angle (TFA), severity of OA, and quality of life were selected in this research project. Results: The use of both 3-mm and 7-mm lateral wedge insole improves the quality of life and decreases knee joint pain. However, the effect of 7 mm lateral wedge insole was more than that of 3 mm. Conclusion: Using lateral wedge insole is a simple, inexpensive therapy for decreasing pain and improving quality of life; however, most research must be carried out to find the effects of lateral wedge on severity of knee joint OA and aligning TFA.

Rafiaee, Masoud; Karimi, Mohammad T

2012-01-01

220

Crosbyton Solar Power Project. Volume 8: Preliminary design of 55-MWe solar-fossil hybrid electric power plant at Crosbyton, Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents the preliminary design and the construction cost for a 5 MWe Solar Hybrid Electric Energy Plant (SHEEP) to be built at Crosbyton, Texas. The plant has been designed to serve as a small size, commercially operable power plant which fully demonstrates the function, performance, and cost of this solar technology and integrated steam management concept. Good lifetime performance at minimum cost were the critical design objectives. The major solar components of this plant are ten 203 foot diameter stationary tilted quartersphere solar bowls. Each with a slender 58 foot solar receiver which tracks the solar focus produced by the bowl. At peak insolation the ten bowls will produce sufficient steam to generate 5 MWe. This plant has only a few minutes of thermal storage capability. The plant has a fossil boiler (oil or gas fired) which is integrated into the solar-turbine steam loop to provide supplemental steam for electric generation at night or during periods of low insolation.

1982-02-01

221

Development of SmartStep: An insole-based physical activity monitor.  

PubMed

In our previous research we developed a SmartShoe - a shoe based physical activity monitor that can reliably differentiate between major postures and activities, accurately estimate energy expenditure of individuals, measure temporal gait parameters, and estimate body weights. In this paper we present the development of the next stage of the SmartShoe evolution - SmartStep, a physical activity monitor that is fully integrated into an insole, maximizing convenience and social acceptance of the monitor. Encapsulating the sensors, Bluetooth Low Energy wireless interface and the energy source within an assembly repeatedly loaded with high forces created during ambulation presented new design challenges. In this preliminary study we tested the ability of the SmartStep to measure the pressure differences between static weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities (such as no load vs. sitting vs. standing) as well as capture pressure variations during walking. We also measured long-term stability of the sensors and insole assembly under cyclic loading in a mechanical testing system. PMID:24111408

Sazonov, Edward S; Hegde, Nagaraj; Tang, Wenlong

2013-07-01

222

Solar heat collector  

SciTech Connect

A compact, self-contained solar heat collector is disclosed which is particularly suited for addition to new or existing structures in the form of window shutters, exterior siding, awnings, columnar elements and the like. The exterior glazing (32) of the collector includes undulating transverse pane segments (36, 38, 118, 156), the angle of which is chosen to optimize insolation during winter months. Beneath the preferably sharp peaks and valleys of such undulations is positioned a heat absorption, storage and exchange assembly (42-64) which defines an enclosed heat transfer cavity (42, 122, 134, 142) through which a heat transfer fluid such as air is directed.

Helman, E.R.; Buford, S.P.; Christopher, J.N.; Fava, D.C.; Helman, H.A.; Holtschneider, H.B.

1984-04-17

223

A Study on Total Power Output Fluctuation of Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems Considering Independency of Insolation Fluctuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the independence of insolation fluctuations among various points, this paper estimates the standard deviation of total power output fluctuation of photovoltaic power generation systems (PVSs) of high penetration. In order to apply the simplified calculation of total insolation fluctuation property based on the independence, this study develops an area model consisting of a number of blocks, where the PVS power output pattern of the cycles shorter than a few ten minutes is considered as independent among blocks by considering the independency evaluation of insolation. This study evaluates the standard deviation of apparent electricity demand ?A involving the PVS power output as a negative demand, by assuming that the standard deviation of power output fluctuation is the same for all blocks as a extreme case. The results suggest that ?A may be as large as the original standard deviation of electricity demand, if the PVSs of mass penetration are dispersed in the large area according to the geographical distribution of existing residences.

Inoue, Takato; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

224

Air content and O2/N2 tuned chronologies on local insolation signatures in the Vostok ice core are similar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate chronology of ice cores is needed for interpreting the paleoclimatic record and understanding the relation between insolation and climate. A new domain of research in this area has been initially stimulated by the work of M. Bender (2002) linking the record of O2/N2 ratio in the air trapped in the Vostok ice with the local insolation. More recently, it has been proposed that the long-term changes in air content, V, recorded in ice from the high Antarctic plateau is also dominantly imprinted by the local summer insolation (Raynaud et al., 2007). The present paper presents a new V record from Vostok, which is compared with the published Vostok O2/N2 record for the same period of time (150-400 ka BP) by using the same spectral analysis methods. The spectral differences between the two properties and the possible mechanisms linking them with insolation through the surface snow structure and the close-off processes are discussed. The main result of our study is that the two experimentally independent local insolation proxies lead to absolute (orbital) time scales, which agree together within a standard deviation of 0.6 ka. This result strongly adds credibility to the air content of ice and the O2 to N2 ratio of the air trapped in ice as equally reliable and complementary tools for accurate dating of existing and future deep ice cores. References: M. Bender, Orbital tuning chronology for the Vostok climate record supported by trapped gas composition, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 204(2002) 275-289. D. Raynaud, V. Lipenkov, B. Lemieux-Dudon, P. Duval, M.F. Loutre, N. Lhomme, The local insolation signature of air content in Antarctic ice: a new step toward an absolute dating of ice records, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 261(2007) 337-349.

Lipenkov, V.; Raynaud, D.; Loutre, M.-F.; Duval, P.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.

2009-04-01

225

Internet Daily Stock Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet Daily Stock Report contains a daily market recap and morning report on how Internet related stocks are faring. Provided by Internet World, it also contains an Internet stock index of over twenty companies, with names, stock symbols, and business type. Hypertext links to the home pages of those companies are provided.

226

Singularities in Daily Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The means of daily maximum temperatures using twenty years of record are obtained. The average of these means over n consecutive calendar days is used as a predictor of the daily maximum temperature one and more years in advance. Data from ten stations in the United States for the period 1905 to 1957 are analyzed in this fashion and a

Isadore Enger

1959-01-01

227

Simplified clear sky model for direct and diffuse insolation on horizontal surfaces  

SciTech Connect

A detailed comparison was made between five simple broadband models for clear sky global insolation. Compared models were those of Atwater and Ball, Davies and Hay, Watt, Hoyt, and Lacis and Hansen. A sixth simple model, called the Bird model, has been formulated by using parts of these five models and by comparison with the results from three rigorous radiative transfer codes. All of the simple models provide results that agree within < 10% with the three rigorous codes when the sun is in the zenith position. The Bird and Hoyt models agree within 3% with each other and with the results of the rigorous codes. However, the Bird model is easier to implement and has broader application than the Hoyt model.

Bird, R.E.; Hulstrom, R.L.

1981-02-01

228

A quasi-physical model for converting hourly global horizontal to direct normal insolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous research studies have shown that the use of a single regression function does not adequately characterize the relationship between direct beam transmittance (Kn) and the effective global horizontal transmittance (Kt). Therefore, the Direct Insolation Simulation Code (DISC) employs an exponential relationship betweenKn and air mass which is parametric in Kt. This algorithm seems to provide a satisfactory Kn-Kt relationship for a wide range of stations and seasons. Validation of the DISC Model was accomplished with data from three widely separated stations (Albuquerque, Bismarck, and Brownsville) which were not used for model development. Comparisons with the ETMY model (used to generate direct normal data for 222 of the 248 stations in the national data base) showed substantial improvements in the accuracy of hourly values, significant reductions in monthly RMS errors, and equivalent monthly mean bias errors. Furthermore, modification of the DISC model to incorporate cloud-cover, water vapor, and albedo terms appears to be straightforward.

Maxwell, E. L.

1987-08-01

229

Joint EPRI-SERI spectral solar radiation database project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) are cooperating to develop a spectral solar irradiance database to meet the needs of the photovoltaic (PV) community. The common objective is to develop a spectral solar irradiance database for a range of air masses and atmospheric conditions (or climates). Spectral irradiance, broad band irradiance (insolation) and meteorological data will be collected at several sites in the U.S.A. and archived at SERI in a common format. These data will be used at SERI to develop and verify spectral irradiance models that will predict the spectral irradiance environment from available insolation and meteorological data, and thereby expand the database. The expected result is a spectral irradiance database that will be available to the PV community in 1-2 years'time.

Riordan, C.

1987-08-01

230

Guide to exporting for US solar companies  

SciTech Connect

Reasons for US solar manufacturers to export are discussed; and, after a descision has been made to export solar equipment and technology, how to export and where to export are primary goals. The manual presents some basic information to answer the how and where. It provides information concerning the services which are currently available to facilitate entry into foreign markets and the basic social, economic, and solar insolation data on over 70 foreign markets are presented. Statistical profile information for the 70 countries include population; per capita income; primary languages, literacy rate; ratio of urban and rural areas; monetary unit; population density; GNP; energy production; energy consumption; energy reserves; trade with US. (MCW)

Thompson, P.

1981-06-01

231

Los Alamos National Laboratory passive solar program  

SciTech Connect

Progress in passive solar tasks performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for FY-81 is documented. A third volume of the Passive Solar Design Handbook is nearly complete. Twenty-eight configurations of sunspaces were studied using the solar load ratio method of predicting performance; the configuration showing best performance is discussed. The minimum level of insolation needed to generate convective flow in the thermosiphon test rig is noted and measured. Information is also included on test room performance, off-peak auxiliary electric heating for a passive home, free convection experiment, monitored buildings, and technical support to the US Department of Energy.

Neeper, D.A.

1981-01-01

232

Impact of soil fertility and insolation on diversity of herbaceous woodland species colonizing afforestations in Muizen forest (Belgium)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a chronosequence of afforestations adjacent to ancient forest, relations between herbaceous forest vegetation and possible explanatory variables, such as soil characteristics, land-use history variables and relative insolation on the forest floor, were studied using linear models on species groups and a direct gradient analysis (CCA). An explorative correlation analysis indicated that the moisture, carbon, total nitrogen and phosphorus contents

Luc De Keersmaeker; Leen Martens; Kris Verheyen; Martin Hermy; An De Schrijver; Noël Lust

2004-01-01

233

Marine Isotope Stage 11 : The Role of Co2, Insolation and Antarctica Ice Sheet On This Interglacial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Marine Isotopic Stage 11 (MIS 11), around 400kyr BP ago, has been suggested as an analogue for a future climate under natural forcing because of the similar condi- tions of orbitally driven insolation during this interglacial period and the one covering the Holocene and the near future. There are many open questions about unusual MIS 11 climatic conditions (length

D. Raynaud; M. F. Loutre; C. Ritz; J.-M. Barnola; A. Berger; J. Chappellaz; J. Jouzel; V. Lipenkov; J.-R. Petit; F. Vimeux

2002-01-01

234

Solar thermal-driven desalination plants based on membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In arid and semi-arid regions the lack of drinkable water often corresponds with high solar insolation. These conditions are favourable for the use of solar energy as the driving force for water treatment systems. Especially in remote rural areas with low infrastructure and without connection to a grid, small-scale, stand-alone operating systems for the desalination of brackish water from wells

Joachim Koschikowski; Marcel Wieghaus; Matthias Rommel

2003-01-01

235

A method of evaluating and sizing solar cogeneration systems  

SciTech Connect

An analytical method for rapid evaluation and sizing of solar cogeneration systems is presented. The method, which utilizes a simplified system model and site-specific data on insolation and energy loads, is described herein and an illustrative application is discussed. The application considered is the use of a solar thermal central receiver cogeneration plant to supply the electrical and thermal energy needs of a hypothetical military base at Caliente, Nevada. The method has applicability to plants using other types of collectors.

Ator, J.T.

1983-03-01

236

Effect of posture-control insoles on function in children with cerebral palsy: Randomized controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cerebral palsy (CP) is a posture and movement disorder and different therapeutic modalities, such as the use of braces, have sought to favor selective motor control and muscle coordination in such patients. The aim of the proposed study is to determine the effect of the combination of posture-control insoles and ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) improving functional limitation in children with CP. Methods/Design The sample will be composed of 24 children with CP between four and 12 years of age. After the signing of the statement of informed consent, the children will be randomly allocated to two groups: a control group using AFOs alone and an experimental group using both posture-control insoles and AFOs. Evaluations will be performed on five occasions: without any accessory (insoles or AFOs), immediately after, one month after, six months after and one year after AFOs or insole and AFOs use. The evaluation will involve the analysis of gait, static and functional balance, mobility and hypertonia. The three-dimensional assessment of gait will involve the eight-camera SMART-D SMART-D 140® system (BTS Engineering), two Kistler force plates (model 9286BA) and an eight-channel, wireless FREEEMG® electromyography (BTS Engineering). Static balance will be assessed using a Kistler force plate (model 9286BA). Clinical functional balance and mobility will be assessed using the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go Test and Six-Minute Walk Test. The posture-control insoles will be made of ethylene vinyl acetate, with thermal molding for fixation. The fixed orthoses will be made of polypropylene and attached to the ankle region (AFO). The results will be analyzed statistically, with the level significance set to 5% (p < 0.05). Trial Registration Trial Registration Number: RBR6d342s (http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/news/)

2012-01-01

237

The analysis of solar UVB radiation as a function of solar global radiation, ozone layer thickness and aerosol optical density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incident solar radiation (insolation) is attenuated by two different phenomena, (i) atmospheric scattering by air molecules, water vapor and aerosols, and (ii) atmospheric absorption by ozone, water and carbon dioxide. The degree of terrestrial solar radiation attenuation is a function of its optical path length, i.e., the distance the Sun’s ray traverse through the Earth’s atmosphere prior to being incident

Avraham I. Kudish; Efim G. Evseev

2011-01-01

238

Tips for Daily Living  

MedlinePLUS

... and on ASA Facebook's #WhatWorksWednesdays! Tips For Daily Living Karen Dionne, hemorrhagic stroke survivor, shares her tips ... See how Rosanna Radding shares her tips for living re-abled. See how she chops an onion ...

239

Shaundra Bryant Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from Science City, Shaundra Bryant Daily, an electrical engineer, describes a software program she developed to help girls reflect on their emotions, and how her two passions—science and dance—are connected.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-09-18

240

Solar distillation in Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar stills are found to be a more economical means of providing fresh water than flash distillation, reverse osmosis or vapor compression when daily requirements amount to less than 100 cu m. The basin-type solar still design examined in this paper involves simple construction and inexpensive materials. More efficient than the simple solar still is the multiple-effect still, which relies

P. J. Catania; P. C. Lobo

1979-01-01

241

The effect of removing plugs and adding arch support to foam based insoles on plantar pressures in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background Removable plug insoles appear to be beneficial for patients with diabetic neuropathic feet to offload local plantar pressure. However, quantitative evidence of pressure reduction by means of plug removal is limited. The value of additional insole accessories, such as arch additions, has not been tested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of removing plugs from foam based insoles, and subsequently adding extra arch support, on plantar pressures. Methods In-shoe plantar pressure measurements were performed on 26 patients with diabetic neuropathic feet at a baseline condition, in order to identify the forefoot region with the highest mean peak pressure (MPP). This was defined as the region of interest (ROI) for plug removal.The primary outcome was measurement of MPP using the pedar® system in the baseline and another three insole conditions (pre-plug removal, post-plug removal, and post-plug removal plus arch support). Results Among the 26 ROIs, a significant reduction in MPP (32.3%, P<0.001) was found after removing the insole plugs. With an arch support added, the pressure was further reduced (9.5%, P<0.001). There were no significant differences in MPP at non-ROIs between pre- and post-plug removal conditions. Conclusions These findings suggest that forefoot plantar pressure can be reduced by removing plugs and adding arch support to foam-based insoles. This style of insole may therefore be clinically useful in managing patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

2013-01-01

242

A comparison of customised and prefabricated insoles to reduce risk factors for neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration: a participant-blinded randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration may be prevented if the mechanical stress transmitted to the plantar tissues is reduced. Insole therapy is one practical method commonly used to reduce plantar loads and ulceration risk. The type of insole best suited to achieve this is unknown. This trial compared custom-made functional insoles with prefabricated insoles to reduce risk factors for ulceration of neuropathic diabetic feet. Method A participant-blinded randomised controlled trial recruited 119 neuropathic participants with diabetes who were randomly allocated to custom-made functional or prefabricated insoles. Data were collected at issue and six month follow-up using the F-scan in-shoe pressure measurement system. Primary outcomes were: peak pressure, forefoot pressure time integral, total contact area, forefoot rate of load, duration of load as a percentage of stance. Secondary outcomes were patient perceived foot health (Bristol Foot Score), quality of life (Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life). We also assessed cost of supply and fitting. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results There were no differences between insoles in peak pressure, or three of the other four kinetic measures. The custom-made functional insole was slightly more effective than the prefabricated insole in reducing forefoot pressure time integral at issue (27% vs. 22%), remained more effective at six month follow-up (30% vs. 24%, p=0.001), but was more expensive (UK £656 vs. £554, p<0.001). Full compliance (minimum wear 7 hours a day 7 days per week) was reported by 40% of participants and 76% of participants reported a minimum wear of 5 hours a day 5 days per week. There was no difference in patient perception between insoles. Conclusion The custom-made insoles are more expensive than prefabricated insoles evaluated in this trial and no better in reducing peak pressure. We recommend that where clinically appropriate, the more cost effective prefabricated insole should be considered for use by patients with diabetes and neuropathy. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov (NCT00999635). Note: this trial was registered on completion.

2012-01-01

243

An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation has been constructed based on geomagnetic data obtained from 21 stations along the 210 Magnetic Meridian of the Circum-pan Pacific Magnetometer Network (CPMN) from 1996 to 2007. Using the least squares fitting method for geomagnetically quiet days (Kp ??? 2+), the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation at each station was described as a function of solar activity SA, day of year DOY, lunar age LA, and local time LT. After interpolation in latitude, the model can describe solar-activity dependence and seasonal dependence of solar quiet daily variations (S) and lunar quiet daily variations (L). We performed a spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) on these S and L variations to examine average characteristics of the equivalent external current systems. We found three particularly noteworthy results. First, the total current intensity of the S current system is largely controlled by solar activity while its focus position is not significantly affected by solar activity. Second, we found that seasonal variations of the S current intensity exhibit north-south asymmetry; the current intensity of the northern vortex shows a prominent annual variation while the southern vortex shows a clear semi-annual variation as well as annual variation. Thirdly, we found that the total intensity of the L current system changes depending on solar activity and season; seasonal variations of the L current intensity show an enhancement during the December solstice, independent of the level of solar activity. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Yamazaki, Y.; Yumoto, K.; Cardinal, M. G.; Fraser, B. J.; Hattori, P.; Kakinami, Y.; Liu, J. Y.; Lynn, K. J. W.; Marshall, R.; McNamara, D.; Nagatsuma, T.; Nikiforov, V. M.; Otadoy, R. E.; Ruhimat, M.; Shevtsov, B. M.; Shiokawa, K.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Yoshikawa, A.

2011-01-01

244

Analysis of assisted coupled solar stills  

SciTech Connect

The potential of coupled solar stills as a mean for improving solar distillation yield is investigated. A model for a simple solar still assisted by an external solar collector is presented. The governing coupled heat and momentum balance equations are solved for a quasi-steady-state condition with temperature dependent physical properties. The results show that for coupled stills the fresh water productivity increases as the solar collector area of the assisting device increases. For an ideal system, neglecting the thermal inertia, the yield is linearly dependent upon the solar insolation. The thermal inertia causes a significant drop in the system yield and deviation from linearity. The net efficiency of the coupled system is higher than that of a similar simple still by a value that depends mainly upon the system configuration and independent of the meteorological conditions. Comparison of the analysis with experimental data is satisfactory. 36 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Zaki, G.M.; Radhwan, A.M. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)); Balbeid, A.O. (Yanbit Oil Co., Yanbu (Saudi Arabia))

1993-10-01

245

Climate fundamentals for solar energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Climate greatly influences the performance of any solar energy system. How many daylight hours are there in January. How much cloud cover is there in March. These are some of the first questions that must be asked when considering a solar heating or photovoltaic system for your home or community. The more direct sunlight a solar energy system receives, the better it will perform. In this fact sheet, sunlight is referred to as solar radiation. (It is also called solar irradiance and insolation.) Microclimate also has an important effect on solar heating and photovoltaic systems. Microclimate refers to the weather patterns (e.g., winds, fog, frost) that are unique to the building site. 28 refs., 5 figs.

Not Available

1988-04-01

246

Transient characteristics of flat-plate solar collector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical study of the transient performance of flat plate solar collectors for air conditioning and hot water supply during periods of solar intensity fluctuations is presented. The outlet water temperature was characterized in terms of the insolation fluctuations. A physical model is developed for the entire systems, with differential equations describing the heat balance at points along the fluid flow path. Predictions made with the model were compared with the measured performance of a flat plate collector system in the laboratory using an IR lamp for simulating the unsteady solar input. Acceptable agreement was found between predictions and data, and eleven nondimensional parameters which affect the outlet water temperature were identified. Further work is indicated to produce a generalized equation for performance in varying insolation.

Saito, A.; Utaka, Y.; Katayama, K.; Tsuchio, T.

1983-01-01

247

Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars.  

PubMed

Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (approximately 3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. PMID:16222294

Tanaka, Kenneth L

2005-10-13

248

Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental…

Texas Child Care, 1993

1993-01-01

249

A study on a two stage maximum power point tracking control of a photovoltaic system under partially shaded insolation conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photovoltaic (PV) array shows relatively low output power density, and has a greatly drooping current-voltage (I-V) characteristic. Therefore, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control is used to maximize the output power of the PV array. Many papers have been reported in relation to MPPT. However, the current-power (I-P) curve sometimes shows multilocal maximum points mode under nonuniform insolation conditions.

K. Kobayashi; I. Takano; Y. Sawada

2003-01-01

250

The dynamics of the Snowball Earth Hadley circulation for off-equatorial and seasonally-varying insolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I study the Hadley circulation of a completely ice-covered Snowball Earth through simulations with a comprehensive atmosphere general circulation model. Because the Snowball Earth atmosphere is an example of a dry atmosphere, these simulations allow me to test to what extent dry theories and idealized models capture the dynamics of dry Hadley circulations. Perpetual off-equatorial as well as seasonally-varying insolation is used, extending a previous study for perpetual on-equatorial (equinox) insolation. Vertical diffusion of momentum, representing the momentum transport of dry convection, is fundamental to the momentum budgets of both the winter and summer cells. In the zonal budget, it is the primary process balancing the Coriolis force. In the meridional budget, it mixes meridional momentum between the upper and the lower branch and thereby decelerates the circulation. Because of the latter, the circulation intensifies by a factor of three when vertical diffusion of momentum is suppressed. For seasonally-varying insolation, the circulation undergoes rapid transitions from the weak summer into the strong winter regime. Consistent with previous studies in idealized models, these transitions result from a mean-flow feedback, because of which they are insensitive to the treatment of vertical diffusion of momentum. Overall, the results corroborate previous findings for perpetual on-equatorial insolation. They demonstrate that an appropriate description of dry Hadley circulations, in particular their strength, needs to incorporate the vertical momentum transport by dry convection, a process that is neglected in most dry theories and idealized models. An improved estimate of the strength of the Snowball Earth Hadley circulation will also help to better constrain the climate of a possible Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth and its deglaciation threshold.

Voigt, A.

2013-08-01

251

Dependence on latitude of the relation between the diffuse fraction of solar radiation and the radiation and the ratio of global-to-extraterrestrial radiation for monthly average daily values  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for the prediction of the monthly average daily diffuse radiation, {bar H}{sub d}, was proposed by Page in 1961. The Page method is based on the use of the linear correlation {bar H}{sub d}\\/{bar H} = c + d{bar H}\\/{bar H}{sub o}, where {bar H} and {bar H}{sub o} are, respectively, the monthly average daily values of global

A Soler

1990-01-01

252

Orographic cloud over the eastern slopes of Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii, related to insolation and wind  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the period 1 to 11 June 1978, solar radiation and other meteorological data were gathered at eight stations arranged in a nearly linear transection extending from the coast at Hilo, Hawaii to Mauna Loa Observatory, 60 km inland and 3400 m higher. Solar radiation distributions followed climatological rainfall patterns; the driest areas were sunniest. At the wettest sites, underneath

Alfred J. Garrett

1980-01-01

253

Potential of Solar Desalination in the Arid States of North Africa and the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countries of the Middle East and North Africa enjoy long beaches on the Mediterranean sea, Red sea, and the Persian-Arab Gulf and on these beaches lies highly concentrated population centres. In addition to the severe water shortage, the area is also characterized as a high solar insolation area. And therefore, it is very practical to search for ways of coupling

K. R. Agha; M. Abdel-Wahab; K. El-Mansouri

254

Design of optimum Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm for solar panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to track the maximum power point of the Photovoltaic panel, as the electrical power supplied by solar array depends on insolation, temperature and load. Maximum Power Point Tracking ( MPPT) is an Power electronic system that operates the photovoltaic modules to produce maximum power. MPPT varies the electrical operating point of the modules and enables them to

A. Thenkani; N. Senthil Kumar

2011-01-01

255

Validation of the solar heating and cooling high speed performance (HISPER) computer code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developed to give a quick and accurate predictions HISPER, a simplification of the TRNSYS program, achieves its computational speed by not simulating detailed system operations or performing detailed load computations. In order to validate the HISPER computer for air systems the simulation was compared to the actual performance of an operational test site. Solar insolation, ambient temperature, water usage rate,

D. B. Wallace

1980-01-01

256

Performance characteristics of air-cooled solar collectors as determined by computer simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical model that is both dynamic and deterministic has been developed for an air-cooled flat plate solar collector. Utilizing a computer simulation, various parameters were studied over the course of a year. A ten year average of insolation and weather data from Eppley Laboratory and the Weather Bureau were curve fit and programmed into the simulation. The performance of

J. T. Lapointe

1977-01-01

257

Comparison of advanced engines for parabolic dish solar thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paraboloidal dish solar thermal power plant produces electrical energy by a two-step conversion process. The collector subsystem is composed of a two-axis tracking paraboloidal concentrator and a cavity receiver. The concentrator focuses intercepted sunlight (direct, normal insolation) into a cavity receiver whose aperture encircles the focal point of the concentrator. At the internal wall of the receiver the electromagnetic

T. Fujita; J. M. Bowyer; B. C. Gajanana

1980-01-01

258

Comparison of advanced engines for parabolic dish solar thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paraboloidal dish solar thermal power plant produces electrical energy by a two-step conversion process. The collector subsystem is composed of a two-axis tracking paraboloidal concentrator and a cavity receiver. The concentrator focuses intercepted sunlight (direct, normal insolation) into a cavity receiver whose aperture encircles the focal point of the concentrator. At the internal wall of the receiver the electromagnetic

T. Fujita; T. M. Bowyer; B. C. Gajanana

1982-01-01

259

Effects of laterally wedged insoles on symptoms and disease progression in medial knee osteoarthritis: a protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Whilst laterally wedged insoles, worn inside the shoes, are advocated as a simple, inexpensive, non-toxic self-administered intervention for knee osteoarthritis (OA), there is currently limited evidence to support their use. The aim of this randomised, double-blind controlled trial is to determine whether laterally wedges insoles lead to greater improvements in knee pain, physical function and health-related quality of life,

Kim Bennell; Kelly-Ann Bowles; Craig Payne; Flavia Cicuttini; Richard Osborne; Anthony Harris; Rana Hinman

2007-01-01

260

Daily ionospheric forecasting service (DIFS) III  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The daily variability of the ionosphere can greatly affect HF or SATCOM communications. HF skywave operators plan frequency schedules months in advance, however, they also require daily knowledge of the ionospheric conditions in order to modify assignments. SATCOM operators also require daily information about the levels of scintillation, which are variations in phase, amplitude, polarisation and angle of arrival that can cause severe degradation of the received signal.

Using a number of ionosonde measurements and geomagnetic and solar values, a Daily Ionospheric Forecasting Service (DIFS) has been developed, which provides HF and SATCOM operators with daily forecasts of predicted ionospheric conditions. The system uses in-house algorithms and an externally developed Global Ionospheric Scintillation Model (GISM) to generate HF and SATCOM forecasts. HF forecasts consist of a past summary and a forecast section, primarily displaying observed values and predicted categories for the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF), as well as an Ionospheric Correction factor (ICF) that can be fed into the ionospheric propagation prediction tool, WinHF. SATCOM forecasts give predictions of global scintillation levels, for the polar, mid and equatorial latitude regions. Thorough analysis was carried out on DIFS and the results conclude that the service gives good accuracy, with user feedback also confirming this, as well.

Butcher, N.

2005-12-01

261

Solar-Geophysical Data Number 678, February 2001. Part 1 (Prompt Reports). Data for December 2000 and January 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Solar-Terrestrial Environment; ISES Alert Periods (Advance and Worldwide); Solar Activity Indices; Solar Flares; Solar Radio Emission; Stanford Mean Solar Magnetic Field; and GOES-8 Daily Electron Fluence.

H. E. Coffey

2001-01-01

262

Solar-Geophysical Data Number 672, August 2000. Part 1 (Prompt Reports). Data for June and July 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Solar-Terrestrial Environment; ISES Alert Periods (Advance and Worldwide); Solar Activity Indices; Solar Flares; Solar Radio Emission; Stanford Mean Solar Magnetic Field; and GOES-8 Daily Electron Fluence.

H. E. Coffey

2000-01-01

263

NOAA Daily Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

Center, Hydrometeorological P.

2011-01-01

264

Solar energy meteorological research and training site program. First annual report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1978  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Energy Meteorological Research and Training Site (SEMRTS) program consists of research grants awarded to eight universities, with each university responsible for covering a specified region of the US and accomplishing the following objectives: (1) to collect detailed insolation and meteorological data needed for advanced solar energy studies; and (2) to act as a regional training center for meteorologists and solar engineers. A summary of activities and progress attained during the first year of the SEMRTS program is presented in this report.

Not Available

1981-02-01

265

Daily Radiation Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to provide students an understanding of the extent to which radiative energy heats and cools the surface of Earth on a daily basis. Students will learn to calculate the total amount of incoming and outgoing radiation over a day. They will learn to determine how balanced the radiative system is over a particular location and try to determine whether the surface is in radiative equilibrium.

266

Improving temporal extrapolation for daily evapotranspiration using radiation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accuracy needs to be improved when extrapolating instantaneous remote sensing evapotranspiration (ET) values for daily ET estimates. Daily net radiation (R) is a critical variable for this extrapolation. We expand the de Bruin and Sticker formula for R in the evaporative fraction method by incorporating ground radiation measurements. In addition, an improved daily transmittance formula that considers atmospheric conditions and solar declination is proposed for R calculation. The coefficient for daily net longwave radiation (R) in R is regressed from the ground radiation measurements and the improved daily transmittance values. A comparative study was conducted in the Haihe River basin, China. Experimental results show that the improved method yields a root mean square error of 0.97 mm for daily ET and only about 2% underestimation for actual seasonal ET in the study area. These results are better than the values obtained by traditional methods.

Zhang, Xiaochun; Wu, Jingwei; Wu, Huayi; Chen, Haorui; Zhang, Tong

2013-01-01

267

Telluride School, Telluride, Colorado solar-energy-system performance evaluation, February 1982 - April 1982  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Colorado with a passive/active hybrid solar energy system designed to supply 40% of the heating load is discussed. The school is equipped with a 1428 square foot, double glazed Trombe wall, a 1392 square foot greenhouse with collection tube, and an auxiliary oil fired boiler. Monthly performance data are tabulated for the overall system and for the Trombe wall, greenhouse, and greenhouse storage. System operation is illustrated by graphs of typical Trombe wall insolation and temperatures and typical greenhouse insolation and temperatures.

Welch, K. M.

268

PSO-Based Multidisciplinary Design of A Hybrid Power Generation System With Statistical Models of Wind Speed and Solar Insolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing concerns on air pollution and global warming, the clean green renewable sources of energy are expected to be playing more significant role in the global energy future. Multi-source hybrid power generation systems are representative applications of the renewables' technology. In this investigation, wind turbine generators, photovoltaic panels, and storage batteries are used to build a grid-linked generation

Lingfeng Wang; C. Singh

2006-01-01

269

Fast adjustment of the climate system to changes in atmospheric CO2 and solar radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key issue in the study of global climate change is the climate response to external forcing. When radiative forcing is applied to the climate system, the climate system starts to respond, resulting in changes in temperature and other fields. A new quasi-equilibrium climate state is achieved when the global mean net energy balance at the top-of-atmosphere returns to zero. The adjustment of the climate system is governed by different processes on different timescales. Within days to months, the climate system adjusts mainly to the imposed forcing and the change of land surface temperature. On longer timescale of years to centuries, when the ocean temperature starts to respond, changes in sea surface temperature exert a strong control on the adjustment of the climate system. By performing ensemble simulations using Hadley Center climate model, HadCM3L, we investigate climate system response to the applied forcing in the forms of additional atmospheric carbon dioxide and an increase in solar insolation. Both carbon dioxide and solar forcing affects the Earth's radiation balance and carbon dioxide also affects the climate system through its impact on plant stomata. We focus on the daily evolution of climate response within a timescale of one month over land and oceans. We will provide a mechanistic understanding of why increasing atmospheric CO2 causes a reduction in global-mean precipitation in the absence of sea surface temperature change. We will also discuss the adjustment of radiative forcing and the usefulness in radiative forcing as a predictor of equilibrium climate change. A discussion of the climate response from daily to millennium timescale will also be presented.

Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.; Bala, G.

2011-12-01

270

Economic assessment of advanced central-receiver solar-thermal power systems: PG and E assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plants evaluated included solar\\/fossil hybrid concepts and solar stand-alone plants with thermal storage. Liquid metal\\/molten salt and combined Brayton\\/Rankine cycle concepts were investigated. The analysis was based on the operation of the Pacific Gas and Electric system with these plants modeled in detail on the system. Sensitivities to insolation site, collector area and thermal storage were investigated. The study

J. T. Day; R. F. Boyle; D. W. Doar

1981-01-01

271

Solar-hydrogen electricity generation and global CO 2 emission reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative costs and CO2 emission reduction benefits of advanced centralized fossil fuel electricity generation, hybrid photovoltaic-fossil fuel electricity generation, and total solar electricity generation with hydrogen storage are compared. Component costs appropriate to the year 2000–2010 time frame are assumed throughout. For low insolation conditions (160 W m mean annual solar radiation), photovoltaic electricity could cost 5–13 cents kWh?1

L. D. Danny Harvey

1996-01-01

272

Influence of the Solar Luminosity on the Glaciations, sea Level Changes and Resulting Earthquakes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciations were attributed to variations of the Earth's orbit (Milankovitch cycles). But the best ever dated paleoclimatic record (from Devils Hole, Nevada) demonstrated that the end of the last glacial period (termination II) happened 10 000 years before the one suggested by the orbital variations, i.e. the result appeared before the reason. This fact suggests that there is something wrong in the theory. Calcite speleothems luminescence of organics depends exponentially upon soil temperatures that are determined primarily by the solar radiation. So the microzonality of luminescence of speleothems may be used as an indirect Solar Insolation (radiation) proxy index. We obtained luminescence solar insolation proxy records in speleothems (from Jewel Cave, South Dakota, US and Duhlata cave, Bulgaria). These records exhibit very rapid increasing of the solar insolation at 139 kyrs BP responsible for the termination II (the end of the last glaciation) and demonstrate that solar luminosity variations contribute to Earth's heating almost as much as the orbital variations of the Earth's orbit (Milankovitch cycles). The most powerful cycle of the solar luminosity (11500 yrs) is responsible for almost 1/2 of the variations in solar insolation experimental records. Changes in the speed of Earth's rotation during glacial- interglacial transitions produce fracturing of the Earth's crust and major earthquakes along the fractures. The intensity of this process is as higher as faster is the change of the sea level and as higher is its amplitude. Glaciations and deglaciations drive changes of the sea level. Much higher dimensions of this process should be caused by eruptive increasing of solar luminosity, which may be caused only by collision of large asteroids with the Sun. We demonstrate that such collision may cause "Bible Deluge" type of event.

Shopov, Y. Y.; Stoykova, D. A.; Tsankov, L. T.; Sanabria, M. E.; Georgieva, D. I.; Ford, D. C.; Georgiev, L. N.

2002-12-01

273

Suggestive correlations between the brightness of Neptune, solar variability, and Earth's temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term photometric measurements of Neptune show variations of brightness over half a century. Seasonal change in Neptune's atmosphere may partially explain a general rise in the long-term light curve, but cannot explain its detailed variations. This leads us to consider the possibility of solar-driven changes, i.e., changes incurred by innate solar variability perhaps coupled with changing seasonal insolation. Although correlations

H. B. Hammel; G. W. Lockwood

2007-01-01

274

Experimental investigation of novel indirect solar cooker with indoor PCM thermal storage and cooking unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a novel indirect solar cooker with outdoor elliptical cross section, wickless heat pipes, flat-plate solar collector and integrated indoor PCM thermal storage and cooking unit is designed, constructed and tested under actual meteorological conditions of Giza, Egypt. Two plane reflectors are used to enhance the insolation falling on the cooker’s collector, while magnesium nitrate hexahydrate (Tm=89°C,

H. M. S. Hussein; H. H. El-Ghetany; S. A. Nada

2008-01-01

275

Solar-hydrogen electricity generation in the context of global CO 2 emission reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative costs and CO2 emission reduction benefits of advanced centralized fossil fuel electricity generation, hybrid photovoltaic-fossil fuel electricity generation, and total solar electricity generation with hydrogen storage are compared. Component costs appropriate to the year 2000–2010 time frame are assumed throughout. For low insolation conditions (160 W m-2 mean annual solar radiation), photovoltaic electricity could cost 5–13 cents\\/kWh by

L. D. Danny Harvey

1995-01-01

276

Asthma Prevalence Associated with Geographical Latitude and Regional Insolation in the United States of America and Australia  

PubMed Central

Background It has been proposed that vitamin D deficiency may be responsible for an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases and asthma worldwide. Human ability to generate physiologically required quantities of vitamin D through sun exposure is decreasing with increasing geographical latitude. Objectives Considering that vitamin D deficiency is usually due to lack of outdoor sun exposure, this study is designed to test the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of asthma should be expected at high relative to low geographical latitudes. Methods Linear regression analyses are performed on asthma prevalence in the U.S. adult population vs. geographical latitude, insolation, air temperature, and air pollution (PM2.5) for 97 major metropolitan/micropolitan statistical areas of the continental United States of America and on general population asthma prevalence vs. geographical latitude in eight metropolitan areas of Australia. Results A 10° change in geographical latitude from southern to northern regions of the Eastern Seaboard is associated with a 2% increase in adult asthma prevalence (p<0.001). Total insolation in winter months is almost as strong as latitude in its ability to explain the observed spatial variation in the prevalence of asthma (r2?=?0.43; p<0.001). Similar results are obtained using the Australian data (r2?=?0.73; p<0.01), suggesting a consistent association between the latitude/insolation and asthma prevalence worldwide. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that, as a known modulator of the immune response closely linked with the geographical latitude and erythemal UV irradiation, vitamin D may play an important role in the development/exacerbation of asthma.

Krstic, Goran

2011-01-01

277

An Analysis of Solar Radiation Data for Fort Collins, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work with solar radiation reaching the earth's surface frequently requires a knowledge of the extraterrestrial solar radiation. A method of calculating extraterrestrial solar radiation over various time scales (i.e. instantaneous, hourly, daily, etc.) wit...

J. R. Conley

1982-01-01

278

Epidemiology of chronic daily headache  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily or near-daily headache is a widespread problem in clinical practice. The general term of chronic daily headache (CDH)\\u000a encompasses those primary headaches presenting more than 15 days per month and lasting more than 4 hours per day. CDH includes\\u000a transformed migraine (TM), chronic tension-type headache (CTTH), new daily persistent headache (NDPH), and hemicrania continua\\u000a (HC). Around 40% of patients

Julio Pascual; Rafael Colás; Jesús Castillo

2001-01-01

279

Egypt Daily.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the World News network, Egypt Daily.com provides a wealth of links to frequently updated news stories dealing primarily with Egypt. From the homepage, users can click on any number of recent items gathered from a variety of different sources, including the BBC, ABC News, Arabic News, and CNN. The archive of news items stretches back several weeks, and news items are also arranged thematically into sections dealing with the economy, tourism, and technology on the site's main page. The site also features a number of helpful links, such as those leading to English-language news resources for the Arabic-speaking world and to online newspapers in Arabic. The site is rounded out by a list of online travel guides for those seeking to plan a trip to Egypt or other parts of North Africa.

280

New daily persistent headache  

PubMed Central

New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.

Tyagi, Alok

2012-01-01

281

Kinetic and kinematic changes with the use of valgus knee brace and lateral wedge insoles in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

The effect of a valgus knee brace and a lateral wedged insole on knee and ankle kinematics and kinetics was evaluated in ten patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). The knee orthosis was tested in two valgus adjustments (4° and 8°), and the laterally wedged insole was fabricated with an inclination of 4°. A motion capture system and force platforms were used for data collection and joint moments were calculated using inverse dynamics. The valgus moment applied by the orthosis was also measured using a strain gauge implemented in the orthosis' rotational axis. For the second peak knee adduction moment, decreases of 18%, 21%, and 7% were observed between baseline and test conditions for the orthosis in 4° valgus, in 8° valgus, and insole, respectively. Similar decreases were observed for knee lever arm in the frontal plane. Knee adduction angular impulse decreased 14%, 18%, and 7% from baseline to conditions for the orthosis in 4° valgus, in 8° valgus, and insole, respectively. Knee angle in the frontal plane reached a more valgus position during gait using the valgus knee brace. The valgus moment applied by the orthosis with 8° valgus adjustment was 30% higher than with 4° valgus adjustment. The valgus knee orthosis was more effective than the laterally wedged insole in reducing knee adduction moment in patients with medial knee OA. PMID:22161816

Fantini Pagani, Cynthia H; Hinrichs, Maren; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

2011-12-12

282

Potential role of winter rainfall in explaining increased moisture in the Mediterranean and Middle East during periods of maximum orbitally-forced insolation seasonality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precession-related forcing of seasonal insolation changes in the northern hemisphere (NH) alternates between maximum NH seasonality (summer perihelion-increased insolation; winter aphelion-decreased insolation) and minimum NH seasonality (summer aphelion, and winter perihelion). With maximum NH seasonality, climate models simulate stronger NH summer monsoons that bring increased precipitation to North Africa and South and East Asia, in agreement with the in-phase relation of precipitation and NH summer insolation found in many paleoclimatic records. However paleoclimatic records in parts of the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the interior of Asia also indicate increased moisture at times of maximum NH seasonality, a change not always clearly linked to stronger summer monsoons—either because these regions are at or beyond the boundaries of the present-day monsoon or because the observations allow multiple causal interpretations, or both. This study focuses on the possible role of changes in NH winter climate in explaining these wetter episodes. Using climate model simulations, we show that the `NH winter aphelion-decreased NH winter insolation' orbital configuration is linked to the Mediterranean storm track and increased winter rains in the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and interior Asia. We conclude that wetter periods at precession time scales in these particular regions may have resulted either from increased wintertime storm track precipitation, or from a combination of increased winter and summer rainfall. Given this seasonal ambiguity, both possibilities need to be considered.

Kutzbach, J. E.; Chen, G.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Liu, Z.

2013-03-01

283

Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

Dudley, V.E. [EG and G MSI, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-11-01

284

Synchronized High-Resolution Lacustrine Records in Iceland show Non-Linear Response to Holocene Insolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Icelandic lakes commonly have sedimentation rates in excess of 1 m ka-1 through the Holocene, offering the potential for records of environmental change at decadal or better resolution. Icelandic lake sediment contains numerous volcanic tephra layers of known age, which together with high-resolution sediment paleomagnetic secular variations (PSV) allow synchronization of sediment cores from both lacustrine and marine archives. We present synchronized high-resolution paleoclimatic records from two Icelandic lakes with very different catchment characteristics. By combining PSV records and key tephra tie points we are able to synchronize the lacustrine records with each other and with a well-dated marine core from the shelf north of Iceland. The large PSV signal that characterizes the Icelandic Holocene records allows 40 to 60 secure tie points over the past 10 ka of sediment records. The high frequency of tie points allows the reconstruction of sediment accumulation rate changes in the lacustrine records that were not apparent from the tephrochonological controls. The first order trends in the lacustine climate proxies (BSi and TOC) are similar. BSi climbs to a maximum value shortly after 8 ka, then declines toward present, reflecting a relatively late Holocene thermal maximum, lagging the Greenland ice core record by ca. 2 ka. The peak of the HTM in Iceland was warm enough to melt glaciers completely with temperatures estimated to have been 3.5°C higher relative to 1960-1990 averages. Decreasing summer insolation is reflected not by gradual cooling after the HTM, but by incremental changes in state. TOC and BSi track each other during warm times, but diverge, and sedimentation rates increase, during perturbations and cold times at 8.4 ka, 5.5 ka, 4.3 to 4 ka, 3.1 ka to 2.8 ka. Following these departures, BSi usually exhibits a step-function change, re-equilibrating at a lower BSi value. Some of the departures may be related to Icelandic volcanism influencing catchment stability, but the lack of a full recovery to pre-existing values after the eruptions suggests a change in state occurred in the lake catchments indicating increased periglacial activity, decreased vegetation cover, and glacier growth in the highlands of Iceland. The strongest disturbance occurs during the last 2 ka with the transition into the Little Ice Age occurring in two-to-three steps. Initial summer cooling occurs 1250-1300 AD, followed by a more severe drop in summer temperatures between 1450 and 1500 AD, and the final and most severe step around 1800 AD. The LIA began earlier and apparently peaked later than reflected by many mainland European records. Independent proxies (BSi, TOC, C:N, sedimentation rate, IRD, alkenones, ice cap modeling) from glacial and non-glacial lakes and adjacent Icelandic shelves are self-consistent, providing robust support for our reconstructions.

Geirsdottir, A.; Miller, G. H.; Larsen, D. J.; Thordarson, T.; Ólafsdóttir, S.; Stoner, J. S.

2010-12-01

285

New Observations on the Daily Variations of Natural Ice Albedo.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Observations on the daily variation of ice albedo indicate a significant dependence of snow-ice and refrozen-slush-ice albedo on solar altitude under clear skies. Significant albedo variations were noted under variable cloudy conditions, but attempts to q...

S. J. Bolsenga

1980-01-01

286

Estimating solar radiation for plant simulation models  

SciTech Connect

Five algorithms producing daily solar radiation surrogates using daily temperatures and rainfall were evaluated using measured solar radiation data for seven U.S. locations. The algorithms were compared both in terms of accuracy of daily solar radiation estimates and terms of response when used in a plant growth simulation model (CERES-wheat). Requirements for accuracy of solar radiation for plant growth simulation models are discussed. One algorithm is recommended as being best suited for use in these models when neither measured nor satellite estimated solar radiation values are available.

Hodges, T.; French, V.; Leduc, S.

1985-01-01

287

Effects of laterally wedged insoles on symptoms and disease progression in medial knee osteoarthritis: a protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Whilst laterally wedged insoles, worn inside the shoes, are advocated as a simple, inexpensive, non-toxic self-administered intervention for knee osteoarthritis (OA), there is currently limited evidence to support their use. The aim of this randomised, double-blind controlled trial is to determine whether laterally wedges insoles lead to greater improvements in knee pain, physical function and health-related quality of life, and slower structural disease progression as well as being more cost-effective, than control flat insoles in people with medial knee OA. Methods/Design Two hundred participants with painful radiographic medial knee OA and varus malalignment will be recruited from the community and randomly allocated to lateral wedge or control insole groups using concealed allocation. Participants will be blinded as to which insole is considered therapeutic. Blinded follow up assessment will be conducted at 12 months after randomisation. The outcome measures are valid and reliable measures recommended for OA clinical trials. Questionnaires will assess changes in pain, physical function and health-related quality-of-life. Magnetic resonance imaging will measure changes in tibial cartilage volume. To evaluate cost-effectiveness, participants will record the use of all health-related treatments in a log-book returned to the assessor on a monthly basis. To test the effect of the intervention using an intention-to-treat analysis, linear regression modelling will be applied adjusting for baseline outcome values and other demographic characteristics. Discussion Results from this trial will contribute to the evidence regarding the effectiveness of laterally wedged insoles for the management of medial knee OA. Trial registration ACTR12605000503628; NCT00415259.

Bennell, Kim; Bowles, Kelly-Ann; Payne, Craig; Cicuttini, Flavia; Osborne, Richard; Harris, Anthony; Hinman, Rana

2007-01-01

288

An initial development of a methodology for siting solar power plants  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research described in this report is to develop a methodology for siting solar power plants and to transfer this siting technology to utilities and to solar industries. This report describes the initial development of this methodology, which makes use of SERI's Geographic Information and Data Analysis System (GIDAS). GIDAS functions include data entry, geographic and parameter transformations, image and geographic information analyses, and the production of various output products, including color and black-and-white composite maps and tabular summaries of analytical results. The composite maps in the report show, among other things, direct normal insolation, land use and land cover, land management, and proximity to load centers, all of which are taken into account in selecting suitable sites for solar power plants, using a cost/benefit approach. The methodology is very promising, and awaits only some improvements in insolation data and in current data gases to be developed more fully. 11 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

Maxwell, E.L.; Rymes, M.D.

1987-11-01

289

A Comparison of Ground Reaction Forces Determined by Portable Force-Plate and Pressure-Insole Systems in Alpine Skiing  

PubMed Central

For the determination of ground reaction forces in alpine skiing, pressure insole (PI) systems and portable force plate (FP) systems are well known and widely used in previous studies. The purposes of this study were 1) to provide reference data for the vertical component of the ground reaction forces (vGRF) during alpine skiing measured by the PI and FP systems, and 2) to analyze whether the differences in the vGRF measured by the PI and the FP depend on a skier’s level, skiing mode and pitch. Ten expert and ten intermediate level skiers performed 10 double turns with the skiing technique “Carving in Short Radii” as High Dynamic Skiing mode and “Parallel Ski Steering in Long Radii” as Low Dynamic Skiing mode on both the steep (23 °) and the flat (15 °) slope twice. All subjects skied with both the PI and the FP system simultaneously. During the outside phase, the mean vGRF and the maximum vGRF determined by the FP are greater than the PI (p < 0.01). Additionally during the inside phase, the mean vGRF determined by the FP were greater than the PI (p < 0.01). During the edge changing phases, the mean vGRF determined by the FP were greater than the PI (p < 0.01). However, the minimum vGRF during the edge changing phases determined by the FP were smaller than the PI (p < 0.01) in the High-Steep skiing modes of Experts and Intermediates (p < 0.001). We have found that generally, the PI system underestimates the total vGRF compared to the FP system. However, this difference depends not only the phase in the turn (inside, outside, edge changing), but also is affected by the skier’s level, the skiing mode performed and pitch. Key points Typically, during the steering phases of the ski turns the total vGRFs measured by the pressure-insole system were lower compared to the portable force-plate system. However, in some skiing modes during the edge changing phase, the pressure-insole system overestimates the total vGRF compared to the portable force-plate system. Differences between the forces determined by the both systems depend on the phase in the turn (inside, outside, edge changing) and are affected additionally by the skier’s level, the performed skiing mode and pitch.

Nakazato, Kosuke; Scheiber, Peter; Muller, Erich

2011-01-01

290

Theoretical analysis of the optimum energy band gap of semiconductors for fabrication of solar cells for applications in higher latitudes locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work some results of theoretical analysis on the selection of optimum band gap semiconductor absorbers for application in either single or multijunction (up to five junctions) solar cells are presented. For calculations days have been taken characterized by various insolation and ambient temperature conditions defined in the draft of the IEC 61836 standard (Performance testing and energy rating

T. Zdanowicz; T. Rodziewicz; M. Zabkowska-Waclawek

2005-01-01

291

North-south topographic slope asymmetry on Mars: Evidence for insolation-related erosion at high obliquity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A map of north-south subkilometer-scale slope asymmetry on Mars obtained from statistical analysis of along-track MOLA topographic profiles reveals well-defined zonal belts of north-south slope asymmetry at 40-50° latitude in both hemispheres. In these narrow anomalous belts the pole-facing slopes are systematically gentler than equator-facing slopes. This asymmetry is especially pronounced for the steepest (>20°) slopes, in which pole-facing slopes are three times less frequent than >20° slopes facing the equator. We interpret these belts to be related to insolation asymmetry. Specifically, we suggest that summertime melting of ground ice on pole-facing slopes occurred during periods of very high obliquity (~45°) in the past and favored downslope movement of material and reduction of steep pole-facing slopes.

Kreslavsky, M. A.; Head, J. W.

2003-08-01

292

Evaluating Inuence of Power Output Fluctuation of Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems on LFC based on Multiple Observation of Insolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-scale installation of a photovoltaic power generation system (PV system) may cause some diculties in the operation of electric power systems. Taking into account a smoothing effect of power outputs of PV systems by dispersed installation, this paper discusses the LFC (Load Frequency Control) capacity for power output fluctuation of PV systems based on the insolation data simultaneously observed at 5 points around Nagoya, Japan. The main results are (1) the frequency deviation might not exceed the tolerance (0.05Hz)when the installed PV system is 2% of system capacity, which is Japan’s target value toward 2010, (2) when the larger capacity of PV system is installed, the frequency deviation would be larger than 0.05Hz, and the capacity of LFC generator must be increased, (3) the frequency deviation due to the installation of PV system might be larger in holiday with smaller electricity demand than in weekday.

Yanagawa, Shigeyuki; Kato, Takeyoshi; Tabata, Akimori; Suzuoki, Yasuo

293

Magnetic Daily Variation at Koror  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of exhibiting the magnetic daily variations using contours based on running means can give a more precise indication of the seasonal changes in daily variation than conventional methods. This method is applied to the variations at Koror, which are of particular interest owing to Koror's location, almost exactly on the magnetic dip equator. The contour charts give new

1962-01-01

294

Winter-to-spring transition in Europe 48-54°N: From temperature control by advection to control by insolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As established in previous studies, and analyzed further herein for the years 1988-1998, warm advection from the North Atlantic is the predominant control of the surface-air temperature in northern-latitude Europe in late winter. This thesis is supported by the substantial correlation Cti between the speed of the southwesterly surface winds over the eastern North Atlantic, as quantified by a specific Index Ina, and the 2-meter level temperature Ts over central Europe ( 48-54°N 5-25°E), for January, February and early March. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation Cti drops drastically (quite often it is negative). The change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-air temperature. As (a) the sun rises higher in the sky, (b) the snows melt (the surface absorptivity can increase by a factor of 3.0), (c) the ocean-surface winds weaken, and (d) the temperature difference between land and ocean (which we analyze) becomes small, absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control of the continental temperature. We define the onset of spring by this transition, which evaluated for the period of our study occurs at pentad 16 (Julian Date 76, that is, March 16). The control by insolation means that the surface is cooler under cloudy conditions than under clear skies. This control produces a much smaller interannual variability of the surface temperature and of the lapse rate than prevailing in winter, when the control is by advection.Regional climatic data would be of greatest value for agriculture and forestry if compiled for well-defined seasons. For continental northern latitudes, analysis presented here of factors controlling the surface temperature appears an appropriate tool for this task.

Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Hu, H.; Jusem, J. C.; Starr, D.

295

Solar Radiation Modeling and Measurements for Renewable Energy Applications: Data and Model Quality; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Measurement and modeling of broadband and spectral terrestrial solar radiation is important for the evaluation and deployment of solar renewable energy systems. We discuss recent developments in the calibration of broadband solar radiometric instrumentation and improving broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy. An improved diffuse sky reference and radiometer calibration and characterization software and for outdoor pyranometer calibrations is outlined. Several broadband solar radiation model approaches, including some developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, for estimating direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation are briefly reviewed. The latter include the Bird clear sky model for global, direct beam, and diffuse terrestrial solar radiation; the Direct Insolation Simulation Code (DISC) for estimating direct beam radiation from global measurements; and the METSTAT (Meteorological and Statistical) and Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) models that estimate solar radiation from meteorological data. We conclude that currently the best model uncertainties are representative of the uncertainty in measured data.

Myers, D. R.

2003-03-01

296

Metamorphism of stratified firn at Dome Fuji, Antarctica: A mechanism for local insolation modulation of gas transport conditions during bubble close off  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the structure of a 112.59 m long firn core recovered at Dome Fuji, East Antarctica, was investigated in order to improve understanding of firn densification and bubble formation processes, which are important for interpreting local insolation proxies used for astronomical dating of deep ice cores. Using selected samples, we measured physical properties including (1) the relative dielectric

Shuji Fujita; Junichi Okuyama; Akira Hori; Takeo Hondoh

2009-01-01

297

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

SciTech Connect

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation, as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-05-01

298

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

SciTech Connect

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation, as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-09-01

299

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

SciTech Connect

Environmental data collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network are tabulated for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of the total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-01-01

300

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

SciTech Connect

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is tabulated for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation, as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-07-01

301

Daily pan evaporation modelling using a neuro-fuzzy computing technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation, as a major component of the hydrologic cycle, is important in water resources development and management. This paper investigates the abilities of neuro-fuzzy (NF) technique to improve the accuracy of daily evaporation estimation. Five different NF models comprising various combinations of daily climatic variables, that is, air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, pressure and humidity are developed to evaluate

Özgür Kisi

2006-01-01

302

Modeling of daily pan evaporation of Lake E?irdir using data-driven techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene Expression Programming (GEP) and Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN) models are developed to estimate daily pan evaporation which is an important parameter in hydrological and meteorological studies. Meteorological parameters used to estimate daily pan evaporation from Lake E?irdir at the southwestern part of Turkey are air temperature (Ta), water temperature (Tw), solar radiation (RC )a nd relative humidity (Rh).

O. Terzi

2011-01-01

303

A Hybrid Data Mining Technique for Estimating Mean Daily Temperature Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of temperature values at a specific time of day, from daytime and daily profiles, are needed for a number of environmental, ecological, agricultural and technical applications, ranging from natural hazards assessments, crop growth forecasting to design of solar energy systems. The initial scope of this research is to investigate the efficiency of data mining techniques in estimating mean daily

S. Kotsiantis; A. Kostoulas; S. Lykoudis; A. Argiriou; K. Menagias

304

Riding the Wave to Reach the Masses: Natural Events in Early Twentieth Century Portuguese Daily Press  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper brings together science communicated in newspapers in Portugal by looking at how news on natural events were communicated in two different newspapers--the capital newspaper "Diario de Noticias" ("Daily News") and the "Diario dos Acores" ("Azores Daily"). In particular, we look at how the 1900 solar eclipse, a hot topic throughout…

Simoes, Ana; Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula

2012-01-01

305

Climatology: Contrails reduce daily temperature range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

Travis, David J.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Lauritsen, Ryan G.

2002-08-01

306

DailyChek QC Kit  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... DailyChek QC Kit. Applicant: American National Red Cross. ... (800) 835-4709. (301) 827-1800. ocod@fda.hhs.gov. Consumer Affairs Branch (CBER) ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

307

TV Producer Juggles Daily News.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Brennan discusses the daily activities required in the production of a television news show. In "The Not-So-Glamorous Life of a TV Reporter," Linda Yu describes the time and effort required to become a television reporter. (LS)|

Brennan, Bill

1989-01-01

308

Unravelling daily human mobility motifs.  

PubMed

Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These networks, called here motifs, are sufficient to capture up to 90 per cent of the population in surveys and mobile phone datasets for different countries. Each individual exhibits a characteristic motif, which seems to be stable over several months. Consequently, daily human mobility can be reproduced by an analytically tractable framework for Markov chains by modelling periods of high-frequency trips followed by periods of lower activity as the key ingredient. PMID:23658117

Schneider, Christian M; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C

2013-05-08

309

Residential heating costs: a comparison of geothermal, solar and conventional resources  

SciTech Connect

The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. These costs are very sensitive to location - being dependent on the local prices of conventional energy supplies, local solar insolation, cimate, and the proximity and temperature of potential geothermal resources. The sharp price increases in imported fuels during 1979 and the planned decontrol of domestic oil and natural gas prices have set the stage for geothermal and solar market penetration in the 1980's.

Bloomster, C.H.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.

1980-08-01

310

Conceptual design of a solar cogeneration facility at Pioneer Mill Co. , Ltd  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported of a conceptual design study of the retrofit of a solar central receiver system to an existing cogeneration facility at a Hawaii raw sugar factory. Background information on the site, the existing facility, and the project organization is given. Then the results are presented o the work to select the site specific configuration, including the working fluid, receiver concept, heliostat field site, and the determination of the solar facility size and of the role of thermal storage. The system selected would use water-steam as its working fluid in a twin-cavity receiver collecting sunlight from 41,420 m/sup 2/ of heliostat mirrors. The lates version of the system specification is appended, as are descriptions of work to measure site insolation and a site insolation mathematical model and interface data for the local utility. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-04-01

311

Modeling topographic influences on solar radiation: A manual for the SOLARFLUX Model  

SciTech Connect

SOLARFLUX is a geographical information system (GIS) based computer program (running under ARC/INFO and GRID) that models incoming solar radiation based on surface orientation (slope and aspect), solar angle (azimuth and zenith) as it shifts over time, shadows caused by topographic features, and atmospheric conditions. A convenient user interface allows specification of program parameters including latitude, time interval for simulation, file name of a topographic surface, atmospheric conditions (transmittivity), and file names for output. The user specifies a topographic surface as an array of elevation values (GRID). SOLARFLUX generates five basic types of output: 1) total direct radiation, 2) duration of direct sunlight, 3) total diffuse radiation, 4) skyview factor, and 5) hemispherical viewsheds of sky obstruction for specified surface locations. This manual serves as the comprehensive guide to SOLARFLUX. Included are discussions on modeling insolation on complex surfaces, our theoretical approach, program setup and operation, and a set of applications illustrating characteristics of topographic insolation modeling.

Rich, P.M.; Hetrick, W.A.; Saving, S.C. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)

1995-11-01

312

Solar-pond technology for Navy applications. Final report, October 1982-August 1984  

SciTech Connect

Many of the Navy and Marine Corps bases have potential for thermal solar pond systems that can cost-effectively displace existing thermal and electrical loads. The salt-gradient solar pond offers a simple method of collecting solar insolation while providing its own storage medium for the energy collected. The economic attractiveness of a solar pond is enhanced by this feature; however, the viability of a given application is dependent on site attributes and requirements. For the salt-gradient solar pond, site-specific features such as solar radiation, siting area, type of load to be displaced, and availability of salt, clay, and water are important factors affecting the success of each application. An investigation of current salt-gradient solar pond technology was conducted and a preliminary technical and economic analysis was performed for a proposed application at the Marine Corps Logistics Base, Barstow, California.

Huang, L.C.P.; Major, W.R.

1985-04-01

313

Dating the 800 ka - long EPICA DC ice core by tuning the air content and ?O2/N2 records on local summer insolation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method of dating the long glacial-interglacial ice core records has emerged during the last 10 years. It is based on properties measured on the air extracted from the ice that are used as proxies of local summer insolation. This dating method is referred to as "local orbital tuning dating". It's an almost absolute dating, providing we better understand the link between the influence of the local summer insolation on the snow grains at the surface and the measured properties in the ice, namely the content and the ?O2/N2 ratio of the air enclosed in the ice. Changes in these two properties have already shown convincing correlations with orbitally forced local summer insolation on several Antarctic and Greenland long ice core records. Moreover, both ?O2/N2 and air content have recently been measured for the first time on the same ice core (Vostok). The same methods of spectral analysis were applied on these records. The two experimentally independent local insolation proxies lead to orbital timescales that agree well together (within less than 1ka on average). We present here new air content (V) data obtained along the Antarctic EPICA DC ice cores. These data extent the existing record, which covers the last 430,000 years, to about 800,000 years, i.e. they add four glacial-interglacial cycles. The new record has a time resolution of 2,000 years on average. The spectral properties of the new 430 - 800 kyr V record are primarily obtained by continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analysis. It confirms and refines the results from the Blackman-Tukey (BT) and Multi-Taper Method (MTM analysis). The spectral signature of V is compared to its specific Integrated Summer Insolation (ISI) target and the time delay between the V signal and its ISI target is used to propose a V chronology for the oldest part of the record (800-430 kyr BP). The spectral signatures of V and the insolation targets will be compared between the 800 -430 ka BP period (this work) and the 430 - 0 ka BP period (Raynaud et al, 2007). The differences between the two periods will be discussed. A V chronology will be proposed for the full length of the record (0-800ka) and its limitations discussed. Finally we will compare the orbital dating of EDC by using air content with the one recently obtained on the same core for more specific periods using ?O2/N2 (Landais et al., in press).

Raynaud, D.; Lipenkov, V.; Loutre, M.-F.; Landais, A.; Capron, E.

2012-04-01

314

Validated, unified model for optics and heat transfer in line-axis concentrating solar energy collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rigorous numerical simulation model for the prediction of the combined optical and thermofluid behaviour of line-axis concentrating solar energy collectors combines two-dimensional steady-state finite element analysis of convective heat transfer and ray-trace techniques. The optical analysis considers both direct and diffuse insolation components and is therefore useful for the analysis of compound parabolic concentrating collectors. Experiments using Mach-Zehnder interferometry

P. C. Eames; B. Norton

1993-01-01

315

Solar energy utilization in the USSR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conditions for solar energy utilization in the USSR are not too favorable. Only in the country's southern regions is there sufficient insolation to make solar energy utilization economic. In higher latitudes, only seasonal use of solar energy is reasonable. Up to now, the main application of solar energy has been to produce low-temperature heat for hot water production, drying of agricultural goods, space heating and thermal treatment of concrete. A substantial proportion of the solar heating installations are flat plate solar collectors. The total installed area of solar collectors slightly exceeds 100,000 square meters. The collectors are produced by large- and small-scale industry. Where selective coatings are applied to the absorber plates, black nickel or chromium are the main coating materials. Recently launched new projects aim to develop and produce advanced collectors, with enhanced efficiency and reliability. There has been substantial progress in developing photovoltaic (PV) cells for space applications, but terrestrial application of PV is still in a very early stage. Annual production of PV cells totals about 100 kW, based on mono- or polycrystalline silicon. R&D work on thin-film PV cells is in progress. Work is in progress on the development of automated production lines to manufacture 1 MW/yr of crystalline and amorphous silicon. A 5-MW tower-type demonstration plant, with a circular heliostat field, uses steam as the working fluid. Experience with this plant has revealed several disadvantages, including commonwealth of independent states.

Shpilrain, E. E.

1991-05-01

316

Correlation of global solar radiation with meteorological parameters over Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global solar radiation measurements on a horizontal surface (Gm), mean daily maximum temperature (T), mean daily relative humidity (RH), mean daily sea level pressure (MSL), mean daily vapor pressure (V) and hours of bright sunshine (S) are presented, analyzed, arranged in tables and graphs and discussed for five selected locations over Egypt. The locations chosen represent the different weather conditions

A. A. Trabea; M. A. Mosalam Shaltout

2000-01-01

317

Cokriging estimation of daily suspended sediment loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with daily river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated daily loads were compared with the daily measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated daily sediment

Zhongwei Li; You-Kuan Zhang; Keith Schilling; Mary Skopec

2006-01-01

318

Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

Reynolds, John S.

319

Solar Village--Educational Initiative for Kids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains a model of a solar village in the context of the school which does not contribute to air pollution by using only solar energy. Suggests that pupils would be active participants in building systems and understanding the contact between the knowledge of the basic science of solar energy and the technology processes in daily life.…

Hugerat, Muhamad; Ilyian, Salman; Toren, Zehava; Anabosi, Fawzi

2003-01-01

320

Algorithm for solar radiation on mountain slopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalized algorithm provides the daily total of potential solar radiation on any sloping surface at any latitude. The algorithm can be coded as subroutines of a computer model that requires solar radiation as a variable. The required inputs are Julian dates and the latitude, inclination, and aspect of the slope. In addition to computing potential solar radiation, the routine

Lloyd W. Swift; L. W. Jr

1976-01-01

321

Formation of gullies on Mars: Link to recent climate history and insolation microenvironments implicate surface water flow origin  

PubMed Central

Features seen in portions of a typical midlatitude Martian impact crater show that gully formation follows a geologically recent period of midlatitude glaciation. Geological evidence indicates that, in the relatively recent past, sufficient snow and ice accumulated on the pole-facing crater wall to cause glacial flow and filling of the crater floor with debris-covered glaciers. As glaciation waned, debris-covered glaciers ceased flowing, accumulation zones lost ice, and newly exposed wall alcoves continued as the location for limited snow/frost deposition, entrapment, and preservation. Analysis of the insolation geometry of this pole-facing crater wall, and similar occurrences in other craters at these latitudes on Mars, shows that they are uniquely favored for accumulation of snow and ice, and a relatively more rapid exposure to warmer summer temperatures. We show that, after the last glaciation, melting of residual snow and ice in alcoves could have formed the fluvial channels and sedimentary fans of the gullies. Recent modeling shows that top-down melting can occur in these microenvironments under conditions similar to those currently observed on Mars, if small amounts of snow or frost accumulate in alcoves and channels. Accumulation and melting is even more favored in the somewhat wetter, relatively recent geological past of Mars, after the period of active glaciation.

Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.; Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.

2008-01-01

322

Immediate coronal plane kinetic effects of novel lateral-offset sole shoes and lateral-wedge insole shoes in healthy individuals.  

PubMed

To investigate kinetic differences in the coronal plane between healthy individuals wearing shoes with lateral-offset soles and shoes with lateral-wedge insoles while walking, hip abduction, knee adduction, and ankle abduction moments were estimated using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system under 3 different conditions: wearing conventional shoes (control), wearing lateral-offset sole shoes (condition A), and wearing lateral-wedge insole shoes (condition B). Forty-eight healthy individuals (24 men and 24 women) were tested. Condition A resulted in a significantly reduced peak knee adduction moment compared with the control (condition A=0.316 Nm/kg; control=0.380 Nm/kg; P=.006). The peak knee adduction moment of condition B was also lower than that of the control (condition B=0.299 Nm/kg; P=.002); however, the peak knee adduction moment was not significantly different between conditions A and B (P=.386). Condition B resulted in an increased mean ankle abduction moment in the stance phase compared with the control and condition A (control=0.007 Nm/kg; condition A=0.013 Nm/kg; condition B=0.023 Nm/kg) (control vs condition A, P=.051; control vs condition B, P<.001; condition A vs condition B, P=.002). The hip abduction moments were not significantly different between the control and condition A, control and condition B, or conditions A and B. Wearing lateral-offset sole shoes reduces the peak knee adduction moment and exerts less influence on ankle moment than does wearing lateral-wedge insole shoes. Neither lateral-offset sole shoes nor lateral-wedge insole shoes induce kinetic changes in the coronal plane of the hip. PMID:23379928

Kang, Jong Woo; Park, Hae Soo; Na, Choon Kyun; Park, Jong Woong; Hong, Jungwha; Lee, Soon Hyuck

2013-02-01

323

Formation et transformation de défauts ponctuels par insolation UV dans les diélectriques à base de silice: application à l'intégration de composants optiques sur fibre  

Microsoft Academic Search

La présence dans les verres germanosilicates de défauts ponctuels résultants de défauts de liaisons interatomiques ou de stoechiométrie peut être à l'origine d'une modification photoinduite sous insolation UV de leur indice de réfraction. Cette modification est mise à profit pour induire une modulation périodique ou variable de l'indice permettant la réalisation de composants optiques intégrés sur fibre: filtres, miroirs, compensateurs

A. Boukenter; F. Goutaland; H. Kuswanto; E. Marin; J. P. Meunier; Y. Ouerdane

2003-01-01

324

Stochastic Simulation of Daily Rainfall.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of many water resources projects requires knowledge of possible long-term rainfall patterns. A stochastic model based on a first order Markov chain was developed to simulate daily rainfall at a point. The model is applicable to any point in Ken...

D. M. Allen C. T. Haan D. Linton J. Street D. Jordan

1975-01-01

325

Progressing Deployment of Solar Photovoltaic Installations in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation evaluates the likelihood of solar PV playing a larger role in national and state level renewable energy portfolios. I examine the feasibility of large-scale solar PV arrays on college campuses, the financials associated with large-scale solar PV arrays and finally, the influence of environmental, economic, social and political variables on the distribution of residential solar PV arrays in the United States. Chapter two investigates the challenges and feasibility of college campuses adopting a net-zero energy policy. Using energy consumption data, local solar insolation data and projected campus growth, I present a method to identify the minimum sized solar PV array that is required for the City College campus of the Los Angeles Community College District to achieve net-zero energy status. I document how current energy demand can be reduced using strategic demand side management, with remaining energy demand being met using a solar PV array. Chapter three focuses on the financial feasibility of large-scale solar PV arrays, using the proposed City College campus array as an example. I document that even after demand side energy management initiatives and financial incentives, large-scale solar PV arrays continue to have ROIs greater than 25 years. I find that traditional financial evaluation methods are not suitable for environmental projects such as solar PV installations as externalities are not taken into account and therefore calls for development of alternative financial valuation methods. Chapter four investigates the influence of environmental, social, economic and political variables on the distribution of residential solar PV arrays across the United States using ZIP code level data from the 2000 US Census. Using data from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Open PV project, I document where residential solar PVs are currently located. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was run to evaluate the influence of selected variables. Using the same model, predicted residential solar PV shares were generated and illustrated using GIS software. The results of this model indicate that solar insolation, state energy deregulation and cost of electricity are statistically significant factors positively correlated with the adoption of residential solar PV arrays. With this information, policymakers at the towns and cities level can establish effective solar PV promoting policies and regulations for their respective locations.

Kwan, Calvin Lee

326

Using Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how solar energy can be used to heat water. Learners first discuss energy usage in their daily lives and then divide into pairs to conduct an experiment in which they use the sun to heat water. As an optional extension, learners can follow this activity with a project to design their own alternative energy invention.

History, American M.

2008-01-01

327

Regional Per Capita Solar Electric Footprint for the United States  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we quantify the state-by-state per-capita 'solar electric footprint' for the United States. We use state-level data on population, electricity consumption, economic activity and solar insolation, along with solar photovoltaic (PV) array packing density data to develop a range of estimates of the solar electric footprint. We find that the solar electric footprint, defined as the land area required to supply all end-use electricity from solar photovoltaics, is about 181 m2 per person in the United States. Two key factors that influence the magnitude of the state-level solar electric footprint include how industrial energy is allocated (based on location of use vs. where goods are consumed) and the assumed distribution of PV configurations (flat rooftop vs. fixed tilt vs. tracking). The solar electric footprint is about 0.6% of the total land area of the United States with state-level estimates ranging from less than 0.1% for Wyoming to about 9% for New Jersey. We also compare the solar electric footprint to a number of other land uses. For example, we find that the solar electric footprint is equal to less than 2% of the land dedicated to cropland and grazing in the United States.

Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

2007-12-01

328

Correlation between solar activity and Earth's ionospheric electron content during the 23rd solar cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beginning of the 23rd solar cycle (May 1996 to December 2008) coincided with the start of the catalogue of global ionospheric modeling using GPS data. Comparison between solar activity parameters and GPS-derived Total Electron Content (TEC) is now possible for the whole of solar cycle 23. In this study, we compared the daily sunspot number and F10.7 cm flux with the daily mean global TEC values during the entire last solar cycle. In order to better understand the ionization response, we show correlations between the daily F10.7cm delivered by NGDC-NOAA (National Geophysical Data Center - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and the daily sunspot number from SIDC (Solar Influences Data Analysis Center) with the daily mean latitudinal TEC values extracted from CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) GPS-based global ionospheric maps for the period 1995-2009. The correlations were investigated for different daily mean latitudinal ionospheric TEC: (1) expressed in geographic and geomagnetic coordinates; (2) with respect to the seasons and; (3) with respect to the different phases of the solar cycle. In general, results show in the north and south hemispheres a different ionospheric response (TEC) to solar activity (F10.7cm). Moreover, the switch from geographic to geomagnetic coordinates does not change the observed correlation between TEC and solar parameters. Finally, a larger correlation is observed at N20°-30° during the transition phase in the solar cycle.

Bergeot, N.; Legrand, J.; Burston, R.; Bruyninx, C.; Defraigne, P.; Chevalier, J.; Clette, F.; Marque, C.; Lefevre, L.

2010-12-01

329

Determination of the quiet daily geomagnetic variations for polar regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel procedure to derive the daily varying quiet level for polar geomagnetic data is presented. Recorded data from selected quiet intervals are weighted and superposed to form the basis for an estimate of the quiet daily curve (QDC) for the variation in each of the recorded components on any selected day. The quiet daily variation is controlled by the level of solar UV and X-ray emissions, and parameters in the solar wind in combination with the actual season and the location of the observatory. The procedure uses the variability in the recorded geomagnetic data rather than international magnetic indices like Kp to determine the quiet intervals in accordance with the concept proposed by Janzhura and Troshichev (2008). A special problem for the estimation of the QDC in polar regions is the influence from the solar wind sector structure acting particularly through the azimuthal component, IMF By, of the interplanetary magnetic field. In the superposition of recordings to estimate the QDC for any given day, the present procedure uses weighting functions to give preference to intervals with quietest conditions, closest to the day in question, exposed to the same face of the sun, and within the same sector of the solar wind. The effects of control parameters for the selection of quiet intervals and smoothing of the initial QDC values are carefully controlled. The procedure is fully automated and delivers quality control parameters in addition to the QDC values. It is considered a further step forward in the processing of geomagnetic data to derive reliable and reproducible QDCs for the difficult high-latitude regions.

Stauning, P.

2011-10-01

330

Supporting activities of daily living  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention provides a method for supporting operational activities in daily living by providing a combination of (a) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly DHA and/or EPA, and (b) nucleosides or nucleotides, particularly uridine or its equivalent. The operational activities comprise eating; walking; toileting; bathing; grooming; dressing; use of communication equipment; making conversations; keeping appointments; use of household appliances; cleaning dishes; preparation of meal or drink; writing; reading; independent housekeeping; transportation and shopping.

Groenendijk; Martine (Barendrecht, NL); de Wilde; Mattheus Cornelis (Elst, NL); Hageman; Robert Johan Joseph (Wageningen, NL); Kamphuis; Patrick Joseph Gerardus Hendrikus (Utrecht, NL)

2013-01-29

331

Awareness of Daily Life Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The well-publicized aging of Western societies has prompted a growing interest into technologies that support awareness in cross-generational families. The idea of supporting continual and partly automated flow of information between seniors living alone and their social intimates has been gaining ground among researchers but even among industries. It is anticipated that such an information flow can help bridge geographical distance, discrepant lifestyles, and daily routines, potentially providing peace of mind to both parties and feelings of being connected.

Metaxas, Georgios; Metin, Barbaros; Schneider, Jutta; Markopoulos, Panos; De Ruyter, Boris

332

Gender in Spanish Daily Newspapers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the portrayal of women and men in a Spanish daily newspaper and to find whether there\\u000a were gender differences among the authors of the articles in said newspaper. A content analysis was conducted of 4,060 articles\\u000a and advertisements from 24 issues of a randomly selected, large-circulation, Spanish newspaper. Men were found to

M. Pilar Matud; Carmen Rodríguez; Inmaculada Espinosa

2011-01-01

333

Flexible solar reflectors - II  

SciTech Connect

An analytical design of flexible solar reflectors was presented elsewhere so that a flexible material with suitable mass distribution can be suspended to have the shape of a conic with a definite focus. The simplest among these conics is the circular one. This can be built either using fabric and stitching several folds on it to attain the required mass distribution or using shelf paper and sticking it one on the other. In both cases aluminised plastic can be used as the reflecting material. For more permanent devices, better material needs to be devised. However for experimental models, the authors have used the shelf paper and fabric. The authors attempt two types of reflectors. The first one is a spherical design with a point focus, while the second one is linear focussing device to be used for thermosiphon for heating fluids. Each one is field-tested for its efficiency by measuring the insolation continuously during its operation and also the heat absorbed by the fluid. The fluid used here is water though other fluids can be attempted. The devices can be used as cookers, water heaters, air heaters and heating systems for air conditioners. The heating systems are compared with the conventional ones.

Wagh, A.S.; Chin, P.N.

1983-12-01

334

Solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pumps, solar power stations, air conditioners, fresh-water stills, solar homes, solar cookers, fruit driers, devices for (low temperature) steaming of reinforced concrete members, solar refrigerators, solar hothouses, welding and melting of metals presents a far from complete list of the devices and areas of the possible broad use of solar energy. The first plant of solar equipment is to

G. Y. Umarov; A. A. Yershov

1975-01-01

335

Solar power for cathodic protection of steel pipeline  

SciTech Connect

In this study 4.5 km long fuel pipeline, located on 41[degrees] N latitude (Istanbul, Turkey) was cathodically protected with solar energy. Four commercial photovoltaic modules of a 12 V version were used. Insolation data were collected by the aid of Florya Meteorological Station. The cathodic protection was applied for three years and kept under control during this period of time. Project criteria and reliability of the protection have been investigated. Better protection than the available criteria for steel pipeline was achieved even in winter solstice months.

Yalcin, H.; Koc, T. (Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey))

1993-11-01

336

Test and PostTest Analysis of a Thermacore, Inc. Nickel Powder Wick Heat Pipe Solar Reciever  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a cradle-to-grave fabrication and postmortem analysis of a sodium-filled heat pipe solar receiver. The Stirling Thermal Motors Gen. H engine was tested with the Thermacore, Inc. heat pipe receiver on Sandia's Test Bed Concentrator II in the fall of 1996. Although engine performance was significantly increased relative to a direct insolation version of the receiver, hot spots

Douglas R. Adkins; Charles E. Andraka; Diver Jr. Richard B; Kenneth H. Echelmeyer; James B. Moreno; Timothy A. Moss; K. Scott Rawlinson; Steven K. Showalter

1999-01-01

337

Coupling a spatially-explicit forest gap model with a 3-D solar routine to simulate latitudinal effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-scaled forest model (ZELIG) which spatially embeds patch-scale processes into a larger landscape was linked with a 3-D insolation routine to simulate the effects of latitudinal variation in solar radiation on the growth and spatial patterns of idealized early successional, shade-intolerant and late successional, shade-tolerant species. At the individual tree level, average tree height increased for the shade-intolerant species

J. F. Weishampel; D. L. Urban

1996-01-01

338

Mees Solar Observatory Recent Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Hawaii's Mees Solar Observatory, stationed at Haleakala, Maui, provides a wealth of data and images in its Webpages. This page, Mees Solar Observatory Recent Images, houses daily updates of solar images and activity logs. Data available include coronagraphs, active solar region maps, CCD imaged spectrographs, imaging vector magnetographs from the Haleakala Stokes Polar Imager (HSP), as well as the Mees photometric spot index. Some days, images of the H-alpha active region of the sun are available. A regular feature is a series of .gif movies created from Mees White Light Telescope images.

2001-01-01

339

Solar cogeneration: Cimarron River station, Central Telephone and Utilities-Western Power  

SciTech Connect

The site-specific conceptual design progress is described for a solar central receiver cogeneration facility at a Kansas utility. The process is described which led to the selection of the preferred solar cogeneration facility. The status of the conceptual design is presented. The evaluation of system performance is described. A test program is described that is to determine the magnitude of impact that local environmental factors have on collector system performance and to measure the direct normal insolation at the cogeneration facility site. The system specification is appended. (LEW)

Harder, J.E.

1981-04-01

340

An analytical investigation of mass flow, pressure and temperature in a flat-plate solar collector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of mass flow, pressure and temperature interactions in a flatplate solar collector is presented with the assumption that the working fluid is compressible with friction and no phase change. The theoretical analysis is based on compressible flow and heat transfer fundamentals together with the working equations which ary widely used in solar energy applications. The results of this study show that: (1) the fluid temperature approaches the tube wall temperature asymptotically as 1/D increases for fixed inlet and insolation conditions, (2) the fluid pressure decreases as the ratio of tube length to tube diameter (1/D) increases, (3) the mass flow rate increases as 1/D increases.

Phan, H. T.; Thinh, N. D.

341

Noise in pressure transducer readings produced by variations in solar radiation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Variations in solar radiation can produce noise in readings from gauge pressure transducers when the transducer cable is exposed to direct sunlight. This noise is a result of insolation-induced heating and cooling of the air column in the vent tube of the transducer cable. A controlled experiment was performed to assess the impact of variations in solar radiation on transducer readings. This experiment demonstrated that insolation-induced fluctuations in apparent pressure head can be as large as 0.03 m. The magnitude of these fluctuations is dependent on cable color, the diameter of the vent tube, and the length of the transducer cable. The most effective means of minimizing insolation-induced noise is to use integrated transducer-data logger units that fit within a well. Failure to address this source of noise can introduce considerable uncertainty into analyses of hydraulic tests when the head change is relatively small, as is often the case for tests in highly permeable aquifers or for tests using distant observation wells.

Cain, III, S. F.; Davis, G. A.; Loheide, II, S. P.; Butler, Jr. , J. J.

2004-01-01

342

The Daily Martian Weather Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science Team features the results of a detailed study of the Martian atmosphere in the form of a daily weather report and precise atmospheric measurements for the planet Mars. Atmospheric temperature and pressure profiles which have been archived with NASA's Planetary Data System are also available on this site. These profiles illustrate the vertical structure of the atmosphere of Mars. The site also includes links to many images of Martian atmospheric and weather phenomena (with captions) from the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MGS MOC), the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) and the Hubble Space Telescope.

Team, Mars G.; University, Stanford

343

Solar energy system economic evaluation for Solaron Akron, Akron, Ohio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic analysis of the solar energy system that was installed at Akron, Ohio is developed for this and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions. The analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f chart design procedure with inputs based on the characteristics of the installed parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results show that only in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where insolation is 1828 Btu/sq ft/day and the conventional energy cost is high, is this solar energy system marginally profitable.

1980-09-01

344

Neural networks with artificial bee colony algorithm for modeling daily reference evapotranspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigates the ability of artificial neural networks (ANN) with artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm in daily\\u000a reference evapotranspiration (ET0) modeling. The daily climatic data, solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed from two stations,\\u000a Pomona and Santa Monica, in Los Angeles, USA, are used as inputs to the ANN–ABC model so as to estimate ET0 obtained

Coskun Ozkan; Ozgur Kisi; Bahriye Akay

345

Simplified relationships for estimating solar radiation incident on any flat surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation flux on a sloping surface is related to solar radiation flux on an equivalent horizontal surface. Formulae for integrated daily direct radiation on a sloping surface, by itself, and as a ratio to integrated daily direct radiation on a horizontal surface, are summarised. Vertical over horizontal surface ratios of integrated daily direct radiation are calculated, with a without

K. J. A. Revfeim

1982-01-01

346

Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

2013-01-01

347

Origin and Use of the Laplace Distribution in Daily Sunspot Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently Pop ( Solar Phys. 276, 351, 2012) identified a Laplace (or double exponential) distribution in the number of days with a given absolute value in the change over a day, in sunspot number, for days on which the sunspot number does change. We show this phenomenological rule has a physical origin attributable to sunspot formation, evolution, and decay, rather than being due to the changes in sunspot number caused by groups rotating onto and off the visible disc. We also demonstrate a simple method to simulate daily sunspot numbers over a solar cycle using the Pop ( Solar Phys. 276, 351, 2012) result, together with a model for the cycle variation in the mean sunspot number. The procedure is applied to three recent solar cycles. We check that the simulated sunspot numbers reproduce the observed distribution of daily changes over those cycles.

Noble, P. L.; Wheatland, M. S.

2013-02-01

348

Holocene climate variations in the western Antarctic Peninsula: evidence for sea ice extent predominantly controlled by insolation and ENSO variability changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Antarctic ice sheet is particularly sensitive to global warming and its evolution and impact on global climate over the next few decades remains difficult to predict. In this context, investigating past sea ice conditions around Antarctica is of primary importance. Here, we document changes in sea ice presence, upper water column temperatures (0-200 m) and primary productivity over the last 9000 yr BP (before present) in the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) margin from a sedimentary core collected in the Palmer Deep basin. Employing a multi-proxy approach, we derived new Holocene records of sea ice conditions and upper water column temperatures, based on the combination of two biomarkers proxies (highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkenes for sea ice and TEXL86 for temperature) and micropaleontological data (diatom assemblages). The early Holocene (9000-7000 yr BP) was characterized by a cooling phase with a short sea ice season. During the mid-Holocene (~ 7000-3000 yr BP), local climate evolved towards slightly colder conditions and a prominent extension of the sea ice season occurred, promoting a favorable environment for intensive diatom growth. The late Holocene (the last ~ 3000 yr) was characterized by more variable temperatures and increased sea ice presence, accompanied by reduced local primary productivity likely in response to a shorter growing season compared to the early or mid-Holocene. The stepwise increase in annual sea ice duration over the last 7000 yr might have been influenced by decreasing mean annual and spring insolation despite an increasing summer insolation. We postulate that in addition to precessional changes in insolation, seasonal variability, via changes in the strength of the circumpolar Westerlies and upwelling activity, was further amplified by the increasing frequency/amplitude of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, between 4000 and 2100 yr BP, the lack of correlation between ENSO and climate variability in the WAP suggests that other climatic factors might have been more important in controlling WAP climate at this time.

Etourneau, J.; Collins, L. G.; Willmott, V.; Kim, J. H.; Barbara, L.; Leventer, A.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Bianchini, A.; Klein, V.; Crosta, X.; Massé, G.

2013-01-01

349

Simulations of the Eemian interglacial and the subsequent glacial inception with an OAGCM driven by orbitally-induced changes in insolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eemian was the last interglacial prior to the Holocene and is linked to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e. We present multi-centennial climate simulations of the Eemian and the subsequent glacial inception. These simulations were performed with the coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model ECHO-G (atmosphere model ECHAM 4 at T30 resolution coupled to the HOPE-G ocean model at T42). The simulations are performed as equilibrium experiments with orbital parameters and greenhouse gas concentrations set to values of 125,000 and 115,000 years before present (BP). These dates represent periods with enhanced and weakened seasonal cycles of insolation on the northern hemisphere. Comparisons with pollen-based reconstructions of European temperatures show that the model simulates realistic spatial temperature patterns for the warm phase of the Eemian (GRL, 2005, L11703). Especially winter temperatures are affected by changes in atmospheric circulation and Arctic sea ice coverage. The reduction in summer insolation at 115,000 years BP leads to a perennial snow-coverage over parts of North America, which is continuously expanding during the simulated period of 3000 years. This is connected with a continuous increase of Arctic sea ice volume and a long-term global cooling trend. Consistent with geological records the snow accumulation starts in north-eastern Canada. In this region southward winds transport cold Arctic air into the continent. The accumulation of snow on the North American continent is equivalent to a decrease in oceanic sea level at a rate of 18 cm/century at the end of the simulation. In summary, in these simulations orbitally-induced changes in insolation are sufficient to explain the reconstructed temperature patterns as well as to trigger the onset of a glaciation.

Kaspar, F.; Cubasch, U.

2005-12-01

350

Performance of nonconcentrating solar photocatalytic oxidation reactors; Part 1: Flat-plate configuration  

SciTech Connect

A nonconcentrating flat-plate photoreactor has been fabricated and tested in an outdoor solar photocatalytic oxidation facility. It has been demonstrated that 4-chlorophenol (4CP) is successfully oxidized when operating under either sunny or cloudy atmospheric conditions. Tests have been conducted with the photocatalyst, titanium dioxide (TiO[sub 2]), either mixed into the 4CP solution to form a slurry or adhered to a fiberglass mesh in a fixed configuration. The reaction rate constant for the slurry mode is typically two to five times greater than that for the fixed catalyst mesh tested at similar ultraviolet (UV) insolation conditions. In addition, the reaction rate constant appears to vary linearly with the UV insolation, and it shows no dependence on liquid film thickness in the slurry mode, but appears to vary linearly with the inverse of film thickness in the fixed catalyst mode. All tests were performed in the laminar flow regime. Design recommendations for industrial development are presented.

Wyness, P.; Klausner, J.F.; Goswami, D.Y.; Schanze, K.S. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States))

1994-02-01

351

Determination of Potential Direct Beam Solar Irradiance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Procedures are presented for calculating potential direct beam solar irradiance, corrected for latitude, azimuth and inclination of slope, date, and time of day. Equations are structured to permit the user to calculate instantaneous or total daily irradia...

M. R. Kaufmann J. D. Weatherred

1982-01-01

352

An experimental study of a new solar still - The wiping spherical still  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical and experimental results of the functioning of a spherical solar water distiller which includes a curved, turning glass wiper are presented. A review of past and present solar still apparatus is presented, along with an analytical examination of insolation characteristics. Numerical models are constructed of the performance of solar stills, noting the enhanced gain with less materials available by using spherically shaped plexiglass for the transparent upper surface. Attachment of a curved glass wiper, which extends from the top center of the dome to the collector tray and is made to revolve around the dome's inner surface by either an electric motor, or a wind-powered shaft, or by means of a motor driven by solar cells, is shown to keep the transparency higher and thus augment the efficiency of the still to 14 percent better performance than with a flat plate solar still.

Makki, A.

353

March 1982 environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

SciTech Connect

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-03-01

354

January 1980 environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

SciTech Connect

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum, and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1980-01-01

355

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network, June 1982  

SciTech Connect

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum, and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-06-01

356

April 1982 environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

SciTech Connect

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-04-01

357

July 1982 environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

SciTech Connect

Environmental data collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network are tabulated for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of the total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-07-01

358

May 1982 environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

SciTech Connect

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-05-01

359

Daily cycles in coastal dunes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

Hunter, R. E.; Richmond, B. M.

1988-01-01

360

Once-daily aminoglycoside therapy.  

PubMed Central

The once-daily administration of aminoglycosides is an attractive concept. In animal experiments and clinical trials, there is either a reduction in or no influence on the risk of toxicity. Less frequent dosing reduces the contact time between host tissue binding sites and drug. Thanks to the PAE and perhaps other as-yet-unrecognized factors, the fall in the level in serum below the MIC does not appear to impair antibacterial efficacy; in fact, the higher peak level in serum may enhance drug efficacy early in a dosage interval. In neutropenic patients, the in vivo PAE may be lost or small-colony variants with a shorter PAE may be selected unless a concomitant beta-lactam is administered. Because it will be some time before data from clinical trials in the United States are available, because the results from the international trials are encouraging, and because there is potential benefit to patients, it seems reasonable for infectious diseases consultants to cautiously initiate the educational process necessary to implement once-daily aminoglycoside therapy in their institutions.

Gilbert, D N

1991-01-01

361

Solar Max 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new exhibit from the Exploratorium (last discussed in the August 6, 1999 Scout Report) is a content-rich examination of the upcoming "solar maximum." The year 2000, it is believed, will see the highest degree of sunspot activity for the current solar cycle. The result may be geomagnetic storms that disrupt power grids, radio broadcasts, and satellites, as well as unusually vibrant displays of the Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis (the Northern and Southern Lights). To follow these events and learn about the science behind them, most users will need look no further than this site, which offers links to news stories and daily reports from NASA, links to a large number of images, a Solar Max FAQ in text and video, classroom activities, a glossary, and links to upcoming solar missions and numerous other related resources. A Japanese language version of the site is forthcoming.

362

Generation of hourly solar radiation for inclined surfaces using monthly mean sunshine duration in Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hourly global solar radiation flux incident on an inclined surface is evaluated in any site of Algeria using monthly mean daily sunshine duration measurements. The methodology used consists of successive transformations of solar data, respectively, based on the exponential probability distribution of daily sunshine duration, Ångström equation, beta probability distribution of hourly global solar radiation flux, polynomial correlations of hourly

A. Mefti; M. Y. Bouroubi; A. Adane

2003-01-01

363

Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

2012-09-01

364

The Daily News - Free Internet Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Daily News - Free Internet Sources. A catalog of those sites on the Internet that provide significant business and economic news on a daily basis, without charge. Includes publications organized by geographic regions around the world.

1995-01-01

365

Daily Medicine Record for Your Child  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. Daily Medicine Record for Your Child Why should I keep a Daily Medicine Record for My Child? • To keep your child safe. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/resourcesforyou

366

Alzheimer's Care: Simple Tips for Daily Tasks  

MedlinePLUS

... be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Alzheimer's care: Simple tips for daily tasks By Mayo Clinic ... share your e-mail address Sign up Alzheimer's care: Simple tips for daily tasks Alzheimer's caregiving takes ...

367

The 1991 Japan Solar Energy Society. Japan Wind Energy Association Joint Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thie paper summarizes the lectures presented at the research presentation conference held by the Japan Solar Energy Society and the Japan Wind Energy Association. The contents include a lecture relating to photovoltaic cells intended for efficiency improvement; a lecture relating to a light power generation system including the field test reports, improvements on peripheral devices and output characteristics; a lecture relating to optical chemistry; a lecture relating to heat pumps utilizing solar heat and well water; a lecture relating air conditioning utilizing photovoltaic cells; a lecture relating to heat systems utilizing solar heat directly; a lecture relating to heat collection; a lecture relating to cold heat for cooling using earth tubes; a lecture relating to direct utilization of ground water heat and solar heat; a lecture relating to underground heat storage; a lecture relating to accumulation of cold heat and hot heat; a lecture relating to insolation on the amount of insolation and spectroscopy; a lecture relating to light collection intended of energy saving; a lecture relating to improving materials including light collecting plates and thin films; a lecture relating to development and characteristics of solar cars; and a lecture relating to wind energy.

1991-09-01

368

Williamson Home, Ipswich, Mass. solar-energy-system performance evaluation, Nov. 1981 - Apr. 1982  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on solar water and space heating systems are given. The Williamson Home in Massachusetts is a single family residence whose active-solar-energy system is designed to supply 47% of the space heating and 91% of the hot water. The system is equipped with 339 square feet of flat plate collectors, a 240-cubic-foot rock bin for storage, a propane-gas furnace and a 100-gallon propane gas hot water tank for auxiliary heating. Monthly performance data are tabulated for the overall system and for the collector, hot water, and space heating subsystems. Also tabulated are solar coefficients of performance, solar operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions. Also given is a graph of collector array efficiency versus the difference between the inlet water and ambient temperatures divided by insolation. System operation is illustrated by graphs of typical insolation data and outside ambient and indoor temperatures, collector operating periods and inlet/outlet temperatures, and typical storage and distribution temperatures versus time for a typical day. The system operating sequence and solar energy utilization and losses are also graphed.

Cramer, M.

1982-06-01

369

The Effect of Daily Stress, Personality, and Age on Daily Negative Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined whether stress reactivity becomes stronger or weaker with age. Daily stress and daily negative affect were modeled using 1,012 subjects from the National Study of Daily Events (NSDE), an 8-day daily diary study. Age ranged from 25 to 74. Data were modeled using within-person HLM techniques. Daily stress and neuroticism interacted in their effect on daily

Daniel K. Mroczek; David M. Almeida

2004-01-01

370

Total Maximum Daily Load Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides this informative resource on Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL). A term used to discuss water quality, TMDL refers to "a calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and still meet water quality standards." The TMDL Program Website offers background information on TMDLs (including FAQs), a National Overview of Impaired Waters in the US, and two standard presentations on TMDLs (HTML and Power Point). The heart of the site, however, is the interactive map of the US, which allows users access to each state's TMDL Program. Within each state, watershed names and maps, as well as source information (Water body, Parameter of Concern, Priority for TMDL Development), are provided.

371

SciTech Daily Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users wishing quick and easy access to some of the best writing online will want to examine this site. Scitech Daily Review, updated four days per week offers links to articles, new book notices and reviews, and essays and opinion pieces for the fields of science and technology. The site does not provide original content, but rather mines a wide array of online newspapers, journals, and other publications and offer links with very brief introductions to the "precious nuggets of real content" on the Web. In addition, the site provides a linked list of the publications and columnists used to glean the reports as well as an archive of past features. Certainly few users will find all of the pieces interesting or pertinent, but the quantity and variety of content and the frequency with which it is updated guarantee that there will be something for almost anyone.

1998-01-01

372

Solar index generation and delivery  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Index, or, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar Index, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978. The purpose was to enhance public awareness to solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar Index represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80 gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The Index is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which also has applications to space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems and which supplies economic analyses for such solar energy systems. The Index is generated for approximately 68 geographic locations in the country on a daily basis. The definition of the Index, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time and a plan for the future are described. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the Index, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST program) and future efforts.

Lantz, L.J.

1980-01-01

373

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Exxon Research and Engineering. System design final report, Volume 1. Design description seawater feed (System A)  

SciTech Connect

The design of a solar powered water desalination system is presented. Design data including insolation and climate of the Yanbu, Saudi Arabia site are included. Two solar desalination designs were developed including: (1) a conceptual baseline plant powered by a solar central receiver-heliostat field, and (2) a pilot plant that demonstrates and evaluates the design features of the baseline plant. The desalination process involves a hybrid reverse osmosis/multiple effect distillation process. The performance and economics of the design plants are analyzed. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

374

Materials and optics for solar energy conversion and advanced lighting technology; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 19-21, 1986  

SciTech Connect

The present conference encompasses topics in the fields of optical switching materials, photovoltaic materials, holographic films, and solar optical materials, as well as insolation and illumination testing and measurement technologies, light source hardware and applications, novel optical techniques in illumination and lighting, and the production of lighting effects in the entertainment industry. Attention is given to thermochromic and electrochromic materials for optical switching and energy-efficient windows, tin oxide antireflection coatings, holographic solar concentration and greenhouse lighting, long-lived glass mirrors for space, exposure testing of solar absorbers, optical projection equipment, medium and short arc metal halide lamps, and nonimaging optics for illumination.

Lampert, C.M.; Holly, S.

1987-01-01

375

Mapping daily evapotranspiration at Landsat spatial scales during the BEAREX'08 field campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robust spatial information about environmental water use at field scales and daily to seasonal timesteps will benefit many applications in agriculture and water resource management. This information is particularly critical in arid climates where freshwater resources are limited or expensive, and groundwater supplies are being depleted at unsustainable rates to support irrigated agriculture as well as municipal and industrial uses. Gridded evapotranspiration (ET) information at field scales can be obtained periodically using land-surface temperature-based surface energy balance algorithms applied to moderate resolution satellite data from systems like Landsat, which collects thermal-band imagery every 16 days at a resolution of approximately 100 m. The challenge is in finding methods for interpolating between ET snapshots developed at the time of a clear-sky Landsat overpass to provide complete daily time-series over a growing season. This study examines the efficacy of a simple gap-filling algorithm designed for applications in data-sparse regions, which does not require local ground measurements of weather or rainfall, or estimates of soil texture. The algorithm relies on general conservation of the ratio between actual ET and a reference ET, generated from satellite insolation data and standard meteorological fields from a mesoscale model. The algorithm was tested with ET retrievals from the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) surface energy balance model and associated DisALEXI flux disaggregation technique, which uses Landsat-scale thermal imagery to reduce regional ALEXI maps to a finer spatial resolution. Daily ET at the Landsat scale was compared with lysimeter and eddy covariance flux measurements collected during the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment of 2008 (BEAREX08), conducted in an irrigated agricultural area in the Texas Panhandle under highly advective conditions. The simple gap-filling algorithm performed reasonably at most sites, reproducing observed cumulative ET to within 5-10% over the growing period from emergence to peak biomass in both rainfed and irrigated fields.

Anderson, Martha C.; Kustas, William P.; Alfieri, Joseph G.; Gao, Feng; Hain, Christopher; Prueger, John H.; Evett, Steven; Colaizzi, Paul; Howell, Terry; Chávez, José L.

2012-12-01

376

The Role of Insolation and the Equatorial Pacific in South American Climate during the Holocene: A Paleoclimate Record from Laguna Blanca, Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insolation forcing of tropical climate at precessional timescales appears to be a widespread phenomenon in South America. This could reflect the influence of local insolation changes on rainfall and evaporation, and hence migration of the marine intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and its terrestrial expression, the South American summer monsoon. However, modern interannual climate variability in South America is also closely linked to ocean-atmosphere interactions in the tropical Pacific expressed primarily as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The timing of climate changes in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere tropics is one way to distinguish between these mechanisms. Precessional forcing of Atlantic ITCZ migration would cause changes in the northern and southern hemispheres that are opposite in sign. In contrast, ENSO variability has a similar character in the Andean regions of both hemispheres. Here we develop a new terrestrial paleoclimate record in the northern tropics of South America. Lake level fluctuations from Laguna Blanca, located in the Venezuelan Andes, exhibit arid-humid intervals during the past 10,000 years that occur at the same time as those in the neotropics of both hemispheres. This pattern suggests that millennial-scale climate trends in Andean South America may reflect changes in the mean state and variability of the equatorial Pacific Ocean.

Polissar, P. J.; Abbott, M.; Wolfe, A. P.; Bezada, M.; Vuille, M.

2009-12-01

377

Holocene evolution of summer winds and marine productivity in the tropical Indian Ocean in response to insolation forcing: data-model comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative abundance of Globigerinoides bulloides was used to infer Holocene paleo-productivity changes on the Oman margin and at the southern tip of India. Today, the primary productivity at both sites reaches its maximum during the summer season, when monsoon winds result in local Eckman pumping, which brings more nutrients to the surface. On a millennium time-scale, however, the % G. bulloides records indicate an opposite evolution of paleo-productivity at these sites through the Holocene. The Oman Margin productivity was maximal at ~9 ka (boreal summer insolation maximum) and has decreased since then, suggesting a direct response to insolation forcing. On the contrary, the productivity at the southern tip of India was minimum at ~9 ka, and strengthened towards the present. Paleo-reconstructions of wind patterns, marine productivity and foraminifera assemblages were obtained using the IPSL-CM4 climate model coupled to the PISCES marine biogeochemical model and the FORAMCLIM ecophysiological model. These reconstructions are fully coherent with the marine core data. They confirm that the evolution of particulate export production and foraminifera assemblages at our two sites were directly linked with the strength of the upwelling. Model simulations at 9 ka and 6 ka BP show that the relative evolution between the two sites since the early Holocene can be explained by the weakening but also the southward shift of monsoon winds over the Arabian Sea during boreal summer.

Bassinot, F. C.; Marzin, C.; Braconnot, P.; Marti, O.; Mathien-Blard, E.; Lombard, F.; Bopp, L.

2011-07-01

378

Non-Linear Response to Holocene Insolation Forcing Recorded by High-Resolution Lake Sediment Records Across Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many Icelandic lakes have sedimentation rates in excess of 1 m ka-1 throughout the Holocene. Such high rates offer the potential for decadally resolved (or better) records of environmental change at this sensitive North Atlantic site. Abundant well-defined tephra provide a secure geochronology. The fidelity of the common climate proxies biogenic silica (BSi) and total organic carbon (TOC), was tested by comparing these proxies in three lakes with very different catchment characteristics. Hestvatn (HST, 60 m deep) in southern Iceland receives overflow from a large river originating in the glaciated highlands of central Iceland, whereas the nearby lake Vestra Gislholtsvatn (VGHV, 15 m deep) has a small, low elevation catchment without glaciers. Haukadalsvatn (HAK, 42 m deep), in northwestern Iceland, has a large, high relief catchment. The BSi record from HAK has been shown to reflect April-May temperatures, with BSi highest when spring temperatures are at their maximum. The first- and second-order trends in BSi are similar in all three lakes for most of the Holocene. This supports the contention that BSi reflects primary productivity, and is less influenced by changes in sedimentation rate. In all three lakes, BSi reaches a maximum value shortly after 8 ka, and then declines gradually toward present, reflecting a relatively late Holocene thermal maximum, potentially due to the influence of meltwater from the lingering Laurentide Ice Sheet. A steady reduction in summer insolation determines this first-order trend towards lower BSi through the middle and late Holocene. Large, abrupt departures from the overall decrease in BSi characterize all three records after 8 ka. Following each rapid BSi decrease, BSi usually exhibits a step-function change, re-equilibrating at a lower BSi value. Some of the strongest departures (ca. 6 ka, 4 to 4.5 ka and ca. 3 ka) may be related to Icelandic volcanism, but the lack of a full recovery to pre-existing values after the eruptions suggests a change in state occurred in the catchments of the lakes. TOC reflects the balance between changes in primary productivity within the lakes, which appears to dominate the early and middle Holocene, and the flux of soil carbon to the lake during periods of catchment instability that dominates the record after ~2.5 ka. In HAK TOC the flux of soil carbon to the lake is high when cold summers are accompanied by dry, windy winters. The two southern lakes exhibit a substantial overprinting after settlement, although the northern and southern records start to depart ca. 1.5 ka, well before settlement, possibly reflecting an earlier onset of late Holocene cooling off northwest Iceland than in the south where the Irminger current maintains warmer coastal temperatures.

Geirsdottir, A.; Miller, G. H.; Axford, Y.

2009-12-01

379

SMS-GOES Solar Soft X-Ray Measurements. Part I: SMS-1, SMS-2 and GOES-1 Measurements from July 1, 1974 through December 31, 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar soft X ray data are presented in daily graphs from July 1, 1974, through December 31, 1976, during the decay of solar cycle 20. Outstanding solar X-ray bursts are shown in detailed two-hour graphs.

R. F. Donnelly

1981-01-01

380

Estimating solar radiation on sloping surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important parameter necessary for describing the microclimate or heat budget at the earth's surface is the quantity of incident solar radiation. However, measurements of radiation on other than a horizontal surface are not normally available. This article provides a set of tables listing the ratio of total daily solar energy received on a surface of given aspect and slope

K. J. McAneney; P. F. Noble

1976-01-01

381

Aerosols reduce solar radiation over China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solar radiation measurements taken from 1961 to 2000 at stations throughout China were used to characterize long term trends in radiation levels. It was found that since 1961, there have been significant decreases in China in daily surface solar radiation and monthly sunshine duration.

Al., Che E.; Agu

382

Optimization of the absorption efficiency of an amorphous-silicon thin-film tandem solar cell backed by a metallic surface-relief grating.  

PubMed

The rigorous coupled-wave approach was used to compute the plane-wave absorptance of a thin-film tandem solar cell with a metallic surface-relief grating as its back reflector. The absorptance is a function of the angle of incidence and the polarization state of incident light; the free-space wavelength; and the period, duty cycle, the corrugation height, and the shape of the unit cell of the surface-relief grating. The solar cell was assumed to be made of hydrogenated amorphous-silicon alloys and the back reflector of bulk aluminum. The incidence and the grating planes were taken to be identical. The AM1.5 solar irradiance spectrum was used for computations in the 400-1100 nm wavelength range. Inspection of parametric plots of the solar-spectrum-integrated (SSI) absorption efficiency and numerical optimization using the differential evolution algorithm were employed to determine the optimal surface-relief grating. For direct insolation, the SSI absorption efficiency is maximizable by appropriate choices of the period, the duty cycle, and the corrugation height, regardless of the shape of the corrugation in each unit cell of the grating. A similar conclusion also holds for diffuse insolation, but the maximum efficiency for diffuse insolation is about 20% smaller than for direct insolation. Although a tin-doped indium-oxide layer at the front and an aluminum-doped zinc-oxide layer between the semiconductor material and the backing metallic layer change the optimal depth of the periodic corrugations, the optimal period of the corrugations does not significantly change. PMID:23400058

Solano, Manuel; Faryad, Muhammad; Hall, Anthony S; Mallouk, Thomas E; Monk, Peter B; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

2013-02-10

383

Visual stimuli in daily life.  

PubMed

People of all ages, but especially children and adolescents, are increasingly exposed to visual stimuli. Typical environmental stimuli that can trigger epileptic seizures in susceptible persons are televisions (TVs), computers, videogames (VGs), discothèque lights, venetian blinds, striped walls, rolling stairs (escalators), striped clothing, and sunlight reflected from snow or the sea or interrupted by trees during a ride in a car or train. Less common stimuli are rotating helicopter blades, disfunctioning fluorescent lighting, welding lights, etc. New potentially provocative devices turn up now and then unexpectedly. During the last decades especially, displays have become increasingly dominant in many of our daily-life activities. We therefore focus mainly on the characteristics of artificial light and on current and future developments in video displays and videogames. Because VG playing has been shown also to have positive effects, a rating system might be developed for provocativeness to inform consumers about the content. It is important that patients with epilepsy be informed adequately about their possible visual sensitivity. PMID:14706037

Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée G A; van der Beld, Gerrit; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Groen, Paul

2004-01-01

384

Surface solar radiation from geostationary satellites for renewable energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the launch of the new Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, GOES-R, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will begin a new era of geostationary remote sensing. One of its flagship instruments, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), will expand frequency and coverage of multispectral remote sensing of atmospheric and surface properties. Products derived from ABI measurements will primarily be heritage meteorological products (cloud and aerosol properties, precipitation, winds, etc.), but some will be for interdisciplinary use, such as for the solar energy industry. The planned rapid observations (5-15 minutes) from ABI provide an opportunity to obtain information needed for solar energy applications where frequent observations of solar radiation reaching the surface are essential for planning and load management. In this paper we describe a physical, radiative-transfer-based algorithm for the retrieval of surface solar irradiance that uses atmospheric and surface parameters derived independently from multispectral ABI radiances. The algorithm is designed to provide basic radiation budget products (total solar irradiance at the surface), as well as products specifically needed for the solar energy industry (average, midday and clear-sky insolation, clear-sky days, diffuse and direct normal radiation, etc.). Two alternative algorithms, which require less ABI atmosphere and surface products or no explicit knowledge of the surface albedo, are also explored along with their limitations. The accuracy of surface solar radiation retrievals are assessed using long-term MODIS and GOES satellite data and surface measurements at the Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) network.

Laszlo, Istvan; Liu, Hongqing; Heidinger, Andrew; Goldberg, Mitchell

385

Validation of daily erythemal doses from Ozone Monitoring Instrument with ground-based UV measurement data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dutch-Finnish Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the NASA EOS Aura spacecraft is a nadir viewing spectrometer that measures solar reflected and backscattered light in a selected range of the ultraviolet and visible spectrum. The instrument has a 2600 km wide viewing swath and it is capable of daily, global contiguous mapping. The Finnish Meteorological Institute and NASA Goddard

Aapo Tanskanen; Anders Lindfors; Anu Määttä; Nickolay Krotkov; Jay Herman; Jussi Kaurola; Tapani Koskela; Kaisa Lakkala; Vitali Fioletov; Germar Bernhard; Richard McKenzie; Yutaka Kondo; Michael O'Neill; Harry Slaper; Peter den Outer; Alkiviadis F. Bais; Johanna Tamminen

2007-01-01

386

The features of sustainable Solar Hydroelectric Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the main features of the new power plant that comprises the modified reversible hydroelectric (HE) power plant operating together with the photovoltaic (PV) power plant. Such Solar Hydroelectric Power Plant (SHE) uses solar energy as the only input for production of solar and hydro energy. Thereat, water reservoir serves for daily and seasonal energy storage, thus basically

Zvonimir Glasnovic; Jure Margeta

2009-01-01

387

Short communication Estimating solar radiation on slopes of arbitrary aspect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation is a major environmental factor, controlling for example, plant growth, inactivation of fecal microbial contaminants, and soil property evolution. Modeling the magnitude and complexity of changes in solar radiation under cloudy conditions is a challenge. In this paper, we present a simple approach for estimating daily global solar radiation on any sloping surface with arbitrary aspect given global

Y. Q. Tian; R. J. Davies-Colley; P. Gong; B. W. Thorrold

388

Estimating solar radiation on slopes of arbitrary aspect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation is a major environmental factor, controlling for example, plant growth, inactivation of fecal microbial contaminants, and soil property evolution. Modeling the magnitude and complexity of changes in solar radiation under cloudy conditions is a challenge. In this paper, we present a simple approach for estimating daily global solar radiation on any sloping surface with arbitrary aspect given global

Y. Q. Tian; R. J. Davies-Colley; P. Gong; B. W. Thorrold

2001-01-01

389

Three computer codes to read, plot, and tabulate operational test-site recorded solar data. [TAPFIL, CHPLOT, and WRTCNL codes  

SciTech Connect

A computer program, TAPFIL, has been developed by MSFC to read data from an IBM 360 tape for use on the PDP 11/70. The information (insolation, flowrates, temperatures, etc.) from 48 operational solar heating and cooling test sites is stored on the tapes. Two other programs, CHPLOT and WRTCNL, have been developed to plot and tabulate the data. These data will be used in the evaluation of collector efficiency and solar system performance. This report describes the methodology of the programs, their inputs, and their outputs.

Stewart, S.D.; Sampson, R.J. Jr.; Stonemetz, R.E.; Rouse, S.L.

1980-07-01

390

Cokriging estimation of daily suspended sediment loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with daily river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated daily loads were compared with the daily measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated daily sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured daily values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating daily sediment loads with CK when daily discharge data is available. The estimated daily loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the daily S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge.

Li, Zhongwei; Zhang, You-Kuan; Schilling, Keith; Skopec, Mary

2006-08-01

391

Cokriging estimation of daily suspended sediment loads  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with daily river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated daily loads were compared with the daily measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated daily sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured daily values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating daily sediment loads with CK when daily discharge data is available. The estimated daily loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the daily S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Li, Z.; Zhang, Y. -K.; Schilling, K.; Skopec, M.

2006-01-01

392

An Optimum Slope Angle for Solar Collector Systems in Kerman Using a New Model for Diffuse Solar Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present article, the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface is calculated first, using 12 new hybrid models. A standard isotropic model is then used to estimate the global solar radiation on inclined surfaces. Finally, the monthly, seasonal, and yearly optimum slope angles to gain the maximum global solar radiation are suggested. The monthly optimum

S. Jafari; E. Jahanshahi Javaran

2012-01-01

393

Nimbus-7 ERB Solar Analysis Tape (ESAT) User's Guide.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven years and five months of Nimbus-7 ERB solar data are available on a single ERB Solar Analysis Tape (ESAT). The period covered is November 16, 1978 through March 31, 1986. The solar data have been carefully calibrated and screened. Orbital and daily mean values are given for the total solar irradiance plus other spectral intervals. The ESAT User's Guide includes detailed information on the solar data calibration, screening procedures, updated solar data plots, and applications to solar variability. Details of the tape format, including source code to access ESAT, are included.

Major, E. R.; Hickey, J. R.; Kyle, H. L.; Alton, B. M.; Vallette, B. J.

394

Validation of the FLAGSOL parabolic trough solar power plant performance model  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of a validation of the FLAGSOL parabolic trough solar power plant performance model. The validation was accomplished by simulating an operating solar electric generating system (SEGS) parabolic trough solar thermal power plant and comparing the model output results with actual plant operating data. This comparison includes instantaneous, daily, and annual total solar thermal electric output, gross solar electric generation, and solar mode parasitic electric consumption. The results indicate that the FLAGSOL model adequately predicts the gross solar electric output of an operating plant, both on a daily and an annual basis.

Price, H.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Svoboda, P. [Flachglas-Solartechnik GmbH, Koeln (Germany); Kearney, D. [Kearney and Associates, Del Mar, CA (United States)

1994-10-01

395

The sun’s total and spectral irradiance for solar energy applications and solar radiation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the most recent composite time series of total solar irradiance spaceborne measurements, a solar constant value of 1366.1 Wm?2 is confirmed, and simple quadratic expressions are proposed to predict its daily value from the Zurich sunspot number, the MgII index, or the 10.7 cm radio flux index. Whenever these three indices are available on a daily basis (since 1978),

Christian A. Gueymard

2004-01-01

396

Comparison of DOE-2 and TRNSYS solar-heating-system simulation  

SciTech Connect

The analysis and comparison of the output of the solar energy section of DOE-2 called Component Based Simulator (CBS) and TRNSYS are discussed. The adequacy and sensitivity of CBS when various active solar energy collectors and systems were interfaced with a standard space heating system were investigated. The analysis included both single- and double-glazed collectors with selectively and nonselectively coated absorbing surfaces located in four different environments. The results of the study show the agreement between the two programs to be remarkably similar. Graphs are presented to illustrate the minor differences in annual average collector efficiency and annual average part solar as well as the thermal load and insolation levels. In addition, difficulties encountered by the researchers when performing this study and when attempting to model the collector systems with each program's components are discussed and recommendations offered to facilitate the solar simulation process for future CBS users.

Eden, A.; Morgan, M.

1980-12-01

397

Investigation of X-ray and optical solar flare activities during solar cycles 22 and 23  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily X-ray flare indices (XFI) for the interval from January 1986 till June 2002 were calculated. The XFI behaviour during solar cycles 22 and 23 was studied. We compare the daily XFI with the daily optical flare indices (OFI) and with the International Relative Sunspot Numbers. The energy emitted by X-ray flares during 77 months of solar cycle 22 is shown to be about five times larger than the analogous value for the present solar cycle. We revealed statistically significant maxima in power spectra of the XFI and OFI. They correspond to periods of 25.5, 36.5, 73, 116, and 150d which presumably are appropriate to characteristic frequencies of the solar flare activity. A hypothesis on an possible effect of Mercury's variable electric charge on the origin of solar flares is proposed and corresponding estimates were made.

Akimov, L. A.; Belkina, I. L.; Bushueva, T. P.

2003-02-01

398

Advanced conceptual design for solar repowering at Pioneer Mill Co. , Ltd. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An advanced conceptual design for a solar repowering facility has been prepared for a Hawaii sugar factory. A baseline conceptual design is summarized as a starting point and the tradeoff studies that were performed are described. The results of a review of the available relevant data covering both solar component development and site-specific parameters, and the tradeoff studies conducted during the refinement of the baseline conceptual design into the advanced conceptual design are described. The systems of the advanced conceptual design of the solar repowering facility are described in detail, including the collector system, the receiver system, the thermal transport system, the master control system, and the nonsolar energy system. The description of each system includes details of the major components and their locations, functional requirements, design and operating characteristics, performance estimates, and cost estimates. Economic analyses are presented to measure the improvement of the advanced design over the baseline and to identify possible conditions and assumptions under which this solar repowering project might be economically viable. A development plan is presented to provide a smooth transition from the advanced conceptual design phase of the project to commercial operation. Appended are the system specification, site insolation measurement program, site insolation model, performance algorithms for major subsystems and components for SOLTES, a system simulation code, performance simulation results, and receiver flux maps. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-05-01

399

Analysis of solar-powered absorption cycle heat pumps with internal/external energy storages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

System diagrams and performance equations are presented for solar-powered water-lithium bromide absorption cycle heat pump systems utilizing two different modes of energy storage. In the ETS system the collector is coupled to the absorption cycle generator through a thermal energy storage external to the other elements of the system. In the ILES system the collector is coupled directly to the absorption cycle generator with latent energy storage internal to the cycle itself. Discrete-time computer models of the systems are constructed to enable operational and parameter studies to be carried out. Generalized weather functions are used to represent insolation and building load demands to the systems. Operating strategies to minimize auxiliary energy requirements and to maximize the utilization of solar energy are described for each system. Parameter studies were carried out in terms of system cost and solar energy supply fraction versus storage size and insolation to load ratio (collector area). Comparisons between the ETS and ILES systems show that the greater capital cost of the ILES system is offset by higher solar energy utilization.

Harris, A. W.; Shen, C. N.

400

Studies of Earth Space Environment and Sudden Disappearances of Solar Prominences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the support from AFOSR's Minority University Program, we worked on research of Sun-Earth space environment, conducted daily solar observation programs, improved solar instruments, and established and maintained a space science education program. We a...

T. Huang

2005-01-01

401

Solar Cookers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the use of solar cookers in the science classroom. Includes instructions for construction of a solar cooker, an explanation of how solar cookers work, and a number of suggested activities. (DS)|

King, Richard C.

1981-01-01

402

Solar energy  

SciTech Connect

This text on the thermal conversion of solar energy begins with fundamental principles, which are then developed and applied to a variety of solar conversion systems. In addition to system components-such as flat plate, salt gradient, and concentrating collectors, and thermal storage units-the author discusses active and passive space heating, hot water, air conditioning, dehumidification, air drying, distillation, and swimming pool heating systems. The f-chart system performance estimation techniques active systems, and load-collector-ratio technique for passive systems are presented. Contents: Introduction. Solar kinematics. Availability of Solar Energy. Solar Concentrators. Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer in Solar Systems. Flat Plate Collectors. Thermal Storage of Solar Energy. Solar Space and Hot water Heating Systems. Economics of Solar Energy Systems. Solar Air Conditioning, Refrigeration and Dehumidification. Additional Solar Energy Applications and Collectors. Passive Solar Heating. Appendices.

Anderson, E.E.

1983-01-01

403

Irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential size of the onfarm-pumped irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems in seven high-insolation states is estimated. The study is restricted to the displacement of three specific fuels: gasoline, diesel and natural gas. The model was developed to estimate the optimal number of parabolic dish modules per farm based on the minimum cost mix of conventional and solar thermal energy required to meet irrigation needs. The study concludes that the potential market size for onfarm-pumped irrigation applications ranges from 101,000 modules when a 14 percent real discount rate is assumed to 220,000 modules when the real discount rate drops to 8 percent. Arizona, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico and Texas account for 98 percent of the total demand for this application, with the natural gas replacement market accounting for the largest segment (71 percent) of the total market.

Habib-Agahi, H.; Jones, S. C.

1981-09-01

404

Texasgulf solar cogeneration program. Mid-term topical report  

SciTech Connect

The status of technical activities of the Texasgulf Solar Cogeneration Program at the Comanche Creek Sulfur Mine is described. The program efforts reported focus on preparation of a system specification, selection of a site-specific configuration, conceptual design, and facility performance. Trade-off studies performed to select the site-specific cogeneration facility configuration that would be the basis for the conceptual design efforts are described. Study areas included solar system size, thermal energy storage, and field piping. The conceptual design status is described for the various subsystems of the Comanche Creek cogeneration facility. The subsystems include the collector, receiver, master control, fossil energy, energy storage, superheat boiler, electric power generation, and process heat subsystems. Computer models for insolation and performance are also briefly discussed. Appended is the system specification. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-02-01

405

Temperature considerations in solar arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature is an important consideration in the operation of photovoltaic (PV) arrays. In particular, daily and seasonal temperature variations are a limitation on the application of solar power to homes. At lower temperatures, PV systems produce more power. For higher temperatures, optimum operation requires modification of electrical load and removal of excess heat. Several technologies and approaches are available. To

Min-Jung Wu; Erik J. Timpson; Steve E. Watkins

2004-01-01

406

Solar radiation on tilted south oriented surfaces: validation of transfer-models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three transfer-models in use for estimating solar radiation on tilted surfaces are tested. A 12year series of hourly global, diffuse, and reflected solar irradiation measured with horizontal pyranometers as well as hourly global solar irradiation measured with tilted south oriented pyranometers is available. One model uses daily irradiation, the other two use hourly irradiation. The models converting hourly solar irradiation

H. D. Behr

1997-01-01

407

Simulation of the last glacial cycle by a coupled, sectorially averaged climate-ice sheet model. II. Response to insolation and CO2 variations  

SciTech Connect

The 2D climate model of Gallee et al. (1991) for the Northern Hemisphere is asynchronously coupled to an ice-sheet model, and the coupled model (named the paleoclimate model, PCM) is used to assess the effects of certain processes on producing plausible ice age simulations using astronomical insolation data and CO[sub 2] data from the Vostok ice core. In the PCM, the net mass balance of each ice sheet is computed in the climate model; it is given explicitly by the difference between the calculated local snow precipitation and the local ablation derived from the balance of the heat fluxes taken at the mean altitude of the ice sheet in question. Results of sensitivity experiments showed that ablation is more important to the ice sheet response than the variations in snow precipitation. 97 refs.

Gallee, H.; Van Ypersele, J.P.; Fichefet, T.; Marsiat, I.; Tricot, C.; Berger, A. (Louvain, Univ. Catholique, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium))

1992-10-01

408

Holocene evolution of summer winds and marine productivity in the tropical Indian Ocean in response to insolation forcing: data-model comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative abundance of Globigerinoides bulloides was used to infer Holocene paleo-productivity changes at ODP Site 723 (19°03' N, 57°37' E; Oman Margin) and core MD77-191 (07°30' N, 76°43' E; Southern tip of India). Today, the primary productivity at both sites peaks during the summer season, when monsoon winds result in local Eckman pumping, which brings more nutrients to the surface. On a millennium time-scale, however, the % G.~bulloides records indicate an opposite evolution of paleo-productivity at these sites through the Holocene. The Oman Margin productivity was maximal at ~9 ka (boreal summer insolation maximum) and decreased since then, suggesting a direct response to insolation forcing. On the opposite, the productivity at the southern tip of India was minimum at ~9 ka, and strengthened towards the present. Paleo-reconstructions of wind patterns, marine productivity and foraminifera assemblages were obtained using the IPSL-CM4 climate model coupled to the PISCES marine biogeochemical model and the FORAMCLIM ecophysiological model. These reconstructions are fully coherent with the marine core data. They confirm that the evolution of particulate export production and foraminifera assemblages at our two sites have been directly linked with the strength of the upwelling. Model simulations at 9 ka and 6 ka BP show that the relative evolution between the two sites since the early Holocene can be explained by the weakening but also the southward shift of monsoon winds over the Arabian sea during boreal summer.

Bassinot, F. C.; Marzin, C.; Braconnot, P.; Marti, O.; Mathien-Blard, E.; Lombard, F.; Bopp, L.

2011-02-01

409

Weather, season, and daily stroke admissions in Hong Kong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies examining daily temperature and stroke incidence have given conflicting results. We undertook this retrospective study of all stroke admissions in those aged 35 years old and above to Hong Kong public hospitals from 1999 through 2006 in order to better understand the effects of meteorological conditions on stroke risk in a subtropical setting. We used Poisson Generalized Additive Models with daily hemorrhagic (HS) and ischemic stroke (IS) counts separately as outcomes, and daily mean temperature, humidity, solar radiation, rainfall, air pressure, pollutants, flu consultation rates, day of week, holidays, time trend and seasonality as predictors. Lagged effects of temperature, humidity and pollutants were also considered. A total of 23,457 HS and 107,505 IS admissions were analyzed. Mean daily temperature had a strong, consistent, negative linear association with HS admissions over the range (8.2-31.8°C) observed. A 1°C lower average temperature over the same day and previous 4 days (lags 0-4) being associated with a 2.7% (95% CI: 2.0-3.4%, P < .0.0001) higher admission rate after controlling for other variables. This association was stronger among older subjects and females. Higher lag 0-4 average change in air pressure from previous day was modestly associated with higher HS risk. The association between IS and temperature was weaker and apparent only below 22°C, with a 1°C lower average temperature (lags 0-13) below this threshold being associated with a 1.6% (95% CI:1.0-2.2%, P < 0.0001) higher IS admission rate. Pollutant levels were not associated with HS or IS. Future studies should examine HS and IS risk separately.

Goggins, William B.; Woo, Jean; Ho, Suzanne; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Chau, P. H.

2012-09-01

410

Evaluation of solar thermal storage for base load electricity generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to stabilize solar electric power production during the day and prolong the daily operating cycle for several hours in the nighttime, solar thermal power plants have the options of using either or both solar thermal storage and fossil fuel hybridization. The share of solar energy in the annual electricity production capacity of hybrid solar-fossil power plants without energy storage is only about 20%. As it follows from the computer simulations performed for base load electricity demand, a solar annual capacity as high as 70% can be attained by use of a reasonably large thermal storage capacity of 22 full load operating hours. In this study, the overall power system performance is analyzed with emphasis on energy storage characteristics promoting a high level of sustainability for solar termal electricity production. The basic system parameters, including thermal storage capacity, solar collector size, and annual average daily discharge time, are presented and discussed.

Adinberg, R.

2012-10-01

411

Stochastic Modelling of Daily Rainfall sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall series of different climatic regions were analysed with the aim of generating daily rainfall sequences. A survey of the data is given in I, 1. When analysing daily rainfall sequences one must be aware of the following points:a. Seasonality. Because of seasonal variation of features of the rainfall process the analysis is done for each month or season separately

T. A. Buishand

1977-01-01

412

How the Daily Press Looks at Hunger.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizing both content analysis of 139 editorials appearing in 19 United States daily newspapers and the results of a survey of 146 newspaper editors, a study asked three questions: (1) To what extent is hunger covered in the news and editorial columns of U.S. daily newspapers? (2) How is hunger defined as a problem in terms of its causes in those…

Robinson, Sondra G.

413

Downscaling daily extreme temperatures with genetic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A context-free genetic programming (GP) method is presented that simulated local scale daily extreme (maximum and minimum) temperatures based on large scale atmospheric variables. The method evolves simple and optimal models for downscaling daily temperature at a station. The advantage of the context-free GP method is that both the variables and constants of the candidate models are optimized and consequently

Paulin Coulibaly

2004-01-01

414

Techniques for Daily Living: Curriculum Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are specific guides concerning techniques for daily living which were developed by the child care staff at the Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School. The guides are designed for cottage parents of the children, who may have both visual and other handicaps, and show what daily living skills are necessary and appropriate for the…

Wooldridge, Lillian; And Others

415

How the Daily Press Looks at Hunger.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Utilizing both content analysis of 139 editorials appearing in 19 United States daily newspapers and the results of a survey of 146 newspaper editors, a study asked three questions: (1) To what extent is hunger covered in the news and editorial columns of U.S. daily newspapers? (2) How is hunger defined as a problem in terms of its causes in…

Robinson, Sondra G.

416

Watching The Daily Show in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global distribution of a popular American television programme – Jon Stewart's Daily Show – offers a rare opportunity to examine transnational contingencies of meaning in political satire. Drawing on focus group discussions in Kenya, this analysis shows how some East Africans appropriated and reinterpreted – indeed unexpectedly subverted – The Daily Show's political content, deriving from it insights that Stewart

Angelique Haugerud; Dillon Mahoney; Meghan Ference

2012-01-01

417

Daily Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows…

Einolf, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

418

Neurons and networks in daily rhythms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological pacemakers dictate our daily schedules in physiology and behaviour. The molecules, cells and networks that underlie these circadian rhythms can now be monitored using long-term cellular imaging and electrophysiological tools, and initial studies have already suggested a theme — circadian clocks may be crucial for widespread changes in brain activity and plasticity. These daily changes can modify the amount

Erik D. Herzog

2007-01-01

419

Daily Oral Language: Is It Effective?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the Daily Oral Language (DOL) program aimed at helping students learn mechanics of writing through daily editing exercises. This nine-month study sought to determine if DOL improved editing skills and actual writing skills of seventy fourth-grade students. While the results of this study did not statistically demonstrate the…

Whittingham, Jeff L.

2007-01-01

420

Solar Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational brief provides an overview of solar activity, including a description of Earth's magnetosphere and of various solar phenomena such as the solar wind, Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), sunspots, solar flares, and others. A list of links to additional material is also provided.

421

Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

Eaton, William W.

422

Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

Eaton, William W.

423

Calculation of the Performance of Solar Cells With Spectral Down Shifters Using Realistic Outdoor Solar Spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral down converters and shifters have been proposed as a good means to enhance the efficiency of underlying solar cells. In this paper, we focus on the simulation of the outdoor performance of solar cells with spectral down shifters, i.e., multicrystalline silicon solar cells with semiconductor nanocrystals as wavelength-shifting material. Daily and\\u000aannual performance of these devices can be simulated

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark

2007-01-01

424

A randomised, multinational study with sequential therapy comparing ciprofloxacin twice daily and ofloxacin once daily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In a multinational, open, randomised, controlled clinical study, 474 hospitalised patients with moderate or severe infections were treated with sequential regimens of ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin. Ofloxacin 400 mg once daily or ciprofloxacin 200 mg twice daily were given intravenously for at least 3 days followed by oral treatment with ofloxacin 400 mg once daily or ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice

P. Bassaris; E. Akalin; Semra Calangu; Ruth Kitzes; J. Kosmidis; M. Milicevic; H. Noack; E. Salewski; R. Raz; M. Sukalo; Lucka Tos; A. Tourkantonis

1995-01-01

425

Deriving Daily Purpose through Daily Events and Role Fulfillment among Asian American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Establishing life purpose is a key developmental task; however, how it is linked to adolescents' everyday family, school, extracurricular, and leisure experiences remains unclear. Using daily diary data from 180 Asian American ninth and tenth graders (50% ninth; 58% female; 25% first generation), daily purpose was positively related to daily

Kiang, Lisa

2012-01-01

426

Adolescent Daily and General Maladjustment: Is There Reactivity to Daily Repeated Measures Methodologies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined whether repeated exposure to daily surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' daily and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 daily reports tapping experienced or…

Nishina, Adrienne

2012-01-01

427

Solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

Rapp, D.

428

Characterization of vegetation properties: Canopy modeling of pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pine woodlands; Final report. Modeling topographic influences on solar radiation: A manual for the SOLARFLUX model  

SciTech Connect

This report is comprised of two studies. The first study focuses on plant canopies in pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine woodland, and waste sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory which involved five basic areas of research: (1) application of hemispherical photography and other gap fraction techniques to study solar radiation regimes and canopy architecture, coupled with application of time-domain reflectometry to study soil moisture; (2) detailed characterization of canopy architecture using stand mapping and allometry; (3) development of an integrated geographical information system (GIS) database for relating canopy architecture with ecological, hydrological, and system modeling approaches; (4) development of geometric models that simulate complex sky obstruction, incoming solar radiation for complex topographic surfaces, and the coupling of incoming solar radiation with energy and water balance, with simulations of incoming solar radiation for selected native vegetation and experimental waste cover design sites; and (5) evaluation of the strengths and limitations of the various field sampling techniques. The second study describes an approach to develop software that takes advantage of new generation computers to model insolation on complex topographic surfaces. SOLARFLUX is a GIS-based (ARC/INFO, GRID) computer program that models incoming solar radiation based on surface orientation (slope and aspect), solar angle (azimuth and zenith) as it shifts over time, shadows caused by topographic features, and atmospheric conditions. This manual serves as the comprehensive guide to SOLARFLUX. Included are discussions on modelling insolation on complex surfaces, the theoretical approach, program setup and operation, and a set of applications illustrating characteristics of topographic insolation modelling.

Rich, P.M.; Hetrick, W.A.; Saving, S.C.

1994-12-31

429

Solar energy almanac  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the topics covered in this book are: the passive solar house; the history of passive solar design; a career in solar energy; solar tax credits; solar energy's growth and potential; the underground house; the solar greenhouse; finding a solar designer or builder; solar access; solar use in the cities; storing solar heat; and solar communities. Also included are: tables

McPhillips

1983-01-01

430

Pharmacokinetics and antibacterial activity of daily gentamicin.  

PubMed Central

Twenty full term neonates with suspected bacterial infection were randomly assigned to a once daily or a twice daily dosage regimen with gentamicin (4 mg/kg/day). Concomitantly all patients were treated with ampicillin (200 mg/kg/day). The gentamicin concentration time curves were analysed by an open two compartment model under steady state conditions on day 4 of treatment. The mean theoretical maximum serum concentration in the group taking gentamicin once daily (10.9 micrograms/ml) was significantly higher than in the group taking it twice daily (7.4 micrograms/ml). Potentially toxic serum concentrations were never reached. Mean trough concentrations were comparable in both groups (once daily 0.8 micrograms/ml; twice daily 1.0 micrograms/ml). Urinary alanine aminopeptidase excretion increased during and even two days after end of treatment in both groups without any significant differences. The results of the dynamic in vitro model revealed that both dosage schedules showed comparable bactericidal effects on pathogens inhibited by low concentrations of gentamicin like Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. However the once daily regimen was significantly superior in isolates with high minimal inhibitory concentrations.

Skopnik, H; Wallraf, R; Nies, B; Troster, K; Heimann, G

1992-01-01

431

The Holocene Asian Monsoon: Links to Solar Changes and North Atlantic Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 5-year-resolution absolute-dated oxygen isotope record from Dongge Cave, southern China, provides a continuous history of the Asian monsoon over the past 9000 years. Although the record broadly follows summer insolation, it is punctuated by eight weak monsoon events lasting ~1 to 5 centuries. One correlates with the ``8200-year'' event, another with the collapse of the Chinese Neolithic culture, and most with North Atlantic ice-rafting events. Cross-correlation of the decadal- to centennial-scale monsoon record with the atmospheric carbon-14 record shows that some, but not all, of the monsoon variability at these frequencies results from changes in solar output.

Wang, Yongjin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; He, Yaoqi; Kong, Xinggong; An, Zhisheng; Wu, Jiangying; Kelly, Megan J.; Dykoski, Carolyn A.; Li, Xiangdong

2005-05-01

432

Solar multiple optimization for a solar-only thermal power plant, using oil as heat transfer fluid in the parabolic trough collectors  

SciTech Connect

Usual size of parabolic trough solar thermal plants being built at present is approximately 50 MW{sub e}. Most of these plants do not have a thermal storage system for maintaining the power block performance at nominal conditions during long non-insolation periods. Because of that, a proper solar field size, with respect to the electric nominal power, is a fundamental choice. A too large field will be partially useless under high solar irradiance values whereas a small field will mainly make the power block to work at part-load conditions. This paper presents an economic optimization of the solar multiple for a solar-only parabolic trough plant, using neither hybridization nor thermal storage. Five parabolic trough plants have been considered, with the same parameters in the power block but different solar field sizes. Thermal performance for each solar power plant has been featured, both at nominal and part-load conditions. This characterization has been applied to perform a simulation in order to calculate the annual electricity produced by each of these plants. Once annual electric energy generation is known, levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for each plant is calculated, yielding a minimum LCOE value for a certain solar multiple value within the range considered. (author)

Montes, M.J. [E.T.S.I.Industriales - U.N.E.D., C/Juan del Rosal, 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Abanades, A.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Valdes, M. [E.T.S.I.Industriales - U.P.M., C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

2009-12-15

433

Nimbus-7 ERB Solar Analysis Tape (ESAT) user's guide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven years and five months of Nimbus-7 Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) solar data are available on a single ERB Solar Analysis Tape (ESAT). The period covered is November 16, 1978 through March 31, 1986. The Nimbus-7 satellite performs approximately 14 orbits per day and the ERB solar telescope observes the sun once per orbit as the satellite crosses the southern terminator. The solar data were carefully calibrated and screened. Orbital and daily mean values are given for the total solar irradiance plus other spectral intervals (10 solar channels in all). In addition, selected solar activity indicators are included on the ESAT. The ESAT User's Guide is an update of the previous ESAT User's Guide (NASA TM 86143) and includes more detailed information on the solar data calibration, screening procedures, updated solar data plots, and applications to solar variability. Details of the tape format, including source code to access ESAT, are included.

Major, Eugene; Hickey, John R.; Kyle, H. Lee; Alton, Bradley M.; Vallette, Brenda J.

1988-11-01

434

[Daily life activities following cerebrovascular infarct].  

PubMed

Cerebro-vascular disease is the first cause of handicap in France. Disabilities in daily life activities are due to motor, visual and cognitive impairments following a stroke. Difficulties arise while grooming, getting dressed, eating, moving around ... the WHO presents with a new classification of functioning, that has been followed by a recent law in France. The aim is to place the handicapped citizen in daily life and not just to list his/her deficiencies. Rehabilitation after stroke has to establish functional objectives early so as to include daily life goals in re-education. PMID:17002070

Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Peskine, Anne

2006-09-15

435

Daily Marijuana Users. The NSDUH Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Marijuana use impairs physical and mental health, cognitive abilities, career status, and social life. Heavy marijuana use critically lowers learning skills, and daily use may result in overall reduced intellectual functioning. The National Survey on Drug...

2004-01-01

436

Sediment Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) Glossary  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Water Quality:  The biological, chemical, and physical conditions of a waterbody. It is a measure of a waterbody's ability to support beneficial uses.   From Sediment Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing water quality

2012-12-10

437

Daily Knowledge 'Vitamin': A Development Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In October 2000, a two-week pilot study was conducted to test an innovative methodology to keep Department of Defense linguists' language skills current. The program provided brief, email-delivered, daily language lessons, or 'vitamins,' while also encour...

S. B. Supinski

2003-01-01

438

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network, October 1981  

SciTech Connect

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, night-time, maximum and minimum ambient temperature and the inlet-water temperature for the site. All of the passive and some of the active sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-10-01

439

August 1981 environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

SciTech Connect

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is tabulated for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum, and inlet-water temperature for the site. All of the passive and some active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information on wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain the data is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-08-01

440

Experimenting with concentrated sunlight using the DLR solar furnace  

SciTech Connect

The high flux solar furnace that is operated by the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) at Cologne was inaugurated in June 1994 and we are now able to look back onto one year of successful operation. The solar furnace project was founded by the government of the State Northrhine Westfalia within the Study Group AG Solar. The optical design is a two-stage off-axis configuration which uses a flat 52 m{sup 2} heliostat and a concentrator composed of 147 spherical mirror facets. The heliostat redirects the solar light onto the concentrator which focuses the beam out of the optical axis of the system into the laboratory building. At high insolation levels (>800W/m{sup 2}) it is possible to collect a total power of 20 kW with peak flux densities of 4 MW/m{sup 2}. Sixteen different experiment campaigns were carried out during this first year of operation. The main research fields for these experiments were material science, component development and solar chemistry. The furnace also has its own research program leading to develop sophisticated measurement techniques like remote infrared temperature sensing and flux mapping. Another future goal to be realized within the next five years is the improvement of the performance of the furnace itself. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Neumann, A.; Groer, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt Linder Hoehe, Koeln (Germany)

1996-10-01

441

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the end of this project, you will be able to explain the components of the Solar System and know the order of the planets starting from the Sun. Objective Question: What is the Solar System? First, listen and read about the Solar System 1. How many planets make up our Solar System? 2. What is at the center of the Solar System? Next,listen and read about the Planets. 1. Can you name all of the planets? Finally, listen and watch The Solar System Movie. 1. Can you list the ...

Ms.west

2009-07-07

442

Intent to quit among daily and non-daily college student smokers.  

PubMed

Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking category as it relates to readiness to quit among current smokers. Of the 4438 students at six Southeast colleges who completed an online survey, 69.7% (n = 3094) were non-smokers, 6.6% (n = 293) were quitters, 7.1% (n = 317) were native non-daily smokers, 6.4% (n = 283) were converted non-daily smokers and 10.2% (n = 451) were daily smokers. There were differences in sociodemographics, substance use (alcohol, marijuana, other tobacco products) in the past 30 days and psychosocial factors among these subgroups of students (P < 0.001). Among current smokers, there were differences in cigarettes smoked per day, recent quit attempts, self-identification as a smoker, self-efficacy and motivation to quit (P < 0.001). After controlling for important factors, converted non-daily smokers were more likely to be ready to quit in the next month versus native non-daily smokers (OR = 2.15, CI 1.32-3.49, P = 0.002). Understanding differences among young adults with different smoking patterns and histories is critical in developing interventions targeting psychosocial factors impacting cessation among this population. PMID:23197630

Pinsker, E A; Berg, C J; Nehl, E J; Prokhorov, A V; Buchanan, T S; Ahluwalia, J S

2012-11-28

443

Solar-energy-system performance evaluation, Cathedral Square, Burlington, Vermont, July-December 1981  

SciTech Connect

The Cathedral Square solar site is a 10-story multiunit apartment building in Vermont. Its active solar energy system is designed to supply 51% of the hot water load, and consists of 1798 square feet of flat plate collectors, 2699-gallon water tank in an enclosed mechanical room on the roof, and two auxiliary natural gas boilers to supply hot water to immersed heat exchanger in an auxiliary storage tank. The measured solar fraction was only 28%, not 51%, which, it is concluded, is an unreasonable expectation. Other performance data include the solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance. Monthly performance data are given for the solar system overall, and for the collector, storage, and hot water subsystems. Also included are insolation data, typical storage fluid temperatures, domestic hot water consumption, and solar heat exchangers inlet/outlet temperatures, and typical domestic hot water subsystem temperatures. In addition, the system operating sequence and solar energy utilization are given. Appended are a system description, performance evaluation techniques, long-term weather data. (LEW)

Welch, K.M.

1981-01-01

444

Assessing the performance of global solar radiation empirical formulations in Kampala, Uganda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation incident on the Earth’s surface is a determining factor of climate on Earth, hence having a proper solar radiation database is crucial in understanding climate processes in the Earth’s atmosphere. Solar radiation data may be used in the development of insolation maps, analysis of crop growth and in the simulation of solar systems. Unfortunately, measured solar radiation data may not be available in locations where it is most needed. An alternative to obtaining observed data is to estimate it using an appropriate solar radiation model. The purpose of this study is to assess the performance of thirteen global solar radiation empirical formulations, in Kampala, Uganda, located in an African Equatorial region. The best performing formulations were determined using the ranking method. The mean bias error, root mean square error and t-statistic value were calculated and utilized in the ranking process. Results have shown that the formulation: {bar H}/{bar H }_0 = a + b({bar S}/{bar S} _0 ) + c( {bar S } /{bar S} _0)^2 is ranked the highest and therefore is the recommended empirical equation for the estimation of the monthly mean global solar irradiation in Kampala, Uganda and in other African Equatorial locations with similar climate and terrain.

Mubiru, J.; Banda, E. J. K. B.; D'Ujanga, F.; Senyonga, T.

2007-01-01

445

A relation between daily variation of Be-7 concentration in atmosphere and sunspot numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily concentration of Be-7 in air at a ground level has been observing from using high-volume air sampler .for one year at 2000 when the solar activity will be maximum. Although the anti-correlation between the production of cosmogenic nuclides and sunspots numbers in the 11-yaer solar cycle is evident, main factor of daily variation of Be-7 concentration in atmosphere is not clear. The power spectral analysis for 365 days data shows that the periodicity 18 days and 28 days for Be-7, and 21 days and 26 days for sunspots number, respectively. Since the periodicity of 26 days for sunspots indicates the rotation of the sun, the periodicity of 28 days for Be-7 implies a relationship between the concentration of Be-7 in atmosphere and the sunspots number. We will describe the relationship between Be-7 concentration and sunspots number considering the weather conditions in the ground in detail.

Sakurai, H.; Shouji, Y.; Maeda, T.; Sekiguchi, H.; Gunji, S.; Tokanai, F.

2001-08-01

446

Surface Solar Irradiance in the Central Pacific during Tropic Heat: Comparisons between in Situ Measurements and Satellite Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first results concerning solar radiation at the ocean surface during the Tropic Heat experiment. Using calibrated GOES visible brightness measurements, a simple radiative transfer model calculates hourly and daily surface solar irradiance values. To validate the satellite-estimated solar irradiance, surface solar irradiance measurements are taken from three sources; the Tropic Heat buoy 3, the R\\/V Weeama, and

Catherine Gautier

1988-01-01

447

A comparison of daily CT localization to a daily ultrasound-based system in prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Daily CT localization has been demonstrated to be a precise method of correcting radiation field placement by reducing setup and organ motion variations to facilitate dose escalation in prostate carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of daily ultrasound-guided localization utilizing daily CT as a standard. The relatively simple computer-assisted ultrasound-based system is

Joseph Lattanzi; Shawn McNeeley; Wayne Pinover; Eric Horwitz; Indra Das; Timothy E Schultheiss; Gerald E Hanks

1999-01-01

448

Solar Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a “Solar distillation” is a technology for producing potable water from brackish and underground water of low-quality at low\\u000a cost. It can reduce water-scarcity problems together with other water purification technologies. Solar distillation is analogous\\u000a to natural hydrological cycle. It uses an apparatus called a solar still in which water is evaporated using solar energy,\\u000a a form of renewable energy, and

Rahul Dev; Gopal Nath Tiwari

449

Temporal disaggregation of daily meteorological grid data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For operational flood forecasting, the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE) applies the conceptual HBV rainfall-runoff model for 117 catchments. The hydrological models are calibrated and run using an extensive meteorological grid data set providing daily temperature and precipitation data back to 1957 for entire Norway at 1x1 km grid resolution (seNorge grids). The daily temporal resolution is dictated by the resolution of historical meteorological data. However, since meteorological forecasts and runoff observations are also available at a much finer than a daily time-resolution (e.g. 6 hourly), and many hydrological extreme events happens at a temporal scale of less than daily, it is important to try to establish a historical dataset of meteorological input at a finer corresponding temporal resolution. We present a simple approach for the temporal disaggregation of the daily meteorological seNorge grids into 6-hour values by consulting a HIRLAM hindcast grid data series with an hourly time resolution and a 10x10 km grid resolution. The temporal patterns of the hindcast series are used to disaggregate the daily interpolated observations from the seNorge grids. In this way, we produce a historical grid dataset from 1958-2010 with 6-hourly temperature and precipitation for entire Norway on a 1x1 km grid resolution. For validation and to see if additional information is gained, the disaggregated data is compared with observed values from selected meteorological stations. In addition, the disaggregated data is evaluated against daily data, simply split into four fractions. The validation results indicate that additional information is indeed gained and point out the benefit of disaggregated data compared to daily data split into four. With regard to temperature, the disaggregated values show very low deviations (MAE, RMSE), and are highly correlated with observed values. Regarding precipitation, the disaggregated data shows cumulative distribution functions (CDF) which are very consistent to those of measured values. Especially for extreme precipitation events with occurrence probabilities lower than 15 %, the disaggregated data is much more appropriate to measurements than the simply fractioned daily data. For the recalibration of the hydrological models - and especially with regard to flood forecasting purposes - these results are very promising.

Vormoor, K.; Skaugen, T.

2012-04-01

450

Pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in kidney transplant recipients: twice daily versus once daily dosing.  

PubMed

Tacrolimus a macrolide immunosuppressant that is routinely given in two equally divided doses every 12 h. However, the time-dependent pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus suggest that once daily morning administration of tacrolimus may produce appropriate drug exposure. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and safety of twice vs. once daily administration of tacrolimus in stable kidney transplant recipients. Steady-state tacrolimus pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated on two occasions in an open-label, three-arm, two-period sequential study: twice daily dosing (Phase I) and once daily dosing (Phase II). In phase II, 18 patients were assigned to one of three arms: those taking 67%, 85% and 100% of their total twice daily dose once in the morning. In phase I, the mean area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) was higher after the morning dose, AUC(0-12) 117 +/- 40 vs. AUC(12-24) 97 +/- 30 ng/h/mL, p=0.012. In the 85% Group, the mean AUC ratio between twice and once daily was 1.0 (95% CI, 0.9-1.1) which predicted the best conversion ratio. Tacrolimus given once daily in the morning, at 85% of the twice daily dose, provides safe and equivalent drug exposure to twice daily dosing. This convenient dosing schedule may help to increase compliance and lower costs. PMID:15023155

Hardinger, Karen L; Park, Jeong M; Schnitzler, Mark A; Koch, Matthew J; Miller, Brent W; Brennan, Daniel C

2004-04-01

451

Climate response to imposed solar radiation reductions in high latitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With human-induced climate change leading to amplified warming in high latitudes, mitigation alone is unlikely to be rapid enough to prevent significant, even irreversible, impacts. Model simulations in which solar insolation was arbitrarily reduced poleward of 51, 61, or 71° latitude in one or both hemispheres not only cooled those regions, but also drew energy from lower latitudes, exerting a cooling influence over much of the particular hemisphere in which the reduction was imposed. The simulations, conducted using the National Center for Atmospheric Research's CAM3.1 atmospheric model coupled to a slab ocean, indicated that high-latitude reductions in absorbed solar radiation have a significantly larger cooling influence than solar reductions of equivalent magnitude spread evenly over the Earth. This amplified influence occurred primarily because concentrated high-latitude reductions in solar radiation led to increased sea ice fraction and surface albedo, thereby amplifying the energy deficit at the top of the atmosphere as compared to the response for an equivalent reduction in solar radiation spread evenly over the globe. Reductions in incoming solar radiation in one polar region (either north or south) resulted in increased poleward energy transport during that hemisphere's cold season and shifted the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) away from that pole, whereas comparable solar reductions in both polar regions resulted in increased poleward energy transport, but tended to leave the ITCZ approximately in place. Together, these results suggest that, until emissions reductions are sufficient to limit the warming influence of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, polar reductions in solar radiation, if they could be efficiently and effectively implemented, warrant further research as an approach to moderating the early stages of both high-latitude and global warming.

MacCracken, M. C.; Shin, H.-J.; Caldeira, K.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.

2013-09-01

452

Buying Solar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are guidelines for buying solar systems for the individual consumer. This is intended to help the consumer reduce many of the risks associated with the purchase of solar systems, particularly the risks of fraud and deception. Engineering terms associated with solar technology are presented and described to enable the consumer to discuss…

Dawson, Joe

453

Solar cooker  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar unit is described comprising a solar oven having an open end. A generally concave parabolic main reflector is joined to the oven to move therewith and reflect solar radiation away from the oven. The main reflector has a central opening to the oven open end, a generally parabolic convex secondary reflector for reflecting the radiation from the main

Zwach

1987-01-01

454

Solar windows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Till date, to harness energy from the sun we have used solar panels. These solar panels have to be installed on the roof-tops. Imagine windows that not only provide a clear view and illuminate rooms, but also use sunlight to efficiently help power the building they are part of. Solar panels used in today track the sun to generate high

Shailly Jain; Rohan Jh