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Sample records for dairy cow herds

  1. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  2. Reasons That Cows in Dairy Herd Improvement Programs Exit the Herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This new Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory Research Report was initiated to provide the US industry more comprehensive information on a routine basis on why dairy cows leave Dairy Herd Improvement herds. AIPL had previously published some information on culling rate, but the method used did not...

  3. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  4. Exploring relationships between Dairy Herd Improvement monitors of performance and the Transition Cow Index in Wisconsin dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Schultz, K K; Bennett, T B; Nordlund, K V; Döpfer, D; Cook, N B

    2016-09-01

    Transition cow management has been tracked via the Transition Cow Index (TCI; AgSource Cooperative Services, Verona, WI) since 2006. Transition Cow Index was developed to measure the difference between actual and predicted milk yield at first test day to evaluate the relative success of the transition period program. This project aimed to assess TCI in relation to all commonly used Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) metrics available through AgSource Cooperative Services. Regression analysis was used to isolate variables that were relevant to TCI, and then principal components analysis and network analysis were used to determine the relative strength and relatedness among variables. Finally, cluster analysis was used to segregate herds based on similarity of relevant variables. The DHI data were obtained from 2,131 Wisconsin dairy herds with test-day mean ≥30 cows, which were tested ≥10 times throughout the 2014 calendar year. The original list of 940 DHI variables was reduced through expert-driven selection and regression analysis to 23 variables. The K-means cluster analysis produced 5 distinct clusters. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the 23 variables per cluster grouping. Using principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and network analysis, 4 parameters were isolated as most relevant to TCI; these were energy-corrected milk, 3 measures of intramammary infection (dry cow cure rate, linear somatic cell count score in primiparous cows, and new infection rate), peak ratio, and days in milk at peak milk production. These variables together with cow and newborn calf survival measures form a group of metrics that can be used to assist in the evaluation of overall transition period performance. PMID:27320672

  5. Death Losses for Lactating Cows in Herds Enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement Test Plans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Factors that affect frequency of death were investigated for lactating cows in 45,032 herds for lactations from 1995 through 2005. Analyses included effects of herd, year, month, and stage of lactation in which lactation ended, parity, breed, and milk yield. A sample of 1,645 herds was employed to ...

  6. Factors affecting death rate of lactating cows in Dairy Herd Improvement herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequencies of deaths of lactating cows of all breeds during 2001 to 2005 were estimated from an approximate 10% sample of national DHI herds (based on units position of herd code). Herds with <400 lactations across years were excluded. Because the trait is binomially distributed, PROC GENMOD of SAS...

  7. Cow- and herd-level risk factors for on-farm mortality in Midwest US dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Shahid, M Q; Reneau, J K; Chester-Jones, H; Chebel, R C; Endres, M I

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe on-farm mortality and to investigate cow- and herd-level risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Midwest US dairy herds using lactation survival analysis. We analyzed a total of approximately 5.9 million DHIA lactation records from 10 Midwest US states from January 2006 to December 2010. The cow-level independent variables used in the models were first test-day milk yield, milk fat percent, milk protein percent, fat-to-protein ratio, milk urea nitrogen, somatic cell score, previous dry period, previous calving interval, stillbirth, calf sex, twinning, calving difficulty, season of calving, parity, and breed. The herd-level variables included herd size, calving interval, somatic cell score, 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield, and herd stillbirth percentage. Descriptive analysis showed that overall cow-level mortality rate was 6.4 per 100 cow-years and it increased from 5.9 in 2006 to 6.8 in 2010. Mortality was the primary reason of leaving the herd (19.4% of total culls) followed by reproduction (14.6%), injuries and other (14.0%), low production (12.3%), and mastitis (10.5%). Risk factor analysis showed that increased hazard for mortality was associated with higher fat-to-protein ratio (>1.6 vs. 1 to 1.6), higher milk fat percent, lower milk protein percent, cows with male calves, cows carrying multiple calves, higher milk urea nitrogen, increasing parity, longer previous calving interval, higher first test-day somatic cell score, increased calving difficulty score, and breed (Holstein vs. others). Decreased hazard for mortality was associated with higher first test-day milk yield, higher milk protein, and shorter dry period. For herd-level factors, increased hazard for mortality was associated with increased herd size, increased percentage of stillbirths, higher somatic cell score, and increased herd calving interval. Cows in herds with higher milk yield had lower mortality hazard. Results of the study

  8. Dairy Herd Management Program.

    PubMed

    Lehenbauer, T W

    1987-11-01

    The Dairy Herd Management Program has served both dairymen and veterinarians very well over the past several years under a variety of conditions. A number of veterinarians have used the Dairy Herd Management Program to provide computerized dairy record service to their clients. In many of these situations, clients have decided to purchase a computer system of their own after discovering the value of having improved, computerized dairy records. The Dairy Herd Management Program is able to efficiently handle data from large dairies without disrupting daily record-keeping routines. With this data, useful reports are generated that measure actual reproductive performance against target levels or goals. Because the Dairy Herd Management Program focuses on specific time intervals and includes data from culled cows, trends or drops in reproductive performance are more quickly detected so that corrective action can be taken to minimize economic losses. The Dairy Herd Management Program's strong points include batch entry of data, an inclusive yet flexible Vet Check List of cows to be examined, and a detailed, comprehensive Reproductive Summary report. Its major weakness is the lack of a custom report generator for specific situations or conditions. This problem is being addressed in the new version. With the improvements scheduled for the new version, the Dairy Herd Management Program should be able to meet all of the needs of dairy managers and veterinarians alike, as well as become a powerful tool for conducting dairy reproductive field trials and research. PMID:3319081

  9. Treatments of clinical mastitis occurring in cows on 51 large dairy herds in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, L; Ruegg, P L

    2014-09-01

    Antimicrobials are frequently used for treatment of bovine mastitis and few studies have examined modern treatment strategies on large US dairy farms. The objective of this study was to describe treatment practices for clinical mastitis occurring in cows on large dairy herds in Wisconsin. Treatments performed on 747 cows experiencing cases of mild, moderate, or severe symptoms of clinical mastitis were recorded on 51 Wisconsin dairy farms. Duplicate milk samples were collected from the affected quarter for microbiological analysis at the onset of clinical mastitis and 14 to 21 d after treatment ended. Cows were treated according to individual farm protocol. Drugs and doses used for treatments were recorded for each case. Among all herds, 5 intramammary (IMM) antimicrobials (amoxicillin, hetacillin, pirlimycin, ceftiofur, and cephapirin) were used to treat cows for clinical mastitis. Of 712 cows with complete treatment data, 71.6% were treated with IMM ceftiofur either solely or combined with other antimicrobials (administered either IMM or systemically). Of cows experiencing severe symptoms of clinical mastitis, 43.8% received IMM treatment concurrent with systemic antimicrobials. Of all cows treated, 23.1% received an additional secondary treatment (either IMM, systemic, or both) because of perceived lack of response to the initial treatment. The majority of IMM treatments were administered to cows with a microbiological diagnosis of no growth (34.9%) or Escherichia coli (27.2%). Half of the cows experiencing cases caused by E. coli were treated using systemic antimicrobials in contrast to only 6.8% of cows experiencing cases caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. In conflict with FDA regulations, which do not allow extra-label treatments using sulfonamides, a total of 22 cows from 8 farms were treated with systemic sulfadimethoxine either solely or in combination with oxytetracycline. Antimicrobial drugs were used on all herds and many cows received extra

  10. [Importance of herd management in loose housing systems in the social behavior of dairy cows].

    PubMed

    Menke, C; Waiblinger, S; Fölsch, D W

    2000-07-01

    In five loose housed dairy herds three different kinds of herd management were tested in two variants with respect to frequencies of agonistic social behaviour. Treatments were (1) a short (0.5 h) and a long (3 h) fixation time in the feeding rack, (2) single and group (3 animals) introduction of new heifers into the herd and (3) an open and a closed outdoor yard during nighttime. The investigated agonistic behaviour patterns were: pushing and chasing. The herds were observed in the evening after milking during one four-hour period starting one hour after opening the feeding rack when testing treatment (3) and immediately after opening the feeding rack when testing treatment (1) and (2). Statistical analysis were carried out with the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test for matched samples. Effects of fixation time differed inconsistently and were not significant. In 3 out of 5 farms the frequency of agonistic behaviour was lower, when cows were restrained 3 h in the feeding rack compared to 0.5 h. In two of these 3 herds, the animals had the possibility to drink water from bowls directly at the feeding rack, in the third herd the food was silage which has a higher water content. Therefore in these herds, the agonistic interactions at the drinking facility in the stable after opening the feeding rack was low. Contrary, in the two other herds, with dry feed (hay) and no drinking bowls at the feeding rack, frequency of agonistic behaviour was higher after the long restraint which might be due to higher competition at the drinking facilities. Agonistic interactions per cow as well as per new introduced heifer were lower (p < or = 0.05) when only a single heifer was introduced to the herd compared to the introduction of a group of 3 heifers. The frequency of agonistic social behaviour of horned dairy cows that had access to a yard at night was significantly lower compared to the situation when the yard was closed over night (p < or = 0.05). This may be due to the higher space

  11. The economic effects of whole-herd versus selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Charlier, J; Levecke, B; Devleesschauwer, B; Vercruysse, J; Hogeveen, H

    2012-06-01

    Current control practices against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cows rely strongly on anthelmintic use. To reduce the development of anthelmintic resistance or disposition of drug residues in the environment, novel control approaches are currently proposed that target anthelmintic treatment to individual animals instead of the whole herd. However, such selective treatment strategies come with additional costs for labor and diagnostics and, so far, no studies have addressed whether they could be economically sustainable. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the economic effects at farm level of whole-herd versus more selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in adult dairy cows, and (2) determine how these economic effects depend on level of infection and herd size. A Monte Carlo simulation, fed by current epidemiological and economical knowledge, was used to estimate the expected economic effects and possible variation of different control strategies under Belgian conditions. Four treatment strategies were compared with a baseline situation in which no treatments were applied: whole herd at calving (S1), selective at calving with (S2) or without (S3) treatment of the first-calf cows, and whole-herd when animals are moved from grazing to the barn in the fall (housing treatment, S4). The benefit per lactation for an average dairy herd varied between -$2 and $131 (average $64) for S1, between -$2 and $127 (average $62) for S2, between -$17 and $104 (average $43) for S3, and between -$41 and $72 (average $15) for S4. The farmer's risk associated with any treatment strategy, as indicated by the width of the 95% credible intervals of economic benefit of anthelmintic treatment, decreased with increasing level of exposure, as assessed by bulk tank milk ELISA. The order of the different strategies when sorted by expected benefit was robust to changes in economic input parameters. We conclude that, on average, strategies applying anthelmintic

  12. Cow level sampling factors affecting analysis and interpretation of milk urea concentrations in 2 dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Eicher, R; Bouchard, E; Tremblay, A

    1999-01-01

    The goals of this study were to determine the influence of the variations among udder quarters, the somatic cell count, the time of sampling during the day, sample conservation, and centrifugation on milk urea (UREA) concentrations, and to propose a sample collection procedure for herds that are not on a Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) program. Forty cows from 2 herds with different feeding practices were randomly selected. The quarter sampled and the somatic cell count did not significantly influence UREA concentrations. Milk urea concentrations were highest in the morning. The diurnal pattern was not influenced by intrinsic factors like parity, days postpartum, or daily milk yield. The UREA concentrations were significantly higher after refrigeration for one week (mean UREA change = +0.41 +/- 0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.0001) and freezing for one month (mean UREA change = +1.52 +/- 1.25 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Urea concentrations were slightly higher in lactoserum than in whole milk (mean UREA difference = +0.17 +/- 0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Although this study included only 2 herds and does not allow extrapolation, differences were found in the diurnal pattern of UREA in these 2 herds, which possibly reflect differences in feeding strategy. With consideration of these results, a 6-point sampling procedure for herds that are not on a DHI program is proposed. PMID:10416068

  13. A field study to determine the prevalence, dairy herd management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Berge, Anna C; Vertenten, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, major management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds. A total of 131 dairies were enrolled in Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom during 2011 to 2012. A milk-based test for ketones (Keto-Test; Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co. Ltd., Nagoya, Japan; distributed by Elanco Animal Health, Antwerp, Belgium) was used for screening cows between d 7 and 21 after calving and ketosis was defined as a Keto-Test ≥100µmol/L. Study cows were observed for clinical disease up to 35d postcalving. Multivariate analysis (generalized estimating equation logistic regression) was performed to determine country, farm, management, feed, and cow factors associated with ketosis and to determine associations between ketosis and fresh cow diseases. Thirty-nine percent of the cows were classified as having ketosis. The herd average of ketosis was 43% in Germany, 53% in France, 31% in Italy, 46% in the Netherlands, and 31% in the United Kingdom. Of the 131 farms, 112 (85%) had 25% or more of their fresh cows resulting as positive for ketosis. Clinical ketosis was not reported in most farms and the highest level of clinical ketosis reported was 23%. The risks of ketosis were significantly lower in Italy and the United Kingdom compared with France, the Netherlands, and Germany. Larger herd size was associated with a decreased risk of ketosis. The farms that fed partially mixed rations had 1.5 times higher odds of ketosis than those that fed total mixed rations. Cows that calved in April to June had the highest odds of ketosis, with about twice as high odds compared with cows that calved in July to September. The cows that calved in January to March tended to have 1.5 times higher risk of ketosis compared with cows that calved in July to September. The odds of ketosis in parity 2 and parity 3 to 7 was significantly higher (1.5 and 2.8 times higher

  14. Associations between herd-level factors and lying behavior of freestall-housed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Chapinal, N; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the associations between herd-level factors and lying behavior of high-producing dairy cows housed in freestall barns. Lying behavior of approximately 40 focal cows in one high-producing pen was monitored on each of 40 farms in the northeastern United States (NE) and 39 farms in California (CA). All cows within the pen were gait scored using a 1-to-5 scale to calculate the prevalence of clinical lameness (score ≥3) and severe lameness (score ≥4). Facility and management measures, including stall design, bedding, and flooring type within the pen, were collected. Herd-level factors associated with daily lying time, standard deviation (SD) of daily lying time, frequency of lying bouts, and lying bout duration at the univariate level were submitted to multivariable general linear models. In the NE, daily lying time increased with the use of deep bedding (estimate = 0.80±0.31h/d) and as average days in milk (DIM) of the focal cows increased (estimate = 0.08±0.04h/d for a 10-d increase in DIM). The SD of daily lying time decreased as stall stocking density increased (estimate = -0.08±0.03h/d for a 10% increase), and increased with the presence of rubber flooring in the pen (estimate = 0.16±0.08h/d) and percentage of stalls with fecal contamination (estimate = 0.04±0.01h/d for a 10% increase). Frequency of lying bouts decreased (estimate = -1.90±0.63 bouts/d) and average bout duration increased (estimate = 15.44±3.02 min) with the use of deep bedding. In CA, where all farms used deep bedding, daily lying time increased as average DIM of the focal cows increased (estimate = 0.08±0.03h/d for a 10-d increase). The SD of daily lying time decreased when feed was delivered more than once per day (estimate = -0.24±0.08h/d). The percentage of lame cows was correlated with the percentage of stalls with fecal contamination (r=0.45), which in turn was associated with fewer (estimate = -0.25±0.06 bouts/d) and longer lying bouts (estimate

  15. Dynamics of culling for Jersey, Holstein, and Jersey × Holstein crossbred cows in large multibreed dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, P J; Daniels, A; Shumaker, J; De Vries, A

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this observational study was to describe and compare the dynamics of reason-specific culling risk for the genetic groups Jerseys (JE), Holsteins (HO), and Jersey × Holstein crossbreds (JH), considering parity, stage of lactation, and milk yield, among other variables, in large multibreed dairy herds in Texas. The secondary objective was to analyze the association between survival and management factors, such as breeding and replacement policies, type of facilities, and use of cooling systems. After edits, available data included 202,384 lactations in 16 herds, ranging from 407 to 8,773 cows calving per year during the study period from 2007 to 2011. The distribution of lactation records by genetic group was 58, 36, and 6% for HO, JE, and JH crosses, respectively. Overall culling rates across breeds were 30.1, 32.1, and 35.0% for JH, JE, and HO, respectively. The dynamics of reason-specific culling were dependent on genetic group, parity, stage of lactation, milk yield, and herd characteristics. Early lactation was a critical period for "died" and "injury-sick" culling. The risk increased with days after calving for "breeding" and, in the case of HO, "low production" culling. Open cows had a 3.5 to 4.6 times greater risk for overall culling compared with pregnant cows. The odds of culling with reason "died" within the first 60 d in milk (DIM) were not significantly associated with genetic group. However, both JE and JH crosses had lower odds of live culling within the first 60 DIM compared with HO cows (OR=0.72 and 0.82, respectively). Other cow variables significantly associated with the risk of dying within the first 60 DIM were cow relative 305-d mature equivalent (305ME) milk yield, parity, and season of calving. Significant herd-related variables for death included herd size and origin of replacements. In addition to genetic group, the risk of live culling within 60 DIM was associated with cow-relative 305ME milk yield, parity, and season of

  16. Serratia marcescens mastitis in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D J; Kirk, J H; Walker, R D; Bosworth, Q W

    1990-04-01

    Serratia marcescens caused clinical mastitis in 5 cows and nonclinical mastitis in 21 cows of a 190-cow herd. Repeated bacteriologic culture of specimens from the cows, postmilking teat dip, environment, and equipment was performed. Serratia marcescens was not isolated from the dip, environment, or equipment. Progress of the infection in cows was monitored for 10 months. Some cows remained infected with S marcescens for at least 10 months. Economic loss estimates were based on Dairy Herd Improvement Association linear score reports. The average nonclinical loss was about $22/cow. PMID:2184155

  17. Distribution of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species from milk and environment of dairy cows differs between herds.

    PubMed

    Piessens, V; Van Coillie, E; Verbist, B; Supré, K; Braem, G; Van Nuffel, A; De Vuyst, L; Heyndrickx, M; De Vliegher, S

    2011-06-01

    In many parts of the world, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant pathogens causing intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cows. The cows' environment is thought to be a possible source for CNS mastitis and this was investigated in the present paper. A longitudinal field study was carried out in 6 well-managed dairy herds to determine the distribution and epidemiology of various CNS species isolated from milk, causing IMI and living freely in the cows' environment, respectively. In each herd, quarter milk samples from a cohort of 10 lactating cows and environmental samples from stall air, slatted floor, sawdust from cubicles, and sawdust stock were collected monthly (n=13). Isolates from quarter milk samples (n=134) and the environment (n=637) were identified to species level using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyping. Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. haemolyticus, S. epidermidis, and S. simulans accounted for 81.3% of all CNS milk isolates. Quarters were considered infected with CNS (positive IMI status) only when 2 out of 3 consecutive milk samples yielded the same CNS AFLP type. The species causing IMI were S. chromogenes (n=35 samples with positive IMI status), S. haemolyticus (n=29), S. simulans (n=14), and S. epidermidis (n=6). The observed persistent IMI cases (n=17) had a mean duration of 149.4 d (range 63.0 to 329.8 d). The CNS species predominating in the environment were S. equorum, S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus, and S. fleurettii. Herd-to-herd differences in distribution of CNS species were observed in both milk and the environment, suggesting that herd-level factors are involved in the establishment of particular species in a dairy herd. Primary reservoirs of the species causing IMI varied. Staphylococcus chromogenes and S. epidermidis were rarely found in the environment, indicating that other reservoirs were more important in their epidemiology. For S. haemolyticus and S. simulans, the environment was found as a

  18. Resistance to penicillin of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cows with high somatic cell counts in organic and conventional dairy herds in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Bennedsgaard, Torben W; Thamsborg, Stig M; Aarestrup, Frank M; Enevoldsen, Carsten; Vaarst, Mette; Christoffersen, Anna B

    2006-01-01

    Background Quarter milk samples from cows with high risk of intramammary infection were examined to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and penicillin resistant SA (SAr) in conventional and organic dairy herds and herds converting to organic farming in a combined longitudinal and cross-sectional study. Methods 20 conventional herds, 18 organic herds that converted before 1995, and 19 herds converting to organic farming in 1999 or 2000 were included in the study. Herds converting to organic farming were sampled three times one year apart; the other herds were sampled once. Risk of infection was estimated based on somatic cell count, milk production, breed, age and lactation stage. Results The high-risk cows represented about 49 % of the cows in the herds. The overall prevalence of SA and SAr among these cows was 29% (95% confidence interval: 24%–34%) and 4% (95% confidence interval: 2%–5%) respectively. The prevalence of penicillin resistance among SA infected cows was 12% (95% confidence interval: 6%–19%) when calculated from the first herd visits. No statistically significant differences were observed in the prevalence of SAr or the proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin between herd groups. Conclusion The proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin was low compared to studies in other countries except Norway and Sweden. Based on the low prevalence of penicillin resistance of SA, penicillin should still be the first choice of antimicrobial agent for treatment of bovine intramammary infection in Denmark. PMID:17125515

  19. Genomic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with high within-herd prevalence of intramammary infections in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, P; Pozzi, F; Raschetti, M; Bignoli, G; Capra, E; Graber, H U; Vezzoli, F; Piccinini, R; Bertasi, B; Biffani, S; Castiglioni, B; Luini, M

    2015-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important causes of mastitis in dairy cattle. Based on previous research, Staph. aureus genotypes with different pathogenic and contagious properties can cause intramammary infection (IMI) and coexist in the same herd. Our study aimed to compare Staph. aureus strains from herds that differed in IMI prevalence using different molecular approaches such as ribosomal spacer (RS)-PCR, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multiplex PCR. For this purpose, 31 dairy herds with Staph. aureus IMI were selected, and 16 of these were chosen for a comparison study: the 8 high-prevalence (HP) herds had Staph. aureus IMI prevalence >28% and the 8 low-prevalence (LP) herds had an IMI prevalence <4%. A total of 650 isolates of Staph. aureus from mammary quarters of all positive cows were genotyped with RS-PCR, a technique based on amplification of a portion of the intergenic spacer 16S-23S rRNA, and a subset of 54 strains was also analyzed by multiplex PCR, ribotyping, PFGE, MLST, and spa typing. The RS-PCR analysis revealed 12 different profiles. Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from 5 out of 8 HP herds showed a profile identical to the genotype B (GTB), described in previous studies as being strongly associated with high within-herd prevalence of Staph. aureus mastitis and the presence of the genes coding for enterotoxins sea, sed, and sej, a long x-region of spa gene, and 3 lukE fragments. Moreover, all strains isolated in the HP herds possessed genes coding for staphylococcal enterotoxins. In LP herds, a limited number of strains of 6 genotypes, different from those isolated in HP herds, were identified and GTB was not found. Within these genotypes, 4 strains were positive for the mecA gene. Preliminary results and comparison with other genotyping methods confirmed that genotyping by RS-PCR is an accurate, rapid, and inexpensive tool for future field studies on Staph

  20. [Relationship between the intensity of gynecologic supervision during the postpartum period and fertility results in dairy cow herds].

    PubMed

    Bostedt, H; Maurer, G

    1990-10-01

    The efficiency of regular post-partum gynaecological care in the dairy cow can only be correctly evaluated if cows with a normal post-partum period and those with problems during this time are distinguished. From 1,125 dairy cows being fed a high proportion of maize silage it was shown that gynaecological examinations on days 12, 28 and 40 post-partum had a positive effect on herd fertility. Regular checks resulted in significant reductions in the calving to conception interval, the insemination index and in the percentage culled due to fertility problems in comparison to the control animals (n = 451) where veterinary control took place only occasionally. In particular the early detection and treatment of endometritis and ovary function abnormalities contributed to a high conception rate with appropriate calving interval. The administration of GnRH (20 micrograms Buserelin) to cows with problems in the post-partum period and under continuous gynaecological supervision resulted in improvements in only some aspects (uterine involution, ovarian cyst incidence). The conception rates in the treated group and in the intensively controlled group were the same. PMID:2124734

  1. Use of Ovsynch in dairy herds--differences between primiparous and multiparous cows.

    PubMed

    Tenhagen, Bernd Alois; Surholt, Ralf; Wittke, Miriam; Vogel, Corinna; Drillich, Marc; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2004-03-01

    Ovsynch protocols are used to increase service rate and decrease days open and cullings for infertility. Recent reports have indicated better results after Ovsynch in primiparous than in older cows. However, this was not observed in all investigations on the subject. The objective of the study was to evaluate differences between primiparous and multiparous cows after synchronization of ovulation with an Ovsynch protocol in six trials. A total of 1584 cows (583 primiparous and 1001 multiparous cows, respectively) on three dairy farms were synchronized with an Ovsynch protocol consisting of a GnRH-analogue at Days 0 and 9, and a prostaglandin F(2alpha) analogue on Day 7. AI was carried out in all cows 16-20 h after the last treatment. Cows were categorized into primiparous and multiparous cows for analysis. Conception rate (CR) to timed AI, to further AI, overall conception rate and proportion of cows pregnant by 200 days in milk were compared between the age groups. Finally, two logistic regression models were calculated with conception to first service and conception by 200 DIM as the outcome variables. Independent variables were trial (categorical) and age group (primiparous versus multiparous). Conception rates to TAI were higher in primiparous than in older cows (37.9% versus 31.6%, P=0.015). Likewise pregnancy rates by 200 DIM were higher in primiparous cows (81.8% versus 75.4%, P=0.003). However, the extent of the difference varied between trials. Results indicate that Ovsynch protocols are more effective in primiparous than in older cows. PMID:14749044

  2. A benefit cost analysis of dry-cow mastitis therapy in Ontario dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    McNab, W. Bruce; Meek, Alan H.

    1991-01-01

    Data collected from 297 dairy farms in Ontario were analyzed to investigate the economic consequences of using dry-cow antibiotic therapy, and to demonstrate the elements of an economic evaluation. Benefit/cost ratios ranged from 0.5 to 31.0 depending on the methods used to assess the benefits of therapy. In general, within the assumptions outlined in this analysis, dry-cow therapy was found to be economically advantageous. However, many factors can influence milk production and somatic cell counts. In this observational study, it is possible that some such factors were confounded with the use of dry-cow therapy, and may have biased the estimates of economic impact. PMID:17423801

  3. Feeding, production, and efficiency of Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, and mixed-breed lactating dairy cows in commercial Danish herds.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, T; Jensen, C; Østergaard, S; Weisbjerg, M R; Aaes, O; Nielsen, N I

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to compare efficiency measures, milk production, and feed intake for lactating cows in commercial herds using different breeds and production and milking systems. To accomplish this, we used all feed evaluations made by the Danish extension service during the period November 2012 to April 2013 for 779 herds, of which 508 were Holstein-Friesian (HOL); 100 were Jersey (JER); and 171 herds were a mixture of these 2 breeds, other dairy breeds, and crossbreeds (OTH). The annually recorded, herd-average energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield was 8,716kg (JER) and 9,606kg (HOL); and average herd size was 197 cows (HOL) and 224 cows (JER). All cows were fed a total mixed or partial mixed ration supplemented with concentrate from feeding stations, housed in loose housing systems with a slatted floor, and milked in either a parlor milking unit or an automatic milking system. Energy efficiency was calculated as net energy efficiency defined as total energy demand as a percentage of energy intake and as residual feed intake defined as energy intake (net energy for lactation; NEL) minus energy requirement. Production efficiency was expressed as kilograms of ECM per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI), kilograms of ECM per 10 MJ of net energy intake (NEL), kilograms of ECM per 100kg of BW, and kilograms of DMI per 100kg of BW. Environmental efficiency was expressed by the nitrogen efficiency calculated as N in milk and meat as a percentage of N in intake, and as enteric emission of methane expressed as kilograms of ECM per megajoule of CH4. Mean milk yield for lactating cows was 30.4kg of ECM in HOL and 3kg less in JER, with OTH herds in between. Mean NEL intake was 122 MJ in JER, increasing to 147 MJ in HOL, whereas ration energy density between breeds did not differ (6.4-6.5 MJ of NEL per kg of DMI). The NEL intake and DMI explained 56 and 47%, respectively, of variation in production (ECM) for HOL herds but only 44 and 27% for JER. Jersey had a

  4. Epidemiological description of cystic ovarian disease in argentine dairy herds: risk factors and effects on the reproductive performance of lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, L; Signorini, M L; Bertoli, J; Bartolomé, J A; Gareis, N C; Díaz, P U; Bó, G A; Ortega, H H

    2014-12-01

    To describe the epidemiology of cystic ovarian disease (COD), to find possible risk factors associated with the incidence of cysts and to analyse the impact of COD on the reproductive performance of dairy cows, databases from 22 dairy herds from the main dairy region in Argentina were retrospectively evaluated throughout a 3-year period (2009-2011). A total of 248 COD cases over 9156 parturitions were recorded, resulting in a cumulative incidence rate of 2.7%. Cystic ovarian disease incidence density was lower during the first 100 days post-partum (DPP) than during later stages of lactation. Seasonality had a significant influence on the disease presentation with higher incidence rates during winter and spring. Cows with a previous diagnosis of clinical mastitis showed 2.72 times more chances of developing ovarian cysts. Cystic cows had longer calving to first service and calving to conception intervals and lower conception rate than controls. PMID:25292292

  5. Expanding the dairy herd in pasture-based systems: the role of sexed semen use in virgin heifers and lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, I A; Shalloo, L; Butler, S T

    2013-10-01

    A model was developed to examine the effects of sexed semen use in virgin heifers and lactating cows on replacement heifer numbers and rate of herd expansion in a seasonal dairy production system. Five separate herds were established according to the type of semen used: conventional frozen-thawed (Conv), sexed fresh semen used in lactating cows for the first 3 wk of the breeding season (SFre1), sexed frozen-thawed semen used in lactating cows for the first 3 wk of the breeding season (SFro1), sexed fresh semen used in lactating cows for the first 6 wk of the breeding season (SFre2), or sexed frozen-thawed semen used in lactating cows for the first 6 wk of the breeding season (SFro2). In the SFro1, SFre1, SFro2, and SFre2 herds, sexed semen was used for the first and second artificial insemination in virgin heifers. Pregnancy rates achieved with sexed fresh and sexed frozen-thawed semen were assumed to be 94 and 75% of those achieved with conventional frozen-thawed semen, respectively. Initial herd size was 100 cows, which was maintained for the first 2 yr of the 15-yr simulation, after which all available replacement heifers were retained to facilitate herd expansion. Two different scenarios of land availability were examined for each of the 5 herds: land available allowed expansion to a maximum herd size of 150 cows (S1), or land available allowed expansion to a maximum herd size of 300 cows (S2). Once maximum herd size was reached, sexed semen use was discontinued and all excess heifer calves were sold at 1 mo old. All capital expenditure associated with expansion was financed with a 15-yr loan. Each of the 10 different options was evaluated in terms of annual farm profit, annual cash flow, and total discounted net profit. The use of fresh sexed semen generated more replacement heifers, leading to faster herd expansion compared with frozen-thawed sexed semen and conventional frozen-thawed semen. Maximum herd size under S1 was reached in yr 5, 5, 4, 5, and 7 for

  6. Herd- and cow-level risk factors associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy farms from the High Plains of the northern Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, N F; Keefe, G; Dohoo, I; Sánchez, J; Arroyave, O; Cerón, J; Jaramillo, M; Palacio, L G

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is the main disease entity affecting dairy farms in the Colombian High Plains of northern Antioquia, Colombia. However, no previous epidemiologic studies have determined the characteristics that increase the risk of infection in this region, where manual milking is still the prevailing system of milking. A 24-mo longitudinal study was designed to identify the predominant mastitis pathogens and important herd- and cow-level risk factors. Monthly visits were made to 37 commercial dairy farms to collect herd- and cow-level data and milk samples. Herd size varied from 6 to 136 cows (mean 37.0, median 29). Herd-level factors included type of milking system (manual or mechanical) and a range of management practices recommended by the National Mastitis Council (Madison, WI) to prevent mastitis. Individual cow-level risk factors included parity, stage of lactation, breed, udder hygiene, and lameness. A logistic regression analysis was used to investigate associations between herd- and cow-level risk factors with the presence of subclinical mastitis and infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae at the quarter level. A quarter was considered to have subclinical mastitis if it had a positive California Mastitis Test and was subsequently confirmed to have a somatic cell count of ≥200,000 cells/mL. Any cow with one or more quarters with subclinical mastitis was considered to have subclinical mastitis at the cow level. Using 17,622 cow observations, the mean prevalence of subclinical mastitis at the cow level was 37.2% (95% confidence interval: 31.2, 43.3) for the first month and did not substantially change throughout the study. The predominant microorganisms isolated from quarters meeting the subclinical mastitis definition were contagious pathogens, including Strep. agalactiae (34.4%), Corynebacterium spp. (13.2%), and Staphylococcus aureus (8.0%). Significant variables associated with subclinical mastitis risk at the quarter level included being a purebred

  7. Paratuberculosis: decrease in milk production of German Holstein dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis depends on within-herd prevalence.

    PubMed

    Donat, K; Soschinka, A; Erhardt, G; Brandt, H R

    2014-05-01

    Paratuberculosis impairs productivity of infected dairy cows because of reduced milk production and fertility and enhanced risk of culling. The magnitude of the milk yield depression in individual cows is influenced by factors such as parity, the stage of the disease and the choice of test used. The objectives of this case-control study were to substantiate the influence of the different levels of the within-herd prevalence (WHP) on individual milk yield of fecal culture (FC)-positive cows (FC+) compared with FC-negative herd-mates (FC-), and to estimate the magnitude of the deviation of the milk yield, milk components and somatic cell count (SCC) in an FC-based study. Of a total of 31 420 cows from 26 Thuringian dairy herds tested for paratuberculosis by FC, a subset of 1382 FC+ and 3245 FC- with milk recording data were selected as cases and controls, respectively. The FC- cows were matched for the same number and stage of lactation (±10 days in milk) as one FC+ from the same herd. Within a mixed model analysis using the fixed effects of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status, lactation number, days in milk, prevalence class of farm and the random effect of farm on milk yield per day (kg), the amount of fat and protein (mg/dl) and lactose (mg/dl) as well as the SCC (1000/ml) were measured. On the basis of least square means, FC+ cows had a lower test-day milk yield (27.7±0.6 kg) compared with FC- (29.0±0.6 kg), as well as a lower milk protein content and a slightly diminished lactose concentration. FC status was not associated with milk fat percentage or milk SCC. In FC+ cows, reduction in milk yield increased with increasing WHP. An interaction of FC status and farm was found for the test-day milk yield, and milk protein percentage, respectively. We conclude that the reduction in milk yield of FC+ cows compared with FC- herd-mates is significantly influenced by farm effects and depends on WHP class. Owners of MAP-positive dairy herds may

  8. Salmonella Muenster infection in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Radke, Brian R; McFall, Margaret; Radostits, Steve M

    2002-06-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to provide information on animal and occupational health associated with the infection of a diary herd with Salmonella Muenster that would be useful in the management of dairy herds so infected. This retrospective, longitudinal report records a 2-year infection of a 140-cow dairy herd with S. Muenster, which was likely introduced by additions to the herd. Six cows aborted or had diarrhea due to salmonellosis in the last trimester of pregnancy. Additions to the herd and the presence of animals that had not received an Escherichia coli bacterin-toxoid were risk factors for salmonellosis. One neonate died, and 24 of 36 calves born between November 1998 and May 1999 had diarrhea by 1 mo of age. Initially, over 60% of the cows were fecal positive; within 6 months, all cows but I had become infected. The intermittent shedding of the organism and the eventual zero prevalence highlight the inappropriateness of extensive culling as an eradication strategy. Cultures of the bulk-tank milk filters were more sensitive than cultures of the bulk-tank milk samples at detecting S. Muenster. Two months after the index case, S. Muenster was cultured from the milk of 7.8% of the cows. Positive fecal or milk cultures were not associated with impaired health or production. The herd's milk was a zoonotic risk, but contact with infected animals was not. The organism spread easily between operations, likely via manure-contaminated clothing and footwear. PMID:12058570

  9. Effects of dairy system, herd within dairy system, and individual cow characteristics on the volatile organic compound profile of ripened model cheeses.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, M; Aprea, E; Betta, E; Biasioli, F; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G; Gasperi, F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of dairy system, herd within dairy system, and characteristics of individual cows (parity, days in milk, and daily milk yield) on the volatile organic compound profile of model cheeses produced under controlled conditions from the milk of individual cows of the Brown Swiss breed. One hundred fifty model cheeses were selected from 1,272 produced for a wider study of the phenotypic and genetic variability of Brown Swiss cows. In our study, we selected 30 herds representing 5 different dairy systems. The cows sampled presented different milk yields (12.3-43.2kg/d), stages of lactation (10-412 d in milk), and parity (1-7). In total, 55 volatile compounds were detected by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including 14 alcohols, 13 esters, 11 free fatty acids, 8 ketones, 4 aldehydes, 3 lactones, 1 terpene, and 1 pyrazine. The most important sources of variation in the volatile organic profiles of model cheeses were dairy system (18 compounds) and days in milk (10 compounds), followed by parity (3 compounds) and milk yield (5 compounds). The model cheeses produced from the milk of tied cows reared on traditional farms had lower quantities of 3-methyl-butan-1-ol, 6-pentyloxan-2-one, 2-phenylethanol, and dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one compared with those reared in freestalls on modern farms. Of these, milk from farms using total mixed rations had higher contents of alcohols (hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol) and esters (ethyl butanoate, ethyl pentanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate) and lower contents of acetic acid compared with those using separate feeds. Moreover, dairy systems that added silage to the total mixed ration produced cheeses with lower levels of volatile organic compounds, in particular alcohols (butan-1-ol, pentan-1-ol, heptan-1-ol), compared with those that did not. The amounts of butan-2-ol, butanoic acid, ethyl-2-methylpropanoate, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, and 6-propyloxan-2-one

  10. Factors associated with survival in the herd for dairy cows following surgery to correct left displaced abomasum.

    PubMed

    Reynen, Jennifer L; Kelton, David F; LeBlanc, Stephen J; Newby, Nathalie C; Duffield, Todd F

    2015-06-01

    Left displaced abomasum (LDA) is a common problem in dairy cows. There have been numerous studies focused on predicting prognosis for right displaced abomasal corrective surgery, but a paucity of studies exist focused on more common LDA surgeries. Our objective was to determine if survival to 60 d or 1 yr after surgery could be predicted from the physical exam findings, periparturient disease status, and a biochemical profile from a blood sample obtained at the time of LDA diagnosis. Blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were measured immediately using a hand-held meter. Data obtained from CanWest DHI (Guelph, ON, Canada) for all of the study subjects (n=179 cases, by 24 veterinarians from 4 clinics), including cull date, cull reason, and test-day milk production. Cows were classified based on whether or not they were culled within 60 d or 1 yr of surgery. Based on logistic regression, cows that had dystocia [odds ratio (OR)=13, 95% confidence interval (CI)=7-26] or were not ketotic (blood BHBA<1.2 mmol/L; OR=3, 95% CI=1.03-9) at the time of corrective surgery were more likely to be culled within 60 d. Higher serum concentrations of BHBA (OR=0.95, 95% CI=0.92-0.98), nonesterified fatty acids (OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.75-0.88), and Mg (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.35-0.68) all had a protective effect against culling within 1 yr of LDA surgery. Based on survival analysis, longevity in the herd for 365 d following corrective surgery was associated with higher BHBA and Mg at the time of LDA diagnosis before surgery, as well as milk production following surgery. PMID:25892696

  11. Risk factors for new intramammary infections during the dry period in untreated dairy cows from herds using selective dry cow therapy.

    PubMed

    Robert, A; Roussel, P; Bareille, N; Ribaud, D; Sérieys, F; Heuchel, V; Seegers, H

    2008-02-01

    This study aimed at investigating risk factors for new intramammary infections (IMI) during the dry period in untreated cows from herds using selective dry cow antibiotic therapy (DCT). A total of 980 uninfected quarters in 347 untreated cows from 28 herds using selective DCT were included in a prospective survey. A herd-level questionnaire and an individual cow-level recording sheet were implemented to collect data on putative risk factors. Quarter milk samples were taken at drying-off and on day 3 after calving to assess the occurrence of new IMI during the dry period. A multivariate model including a herd effect as random and a cow effect as repeated was run at the quarter level. Interactions between risk factors and the cow infection status at drying-off (cow infected in at least one quarter v. uninfected) were checked. Three risk factors were found significantly associated with the risk for new IMI without interaction (P < 0.05): cows infected in at least one quarter at drying-off (v. uninfected cows) (relative risks (RR) = 1.58); long preceding lactation (>355 days v. shorter length) (RR = 1.62); long dry period (>65 days v. shorter length) (RR = 1.46). One risk factor acted only in interaction with the cow infection status at drying-off: in cows uninfected at drying-off, the risk for new IMI was significantly higher in cows with short teats (RR = 1.21) when compared with cows with long or normal teats, while the reverse relationship was observed in cows infected at drying-off. Risk factors can be translated in recommendations, for instance to have dry periods not longer than 2 months. Moreover, as suggested by our results, the efficacy of selective DCT towards the prevention of new IMI would be improved if all infected cows were detected and treated. Criteria to accurately identify these infected cows should be therefore further investigated. PMID:22445018

  12. Case study: Differences in milk characteristics between a cow herd transitioning to organic versus milk from a conventional dairy herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences between organic and conventional milk were studied by comparing two adjacent farms over a 12-mo period starting at the beginning of the grazing season, thus eliminating variables due to geography and weather. Milk was collected from a farm where cows were fed a conventional total mixed ...

  13. Pathogen group specific risk factors for clinical mastitis, intramammary infection and blind quarters at the herd, cow and quarter level in smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Ayana, Z; Piepers, S; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross-sectional study on clinical mastitis, intramammary infection (IMI) and blind quarters was conducted on 50 smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia. A questionnaire was performed, and quarters of 211 cows were sampled and bacteriologically cultured. Risk factors at the herd, cow, and quarter level for clinical mastitis and (pathogen-specific) intramammary infection were studied using multilevel modeling. As well, factors associated with quarters being blind were studied. Eleven percent of the cows and 4% of the quarters had clinical mastitis whereas 85% of the cows and 51% of the quarters were infected. Eighteen percent of the cows had one or more blind quarter(s), whereas 6% of the quarters was blind. Non-aureus staphylococci were the most frequently isolated pathogens in both clinical mastitis cases and IMI. The odds of clinical mastitis was lower in herds where heifers were purchased in the last year [odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval: 0.11 (0.01-0.90)], old cows (>4 years) [OR: 0.45 (0.18-1.14)], and quarters not showing teat injury [OR: 0.23 (0.07-0.77)]. The odds of IMI caused by any pathogen was higher in herds not practicing teat drying before milking (opposed to drying teats with 1 towel per cow) [OR: 1.68 (1.05-2.69)], cows in later lactation (>180 DIM opposed to ≤90 DIM) [OR: 1.81 (1.14-2.88)], cows with a high (>3) body condition score (BCS) [OR: 1.57 (1.06-2.31)], right quarters (opposed to a left quarter position) [OR: 1.47 (1.10-1.98)], and quarters showing teat injury [OR: 2.30 (0.97-5.43)]. Quarters of cows in herds practicing bucket-fed calf feeding (opposed to suckling) had higher odds of IMI caused by Staphylococcus aureus [OR: 6.05 (1.31-27.90)]. Except for BCS, IMI caused by non-aureus staphylococci was associated with the same risk factors as IMI caused by any pathogen. No access to feed and water immediately after milking [OR: 2.41 (1.26-4.60)], higher parity [OR: 3.60 (1.20-10.82)] and tick infestation [OR: 2.42 (1

  14. Reproductive Systems for North American Dairy Cattle Herds.

    PubMed

    Chebel, Ricardo C; Ribeiro, Eduardo S

    2016-07-01

    Reproductive inefficiency compromises the profitability of dairy herds and the health and longevity of individual cows. In the average dairy herd, the combination of estrus detection and ovulation synchronization protocols yields the best economic return. Genomic selection of animals is particularly profitable in situations in which little is known about their genetic potential. Biosensor systems in milking parlors may allow for the design of reproductive strategies tailored for cows according to their physiologic needs while optimizing economic return. PMID:27324450

  15. Dynamics of E.coli virulence factors in dairy cow herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Dairy farms are known reservoirs of entero-pathogenic E. coli (EPEC). EPEC, or the virulence factors associated with pathogenicity, have been detected in manure, milk, and the farm environment. However, it is unclear which farm compartments are reservoirs contributing to EPEC persistence...

  16. Somatic Cell Counts of Milk from Dairy Herd Improvement Herds during 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2006 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  17. Somatic cell counts of milk from Dairy Herd Improvement herds during 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2009 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  18. Somatic Cell Counts of Milk from Dairy Herd Improvement Herds during 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2007 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  19. Somatic cell counts of milk from Dairy Herd Improvement herds during 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2008 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  20. Within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in endemically infected dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L R

    2013-10-01

    In this study within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin was investigated in three age groups (calves, young stock, adult cows) during five herd visits at 3-month intervals of 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A total of 10162 paired faecal cultures and antibody measurements were used to calculate the age and temporal dynamics of seroprevalence and prevalence of positive faecal cultures. Faecal culture-positive prevalence was generally low. It was highest (5.4%) in calves during December to February. Seroprevalence varied from 0% to 70% between herds, but was generally more stable in young stock and adult cows than in calves. Hierarchical mixed-model results showed that seroprevalence was associated with the bacteriological status in calves and cows, but not in young stock. These results can be used to develop and validate theoretical infection dynamics models and to design effective control programmes for Salmonella Dublin in dairy herds. PMID:23328264

  1. Paratuberculosis sero-status and milk production, SCC and calving interval in Irish dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of paratuberculosis sero-status on milk yield, fat, protein, somatic cell count and calving interval in Irish dairy herds. Serum from all animals over 12 months of age (n = 2,602) in 34 dairy herds was tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using an ELISA. Herds were categorised by sero-status into positive, non-negative and negative, where a positive herd contained two or more positive cows, a non-negative herd contained only one positive cow and a negative herd contained no positive cows. Data at animal, parity and herd-level were analysed by multiple regression using general linear models. Positive herds (mean herd size = 129 cows) and non-negative herds (81 cows) were larger than negative herds (72 cows) (P < 0.01). Negative herds had the highest economic breeding index (EBI), while positive herds had the highest estimated breeding value (EBV) for milk yield. There was no significant effect of paratuberculosis sero-status at animal, parity or herd-level on milk yield, milk fat or protein production, somatic cell count score (SCCS) or calving interval. Negative herds tended to have a lower SCCS than positive and nonnegative herds (P = 0.087). This study only examined the effects of paratuberculosis sero-status but did not examine the clinical effects of Johne's disease at the farm or dairy industry levels. PMID:21851733

  2. Massive vulvar edema in 2 prepartum dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert O.

    2014-01-01

    Two late gestation Holstein cows about to begin the third lactation developed massive vulvar edema. These were the only affected animals in the herd of 500 milking cows. The vulvar edema spontaneously regressed postpartum for both cows. Massive vulvar swelling is seldom observed in dairy cows in advanced pregnancy and is not described in the literature. PMID:24790232

  3. Prevalence of subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Timothy A; Lippolis, John D; McCluskey, Brian J; Goff, Jesse P; Horst, Ronald L

    2011-04-01

    The prevalence of subclinical hypocalcemia in the transition cow is unknown. Cows with subclinical hypocalcemia have no clinical signs of hypocalcemia but may be more susceptible to other diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical hypocalcemia in the US dairy herds. As a part of the United States Department of Agriculture's National Animal Health Monitoring System 2002 Dairy study, serum samples were collected from 1462 cows within 48 h of parturition. The samples were sorted by lactation number: 1st (n=454), 2nd (n=447), 3rd (n=291), 4th (n=166), 5th (n=72), and 6th (n=32). Subclinical hypocalcemia (<2.0 mM) increased with age and was present in 25%, 41%, 49%, 51%, 54%, and 42% of 1st-6th lactation cows, respectively. Cows with serum calcium concentrations >2.0 mM had significantly lower serum non-esterified fatty acids indicating better energy balance than those with subclinical hypocalcemia. Subclinical hypocalcemia may make cows more susceptible to secondary diseases but more research will be required to determine if this is true. PMID:20434377

  4. Association between feeding perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cultivar Grasslands impact) containing high concentrations of ergovaline, and health and productivity in a herd of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lean, I J

    2001-04-01

    Perennial ryegrasses are frequently infected with fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii) to increase the resistance of the plant to insect damage. Unfortunately, a side effect of endophyte infection can be the production of alkaloids, including Lolitrem B and ergovaline, that produce toxic effects in animals. A significant 4.6 litre decrease in milk production in a herd of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows was associated with high concentrations of ergovaline in ryegrass silage. Simultaneously, milk SCC increased significantly over a comparable period and reproductive performance declined. Body condition score and coat condition of cows were adversely affected. Unique aspects of this Case report include; very stable production of the herd over a period of years before and after cessation of feeding silage containing high concentrations of ergovaline; the presence of high concentrations of ergovaline in the silage; and a controlled diet that reduced the risks of variation in feed availability and other sources of toxins. Veterinarians and other farm advisors should be aware of the potential for negative effects on animal health and production of fungal endophyte and the potential for Neotyphodium lolii to produce ergovaline. PMID:11349413

  5. Dairy Herd Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanyk, Alison M.; Bishop, Natalie

    This monograph, designed to help secondary students recognize symptoms of major dairy cattle diseases, stresses the need for preventative management practices and cooperation between the dairy farmer and the veterinarian. The first of three parts, The Healthy Animal, is divided into five units: body parts, vital signs, excretions, behavior, and…

  6. Association between bovine-leukosis virus seroprevalence and herd-level productivity on US dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Ott, S L; Johnson, R; Wells, S J

    2003-12-12

    Bovine-leukosis virus (BLV; also termed 'bovine-leukemia virus') is a retrovirus that primarily affects lymphoid tissue of dairy and beef cattle. Our objective was to investigate the association between BLV infection and annual value of production (AVP) on dairy herds within the United States, as part of the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System's 1996 dairy study. 1006 herds (in 20 states) with at least 30 dairy cows were interviewed during 1996. The agar-gel immunodiffusion test was used to detect serum antibodies to BLV. 10-40 cows from each herd were tested and each tested cow was classified as negative or positive based on results of a single test. A multivariable regression model was used with the 976 herds with complete data for analysis. When compared to herds with no test-positive cows, herds with test-positive cows produced 218 kg per cow (i.e. 3%) less milk. The average reduction in AVP was $59 per cow for test-positive herds relative to test-negative herds. For the dairy industry as a whole, BLV seropositivity was associated with loss to producers of $285 million and $240 million for consumers. Most of this $525 million industry loss was due to reduced milk production in test-positive herds. PMID:14623410

  7. Management of Wisconsin dairy herds enrolled in milk quality teams.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A C O; Caraviello, D Z; Ruegg, P L

    2005-07-01

    A study was conducted to characterize Wisconsin dairy herds that enrolled in a team-based milk quality improvement program and to assess association of specific management practices with milking efficiency and milk quality. Management and financial data were obtained from dairy farms (n = 180) that participated in the program. Upon enrollment, herds reported a median bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC) of 333,500 cells/mL, an average of 125 lactating cows, and a mean rolling-herd average of 10,100 kg. Many management practices and bulk milk SCC were strongly associated with herd size and facility type. Managers of herds housed in freestall barns adopted more standardized procedures and recommended management practices compared with managers of herds housed in stall barns. Those managers also reported less bulk milk SCC and greater milk yields, and had a tendency for lower prevalence of subclinical mastitis and reduced estimates of the incidence of clinical mastitis. Managers of freestall herds received more quality premiums for milk shipped, estimated that they had fewer financial losses related to mastitis, and reported more efficient milking performance. A more efficient milking performance did not increase estimates of clinical mastitis or bulk milk SCC. In herds having freestalls, frequent training of employees seemed to be the fundamental factor that increased milking efficiency. Bulk milk SCC was positively associated with standard plate count, estimated rate of clinical mastitis, prevalence of subclinical mastitis, numbers of cows culled for mastitis, and estimated financial losses attributable to mastitis. Herds reporting high bulk milk SCC had an increased prevalence of subclinical mastitis, but incidence did not differ among bulk milk SCC categories. Overall, herds did not discuss milk quality frequently with dairy professionals, and herds having greater bulk milk SCC reported less consultation with their herd veterinarian. PMID:15956328

  8. Survey of facility and management characteristics of large, Upper Midwest dairy herds clustered by Dairy Herd Improvement records.

    PubMed

    Brotzman, R L; Döpfer, D; Foy, M R; Hess, J P; Nordlund, K V; Bennett, T B; Cook, N B

    2015-11-01

    A survey of management practices was conducted to investigate potential associations with groupings of herds formed by cluster analysis (CA) of Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) data of 557 Upper Midwest herds of 200 cows or greater. Differences in herd management practices were identified between the groups, despite underlying similarities; for example, freestall housing and milking in a parlor. Group 6 comprised larger herds with a high proportion of primiparous cows and most frequently utilized practices promoting increased production [e.g., 84.4% used recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)], decreased lameness (e.g., 96.9% used routine hoof trimming for cows), and improved efficiency in reproduction [e.g., 93.8% synchronized the first breeding in cows (SYNCH)] and labor (e.g., mean ± SD, 67 ± 19 cows per 50-h per week full-time equivalent worker). Group 1 had the best mean DHI performances and followed most closely group 6 for the rate of adoption of intensive management practices while tending to outperform group 6 despite a generally smaller mean herd size (e.g., 42.3 ± 3.6 kg vs. 39.9 ± 3.6 kg of energy-corrected milk production; 608 ± 352 cows vs. 1,716 ± 1,405 cows). Group 2 were smaller herds with relatively high levels of performance that used less intensive management (e.g., 100% milked twice daily) and less technology (33.3 vs. 73.0% of group 1 used rbST). Group 4 were smaller but poorer-performing herds with low turnover and least frequently used intensive management practices (e.g., 39.1% SYNCH; 30.4% allowed mature, high-producing cows access to pasture). Group 5 used modern technologies and practices associated with improved production, yet had the least desirable mean DHI performance of all 6 groups. This group had the lowest proportion of deep loose-bedded stalls (only 52.2% used sand bedding) and the highest proportion (34.8%) of herds not using routine hoof trimming. The survey of group 3 herds did not reveal strong trends in management. The

  9. Mycobacterium chelonei Mastitis in a Quebec Dairy Herd

    PubMed Central

    Ménard, L.; Vanasse, C.; Diaz, C.; Rivard, G.

    1983-01-01

    An epizootic of bovine mastitis caused by a nontuberculous mycobacterial agent occurred in a large Quebec dairy herd. This mastitis problem was characterized by the occurrence of a high number of cows with severely inflamed, indurated and therapeutically incurable quarters. Routine diagnostic laboratory methods yielded negative cultural findings. Approximately 40% of the milking cows developed chronic mastitis. Poor sanitation, improper milking procedures and a faulty milking system prevailed at that time. PMID:17422316

  10. The selenium status of dairy herds in Prince Edward Island

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Bulk tank milk selenium (Se) concentration was compared with mean serum Se concentration in 15 herds and was found to be an accurate reflection of the herd Se status. The Se status of 109 Prince Edward Island (PEI) dairy herds was monitored for 1 year using bulk tank milk Se concentration. Fifty-nine percent of the herds surveyed were, at some point, found to be marginal or deficient in Se, putting them at risk of disease and suboptimal production. The periods of greatest risk of deficiency were fall and winter, at which time 5% and 4%, respectively, of herds sampled fell in the range considered truly deficient in Se. Herds in which Se supplementation was provided in the form of a commercial dairy concentrate were over 4 times more likely to be Se-adequate than herds not using this method, and adjusted average daily milk yield was 7.6% greater in herds determined to be Se-adequate when compared with Se-marginal herds. We conclude that many dairy producers in PEI are providing insufficient supplementary Se in the ration to meet the recommended Se intake for lactating cows. PMID:15025148

  11. Relationship between herd-level incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, general risk factors and claw lesions in individual dairy cows recorded at maintenance claw trimming

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Laminitis and energy-related postpartum diseases share several risk factors, indicating a common etiology. Thus, a herd’s incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, such as displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis, might reflect the likelihood of cows to suffer from laminitis-related claw lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between herd-level incidence rate of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis, general risk factors, and claw lesions in individual cows recorded at maintenance claw trimming. Methods The dataset consisted of 6773 trimmings, performed between 2004 and 2006 by professional trimmers, from 3607 Swedish Red and Swedish Holstein cows in 26 herds. The herds were classified as having a high, inconsistent-high or low incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, based on the number of recorded cases of veterinary-diagnosed displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis in the Swedish national animal disease recording system during 2002 to 2006, and observations and interviews in connections with herd visits. Generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate the association between herd-level incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases and laminitis-related lesions including sole ulcer and sole hemorrhage; and hygiene-related lesions including interdigital dermatitis, digital dermatitis, heel-horn erosion, verrucose dermatitis, and interdigital hyperplasia; and absence of any claw lesion. Systematic effects, including first-order interactions, with P < 0.05 were included in the models. Herd classification was forced into the models, and a random effect of herd was included. Results In comparison to herds with a high incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, low-incidence herds showed a lower odds ratio (OR; 0.2) for laminitis-related lesions in cows trimmed during the summer months. Low-incidence herds also showed numerically lower OR estimates for laminitis

  12. Improving cow herd production through early weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early weaning, in spring calving production systems, has intrigued many producers to consider this alternative management practice especially during extended droughts and as a tool to promote stayability within a cow herd for young developing cows. The first objective of this study was to evaluate ...

  13. Management practices on organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R; Wolff, L J; Michels, L; Schroth, S; Kelton, D F; Heins, B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe and compare husbandry practices on organic and conventional dairy farms of similar sizes in Minnesota. Organic (ORG, n=35), same-sized conventional (SC, n=15, <200 cows) and medium-sized conventional (MC, n=13, ≥200 cows) dairy herds were visited in 2012, and farmers were interviewed once about their farm, herd demographics, and herd management practices concerning nutrition, housing, and reproductive programs. Organic farms had been established as long as conventional farms, and ORG producers had most commonly selected ORG farming because of a negative perception of pesticides for human health. The distribution of cattle breeds and ages differed across farm types. Organic farms had more crossbred cows and a greater number of older cows than conventional farms, who had mainly Holstein cattle. Organic farms did not dock tails, were more likely to use breeding bulls, and were less likely to conduct pregnancy diagnoses in cattle. All conventional farmers fed corn, corn silage, and hay, but no forage or feed supplement was fed by all ORG farms with the exception of pasture. Kelp was supplemented on most ORG farms but on none of the conventional farms. In summary, although there were differences across farm types regarding the use of pasture, feeds, and feed additives, breed and age distribution, reproductive management, and the use of tail docking, observations in other management areas showed large overlap across herd types. PMID:26830734

  14. Benchmarking dairy herd health status using routinely recorded herd summary data.

    PubMed

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2016-02-01

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to nongenetic factors, such as the environment. More rapid improvement of dairy cattle health may be attainable if herd health programs incorporate environmental and managerial aspects. More than 1,100 herd characteristics are regularly recorded on farm test-days. We combined these data with producer-recorded health event data, and parametric and nonparametric models were used to benchmark herd and cow health status. Health events were grouped into 3 categories for analyses: mastitis, reproductive, and metabolic. Both herd incidence and individual incidence were used as dependent variables. Models implemented included stepwise logistic regression, support vector machines, and random forests. At both the herd and individual levels, random forest models attained the highest accuracy for predicting health status in all health event categories when evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracy (SD) ranged from 0.61 (0.04) to 0.63 (0.04) when using random forest models at the herd level. Accuracy of prediction (SD) at the individual cow level ranged from 0.87 (0.06) to 0.93 (0.001) with random forest models. Highly significant variables and key words from logistic regression and random forest models were also investigated. All models identified several of the same key factors for each health event category, including movement out of the herd, size of the herd, and weather-related variables. We concluded that benchmarking health status using routinely collected herd data is feasible. Nonparametric models were better suited to handle this complex data with numerous variables. These data mining techniques were able to perform prediction of health status and could add evidence to personal experience in herd

  15. Prevalence of intramammary infection in Dutch dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Sampimon, Otlis; Barkema, Herman W; Berends, Inge; Sol, Jan; Lam, Theo

    2009-05-01

    A survey was carried out in 2003 in 49 dairy herds to determine the overall and pathogen-specific prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) in Dutch dairy herds, and to compare the distribution with four studies performed from 1973 to 1985 in The Netherlands. Herds were randomly selected stratified over the 12 Dutch provinces, had at least 40 lactating cows and participated in the Dutch milk recording system. Quarter milk samples were collected from all 408 cows with a somatic cell count (SCC) >or=250,000 cells/ml and 145 heifers with SCC >or=150,000 cells/ml at the last milk test before the farm visit. Additionally, samples were collected from 519 (approximately 25%) of the remaining low-SCC cows and heifers with a SCC at the last milk test before the farm visit of <250 000 and <150 000 cells/ml, respectively. Bacterial growth occurred in 37.3% of milk samples of high-SCC cows and in 21.1% of low-SCC cows. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently isolated group of bacteria (10.8% of quarters) and were found in all herds. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus IMI was lower in 2003 than in 1973, respectively 1.8% and 6.2% of quarters. Prevalence of Streptococcus uberis and Str. dysgalactiae IMI was almost the same in the five samplings during the 30-year period, at 1.1-1.7 and 0.9-1.5%, respectively. Str. agalactiae was not found in this study. Prevalence of CNS IMI was higher in lactating heifers, while prevalence of Str. uberis, Str. dysgalactiae and penicillin-resistant Staph. aureus IMI was higher in older cows. Because distribution of pathogens changes over time, herd-level samples for bacteriological culturing must be taken regularly to monitor udder health. Additionally, national mastitis prevalence studies give important information through monitoring the national udder health status. PMID:19121233

  16. Characterizing biosecurity, health, and culling during dairy herd expansions.

    PubMed

    Faust, M A; Kinsel, M L; Kirkpatrick, M A

    2001-04-01

    Our objectives were to investigate strategies for biosecurity, expansion, and culling for expanding dairy herds in the Upper Midwest. Eighteen dairies in Iowa and Wisconsin were visited, and dairy managers and veterinarians were interviewed to characterize five biosecurity practices, herd culling practices, vaccines administered, and ensuing disease status for the herds. The majority of herds that were interviewed failed to employ comprehensive biosecurity programs for incoming cattle. Nearly 60% of herds obtained cattle from sources for which it was difficult to document genetic backgrounds and health histories, fewer than half required health testing for incoming cattle, and approximately 50% quarantined new cattle on arrival. Despite high rates of vaccination for bovine viral diarrhea, all herd owners and managers indicated that herd biosecurity was compromised as a result of expansion. Half of the interviewed herds indicated that bovine viral diarrhea and papillomatous digital dermatitis were notable disease problems. Herds that obtained cattle with unknown backgrounds and health status experienced the largest number of diseases. Before expansion, the most frequently cited reasons for culling were reproductively unsound; low milk production; mastitis, poor udder health, and high SCC; during expansion, the strategic decision to cull cows for low milk production was used less often. In addition, the stochastic simulation model, DairyORACLE, was used to evaluate economic outcomes for several expansion alternatives. Five model scenarios studied were: base scenario (herd size was maintained) and four expansion scenarios--all paired combinations of heifer quality (high, low) and voluntary culling (implemented, not implemented). Culling for low milk production yielded an additional $23.29 annually (6-yr annuity) per cow, but on the basis of purchased replacements, no voluntary culling was most profitable. Purchasing high versus low quality replacement heifers for

  17. Relationship between leukocyte population and nutritive conditions in dairy herds with frequently appearing mastitis.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kohiruimaki, Masayuki; Hayashi, Tomohito; Katsuda, Ken; Matsuda, Kei-ichi; Masui, Machiko; Abe, Ryo; Kawamura, Sei-ichi

    2006-02-01

    To clarify the relationship between cellular immune status and nutritive condition, feeding program, blood profiles, and leukocyte populations were analyzed in two dairy herds experiencing frequent mastitis. Fourteen of the 35 lactating cows in herd A, and 18 of the 50 lactating cows in herd B scored positive on the California Mastitis Test (CMT), and 3 of the 73 lactating cows were CMT positive in herd C, which was the control. All herds were evaluated during five different milking stages, and blood was collected from five cows at each stage. With regard to feed content, the percentages of total digestible nutrients (TDN) and crude protein (CP) were found to be lower in herds A and B than in herd C. Levels of serum total cholesterol and blood urea nitrogen were lower in herds A and B than those in herd C. Neutrophil counts in herds A and B were increased compared to the neutrophil counts in herd C. On the other hand, the numbers of CD3(+) T cells and CD14-MHC class(+) cells were lower in herd A and B than in herd C. A decrease in peripheral lymphocytes and undernourishment were observed in the herds with frequent occurring mastitis. PMID:16520531

  18. A descriptive epidemiological study of mastitis in 12 Irish dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Factors relating to the occurrence of mastitis were studied on 12 Irish dairy herds with histories of elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and/or increased incidence of clinical mastitis cases. Milk recording data were analysed, housing conditions and calving areas were examined; dry cow therapy, clinical mastitis records, milking technique and aspects of milking machine function were assessed. Herds with a ratio of less than 110 cubicles per 100 cows were more likely to experience environmental mastitis. Herds with inadequate calving facilities, where cows spent prolonged periods on straw bedding, were likely to acquire environmental mastitis. In the majority of the herds, the selection of dry cow therapy lacked adequate planning. The majority of farmers took no action to reduce pain experienced by cows suffering mastitis. Deficiencies in parlour hygiene were evident in all herds experiencing elevation in SCC. PMID:21851663

  19. Herd-level risk factors for hock injuries in freestall-housed dairy cows in the northeastern United States and California.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, A K; Chapinal, N; Weary, D M; Galo, E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between management and facility design factors and the prevalence of hock injuries in high-producing dairy cows in 76 freestall herds in the northeastern United States (NE-US; Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania) and California (CA). One group of high-production multiparous cows was monitored on each farm, and data on management, facility and stall design, and the conditions of the hocks were collected. Focal cows [n=38 ± 3 (mean ± standard deviation)] were evaluated for hock injuries using a 3-point scale (where 1=healthy and 3=evidently swollen or severe injury). Measures associated with the proportion (logit-transformed) of cows having injuries (score ≥ 2) or severe injuries (score=3) at the univariable level were submitted to multivariable general linear models. In NE-US, overall hock injuries increased with the percentage of stalls with fecal contamination [odds ratio (OR)=1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.02-1.54, for a 10% increase], and with the use of sawdust as bedding (OR=3.47; CI=1.14-10.62), and decreased with deep bedding (i.e., at least 10 cm depth of any type of bedding; OR=0.05; CI=0.02-0.14), use of sand as bedding (OR=0.06; CI=0.02-0.15), bedding dry matter (DM) ≥ 83.9% (OR=0.08; CI=0.03-0.20), and access to pasture during the dry period (OR=0.17; CI=0.05-0.53). When these variables were submitted to a multivariable model, the presence of deep bedding was the only factor that remained significant, explaining 54% of the variation in overall injuries. Severe hock injuries increased with the use of automatic scrapers (OR=2.29; CI=1.11-4.71) and the percentage of stalls with fecal contamination (OR=1.14; CI=1.00-1.31, for a 10% increase), and decreased with sand bedding (OR=0.22; CI=0.10-0.49), deep bedding (OR=0.24; CI=0.11-0.52), bedding DM ≥ 83.9% (OR=0.28; CI=0.14-0.58), and access to pasture during the dry period (OR=0.42; CI=0.18-0.97). The final multivariable model, which

  20. Identifying risk factors associated with lameness in pasture-based dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, S; Rabiee, A R; Gunn, A; House, J K

    2016-09-01

    Lameness is a significant welfare concern for dairy farmers and a major contributing economic loss to the dairy industry. Information is limited on environmental and managerial risk factors associated with lameness in Australian dairy herds. The objective of this study was to explore and quantify the environmental and management risk factors associated with lameness in pasture-based dairy herds. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 63 pasture-based dairy herds between 2011 and 2014, where all lactating cows were locomotion scored (scale 1-4) during a single visit. Environmental and management variables, such as length of main track and animal handling practices, were recorded during the visit. The prevalence of lameness was measured for each farm and associated risk factors were analyzed using a Generalized Linear Model, where farm was the unit of analysis. Estimated average prevalence of lameness was 18.9% (range 5 to 44.5%). The prevalence of lameness was associated with the amount of rainfall during the 30 d before the farm assessment, smoothness of concrete surface and available space per cow in the holding yard, and length of feed-pad available per cow. Inappropriate handling of cows on the track (e.g., causing sideways pushing among cows) was also a contributing risk factor to high prevalence of lameness in these dairy herds. The findings of this study suggest that by managing several environmental and farming practices, producers can reduce the prevalence of lameness, leading to improved productivity of their herds. PMID:27394954

  1. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Dairy Herds.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jeffrey S

    2016-07-01

    Timed artificial insemination (AI) programs are commonly used in the dairy industry for lactating cows, but less so in replacement heifers. Excellent programs using combinations of prostaglandin F2α and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in protocols relying on timed AI without detection of estrus or in protocols that combine timed AI with inseminations performed after detected estrus are able to achieve acceptable pregnancy percentages. In herds with excellent estrus detection, timed AI programs serve as a failsafe system to address cows or heifers not yet inseminated after a defined period of estrus detection. PMID:27039693

  2. A Survey of Mastitis in Selected Ontario Dairy Herds

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, B. W.; Barnum, D. A.; Meek, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    A mastitis survey involving 74 Ontario dairy herds was conducted. The prevalence of infection at the quarter level was found to be 4.1% with Streptococcus agalactiae, 4.5% with other streptococcal species and 8.0% with Staphylococcus aureus. Regardless of the infection status, the geometric mean somatic cell count was found to increase with age of the cow but no increase was observed with increasing stage of lactation. The percentage of cows from which a bacterial pathogen was isolated increased with age but not with stage of lactation. PMID:17422140

  3. Influence of herd structure and type of virus introduction on the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) within a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Ezanno, Pauline; Fourichon, Christine; Seegers, Henri

    2008-01-01

    A herd is a population structured into groups not all equally in contact, which may influence within-herd spread of pathogens. Herd structure varies among cattle herds. However, published models of the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) assume no herd structure or a unique structure chosen as a representative. Our objective was to identify--for different index cases introduced into an initially BVDV--free dairy herd - risky (favourable) herd structures, which increased (decreased) BVDV spread and persistence compared to a reference structure. Classically, dairy herds are divided into calves, young heifers, bred heifers, lactating cows and dry cows. In the reference scenario, groups are all equally in contact. We evaluated the effect of isolating or merging groups. Three index cases were tested: an open persistently-infected (PI) heifer, an open transiently-infected heifer, an immune heifer carrying a PI foetus. Merging all groups and merging calves and lactating cows were risky scenarios. Isolating each group, isolating lactating cows from other groups, and merging calves and young heifers were favourable scenarios. In most structures, the most risky index cases were the following: first, the entry of a PI heifer; second, the birth of a PI calf; last, the entry of a transiently-infected heifer. Recommendations for dairy herds are to raise young animals together before breeding and to isolate lactating cows from others as much as possible. These recommendations will be less efficient if a PI adult enters into the herd. PMID:18346451

  4. Factors associated with frequency of abortions recorded through Dairy Herd Improvement test plans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequency of abortions recorded through Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) testing was summarized for cows with lactations completed from 2001 through 2009. Reported abortions were 1.3% for 8.5 million DHI lactations of cows with recorded breeding dates and that were >151 d pregnant at lactation terminati...

  5. The relationship between herd level disease incidence and a return over feed index in Ontario dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, Chris J.; Lissemore, Kerry D.; Duffield, Todd F.; Leslie, Ken E.; Kelton, David F.; Grexton, Bill

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the current research was to examine the association of herd level disease incidence with the return over feed (ROF) (milk income minus feed cost) herd profit index offered through Canwest Dairy Herd Improvement. The lactational incidence risks (LIR) for displaced abomasum, retained placenta, clinical mastitis, milk fever, clinical ketosis, and lameness submitted by producers (n = 48) were similar to previous reports. However, there was no negative association of clinical disease LIR’s with ROF. Subclinical ketosis and subclinical mastitis cumulative incidence were determined during the early postpartum period by using a cow-side test for betahydroxybutyrate in milk and the California Mastitis Test, respectively. Subclinical mastitis was not associated with ROF. However, a unit increase in the cumulative incidence of subclinical ketosis was associated with a decrease of $0.015/cow/day in the ROF. The results highlight the economic significance that subclinical ketosis may have in Ontario dairy herds. PMID:16933554

  6. Factors predisposing dairy and beef cows to grass tetany.

    PubMed

    Harris, D J; Lambell, R G; Oliver, C J

    1983-08-01

    In a study of dairy and beef herds on 120 farms in south-western Victoria, losses attributed to grass tetany were shown to have been an important cause of economic loss during the cooler months of 1980. Thin dairy cows had a higher incidence of suspected grass tetany than dairy cows in moderate body condition, and both thin and fat beef cows had a higher incidence than beef cows in moderate body condition. A lower incidence was found among dairy cows when the available pasture or hay contained a high percentage of clover, when cows in moderate body condition had been grazed on pastures topdressed with low rates of potassium fertilisers, and when cows had been rotated onto fresh pasture at least daily rather than at 2 or 3 day intervals. The incidence among dairy cows was also associated with the length of available pasture, the correlation being positive for cows of moderate body condition, but negative for thin cows. Possible reasons for the associations are discussed. Only a small proportion of farmers adopted measures to prevent grass tetany, and those who did often applied them inefficiently. Practicable control measures are suggested on the basis of the survey results. PMID:6639526

  7. An outbreak of mucosal disease in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Løken, T; Gamlem, H; Lysbakken, O

    1989-01-01

    An outbreak of mucosal disease (MD) was studied in a dairy herd, comprising 12 cows, 9 heifers and 18 calves. During a period of 1 month, six 5 to 8 month-old calves showed typical signs of MD. They all died or were killed in extremis after 2-8 days with progressively worsening clinical signs. Post mortem lesions were examined in one calf. Non-cytopathogenic MD virus was isolated from serum or tissues from 3 clinically affected calves and from 1 healthy heifer. All cows and heifers except for the viremic one possessed neutralizing antibodies against bovine pestivirus. According to the current MD-pathogenesis concept, the affected calves were probably infected transplacentally during the first half of foetal life with pestivirus from the persistently infected heifer in the herd. PMID:2629507

  8. Mastitis and related management factors in certified organic dairy herds in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Cecilia; Emanuelson, Ulf; Forslund, Kristina; Hansson, Ingrid; Ekman, Torkel

    2006-01-01

    Background Mastitis is one of the major threats to animal health, in organic farming as well as conventional. Preliminary studies of organic dairy herds have indicated better udder health in such herds, as compared to conventional herds. The aim of this paper was to further study mastitis and management related factors in certified organic dairy herds. Methods An observational study of 26 certified organic dairy herds in mid-eastern Sweden was conducted during one year. A large-animal practitioner visited the herds three times and clinically examined and sampled cows, and collected information about general health and management routines. Data on milk production and disorders treated by a veterinarian in the 26 herds, as well as in 1102 conventional herds, were retrieved from official records. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between herd type (organic vs. conventional) and incidence of disorders. Results The organic herds that took part in the study ranged in size from 12 to 64 cows, in milk production from 3772 to 10334 kg per cow and year, and in bulk milk somatic cell counts from 83000 to 280000 cells/ml. The organic herds were found to have a lower incidence of clinical mastitis, teat injuries, and a lower proportion of cows with a high somatic cell count (as indicated by the UDS, Udder Disease Score) compared to conventional herds. The spectrum of udder pathogenic bacteria was similar to that found in other Swedish studies. Treatment of mastitis was found to be similar to what is practised in conventional herds. Homeopathic remedies were not widely used in the treatment of clinical mastitis. The calves in most of these organic herds suckled their dams for only a few days, which were not considered to substantially affect the udder health. The main management factor that was different from conventional herds was the feeding strategy, where organic herds used a larger share of forage. Conclusion Udder health in Swedish organic

  9. Cluster analysis of Dairy Herd Improvement data to discover trends in performance characteristics in large Upper Midwest dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Brotzman, R L; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K; Bennett, T B; Gomez Rivas, A; Döpfer, D

    2015-05-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a variable reduction method used on over-parameterized data sets with a vast number of variables and a limited number of observations, such as Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) data, to select subsets of variables that describe the largest amount of variance. Cluster analysis (CA) segregates objects, in this case dairy herds, into groups based upon similarity in multiple characteristics simultaneously. This project aimed to apply PCA to discover the subset of most meaningful DHI variables and to discover groupings of dairy herds with similar performance characteristics. Year 2011 DHI data was obtained for 557 Upper Midwest herds with test-day mean ≥200 cows (assumed mostly freestall housed), that remained on test for the entire year. The PCA reduced an initial list of 22 variables to 16. The average distance method of CA grouped farms based on best goodness of fit determined by the minimum cophenetic distance. Six groupings provided the optimal fitting number of clusters. Descriptive statistics for the 16 variables were computed per group. On observations of means, groups 1, 2, and 6 demonstrated the best performances in most variables, including energy-corrected milk, linear somatic cell score (log of somatic cell count), dry period intramammary infection cure rate, new intramammary infection risk, risk of subclinical intramammary infection at first test, age at first calving, days in milk, and Transition Cow Index. Groups 3, 4, and 5 demonstrated the worst mean performances in most the PCA-selected variables, including DIM, age at first calving, risk of subclinical intramammary infection at first test, and dry period intramammary infection cure rate. Groups 4 and 5 also had the worst mean herd performances in energy-corrected milk, Transition Cow Index, linear somatic cell score, and new intramammary infection risk. Further investigation will be conducted to reveal patterns of management associated with herd categorization. The

  10. Veterinary dairy herd health management in Europe: constraints and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cannas da Silva, J; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Vagneur, M; Bexiga, R; Gelfert, C C; Baumgartner, W

    2006-03-01

    The nature of veterinary work in dairy health management in Europe has changed over the past years and will change even more dramatically in the near future. The consumers and the media show increasing concern about animal welfare, safety of products of animal origin and traceability of animal products. Farmers in Europe have to produce under strict, often expensive and laborious regulations, while still commercially competing with farmers outside the EU and not subject to the same rules. Veterinarians should adapt their knowledge and skills to the new challenges and developments of the dairy sector. Dairy farmers nowadays ask for support in areas that go beyond clinical activities: environmental protection, welfare, nutrition, grassland management, economics and business management. Bovine practitioners should be able to advise in many different areas and subjects--that is the challenge to our profession. Veterinary education with regards to cattle health management should start with individual animal clinical work, which constitutes the basis of herd health advisory programmes. The bovine practitioner should then look beyond that and regard the herd as the unit. Each diseased cow or group of cows should be detected early enough to avoid financial losses or such losses should be prevented altogether by detecting and managing risk factors contributing to disease occurrence. Herd health and production management programmes represent the first level to optimise dairy farm performance. Expansions to that should further be considered, comprising both animal health and welfare issues, as well as food safety and public health issues. The latter could be addressed by quality risk management programmes following the HACCP-principles. Cattle veterinarians should follow recent developments and invest in new skills and knowledge in order to maintain their usefulness to the modern dairy farmer. Finally we are convinced that the cattle practitioner should evolve into this

  11. Risk factors for displaced abomasum or ketosis in Swedish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Stengärde, L; Hultgren, J; Tråvén, M; Holtenius, K; Emanuelson, U

    2012-03-01

    Risk factors associated with high or low long-term incidence of displaced abomasum (DA) or clinical ketosis were studied in 60 Swedish dairy herds, using multivariable logistic regression modelling. Forty high-incidence herds were included as cases and 20 low-incidence herds as controls. Incidence rates were calculated based on veterinary records of clinical diagnoses. During the 3-year period preceding the herd classification, herds with a high incidence had a disease incidence of DA or clinical ketosis above the 3rd quartile in a national database for disease recordings. Control herds had no cows with DA or clinical ketosis. All herds were visited during the housing period and herdsmen were interviewed about management routines, housing, feeding, milk yield, and herd health. Target groups were heifers in late gestation, dry cows, and cows in early lactation. Univariable logistic regression was used to screen for factors associated with being a high-incidence herd. A multivariable logistic regression model was built using stepwise regression. A higher maximum daily milk yield in multiparous cows and a large herd size (p=0.054 and p=0.066, respectively) tended to be associated with being a high-incidence herd. Not cleaning the heifer feeding platform daily increased the odds of having a high-incidence herd twelvefold (p<0.01). Keeping cows in only one group in the dry period increased the odds of having a high incidence herd eightfold (p=0.03). Herd size was confounded with housing system. Housing system was therefore added to the final logistic regression model. In conclusion, a large herd size, a high maximum daily milk yield, keeping dry cows in one group, and not cleaning the feeding platform daily appear to be important risk factors for a high incidence of DA or clinical ketosis in Swedish dairy herds. These results confirm the importance of housing, management and feeding in the prevention of metabolic disorders in dairy cows around parturition and in early

  12. Copper toxicity in a New Zealand dairy herd

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic copper toxicity was diagnosed in a Jersey herd in the Waikato region of New Zealand following an investigation into the deaths of six cattle from a herd of 250 dry cows. Clinical signs and post-mortem examination results were consistent with a hepatopathy, and high concentrations of copper in liver and blood samples of clinically affected animals confirmed copper toxicity. Liver copper concentrations and serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were both raised in a group of healthy animals sampled at random from the affected herd, indicating an ongoing risk to the remaining cattle; these animals all had serum copper concentrations within normal limits. Serum samples and liver biopsies were also collected and assayed for copper from animals within two other dairy herds on the same farm; combined results from all three herds showed poor correlation between serum and liver copper concentrations. To reduce liver copper concentrations the affected herd was drenched with 0.5 g ammonium molybdate and 1 g sodium sulphate per cow for five days, and the herd was given no supplementary feed or mineral supplements. Liver biopsies were repeated 44 days after the initial biopsies (approximately 1 month after the end of the drenching program); these showed a significant 37.3% decrease in liver copper concentrations (P <0.02). Also there were no further deaths after the start of the drenching program. Since there was no control group it is impossible to quantify the effect of the drenching program in this case, and dietary changes were also made that would have depleted liver copper stores. Historical analysis of the diet was difficult due to poor record keeping, but multiple sources of copper contributed to a long term copper over supplementation of the herd; the biggest source of copper was a mineral supplement. The farmer perceived this herd to have problems with copper deficiency prior to the diagnosis of copper toxicity, so this case demonstrates the importance of

  13. Premilking teat disinfection: is it worthwhile in pasture-grazed dairy herds?

    PubMed

    Morton, John M; Penry, John F; Malmo, Jakob; Mein, Graeme A

    2014-12-01

    A controlled trial was conducted in 5 pasture-grazed commercial dairy herds in Australia in 2012 to determine whether premilking teat disinfection and drying of teats reduces clinical mastitis incidence during early lactation by at least 50%. A 50% reduction was estimated to be the minimum required to justify additional costs of labor, disinfectants, and other resources if premilking teat disinfection was implemented in a 500-cow herd averaging 8 clinical cases per 100 cow-months. A secondary aim was to determine whether this premilking teat disinfection routine reduces incidence of new udder infections. Treatment was applied in each herd for approximately 60 d (range of 59.5 to 61 d), commencing in each herd soon after the start of the herd's main or only calving period. Within each herd, cows were allocated to either the treatment (premilking disinfection) or the control (no premilking disinfection) group based on their herd identity number. During the trial period, any cow having a new case of clinical mastitis or an individual cow cell count greater than 250,000 cells/mL of milk (when preceded by individual cow cell counts of 250,000 cells/mL of milk or below) was deemed to have had a new infection. Overall, neither clinical mastitis incidence nor new infection rate differed significantly between treatment and control groups. Over the whole study period, 98 of the 1,029 cows in the premilking disinfection group and 97 of the 1,025 cows in the control group had clinical mastitis. Total cow-days at risk of clinical mastitis were similar in each group. However, clinical incidence rates were markedly lower in treatment cows in one herd (herd 3; incidence rate ratio=0.34) and there was some evidence that new infection incidence rates were lower in treated cows in this herd (incidence rate ratio=0.42). Rainfall during the study period was below long-term district average in all 5 study herds. Cows' teats were less dirty than in previous, wetter years for the 4 herds

  14. Prevalence of pathogens causing subclinical mastitis in 15 dairy herds in the Republic of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Milk samples from 285 cows in 15 dairy herds were collected for bacteriological analysis. Cows were selected on the basis of a somatic cell count (SCC) exceeding 200,000 cells per ml at the three most recent milk recordings prior to sampling. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis were the predominant isolates accounting for 21% (n = 61) and 19% (n = 53) of isolates, respectively. Streptococcus uberis was more frequently isolated from split-calving herds than from spring-calving herds and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.005). Herds with suboptimal housing had a significantly greater prevalence of S. uberis than did herds where housing was adequate (P < 0.005). The isolation rates for S. aureus was significantly greater in herds where parlour hygiene was suboptimal (P < 0.05). PMID:21851671

  15. Johne's disease: reliability of environmental sampling to characterize Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in beef cow-calf herds.

    PubMed

    Klawonn, W; Einax, E; Pützschel, R; Schmidt, M; Donat, K

    2016-08-01

    Environmental samples are considered to be a cost-effective method of identifying Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-positive dairy herds, but evidence for beef cow-calf herds is weak. This study aims at evaluating this approach in a total of 20 German herds that were characterized by individual faecal samples (n = 2545) of all cows. For 14 MAP-positive herds having at least one MAP-positive animal, the within-herd prevalence was calculated from concurrent individual faecal culture-based testing. Six herds certified as 'MAP free' based on the negative results of previous years served as MAP-negative controls. On average, six environmental samples were taken at the end of winter from areas with high cow traffic and tested for MAP by faecal culture. According to the environmental samples, nine (64·3%) out of the 14 MAP-positive cow-calf herds were infected. The percentage of positive environmental samples and the apparent within-herd prevalence (Spearman's P = 0·73, P < 0·001) as well as the herd-level test results (positive and negative) and the herd's status based on individual testing (Fisher's exact test, P = 0·014) showed a positive association. Considering limitations in low-prevalence herds, MAP-positive beef cow-calf herds are detectable by environmental samples in temperate climate zones. PMID:27094619

  16. Time budgets of lactating dairy cattle in commercial freestall herds.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Cook, N B

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the time budgets of 205 lactating dairy cows housed in 16 freestall barns in Wisconsin and to determine the relationships between components of the time budget and herd- and cow-level fixed effects using mixed models. Using continuous video surveillance, time lying in the stall, time standing in the stall, time standing in the alleys (including drinking), time feeding, and time milking (time out of the pen for milking and transit) during a 24-h period were measured for each cow. In addition, the number of lying bouts and the mean duration of each lying bout per 24-h period were determined. Time milking varied between cows from 0.5 to 6.0 h/d, with a mean ± standard deviation of 2.7 ± 1.1h/d. Time milking was influenced significantly by pen stocking density, and time milking negatively affected time feeding, time lying, and time in the alley, but not time standing in the stall. Locomotion score, either directly or through an interaction with stall base type (a rubber crumb-filled mattress, MAT, or sand bedding, SAND), influenced pen activity. Lame cows spent less time feeding, less time in the alleys, and more time standing in the stalls in MAT herds, but not in SAND herds. The effect of lameness on lying time is complex and dependent on the time available for rest and differences in resting behavior observed between cows in MAT and SAND herds. In MAT herds, rest was characterized by a larger number of lying bouts of shorter duration than in SAND herds (mean = 14.4; confidence interval, CI: 12.4 to 16.5 vs. mean = 10.2; CI: 8.2 to 12.2 bouts per d, and mean = 1.0; CI: 0.9 to 1.1 vs. mean = 1.3, CI: 1.2 to 1.4h bout duration for MAT and SAND herds, respectively). Lameness was associated with an increase in time standing in the stall and a reduction in the mean (CI) number of lying bouts per day from 13.2 (CI: 12.3 to 14.1) bouts/d for nonlame cows to 10.9 (CI: 9.30 to 12.8) bouts/d for moderately lame cows, and an overall

  17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in three dairy herds in southwest Germany.

    PubMed

    Spohr, M; Rau, J; Friedrich, A; Klittich, G; Fetsch, A; Guerra, B; Hammerl, J A; Tenhagen, B-A

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in three dairy herds in the southwest of Germany that had experienced individual cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis associated with MRSA. The herds were identified by the detection of MRSA during routine resistance testing of mastitis pathogens. All quarters of all cows in the herds that were positive on California Mastitis Test were sampled for bacteriological analysis on two occasions. Bulk tank milk samples were also tested. Furthermore, nasal swabs were collected from people working on the farms and from cattle. Environmental samples were collected from associated pig holdings. Isolates were characterized using spa-typing and testing for antimicrobial resistance. Our results revealed a substantial spread of MRSA in the three dairy herds. In the first of the two investigations carried out on all cows in the three herds, milk samples of 5.1-16.7% of dairy cows were found positive for MRSA. The respective proportions in the second herd level investigation were 1.4-10.0%. Quarters harbouring MRSA had higher somatic cell counts than quarters that were negative on culture. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were also detected in nasal swabs of staff (7/9), cows (7/15) and calves (4/7), bulk tank milk samples (3/3) and environmental samples from pig premises (4/5) on the farm. Herds B and C had no contact to herd A. However, in all three herds MRSA of spa-type t011 were detected in milk samples. Results show that MRSA of spa-type t011 is a problem in dairy farms that needs urgent attention. PMID:20630047

  18. Hyperplastic goiter in two adult dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ong, Chee Bing; Herdt, Thomas H; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2014-11-01

    Iodine excess and resultant hyperplastic goiter are well documented in neonatal ruminants, but little is reported on iodine excess in adult ruminants and associated histological changes of the thyroid gland. Two adult Holstein cows from a Michigan dairy herd that had lost several other animals had nonspecific clinical signs of illness and were submitted for necropsy. Thyroid glands of one of these 2 animals were grossly and markedly enlarged, and histologically, thyroid glands from both animals had regions of cystic nodular hyperplasia and follicular atrophy. Thyroid glands from both animals had markedly elevated iodine concentrations. Investigation into the potential source of excessive iodine on the farm revealed multiple sources of supplemental dietary iodine and probable uneven feed and mineral mixing. Based on the findings of this investigation, adult cattle could be susceptible to excessive doses of iodine. Possibility of previous iodine deficiency before supplementation period, with subsequent development and persistence of thyroid hyperplasia and cystic change, cannot be completely excluded. Current findings suggested that iodine excess in adult cattle can result in nodular hyperplastic goiter. Use of iodized salt in mineral supplements in adult dairy herds is common practice, and accidental excessive iodine supplement may be more common than reported. Recognizing gross and histological thyroid gland changes, consisting of concurrent cystic follicular hyperplasia, atrophy, and fibrosis should raise suspicion of iodine excess and/or prior deficiency in a cattle herd, and ancillary tests such as serum iodine measurements should be part of the diagnostic workup in suspected cases. PMID:25292195

  19. Molecular epidemiology and strain-specific characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae at the herd and cow level.

    PubMed

    Mahmmod, Y S; Klaas, I C; Katholm, J; Lutton, M; Zadoks, R N

    2015-10-01

    Host-adaptation of Streptococcus agalactiae subpopulations has been described whereby strains that are commonly associated with asymptomatic carriage or disease in people differ phenotypically and genotypically from those causing mastitis in dairy cattle. Based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), the most common strains in dairy herds in Denmark belong to sequence types (ST) that are also frequently found in people. The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological and diagnostic characteristics of such strains in relation to bovine mastitis. Among 1,199 cattle from 6 herds, cow-level prevalence of S. agalactiae was estimated to be 27.4% based on PCR and 7.8% based on bacteriological culture. Quarter-level prevalence was estimated at 2.8% based on bacteriological culture. Per herd, between 2 and 26 isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and MLST. Within each herd, a single PFGE type and ST predominated, consistent with a contagious mode of transmission or point source infection within herds. Evidence of within-herd evolution of S. agalactiae was detected with both typing methods, although ST belonged to a single clonal complex (CC) per herd. Detection of CC23 (3 herds) was associated with significantly lower approximate count (colony-forming units) at the quarter level and significantly lower cycle threshold value at the cow level than detection of CC1 (2 herds) or CC19 (1 herd), indicating a lower bacterial load in CC23 infections. Median values for the number of infected quarters and somatic cell count (SCC) were numerically but not significantly lower for cows infected with CC23 than for cows with CC1 or CC19. For all CC, an SCC threshold of 200,000 cells/mL was an unreliable indicator of infection status, and prescreening of animals based on SCC as part of S. agalactiae detection and eradication campaigns should be discouraged. PMID:26233443

  20. Some factors affecting the number of days open in Argentinean dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Piccardi, M; Funes, A Capitaine; Balzarini, M; Bó, G A

    2013-03-15

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative contribution of factors affecting how quickly cattle become pregnant in Argentine dairy herds. Data from 76,401 cows from 249 dairy herds were analyzed. A hazard model was used to explore days open (DO). The factors considered were milk yield, lactation number, calving season, and breeding technique (i.e., type of service: artificial insemination [AI], or combined service). Cows with lower milk yield had 1.09 to 1.38 higher likelihood to become pregnant than those with higher milk yield (P < 0.0001). The number of DO increased linearly with an increasing number of lactations (P < 0.0001). Cows calving in fall-winter had a shorter interval to conception than those calving in summer. The hazard rate for combined service was 1.27; therefore, cows with combined service were more likely to become pregnant during the observation period than those bred by AI. The difference in DO between cows of high versus low milk yield was smaller when dairies used AI as the main breeding technique than when they used combined service. Furthermore, dairies using mainly combined service had lower milk yield (5693.7 L) than those using mainly AI (7684.4 L). Although lactation number and calving season contributed to explain the number of DO, the influence of production level, the type of service, and the interaction between them was also associated with reproductive efficiency in Argentine dairy herds. PMID:23290433

  1. Management characteristics, lameness, and body injuries of dairy cattle housed in high-performance dairy herds in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Cook, N B; Hess, J P; Foy, M R; Bennett, T B; Brotzman, R L

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to benchmark the prevalence of lameness, hock and knee injuries, and neck and back injuries among high-performance, freestall-housed dairy herds in Wisconsin. A random selection of 66 herds with 200 or more cows was derived from herds that clustered with high performance in year 2011 Dairy Herd Improvement records for milk production, udder health, reproduction, and other health parameters. Herds were surveyed to collect information about management, facilities, and well-being. Well-being measures were obtained through direct observation of the high-producing mature cow group, surveying 9,690 cows in total. Total herd size averaged (mean ± standard deviation) 851±717 cows, ranging 203 to 2,966 cows, with an energy-corrected milk production of 40.1±4.4kg/cow per day. Prevalence of clinical lameness (5-point scale, locomotion score ≥3) and severe lameness (locomotion score ≥4) averaged 13.2±7.3 and 2.5±2.7%, respectively. The prevalence of all hock and knee injuries, including hair loss, swelling, and ulceration, was similar at 50.3±28.3 and 53.0±24.0%, respectively. Severe (swelling and ulceration) hock and knee injury prevalence were 12.2±15.3 and 6.2±5.5%, respectively. The prevalence of all neck injuries (including hair loss, swelling and ulceration) was 8.6±16.3%; whereas the prevalence of swollen or abraded necks was low, averaging 2.0±4.1%. Back injuries (proportion of cows with missing or abraded spinous processes, hooks, or pins) followed a similar trend with a low mean prevalence of 3.6±3.4%. Overall, physical well-being characteristics of this selection of high-producing, freestall-housed dairy herds provide evidence that lameness and injury are not inevitable consequences of the confinement housing of large numbers of dairy cattle. In particular, lameness prevalence rivals that of lower-production grazing systems. However, hock and other injury risk remains a concern that can be addressed through a choice in

  2. Longitudinal study of the distribution of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the environment of dairy herds in the Michigan Johne’s disease control demonstration herd project

    PubMed Central

    Pillars, Roxanne B.; Grooms, Daniel L.; Kaneene, John B.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the distribution of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in the environment of infected dairy farms over time. Johne’s disease (JD) prevalence was monitored annually in 7 Michigan dairy herds. Environmental samples were collected bi-annually and cultured for MAP. Of 731 environmental samples that were cultured, 81 (11%) were positive. The lactating cow floor and manure storage areas were the areas most commonly contaminated, representing 30% and 33% of positive samples, respectively. When herd prevalence was > 2%, MAP was cultured from the lactating cow floor and/or manure storage area 75% of the time. When herd prevalence was ≤ 2%, MAP was never cultured from samples collected. For every 1 unit increase in number of positive environmental samples, within herd JD prevalence increased 1.62%. Environmental contamination with MAP is consistent over time on infected dairy farms, and management practices to reduce environmental contamination are warranted. PMID:20046602

  3. Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be the primary source of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-se...

  4. Copper poisoning in a dairy herd fed a mineral supplement

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Charles H.

    1993-01-01

    Copper poisoning in a dairy herd resulted in the death of 9 of 63 (14%) adult Holstein cows. Clinical signs were acute anorexia, weakness, mental dullness, poor pupillary light reflexes, and scant nasal discharge. These were followed by recumbency, chocolate-colored blood, jaundice, and death. Four animals exhibited signs of hyperesthesia and/or rumen stasis prior to death. At necropsy there was generalized icterus of body tissues, with the liver appearing orange and the kidneys dark blue. Histologically, there was accumulation of hemosiderin in Kupffer cells, and severe to moderate hepatocellular necrosis in all cases. Ammonium molybdate added to the ration, combined with the cessation of mineral supplementation, arrested the outbreak. These cases illustrate significant mortality, due to copper poisoning, in adult cattle fed a low-dose mineral dietary supplement for over two years. Dietary copper intake of the herd (on a dry matter basis) was 37.5 mg/kg for lactating cows and 22.6 mg/kg for dry cows. PMID:17424221

  5. Monensin might protect Ontario, Canada dairy cows from paratuberculosis milk-ELISA positivity.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Steven H; Duffield, Todd F; Leslie, Ken E; Lissemore, Kerry D; Archambault, Marie; Bagg, Randy; Dick, Paul; Kelton, David F

    2006-10-17

    Our objective was to define the role of monensin sodium in protecting cows from being milk-ELISA positive for paratuberculosis in Ontario, Canada dairy herds. In total, 4933 dairy cows from 94 herds were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Forty-four of the enrolled herds were selected purposively by their herd veterinarian and another 50 herds were randomly selected from a local milk production-recording agency. A herd-management survey was completed on each farm during the months of May through August 2003. During this same time-period, composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows and tested with a milk-ELISA for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Analyses were stratified according to the paratuberculosis history of the herds. In the 48 herds in which paratuberculosis had not been diagnosed before, the use of calf hutches and monensin in milking cows were both associated with reduced odds of a cow testing positive (OR=0.19 and 0.21, respectively). In the 46 herds with a prior history of paratuberculosis, feeding monensin to the breeding-age heifers was associated with decreased odds of a cow testing positive (OR=0.54). Monensin use might be associated with milk-ELISA positivity, but its impact on the transmission of paratuberculosis remains unknown. PMID:16787675

  6. Evaluation of milk yield losses associated with Salmonella antibodies in bulk tank milk in bovine dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T D; Green, L E; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2012-09-01

    The effect of Salmonella on milk production is not well established in cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate whether introduction of Salmonella into dairy cattle herds was associated with reduced milk yield and determine the duration of any such effect. Longitudinal data from 2005 through 2009 were used, with data from 12 mo before until 18 mo after the estimated date of infection. Twenty-eight case herds were selected based on an increase in the level of Salmonella-specific antibodies in bulk-tank milk from <10 corrected optical density percentage (ODC%) to ≥70 ODC% between 2 consecutive three-monthly measurements in the Danish Salmonella surveillance program. All selected case herds were conventional Danish Holstein herds. Control herds (n=40) were selected randomly from Danish Holstein herds with Salmonella antibody levels consistently <10 ODC%. A date of herd infection was randomly allocated to the control herds. Hierarchical mixed effect models with the outcome test-day yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM)/cow were used to investigate daily milk yield before and after the estimated herd infection date for cows in parities 1, 2, and 3+. Control herds were used to evaluate whether the effects in the case herds could be reproduced in herds without Salmonella infection. Herd size, days in milk, somatic cell count, season, and year were included in the models. Yield in first-parity cows was reduced by a mean of 1.4 kg (95% confidence interval: 0.5 to 2.3) of ECM/cow per day from 7 to 15 mo after the estimated herd infection date, compared with that of first-parity cows in the same herds in the 12 mo before the estimated herd infection date. Yield for parity 3+ cows was reduced by a mean of 3.0 kg (95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 4.8) of ECM/cow per day from 7 to 15 mo after herd infection compared with that of parity 3+ cows in the 12 mo before the estimated herd infection. We observed minor differences in yield in second-parity cows before and

  7. Parasites and parasite management practices of organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R D; Stromberg, B E; Schroth, S L; Michels, L; Wolff, L J; Kelton, D F; Heins, B J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and practices used to manage internal helminth parasites and external arthropod parasites on organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota. All organic (ORG) dairy herds in Minnesota (n=114) and a convenience sample of conventional herds were invited to participate in the study. Thirty-five ORG herds and 28 conventional herds were visited once in summer and fall of 2012. Conventional dairy herds were split into small conventional (SC,<200 cows) and medium-sized conventional herds (MC, ≥200 cows) so that SC herds were comparable in size to the ORG herds. Dairy managers were surveyed to assess their farm management practices and perceptions about parasites, hygiene scores were recorded for adult stock, and fecal samples were collected from a nominal 20 breeding-age heifers to characterize abundance of internal parasites. Nonparametric tests were used to compare fecal egg counts per gram (FEC) among farms grouped by management systems and practices. Organic farms had more designated pasture and were more likely to use rotational grazing compared with conventional farms, but the stocking densities of animals on pasture were similar among farm types. The overall FEC were very low, and only a few individual ORG heifers had FEC >500 eggs/gram. Samples from heifers on ORG farms had significantly more strongyle-type eggs than those on SC and MC farms (ORG: 6.6±2.1; SC: 0.5±0.3; MC: 0.8±0.7), but egg counts of other types of gastrointestinal parasites did not differ significantly among the 3 herd groups. Fly control measures were applied mainly to milking cows and preweaned calves and were used on 88.6% of ORG herds, 60.0% of SC herds, and 91.7% of MC herds. Approximately half of the producers reported having seen skin conditions suggestive of lice or tail mange in their cattle during the previous winter (ORG: 48.6%, SC: 57.1%, MC: 53.9%). Although most conventional producers reported treating these skin

  8. Management of the calving pen is a crucial factor for paratuberculosis control in large dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Donat, Karsten; Schmidt, Mandy; Köhler, Heike; Sauter-Louis, Carola

    2016-05-01

    Improvement of hygiene and herd management to reduce the contact of calves with adult cow feces to prevent new infections is one of the basic strategies to manage paratuberculosis-affected dairy herds. Control programs should recommend an evidence-based selection of factors that demonstrably reduce the transmission of the infectious agent and decrease the prevalence of infected cattle to improve acceptance and implementation of the recommended measures among farmers. This study aimed to assess the influence of several management measures on control success in a longitudinal study in 28 large dairy herds with a median size of 415 cows in Thuringia, Germany. The cumulative incidence of cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) per year was determined by individual fecal culture of all cows during 5 consecutive years. Relevant management practices as well as herd size, milk yield, and purchase of cattle were recorded by on-farm risk assessment. Mean holding time of MAP shedders within the herd was calculated from individual data of each shedding cow. Using multiple regression models, separate calving pens for shedders and disinfection of the pen after use were identified as significant risk factors that reduced the cumulative incidence of MAP shedders per year on the herd level. The results provide evidence that, in addition to other factors, calving hygiene and management of the calving pens are crucial for paratuberculosis control, particularly in large dairy herds. Considered together with the outcome from other studies, these results might be important to weight various risk factors and to avoid overburdening and overwhelming farmers and keeping them committed. PMID:26947285

  9. Faecal bacterial composition in dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in faeces in comparison with nonshedding cows.

    PubMed

    Kaevska, Marija; Videnska, Petra; Sedlar, Karel; Bartejsova, Iva; Kralova, Alena; Slana, Iva

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in the faecal microbiota of dairy cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in comparison with noninfected cows from the same herds. Faecal samples from cows in 4 herds were tested for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by real-time PCR, and faecal bacterial populations were analysed by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The most notable differences between shedding and nonshedding cows were an increase in the genus Psychrobacter and a decrease in the genera Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, and Bifidobacterium in cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The present study is the first to report the faecal microbial composition in dairy cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:27127920

  10. Streptococcus agalactiae in the environment of bovine dairy herds--rewriting the textbooks?

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H J; Nordstoga, A B; Sviland, S; Zadoks, R N; Sølverød, L; Kvitle, B; Mørk, T

    2016-02-29

    Many free-stall bovine dairy herds in Norway fail to eradicate Streptococcus agalactiae despite long-term control measures. In a longitudinal study of 4 free-stall herds with automatic milking systems (AMS), milk and extramammary sites were sampled 4 times with 1-2 month intervals. Composite milk, rectal- and vaginal swabs were collected from dairy cows; rectal swabs from heifers and young stock; rectal- and tonsillar swabs from calves; and environmental swabs from the AMS, the floors, cow beds, watering and feeding equipment. A cross sectional study of 37 herds was also conducted, with 1 visit for environmental sampling. Fifteen of the herds were known to be infected with S. agalactiae while the remaining 22 had not had evidence of S. agalactiae mastitis in the preceding 2 years. All samples were cultured for S. agalactiae, and selected isolates (n=54) from positive herds were genotyped by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results show that the bovine gastrointestinal tract and the dairy cow environment are reservoirs of S. agalactiae, and point to the existence of 2 transmission cycles; a contagious transmission cycle via the milking machine and an oro-fecal transmission cycle, with drinking water as the most likely vehicle for transmission. Ten sequence types were identified, and results suggest that strains differ in their ability to survive in the environment and transmit within dairy herds. Measures to eradicate S. agalactiae from bovine dairy herds should take into account the extra-mammary reservoirs and the potential for environmental transmission of this supposedly exclusively contagious pathogen. PMID:26854346

  11. Short communication: Bulk milk somatic cell penalties in herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement programs.

    PubMed

    Hand, K J; Godkin, M A; Kelton, D F

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of somatic cell count (SCC) monitoring at the cow level through Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) programs on the risk of bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) penalties. For the year 2009, BTSCC for all producers in Ontario were examined, for a total of 2,898 DHI herds, 1,186 non-DHI herds, and 48,250 BTSCC records. Two penalty levels were examined, where BTSCC exceeded 499,000 (P500) and 399,000 (P400) cells/mL. Data were modeled first to determine the odds of a BTSCC exceeding a set penalty threshold and second to determine the odds of incurring a penalty under the Ontario Milk Act. All data were modeled as a generalized mixed model with a binary link function. Random effects included herd, fixed effects included season of BTSCC (summer, May to September, and winter, October to April), total milk shipped per month (L), fat paid per month (kg), protein paid per month (kg), and participation or not in the DHI program. The likelihood of a BTSCC exceeding a penalty threshold in a non-DHI herd compared with a DHI herd was significantly greater than 1 at both penalty levels, where the odds ratios were estimated to be 1.42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19 to 1.69] and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.25 to 1.54) for P500 and P400, respectively. The likelihood of incurring a BTSCC penalty (where 3 out of 4 consecutive BTSCC exceeded penalty thresholds) was not significantly different at P500; however, it was significantly different for P400, where the odds ratio was estimated to be 1.42 (95% CI: 1.12 to 1.81). PMID:22192202

  12. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14) and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14) cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT) performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC) for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR) for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P < 0.05) and a time effect on all metabolites concentration (P < 0.01). The following differences were observed in EH compared to ER: lower blood insulin concentration 5 min after glucose infusion (P < 0.05), higher glucose concentration 20 (P < 0.01) and 30 min (P < 0.05) after infusion, and higher NEFA concentration before (P < 0.01) and 5 min after infusion (P < 0.05). Blood TG concentration in ER remained stable, while in EH there was a decrease from the basal level to the 40th min nadir (P < 0.01), followed by an increase to the 60th min postinfusion (P < 0.01). Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows. PMID:20089161

  13. Genetic evaluation of dairy cow livability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for cow livability (LIV) were developed to measure a cow's ability to stay alive while on the farm, whereas PTA for productive life (PL) measures a cow's ability to avoid either dying on the farm or being culled. About 20% of dairy cows die instead of being sol...

  14. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season

    PubMed Central

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers’ grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  15. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    PubMed

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  16. An estimation of the clinical mastitis incidence per 100 cows per year based on routinely collected herd data.

    PubMed

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Lam, T J G M; Keurentjes, J; van Schaik, G

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether it was possible to (1) estimate the clinical mastitis incidence rate (CMI) for all Dutch dairy herds and (2) to detect farms with a high CMI based on routinely collected herd data. For this study, 240 dairy farms with a conventional milking system that participated in the milk recording program every 4 to 6 wk were randomly selected and agreed to participate. From the initial 240 herds, data of clinical mastitis (CM) registrations and routinely collected herd data of 227 herds were complete and could be used for analysis. Routinely collected herd data consisted of identification and registration records, antimicrobial usage, test-day records from the milk recording program, bulk tank milk (BTM) somatic cell count data and results of diagnostic tests on BTM samples. For each of the 227 herds, the CMI per 100 cows per year was calculated per quarter of the year and was combined with the available herd data. Two models were developed to predict the CMI for all dairy herds and to detect individual herds that belonged to the 25% herds with the highest CMI. Records of 156 (67%) herds were used for development of the models and the remaining 71 (33%) were used for validation. The model that estimated the CMI in all herds consisted of 11 explanatory variables. The observed and predicted averages of the validation herds were not significantly different. The model estimated a CMI per 100 cows per year of 32.5 cases (95% confidence interval=30.2-34.8), whereas the farmers registered 33.4 cases (95% confidence interval=29.5-37.4). The model that aimed at detecting individual herds with a high CMI contained 6 explanatory variables and could correctly classify 77% of all validation herds at the quarter-year level. The most important variables in the model were antibiotic usage for treating CM and BTM somatic cell count. In conclusion, models based on routinely collected herd data gave an accurate prediction of CMI for all Dutch dairy

  17. An observational study of Corynebacterium bovis in selected Ontario dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, B W; Barnum, D A; Meek, A H

    1983-01-01

    An observational study of Corynebacterium bovis was conducted in 74 Ontario dairy herds. The levels of infection with C. bovis were 19.9, 36.2 and 85.6% at the quarter, cow and herd level, respectively. Teat disinfection was found to be the variable best able to distinguish between herds with a high or low C. bovis quarter infection rate. Mean total milk somatic cell counts for 1103 quarters and 107 cows infected with only C. bovis ranged between 150,000 and 200,000/mL and were significantly higher than for uninfected quarters or cows. The rate of infection with mastitis pathogens was not significantly different in quarters previously colonized with only C. bovis compared to previously uninfected quarters. PMID:6831308

  18. Severe disease in adult dairy cattle in three UK dairy herds associated with BVD virus infection.

    PubMed

    David, G P; Crawshaw, T R; Gunning, R F; Hibberd, R C; Lloyd, G M; Marsh, P R

    1994-04-30

    During 1993 outbreaks of diarrhoea in adult dairy cows in three geographically unrelated herds were found to be caused by bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The affected animals showed signs of acute watery diarrhoea, agalactia and pyrexia (39.4 to 42 degrees C). Ulceration of the buccal mucosa, a mucoid nasal discharge and stiffness were inconsistent signs. The disease spread rapidly in each case. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of non-cytopathic BVDV from blood and tissues and by the demonstration of significantly rising titres to BVDV by an ELISA. The highest morbidity recorded was 40 per cent with one herd experiencing a 10 per cent mortality. There was no increased incidence of abortion in any of the herds, either at the time of or subsequent to the outbreaks of diarrhoea. In one herd the purchase of a persistently viraemic heifer 14 days before the outbreak was thought to be the source of infection, but in the other two herds the source was not established. PMID:8059512

  19. Use of partial budgeting to determine the economic outcome of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection reduction strategies in three Ohio dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Hoblet, K H; Miller, G Y

    1991-09-15

    Efforts to reduce the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection were monitored in 3 Ohio dairy herds. Bacteriologic culturing of milk from all lactating cows in each herd was completed multiple times to identify infected cows and monitor reduction. Partial budgeting techniques were used to determine the economic outcome of the reduction program. Of particular emphasis was the economic impact of culling to maintain or achieve milk quality premium payments on the basis of bulk tank somatic cell counts. The prevalence of S aureusinfected cows was reduced in each herd. Culturing of milk from all lactating cows appeared to be an effective method to identify infected cows. Although numbers were limited, it also appeared that culturing of composite quarter samples was effective as a herd screening test to identify S aureus-infected cows. Bacteriologic culturing had a negative financial impact in all 3 herds. Using partial budgeting to assess the economic impact of the programs, it was determined that 2 herds experienced negative financial impacts as a result of an excess culling rate when compared with a 12-month baseline period prior to the initiation of the project. All herds had increased milk production per cow during the study as measured by the mature-equivalent method. However, when actual production was considered, increased milk production in each herd was not as great as that of other Ohio herds enrolled on Dairy Herd Improvement Association testing programs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1955362

  20. Consequence of changing standards for somatic cell count on US Dairy Herd Improvement herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consequence of noncompliance with European Union (EU) and current US standards for somatic cell count (SCC) as well as SCC standards proposed by the National Milk Producers Federation was examined for US herds. Somatic cell scores (SCS) from 14,854 Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) herds were analyzed. H...

  1. Trends in noncompliance with milk quality standards for Dairy Herd Improvement herds in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequency of herd noncompliance for somatic cell count (SCC) based on current US and European Union (EU) standards as well as for standards proposed by the National Milk Producers Federation (NMPF) was examined for US Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) herds. For current US standards, regulatory action is...

  2. Somatic cell counts of milk from Dairy Herd Improvement herds during 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2010 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to somatic cell count (SCC) for calculating herd and State averages. The ...

  3. Breed Composition of the United States Dairy Cattle Herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breed composition of the gene pool of all cows (purebred and crossbred) with pedigree data in the USDA national dairy database was summarized by birth year of cow. Partial breed contributions were assigned for individual cows. For cows born in 2005, 1.1% of all genes and 35.1% of genes in crossbreds...

  4. Risk factors associated with Neospora caninum abortion in Ontario Holstein dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Hobson, J C; Duffield, T F; Kelton, D; Lissemore, K; Hietala, S K; Leslie, K E; McEwen, B; Peregrine, A S

    2005-02-28

    The objective of this epidemiological study was to identify risk factors for Neospora caninum-related abortions in Ontario Holstein dairy herds. A total of 88 herds, consisting of 5080 cattle, and utilizing Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) services, were divided into three groups. Case (n = 30) and first control (n = 31) herds were selected from 1998 and 1999 fetal abortion submissions to the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, that were histopathologically positive or negative, respectively, for N. caninum. A second control group (n = 27) was selected from multiple sources of herds sampled within the previous 4 years that had a low seroprevalence (<7%) to N. caninum. Between May and December 1999, all available cows on all farms, in parity one or greater, were blood sampled. The sera were then analyzed for antibody to N. caninum using a kinetic ELISA. A survey administered at the time of sampling recorded information on housing, animal species present, manure management, reproduction, biosecurity practices, wildlife observations, peri-parturient cow management, herd disease history and nutrition. Production and other herd parameters were obtained from DHI records. Logistic regression indicated that the following parameters were positively associated with a N. caninum abortion in a herd: the N. caninum herd seroprevalence (OR = 1.1), the total number of dogs on a farm (OR = 2.8), the frequency that dogs were observed defecating in mangers (OR = 2.8), the number of horses on a farm (OR = 3.1), the observed annual rate of retained fetal membranes (OR = 1.2) and the observed annual rate of cows returning to estrus after pregnancy confirmation (OR = 1.2). Factors negatively associated were the frequency of stray cats and wild canids observed on a farm (OR = 0.4 and OR = 0.7, respectively) and the housing of heifers on loafing packs (a housing pen divided into feed manger, scrape alley and bedded pack areas, OR = 0.1). PMID:15710518

  5. Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus uberis Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds: Strain Heterogeneity and Transmission.

    PubMed

    Davies, P L; Leigh, J A; Bradley, A J; Archer, S C; Emes, R D; Green, M J

    2016-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing was successfully completed on 494 isolates of Streptococcus uberis from clinical mastitis cases in a study of 52 commercial dairy herds over a 12-month period. In total, 195 sequence types (STs) were identified. S. uberis mastitis cases that occurred in different cows within the same herd and were attributed to a common ST were classified as potential transmission events (PTEs). Clinical cases attributed to 35 of the 195 STs identified in this study were classified PTE. PTEs were identified in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases, which include the first recorded occurrence of that ST in that herd (index case) and all persistent infections with that PTE ST, represented 40% of all the clinical mastitis cases and occurred in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases accounted for >50% of all S. uberis clinical mastitis cases in 33% of the herds. Nine STs (ST-5, -6, -20, -22, -24, -35, -233, -361, and -512), eight of which were grouped within a clonal complex (sharing at least four alleles), were statistically overrepresented (OVR STs). The findings indicate that 38% of all clinical mastitis cases and 63% of the PTEs attributed to S. uberis in dairy herds may be caused by the nine most prevalent strains. The findings suggest that a small subset of STs is disproportionally important in the epidemiology of S. uberis mastitis in the United Kingdom, with cow-to-cow transmission of S. uberis potentially occurring in the majority of herds in the United Kingdom, and may be the most important route of infection in many herds. PMID:26491180

  6. Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus uberis Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds: Strain Heterogeneity and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, J. A.; Bradley, A. J.; Archer, S. C.; Emes, R. D.; Green, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing was successfully completed on 494 isolates of Streptococcus uberis from clinical mastitis cases in a study of 52 commercial dairy herds over a 12-month period. In total, 195 sequence types (STs) were identified. S. uberis mastitis cases that occurred in different cows within the same herd and were attributed to a common ST were classified as potential transmission events (PTEs). Clinical cases attributed to 35 of the 195 STs identified in this study were classified PTE. PTEs were identified in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases, which include the first recorded occurrence of that ST in that herd (index case) and all persistent infections with that PTE ST, represented 40% of all the clinical mastitis cases and occurred in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases accounted for >50% of all S. uberis clinical mastitis cases in 33% of the herds. Nine STs (ST-5, -6, -20, -22, -24, -35, -233, -361, and -512), eight of which were grouped within a clonal complex (sharing at least four alleles), were statistically overrepresented (OVR STs). The findings indicate that 38% of all clinical mastitis cases and 63% of the PTEs attributed to S. uberis in dairy herds may be caused by the nine most prevalent strains. The findings suggest that a small subset of STs is disproportionally important in the epidemiology of S. uberis mastitis in the United Kingdom, with cow-to-cow transmission of S. uberis potentially occurring in the majority of herds in the United Kingdom, and may be the most important route of infection in many herds. PMID:26491180

  7. Spread of Coxiella burnetii between dairy cattle herds in an enzootic region: modelling contributions of airborne transmission and trade.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Pranav; Hoch, Thierry; Ezanno, Pauline; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2016-01-01

    Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a looming concern for livestock and public health. Epidemiological features of inter-herd transmission of C. burnetii in cattle herds by wind and trade of cows are poorly understood. We present a novel dynamic spatial model describing the inter-herd regional spread of C. burnetii in dairy cattle herds, quantifying the ability of airborne transmission and animal trade in C. burnetii propagation in an enzootic region. Among all the new herd infections, 92% were attributed to airborne transmission and the rest to cattle trade. Infections acquired following airborne transmission were shown to cause relatively small and ephemeral intra-herd outbreaks. On the contrary, disease-free herds purchasing an infectious cow experienced significantly higher intra-herd prevalence. The results also indicated that, for short duration, both transmission routes were independent from each other without any synergistic effect. The model outputs applied to the Finistère department in western France showed satisfactory sensitivity (0.71) and specificity (0.80) in predicting herd infection statuses at the end of one year in a neighbourhood of 3 km around expected incident herds, when compared with data. The model developed here thus provides important insights into the spread of C. burnetii between dairy cattle herds and paves the way for implementation and assessment of control strategies. PMID:27048416

  8. Risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Swedish dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Alvåsen, K; Jansson Mörk, M; Dohoo, I R; Sandgren, C Hallén; Thomsen, P T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-11-01

    Dairy cow mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) has increased, worldwide and in Sweden. On-farm mortality indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare and causes financial loss for the dairy producer. The objective of this study was to identify cow-level risk factors associated with on-farm cow mortality. Cows with at least one calving between 1 July 2008 and 30 June 2009 from herds enrolled in the Swedish official milk recording scheme with >40 cow-years were included. Each cow was followed from the day of calving until she calved again or left the herd (died, slaughtered or sold). The effects of potential risk factors on on-farm cow mortality were analysed using a Weibull proportional hazard model with a gamma distributed frailty effect common to cows within herd. The event of interest (failure) was euthanasia or unassisted death. An observation was right censored if the cow was slaughtered, sold, calved again or had an on-going lactation at 500 days after calving. The lactations were split into seasons (January to April, May to August and September to December) and at 30 and 100 days in milk in order to evaluate seasonal effects and the effect of disease in different lactation stages. Primiparous and multiparous cows were analysed separately. The highest hazards for both primiparous and multiparous cows were found for traumatic events and diseases, both in the lactation stage in which the cow died and in the preceding stage. The hazard was higher in early lactation and lower in 2nd parity compared to higher parities. Increased age at first calving (for primiparous cows), calving between January and April, dystocia and stillbirth also increased the mortality hazard. Differences were also found between breeds, between milk production parameters at first test milking and between management types. The results from this study show the importance of good management and preventive health actions, especially around calving, to avoid mortality in dairy cows. PMID

  9. Management practices associated with presence of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk from Ohio dairy herds.

    PubMed

    da Costa, L B; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Schuenemann, G M

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common contagious mastitis pathogen affecting cows worldwide. Practices to control this organism have been advocated for decades, and identification of risk factors in individual herds is crucial in prevention and control of Staph. aureus. The objectives of this paper were to estimate prevalence of Staph. aureus in Ohio dairies and to determine a potential association of herd characteristics and management practices with isolation of Staph. aureus in bulk tank milk. A questionnaire about herd characteristics, milking procedures, udder health, mastitis control, and biosecurity practices was mailed to 780 dairy producers; the response rate for the survey was 49%. Staphylococcus aureus prevalence was 48, 64, and 69% when 1, 2, or 3 samples of bulk tank milk from each herd were considered, respectively. Herds practicing prestrip, pre- and postmilking teat dip, and using a single towel per cow as part of the milking routine as well as herds where owners were involved in milking were at significantly reduced odds for detection of Staph. aureus in their bulk tank milk. PMID:26686713

  10. Optimizing productivity, herd structure, environmental performance, and profitability of dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Liang, D; Cabrera, V E

    2015-04-01

    This study used the Integrated Farm System Model to simulate the whole farm performance of a representative Wisconsin dairy farm and predict its economic and environmental outputs based on 25 yr of daily local weather data (1986 to 2010). The studied farm, located in southern Wisconsin, had 100 milking cows and 100 ha of cropland with no replacement heifers kept on the farm. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the effect of management strategies on energy-corrected milk production (ECM; 4.0% fat and 3.5% protein), net return to management, and greenhouse gas (GHG; including biogenic CO2) emission. The management strategies included (1) target milk production, for which the model optimized available resources to attain, and (2) herd structure, represented by the percentage of first-lactation cows. Weather conditions affected the outputs by changing the farm quantity and the quality of produced feed resources. As expected, when target milk production increased, the ECM increased positively and linearly to a certain level, and then it increased nonlinearly at a decreasing rate, constrained by available feed nutrients. Thereafter, the ECM reached the maximum potential milk production and remained flat regardless of higher target milk production input. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased between 3.4 and 7.3% at different first-lactation cow percentages. As the first-lactation cow percent increased from 15 to 45% in 5% intervals, GHG increased between 9.4 and 11.3% at different levels of target milk production. A high percentage of first-lactation cows reduced the maximum potential milk production. Net return to management had a similar changing trend as ECM. As the target milk production increased from 9,979 to 11,793 kg, the net return to management increased between 31 and 46% at different first-lactation cow percentages. Results revealed a win-win situation when increasing milk production or improving herd structure, which concurrently increased farm net

  11. [Lactational incidences of common diseases in dairy herds in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany): effect of first test-day milk yield, herd milk yield and number of lactation].

    PubMed

    Gundling, Natascha; Ruddat, Inga; Prien, Kristin; Hellerich, Birte; Hoedemaker, Martina

    2015-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to record common diseases in dairy cows in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, and to describe associations between lactation number (LN: 1, 2, > 2), first test-day milk yield (TD1: < 30 kg, ≥ 30 kg) and herd milk yield (HM: ≤ 7500 kg, > 7500 kg), the latter parameter serving as a proxy for herd management (extensive vs. intensive). Data of 98 dairy herds (6439 lactations) were processed on cow level using mixed logistic regression models with LN< TD1, HM and calving season as fixed effects and herd as random effect. Lactational incidences were as follows: hypocalcaemia (5.0%), dystocia (13.2%), retained placental membranes (7.2%), clinical metritis/endometritis (4.9%), clinical mastitis (15.3%), subclinical mastitis (61.9%), ketosis (1.6%), displaced abomasum (0.4%), lameness (15.4%). Number of lactation (2, > 2 vs. 1) was a risk factor for hypocalcaemia (OR 3.715, 23.047), retained placental membranes (OR 1.764, 2.479), clinical mastitis (> 2 vs. 1 OR 2.118), subclinical mastitis (OR 1.668,4.397), ketosis (> 2 vs. 1 OR 3.936) and lameness (OR 1.275, 2.070). Older cows had a lower risk for dystocia (OR 0.373, 0.357). TD1 (≥ 30 kg) was not a risk factor of disease except for subclinical mastitis in first parity animals (OR 1.319). Herd milk yield (> 7500 kg) was a risk factor for clinical metritis/endometritis (OR 1.971), displaced abomasum (OR 7.764), lameness (OR 1.618) and hypocalcaemia (cows with high TD1 [OR 2.273]). In conclusion, not individual milk yield, but herd milk yield as an indicator of differences in intensity of herd management as well as number of lactation seemed to influence the frequency of common diseases in dairy cows. PMID:26054229

  12. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy cattle herds in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nilnont, Theerakul; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Kanistanont, Kwankate; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Kampa, Jaruwan

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus causes a wide range of clinical manifestation with subsequent economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Our study of a population of dairy cattle in Thailand based on 933 bulk tank milk samples from nine public milk collection centers aimed to monitor infective status and to evaluate the effect of the infection in cows as well as to examine the reproductive performance of heifers to provide effective recommendations for disease control in Thailand. The results showed a moderate antibody-positive prevalence in the herd (62.5 %), with the proportion of class-3 herd, actively infected stage, being 17.3 %. Fourteen persistently infected (PI) animals were identified among 1196 young animals from the class-3 herds. Most of the identified PI animals, 11/14, were born in one sub-area where bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) investigation has not been performed to date. With respect to reproductive performance, class-3 herds also showed higher median values of reproductive indices than those of class-0 herds. Cows and heifers in class-3 herds had higher odds ratio of calving interval (CI) and age at first service (AFS) above the median, respectively, compared to class-0 herds (OR = 1.29; P = 0.02 and OR = 1.63; P = 0.02). Our study showed that PI animals were still in the area that was previously studied. Furthermore, a newly studied area had a high prevalence of BVDV infection and the infection affected the reproductive performance of cows and heifers. Although 37.5 % of the population was free of BVDV, the lack of official disease prevention and less awareness of herd biosecurity may have resulted in continuing viral spread and silent economic losses have potentially occurred due to BVDV. We found that BVDV is still circulating in the region and, hence, a national control program is required. PMID:27154218

  13. Dairy cow culling strategies: making economical culling decisions.

    PubMed

    Lehenbauer, T W; Oltjen, J W

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to examine important economic elements of culling decisions, to review progress in development of culling decision support systems, and to discern some of the potentially rewarding areas for future research on culling models. Culling decisions have an important influence on the economic performance of the dairy but are often made in a nonprogrammed fashion and based partly on the intuition of the decision maker. The computer technology that is available for dairy herd management has made feasible the use of economic models to support culling decisions. Financial components--including profit, cash flow, and risk--are major economic factors affecting culling decisions. Culling strategies are further influenced by short-term fluctuations in cow numbers as well as by planned herd expansion. Changes in herd size affect the opportunity cost for postponed replacement and may alter the relevance of optimization strategies that assume a fixed herd size. Improvements in model components related to biological factors affecting future cow performance, including milk production, reproductive status, and mastitis, appear to offer the greatest economic potential for enhancing culling decision support systems. The ultimate value of any culling decision support system for developing economic culling strategies will be determined by its results under field conditions. PMID:9493103

  14. Blood parameters in Swedish dairy herds with high or low incidence of displaced abomasum or ketosis.

    PubMed

    Stengärde, Lena; Holtenius, Kjell; Emanuelson, Ulf; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni; Tråvén, Madeleine

    2011-10-01

    Sixty dairy herds were studied to investigate the association between long-term incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis and body condition score and blood profiles, including parameters estimating energy metabolism and hepatic lipidosis in the periparturient period and early lactation. Blood samples were taken around parturition and in early lactation from cows without apparent clinical symptoms of metabolic disorders. A difference in metabolism between high and low incidence herds was shown post-partum by a lower metabolic index (the revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index, RQUICKI), and tendencies for higher concentrations of glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids in the high incidence herds. High incidence herds had more cows and produced on average 1400kg energy-corrected milk per cow per year more than the low incidence herds. No differences were found in parameters reflecting liver cell damage. In the first 3weeks post-partum the RQUICKI was a more sensitive marker of herds with a high incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis than any of the individual parameters, but further research is needed before practical applications of the RQUICKI can be foreseen. PMID:21982532

  15. Evaluation of pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Jafari Dehkordi, A; Shahbazkia, HR; Ronagh, N

    2011-01-01

    Background and objectives Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR. Materials and Methods Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood) were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extracted and purified from the plasma and urine samples and concentrated on diatoms in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN). PCR products were detected and identified as Leptospira by ilumination of the expected size of DNA bands after staining of the agarose gel with ethidium bromide gels. PCR products were purified and sequenced. Results The results showed that 28% of urine samples and 23% of plasma samples were contaminated. The major serotypes were Icterohaemorrhagiae (50%) and Pomona (37.5%). The urine samples of 17 cows were positive for Leptospira without positive plasma samples. This indicated that these cows are reservoirs in dairy herds of Shahrekord and dangerous for human health. The plasma samples of twelve cows were positive for Leptospira without positive urine samples. Conclusions Leptospira serotypes can be maintained in relatively dry regions and must be considered when dealing with leptospirosis in dairy farms of Shahrekord and human health. PMID:22347596

  16. Factors associated with variation in bulk tank milk Mycoplasma bovis antibody-ELISA results in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Mette B; Krogh, Kaspar; Nielsen, Liza R

    2016-05-01

    The relevance and limitations for using measurements of antibodies against Mycoplasma bovis in bulk tank milk (BTM) as a potentially cost-effective diagnostic tool for herd classification has not been evaluated before. Assuming that an increasing or high seroprevalence is a result of on-going or recent spread of M. bovis in a dairy herd, we tested the hypothesis that increasing prevalence of antibody-positive cows and young stock are associated with increasing BTM antibody ELISA values against M. bovis in Danish dairy herds with different courses of M. bovis infection. Furthermore, we tested whether herd size was associated with variations in the BTM responses. Thirty-nine Danish dairy herds selected to represent 4 different herd-level infection groups [8 control herds, 14 acute outbreak herds, 7 herds with previous outbreaks, and 10 herds with elevated BTM ELISA-values directed against M. bovis (>64% optical density measurement)] were visited 4 to 5 times, approximately 3mo apart. At each visit, 65 young stock were blood sampled. At the milk recording date closest to the herd visit date, 50 milk recording samples from individual lactating cows were randomly selected. In addition, a BTM sample was collected as a representative sample directly from the bulk tank by the dairies' milk truck drivers as part of the mandatory milk quality-control scheme. Blood and milk samples were tested for antibodies against M. bovis with a commercially available ELISA test (Bio-X BIO K 302, Bio-X Diagnostics, Rochefort, Belgium). A linear mixed effects model was used to analyze the effects of the prevalence of antibody-positive lactating cows and young stock and herd size on the BTM M. bovis ELISA results. Herd was included as a random effect to account for clustering of BTM samples originating from the same herd. Increasing prevalence of antibody-positive lactating cows was the only variable associated with increasing M. bovis BTM ELISA optical density measurement. In contrast, the

  17. Bovine besnoitiosis (Besnoitia besnoiti) in an Irish dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E G; Lee, A; Carty, C; O'Shaughnessy, J; Kelly, P; Cassidy, J P; Sheehan, M; Johnson, A; de Waal, T

    2016-06-11

    Bovine besnoitiosis, caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti, was diagnosed in an Irish dairy herd. This is the first diagnosis of besnoitiosis in Ireland or the UK and the most northerly European outbreak yet described. The diagnosis occurred following a farm investigation in June 2015 into an unusual dermatological problem that had been ongoing since 2010. On an annual basis, 1-2 per cent of cows in the herd exhibited clinical signs, including skin thickening, alopecia, weight loss and poor performance. Others displayed pyrexia, limb oedema, respiratory distress and reduced milk yield. Histopathological examination of skin revealed granulomatous and eosinophilic dermatitis, with characteristic intradermal protozoal cysts, consistent with cutaneous besnoitiosis. Follow-up serological testing and clinical examination of cattle (n=228) on the farm found that 68 per cent (144/212) were seropositive for B. besnoiti In addition, 51 per cent (117/228) had characteristic scleral conjunctival cysts and 68 per cent (134/198) had vulval cysts. Postmortem examination of a severely affected animal revealed typical gross and histopathological lesions of B. besnoiti infection. These results confirmed endemic infection with B. besnoiti The identification of this exotic disease highlights the importance of veterinary surveillance at both local and national level, particularly in relation to emerging diseases. PMID:27122500

  18. Use of every ten-day criteria for metabolic profile test after calving and dry off in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Kida, Katsuya

    2002-11-01

    The traditional metabolic profile test cannot be applied to peripartum dairy cows, because these cows are in a state of physiological abnormality making it difficult to interpret their blood components. This study aimed at establishing and evaluating the practicability of interpreting a metabolic profile test every 10 days (Ten-day criteria) during the dry and lactation periods in herds with high and no incidence of peripartum diseases. Data from 29,043 cows in 1,130 commercial dairy herds were used to establish standard values every 10 days, mean +/- 1.0 standard deviation for the metabolic profile test. The practicability of these criteria was evaluated in herds with peripartum diseases. In the ten-day criteria, the body condition score, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, total cholesterol, nonesterified fatty acids, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and aspartate aminotransferase, fluctuated during the dry and early lactation periods and there were very big changes in packed cell volume, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol and magnesium just after calving. The ten-day criteria were able to detect overconditioned cows, low levels of albumin, total cholesterol and magnesium, and high nonesterified fatty acids in herds with a high incidence of peripartum diseases. In conclusion, the ten-day criteria can be successfully applied to peripartum cows, and is recommended because it is able to detect metabolic abnormalities not only in the herd, but also in individual cows. PMID:12499685

  19. Post-milking teat dip use in dairy herds with high or low somatic cell counts.

    PubMed

    Erskine, R J; Eberhart, R J

    1991-12-15

    Milk samples for bacteriologic culture were submitted from 71 dairy herds, 24 with low somatic cell count (SCC) and 47 with high SCC and high prevalence of subclinical mastitis. At the time of sample submission to the Mastitis Diagnostic Laboratory of Pennsylvania State University, information regarding the herd mastitis control practices was collected. A combined program of post-milking teat dipping (PMTD) and antibiotic treatment of all cows at the start of the nonlactating period was practiced more frequently for herds with low SCC, (P less than 0.001) than for herds with high SCC. Among all herds for which PMTD was practiced, a higher proportion (P less than 0.001) of those for which chlorhexidine-based products were used had low SCC than high SCC. Conversely, a higher proportion of herds for which a dip with an acrylic latex barrier was used had high SCC rather than low SCC (P = 0.002). For herds with high prevalence of subclinical mastitis, and despite a program of PMTD and treatment of all cows at the start of the nonlactating period, a change to a different germicidal teat dip product may be indicated to help reduce prevalence of infection. PMID:1813466

  20. Risk factors for the occurrence of new and chronic cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, L L; Thaler Neto, A; Souza, G N; Picinin, L C A; Felipus, N C; Reche, N L M; Schmidt, F A; Werncke, D; Simon, E E

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the risk factors for new and chronic subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) using the monthly somatic cells count of dairy cows. The study took place at 30 dairy herds with approximately 1,700 cows in lactation. Data characterizing the dairy farms and their milking management were obtained from a survey questionnaire. The somatic cells count values from 2 consecutive months were used to classify cows as either healthy or with new or chronic infections. A chi-squared test was used in the analysis of subclinical IMI to evaluate associations between each independent variable, followed by logistic regression to estimate the risk of a new infection in healthy cows and of chronic infection in cows with new infections. Factors increasing the odds ratio of a cow developing a new case of subclinical mastitis were (1) cows with more than 3 lactations, (2) cows with a mean hyperkeratosis score above 3, (3) cows with the udder below the hock, (4) cows with very dirty udders, and (5) milking of infected animals before healthy cows. Factors increasing the risk of a subclinical chronic infection compared with new cases of subclinical mastitis were (1) a lack of regular maintenance of milking machinery, (2) cows over 100 d in lactation, and (3) cows with the udder on or below the hock. The risk factors identified in this study can be used in IMI control programs to reduce the frequency of new and chronic cases of subclinical mastitis. PMID:26298754

  1. Questionnaire identifying management practices surrounding calving on spring-calving dairy farms and their associations with herd size and herd expansion.

    PubMed

    Cummins, C; Berry, D P; Sayers, R; Lorenz, I; Kennedy, E

    2016-05-01

    Healthy calves are fundamental to any profitable dairy enterprise. Research to-date, has focused on year-round calving systems which experience many different challenges compared to spring-calving systems. The objective of the present study was to determine the on-farm dry cow, calving, and colostrum management practices of spring-calving dairy production systems, and quantify their associations with herd size and herd expansion status (i.e. expanding or not expanding). Information on these management practices was available from a survey of 262 Irish spring-calving dairy farmers, representative of the Irish national population. Herd expansion in the 2 years before, and the year that the survey was conducted was not associated with any of the management practices investigated. Fifty-three percent of respondents had an average calving season length of 10 to14 weeks with 35% of herds having a longer calving season. Previous research in cattle has documented that both colostrum source and feeding management are associated with the transmission of infectious disease from cow to calf. In the present study 60% of respondents fed calves colostrum from their own dam; however, 66% of those respondents allowed the calf to suckle the dam, 23% of survey respondents fed calves pooled colostrum. Larger herds were more likely (P<0.01) to use pooled colostrum supplies, while smaller herds were more likely (P<0.05) to allow the calf to suckle the dam. The majority (86%) of respondents had stored supplies of colostrum; average-sized herds had the greatest likelihood of storing colostrum (P<0.05), compared to other herd sizes; larger sized herds had a lesser likelihood (P<0.05) of storing colostrum in a freezer, compared to other herd sizes. Although freezing colostrum was the most common method used to store colostrum (54% of respondents), 17% of respondents stored colostrum at room temperature, 29% of which stored it at room temperature for greater than 4 days. The results from the

  2. Body temperature in early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Voigtsberger, R; Bonk, S; Heuwieser, W

    2014-07-01

    A strategy widely adopted in the modern dairy industry is the introduction of postpartum health monitoring programs by trained farm personnel. Within these fresh cow protocols, various parameters (e.g., rectal temperature, attitude, milk production, uterine discharge, ketones) are evaluated during the first 5 to 14 days in milk (DIMs) to diagnose relevant diseases. It is well documented that 14% to 66% of healthy cows exhibit at least one temperature of 39.5 °C or greater within the first 10 DIM. Although widely adopted, data on diagnostic performance of body temperature (BT) measurement to diagnose infectious diseases (e.g., metritis, mastitis) are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify possible factors associated with BT in postpartum dairy cows. A study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm including 251 cows. In a total of 217 cows, a vaginal temperature logger was inserted from DIM 2 to 10, whereas 34 cows did not receive a temperature logger as control. Temperature loggers measured vaginal temperature every 10 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured twice daily in all cows. On DIM 2, 5, and 10, cows underwent a clinical examination. Body temperature was influenced by various parameters. Primiparous cows had 0.2 °C higher BT than multiparous cows. Multiparous cows that calved during June and July had higher BT than those that calved in May. In primiparous cows, this effect was only evident from DIM 7 to 10. Furthermore, abnormal calving conditions (i.e., assisted calving, dead calf, retained placenta, twins) affected BT in cows. This effect was more pronounced in multiparous cows. Abnormal vaginal discharge did increase BT in primiparous and multiparous cows. Primiparous cows suffering from hyperketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrat ≥ 1.4 mmol/L) had higher BT than those not affected. In multiparous cows, there was no association between hyperketonemia and BT. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that BT is influenced

  3. Identifying risk factors for poor hind limb cleanliness in Danish loose-housed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, B H; Thomsen, P T; Sørensen, J T

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify possible risk factors for poor cow hind limb cleanliness in Danish loose-housed, lactating dairy cows. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study of 1315 cows in 42 commercial Danish dairy herds with primarily Danish Holstein cows. The effect of four cow-level factors (parity, days in milk, daily lying time and lameness) and eight herd-level factors (herd size, milk production, milking system, floor type, access to pasture grazing, floor scraping frequency, hoof bathing frequency and hoof washing frequency) on the risk of having dirtier hind limbs were analysed using ordinal logistic regression fitting a proportional odds model. Cow hind limb cleanliness was scored using an ordinal score from 1 to 4: 1 being clean and 4 being covered in dirt. The odds ratios (ORs) estimated from the proportional odds model depict the effect of a risk factor on the odds of having a higher rather than a lower cleanliness score. First parity cows had an increased risk of being dirtier compared with third parity or older cows (OR=1.70). Compared with late lactation, early and mid lactation were associated with an increased risk of being dirtier (OR=2.07 and 1.33, respectively). Decreasing the daily time lying by 30 min was associated with an increased risk of being dirtier (OR=1.05). Furthermore, an increased risk of being dirtier was found in herds with no pasture access (OR=3.75). PMID:22440353

  4. A review of the feeding-health-production complex in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Ostergaard, S; Sørensen, J T

    1998-08-01

    Diseases may be an important link in the relationship between feeding and production in a dairy herd. The low frequency of relevant disorders calls for studies on survey data on a large population. However, this approach suffers from lack of detailed herd feeding data and consequently only few have studied feeding as a risk factor for disease. Therefore, we reviewed information from various studies to integrate what is known of the feeding-health-production complex in a dairy herd. The need for putting together information from different sources, the herd effects, and the fact that the effect of one factor cannot be kept constant for investigation in a real-life dynamic herd call for a conceptual model as a framework for the review. The complexity is minimized to allow the representation of important elements. Within-cow relationships (such as feeding-disease relationships, disease interrelationships, and disease-production relationships) are reviewed specifically for: ketosis, milk fever, displaced abomasum, acidosis, sole ulcers and laminitis, and bloat. The major feeding management factors involved are concentrate feeding (level and how it is provided) and overconditioned cows. Disease interrelationships are important. Generalization of production loss from diseases is complicated due to the variety of estimates and measures used. PMID:9762733

  5. Variation in the interservice intervals of dairy cows in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Remnant, J G; Green, M J; Huxley, J N; Hudson, C D

    2015-02-01

    An understanding of the normal estrous-cycle length of the cow is important when managing and monitoring dairy-herd fertility. Although the normal interovulatory interval is widely considered to be 21 d, some studies have found alternative intervals to be more prevalent; previously, most of the variation in interval length was expected to be between cows. The aim of this study was to assess the time between inseminations (interservice interval, ISI) in a large number of dairy cows and to explore possible associations between cow factors and estrous-cycle length. The study used ISI data from 42,252 cows in 159 herds across England and Wales. Univariate analysis of the subset of 114,572 intervals between 15 and 30 d (a range covering the increased frequency of ISI occurring at the expected time of the first return to estrus) following an insemination revealed a modal ISI of 22d. Primiparous heifers had a modal ISI of 21 d. Significant differences existed between the distribution of ISI for different yield groups, parity numbers, and the number of inseminations. Multilevel regression modeling was used to evaluate the associations between cow factors and ISI, while accounting for clustering at the herd and cow level. This revealed significant associations between predicted ISI and insemination number, days in milk, lactation 305-d milk yield, and month and year of insemination. Variance partition coefficients indicated that only 1% of variation in ISI was at the herd level, 12% at the animal level, and 87% at the insemination level, indicating that cycle length varies substantially more between cycles within a cow than between cows or herds. These findings suggest the normal range of ISI for modern UK dairy cows is longer than expected and cycle length has a large amount of unexplained variation within individual animals over time. PMID:25529414

  6. Serum C-reactive protein in dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Chuan; Hsiao, Huo-Cheng; Wu, Ying-Ling; Lin, Jyh-Hung; Lee, Yen-Pai; Fung, Hang-Poung; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Chu, Rea-Min

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactation and health status. Blood samples were collected every 2 wk for 12 mo from 29 randomly selected dairy cattle on 3 farms. At the time the blood samples were collected, the stage of pregnancy, lactation status, breeding records, general health condition, reproductive status, and body condition score were recorded for each cow. Serum CRP was detected with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western immunoblotting. C-reactive protein levels were measured with a densitometer and expressed as an optimal dose value. C-reactive protein levels were correlated with the body condition score, lactation status, and animal health (P < 0.05), but not with ambient temperature, animal age, or parity. C-reactive protein levels increased with milk production, peaking during high lactation (2 to 4 mo of pregnancy), and decreased when lactation ceased. In addition, the CRP level was highest during naturally occurring infections, such as mastitis and other tissue inflammation. Thus, the CRP level can confirm the presence of inflammation. The stress effect of taking blood samples as measured by the CRP level, was also examined. The CRP level became rapidly elevated 12 h after the blood samples were taken but returned to normal 36 h later. In conclusion, the stresses resulting from overall poor health, heavy lactation, and blood sampling caused the elevation of serum CRP. C-reactive protein is a marker or tool for evaluating the health status of a herd. C-reactive protein should also be considered as a useful criteria to assess the stress levels and may be useful in early surveillance of disease conditions in a dairy herd. PMID:12760474

  7. Use of herd management programmes to improve the reproductive performance of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S; Heuer, C; Morton, J; Brownlie, T

    2014-05-01

    There has been a long history of herd health and production management programmes in many dairy industries around the world, but evidence for the efficacy of such programmes is limited. In response to a perceived decline in fertility of dairy cows, a herd reproductive management programme (InCalf) was introduced in New Zealand in 2007. This programme uses a management cycle approach that includes an assessment of the current herd status, identification of areas for improvement, development of a plan, implementation of this plan and finally a review process. The programme uses facilitators who work with farmers either in a one-to-one manner or in a formalised group setting that involves a series of meetings over a 12-month period (the farmer action group). The hypothesis that involvement in a reproductive management programme would improve herd reproductive performance was tested using a herd-level controlled randomised study (the National Herd Fertility Study) involving herds in four geographic regions of New Zealand over 2 years. Within each region, herds were ranked on the basis of the 6-week in-calf rate (i.e. the proportion of the herd pregnant in the first 6 weeks of the seasonal breeding programme) in the year preceding commencement of the study and then randomly assigned to be involved in a farmer action group or left as untreated controls. The key outcome variable of the study was the 6-week in-calf rate. Pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken at 12 weeks after the start of the seasonal breeding programme, which allowed determination of conception dates and hence calculation of the 6-week in-calf rate. Additional measurements including heifer live weight and body condition score (pre-calving and pre-mating) were undertaken to test whether treatment resulted in measurable changes in some of the key determinants of herd reproductive performance. Involvement in the farmer action group of InCalf resulted in a 2 percentage point increase in the 6-week in-calf rate

  8. Reproductive trends of dairy herds in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trends for reproductive traits were examined for U.S. Holstein and Jersey herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Information testing. Traits were days from calving to first service (DFS) and to last service, 70-d nonreturn rates (NRR) and conception rates (CR) for first through fifth services, days open, gest...

  9. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in

  10. Herd-level determinants of bovine leukaemia virus prevalence in dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Ronald J; Bartlett, Paul C; Byrem, Todd M; Render, Chelsea L; Febvay, Catherine; Houseman, Jessica T

    2012-11-01

    The prevalence of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) was determined in 113 Michigan dairy herds by ELISA testing for anti-BLV antibodies in milk. Additionally, an interview regarding management practices with cooperating herd managers identified farm-level variables thought to be associated with prevalence of BLV. Twenty-three risk factors (P ≤ 0·1) were identified on one-way ANOVA or simple linear regression. Multivariate analysis identified several management practices whose predictive value for increased prevalence of BLV may relate to transmission among herd mates, e.g. reuse of hypodermic needles, lack of fly control, gouge dehorning and increased use of injections in dry cows. Additionally, exclusive breeding of heifers with artificial insemination was associated with decreased BLV prevalence, as compared with at least some use of natural service by a bull. Although intervention studies are needed before causal relationships can be concluded, and unaccounted variables related to transmission exist among dairy herds, these findings suggest management practices that may help dairy producers reduce the transmission of BLV within their herds. PMID:22963749

  11. Diversity of Listeria monocytogenes within a U.S. dairy herd, 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Haley, Bradd J; Sonnier, Jakeitha; Schukken, Ynte H; Karns, Jeffrey S; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S

    2015-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis, is frequently isolated from the environment. Dairy cows and dairy farm environments are reservoirs of this pathogen, where fecal shedding contributes to its environmental dispersal and contamination of milk, dairy products, and meat. The molecular diversity of 40 L. monocytogenes isolates representing 3 serogroups (1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b) collected between 2004 and 2010 from the feces of dairy cattle on a single dairy farm was assessed using a multivirulence locus sequence typing (MVLST) assay. The dairy farm L. monocytogenes MVLST patterns were compared to those from 138 strains isolated globally from clinical cases, foods, and the environment. Results of the study demonstrated that several distantly related L. monocytogenes strains persisted among members of the herd over the course of the study while other strains were transient. Furthermore, some strains isolated during this study appear to be distantly related to previously isolated L. monocytogenes while others are closely related to Epidemic Clones associated with human illness. This work demonstrates that dairy cows can be reservoirs of a diverse population of potentially human pathogenic L. monocytogenes that represents a risk to consumers of milk, dairy products, and meat. PMID:26325149

  12. The average culling rate of Dutch dairy herds over the years 2007 to 2010 and its association with herd reproduction, performance and health.

    PubMed

    Nor, Norhariani Mohd; Steeneveld, Wilma; Hogeveen, Henk

    2014-02-01

    Optimising the number of replacement heifers needed will have positive economic and environmental consequences on herds that rear their own young stock. The number of heifers needed to be kept is closely related with the number of culled dairy cows in the herd. This study therefore looked at the variation that exists in culling rate and herd level factors associated with it. A dataset from 1903 dairy herds available included information at animal level (dates of culling, slaughter/death) and herd level (characteristics of reproduction, performance, health) over the years 2007 to 2010. The average culling rate for slaughter/death was used and was defined for each year as percentage of the herd size that died within 30 d after they were culled. The analysis of the association between average culling rate for slaughter/death and the characteristics of the herd was performed using a mixed model. The results showed that the average culling rate for slaughter/death was 25·4% and varied between 23% (2007) and 28% (2010). More than 70% of the herds have an average culling rate for slaughter/death of less than 30%, showing that there is room for lowering the average culling rate for slaughter/death. A higher average culling rate for slaughter/death is associated with a longer average calving interval, a higher average 305-d protein production, a higher average somatic cell count (SCC), a higher percentage of new high SCC, a more than 5% decrease in herd size, and herds that bought more than 1% of animals per year. A lower average culling rate for slaughter/death is associated with a longer average age, herds that bought less than 1% of animals per year and a more than 5% increase in herd size. In conclusion, the average culling rate for slaughter/death is associated with fertility, udder health and openness of the herd. PMID:24107585

  13. Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis

    PubMed Central

    Stengärde, Lena; Tråvén, Madeleine; Emanuelson, Ulf; Holtenius, Kjell; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni

    2008-01-01

    Background Body condition score and blood profiles have been used to monitor management and herd health in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to examine BCS and extended metabolic profiles, reflecting both energy metabolism and liver status around calving in high-producing herds with a high incidence of abomasal displacement and ketosis and to evaluate if such profiles can be used at herd level to pinpoint specific herd problems. Methods Body condition score and metabolic profiles around calving in five high-producing herds with high incidences of abomasal displacement and ketosis were assessed using linear mixed models (94 cows, 326 examinations). Cows were examined and blood sampled every three weeks from four weeks ante partum (ap) to nine weeks postpartum (pp). Blood parameters studied were glucose, fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and cholesterol. Results All herds had overconditioned dry cows that lost body condition substantially the first 4–6 weeks pp. Two herds had elevated levels of NEFA ap and three herds had elevated levels pp. One herd had low levels of insulin ap and low levels of cholesterol pp. Haptoglobin was detected pp in all herds and its usefulness is discussed. Conclusion NEFA was the parameter that most closely reflected the body condition losses while these losses were not seen in glucose and fructosamine levels. Insulin and cholesterol were potentially useful in herd profiles but need further investigation. Increased glutamate dehydrogenase suggested liver cell damage in all herds. PMID:18687108

  14. Risk factors associated with detailed reproductive phenotypes in dairy and beef cows.

    PubMed

    Carthy, T R; Berry, D P; Fitzgerald, A; McParland, S; Williams, E J; Butler, S T; Cromie, A R; Ryan, D

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify detailed fertility traits in dairy and beef cattle from transrectal ultrasonography records and quantify the associated risk factors. Data were available on 148 947 ultrasound observations of the reproductive tract from 75 949 cows in 843 Irish dairy and beef herds between March 2008 and October 2012. Traits generated included (1) cycling at time of examination, (2) cystic structures, (3) early ovulation, (4) embryo death and (5) uterine score; the latter was measured on a scale of 1 (good) to 4 (poor) characterising the tone of the uterine wall and fluid present in the uterus. After editing, 72,773 records from 44,415 dairy and beef cows in 643 herds remained. Factors associated with the logit of the probability of a positive outcome for each of the binary fertility traits were determined using generalised estimating equations; linear mixed model analysis was used for the analysis of uterine score. The prevalence of cycling, cystic structures, early ovulation and embryo death was 84.75%, 3.87%, 7.47% and 3.84%, respectively. The occurrence of the uterine heath score of 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 70.63%, 19.75%, 8.36% and 1.26%, respectively. Cows in beef herds had a 0.51 odds (95% CI=0.41 to 0.63, P<0.001) of cycling at the time of examination compared with cows in dairy herds; stage of lactation at the time of examination was the same in both herd types. Furthermore, cows in dairy herds had an inferior uterine score (indicating poorer tone and a greater quantity of uterine fluid present) compared with cows in beef herds. The likelihood of cycling at the time of examination increased with parity and stage of lactation, but was reduced in cows that had experienced dystocia in the previous calving. The presence of cystic structures on the ovaries increased with parity and stage of lactation. The likelihood of embryo/foetal death increased with parity and stage of lactation. Dystocia was not associated with the presence of cystic

  15. A pathogen-specific approach towards udder health management in dairy herds: Using culture and somatic cell counts from routine herd investigations.

    PubMed

    Petzer, Inge-Marié; Karzis, Joanne; Donkin, Edward F; Webb, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    A dedicated udder health diagnostic programme was developed and used over a 15-year period in South Africa to analyse milk samples based on microbiological and cytological patterns within various groups and for individual cows and udder quarters in dairy herds. These pathogen-specific analyses are utilised for pro-active improvement and management of udder health in South African commercial dairy herds. The programme acts as a monitoring tool and identifies management areas at risk and individual cows with udder disease and uses both quarter and composite milk samples. Intra-mammary infection (IMI) is a dynamic situation and depending on the time a milk sample is taken, false-negative results may be obtained. A new IMI and an infection that is curing may both have low somatic cell counts (SCCs), masking the true bacterial status. SCC in individual infected udder quarters may differ greatly depending on the causative bacterial species, its pathogenicity, the host immune status and the environmental factors involved. A pathogen-specific udder health approach was followed with repeated herd tests to take account of these udder health dynamics. The results of the herd IMI investigation are applied in practice to assist veterinarians, udder health consultants and managers to make informed and specific detailed decisions at both a herd and on an individual cow basis regarding udder health. PMID:27608503

  16. Longitudinal study of udder cleft dermatitis in 5 Dutch dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Bouma, A; Nielen, M; van Soest, E; Sietsma, S; van den Broek, J; Dijkstra, T; van Werven, T

    2016-06-01

    Udder cleft dermatitis (UCD) is a skin lesion in dairy cows, most often located between anterior parts of the udder and abdomen, but also found between the front quarters. A few recent studies have investigated the prevalence of UCD, but relatively little is known about its pathogenesis, clinical course, and duration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and recovery of UCD on high-prevalence herds. Five Dutch dairy herds with a UCD prevalence of at least 6% were visited weekly for 19 wk, followed by visits every other week for 26 wk. During each visit, all dry and lactating cows were inspected for the presence of UCD signs. If a UCD case was detected, the affected skin was photographed and the photo was subsequently examined by a research assistant. Cows were then classified according to the appearance of the skin into 3 categories: healthy (no photo: no signs), mild (photo: affected skin but no wound), or severe (photo: open wound). The overall mean within-herd prevalence of UCD was 38% and the overall mean incidence was 1.94 UCD episodes per 100 cow-weeks at risk. Incidence of UCD was significantly higher in cows in third or higher parity and significantly increased with DIM. Median observed duration of UCD was 16 wk. The UCD recovery was 3 times more likely for mild than for severe lesions. The probability of moving from one category to another between 2 consecutive visits was very low, indicating that rapid changes in appearance did not occur. The observed incidence of UCD was rather low, and the relatively high prevalence in the selected herds was most likely due to the long duration of lesions rather than a high incidence of new UCD cases. PMID:27016832

  17. Track way distance and cover as risk factors for lameness in Danish dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burow, E; Thomsen, P T; Rousing, T; Sørensen, J T

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of length and cover of track ways between barn and pasture on lameness in Danish dairy cows. We hypothesised that short track distances would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows compared to longer distances and that track ways with prepared cover (asphalt, gravel, slag, concrete, rubber) compared to no prepared cover (sand, soil and/or grass) would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows in grazing herds. In total, 2084 dairy cows from 36 herds, grazing their dairy cows during summer, were individually assessed for their lameness status. The cows were further clinically examined for claw conformation and hock integument. Information on breed and parity per cow and size per herd was extracted from a national data base. Track way distance ranged from 0 to 700 m and was categorised as (1) <165 m or (2) ≥165 m. Cover of track way was categorised as (1) prepared (asphalt, gravel, slag, concrete, and/or rubber), (2) partly prepared or (3) not prepared (soil, sand, grass) for the surface of the majority of tracks used. The effect of track way distance and cover was evaluated for their impact on lameness using logistic analysis with a multi-level model structure. The probability for lameness did not change with track distance but increased with no (odds 4.0 times higher) or only partly prepared (odds 3.8 times higher) cover compared to prepared cover. In conclusion, we found that having a cover on the track way was associated with decreased severe lameness in Danish dairy cows. PMID:24387936

  18. The effects of building design on hazard of first service in Norwegian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Martin, A D; Kielland, C; Nelson, S T; Østerås, O

    2015-12-01

    Reproductive inefficiency is one of the major production and economic constraints on modern dairy farms. The environment affects onset of ovarian activity in a cow postcalving and influences estrus behavior, which in turn affects a stockperson's ability to inseminate her at the correct time. This study used survival analysis to investigate effects of building design and animal factors on the postpartum hazard of first service (HFS) in freestall-housed Norwegian Red cows. The study was performed on 232 Norwegian dairy farms between 2004 and 2007. Data were obtained through on farm measurements and by accessing the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System. The final data set contained data on 38,436 calvings and 27,127 services. Univariate Cox proportional hazard analyses showed that herd size and milk yield were positively associated with HFS. Total free accessible area and free accessible area available per cow year were positively associated with the HFS, as was the number of freestalls available per cow. Cows housed on slatted floors had a lower HFS than those housed on solid floors. Conversely, cows housed on rubber floors had a higher HFS than cows on concrete floors. Dead-ending alleyways reduced the hazard of AI after calving. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, accounting for herd management by including a frailty term for herd, showed relationships between hazard of postpartum service and explanatory variables. Animals in herds with more than 50 cows had a higher HFS [hazard ratio (HR)=3.0] compared with those in smaller herds. The HFS was also higher (HR=4.3) if more than 8.8 m(2) of space was available per cow year compared with herds in which animals had less space. The HFS after calving increased with parity (parity 2 HR=0.5, parity ≥3 HR=1.7), and was reduced if a lactation began with dystocia (HR=0.82) or was a breed other than Norwegian Red (HR=0.2). The frailty term, herd, was large and highly significant indicating a significant

  19. Invited review: udder health of dairy cows in automatic milking.

    PubMed

    Hovinen, M; Pyörälä, S

    2011-02-01

    Automatic milking (AM) is increasing in modern dairy farming, and over 8,000 farms worldwide currently use this technology. Automatic milking system is designed to replace conventional milking managed by a milker in a milking parlor or in tie stalls. Cows are generally milked more frequently in AM than in conventional milking, and milking is quarter-based instead of udder-based. Despite improvements in the milking process and often building of a new barn before the introduction of AM, udder health of the cows has not improved; on the contrary, problems may appear following conversion from conventional milking to AM. This review focuses on udder health of dairy cows in AM, and we discuss several aspects of cow and milking management in AM associated with udder health. Finally, adequate management methods in AM are suggested. According to several studies comparing udder health between automatic and conventional milking or comparing udder health before and after the introduction of automatic milking in the same herds, udder health has deteriorated during the first year or more after the introduction of AM. Automatic detection of subclinical and clinical mastitis and cleaning the teats before milking are challenges of AM. Failures in mastitis detection and milking hygiene pose a risk for udder health. These risk factors can partly be controlled by management actions taken by the farmer, but AM also needs further technical development. To maintain good udder health in AM, it is imperative that the barn is properly designed to keep the cows clean and the cow traffic flowing. Milking frequency must be maintained for every cow according to its stage of lactation and milk production. Careful observation of the cows and knowledge of how to use all data gathered from the system are also important. "Automatic" does not mean that the role of a competent herdsman is in any way diminished. PMID:21257025

  20. Effect of coagulase-negative staphylococci on somatic cell count in Dutch dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Sampimon, Otlis; van den Borne, Bart Hp; Santman-Berends, Inge; Barkema, Herman W; Lam, Theo

    2010-08-01

    The effect was quantified of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) intramammary infections on quarter- and cow-level somatic cell count (SCC) and on bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) in different BMSCC cohorts in Dutch dairy herds. Two datasets were used for this purpose. In the first dataset, on 49 randomly selected dairy farms a total of 4220 quarter milk samples of 1072 cows were collected of all cows and heifers with a test-day SCC 250 000 and 150 000 cells/ml, respectively, and of 25% of cows and heifers below these thresholds. In the second dataset, on 39 selected dairy farms a total of 8329 quarter milk samples of 2115 cows were collected of all cows with a test-day SCC 250 000 cells/ml following two consecutive SCC <250 000 cells/ml, and of heifers using the same SCC criteria but with a threshold of 150 000 cells/ml. These cows and heifers were defined as new high SCC. In both datasets, CNS was the most frequently isolated pathogen, 11% in the first dataset and 12% in the second dataset. In both datasets, quarters with CNS IMI had a lower SCC than quarters infected with major pathogens, and a higher SCC than culture-negative quarters. The same was found for SCC at cow level. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were more often found in quarters with SCC 200 000 cells/ml in dairy farms with a BMSCC <150 000 cells/ml compared with dairy farms with a higher BMSCC. Prevalence of CNS in cows and heifers with a high SCC was higher in dairy farms with a BMSCC <150 000 cells/ml compared with dairy farms with a medium or high BMSCC: 30, 19 and 18%, respectively. This indicates that CNS IMI as a cause of subclinical mastitis is relatively more important in dairy farms with a low BMSCC and may become a point of attention in udder health management on that type of farm. PMID:20450528

  1. Evaluating results of the Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation model for classification of dairy cattle welfare at the herd level.

    PubMed

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Botreau, R; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

    2013-10-01

    The Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation (WQ-ME) model aggregates scores of single welfare measures into an overall assessment for the level of animal welfare in dairy herds. It assigns herds to 4 welfare classes: unacceptable, acceptable, enhanced, or excellent. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relative importance of single welfare measures for WQ-ME classification of a selected sample of Dutch dairy herds. Seven trained observers quantified 63 welfare measures of the Welfare Quality protocol in 183 loose housed- and 13 tethered Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 10 to 211 cows). First, values of welfare measures were compared among the 4 welfare classes, using Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-squared tests. Second, observed values of single welfare measures were replaced with a fictitious value, which was the median value of herds classified in the next highest class, to see if improvement of a single measure would enable a herd to reach a higher class. Sixteen herds were classified as unacceptable, 85 as acceptable, 78 as enhanced, and none as excellent. Classification could not be calculated for 17 herds because data were missing (15 herds) or data were deemed invalid because the stockperson disturbed behavioral observations (2 herds). Herds classified as unacceptable showed significantly more very lean cows, more severely lame cows, and more often an insufficient number of drinkers than herds classified as acceptable. Herds classified as acceptable showed significantly more cows with high somatic cell count, with lesions, that could not be approached closer than 1m, colliding with components of the stall while lying down, and lying outside the lying area, and showed fewer cows with diarrhea, more often had an insufficient number of drinkers, and scored lower for the descriptors "relaxed" and "happy" than herds classified as enhanced. Increasing the number of drinkers and reducing the percentage of cows colliding with components of the stall while lying down

  2. Salmonella diversity and burden in cows on and culled from dairy farms in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to further characterize the epidemiology of Salmonella carried by dairy cows culled from herds in the Texas High Plains and marketed for human consumption. Feces were collected from 706 animals culled from a convenience sample of 9 dairies. In addition, individually...

  3. Postpartum uterine diseases and their impacts on conception and days open in dairy herds in Italy.

    PubMed

    Toni, F; Vincenti, L; Ricci, A; Schukken, Y H

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence and the impact of postpartum uterine diseases in postpartum cows on future uterine status and reproductive performance in large Italian dairy herds. This study provides an important quantitative estimate of uterine and postpartum diseases incidence that afflict high-producing Italian dairy cows. The total number of cows included in the study was 1498 on three farms; all cows were followed from the dry period until 300 days postpartum. All farms used high-quality data collection systems and standard operating procedures: weekly herd health visits, monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association visits, and, due to cheese-making milk quality requirements, a supplementary milk sample collected at 7 ± 3 days postpartum evaluated for milk components. Clinical metritis in primiparous cows did not change the time to the first artificial insemination (AI) or days open; conversely, clinical metritis in multiparous cows had impact on the time to first AI (hazard ratio: 0.66, P < 0.01) and resulted in a lower conception rate at first insemination and a increase in days open (odds ratio: 0.64, P < 0.05). Clinical endometritis had a strong deleterious effect on first AI conception rate (odds ratio: 0.34, P < 0.05) and days open across all lactations (hazard ratio: 0.68, P < 0.05). Persistent metritis, defined as the presence of both clinical metritis and clinical endometritis in the same animal in the same lactation, caused low conception rate both in the first-lactation and in older cows and had a strong negative effect on the proportion of pregnant cows at 300 days (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the impact of endometritis on fertility was true across lactation groups. A good management and precocious diagnosis of the pathologies is not resolutive to restore good fertility parameters, and understanding the immune response in first-lactation cows may be of value for developing alternative intervention protocols for older

  4. Efficiency of dairy farms participating and not participating in veterinary herd health management programs.

    PubMed

    Derks, Marjolein; Hogeveen, Henk; Kooistra, Sake R; van Werven, Tine; Tauer, Loren W

    2014-12-01

    This paper compares farm efficiencies between dairies who were participating in a veterinary herd health management (VHHM) program with dairies not participating in such a program, to determine whether participation has an association with farm efficiency. In 2011, 572 dairy farmers received a questionnaire concerning the participation and execution of a VHHM program on their farms. Data from the questionnaire were combined with farm accountancy data from 2008 through 2012 from farms that used calendar year accounting periods, and were analyzed using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). Two separate models were specified: model 1 was the basic stochastic frontier model (output: total revenue; input: feed costs, land costs, cattle costs, non-operational costs), without explanatory variables embedded into the efficiency component of the error term. Model 2 was an expansion of model 1 which included explanatory variables (number of FTE; total kg milk delivered; price of concentrate; milk per hectare; cows per FTE; nutritional yield per hectare) inserted into the efficiency component of the joint error term. Both models were estimated with the financial parameters expressed per 100 kg fat and protein corrected milk and per cow. Land costs, cattle costs, feed costs and non-operational costs were statistically significant and positive in all models (P<0.01). Frequency distributions of the efficiency scores for the VHHM dairies and the non-VHHM dairies were plotted in a kernel density plot, and differences were tested using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test. VHHM dairies had higher total revenue per cow, but not per 100 kg milk. For all SFA models, the difference in distribution was not statistically different between VHHM dairies and non-VHHM dairies (P values 0.94, 0.35, 0.95 and 0.89 for the basic and complete model per 100 kg fat and protein corrected milk and per cow respectively). Therefore we conclude that with our data farm participation in VHHM is not related

  5. Association between disease occurrence and fertility of dairy cows in three geographic regions of Chile.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, P J; Melendez, P; Paudyal, S; Krauss, R; Arias, F; Lopez, H; Luco, A; Vergara, C F

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to analyze the association between disease occurrence during early lactation and reproductive performance and survival of dairy cows in high-producing herds, under different management practices in three geographic regions of Chile. Data included 30,757 lactation records of cows calving from January 2013 to June 2014 in three different locations: Central (C) area (n = 6198 cows in eight herds), Central-South (CS) area(n = 17,234 cows in 12 herds), and South (S) area (n = 7325 cows in six herds). Data were analyzed using logistic regression and ANOVA, considering cow as the experimental unit. Covariables offered to the models included parity number, season of calving, cow and herd relative milk yield, geographic location, and management system. Average milk yield (305 ME) per cow were 12,091, 11,783, and 6852 kg for C, CS, and S regions, respectively. Time from calving to first service and time to conception were consistently greater for cows with at least one disease event within 50 days in milk (DIM), for cows that were reported lame, or for cows that had mastitis or metritis. The odds (95% confidence interval) of pregnancy at 150 DIM (P150) and the odds of survival until 150 DIM (S150) for cows that had at least one disease event within 50 DIM were 0.84 (0.79-0.91) times the odds of pregnancy and 0.25 (0.22-0.28) times the odds of survival for healthy cows. The odds of P150 for cows located in the C and CS areas were 1.56 (1.36-1.80) and 1.16 (1.04-1.30) times the odds of P150 for cows in the S area. The odds of S150 for cows located in the C and CS areas were 0.48 (0.37-0.62) and 0.54 (0.42-0.67) times the odds of S150 for cows in the S area. These data suggested that cow health status and geographic location are significantly associated with reproductive performance and survival in this population of Chilean dairy cows. PMID:27059394

  6. Association of herd BRSV and BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease and reproductive performance in adult dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD) occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and Mycoplasma bovis. A questionnaire was used to collect data concerning herd management factors and reproductive performance, as well as the occurrence of clinical signs of respiratory disease in the last two years, as evaluated by the veterinarian or farm manager. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify and quantify the risk factors. Results A low to moderate prevalence (1-49%) of BRSV antibodies among youngstock was associated with a high occurrence of respiratory disease (OR = 6.2, p = 0.010) in cows and in-calf heifers. Employees of the farm may participate in the spread of such disease. Larger herd size, loose-housing of cows, housing youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, and purchasing new animals were factors possibly related to a high occurrence of respiratory disease symptoms in pregnant heifers and cows. The highest risk of abortions (> 1.3%) and increased insemination index (number of inseminations per pregnancy) (> 1.9) occurred in herds with a moderate prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies (1-49%) in cows. Conclusions BHV-1 was not associated with acute respiratory disease in adult dairy cattle, however was significantly related to reproductive performance. BRSV possesses the main role in respiratory disease complex in adult dairy cattle. PMID:22289165

  7. Fertility time trends in dairy herds in northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Rocha, A; Martins, A; Carvalheira, J

    2010-10-01

    The economics of dairy production are in great part dictated by the reproductive efficiency of the herds. Many studies have reported a widespread decrease in fertility of dairy cows. In a previous work (Rocha et al. 2001), we found a very poor oestrus detection rate (38%), and consequently a delayed calving to 1st AI and calving to conception intervals. However, a good conception rate at 1st AI was noted (51%) resulting in a low number of inseminations per pregnancy (IAP) (1.4). Here, results from a subsequent fertility time trend assessment study carried out in the same region for cows born from 1992 to 2002 are reported. Statistical linear models were used to analyse the data. Estimate linear contrasts of least square means were computed from each model. The number of observations per studied index varied from 12,130 (culling rate) to 57,589 (non-return rate). Mean age at first calving was 28.9 ± 0.14 months, without (p > 0.05) variation over time. There was a small, but significant (p < 0.05), deterioration of all other parameters. Non-return rates at 90 days and calving rate at 1st AI decreased 0.3% per trimester, with a consequent increase of 0.04 IA/parturition. Oestrus detection rate decreased 0.13% per year, and calving at 1st AI and calving-conception intervals increased 0.17 and 0.07 days/year respectively, while intercalving interval increased 1.7 days per year. From 12,130 cows calving, only 1,816 had a 4th lactation (85% culling/losses). The data was not meant to draw conclusions on the causes for the decreased fertility over time, but an increase of milk production from 6537 kg to 8590 kg (305 days) from 1996 to 2002 is probably one factor to take into consideration. Specific measures to revert or slow down this trend of decreasing fertility are warranted. Available strategies are discussed. PMID:20051042

  8. Herd management and social variables associated with bulk tank somatic cell count in dairy herds in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Schewe, R L; Kayitsinga, J; Contreras, G A; Odom, C; Coats, W A; Durst, P; Hovingh, E P; Martinez, R O; Mobley, R; Moore, S; Erskine, R J

    2015-11-01

    The ability to reduce somatic cell counts (SCC) and improve milk quality depends on the effective and consistent application of established mastitis control practices. The US dairy industry continues to rely more on nonfamily labor to perform critical tasks to maintain milk quality. Thus, it is important to understand dairy producer attitudes and beliefs relative to management practices, as well as employee performance, to advance milk quality within the changing structure of the dairy industry. To assess the adoption rate of mastitis control practices in United States dairy herds, as well as assess social variables, including attitudes toward employees relative to mastitis control, a survey was sent to 1,700 dairy farms in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Florida in January and February of 2013. The survey included questions related to 7 major areas: sociodemographics and farm characteristics, milking proficiency, milking systems, cow environment, infected cow monitoring and treatment, farm labor, and attitudes toward mastitis and related antimicrobial use. The overall response rate was 41% (21% in Florida, 39% in Michigan, and 45% in Pennsylvania). Herd size ranged from 9 to 5,800 cows. Self-reported 3-mo geometric mean bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) for all states was 194,000 cells/mL. Multivariate analysis determined that proven mastitis control practices such as the use of internal teat sealants and blanket dry cow therapy, and not using water during udder preparation before milking, were associated with lower BTSCC. Additionally, farmer and manager beliefs and attitudes, including the perception of mastitis problems and the threshold of concern if BTSCC is above 300,000 cells/mL, were associated with BTSCC. Ensuring strict compliance with milking protocols, giving employees a financial or other penalty if BTSCC increased, and a perceived importance of reducing labor costs were negatively associated with BTSCC in farms with nonfamily employees. These findings highlight the

  9. A multiarm randomized field trial evaluating strategies for udder health improvement in Swiss dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Tschopp, A; Reist, M; Kaufmann, T; Bodmer, M; Kretzschmar, L; Heiniger, D; Berchtold, B; Wohlfender, F; Harisberger, M; Boss, R; Strabel, D; Cousin, M-E; Graber, H U; Steiner, A; van den Borne, B H P

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the effectiveness of specialist advice about udder health in Swiss dairy herds and to compare 3 different udder health improvement strategies against a negative control group. In 2010, 100 Swiss dairy herds with a high (between 200,000 and 300,000 cells/mL) yield-corrected bulk milk somatic cell count (YCBMSCC) were recruited for a 1-yr multiarm randomized field trial. The herds were visited between September and December 2011 to evaluate udder health-management practices and then randomly allocated into 1 of 4 study arms containing 25 herds each. The negative control study arm received neither recommendations for improving udder health nor any active support. The remaining 75 farmers received a herd-specific report with recommendations to improve udder health management. The positive control study arm received no further active support during 2012. The veterinarian study arm received additional support in the form of monthly visits by their herd veterinarian. Finally, the study group study arm received support in the form of bimonthly study group meetings where different topics concerning udder health were discussed. One year later, implementation of recommendations and changes in udder health were assessed. Of the recommendations given, 44.3% were completely implemented, 23.1% partially, and 32.6% were not implemented. No differences in implementation of recommendations were noted between the 3 study arms. At study enrollment, farmers were asked for the study arm of their preference but were subsequently randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 study arms. Farmers that were assigned to the study arm of their preference implemented more recommendations than farmers assigned to a study arm not of their preference. No decrease in the within-herd prevalence of cows that had a high (≥200,000 cells/mL) composite somatic cell count was observed in herds that had a YCBMSCC ≥200,000 cells/mL at the start of intervention. However, the 3

  10. Epidemiologic study on Besnoitia besnoiti infection in dairy herds in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Al-Majali, Ahmad M; Ababneh, Mohammad M; Abutarbush, Sameeh M

    2015-07-01

    Besnoitia besnoiti is an apicomplexan parasite and the causative agent of bovine besnoitiosis which is considered as a re-emergent disease in Europe. A cross-sectional serological study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with B. besnoiti infection in 68 dairy herds (n = 806 cows) in Jordan during the period from January to June 2007 and the spring of 2014. Data regarding herd's management was obtained by filling questionnaires through personal interviews with farmers. An indirect ELISA test was used to detect antibodies against B. besnoiti. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity to B. besnoiti. At the individual cow and herd level, the true prevalence of seropositive animals was 6 and 28.7 %, respectively. Cows between 2 and 6 years of age had significantly higher seroprevalence of B. besnoiti than other age groups. The highest seroprevalence of B. besnoiti was found in Zarqa and Irbid governorates. Multivariable logistic regression model identified that exchanging visits by farm workers to neighboring farms as a risk factor for seropositivity to B. besnoiti, while smaller herd size and twice a day farm cleaning using sweeping and water hosing were identified as protective factors. This is the first study that investigated the seroprevalence of B. besnoiti infection in dairy herds in Jordan. Further studies are warranted to explore the clinical manifestation of B. besnoiti infection as well as to identify the possible presence of other Besnoitia species and definitive hosts for the parasite. PMID:25843571

  11. Pre-breeding ovaro-uterine ultrasonography and its relationship with first service pregnancy rate in seasonal-calving dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Mee, J F; Buckley, F; Ryan, D; Dillon, P

    2009-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to characterize an ultrasound reproductive tract scoring (URTS) system to assess suitability for breeding in dairy cows, to describe the prevalence of these scores in commercial dairy herds and to examine their relationship with subsequent fertility. Ultrasound examinations (7797) were performed on 5751 Holstein-Friesian cows prior to breeding in 62 seasonally calving herds over 2 years. Data recorded from images of both ovaries and the uterus were combined into a six point scoring system and the prevalence of cows with cystic ovarian follicles and uterine abscesses and adhesions was recorded separately. The prevalence of ovulatory cows which had completed uterine involution (score 1), or had mild (2) or moderate endometritis (3) was 62.5%, 21.7% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of anovulatory cows with moderate endometritis (4), ovulatory cows with pyometra (5) and anovulatory cows which had completed uterine involution (6) was 3.3%, 2.2% and 8.1%, respectively. The interval between calving and examination differed between cows with each of the scores 1, 2, 5 and 6 (61, 46, 53 and 50 days, respectively, p < 0.05) but not between cows with scores 3 and 4 (37 and 35 days, respectively). Ovulatory cows which had completed uterine involution (score 1) had a higher likelihood of pregnancy to first service than ovulatory or anovulatory cows which had not completed uterine involution (p cows with cystic ovarian follicles or abscesses or adhesions of the reproductive tract was 3.9% and 1.2%, respectively. In conclusion, 29% and 11% of cows in seasonally calving and breeding dairy herds had not completed uterine involution or were anovulatory prior to the mating start date, respectively. Both conditions, detected using a URTS system, significantly reduced first service pregnancy rate in these pasture-based dairy herds. PMID:19323798

  12. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T D; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious heifer were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 12 scenarios. These 12 scenarios were combinations of three herd sizes (85, 200 and 400 cows) and four management levels (very good, good, poor and very poor). Input parameters for effects of S. Dublin on production and animal health were based on literature and calibrations to mimic real life observations. Mean annual GMs per cow stall were compared between herds experiencing within-herd spread of S. Dublin and non-infected reference herds over a 10-year period. The estimated GM losses were largest in the first year after infection, and increased with poorer management and herd size, e.g. average annual GM losses were estimated to 49 euros per stall for the first year after infection, and to 8 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10 years after herd infection for a 200 cow stall herd with very good management. In contrast, a 200 cow stall herd with very poor management lost on average 326 euros per stall during the first year, and 188 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10-year period following introduction of infection. The GM losses arose from both direct losses such as reduced milk yield, dead animals, treatment costs and abortions as well as indirect losses such as reduced income from sold heifers and calves, and lower milk yield of replacement animals. Through sensitivity analyses it was found that the

  13. Evaluation of a contract breeding management program in Ohio dairy herds: test day summary and economic measures.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Cheyney; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J; Frazer, Grant S; Meiring, Richard W; Hoblet, Kent H

    2008-03-01

    A field study was conducted to assess the impact of a contract breeding program that was offered by a breeding co-operative and featured tail chalking and daily evaluation of cows for insemination by co-operative technicians; dairy employees no longer handled estrous detection and insemination activities. From early 2002 until mid-2004, herd-level test day summary records related to production and reproduction were obtained for 32 herds identified as well-managed client herds of the breeding co-operative. Using analyses that controlled for other predictors and random herd-level effects, average days to first service were less by 13 days (P=0.0037) and estrous detection rate was greater by 12% (P=0.0011) for program than for non-program herds. Although first service conception rate was slightly less and the program herds used 0.34 more services per conception (P=0.1488) than non-program herds, the program herds averaged 16 fewer days before pregnancy (P=0.028). Test day summary information and representative estimates of feed, milk, and semen prices were used in a spreadsheet-based model to estimate a partial budget annuity value for an average cow in each herd on each test day. Value of an average cow from a contract herd did not significantly differ from a non-contract herd, even though the analyses suggested an economic benefit for the program herds; the modeling did not, however, account for costs of the program implementation. Additional analyses did not find any significant associations between technician and on days to first service, first service conception rate, estrous detection rate, services per conception, or days open. PMID:17391874

  14. Concentration of anti-Müllerian hormone in dairy heifers is positively associated with productive herd life.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Krassel, F; Scheetz, D M; Neuder, L M; Ireland, J L H; Pursley, J R; Smith, G W; Tempelman, R J; Ferris, T; Roudebush, W E; Mossa, F; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Ireland, J J

    2015-05-01

    Reliable biomarkers predictive of productive herd life (time in herd after birth of first calf) have heretofore not been discovered in dairy cattle. However, circulating concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) are positively associated with number of follicles or antral follicle count (AFC), ovarian function, and fertility, and approximately 25% of cows have a relatively low AFC and low AMH concentrations. The present study tested the hypothesis that heifers with the lowest AMH concentrations have suboptimal fertility and are removed from a herd for poor reproductive performance at a greater rate, and therefore have a shorter productive herd life compared with age-matched herdmates with higher AMH. To test this hypothesis, 11- to 15-mo-old Holstein heifers (n=281) were subjected to a single measurement of AMH. All heifers not removed from the herd had the opportunity to complete 2 lactations and start their third lactation after calving. During this time, performance and health parameters for each individual were recorded daily by herd managers. Results showed that the quartile of heifers with the lowest AMH concentration also had, on average, a shorter productive herd life (by 196 d), a reduced survival rate after birth of the first calf, the lowest level of milk production (first lactation), the lowest total percentage of cows pregnant (across all lactations), the highest culling rates (first and second lactations and overall), and the highest culling rate for poor reproduction (first lactation) compared with age-matched herdmates with higher AMH. We concluded that a single determination of AMH concentration in young adult dairy heifers may be a simple diagnostic method to predict herd longevity, and AMH may be a useful phenotypic marker to improve longevity of dairy cows. PMID:25726106

  15. Using routinely recorded herd data to predict and benchmark herd and cow health status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health using producer-recorded data is feasible. Estimates of heritability are low, indicating that genetic progress will be slow. Improvement of health traits may also be possible with the incorporation of environmental and managerial aspects into herd health pro...

  16. Herd-level risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteria on dairy farms in Minnesota, USA

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seongbeom; Fossler, Charles P.; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Wells, Scott J.; Hedberg, Craig W.; Kaneene, John B.; Ruegg, Pamela L.; Warnick, Lorin D.; Bender, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify herd-level risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteria (STB) on dairy cattle farms in Minnesota, USA. After adjustment for farm size, risk factors included: use of total mixed ration (TMR) for lactating dairy cows [odds ratio (OR) = 3.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8 to 5.1], no use of monensin for weaned calves (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.5, 9.3), and no use of decoquinate for preweaned calves (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.6). Fecal shedding of STB was more common in small herds (< 100 cows, OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 2.1, 6.2) than in large herds (≥ 100 cows). Herd management factors related to cattle feeding practices were associated with fecal shedding of STB. PMID:24155466

  17. Prevalence and herd-level risk factors for intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci in Dutch dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Sampimon, O C; Barkema, H W; Berends, I M G A; Sol, J; Lam, T J G M

    2009-02-16

    In this study, the prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) in The Netherlands was estimated on 49 randomly selected herds with at least 40 lactating cows. In total, 4220 quarter milk samples were collected. The prevalence of CNS IMI in The Netherlands was estimated at 10.8% at quarter level and 34.4% at cow level, making it the most frequently isolated group of pathogens. Fourteen species of CNS were identified; the most frequently isolated species was Staphylococcus chromogenes (30.3%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.9%) and Staphylococcus capitis (11.0%). Prevalence of CNS IMI was higher in heifers compared to older cows. Geometric mean quarter SCC of CNS-positive quarters was 109,000 cells/ml, which was approximately twice as high as culture-negative quarters. Quarters infected with S. chromogenes, S. capitis and Staphylococcus xylosus had a higher SCC (P<0.05) than culture-negative quarters, while quarters that were culture-positive for S. epidermidis and Staphylococcus hyicus tended to have a higher SCC than culture-negative quarters. An increased prevalence of CNS IMI was associated with the herd-level variables source of drinking water not being tap water, housing of dry cows in one group instead of multiple groups, measurement of cow SCC every month, udder health monitoring by the veterinarian, pasturing during outdoor season, percentage of stalls contaminated with milk, and BMSCC>250,000 cells/ml. Although a causal relation between these factors and prevalence of CNS is not proven and for some factors not even likely, knowledge of the associations found may be helpful when approaching CNS problems on dairy farms. PMID:18977613

  18. Prevalence of Subclinical Hypocalcemia in Dairy Herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk fever is the clinical presentation of severe hypocalcemia. However, both the prevalence of and potential impact of subclinical hypocalcemia on transition cow health are unknown. Cows with subclinical hypocalcemia have few or no clinical signs. Despite this lack of clinical signs these cows m...

  19. A stochastic estimate of the economic impact of oral calcium supplementation in postparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McArt, J A A; Oetzel, G R

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to develop stochastic models to estimate the economic impact in the first 30 d in milk of oral calcium supplementation to multiparous postparturient dairy cows using 4 different strategies: (1) supplementation of cows with a high previous lactation mature-equivalent milk yield, (2) supplementation of lame cows, (3) supplementation of both cows that have a high previous lactation mature-equivalent milk yield and cows that are lame, and (4) supplementation of all cows. Data from current literature were used to model input variables associated with the costs and risks related to milk production, postparturient disease, and culling. The mean net herd impact per 1,000 calvings for each of the 4 supplementation strategies was $4,425, $5,812, $8,313, and $3,065, respectively. Postpartum supplementation of multiparous lame cows had the highest return on investment at 6.5 to 1, followed by supplementation of multiparous high milk yield and lame cows, multiparous high milk yield cows only, and supplementation of all multiparous postpartum cows with returns of 1.8 to 1, 1.1 to 1, and 0.3 to 1, respectively. A herd's average milk yield at first test had the highest influence on the net impact of oral calcium supplementation to all multiparous cows and accounted for 30% of the variation, followed by the decrease in risk of health events in lame cows given oral calcium at 22%, a herd's prevalence of lameness at calving at 13%, and the price of milk at 10%. Each of the remaining stochastic variables contributed to less than 5% of the variation in net herd financial impact of oral calcium administration. Whereas supplementation of all postpartum multiparous cows returned a positive net herd impact approximately 80% of the time, if a herd was willing to devote time to mature-equivalent milk yield calculations and locomotion scoring, supplementation of this subpopulation of postpartum cows with oral calcium was estimated to have a positive economic impact in all

  20. Evaluation of an O antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of milk samples for Salmonella dublin infection in dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Hoorfar, J; Lind, P; Bitsch, V

    1995-01-01

    Levels of antibodies to the O antigens (O:1,9,12) of Salmonella dublin were tested in 1355 serum, 1143 cow milk and 160 bulk milk samples from dairy herds using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In order to define the background reaction, milk samples from all lactating cows and serum samples from 9 animals were collected in each of 20 salmonellosis-free herds located on the island of Bornholm, where cattle salmonellosis has not been reported. Similar samples were collected from all stalled animals in 10 herds with recent (< 6 months) outbreaks of salmonellosis located in Jutland, where salmonella infection is enzootic. Using herd history of salmonellosis, herd location and clinical status of the herds as criteria, the optimal cutoff in the milk ELISA was determined as being at least 5% of the samples having optical density > 0.5, resulting in herd sensitivity of 1.0 and herd specificity of 0.95. While none of the sera in the herds from Bornholm was ELISA positive, 2 herds had a few reactors in the milk ELISA. Using the same cutoff, all but 1 bulk milk sample from 150 herds on Bornholm was ELISA-negative, and all 10 salmonellosis-positive herds from Jutland were ELISA-positive. A significant correlation was found between ELISA reactions in milk and in serum of cows (34% and 32% respectively, rs = 0.69, P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7648527

  1. Oral calcium supplementation in peripartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Oetzel, Garrett R

    2013-07-01

    Hypocalcemia in dairy cattle around parturition can be manifest as clinical milk fever or subclinical hypocalcemia. Subclinical hypocalcemia has the greatest economic effect because it affects a much higher proportion of cows. Oral calcium supplements are used to mitigate the effects of both forms of hypocalcemia. Oral calcium supplements are appropriate for cows displaying early clinical signs of hypocalcemia and prophylactically to lessen the negative impacts of hypocalcemia. PMID:23809900

  2. Short communication: isolation of Prototheca species strains from environmental sources in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Scaccabarozzi, L; Turchetti, B; Buzzini, P; Pisoni, G; Bertocchi, L; Arrigoni, N; Boettcher, P; Bronzo, V; Moroni, P

    2008-09-01

    Composite milk samples from 548 cows, and samples from feces, feed, bedding, water, liners (before and after milking), and the postdipping product were aseptically collected from 2 Italian dairy herds from February to November of 2006. Prototheca zopfii was isolated from 11.9% of milk samples, 15% of feces, and 33.3% of bedding samples. No viable cells of P. zopfii were observed in water before washing procedures, whereas 25 to 28.6% of samples from water used for washing both refrigeration tanks and milking equipment were contaminated with this yeast-like microalga. Analogously, the presence of P. zopfii was detected only on swabs collected from the liners after milking. Interestingly, in 1 of the 2 herds, water from the drinking trough was contaminated by viable cells of both P. zopfii and the related environmental species Prototheca stagnora. No viable cells were observed in cow feed. On the basis of the results presented herein, P. zopfii seemed to be widespread throughout the environments of dairy herds where outbreaks of bovine mastitis had occurred. PMID:18765606

  3. Effect of exposure to Neospora caninum, Salmonella, and Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo on the economic performance of Irish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    O' Doherty, E; Sayers, R; O' Grady, L; Shalloo, L

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to quantify the effects of exposure to Salmonella, Neospora caninum, and Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo (L. hardjo) on dairy farm profitability and to simulate the effect of vaccination for Salmonella and L. hardjo on dairy farm profitability. The production effects associated with exposure to each of these pathogens in study herds were defined under 3 categories: (1) milk production effects, (2) reproduction effects (including culling), and (3) mortality effects. The production effects associated with exposure to Salmonella, N. caninum, and L. hardjo were incorporated into the Moorepark Dairy Systems Model. In the analysis, herds negative for exposure to Salmonella, N. caninum, and L. hardjo were assumed baseline herds, with all results presented relative to this base. In simulations examining the effect of vaccination for Salmonella and L. hardjo on farm profitability, vaccinated herds (vaccination costs included) were considered as baseline herds and results were presented relative to this base. Total annual profits in unvaccinated herds were reduced by €77.31, €94.71, and €112.11 per cow at milk prices of €0.24, €0.29, and €0.34/L, respectively, as a result of exposure to Salmonella. In the current study, herds positive for exposure to Salmonella recorded a 316-kg reduction in milk yield, whereas no association was detected between exposure to N. caninum or L. hardjo and milk production. Exposure to both N. caninum and L. hardjo was associated with compromised reproductive performance. Herds positive for exposure to N. caninum and Salmonella had greater rates of adult cow mortality and calf mortality, respectively. Vaccination for both Salmonella and L. hardjo was associated with improved performance in study herds. Exposure to N. caninum resulted in a reduction in annual farm profits of €11.55, €12, and €12.44 per cow at each milk price, whereas exposure to L. hardjo resulted in a reduction in

  4. Short communication: Factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in milk of commercial dairy herds: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Pellerin, D; Cue, R I; Girard, C L

    2016-06-01

    Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12, and this requires adequate Co supply. The natural source of vitamin B12 in human diets comes from animal products, especially those from ruminants. This study aimed to describe variability regarding vitamin B12 concentration in milk among and within commercial dairy herds in early lactation. A secondary objective was to explore potential causes for this variability such as genetic variation and diet characteristics. In total, 399 dairy cows (135 primiparous and 264 multiparous; 386 Holstein and 13 Jersey cows) in 15 commercial herds were involved. Milk samples were taken at 27.4±4.1 and 55.4±4.1d in milk. Neither parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) nor sampling time affected milk concentrations of vitamin B12. Nevertheless, vitamin B12 concentration in milk was highly variable among and within dairy herds. The lowest vitamin B12 concentration in milk of cows was observed in the Jersey herd. Among herds, vitamin B12 concentration in milk ranged from 2,309 to 3,878 pg/mL; one glass (250mL) of milk from those herds would provide between 23 and 40% of the vitamin B12 recommended daily allowance. Among individual cows, however, this provision varied between 16 and 57% of the recommendation. In spite of the limited size of the studied population, the heritability value was 0.23, suggesting that genetic selection could modify milk vitamin B12 concentration. We observed a positive relationship between milk vitamin B12 concentration and dietary acid detergent fiber content and a negative relationship between milk concentration of vitamin B12 and dietary crude protein content. PMID:27040783

  5. Crossbreeding: implications for dairy cow fertility and survival.

    PubMed

    Buckley, F; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Heins, B J

    2014-05-01

    In pasture-based seasonal calving systems, failure to become pregnant during the breeding season results in important economic losses as maximum profit is attained by minimising costs and increasing the proportion of grass in the diet of the lactating dairy cow. In the United States, dairy producers primarily strive to maximise production potential but are becoming increasingly aware of the economic consequences of sub-optimal cow fertility and survival. For this reason, interest in crossbreeding is emerging. The objective of this paper is to review the fertility and survival outcomes reported from recent research studies and data analyses in Ireland, New Zealand and the United States. Research conducted in Ireland during the early 2000s concluded that of three 'alternative' dairy breeds the Norwegian Red was most suited to seasonal grass-based production. A key finding was favourable fertility and survival. A follow-up study confirmed a fertility advantage with Norwegian Red×Holstein-Friesian compared with Holstein-Friesian: proportion pregnant to first service; +0.08 and in-calf after 6 weeks breeding; +0.11. Another study found higher fertility with Jersey crossbreds: pregnant to first service; +0.21, and in-calf after 6 weeks breeding; +0.19. Studies conducted in Northern Ireland also found superior fertility performance with Jersey crossbred cows offered low and moderate concentrate diets. In New Zealand, crossbred dairy cattle (primarily Jersey×Friesian) are achieving similar rates of genetic gain for farm profit as the purebred populations, but creating additional gain derived from economic heterosis. In the United States, analysis of commercial data from California showed higher first-service conception rates for Scandinavian Red×Holstein (+6 percentage units) and Montbeliarde×Holstein (+10 percentage units) compared with Holstein (23%). They also exhibited fewer days open and greater survival. At Penn State University, Brown Swiss×Holstein cows had 17

  6. Factors affecting pregnancy loss for single and twin pregnancies in a high-producing dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Silva-Del-Río, N; Colloton, J D; Fricke, P M

    2009-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the magnitude of, and factors affecting, pregnancy loss for lactating Holstein cows on a commercial dairy farm when diagnosed with twin (n=98) or single (n=518) pregnancies using transrectal ultrasonography. Pregnancy losses were assessed with records of non-viable embryos at first pregnancy examination and embryo losses between the first (25-40 d after AI) and second (48 and 82 d after AI) post-breeding pregnancy examinations. Among cows diagnosed with single pregnancies, 3.7% were diagnosed with a non-viable embryo at first pregnancy examination, and 4.6% of those diagnosed with a viable embryo underwent pregnancy loss by the second examination. A total of 11.2% of cows diagnosed with twins experienced a single embryo reduction, whereas 13.3% lost both embryos. Overall, the total proportion of cows experiencing pregnancy loss or experiencing embryo reduction was greater for cows diagnosed with twin than single pregnancies (odds ratio; OR=3.6), resulting in an embryo survival rate of 91.9% for cows diagnosed with single compared to 75.5% for cows diagnosed with twin pregnancies. Season of breeding and milk production were associated with pregnancy loss for single pregnancies, whereas CL number was associated negatively with embryo reduction and pregnancy loss for twin pregnancies. The risk of twinning and double ovulation among pregnant cows increased with days in milk (DIM), and the risk of double ovulation was greater for cows diagnosed with ovarian cysts and lacking a CL at initiation of an Ovsynch protocol. We concluded that in this herd, embryo reduction and pregnancy loss during early gestation was greater for lactating Holstein cows diagnosed with twin compared to single pregnancies. In addition, cows diagnosed with ovarian cysts and lacking a CL had an increased risk for double ovulation. PMID:19269023

  7. Genotype-specific risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus in Swiss dairy herds with an elevated yield-corrected herd somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Berchtold, B; Bodmer, M; van den Borne, B H P; Reist, M; Graber, H U; Steiner, A; Boss, R; Wohlfender, F

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a frequent problem in Swiss dairy herds. One of the main pathogens causing significant economic loss is Staphylococcus aureus. Various Staph. aureus genotypes with different biological properties have been described. Genotype B (GTB) of Staph. aureus was identified as the most contagious and one of the most prevalent strains in Switzerland. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with the herd-level presence of Staph. aureus GTB and Staph. aureus non-GTB in Swiss dairy herds with an elevated yield-corrected herd somatic cell count (YCHSCC). One hundred dairy herds with a mean YCHSCC between 200,000 and 300,000cells/mL in 2010 were recruited and each farm was visited once during milking. A standardized protocol investigating demography, mastitis management, cow husbandry, milking system, and milking routine was completed during the visit. A bulk tank milk (BTM) sample was analyzed by real-time PCR for the presence of Staph. aureus GTB to classify the herds into 2 groups: Staph. aureus GTB-positive and Staph. aureus GTB-negative. Moreover, quarter milk samples were aseptically collected for bacteriological culture from cows with a somatic cell count ≥150,000cells/mL on the last test-day before the visit. The culture results allowed us to allocate the Staph. aureus GTB-negative farms to Staph. aureus non-GTB and Staph. aureus-free groups. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression models were built to identify risk factors associated with the herd-level presence of Staph. aureus GTB and Staph. aureus non-GTB. The prevalence of Staph. aureus GTB herds was 16% (n=16), whereas that of Staph. aureus non-GTB herds was 38% (n=38). Herds that sent lactating cows to seasonal communal pastures had significantly higher odds of being infected with Staph. aureus GTB (odds ratio: 10.2, 95% CI: 1.9-56.6), compared with herds without communal pasturing. Herds that purchased heifers had significantly higher odds of being infected with

  8. Unusual cause of abortions in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    2013-02-01

    Abortion due to Rhizopus microsporus in a dairy herd Outbreaks of nutritional myopathy and hypovitaminosis A in calves Marked rise in diagnoses of acute fasciolosis in sheep Arcanobacterium haemolyticum arthritis diagnosed in fattening boars Infectious laryngotracheitis causes mortality in backyard poultry These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for November 2012 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:23378310

  9. Factors associated with age at slaughter and carcass weight, price, and value of dairy cull cows.

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, I; De Marchi, M; Cecchinato, A; Berry, D P; Bittante, G

    2014-02-01

    The sale of cull cows contributes to the overall profit of dairy herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with slaughter age (mo), cow carcass weight (kg), price (€/kg of carcass weight), and value (€/head) of dairy cull cows. Data included 20,995 slaughter records in the period from 2003 to 2011 of 5 different breeds: 2 dairy [Holstein Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS)] and 3 dual-purpose [Simmental (Si), Alpine Grey (AG), and Rendena (Re)]. Associations of breed, age of cow (except when the dependent variable was slaughter age), and year and month of slaughter with slaughter age, carcass weight, price, and value were quantified using a mixed linear model; herd was included as a random effect. The seasonal trends in cow price and value traits were inversely related to the number of cows slaughtered, whereas annual variation in external factors affected market conditions. Relative to BS cows, HF cows were younger at slaughter (73.1 vs. 80.7 mo), yielded slightly lighter carcasses (242 vs. 246 kg), and received a slightly lower price (1.69 vs. 1.73 €/kg) and total value (394 vs. 417 €/head). Dual-purpose breeds were older and heavier and received a much greater price and total value at slaughter (521, 516, and 549 €/head, respectively for Si, Re, and AG) than either dairy breed. Of the dual-purpose cows, Si carcasses were heavier (271 kg), whereas the carcasses of local breeds received a higher price (2.05 and 2.18 €/kg for Re and AG, respectively) and Alpine Grey cows were the oldest at slaughter (93.3 mo). The price per kilogram of cull cow carcasses was greatest for very young cows (i.e., <3 yr of age) and the differential in price and value between younger and older cows was greater in dual-purpose than in dairy breeds. Large differences in cull cow whole carcass value (carcass weight × unit price) among dairy breeds suggest that such a trait could be considered in the breeding objectives of the breeds. PMID

  10. Comparison of Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Organic and Conventional Dairy Herds in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Sato, K.; Bartlett, P. C.; Kaneene, J. B.; Downes, F. P.

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. isolates from bovine feces were compared between organic and conventional dairy herds. Thirty organic dairy herds, where antimicrobials are rarely used for calves and never used for cows, were compared with 30 neighboring conventional dairy farms, where antimicrobials were routinely used for animals for all ages. Fecal specimens from 10 cows and 10 calves on 120 farm visits yielded 332 Campylobacter isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in organic and conventional farms was 26.7 and 29.1%, and the prevalence was not statistically different between the two types of farms. Campylobacter prevalence was significantly higher in March than in September, higher in calves than in cows, and higher in smaller farms than in large farms. The rates of retained placenta, pneumonia, mastitis, and abortion were associated with the proportion of Campylobacter isolation from fecal samples. The gradient disk diffusion MIC method (Etest) was used for testing susceptibility to four antimicrobial agents: ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Two isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and none of isolates was resistant to gentamicin or erythromycin. Resistance to tetracycline was 45% (148 of 332 isolates). Tetracycline resistance was found more frequently in calves than in cows (P = 0.042), but no difference was observed between organic and conventional farms. When we used Campylobacter spp. as indicator bacteria, we saw no evidence that restriction of antimicrobial use on dairy farms was associated with prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. PMID:15006764

  11. Relationship between periparturient management, prevalence of MAP and preventable economic losses in UK dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Radia, D; Bond, K; Limon, G; van Winden, S; Guitian, J

    2013-10-12

    Johne's disease (JD) is an infectious, progressive, gastrointestinal disease affecting ruminants. Calves are mostly infected in their first six months of life, or in utero. We investigated the impact of specific periparturient management practices on within-herd JD prevalence and economic losses foregone in UK dairy herds by means of data synthesis (systematic appraisal of published evidence and expert elicitation) and use of a pre-existing simulation model. Our results show the scarcity of accurate estimates of the impact of specific periparturient management practices on within-herd JD prevalence, which could, in part, be explained by challenges associated with the chronic nature of JD. Management practices aiming to limit the faecal-oral transmission route of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) were found to be most effective at reducing within-herd prevalence of JD. Practices aiming to limit MAP transmission via colostrum and milk were found to be less effective. Losses foregone for a hypothetical herd of 200 milking cows were considerable; based on the assumptions, it is reasonable to expect between £7000 and £11,000 of losses foregone when management practices are implemented as a package of measures. The findings of this study are envisaged to enable farmers and veterinarians to make more informed decisions on changes to periparturient management to control JD. PMID:23897995

  12. Dairy Herd On-line Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Satoshi

    As the business circumstances have become worse, computational breeding management based on the scientific matters has been needed for dairy farming in our country. In this connection it was urgent to construct the system which provided data effectively used in the fields for dairy farmers. The Federation has executed to provide dairy farming technical data promptly through its own on-line network being composed of middle sized general-purpose computer (main memory : 5MB, and fixed disk : 1100MB) and 22 terminals.

  13. Factors associated with early cyclicity in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vercouteren, M M A A; Bittar, J H J; Pinedo, P J; Risco, C A; Santos, J E P; Vieira-Neto, A; Galvão, K N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with resumption of ovarian cyclicity within 21 days in milk (DIM) in dairy cows. Cows (n=768) from 2 herds in north Florida had their ovaries scanned at 17±3, 21±3, and 24±3 DIM. Cows that had a corpus luteum ≥20mm at 17±3 or at 21±3 DIM or that had a corpus luteum <20mm in 2 consecutive examinations were determined to be cyclic by 21±3 DIM. The following information was collected for up to 14 DIM: calving season, parity, calving problems, metabolic problems, metritis, mastitis, digestive problems, lameness, body weight loss, dry period length, and average daily milk yield. Body condition was scored at 17±3 DIM. Multivariable mixed logistic regression analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Variables with P≤0.2 were considered in each model. Herd was included as a random variable. Three models were constructed: model 1 included all cows, model 2 included only cows from dairy 1 that had daily body weights available, and model 3 included only multiparous cows with a previous dry period length recorded. In model 1, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were calving in the summer and fall rather than in the winter or spring, being multiparous rather than primiparous, and not having metabolic or digestive problems. In model 2, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were calving in the summer and fall, not having metritis or digestive problems and not losing >28 kg of BW within 14 DIM. In model 3, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were absence of metabolic problems and dry period ≤76 d. In summary, cyclicity by 21±3 DIM was negatively associated with calving in winter or spring, primiparity, metritis, metabolic or digestive problems, loss of >28 kg of body weight, and a dry period >76d. Strategies preventing extended dry period length and loss of BW, together with reductions in the incidence of metritis as well as

  14. Risk indicators associated with subclinical mastitis in smallholder dairy cows in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Kapaga, A M

    2004-08-01

    Smallholder dairy farmers in Tanzania appear to be unaware of the subclinical mastitis situation in their cows. A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and September 2002 on smallholder dairy herds in the Dar es Salaam region. The study objectives were to establish the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and related risk indicators, and to assess their contribution to the occurrence of subclinical mastitis. Three field procedures based on the principles of herd health and production management were followed: clinical, farm and data inspection. The California mastitis test (CMT) was carried out on quarter milk samples to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. A total of 182 lactating cows from 62 herds were investigated. Clinical inspection indicated that 3.8% of the lactating cows had clinical mastitis. Subclinical mastitis was detected in 90.3% of lactating cows screened. Farm inspection revealed that water scarcity, barn size, residual suckling, single udder-towel and dairy labourers as the most substantial (p < 0.05) risk indicators. Although most of the risk indicators studied were not found to be statistically significantly associated with the occurrence of subclinical mastitis, possibly owing to sample size and the presence of confounders, the epidemiological need to address such risk indicators cannot be overemphasized. PMID:15560518

  15. Risk factors for quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in feces from preweaned dairy calves and postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Duse, Anna; Waller, Karin Persson; Emanuelson, Ulf; Unnerstad, Helle Ericsson; Persson, Ylva; Bengtsson, Björn

    2015-09-01

    Quinolone resistance may emerge in gut bacteria (e.g., in Escherichia coli) of animals. Such bacteria could cause infections in the animal itself or be transmitted to humans via the food chain. Quinolone resistance is also observed in fecal E. coli of healthy dairy cattle, but the prevalence varies between farms, not solely as a result of varying degree of fluoroquinolone exposure. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for the fecal shedding of quinolone-resistant E. coli (QREC) from dairy calves and postpartum cows. Rectal swabs from 15 preweaned calves and 5 postpartum cows per farm were collected on 23 Swedish dairy farms to determine the prevalence of QREC. Risk factors for the shedding of QREC were investigated using multivariable statistical models. Quinolone-resistant E. coli were found on all but one farm. Factors associated with QREC shedding by calves were being younger than 18 d, being fed milk from cows treated with antimicrobials, recent use of fluoroquinolones in the herd, carriage of QREC by postpartum cows, and using the calving area never or rarely as a sick pen compared with often. Factors associated with QREC shedding by cows were calving in group pens or freestalls compared with single pens or tiestalls, purchasing cattle, sharing animal transports with other farmers, and poor farm hygiene. Proper biosecurity and improved hygiene, as well as minimizing fluoroquinolone exposure and waste milk feeding, may be important factors to reduce the burden of QREC on dairy farms. PMID:26188574

  16. A structural equation model to evaluate direct and indirect factors associated with a latent measure of mastitis in Belgian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Detilleux, J; Theron, L; Beduin, J-M; Hanzen, C

    2012-12-01

    In dairy cattle, many farming practices have been associated with occurrence of mastitis but it is often difficult to disentangle the causal threads. Structural equation models may reduce the complexity of such situations. Here, we applied the method to examine the links between mastitis (subclinical and clinical) and risk factors such as herd demographics, housing conditions, feeding procedures, milking practices, and strategies of mastitis prevention and treatment in 345 dairy herds from the Walloon region of Belgium. During the period January 2006 to October 2007, up to 110 different herd management variables were recorded by two surveyors using a questionnaire for the farm managers and during a farm visit. Monthly somatic cell counts of all lactating cows were collected by the local dairy herd improvement association. Structural equation models were created to obtain a latent measure of mastitis and to reduce the complexity of the relationships between farming practices, between indicators of herd mastitis and between both. Robust maximum likelihood estimates were obtained for the effects of the herd management variables on the latent measure of herd mastitis. Variables associated directly (p<0.05) with the latent measure of herd mastitis were the addition of urea in the rations; the practices of machine stripping, of pre-and post-milking teat disinfection; the presence of cows with hyperkeratotic teats, of cubicles for housing and of dirty liners before milking; the treatment of subclinical cases of mastitis; and the age of the herd (latent variable for average age and parity of cows, and percentage of heifers in the herd). Treatment of subclinical mastitis was also an intermediate in the association between herd mastitis and post-milking teat disinfection. The study illustrates how structural equation model provides information regarding the linear relationships between risk factors and a latent measure of mastitis, distinguishes between direct relationships

  17. Monitoring herd incidence of intramammary infection in lactating cows using repeated longitudinal somatic cell count measurements.

    PubMed

    Dufour, S; Dohoo, I R

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the ability of an estimate of the herd intramammary infection (IMI) incidence rate computed using repeated somatic cell count (SCC) measurements (quarter- and composite-SCC; hereafter, the SCC-derived herd IMI incidence, SCCI)to predict the incidence rate computed using repeated quarter-milk bacteriological culture (hereafter, bacteriological culture incidence, BCI) during the lactating period. A cohort of 91 Canadian dairy herds was followed in 2007 and 2008. In each herd and at each of 4 sampling periods, a series of 3 to 7 quarter-milk samples was collected from a sample of 15 cows. Routine milk bacteriological culture was conducted to identify IMI, SCC was measured on the quarter-milk samples, and composite-SCC of the preceding and following dairy herd improvement (DHI) tests were obtained. Mastitis pathogens were grouped in 3 categories: major, minor, and any pathogens. For each herd and for each period, BCI was computed for each group of organisms. Similarly, SCCI were computed using quarter- and DHI composite-SCC and using a threshold of 200,000 cells/mL to define infected quarters or cows. A linear regression model taking into account the structure of the data was used to compare the SCCI to the BCI. A similar model was used to compare fluctuations (i.e., changes from one sampling period to the next) over time of the SCCI and BCI. Measures of correlation between observed and predicted rates were computed and limits of agreement plots sketched to better explore the predictive ability of the SCCI. The quarter-milk SCC measurements that could be obtained-for instance, using on-line milking system measurements-appeared to be particularly valuable. Quarter-SCCI showed a positive and significant association with the BCI. However, limits of agreement plots indicated important disagreement for the small proportion of observations with very high BCI. Quarter-level SCCI and BCI fluctuations were also significantly associated

  18. Mechanisms underlying reduced fertility in anovular dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Santos, J E P; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S

    2016-07-01

    Resumption of ovulation after parturition is a coordinated process that involves recoupling of the GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis in the liver, increase in follicular development and steroidogenesis, and removal of negative feedback from estradiol in the hypothalamus. Infectious diseases and metabolic disorders associated with extensive negative energy balance during early lactation disrupt this pathway and delay first ovulation postpartum. Extended periods of anovulation postpartum exert long-lasting effects on fertility in dairy cows including the lack of spontaneous estrus, reduced pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI), and increased risk of pregnancy loss. Concentrations of progesterone in anovular cows subjected to synchronized programs for AI are insufficient to optimize follicular maturation, oocyte competence, and subsequent fertility to AI. Ovulation of first wave follicles, which develop under low concentrations of progesterone, reduces embryo quality in the first week after fertilization and P/AI in dairy cows. Although the specific mechanisms by which anovulation and low concentrations of progesterone impair oocyte quality have not been defined, studies with persistent follicles support the involvement of premature resumption of meiosis and degradation of maternal RNA. Suboptimal concentrations of progesterone before ovulation also increase the synthesis of PGF2α in response to oxytocin during the subsequent estrous cycle, which explains the greater incidence of short luteal phases after the first AI postpartum in anovular cows compared with estrous cyclic herd mates. It is suggested that increased spontaneous luteolysis early in the estrous cycle is one of the mechanisms that contributes to early embryonic losses in anovular cows. Anovulation also leads to major shifts in gene expression in elongated conceptuses during preimplantation stages of pregnancy. Transcripts involved with control of energy metabolism and DNA repair were

  19. Evaluation of udder health parameters and risk factors for clinical mastitis in Dutch dairy herds in the context of a restricted antimicrobial usage policy.

    PubMed

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Swinkels, J M; Lam, T J G M; Keurentjes, J; van Schaik, G

    2016-04-01

    Recently, many changes have been implemented in Dutch dairy herds. Herd sizes have increased and antimicrobial use has been reduced. Certain types of antimicrobials can only be used in specific circumstances, and the preventive use of antimicrobials in dry cows is prohibited. The aim of this study was to quantify clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and risk factors associated with CM in Dutch dairy herds in 2013, in the context of these changes. For this study, 240 dairy herds were randomly selected from farms that participated in test-day milk recording, used a conventional milking system, and agreed to participate in the study. Eventually, 233 Dutch dairy farmers had complete records of CM in their herds in 2013 and 224 of these farmers completed a questionnaire on management factors potentially associated with CM. All participating farmers gave consent to use their routinely collected herd data such as test-day records and cow identification and registration data. Clinical and subclinical mastitis incidence rate (CMI and SCMI, respectively) per 100 cows per year, subclinical mastitis prevalence, and average bulk tank milk somatic cell count were obtained for 2013. The risk factor analysis was conducted using a generalized linear model with a log link function and a negative binomial distribution on herd level in Stata 13.1. A median CMI of 28.6 per 100 cows at risk per year, SCMI of 70.1 per 100 cows at risk per year, SCM prevalence of 15.8%, and bulk tank milk somatic cell count of 171 × 10(3) cells/mL were observed in 2013. Factors that were significantly associated with a higher CMI were cleaning slatted floors only once per day compared with more than 4 times a day (i.e., mechanical), a higher percentage of Holstein Friesian cows present in the herd, treating less than 50% of the cows with CM with antimicrobials, postmilking teat disinfection, and treatment of cows with elevated somatic cell count with antimicrobials. The results of this

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in Dutch dairy cattle herds based on bulk tank milk testing.

    PubMed

    van Engelen, E; Schotten, N; Schimmer, B; Hautvast, J L A; van Schaik, G; van Duijnhoven, Y T H P

    2014-11-01

    Despite cattle herds can harbor Coxiella burnetii, risk factors for C. burnetii presence in dairy cattle herds are largely unknown. Therefore, C. burnetii herd prevalence and risk factors for bulk tank milk (BTM) positivity were investigated. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was filled out by the farmer and BTM from 301 farms was tested by ELISA for presence of C. burnetii antibodies and PCR for presence of C. burnetii DNA. Risk factors were identified by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Antibodies to C. burnetii were detected in 81.6% (CI: 77.2-85.9) and C. burnetii DNA in 18.8% (CI: 14.4-23.1) of the BTM samples. Herd size (OR=1.1 per 10 cows), cleaning the bedding of the cubicles at most every other day (OR=2.8) and purchase of cattle from at least two addresses (OR=3.1) showed a significant and positive association with ELISA positivity and use of an automatic milking system a negative association (OR=0.3). Risk factors for PCR positivity were purchase of cattle from at least two delivery addresses (OR=3.2), presence of cows with ticks (OR=2.0), use of an automatic milking system (OR=0.2) and presence of goats or sheep on the farm (OR=0.4). Biosecurity and general hygiene seem associated with introduction and spread of C. burnetii in dairy herds. PMID:25239684

  1. Shorter sampling periods and accurate estimates of milk volume and components are possible for pasture based dairy herds milked with automated milking systems.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Claudia; Burke, Jennie K; Taukiri, Sarah; Petch, Susan-Fay; Turner, Sally-Anne

    2016-08-01

    Dairy cows grazing pasture and milked using automated milking systems (AMS) have lower milking frequencies than indoor fed cows milked using AMS. Therefore, milk recording intervals used for herd testing indoor fed cows may not be suitable for cows on pasture based farms. We hypothesised that accurate standardised 24 h estimates could be determined for AMS herds with milk recording intervals of less than the Gold Standard (48 hs), but that the optimum milk recording interval would depend on the herd average for milking frequency. The Gold Standard protocol was applied on five commercial dairy farms with AMS, between December 2011 and February 2013. From 12 milk recording test periods, involving 2211 cow-test days and 8049 cow milkings, standardised 24 h estimates for milk volume and milk composition were calculated for the Gold Standard protocol and compared with those collected during nine alternative sampling scenarios, including six shorter sampling periods and three in which a fixed number of milk samples per cow were collected. Results infer a 48 h milk recording protocol is unnecessarily long for collecting accurate estimates during milk recording on pasture based AMS farms. Collection of two milk samples only per cow was optimal in terms of high concordance correlation coefficients for milk volume and components and a low proportion of missed cow-test days. Further research is required to determine the effects of diurnal variations in milk composition on standardised 24 h estimates for milk volume and components, before a protocol based on a fixed number of samples could be considered. Based on the results of this study New Zealand have adopted a split protocol for herd testing based on the average milking frequency for the herd (NZ Herd Test Standard 8100:2015). PMID:27600967

  2. Minimization of bovine tuberculosis control costs in US dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebecca L; Tauer, Loren W; Schukken, Ynte H; Lu, Zhao; Grohn, Yrjo T

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to minimize the cost of controlling an isolated bovine tuberculosis (bTB) outbreak in a US dairy herd, using a stochastic simulation model of bTB with economic and biological layers. A model optimizer produced a control program that required 2-month testing intervals (TI) with 2 negative whole-herd tests to leave quarantine. This control program minimized both farm and government costs. In all cases, test-and-removal costs were lower than depopulation costs, although the variability in costs increased for farms with high holding costs or small herd sizes. Increasing herd size significantly increased costs for both the farm and the government, while increasing indemnity payments significantly decreased farm costs and increasing testing costs significantly increased government costs. Based on the results of this model, we recommend 2-month testing intervals for herds after an outbreak of bovine tuberculosis, with 2 negative whole herd tests being sufficient to lift quarantine. A prolonged test and cull program may cause a state to lose its bTB-free status during the testing period. When the cost of losing the bTB-free status is greater than $1.4 million then depopulation of farms could be preferred over a test and cull program. PMID:23953679

  3. A model of the spread of the bovine viral-diarrhoea virus within a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Viet, Anne-France; Fourichon, Christine; Seegers, Henri; Jacob, Christine; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal

    2004-05-14

    Wet BVDSim (a stochastic simulation model) was developed to study the dynamics of the spread of the bovine viral-diarrhoea virus (BVDV) within a dairy herd. This model took into account herd-management factors (common in several countries), which influence BVDV spread. BVDSim was designed as a discrete-entity and discrete-event simulation model. It relied on two processes defined at the individual-animal level, with interactions. The first process was a semi-Markov process and modelled the herd structure and dynamics (demography, herd management). The second process was a Markov process and modelled horizontal and vertical virus transmission. Because the horizontal transmission occurs by contacts (nose-to-nose) and indirectly, transmission varied with the separation of animals into subgroups. Vertical transmission resulted in birth of persistently infected (PI) calves. Other possible consequences of a BVDV infection during the pregnancy period were considered (pregnancy loss, immunity of calves). The outcomes of infection were modelled according to the stage of pregnancy at time of infection. BVDV pregnancy loss was followed either by culling or by a new artificial insemination depending on the modelled farmer's decision. Consistency of the herd dynamics in the absence of any BVDV infection was verified. To explore the model behaviour, the virus spread was simulated over 10 years after the introduction of a near-calving PI heifer into a susceptible 38 cow herd. Different dynamics of the virus spread were simulated, from early clearance to persistence of the virus 10 years after its introduction. Sensitivity of the model to the uncertainty on transmission coefficient was analysed. Qualitative validation consisted in comparing the bulk-milk ELISA results over time in a sample of herds detected with a new infection with the ones derived from simulations. PMID:15158572

  4. Economic comparison of common treatment protocols and J5 vaccination for clinical mastitis in dairy herds using optimized culling decisions.

    PubMed

    Kessels, J A; Cha, E; Johnson, S K; Welcome, F L; Kristensen, A R; Gröhn, Y T

    2016-05-01

    This study used an existing dynamic optimization model to compare costs of common treatment protocols and J5 vaccination for clinical mastitis in US dairy herds. Clinical mastitis is an infection of the mammary gland causing major economic losses in dairy herds due to reduced milk production, reduced conception, and increased risk of mortality and culling for infected cows. Treatment protocols were developed to reflect common practices in dairy herds. These included targeted therapy following pathogen identification, and therapy without pathogen identification using a broad-spectrum antimicrobial or treating with the cheapest treatment option. The cost-benefit of J5 vaccination was also estimated. Effects of treatment were accounted for as changes in treatment costs, milk loss due to mastitis, milk discarded due to treatment, and mortality. Following ineffective treatments, secondary decisions included extending the current treatment, alternative treatment, discontinuing treatment, and pathogen identification followed by recommended treatment. Average net returns for treatment protocols and vaccination were generated using an existing dynamic programming model. This model incorporates cow and pathogen characteristics to optimize management decisions to treat, inseminate, or cull cows. Of the treatment protocols where 100% of cows received recommended treatment, pathogen-specific identification followed by recommended therapy yielded the highest average net returns per cow per year. Out of all treatment scenarios, the highest net returns were achieved with selecting the cheapest treatment option and discontinuing treatment, or alternate treatment with a similar spectrum therapy; however, this may not account for the full consequences of giving nonrecommended therapies to cows with clinical mastitis. Vaccination increased average net returns in all scenarios. PMID:26947301

  5. Effect of oral calcium bolus supplementation on early-lactation health and milk yield in commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Oetzel, G R; Miller, B E

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with oral Ca boluses after calving on early-lactation health and milk yield. Cows in their second lactation or greater (n=927) from 2 large dairies in Wisconsin were enrolled during the summer of 2010. Both herds were fed supplemental anions during the prefresh period and less than 1% of fresh cows were treated for clinical milk fever. Cows were scored before calving for lameness and body condition, and then randomly assigned to either a control group or an oral Ca bolus-supplemented group. Control cows received no oral Ca boluses around calving. Cows in the oral Ca bolus group received 2 oral Ca boluses (Bovikalc, Boehringer Ingelheim, St. Joseph, MO), one bolus 0 to 2h after calving and the second 8 to 35 h after calving. The oral Ca bolus administration schedule allowed fresh cows to be restrained in headlocks only once daily. Whole-blood samples were collected immediately before the second oral Ca bolus was given and were analyzed for ionized Ca (Ca(2+)) concentration. Early-lactation health events were recorded and summed for each cow. Only 6 cases (0.6% of calvings) of clinical milk fever occurred during the trial, and only 14% of cows tested were hypocalcemic (Ca(2+) less than 1.0 mmol/L) at 8 to 35 h after calving. Mean Ca(2+) concentrations were not different between the control and oral Ca bolus-supplemented groups. Blood samples from the cows given oral Ca boluses were collected an average of 20.6 h after administration of the first bolus. Subpopulations of cows with significant responses to oral Ca bolus supplementation were identified based on significant interactions between oral Ca bolus supplementation and covariates in mixed multiple regression models. Lame cows supplemented with oral Ca boluses averaged 0.34 fewer health events in the first 30 d in milk compared with lame cows that were not supplemented with oral Ca boluses. Cows with a higher previous lactation mature

  6. Prepartum supplementation of selenium and vitamin E to dairy cows: assessment of selenium and reproductive performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hidiroglou, M.; McAllister, A.J.; Williams, C.J.

    1987-06-01

    Incidence of retained placenta in dairy cows was evaluated in 627 parturitions. The herd was divided prepartum into three groups: (1) control, no treatment (n = 217 cows); (2) cows injected intramuscularly (n = 190) 21 to 10 d prior parturition with 45 mg Se and 2040 IU of vitamin E; and (3) cows intraruminally administered (n = 220) with two 30-g pellets containing 10% elemental selenium 2 mo prior to expected calving. Incidence of retained placenta (22.1%) was not reduced by Se in combination with vitamin E injection or intraruminal Se pellet nor were other measures of reproduction improved for cows fed a prepartum diet adequate in Se. At parturition the blood plasma Se concentrations were higher in treated postpartum with Se than in untreated cows. No difference in blood plasma Se was observed at parturition between cows with or without placenta retention. Cows dosed intraruminally with Se had a significant increase in milk Se, but this was to small to be a danger to human health. The present results on placenta retention suggest that this disorder is not a Se responsive disease in the dairy cow.

  7. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis and isolated udder pathogens in dairy cows in Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Östensson, Karin; Lam, Vo; Sjögren, Natahlie; Wredle, Ewa

    2013-04-01

    Dairy production is not traditional in Vietnam. The farmers have little practical knowledge and udder health control is generally lacking. In order to give the farmers appropriate advice, knowledge about the distribution of udder pathogens is crucial. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and to identify udder pathogens isolated from smallholder dairy herds in Southern Vietnam. Twenty farms with a herd somatic cell count (SCC) ranging from low (≤ 400 × 10(3)cells/mL) to high (>400 × 10(3)cells/mL) were randomly selected. Milk samples were collected from 458 quarters of 115 clinically healthy cows. SCC was analyzed on farm by a portable cell counter. Bacteriological samples were taken using Mastistrip(©) cassettes and sent to Sweden for examination. For all herds the mean herd SCC was 632 × 10(3)/mL milk. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis at quarter SCC basis was 63.2 % and at cow basis 88.6 %. Only 40 % of all cows were bacteriologically negative in all quarters. Streptococcus agalactiae was the most commonly found bacteria species, isolated from 96 of the 458 quarter samples, in 13 of the 20 farms. The results indicate pronounced subclinical mastitis problems among the dairy cows in this region mainly due to infections with S. agalactiae. The high prevalence of this highly contagious pathogen is probably attributable to the generally poor milking hygiene and low awareness of proper measures to prevent occurrence and spread of udder infections. A strict, targeted action program for the herds in this area is required in order to lower the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. PMID:23212834

  8. The Application of Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Counts to Monitoring Mastitis Levels in Dairy Herds

    PubMed Central

    Meek, A.H.; Barnum, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of developing a system whereby measurements taken on bulk tank milk samples could be used to monitor the level of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. The variables that were examined were the logarithmically transformed total somatic cell counts and percentages of cell volume in channel 8 (volumes from 89.2 to 178.3 µm3), the presence or absence of Streptococcus agalactiae and various husbandry/management factors including herdsize and the use of teat dips. Each of the use of actual monthly and rolling average bulk tank cell count determinations was investigated. It was found that the inclusion of all variables resulted in a correct classification of approximately 85% of herds and that no improvement was achieved by the use of rolling as opposed to actual monthly values. The inclusion of various husbandry/management practices improved the percentage correct classification to some extent over that achieved by the sole use of total somatic cell counts and percentages of cell volume in channel 8 when the herds were grouped on the basis of quarter infection rate (<10%, >10%) but not in the case of the cow infection rate categories (<20%, >20%). The use of both total cell counts and percentages of cell volume in channel 8 did not improve the overall predictive value over that achieved by the sole use of percentage of cell volume in channel 8 in the case of the quarter infection rate groupings but did to some extent in the case of the cow infection rate groupings. When the classification functions were applied prospectively and considering combinations of the two cell count determinations only, it was found that they were able to correctly classify, on the basis of the quarter infection rate groupings, approximately 75% of the study herds. It is concluded that the system described herein has limited application as a basis for selecting problem herds. PMID:7042053

  9. Trends in udder health and emerging mastitogenic pathogens in South African dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Petzer, I-M; Karzis, J; Watermeyer, J C; van der Schans, T J; van Reenen, R

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the results of milk samples obtained from South African dairy herds during the period 1996 to April 2007 in order to identify possible trends in isolates of microorganisms and their pathogenicity under field conditions. Milk samples were obtained from 7 of the 9 provinces in South Africa where there are low numbers of dairy cows. Although there is scientific limitation to a country wide survey, such as the variation in herd size, management skills, parity, milk yield, milking frequency and other parameters, the size of this database helps to give a fair indication of general udder health in South Africa. Cytology and routine bacteriology were performed on 379,000 milk samples of lactating cows and bacteriology on 11,946 samples from non-lactating cows. According to the results obtained, mastitis did not decrease in South Africa over the test period. The prevalence of mastitis and teat canal infection was lowest in 2002. Mastitis and teat canal infection increased from 2002 to 2006 from 8.1% and 24.1% to 15.4 and 30.0% respectively. The percentage of mastitogenic pathogens isolated from cows over these years also varied. Previously unknown or almost eradicated mastitogenic pathogens such as alphabeta haemolytic Staphylococcus aureus which is thought to be of human origin, Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus canis were responsible for numerous mastitis outbreaks seen in the test samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated bacteria in milk samples from both lactating and dry cows, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. Although Staphylococcus aureus remained the principal mastitogenic pathogen in South Africa, owing to its chronic nature and resultant economic losses, most cases of mastitis were caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. This finding increases the importance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (formerly described as a minor pathogen

  10. The association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan

    PubMed Central

    GOTO, Akira; NAKADA, Ken; KATAMOTO, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of peripartum disorders in dairy herds negatively influences productivity and reproductive performance. Concrete data from local areas are helpful for explaining the importance of peripartum management to dairy farmers. This study was conducted to clarify the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in 179 dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan. A database was compiled from the records of the Livestock Improvement Association of Japan, the Dairy Cooperative Association and the Federation of Agricultural Mutual Relief Association. In this study, we created a comprehensive database of dairy farm production data for epidemiological analysis and used a general linear mixed model to analyze the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with milk production or reproductive performance. The database can be used to describe, analyze and predict the risk of production. A cross-sectional analysis with contrasts was applied to investigate the association of cows served by AI/all cows, pregnant cows/cows served by AI, days open, milk yield and somatic cell counts with culling and death rate within 30 days after calving. The days open value significantly increased with increasing rate of culling and death within 30 days after calving (P for trend <0.001). No significant differences were found for the other comparisons. Our data suggest that proper feeding and management in the dry period may lead to improved postpartum reproductive performance in this dairy cow cohort. PMID:26666177

  11. The association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Goto, Akira; Nakada, Ken; Katamoto, Hiromu

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of peripartum disorders in dairy herds negatively influences productivity and reproductive performance. Concrete data from local areas are helpful for explaining the importance of peripartum management to dairy farmers. This study was conducted to clarify the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in 179 dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan. A database was compiled from the records of the Livestock Improvement Association of Japan, the Dairy Cooperative Association and the Federation of Agricultural Mutual Relief Association. In this study, we created a comprehensive database of dairy farm production data for epidemiological analysis and used a general linear mixed model to analyze the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with milk production or reproductive performance. The database can be used to describe, analyze and predict the risk of production. A cross-sectional analysis with contrasts was applied to investigate the association of cows served by AI/all cows, pregnant cows/cows served by AI, days open, milk yield and somatic cell counts with culling and death rate within 30 days after calving. The days open value significantly increased with increasing rate of culling and death within 30 days after calving (P for trend <0.001). No significant differences were found for the other comparisons. Our data suggest that proper feeding and management in the dry period may lead to improved postpartum reproductive performance in this dairy cow cohort. PMID:26666177

  12. Parturition Invokes Changes in Peripheral blood Mononuclear Cell Populations in Holstein Dairy Cows Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johne’s disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is estimated to infect more than 22% of US dairy herds. Once infected, cows may remain in the asymptomatic subclinical state until a period of stress, such as parturition. Parturition has a major impact on the number of ...

  13. Associations between age at first calving, rearing average daily weight gain, herd milk yield and dairy herd production, reproduction, and profitability.

    PubMed

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Kvapilík, J; Burdych, J; Crump, P

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of variable intensity in rearing dairy heifers on 33 commercial dairy herds, including 23,008 cows and 18,139 heifers, with age at first calving (AFC), average daily weight gain (ADG), and milk yield (MY) level on reproduction traits and profitability. Milk yield during the production period was analyzed relative to reproduction and economic parameters. Data were collected during a 1-yr period (2011). The farms were located in 12 regions in the Czech Republic. The results show that those herds with more intensive rearing periods had lower conception rates among heifers at first and overall services. The differences in those conception rates between the group with the greatest ADG (≥0.800 kg/d) and the group with the least ADG (≤0.699 kg/d) were approximately 10 percentage points in favor of the least ADG. All the evaluated reproduction traits differed between AFC groups. Conception at first and overall services (cows) was greatest in herds with AFC ≥800 d. The shortest days open (105 d) and calving interval (396 d) were found in the middle AFC group (799 to 750 d). The highest number of completed lactations (2.67) was observed in the group with latest AFC (≥800 d). The earliest AFC group (≤749 d) was characterized by the highest depreciation costs per cow at 8,275 Czech crowns (US$414), and the highest culling rate for cows of 41%. The most profitable rearing approach was reflected in the middle AFC (799 to 750 d) and middle ADG (0.799 to 0.700 kg) groups. The highest MY (≥8,500 kg) occurred with the earliest AFC of 780 d. Higher MY led to lower conception rates in cows, but the highest MY group also had the shortest days open (106 d) and a calving interval of 386 d. The same MY group had the highest cow depreciation costs, net profit, and profitability without subsidies of 2.67%. We conclude that achieving low AFC will not always be the most profitable approach, which will depend upon farm

  14. Effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on culling rate, diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Girard, C L; Santschi, D E; Laforest, J-P; Durocher, J; Pellerin, D

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of a combined folic acid and vitamin B12 supplement given in early lactation on culling rate, metabolic disorders and other diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds. A total of 805 cows (271 primiparous and 534 multiparous cows) in 15 commercial dairy herds were involved. Every 2mo from February to December 2010 and within each herd, cows were assigned according to parity, previous 305-d milk production, and calving interval to 5mL of either (1) saline 0.9% NaCl (control group) or (2) 320mg of folic acid + 10mg of vitamin B12 (vitamin group). Treatments were administered weekly by intramuscular injections starting 3wk before the expected calving date until 8wk after parturition. A total of 221 cows were culled before the next dry period. Culling rate was not affected by treatment and was 27.5%; culling rate was greater for multiparous (32.2%) than for primiparous cows (18.8%). Within the first 60d in milk (DIM), 47 cows were culled, representing 21.3% of total culling, and no treatment effect was noted. Ketosis incidence based on a threshold ≥100µmol/L of β-hydroxybutyrate in milk was 38.3±2.9% for the vitamin group and 41.8±3.0% for the control group and was not affected by treatment. The combined supplement of folic acid and vitamin B12 did not decrease incidence of retained placenta, displaced abomasum, milk fever, metritis, or mastitis. However, the incidence of dystocia decreased by 50% in multiparous cows receiving the vitamin supplement, although no effect was observed in primiparous cows. The first breeding postpartum for multiparous cows occurred 3.8d earlier with the vitamin supplement compared with controls, whereas no treatment effect was seen for primiparous cows. Days open, first- and second-breeding conception rates, number of breedings per conception, and percentage of cows pregnant at 150 DIM were not affected by treatment. The reduced percentage of dystocia combined with the

  15. Risk factors for postpartum problems in dairy cows: explanatory and predictive modeling.

    PubMed

    Vergara, C F; Döpfer, D; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K V; McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R

    2014-07-01

    The postpartum period is associated with a high incidence of most dairy cattle diseases and a high risk of removal from the herd. Postpartum diseases often share risk factors, and these factors may trigger a cascade of other diseases. The objective of this cohort study was to derive explanatory and predictive models for treatment or removal from the herd within the first 30 d in milk (TXR30). The TXR30 outcome was specifically defined as ≥1 treatment for ≥1 occurrence of milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum, lameness, or pneumonia; removal from the herd (sold or died); or both treatment and later herd removal. The study population consisted of 765 multiparous and 544 primiparous cows (predominantly Holstein) from 4 large commercial freestall-housed dairy herds. Treatment or removal from the herd was recorded as a binary outcome for each cow. Potential explanatory and predictive variables were limited to routine cow data that could be collected either before or within 24 h of calving. Models for multiparous and primiparous cows were developed separately because previous lactation variables are available only for multiparous cows. Adjusted odds ratios for TXR30 in the explanatory model for the multiparous cohort were 2.1 for lactation 3 compared with lactation 2, and 2.3 for lactation 4 or greater compared with lactation 2; 2.3 for locomotion score 3 or 4 compared with score 1; 3.3 for an abnormality at calving compared with no calving abnormality; 1.8 for each 1-standard deviation increase in previous lactation length; and 0.4 for each 5,000-kg increment in previous lactation milk yield in cows with longer previous lactation length. The final predictive model for TXR30 in multiparous cows included predictors similar but not identical to those included in the explanatory model. The area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic curve from the final predictive model for the multiparous cohort was 0.70, with 60

  16. Cumulative discounted expressions of sire genotypes for the complex vertebral malformation and beta-casein loci in commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Kearney, J F; Amer, P R; Villanueva, B

    2005-12-01

    Based on discounted gene-flow principles, a set of recursive equations was developed to quantify the value of using sires with a specific genotype for an identified gene in a commercial dairy herd. Two examples were used to demonstrate the usefulness of the method. The first example deals with the implications of using sires that are known carriers of the lethal recessive genetic defect, complex vertebral malformation (CVM). The second example examines the value of using sires homozygous for the A2 allele of beta-casein. Results are presented in terms of cumulative discounted expressions. These are then multiplied by the economic values of specific genotypes to determine the cost or benefit of using these sires. In general, the degree of mortality and the required price reduction for carrier sires increased as the proportion of carrier sires used, the duration of sire use, and the initial frequency in the cow herd increased. A semen discount of 3.10 pound sterling per CVM straw used would be required to offset the expected mortality when 20% of CVM carrier sires are used for 3 yr when 5% of cows are carriers. The cumulative discounted expressions' of using sires homozygous for the A2 allele of beta-casein also increased when the proportion and duration of carrier sire use and the initial frequency of the A2 allele increased. Assuming an A2A2 cow is worth 160 pound sterling more than a non-A2A2 cow, the expected benefit of using A2A2 sires in a 100-cow herd for 5 yr would be 57 pound sterling,120 for a 20-yr planning horizon. The results of this study demonstrate how the starting gene frequency in the herd, and the proportion and duration of use of sires of particular genotypes are critical to the economic implications of using single genes in commercial dairy farms. PMID:16291634

  17. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with the risk of nonpregnancy in cow-calf herds in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldner, C L; García Guerra, A

    2013-04-15

    To identify herd management and cow characteristics associated with the reproductive success of cow-calf herds in Western Canada, 33,391 beef cows were followed from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through pregnancy testing in 2002. Breeding management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score (BCS), and previous reproductive history, were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was measured in 205 herds in the fall of 2001 and again in 200 herds in the fall of 2002. Cows least likely to be pregnant in the fall of the year were 10 years old or older, exposed to a bull less than 84 days, had a BCS ≤5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, <5 of 9 before calving, and lost condition between calving and the start of the breeding season, or had a prebreeding BCS <5 of 9 with a loss of condition between breeding and pregnancy testing. Other factors identified that decreased the likelihood of pregnancy in at least one of the 2 years included being a heifer or being a cow exposed to breeding after her first calf, and using a single bull on breeding pasture. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were more likely to be pregnant than cows that were not vaccinated and bred on community pastures. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also less likely to be pregnant than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Calving-associated events such as twin birth, Cesarean section or malpresentation, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour after birth, or calving late after the start of the breeding season, were also associated with fewer pregnancies after accounting for all other factors. PMID:23473871

  18. A large Markovian linear program to optimize replacement policies and dairy herd net income for diets and nitrogen excretion.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, V E

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was 2-fold: 1) to propose a novel modeling framework using Markovian linear programming to optimize dairy farmer-defined goals under different decision schemes and 2) to illustrate the model with a practical application testing diets for entire lactations. A dairy herd population was represented by cow state variables defined by parity (1 to 15), month in lactation (1 to 24), and pregnancy status (0 nonpregnant and 1 to 9 mo of pregnancy). A database of 326,000 lactations of Holsteins from AgSource Dairy Herd Improvement service (http://agsource.crinet.com/page249/DHI) was used to parameterize reproduction, mortality, and involuntary culling. The problem was set up as a Markovian linear program model containing 5,580 decision variables and 8,731 constraints. The model optimized the net revenue of the steady state dairy herd population having 2 options in each state: keeping or replacing an animal. Five diets were studied to assess economic, environmental, and herd structural outcomes. Diets varied in proportions of alfalfa silage (38 to 98% of dry matter), high-moisture ear corn (0 to 42% of dry matter), and soybean meal (0 to 18% of dry matter) within and between lactations, which determined dry matter intake, milk production, and N excretion. Diet ingredient compositions ranged from one of high concentrates to alfalfa silage only. Hence, the model identified the maximum net revenue that included the value of nutrient excretion and the cost of manure disposal associated with the optimal policy. Outcomes related to optimal solutions included the herd population structure, the replacement policy, and the amount of N excreted under each diet experiment. The problem was solved using the Excel Risk Solver Platform with the Standard LP/Quadratic Engine. Consistent replacement policies were to (1) keep pregnant cows, (2) keep primiparous cows longer than multiparous cows, and (3) decrease replacement rates when milk and feed prices are favorable

  19. Prevalence of subclinical ketosis and relationships with postpartum diseases in European dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Suthar, V S; Canelas-Raposo, J; Deniz, A; Heuwieser, W

    2013-05-01

    Subclinical ketosis (SCK) is defined as concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) ≥ 1.2 to 1.4 mmol/L and it is considered a gateway condition for other metabolic and infectious disorders such as metritis, mastitis, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum. Reported prevalence rates range from 6.9 to 43% in the first 2 mo of lactation. However, there is a dearth of information on prevalence rates considering the diversity of European dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine prevalence of SCK, (2) identify thresholds of BHBA, and (3) study their relationships with postpartum metritis, clinical ketosis, displaced abomasum, lameness, and mastitis in European dairy farms. From May to October 2011, a convenience sample of 528 dairy herds from Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, and Turkey was studied. β-Hydroxybutyrate levels were measured in 5,884 cows with a handheld meter within 2 to 15 d in milk (DIM). On average, 11 cows were enrolled per farm and relevant information (e.g., DIM, postpartum diseases, herd size) was recorded. Using receiver operator characteristic curve analyses, blood BHBA thresholds were determined for the occurrence of metritis, mastitis, clinical ketosis, displaced abomasum, and lameness. Multivariate binary logistic regression models were built for each disease, considering cow as the experimental unit and herd as a random effect. Overall prevalence of SCK (i.e., blood BHBA ≥ 1.2 mmol/L) within 10 countries was 21.8%, ranging from 11.2 to 36.6%. Cows with SCK had 1.5, 9.5, and 5.0 times greater odds of developing metritis, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum, respectively. Multivariate binary logistic regression models demonstrated that cows with blood BHBA levels of ≥ 1.4, ≥ 1.1 and ≥ 1.7 mmol/L during 2 to 15 DIM had 1.7, 10.5, and 6.9 times greater odds of developing metritis, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum, respectively, compared with cows with lower

  20. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    . The increased milk yield observed in experiment 1 was not observed in experiment 2. Adding 8% of MB to lactating cow diets had a mixed effect on DMI and milk production. Milk component yields and milk quality were not affected. Feeding this level of MB presents a hemolytic danger to lactating dairy cows. PMID:21605775

  1. Antibiotic use in dairy herds in the Netherlands from 2005 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, A; Koops, W J; Wemmenhove, H

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the variation in antibiotic use and the effects of external factors on trends in antibiotic use at the herd level by using the number of daily dosages as an indicator for antibiotic use. For this purpose, antibiotic use was analyzed in 94 dairy herds in the Netherlands from 2005 to 2012. The herds were divided into 3 groups of farmers: one group was guided in their antibiotic use from 2008 to 2010 as part of the project, whereas the other 2 groups were not actively guided. The farms were located in 10 of the 12 provinces and were clients of 32 of the 300 veterinary practices that treat cattle. Sales invoices from the veterinary practices provided the antibiotic and cost data for the participating farmers. The number of animal-defined daily dosages (ADDD) indicates the number of days per year that the average cow in a herd is given antibiotic treatment. The average ADDD for all farms from 2005 to 2012 was 5.86 (standard deviation=2.14); 68% of ADDD were used for udder health, 24% for clinical mastitis and 44% for dry-cow therapy. Variation in ADDD among herds decreased during the study period. The trend in ADDD can be described as having 3 phases: (1) a period of increasing use coinciding with little public concern about antibiotic use (2005-2007), (2) a period of growing awareness and stabilization of use (2007-2010), and (3) a period of decreasing use coinciding with increasing societal concerns (2010-2012). The greatest reduction in use was for drugs other than those used to treat the udder. Drug use for mastitis treatment fell considerably in the final year of the study period, whereas farmers were reluctant to reduce use for dry-cow therapy. Almost 40% of the herds were given less than 2.5 ADDD for dry-cow therapy, which is equivalent to 2.5 tubes per average cow in the herd, and 20% used more than 3 tubes per cow. Use of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones dropped from 18% of ADDD during 2005 to

  2. Evidence of birth seasonality and clustering of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in US dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Zare, Y; Shook, G E; Collins, M T; Kirkpatrick, B W

    2013-11-01

    Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a contagious intestinal infection of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). In cattle, young calves are at the highest risk for acquiring the infection which occurs mainly through ingestion of MAP from contaminated milk, colostrum and feces or environmental contacts. Data consisted of birth dates and ELISA results of 8000 mature cows from 24 Jersey herds from throughout the US and 4 Wisconsin Holstein herds. Some herds also had complete fecal culture (FC) results. The first infection (case) definition (CD1) relied on only ELISA results. A second case definition (CD2) was used in which results of both ELISA and FC tests were considered: animals testing positive to either test were considered "test-positives" and cows testing negative to ELISA or to both ELISA and FC were regarded as "test-negatives". Objective one was to assess seasonality in birth of MAP-infected animals. The effects of age, breed, herd and season of birth (expressed as the sine and cosine functions of birth days within year) were examined using logistic regression. Age was significantly associated with the MAP infection status of dairy cows for both CDs (OR=1.11; 95% CI 1.09, 1.14; P<0.0001 for CD1; OR=1.16; 95% CI 1.08, 1.24; P<0.0001 for CD2). Season of birth had a significant effect on the risk of MAP infection based on CD1 (OR=0.79; 95% CI 0.71, 0.89; P<0.001 for cosine of birth days) with a peak in summer and a trough in winter based on the fitted model. Objective two was to assess whether test-positive animals were randomly distributed or were clustered by date of birth within herds. A temporal cluster analysis approach (scan statistic) implemented in SaTScan software was used for each case definition to detect clusters of birth cohorts using birthdates. Results identified significant clustering of MAP infection cases for CD1 in multiple herds (P<0.05). These results necessitate matching cases and controls of MAP

  3. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in tie-stall dairy herds using a standardized environmental sampling technique and targeted pooled samples.

    PubMed

    Arango-Sabogal, Juan C; Côté, Geneviève; Paré, Julie; Labrecque, Olivia; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Buczinski, Sébastien; Doré, Elizabeth; Fairbrother, Julie H; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Wellemans, Vincent; Fecteau, Gilles

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease, a chronic contagious enteritis of ruminants that causes major economic losses. Several studies, most involving large free-stall herds, have found environmental sampling to be a suitable method for detecting MAP-infected herds. In eastern Canada, where small tie-stall herds are predominant, certain conditions and management practices may influence the survival and transmission of MAP and recovery (isolation). Our objective was to estimate the performance of a standardized environmental and targeted pooled sampling technique for the detection of MAP-infected tie-stall dairy herds. Twenty-four farms (19 MAP-infected and 5 non-infected) were enrolled, but only 20 were visited twice in the same year, to collect 7 environmental samples and 2 pooled samples (sick cows and cows with poor body condition). Concurrent individual sampling of all adult cows in the herds was also carried out. Isolation of MAP was achieved using the MGIT Para TB culture media and the BACTEC 960 detection system. Overall, MAP was isolated in 7% of the environmental cultures. The sensitivity of the environmental culture was 44% [95% confidence interval (CI): 20% to 70%] when combining results from 2 different herd visits and 32% (95% CI: 13% to 57%) when results from only 1 random herd visit were used. The best sampling strategy was to combine samples from the manure pit, gutter, sick cows, and cows with poor body condition. The standardized environmental sampling technique and the targeted pooled samples presented in this study is an alternative sampling strategy to costly individual cultures for detecting MAP-infected tie-stall dairies. Repeated samplings may improve the detection of MAP-infected herds. PMID:27408329

  4. Seroprevalence estimation and management factors associated with high herd seropositivity for Anaplasma marginale in commercial dairy farms of Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Urdaz-Rodríguez, J H; Fosgate, G T; Alleman, A R; Rae, D O; Donovan, G A; Melendez, P

    2009-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine individual cow seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in adult lactating dairy cattle of Puerto Rico (PR) and to assess the associations of farm management factors on herd seroprevalence. Antibody activity against A. marginale was determined using the MSP-5 competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum samples were obtained from 2,414 adult lactating dairy cattle from 76 randomly selected commercial dairy farms. Herd seroprevalence ranged from 3 to 100% with an overall individual cow seroprevalence for A. marginale of 27.4%. Factors associated with high herd seropositivity were pasture grazing as the main feed source (OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.2-34), observed monkeys on the premises (OR = 13, 95% CI = 1.2-138), use of 11% permethrin (OR = 17, 95% CI = 2.2-129), farmers who attended an acaricide certification program (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.04-0.74), and lack of a fly control program (OR = 5.6, 95% CI = 1.3-24). PMID:19337849

  5. Orchardgrass vs. alfalfa for replacing dairy-cow grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is currently the predominant forage fed to lactating dairy cows in the Midwestern United States however interest in incorporating grasses into lactating dairy cow diets has recently been rejuvenated. Due to differences in chemical composition and physical characteristics of grasses and legum...

  6. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management.

    PubMed

    Steeneveld, W; Hogeveen, H

    2015-01-01

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are used on dairy farms, and the reasons why farmers invest or not in sensor systems are unclear. The first objective of this study was to give an overview of the sensor systems currently used in the Netherlands. The second objective was to investigate the reasons for investing or not investing in sensor systems. The third objective was to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. A survey was developed to investigate first, the reasons for investing or not in sensor systems and, then, how the sensor systems are used in daily cow management. The survey was sent to 1,672 Dutch dairy farmers. The final data set consisted of 512 dairy farms (response rate of 30.6%); 202 farms indicated that they had sensor systems and 310 farms indicated that they did not have sensor systems. A wide variety of sensor systems was used on Dutch dairy farms; those for mastitis detection and estrus detection were the most-used sensor systems. The use of sensor systems was different for farms using an automatic milking system (AMS) and a conventional milking system (CMS). Reasons for investing were different for different sensor systems. For sensor systems attached to the AMS, the farmers made no conscious decision to invest: they answered that the sensors were standard in the AMS or were bought for reduced cost with the AMS. The main reasons for investing in estrus detection sensor systems were improving detection rates, gaining insights into the fertility level of the herd, improving profitability of the farm, and reducing labor. Main reasons for not investing in sensor systems were economically related. It was very difficult to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. Farms

  7. Short communication: Streptococcus canis is able to establish a persistent udder infection in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Król, Jarosław; Twardoń, Jan; Mrowiec, Jacek; Podkowik, Magdalena; Dejneka, Grzegorz; Dębski, Bogdan; Nowicki, Tadeusz; Zalewski, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus canis is relatively rare. Consequently, many epidemiologic aspects of the infection, including factors that mediate crossing of host species barriers by the pathogen, infectiousness of the microorganism to the mammary gland, and the course of the disease within a herd, are still not elucidated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe results of a 15-mo observation of subclinical Strep. canis mastitis on a dairy farm housing 76 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Upon 3 visits to the farm during a period between April 2013 and June 2014, Strep. canis was cultured from milk samples of 17 (22.4% of the herd), 7 (9.6%), and 8 (11.3%) cows, respectively. The isolates obtained were characterized phenotypically by means of the API Strep identification kit (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), as well as genetically by using random amplified polymorphic DNA and macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All strains displayed the same biochemical features, and the molecular methods revealed that the isolates belonged to a single clone or were very closely related. Results of the study indicate that Strep. canis is capable of causing intramammary infections of long duration, behaving in a contagious manner. Because a persistently infected cow may serve as the source of Strep. canis infection for other animals, effective control of this type of udder infection within a herd may require similar measures to those adopted in Streptococcus agalactiae eradication programs. PMID:26233445

  8. Elevated non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate and their association with transition dairy cow performance.

    PubMed

    McArt, Jessica A A; Nydam, Daryl V; Oetzel, Garrett R; Overton, Thomas R; Ospina, Paula A

    2013-12-01

    Dairy cows pass through a period of negative energy balance as they transition from late gestation to early lactation. Poor adaptation through this period, expressed as excessively elevated concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) pre- or post-partum and elevated concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate post-partum, increases an individual animal's risk of post-partum disease, removal from the herd, reproductive difficulty, and reduced milk production. Field studies have shown that subclinical ketosis often affects 40% of cows in a herd although the incidence can be as high as 80%. Peak incidence occurs at 5 days in milk, and cows that develop subclinical ketosis in the first week of lactation have a higher risk of negative effects and reduced milk production than cows that develop subclinical ketosis in the second week of lactation. Herds with more than a 15-20% prevalence of excessively elevated concentrations of NEFAs and β-hydroxybutyrate in early lactation have higher rates of negative subsequent events, poorer reproduction, and lower milk yield than herds with a lower prevalence of negative energy balance. This paper reviews (1) strategies for testing of energy-related metabolites, (2) consequences of poor adaptation to negative energy balance (for individual animals and for herds), (3) treatment approaches for affected cows, and (4) economic considerations for testing and treating cows with poor adaptation to negative energy balance. PMID:24054909

  9. Expanding the dairy herd in pasture-based systems: the role for sexed semen use on virgin heifers.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, I A; Shalloo, L; Butler, S T

    2013-02-01

    A model was developed to examine the effects of sexed semen use on replacement heifer numbers and rate of herd expansion in a seasonal dairy production system. Three separate herds were established according to the type of semen used on virgin heifers: conventional frozen-thawed (Conv), sexed fresh (SFre), or sexed frozen-thawed (SFro). In the model, sexed semen was used for the first and second inseminations in heifers only. Pregnancy rates achieved with sexed fresh and sexed frozen-thawed semen were assumed to be 94% and 75% of those achieved with conventional frozen-thawed semen, respectively. Initial herd size was 100 cows, which was maintained for the first 2 yr of the 15-yr simulation, after which all available replacement heifers were retained to facilitate herd expansion. Two different scenarios of land availability (S1 and S2) were examined for each of the 3 herds using different semen types: land available allowed expansion to a maximum herd size of 150 cows (S1) or 300 cows (S2). Once maximum herd size was reached, sexed semen use was discontinued and all excess heifer calves were sold at 1 mo of age. All capital expenditure associated with expansion was financed with a 15-yr loan. Each of the different options was evaluated in terms of annual farm profit, annual cash flow, and total discounted net profit. The analysis was completed at a milk price of € 0.27/L, and sensitivity around milk price was carried out at € 0.22/L and € 0.32/L. The use of SFre generated more replacement heifers and thus faster herd expansion compared with SFro and Conv semen. Maximum herd size was reached in yr 5, 6, and 7 under S1, and in yr 10, 12, and 14 under S2 for SFre, SFro, and Conv herds, respectively. Total discounted net profit under S1 for the SFre herd was € 19,929 greater than that of the SFro herd and € 41,852 greater than that of the Conv herd. Under S2, discounted net profit for the SFre herd was € 138,587 greater than that of the SFro herd and

  10. The effect of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on fertility in dairy cows: two case-control studies in the province of Styria, Austria.

    PubMed

    Burgstaller, Johann; Obritzhauser, Walter; Kuchling, Sabrina; Kopacka, Ian; Pinior, Beate; Köfer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) leads to substantial economic losses in beef and dairy herds worldwide. Two case-control studies were carried out using production data from 1996 to 2012 to analyse the impact of BVD virus (BVDV) on fertility in dairy herds in the province of Styria during an eradication programme. In study 1, herds in which at least one persistently BVDV-infected (PI) animal was detected (case herds) were compared to a group of control herds proven free from BVDV infection (contro herds). In study 2, within BVD infected herds the period during which P animals were present (exposed period) was compared to the period after successful BVD eradication (unexposed period). Calving interval (CAl) and the probability of a first service conception (FSC) were used as indicators in a mixed regression model to investigate the impact of BVD on reproductive performance. The model results indicated that BVD had a significant influence on CAl and FSC. Cows from control herds were 1.1 times more likely to conceive at first service compared to cows from case herds and cows served during the BVDV unexposed period were 1.3 times more likely to conceive at first service than those inseminated during the exposed period. In BVD-infected herds the CAI averaged seven days shorter in unexposed periods than in exposed periods. Besides BVD the animal breed and the parity substantially impact the analysed fertility indicators. PMID:27169147

  11. Understanding the genetics of survival in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, T; Coffey, M; Mrode, R; Wall, E

    2013-05-01

    Premature mortality and culling causes great wastage in the dairy industry, as a large number of heifers born never become productive or are culled before their full lactation potential is reached. The objectives of this study were to characterize survival and estimate genetic parameters for alternative longevity traits that considered (1) the survival of replacement heifers and (2) functional longevity of milking cows in the UK Holstein Friesian population, using combined information from the British Cattle Movement Service and milk recording organizations. Mortality of heifers was highest in the first month of life and was proportionately highest in calves born during winter months. Heifer mortality tended to decrease with age until about 16 mo onward; it then gradually increased, expected to be associated with culls due to reproductive failure or problems during pregnancy and calving. In milking cows, days of productive life (DPL) was analyzed as an alternative to the current trait lifespan score. Cows that died in 2009 on average lived for 6.8 yr with an average production of 4.3 yr. Heritability estimates were low for both heifer and cow survival and were ~0.01 and ~0.06, respectively. The positive genetic correlation between heifer survival with lifespan score (0.31) indicates that bulls that sire daughters with longer productive lives are also likely to have calves that survive and become replacement heifers. However, the magnitude of the genetic correlation suggests that survival in the rearing period and the milking herd are different traits. Genetic correlations were favorable between DPL with somatic cell count and fertility traits indicating that animals with a longer productive life tend to have lower somatic cell count, a shorter calving interval, fewer days to first service, and require fewer inseminations. However, an antagonistic relationship existed between DPL with milk and fat yield traits. PMID:23477814

  12. Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling of national milk-recording data of seasonal-calving New Zealand dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Clements, A C A; Pfeiffer, D U; Hayes, D

    2005-10-12

    A spatio-temporal analysis was undertaken with the aim of identifying the dynamics of herd mean individual cow SCCs (MICSCC) in seasonally calving New Zealand dairy herds. Two datasets were extracted from the Livestock Improvement Corporation's extensive national dairy recording database: (1) milk-recording data aggregated at the herd-level and (2) sales questionnaire data containing information on the size, location and infrastructure of each farm. A Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling approach was applied to the analysis. The data were aggregated by 10 km(2) grid cells and linear regression models were developed with spatially structured and unstructured random effects, a linear temporal trend random effect and spatial-temporal interactions for log-transformed median MISCC (ln(median MISCC)). Significant associations were found between ln(median MISCC) and milk yield, milk fat, milk protein, farm area and number of cups in the dairy. This led us to suggest that SCCs should be adjusted for volume and constituents prior to determining a threshold MISCC for identification of subclinical mastitis (SCM) problem herds. Part, or all, of the temporal trend in MISCC in the spatio-temporal model was accounted for by inclusion of yield and milk constituents as independent variables. This supports the hypothesis of a dilution effect with potential consequences for misdiagnosis of SCM, particularly in late lactation. Unmeasured covariates were similarly likely to be spatially structured and unstructured. PMID:16107283

  13. Body Temperature Versus Microclimate Selection in Heat Stressed Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the thermoregulatory responses of unrestrained heat-stressed dairy cows within a freestall environment using fan and spray configurations for cooling cows while lying or standing. An experimental treatment sprayed individual cows lying in freestalls from ...

  14. Estimate of the direct production losses in Canadian dairy herds with subclinical Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ashwani; VanLeeuwen, John A.; Dohoo, Ian R.; Keefe, Greg P.; Weersink, Alfons

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the annual losses from Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) for an average, MAP-seropositive, Canadian dairy herd. A partial-budget simulation model was developed with 4 components of direct production losses (decreased milk production, premature voluntary culling, mortality, and reproductive losses). Input values were obtained primarily from a national seroprevalence survey of 373 Canadian dairy farms in 8 of 10 provinces. The model took into account the variability and uncertainty of the required input values; consequently, it produced probability distributions of the estimated losses. For an average Canadian dairy herd with 12.7% of 61 cows seropositive for MAP, the mean loss was $2992 (95% C.I., $143 to $9741) annually, or $49 per cow per year. Additional culling, decreased milk production, mortality, and reproductive losses accounted for 46%, 9%, 16%, and 29% of the losses, respectively. Canadian dairy producers should use best management practices to reduce these substantial annual losses. PMID:18624066

  15. Dairy cow preferences for soft or hard flooring when standing or walking.

    PubMed

    Telezhenko, E; Lidfors, L; Bergsten, C

    2007-08-01

    Concrete is the most commonly used alley flooring in confined dairy herds because of its qualities of construction and ease of cleaning. Nevertheless, the hardness, abrasiveness, and slipperiness of concrete floors have adverse effects on animal well-being and health, and yielding rubber flooring is becoming popular as a way of improving the flooring conditions on walkways. The aim of this study was to investigate preferences of dairy cows for rubber compared with concrete flooring under the conditions of a commercial dairy farm. The study was conducted in an organic dairy herd with free-stall housing. Floor preference was tested on groups of standing cows in a 120-m2 holding pen before milking, and 1 yr later on a 12- x 3-m walkway. The holding pen and the walkway were divided lengthwise into 2 identical sections. Two types of solid rubber mats (soft and extra soft) were tested against solid concrete in the holding pen. Slatted and solid rubber mats were tested against slatted concrete in the walkway. Each floor type was tested over 4 d on the left side and 4 d on the right side of the holding pen and the walkway, respectively. Concrete flooring on both sides of the sections was tested as a control before the testing of different section materials. All observations of the distribution of cows in the sections were made from video recordings captured in association with the afternoon milking. The number of cows on each section was recorded approximately every 7 min in the holding pen, and continuously on the walkway. A significantly higher proportion of cows stood on the side with the soft and extra soft rubber mats (65.1 +/- 2.7 and 69.3 +/- 2.6%, respectively, mean +/- SEM) compared with the control distribution when only the solid concrete was available (50.9 +/- 3.9%). A significantly higher proportion of nonlame cows walked exclusively on the side with the slatted (64.5 +/- 5.4%, d 4) or solid rubber mats (68.2 +/- 5.1%, d 4) compared with controls (28.9 +/- 4

  16. Endometrial biopsy in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. I. Technique, histological criteria and results.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, B N; Miller, R B; Etherington, W G; Martin, S W; Johnson, W H

    1991-01-01

    Endometrial biopsies were taken for histological assessment from 97 cows which calved in a commercial dairy herd between April and August 1984. Sixty-two cows were biopsied at both day 26 and 40 postpartum, 23 cows at only day 26, and 12 at day 40 only. Subjective and quantitative histological criteria were assessed. Ninety-five percent of biopsies were adequate for at least subjective assessment. The distribution of criteria within each horn-day category, as well as combined readings by day and by gravid or nongravid horn were computed and significant differences noted. There was more severe inflammation and more segmented cells at day 26 than 40 postpartum, and in the gravid compared to the nongravid horn. The distribution patterns for the criteria examined provide an overview of histological characteristics in this group of postpartum cows. PMID:1884295

  17. [Eradication of Chorioptes bovis mange in a dairy herd with turn-out to graze by Eprinex Pour-On].

    PubMed

    Schönberg, J; Ilchmann, G; Schein, E

    2000-04-01

    The possibility to control or even eradicate chorioptes manage by a single herd treatment with EPRINEX Pour-On (dosage: 0.5 mg Eprinomection/kg bodyweight) during pasture season was investigated in a dairy herd of 320 dairy cows. A further aim of the study was to evaluate whether such mid-summer treatment with EPRINEX Pour-On due to its endo-ectocide action would at the same time also result in a metaphylaxis of gastro-intestinal and lung worms and in a reduction of fly infestation. Due to clinical symptoms manage prevalence in the herd prior to treatment was 11 percent. After treatment, clinical symptoms disappeared within 2 months completely and did not re-occur during the subsequent housing period. Chorioptes mites during the entire trial period no longer were detected. The final clinical and parasitological investigation shortly before turn-out the next year (April 1999) demonstrated chorioptes mange to be eradicated clinically and parasitologically. Due to the mid-summer treatment infestation with gastrointestinal helminths also was eliminated and clinical symptoms of helminth infestations during the pasture season no longer were observed. However, at housing in November, low numbers of eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes were detected in 6% of dairy cows, 32% of second-season and 63% of first-season heifers, respectively. Milk yield per cow and day on average increased by 1 litre after treatment with EPRINEX Pour-On. This increase in production is likely a result of the reduction in total parasite burden of lactating cows. PMID:10816914

  18. Farm management factors associated with bulk tank total bacterial count in Irish dairy herds during 2006/07

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that total bacterial count (TBC), which is the bacterial growth per ml of milk over a fixed period of time, can be decreased by good hygiene and farm management practices. The objective of the current study was to quantify the associations between herd management factors and bulk tank TBC in Irish spring calving, grass-based dairy herds. The relationship between bulk tank TBC and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 400 randomly selected Irish dairy farms where the basal diet was grazed grass. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC were identified using linear models with herd annual total bacterial score (i.e., arithmetic mean of the natural logarithm of bulk tank TBC) included as the dependent variable. All herd management factors were individually analysed in a separate regression model, that included an adjustment for geographical location of the farm. A multiple stepwise regression model was subsequently developed. Median bulk tank TBC for the sample herds was 18,483 cells/ml ranging from 10,441 to 130,458 cells/ml. Results from the multivariate analysis indicated that the following management practices were associated with low TBC; use of heated water in the milking parlour; participation in a milk recording scheme; and tail clipping of cows at a frequency greater than once per year. Increased level of hygiene of the parlour and cubicles were also associated with lower TBC. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC in Irish grazing herds were generally in agreement with most previous studies from confinement systems of milk production. PMID:21851723

  19. Frequency and causes of infectious abortion in a dairy herd in Queretaro, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, H Patricia; Martínez, M José Juan; Medina, C Mario; Morales, S Elizabeth

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious bovine abortion and to identify some of its causes, specifically brucellosis, leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and neosporosis. The study was carried out in a dairy herd in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, between September 2002 and March 2003. At the beginning of the study, blood samples were taken from a random 33% of the 300 lactating or pregnant cows; antibodies against Leptospira interrogans were the most commonly identified, in 91% of the 99 samples. Blood samples were also taken 14 to 28 d after the 26 subsequent abortions in the herd in the 6-mo study period, as well as from 22 cows that had not aborted within 5 d after the abortions in the other group. Seroconversion was most frequent for L. hardjo, occurring in 8 (67%) of the 12 dams that aborted after the initial serologic sampling and for which paired serum samples were therefore available. Of the 16 collected fetuses, 10 had histologic lesions suggesting infection in various organs, the features correlating with the serologic results for the dams in 7 cases. Thus, the abortions may have been caused by more than 1 infectious agent. PMID:17955907

  20. Frequency and causes of infectious abortion in a dairy herd in Queretaro, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Escamilla, H. Patricia; Martínez, M. José Juan; Medina, C. Mario; Morales, S. Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious bovine abortion and to identify some of its causes, specifically brucellosis, leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and neosporosis. The study was carried out in a dairy herd in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, between September 2002 and March 2003. At the beginning of the study, blood samples were taken from a random 33% of the 300 lactating or pregnant cows; antibodies against Leptospira interrogans were the most commonly identified, in 91% of the 99 samples. Blood samples were also taken 14 to 28 d after the 26 subsequent abortions in the herd in the 6-mo study period, as well as from 22 cows that had not aborted within 5 d after the abortions in the other group. Seroconversion was most frequent for L. hardjo, occurring in 8 (67%) of the 12 dams that aborted after the initial serologic sampling and for which paired serum samples were therefore available. Of the 16 collected fetuses, 10 had histologic lesions suggesting infection in various organs, the features correlating with the serologic results for the dams in 7 cases. Thus, the abortions may have been caused by more than 1 infectious agent. PMID:17955907

  1. Association of Histophilus somni with spontaneous abortions in dairy cattle herds from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Voltarelli, Daniele; de Oliveira, Victor Henrique Silva; Bronkhorst, Dalton Evert; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Filho, Luiz Carlos Negri; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the participation of infectious agents in spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems at eight dairy cattle herds from three geographical regions of Brazil. Fourteen aborted fetuses and the organ sections of one cow with history of repeated abortions were received for pathological evaluations and molecular diagnostics. PCR/RT-PCR assays targeted specific genes of abortifacient agents of cattle: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Listeria monocytogenes, Neospora caninum, Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus, and Histophilus somni. Six fetuses were adequate for pathological investigations; one of these did not demonstrate remarkable pathological alterations. Significant histopathological findings included vasculitis, hemorrhage, and fibrinous thrombosis of the cerebrum (n = 4); necrotizing myocarditis (n = 3); and hemorrhagic enteritis (n = 3). The placenta and uterus of the cow as well as the kidney, pancreas, and liver of her aborted fetus contained H. somni DNA and demonstrated histopathological evidence of histophilosis. All fetuses contained H. somni DNA in multiple organs. Coinfections of H. somni with B. abortus (n = 2), N. caninum (n = 2), BVDV (n = 1), and BoHV-1 (n = 1) were identified; two fetuses demonstrated three pathogens. These findings suggest that H. somni was associated with the spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems of these herds. However, the exact cause of fetal death might not be attributed only to H. somni in all aborted fetuses, since some of these were infected with other abortifacient agents. PMID:25480485

  2. Somatic Cell Count in Milk of Goats Enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement Program in 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of breed, parity, stage of lactation (month), herd size, and regions/states on somatic cell count (SCC) and production of milk from dairy goats enrolled in the Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) program in the United States in 2007 were investigated to monitor the current status of SCC and to ...

  3. Characteristics of the USA dairy herd as related to management and demographic elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data characteristics of the United States dairy herd related to animals enrolled in milk recording (dairy herd improvement) are the basic foundation and important influencers for the management and genetic progress achieved in a population or animal production unit. The amount, characteristics ...

  4. Use of Stochastic Simulation to Evaluate the Reduction in Methane Emissions and Improvement in Reproductive Efficiency from Routine Hormonal Interventions in Dairy Herds.

    PubMed

    Archer, Simon C; Hudson, Christopher D; Green, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    This study predicts the magnitude and between herd variation in changes of methane emissions and production efficiency associated with interventions to improve reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. Data for 10,000 herds of 200 cows were simulated. Probability of conception was predicted daily from the start of the study (parturition) for each cow up to day 300 of lactation. Four scenarios of differing first insemination management were simulated for each herd using the same theoretical cows: A baseline scenario based on breeding from observed oestrus only, synchronisation of oestrus for pre-set first insemination using 2 methods, and a regime using prostaglandin treatments followed by first insemination to observed oestrus. Cows that did not conceive to first insemination were re-inseminated following detection of oestrus. For cows that conceived, gestation length was 280 days with cessation of milking 60 days before calving. Those cows not pregnant after 300 days of lactation were culled and replaced by a heifer. Daily milk yield was calculated for 730 days from the start of the study for each cow. Change in mean reproductive and economic outputs were summarised for each herd following the 3 interventions. For each scenario, methane emissions were determined by daily forage dry matter intake, forage quality, and cow replacement risk. Linear regression was used to summarise relationships. In some circumstances improvement in reproductive efficiency using the programmes investigated was associated with reduced cost and methane emissions compared to reliance on detection of oestrus. Efficiency of oestrus detection and the time to commencement of breeding after calving influenced variability in changes in cost and methane emissions. For an average UK herd this was a saving of at least £50 per cow and a 3.6% reduction in methane emissions per L of milk when timing of first insemination was pre-set. PMID:26061424

  5. Use of Stochastic Simulation to Evaluate the Reduction in Methane Emissions and Improvement in Reproductive Efficiency from Routine Hormonal Interventions in Dairy Herds

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Simon C.; Hudson, Christopher D.; Green, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study predicts the magnitude and between herd variation in changes of methane emissions and production efficiency associated with interventions to improve reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. Data for 10,000 herds of 200 cows were simulated. Probability of conception was predicted daily from the start of the study (parturition) for each cow up to day 300 of lactation. Four scenarios of differing first insemination management were simulated for each herd using the same theoretical cows: A baseline scenario based on breeding from observed oestrus only, synchronisation of oestrus for pre-set first insemination using 2 methods, and a regime using prostaglandin treatments followed by first insemination to observed oestrus. Cows that did not conceive to first insemination were re-inseminated following detection of oestrus. For cows that conceived, gestation length was 280 days with cessation of milking 60 days before calving. Those cows not pregnant after 300 days of lactation were culled and replaced by a heifer. Daily milk yield was calculated for 730 days from the start of the study for each cow. Change in mean reproductive and economic outputs were summarised for each herd following the 3 interventions. For each scenario, methane emissions were determined by daily forage dry matter intake, forage quality, and cow replacement risk. Linear regression was used to summarise relationships. In some circumstances improvement in reproductive efficiency using the programmes investigated was associated with reduced cost and methane emissions compared to reliance on detection of oestrus. Efficiency of oestrus detection and the time to commencement of breeding after calving influenced variability in changes in cost and methane emissions. For an average UK herd this was a saving of at least £50 per cow and a 3.6% reduction in methane emissions per L of milk when timing of first insemination was pre-set. PMID:26061424

  6. The effect of lactation length on greenhouse gas emissions from the national dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Wall, E; Coffey, M P; Pollott, G E

    2012-11-01

    Many governments have signed up to greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) reduction programmes under their national climate change obligations. Recently, it has been suggested that the use of extended lactations in dairy herds could result in reduced GHGE. Dairy GHGE were modelled on a national basis and the model was used to compare emissions from lactations of three different lengths (305, 370 and 440 days), and a current 'base' scenario on the basis of maintaining current milk production levels. In addition to comparing GHGE from the average 'National Herd' under these scenarios, results were used to investigate how accounting for lactations of different lengths might alter the estimation of emissions calculated from the National Inventory methodology currently recommended by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Data for the three lactation length scenarios were derived from nationally recorded dairy performance information and used in the GHGE model. Long lactations required fewer milking cows and replacements to maintain current milk yield levels than short ones, but GHGEs were found to rise from 1214 t of CO2 equivalent (CE)/farm per year for lactations of 305 days to 1371 t CE/farm per year for 440-day lactations. This apparent anomaly can be explained by the less efficient milk production (kg milk produced per kg cow weight) found in later lactation, a more pronounced effect in longer lactations. The sensitivity of the model to changes in replacement rate, persistency and level of milk yield was investigated. Changes in the replacement rate from 25% to 20% and in persistency by −10% to +20% resulted in very small changes in GHGE. Differences in GHGE due to the level of milk yield were much more dramatic with animals in the top 10% for yield, producing about 25% less GHGE/year than the average animal. National Inventory results were investigated using a more realistic spread of lactation lengths than recommended for such calculations using emissions

  7. The epidemiology of Salmonella dublin infection in a dairy herd

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, G. H. K.; McPherson, E. A.; Laing, A. H.; Wooding, P.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes the epidemiologically relevant events that took place in a dairy herd infected by Salmonella dublin. The evidence presented indicates that it may be possible to eliminate infection from the farm and that residual infection or persistent excretion are uncommon. In two animals infection persisted, in one instance in the tonsil and in the other in the gall bladder. In this latter case the infection remained from the neonatal period until adulthood. It is possible that both these animals are relevant in a more general context and are indicative of the source of infection in outbreaks in which the origin of infection cannot be determined by more routine examinations. PMID:4602034

  8. Lameness Detection in Dairy Cows: Part 1. How to Distinguish between Non-Lame and Lame Cows Based on Differences in Locomotion or Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Van Nuffel, Annelies; Zwertvaegher, Ingrid; Pluym, Liesbet; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Thorup, Vivi M.; Pastell, Matti; Sonck, Bart; Saeys, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Scoring cattle for lameness based on changes in locomotion or behavior is essential for farmers to find and treat their lame animals. This review discusses the normal locomotion of cows in order to define abnormal locomotion due to lameness. It furthermore provides an overview of various relevant visual locomotion scoring systems that are currently being used as well as practical considerations when assessing lameness on a commercial farm. Abstract Due to its detrimental effect on cow welfare, health and production, lameness in dairy cows has received quite a lot of attention in the last few decades—not only in terms of prevention and treatment of lameness but also in terms of detection, as early treatment might decrease the number of severely lame cows in the herds as well as decrease the direct and indirect costs associated with lameness cases. Generally, lame cows are detected by the herdsman, hoof trimmer or veterinarian based on abnormal locomotion, abnormal behavior or the presence of hoof lesions during routine trimming. In the scientific literature, several guidelines are proposed to detect lame cows based on visual interpretation of the locomotion of individual cows (i.e., locomotion scoring systems). Researchers and the industry have focused on automating such observations to support the farmer in finding the lame cows in their herds, but until now, such automated systems have rarely been used in commercial herds. This review starts with the description of normal locomotion of cows in order to define ‘abnormal’ locomotion caused by lameness. Cow locomotion (gait and posture) and behavioral features that change when a cow becomes lame are described and linked to the existing visual scoring systems. In addition, the lack of information of normal cow gait and a clear description of ‘abnormal’ gait are discussed. Finally, the different set-ups used during locomotion scoring and their influence on the resulting locomotion scores are

  9. Factors associated with occurrence and recovery of nonambulatory dairy cows in the United States.

    PubMed

    Green, A L; Lombard, J E; Garber, L P; Wagner, B A; Hill, G W

    2008-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare characteristics of US dairy operations that had one or more nonambulatory cows (unable to rise for any period of time) (cases) with operations that had no nonambulatory cows (controls) during 2004. A secondary objective was to describe factors associated with recovery of the last nonambulatory cow on the operation during 2004. Case dairy operations (n = 1,822) more often fed a total mixed ration [odds ratio (OR) = 2.0; confidence interval (CI): 1.1-3.4], produced more than 9,090 kg of milk (OR = 2.8; CI: 1.8-4.5), and were more likely to be of medium to large herd size (100 or more head of adult cows, OR = 3.7; CI: 2.2-6.2) compared with control dairies (n = 151). Compared with operations where the predominant flooring surface on which lactating cows stood or walked in winter was pasture, operations where pasture was not the predominant surface were at increased risk of having nonambulatory cows (OR = 4.7; CI: 2.2-10.2). Cows nonambulatory for less than 24 h were more likely to recover compared with cows nonambulatory for 24 h or more (OR = 3.0; CI: 2.0-4.4). Cows that received calcium, phosphorus, or potassium while non-ambulatory were more likely to recover (OR = 3.6; CI: 2.1-6.1) than cattle that did not receive these treatments. Cattle that were not repositioned periodically were more likely to recover (OR = 2.1; CI: 1.4-3.1), as were cattle that were not treated by a veterinarian before becoming nonambulatory (OR = 1.9; CI: 1.1-3.3). These findings are consistent with prolonged recumbency and prior history of health issues, respectively. Nonambulatory cattle with hypocalcemia were more likely to recover (OR = 6.0; CI: 3.4-10.7) compared with nonambulatory cows with all other causes of a nonambulatory condition (analyzed collectively as a single variable but including cancer, clinical mastitis, digestive conditions, metabolic imbalances, neurological problems, respiratory disease, other, unknown). The results

  10. Factors associated with ovarian structures and intrauterine fluid in the postpartum period in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    López-Helguera, I; Colazo, M G; Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F

    2016-05-01

    The objective was to examine risk factors for the interval to resumption of ovarian cyclicity (ROC), multiple ovulations (MCL), ovarian follicular cysts (OC), and presence of intrauterine fluid (IUF) at 22 to 28 [visit (V) 1] and 36 to 42 (V2) days in milk (DIM) in dairy cows. The study was conducted retrospectively by evaluating records from 1,155 Holstein cows from 3 herds. Ovaries and uteri were examined at V1 and V2 by transrectal ultrasonography to determine ovarian structures and IUF. Based on the odds ratio, multiparous cows were more likely to have ROC at V1 by a factor of 1.79 compared with primiparous cows. The likelihood of ROC at V1 was lower in cows with higher milk production, in cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM) or cows with IUF at V1 by factors of 0.98 (for each kg of milk increased), 0.52, and 0.61, respectively. Based on the odds ratio, cows diagnosed with IUF at V2 were 2.85 times more likely to have attained ROC at V2. Multiparous cows and cows that delivered twins were 2.73 and 2.16 times, respectively, more likely to have MCL at V1, whereas cows with RFM were 0.38 times less likely to have MCL at V1. The likelihood of MCL at V2 was higher in cows with MCL and OC at V1 by factors of 2.67 and 1.91, respectively. Multiparous cows were 8.51 times more likely to have OC at V1 than primiparous cows. Higher producing cows were more likely to have OC at V2 by a factor of 1.04 compared with lower producing cows. Parity, stillbirth, RFM, and ROC at V1 were all identified as risk factors for IUF at V1. Cows with RFM and delivering twins were more likely to be diagnosed with IUF at V2 by a factor of 3.43 and 4.07, respectively. In summary, parity, twinning, RFM, metritis, IUF, and milk production were all associated with altered ovarian structures, and the presence of IUF was related to parity, twinning, RFM, and ROC in postpartum dairy cows. PMID:26947303

  11. Incidence of subclinical endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luisa Cunha; Ferreira, Adolfo Firmo; Padua, Mariana; Saut, João Paulo; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Dos Santos, Ricarda Maria

    2014-12-01

    In dairy cattle, uterine infections are not life threatening and often unavoidable; however, they reduce fertility and increase the production costs of properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of subclinical endometritis from 32 to 70 days in milk (DIM) and its effects on the reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows. Lactating cows (Holstein/Gir; n = 172), with no history of retained placenta, without clinical signs of uterine infection were used. The body condition score (BCS) was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 5. Ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate uterine lining and ovarian activity, while vaginal mucus was analyzed by gloved hand. The diagnosis of subclinical endometritis was performed by endometrial cytobrush technique. The samples were collected, stained, and examined microscopically; positive cases for subclinical endometritis were considered with the presence of ≥5 % of neutrophils. Later, the cows were submitted to conventional artificial insemination or timed artificial insemination. The incidence of subclinical endometritis in the herd was 26 %, and this was not affected by the season of calving, presence of corpus luteum, DIM, and parity. Cows with a BCS ≤2.50 had a higher incidence of subclinical endometritis. The conception rate to first insemination and pregnancy rate at 150 days postpartum were not influenced by the presence of subclinical endometritis in crossbred dairy cows. PMID:25187026

  12. Technical note: a novel approach to the detection of estrus in dairy cows using ultra-wideband technology.

    PubMed

    Homer, E M; Gao, Y; Meng, X; Dodson, A; Webb, R; Garnsworthy, P C

    2013-10-01

    Detection of estrus is a key determinant of profitability of dairy herds, but estrus is increasingly difficult to observe in the modern dairy cow with shorter duration and less-intense estrus. Concurrent with the unfavorable correlation between milk yield and fertility, estrus-detection rates have declined to less than 50%. We tested ultra-wideband (UWB) radio technology (Thales Research & Technology Ltd., Reading, UK) for proof of concept that estrus could be detected in dairy cows (two 1-wk-long trials; n=16 cows, 8 in each test). The 3-dimensional positions of 12 cows with synchronized estrous cycles and 4 pregnant control cows were monitored continuously using UWB mobile units operating within a network of 8 base units for a period of 7d. In the study, 10 cows exhibited estrus as confirmed by visual observation, activity monitoring, and milk progesterone concentrations. Automated software was developed for analysis of UWB data to detect cows in estrus and report the onset of estrus in real time. The UWB technology accurately detected 9 out of 10 cows in estrus. In addition, UWB technology accurately confirmed all 6 cows not in estrus. In conclusion, UWB technology can accurately detect estrus and hence we have demonstrated proof of concept for a novel technology that has significant potential to improve estrus-detection rates. PMID:23910546

  13. Genetic diversity of bovine papillomavirus types, including two putative new types, in teat warts from dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, Michele; de Camargo Tozato, Claudia; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Vilas-Boas, Laurival Antonio; Otonel, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano; Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-06-01

    Teat papillomatosis affects dairy cows worldwide. Milking can become difficult due to teat warts, and maintaining affected cows in the herds may diminish economic profit in the dairy industry. Currently, 13 bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types have been fully characterized, and numerous putative BPV types have been identified through partial L1 gene PCR. In order to identify the viral types present in warts on the udders of dairy cows, 40 teat lesions from 24 cows from 13 cattle farms in three States of Brazil were evaluated by PV L1 gene PCR. The warts that were evaluated contained sequences from BPVs 6-10, the putative BPV types BAPV9 and BAPV4, and two unreported putative papillomavirus (PV) types, named BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7. In addition, mixed infections and coinfections were identified, since more than one lesion was observed on the udders of 13 cows. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BPV/BR-UEL6 is closely related to BPVs belonging to the genus Xipapillomavirus, while BPV/BR-UEL7 clustered with the previously reported strains Cervus timorensis and Pudu puda PVs, which represent a putative new PV type, and it was only distantly related to xi-, epsilon-, delta- and dyoxi-PVs. These results provide information that will assist in the understanding of the association of BPVs 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, as well as putative BPV types BAPV4 and BAPV9, with mammary papillomatosis. This is the first characterization of putative novel PV types BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7 in teat warts of dairy cows, highlighting the high genetic diversity of BPVs associated with teat papillomatosis. PMID:26997614

  14. Management of heat stress to improve fertility in dairy cows in Israel.

    PubMed

    Flamenbaum, Israel; Galon, Nadav

    2010-01-01

    Israel has about 100,000 dairy cows mostly all of Israeli-Holstein-breed, kept in close to 1000 dairy farms. Most farms are distributed along the Mediterranean Sea coast and in the hot internal valleys. According to the Israeli Herd book the average annual milk production, per cow in 2008 was 11,460 kg, with 3.7% fat and 3.2% protein. Israel's climate is considered "subtropical dry" or Mediterranean, characterized by warm and dry summer with day temperatures above 30 C and relative humidity ranging from 50 to 90%. Climatic limitations brought dairy farmers to develop and implement new technologies and management practices that would enable high milk production and reproduction in summers. In the last three decades the Ministry of Agriculture research units, the extension service and dairy farmers conducted a series of trials and surveys in order to develop an efficient cooling system that will obtain and maintain high milk yield and good reproduction during the hot and humid summer. The cooling system commonly used in Israel is based on a combination of frequent direct watering of the cows, followed by forced ventilation air blowing onto the cows. The system was developed in Israel nearly 30 years ago. A typical cycle is five minutes long and consists of 30 sec of watering followed by 4.5 min of forced ventilation. Providing the cows with 5-7 cooling sessions per day, 30-45 min each, allowed cows, producing 25-30 kg of milk per day to maintain their body temperature below 39.0 C, throughout the day time, on a typical Israeli summer day. At the same time, non-cooled cows had high body temperatures (above 39.5 C), during some part of the daytime and returned to normal body temperatures (below 39.0 C), only for a few hours late at night. In an experiment conducted in 1985-86, conception rate (CR) of cows, cooled as described above, was significantly higher than of non-cooled cows (59 vs. 17% and 57 vs. 17%), for first insemination and for all inseminations

  15. Diagnosis and Molecular Characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from Dairy Cows in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Silva, J. A.; Abdulmawjood, A.; Bülte, M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was the serological, bacteriological and molecular diagnosis, as well as the molecular characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in adult cows of five Colombian dairy herds. Serum samples were tested by an indirect absorbed enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-C). All fecal samples were tested by pooled culture. After that, fecal samples of Map positive pools were tested individually by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In one herd, slurry and tissue samples from one animal were also taken and tested by PCR and culture. Map isolates were analyzed by the Multilocus Short Sequence Repeat (MLSSR) and the Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) methods. ELISA produced positive results in 1.8% (6/329) of the animals and 40% (2/5) of the herds. Four fecal, two tissue, and two slurry samples from a herd were Map positive by culture and PCR. MLSSR and MIRU-VNTR revealed two different strain profiles among eight Map isolates recovered. This study reports the first molecular characterization of Map in one dairy herd in Colombia, the limitations for individual diagnosis of subclinical Map infections in cattle, and the usefulness of pooled fecal samples and environmental sampling for Map diagnosis. PMID:21785685

  16. Short communication: survey of fresh cow management practices of dairy cattle on small and large commercial farms.

    PubMed

    Heuwieser, W; Iwersen, M; Gossellin, J; Drillich, M

    2010-03-01

    The objective was to conduct a survey of current fresh cow management practices that have an effect on health and diseases postpartum considering different herd sizes of commercial dairy farms. A mail survey regarding aspects of the fresh cow program including general management issues, calving, diseases, and veterinary service was conducted utilizing a convenience sample. A total of 429 survey forms were returned (12.0% response rate) and could be used for final analysis. Only 21.6% of the farms had a designated fresh cow pen. Almost every farm executed some type of fresh cow examination. Only 18.5% of farm managers documented the observations. Most of the dairy managers used more or less subjective criteria such as general appearance (97.0%) and appetite (69.7%). Only a minority of the responding dairy managers monitored their fresh cows using objective (fever 33.6%) or semiquantitative measures (subclinical ketosis 2.8%; body condition score 36.4%). On most farms, the veterinarian visited the herd only if needed (72.6%). Most cases of retained fetal membranes were treated by manual removal (72.3%) and antibiotic pills (89.5%). Several challenges and opportunities were identified to improve cow management practices. PMID:20172227

  17. Severe Mycoplasma bovis outbreak in an Austrian dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Pothmann, Harald; Spergser, Joachim; Elmer, Josef; Prunner, Isabella; Iwersen, Michael; Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Drillich, Marc

    2015-11-01

    A conventional dairy farm, housing 19 Austrian Simmental cows, experienced a spontaneous outbreak of a Mycoplasma bovis infection, showing severe clinical signs of respiratory tract disease, clinical mastitis, and tremendous drop in milk production. Despite intensive therapy, 5 cows died within 2 weeks or were euthanized. From the remaining cows, bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction revealed M. bovis in 10 of 14 milk samples. Mycoplasma bovis was found in 1 of 5 randomly collected nasal swabs. Autopsy of 1 cow revealed infection of the lungs and the udder with M. bovis. The 13 M. bovis isolates from milk samples, nasal swabs, lungs, and udder were genotyped by multilocus variable number of tandem-repeat analysis, and indicated that described infections were caused by a single M. bovis strain. The virulent M. bovis strain resulted in dramatic economic loss to the farmer. To control the disease, culling of all animals, including heifers and calves, was recommended, and strict hygienic measures were implemented before introducing new animals to the farm. PMID:26450838

  18. Transition diseases in grazing dairy cows are related to serum cholesterol and other analytes.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Varas, Pilar; Weary, Daniel M; Noro, Mirela; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of postpartum disease and to evaluate the association with serum cholesterol concentrations during the first 3 weeks after calving in grazing dairy cows. The association between non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), calcium and postpartum diseases was also evaluated. A total of 307 Holstein dairy cows from 6 commercial grazing herds in Osorno, Chile, were monitored from calving until 21 days in milk. Cases of retained placenta, clinical hypocalcemia and clinical mastitis were recorded by the farmer using established definitions. Twice weekly, cows were evaluated for metritis by the same veterinarian based on vaginal discharge and body temperature. Postpartum blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for serum concentrations of cholesterol, NEFA, BHBA and calcium. Cows were considered as having subclinical ketosis if BHBA >1.2 mmol/L, and subclinical hypocalcemia if calcium <2.0 mmol/L in any of the 3 weekly samples. Overall, 56% of the cows studied developed at least one clinical or subclinical disease after calving. Incidence of individual diseases was 8.8% for retained placenta, 4.2% for clinical hypocalcemia, 11.7% for clinical mastitis, 41.1% for metritis, 19.9% for subclinical hypocalcemia and 16.6% for subclinical ketosis. Lower postpartum cholesterol in cows was associated with developing severe metritis or having more than one clinical disease after calving. For every 0.4 mmol/L decrease in serum cholesterol cows were nearly twice as likely to be diagnosed with multiple clinical diseases after calving. Higher BHBA concentrations and lower calcium concentrations during week 1 were associated with severe cases of metritis. Low serum calcium concentration during week 1 was also associated with developing more than one clinical disorder after calving. In conclusion, the incidence of postpartum diseases can be high even in grazing herds and lower serum cholesterol

  19. Transition Diseases in Grazing Dairy Cows Are Related to Serum Cholesterol and Other Analytes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of postpartum disease and to evaluate the association with serum cholesterol concentrations during the first 3 weeks after calving in grazing dairy cows. The association between non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), calcium and postpartum diseases was also evaluated. A total of 307 Holstein dairy cows from 6 commercial grazing herds in Osorno, Chile, were monitored from calving until 21 days in milk. Cases of retained placenta, clinical hypocalcemia and clinical mastitis were recorded by the farmer using established definitions. Twice weekly, cows were evaluated for metritis by the same veterinarian based on vaginal discharge and body temperature. Postpartum blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for serum concentrations of cholesterol, NEFA, BHBA and calcium. Cows were considered as having subclinical ketosis if BHBA >1.2 mmol/L, and subclinical hypocalcemia if calcium <2.0 mmol/L in any of the 3 weekly samples. Overall, 56% of the cows studied developed at least one clinical or subclinical disease after calving. Incidence of individual diseases was 8.8% for retained placenta, 4.2% for clinical hypocalcemia, 11.7% for clinical mastitis, 41.1% for metritis, 19.9% for subclinical hypocalcemia and 16.6% for subclinical ketosis. Lower postpartum cholesterol in cows was associated with developing severe metritis or having more than one clinical disease after calving. For every 0.4 mmol/L decrease in serum cholesterol cows were nearly twice as likely to be diagnosed with multiple clinical diseases after calving. Higher BHBA concentrations and lower calcium concentrations during week 1 were associated with severe cases of metritis. Low serum calcium concentration during week 1 was also associated with developing more than one clinical disorder after calving. In conclusion, the incidence of postpartum diseases can be high even in grazing herds and lower serum cholesterol

  20. Serologic and bacteriologic test results after adult vaccination with strain 19 in three dairy herds infected with brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Breitmeyer, R E; Hird, D W; Carpenter, T E

    1992-03-15

    Milk culture data and serologic test results were evaluated after adult vaccination with Brucella abortus strain 19 in cattle of 3 large California dairy herds infected with brucellosis. Strain-19 organisms were isolated by culture of milk from 1.9% of the vaccinated cows. Isolation of field strain of B abortus varied directly with magnitude of complement-fixation (CF) and rivanol titers. At time of milk culture, 74% of cows from which field strain was isolated had CF titer greater than or equal to 160, compared with 58% of cows from which strain 19 was isolated. Cows with CF titer greater than or equal to 160 at 2 months or greater than or equal to 80 to 4 months after adult vaccination were more likely to be correctly classified as reactors (on the basis of subsequent milk culture results and/or persistently high serologic titer) than were cows with lower CF titer at these times. Cows from which B abortus strain 19 was isolated from milk were more likely to maintain persistent serologic titer than were cows from which neither strain of B abortus was isolated. PMID:1568926

  1. A cross sectional observational study to estimate herd level risk factors for Leptospira spp. serovars in small holder dairy cattle farms in southern Chile

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The south of Chile constitutes the main cattle milk producing area of the country. Regarding leptospirosis control in Chile, there is neither an official program nor an epidemiological characterization of smallholder dairy farms. This study was carried out to determine Leptospira seroprevalence and to evaluate risk factors associated with seropositivity at herd level in smallholder bovine dairy herds in southern Chile. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a convenient sample of 1,537 apparently healthy dairy cows was included in the study. Individual blood samples were taken and examined for six selected reference Leptospira serovars by the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Results Of the included herds 75% (52/69) showed serological titers against one or more Leptospira serovar. Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo was the serovar most frequently (81%) reported from animals with positive results. The variables considered risk factors for Leptospira seropositivity were calve natural breeding system, using a specific calving area and vaccination against Leptospira. Adult cows in contact with calves weaned, proved to be a protective factor against infection. Conclusions Herds neglecting the management practices mentioned in this study could represent an important source of Leptospira infection for other herds in the same geographic area, as well as for other animal species. PMID:24906684

  2. Expanding the dairy herd in pasture-based systems: The role of sexed semen within alternative breeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, C; Shalloo, L; Hutchinson, I A; Butler, S T

    2016-08-01

    A simulation model was developed to determine the effects of sexed semen use in heifers and lactating cows on replacement heifer numbers and rate of herd expansion in a seasonal dairy production system. Five separate artificial insemination (AI) protocols were established according to the type of semen used: (1) conventional frozen-thawed semen (CONV); (2) sexed semen in heifers and conventional semen used in cows (SS-HEIFER); (3) sexed semen in heifers and a targeted group of cows (body condition score ≥3 and calved ≥63 d), with conventional semen used in the remainder of cows (SS-CONV); (4) sexed semen in heifers and a targeted group of cows, with conventional semen in the remainder of cows for the first AI and conventional beef semen used for the second AI (SS-BEEF); or (5) sexed semen in heifers and a targeted group of cows, with conventional semen in the remainder of cows for the first AI and short gestation length semen used for the second AI (SS-SGL). Each AI protocol was assessed under 3 scenarios of sexed semen conception rate (SS-CR): 100, 94, and 87% relative to that of conventional semen. Artificial insemination was used on heifers for the first 3 wk and on cows for the first 6 wk of the 12-wk breeding season. The initial herd size was 100 cows, and all available replacement heifers were retained to facilitate herd expansion, up to a maximum herd size of 300 cows. Once maximum herd size was reached, all excess heifer calves were sold at 1 mo old. All capital expenditure associated with expansion was financed with a 15-yr loan. Each AI protocol was evaluated in terms of annual farm profit, annual cash flow, and total discounted net profit. The SS-CONV protocol generated more replacement heifers than all other AI protocols, facilitating faster expansion, and reached maximum herd size in yr 9, 9, and 10 for 100, 94, and 87% SS-CR, respectively. All AI protocols, except SS-BEEF and SS-SGL at 87% SS-CR, reached maximum herd size within the 15-yr period

  3. Schmallenberg virus antibody development and decline in a naturally infected dairy cattle herd in Germany, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Holsteg, Mark; Sasserath, Michael; Beer, Martin

    2015-12-31

    In late 2011, the novel insect-transmitted orthobunyavirus Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in Central Europe. Since that year, a dairy cattle herd kept in the German region in which the virus was initially detected was continuously monitored. In order to evaluate the development of the within-herd seroprevalence, but also to assess the long-term persistence of antibodies against SBV in individual animals, blood samples of all cows older than 24 months were taken yearly after the respective vector season and serologically analyzed. In December 2011, in 74% of the tested animals SBV-specific antibodies were detectable. Additional scattered seroconversions were observed between the 2011 and 2012 vector seasons, thereafter all seronegative animals remained negative. Until December 2014, the intra-herd seroprevalence decreased to 58%. A total of 122 cows infected presumable in autumn 2011 were sampled every year, 9 of them became seronegative until December 2014. Consequently, though SBV-specific antibodies were detected in about 90% of the monitored animals for more than three years, a lifelong antibody-based immunity is not expected in every animal. The loss of anti-SBV antibodies in individual animals combined with the missing infection of young stock results in a declining herd seroprevalence and increases the risk of a renewed virus circulation to a greater extent within the next years. PMID:26518458

  4. Risk factors for lameness in cubicle housed Austrian Simmental dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dippel, Sabine; Dolezal, Marlies; Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Brinkmann, Jan; March, Solveig; Knierim, Ute; Winckler, Christoph

    2009-07-01

    Austrian dairy farming is characterised by predominant use of Simmental cows on small-scale farms. Our aim was to identify lameness risk factors related to housing and management in cubicle housed Austrian dairy cows. Furthermore, we used animal-based parameters (ABP) as integrated measures of cubicle quality and feeding management. The first author visited 30 farms in eastern Austria with 24-54 cows (mean=35) in the milking herd during winter housing period, and collected data on housing, management, behaviour, and lameness via direct observations and an interview (part of Welfare Quality project). Mean lameness prevalence was 31% (range 6-70%). Data were analysed using logistic regression with generalised estimating equations (GEE). The final model was based on 832 cows and included six risk variables, five ABP, and the significant confounders 'county' and 'lactation number'. Odds for lameness increased with decreasing lying comfort, except for cubicle width. The following lying-related factors were significant in the final model (odds ratios (OR) in brackets): mats/mattresses as opposed to deep bedded cubicle base (1.61), length of lying area (OR 186-191 vs. <178 cm=0.72) and cubicle width (1.18). Lying-related ABP included abnormal lying behaviour (1.36), cow comfort index (0.76), and duration of rising (2.17). Other significant housing and management characteristics included slatted flooring (1.31), herd size (0.63), and no access to an outdoor loafing area (0.57). Regarding metabolic parameters, cows with a body condition score >3.5 had at least 0.39 lower odds of being lame, while cows with suboptimal milk protein content (<3.2% or >3.8%) had 1.37 times higher odds. Odds for lameness clearly increased with age (OR lactation > or =4 vs. 1=3.38). In sum, lying comfort and nutrition are key areas for lameness prevention on modern dairy farms in Austria with herd sizes above 30 cows. PMID:19409629

  5. Claw trimming routines in relation to claw lesions, claw shape and lameness in Norwegian dairy herds housed in tie stalls and free stalls.

    PubMed

    Fjeldaas, T; Sogstad, A M; Østerås, O

    2006-03-16

    We assessed the prevalence of claw lesions, abnormal claw shapes and lameness in relation to most-recent claw-trimming routines in Norwegian dairy herds housed in tie stalls and free stalls. Equal-sized groups were randomly sampled from both tie and free stalls in each of the three most animal-dense regions in Norway. The study population consisted of 2551 cows of the Norwegian Red breed housed in 54 tie stalls and 52 free stalls. Fourteen educated claw trimmers performed claw trimming and recording of claw lesions once during the spring of 2002. A multivariable model including cluster effects and individual-cow factors was fit for each claw lesion and abnormal claw shape. In tie-stall herds with routine trimming 39.9% of the cows had one or more lesions or abnormal shapes in front or hind claws versus 52.8% in herds with no routine trimming. Hind-claw results in tie stalls with concrete stall base: herds trimmed occasionally had more haemorrhages of the white line (OR=2.8) and corkscrewed hind claws (OR=3.6) versus herds trimmed routinely; herds never trimmed had more heel-horn erosions (OR=2.6) versus herds trimmed routinely and less haemorrhages of the white line (OR=0.3) and the sole (OR=0.2) versus herds trimmed occasionally. In free-stall herds with routine trimming 76.8% of the cows had one or more lesions or abnormal shapes in front or hind claws versus 68.9% in herds with no routine trimming. Hind-claw results in free stalls with concrete stall base: herds never trimmed had less haemorrhages of the white line (OR=0.3) and the sole (OR=0.3) versus herds trimmed routinely; and also less haemorrhages of the white line (OR=0.3) and white-line fissures (OR=0.3) versus herds trimmed occasionally. Hind-claw results in free stalls with rubber-mat stall base: herds trimmed occasionally had less heel-horn erosions (OR=0.5) and more dermatitis (OR=5.4) versus herds trimmed routinely. The routine claw trimming performed in Norwegian free stalls has not had the desired

  6. Invited review: The impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cow management, behavior, health, and welfare.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J A; Siegford, J M

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 100 yr, the dairy industry has incorporated technology to maximize yield and profit. Pressure to maximize efficiency and lower inputs has resulted in novel approaches to managing and milking dairy herds, including implementation of automatic milking systems (AMS) to reduce labor associated with milking. Although AMS have been used for almost 20 yr in Europe, they have only recently become more popular in North America. Automatic milking systems have the potential to increase milk production by up to 12%, decrease labor by as much as 18%, and simultaneously improve dairy cow welfare by allowing cows to choose when to be milked. However, producers using AMS may not fully realize these anticipated benefits for a variety of reasons. For example, producers may not see a reduction in labor because some cows do not milk voluntarily or because they have not fully or efficiently incorporated the AMS into their management routines. Following the introduction of AMS on the market in the 1990s, research has been conducted examining AMS systems versus conventional parlors focusing primarily on cow health, milk yield, and milk quality, as well as on some of the economic and social factors related to AMS adoption. Additionally, because AMS rely on cows milking themselves voluntarily, research has also been conducted on the behavior of cows in AMS facilities, with particular attention paid to cow traffic around AMS, cow use of AMS, and cows' motivation to enter the milking stall. However, the sometimes contradictory findings resulting from different studies on the same aspect of AMS suggest that differences in management and farm-level variables may be more important to AMS efficiency and milk production than features of the milking system itself. Furthermore, some of the recommendations that have been made regarding AMS facility design and management should be scientifically tested to demonstrate their validity, as not all may work as intended. As updated AMS

  7. Relationships between milk production, ovarian function and fertility in high-producing dairy herds in north-eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Yániz, J; López-Gatius, F; Bech-Sàbat, G; García-Ispierto, I; Serrano, B; Santolaria, P

    2008-10-01

    In the dairy industry worldwide, reproductive disorders are a major cause of economic losses and a challenge to scientists and technicians. In recent decades, declining fertility and increasing milk production have been widely reported in dairy cattle. In this article, the relationships between milk production, ovarian disorders and fertility in high-producing dairy herds are briefly described. We carried out a retrospective study of 23 204 lactations included in a reproductive control programme in north-eastern Spain, a geographical area experiencing both warm and cool conditions. The data were collected between 1991 and 2007 and refer to cows first inseminated or examined 45-80 days postpartum in five well-managed, commercial, Holstein-Friesian high-producing dairy herds. Ovarian disorders were classified as ovarian inactivity or hypofunction, cystic ovarian disease, sub-oestrus or silent ovulation and sub-luteal function. Ovarian hypofunction and milk production increased throughout the study period and there was a decrease in the pregnancy rate to first artificial insemination (AI). Cows suffering ovarian hypofunction were efficiently treated using combined progestagen-prostaglandin treatments. The incidence of ovarian cysts showed little variation with time. Treatment of this syndrome may include different GnRH-based treatments or manual rupture. During the last 5 years, sub-oestrus was the predominant dysfunction (42.1%) compared with the cystic (6.3%) and ovarian hypofunction (12%) forms. Response of sub-oestrous cows to treatment with luteolitic agents was usually higher than 60%. Ovarian function and fertility were dramatically impaired during the warm period. However, during the later years of the study, the inclusion of fans and water sprinklers for the warm season appeared to overcome the seasonal effect on fertility. PMID:18803755

  8. Ivermectin use and resulting milk residues on 4 Canadian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Chicoine, Alan L; Durden, David A; MacNaughton, George; Dowling, Patricia M

    2007-08-01

    The Canadian gFARAD was contacted for milk withdrawal recommendations after multiple cases of topical ivermectin use in lactating dairy cows. The following 4 cases included pertinent milk residue information and illustrate the challenges faced by producers, veterinarians, and regulatory authorities when ivermectin use occurs in dairy cows. PMID:17824327

  9. Relationship among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function during early lactation in high-yielding dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Muiño, Rodrigo; Pereira, Víctor; Campos, Rómulo; Benedito, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Blood indicators are used as a tool to diagnose metabolic disorders. The present work was conducted to study the relationships among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function in high-yielding dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein cows were studied: 27 early lactation cows and 14 mid lactation cows from four different herds with similar husbandry characteristics in Galicia, Spain. Blood samples were obtained to measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Cows in early lactation had higher levels of BHB and NEFA than mid lactation cows. High lipomobilization (NEFA > 400 µmol/L) was detected in 67% and 7% of early lactation and mid lactation cows, respectively, while subclinical ketosis (BHB > 1.2 mmol/L) was detected in 41% and 28% of the early lactation and lactation cows, respectively. TG concentrations were low in all cows suffering subclinical ketosis and in 61% of the cows with high lipomobilization. During early lactation, 30% of cows suffered hepatic lipidosis as detected by levels of AST. Compromised hepatic function was observed in early lactation cows as shown by lower concentrations of glucose, total protein, and urea. PMID:21897097

  10. Ultrasonography of the rumen of dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes the ultrasonographic findings of the rumen in 45 healthy dairy cows. Results The cows were scanned on both sides using a 5.0 MHz transducer. The dorsal visible margin of the rumen ran parallel to the lung from cranioventral to caudodorsal. It was furthest from the dorsal midline at the 9th intercostal space (48.3 ± 9.24 cm) and closest at the 12th intercostal space (22.4 ± 3.27 cm). The longitudinal groove, which could be clearly identified at all examination sites because it appeared as a triangular notch, formed the ventral margin of the dorsal sac of the rumen. The dorsal sac of the rumen was largest at the caudal flank (40.3 ± 6.33 cm), where it was adjacent to the abdominal wall. The ventral sac of the rumen extended across the ventral midline into the right hemiabdomen and its ventral margin had a largely horizontal craniocaudal course. The height of the ventral sac of the rumen exceeded that of the dorsal sac at all examination sites; the maximum height was measured at the 12th intercostal space (62.6 ± 9.53 cm). The dorsal gas cap, characterised ultrasonographically by typical reverberation artifacts, was visible in all cows from the 12th intercostal space to the caudal flank. It was largest at the 12th intercostal space (20.5 ± 7.03 cm). The transition from the gas cap to the fibre mat was marked by the abrupt cessation of the reverberation artifacts. It was not possible to differentiate a fibre mat and a ventral fluid phase. The rumen could be imaged from the right side in 21 cows (47%). Conclusions Ultrasonography is well suited for the detailed examination of the rumen of cows. The reference values obtained from this study add to the diagnostic tools that are available for the assessment of bovine patients. PMID:23497545

  11. A screening sampling plan to detect Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis-positive dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Serraino, A; Arrigoni, N; Ostanello, F; Ricchi, M; Marchetti, G; Bonilauri, P; Bonfante, E; Giacometti, F

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic contagious bacterial disease primarily affecting dairy cattle. Paratuberculosis represents a dual problem for the milk production chain: in addition to economic losses to affected herds, MAP may have zoonotic potential. Infected herds must be identified in order to implement programs designed to reduce the incidence of disease within and between herds and to prevent MAP from entering the food chain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a screening sampling plan (SSP) to detect MAP-positive dairy herds by repetitive analysis of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples by ELISA and in-line milk filter (ILMF) samples by PCR. Samples from BTM and ILMF were collected twice from 569 dairy herds in southern Italy. Additionally, 12,016 individual milk samples were collected: 9,509 from 102 SSP-positive herds (SSP MAP-positive) and 2,507 from 21 randomly selected SSP-negative herds (SSP MAP-negative). There was a total of 126 SSP MAP-positive herds (i.e., 21.3% SSP MAP-positive herds; 95% confidence interval=18.0-24.9); the within-herd apparent prevalence (AP) ranged between 0.00 and 22.73% (mean 6.07%). A significant difference in within-herd AP was shown between SSP MAP-positive herds and SSP MAP-negative herds. A highly significant association was shown between the median AP herd status (>5%) and positivity to at least one ILMF or BTM sample. The SSP detected a minimum of 56.25% of low AP herds (AP ≤ 2.0%) up to a maximum of 100% of herds with a within-herd AP ≥ 8.0%. Overall, the SSP detected 85.57% of herds in which at least one individual milk sample was positive by ELISA. The proposed SSP was an inexpensive and useful tool to detect MAP-positive herds with a higher risk of infection diffusion and milk contamination. Although the SSP cannot be used for MAP-free certification of herds, it could be useful to prioritize appropriate

  12. Molecular characterization of Prototheca strains isolated from Italian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Ricchi, M; Goretti, M; Branda, E; Cammi, G; Garbarino, C A; Turchetti, B; Moroni, P; Arrigoni, N; Buzzini, P

    2010-10-01

    One hundred sixty-one Prototheca spp. strains isolated from composite milk and barn-surrounding environmental samples (bedding, feces, drinking, or washing water, surface swabs) of 24 Italian dairy herds were characterized by genotype-specific PCR analysis. Overall, 97.2% of strains isolated from composite milk samples were characterized as Prototheca zopfii genotype 2, confirming its role as the main mastitis pathogen, whereas Prototheca blaschkeae was only sporadically isolated (2.8%). Regarding environmental sampling, 84.9% of isolates belonged to P. zopfii genotype 2, 13.2% to P. blaschkeae, and 1.9% to P. zopfii genotype 1. The data herein contradict previous hypotheses about the supposed exclusive role of P. zopfii genotype 2 as the causative agent of protothecal mastitis and, on the contrary, confirm the hypothesis that such pathology could be caused by P. blaschkeae in a few instances. PMID:20854996

  13. Use of prostaglandin F2 alpha as a postpartum reproductive management tool for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pankowski, J W; Galton, D M; Erb, H N; Guard, C L; Gröhn, Y T

    1995-07-01

    This study compared three programs for reproductive management of the postpartum period for reproductive performance and net economic benefit within three dairy herds (n = 1624 cows). Cows on one program received PGF alpha injection at 25 to 32 d postpartum for reproductive therapy, and cows on a second program received additional PGF2 alpha at 39 to 46 d postpartum for synchronization of estrus. These programs were compared with a postpartum program of rectal palpation based on veterinary intervention. Survival analysis indicated that cows receiving PGF2 alpha for reproductive therapy and synchronization of estrus had an 11% higher rate of first AI and 10% higher rate of pregnancy than did cows receiving the rectal palpation. No differences existed between the cows receiving rectal palpation and those receiving the PGF2 alpha. Because overall conception rates and conception rates at first AI did not differ among programs, the improved reproductive performance of cows receiving PGF2 alpha for both therapy and synchronization may be attributed to greater synchronization of estrus, which resulted in improved estrus detection. A partial budget indicated that the PGF2 alpha programs were less expensive than the rectal palpation program. When PGF2 alpha was used for postpartum reproductive therapy and synchronization of estrus, reproductive performance and net economic benefit were increased compared with those of the other programs. PMID:7593841

  14. [Control measures in officially acknowledged brucellosis-free and leukosis unsuspected dairy herds on the basis of bulk milk samples in combination with ELISA tests].

    PubMed

    Forschner, E; Bünger, I; Krause, H P; Küttler, D

    1989-01-01

    1. EC- and National Regulations. Since 1988 the EC-regulations accept in addition to the on Agar Gel Immunodiffusion test (AGIDT) based blood serum testing of cattle herds that are filed as "free from Enzootic Bovine Leucosis" the use of ELISA for this purpose. The regular testings in dairy cattle herds can be done alternatively with single or pooled milk samples, in other herds with pooled blood sera using ELISA. General condition is only a minimal sensitivity of the test to detect the European EBL Antibody Standard ("E4") in a dilution of 1:10 in negative serum or 1:250 in negative milk. Adequate national regulations are in preparation. The present limitation of pool sizes, blood maximum 50 animals without preparation steps 20, and milk after concentration treatment 50 cows is neutralized by proceedings in development of higher sensitive ELISA tests. This limitation should be canceled. Herd bulk milk samples without size limitations are accepted to be tested with "Milk Ring Test" by EC for the regular testings in filed "Brucellosis Free Dairy Cattle Herds". The alternative use of more sensitive (and more specific) ELISA tests for this purpose including the technical conditions is in a final discussion. 2. Scientific-Technical Base for Using the Chances of the Proceeding in the EC-Regulations. The realisation of the EC accepted or final discussed ELISA based bulk milk testing to control filed "EBL- and/or Brucellosis Free Herds" depends on some basic conditions like sensitivity, specificity, and variability of the ELISA systems. Field trials of more than 20,000 bulk milk samples in case of Brucellosis and more than 2,000 in case of EBL show the feasibilities and the limits of the ELISA systems in defining the status of the herds. The Brucellosis respectively the EBL situations of the dairy cattle herds tested in this trail were well known by history and by investigation of single animal blood samples using conventional tests. Special test run variations of

  15. Age at occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in naturally infected dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, S S; Ersbøll, A K

    2006-12-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of ruminants and other species caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map). Establishing test strategies for paratuberculosis will require insight into the temporal aspects of certainty with a given test. In this study, the age at which cows tested positive by ELISA and fecal culture (FC) was investigated by use of time-to-event analyses. The effects of herd, parity, and shedding group were evaluated at the age of test-positive ELISA and FC, respectively. Finally, the test frequency was investigated for the probability of cows being tested ELISA-positive. Milk and fecal samples were collected repeatedly over a 3-yr period from 1,776 Danish dairy cows from 8 herds. The milk samples were tested for the presence of antibodies by using an ELISA, and an FC test was used for detection of Map. Repeated ELISA testing detected 98 and 95% of cows classified as high and low shedders, respectively, suggesting that most infected cows develop antibodies. Among the high shedders, 50% were positive before 4.3 yr of age (quartiles 1 to 3: 3.4 to 5.7 yr of age). Repeated FC detected only 72% of the cows that were ELISA-positive, and 50% of the ELISA-positive cows were detected by FC at 7.6 yr of age. The age with the highest probability of testing positive was determined as the interval with the steepest slope in the survival probability plots. The highest probability of testing positive by ELISA was from 2.5 to 4.5 yr of age. The highest probability of testing positive by FC was from 2.5 to 5.5 yr of age. For both ELISA and FC, testing positive was highest in the first 300 d in milk. For cows younger than 4 yr of age, monthly testing with ELISA, compared with testing every 2 yr, could increase the probability of detecting cows with antibodies by 19%. In older cows, there were no apparent differences in the probability of testing positive by monthly sampling compared with sampling every second year. Therefore, for older animals

  16. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Consequent Effect of Dystocia in Holstein Dairy Cows in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Atashi, Hadi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza; Dadpasand, Mohammad; Asaadi, Anise

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and consequent effect of dystocia on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. The data set consisted of 55,577 calving records on 30,879 Holstein cows in 30 dairy herds for the period March 2000 to April 2009. Factors affecting dystocia were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models through the maximum likelihood method in the GENMOD procedure. The effect of dystocia on lactation performance and factors affecting calf birth weight were analyzed using mixed linear model in the MIXED procedure. The average incidence of dystocia was 10.8% and the mean (SD) calf birth weight was 42.13 (5.42) kg. Primiparous cows had calves with lower body weight and were more likely to require assistance at parturition (p<0.05). Female calves had lower body weight, and had a lower odds ratio for dystocia than male calves (p<0.05). Twins had lower birth weight, and had a higher odds ratio for dystocia than singletons (p<0.05). Cows which gave birth to a calf with higher weight at birth experienced more calving difficulty (OR (95% CI) = 1.1(1.08–1.11). Total 305-d milk, fat and protein yield was 135 (23), 3.16 (0.80) and 6.52 (1.01) kg less, in cows that experienced dystocia at calving compared with those that did not (p<0.05). PMID:25049584

  17. Capability index--a statistical process control tool to aid in udder health control in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Niza-Ribeiro, J; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Menezes, J C

    2004-08-01

    Bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) averages have been used to evaluate udder health both at the individual or the herd level as well as milk quality and hygiene. The authors show that the BMSCC average is not the best tool to be used in udder health control programs and that it can be replaced with advantage by the capability index (Cpk). The Cpk is a statistical process control tool traditionally used by engineers to validate, monitor, and predict the expected behavior of processes or machines. The BMSCC data of 13 consecutive months of production from 414 dairy herds as well as SCC from all cows in the DHI program from 264 herds in the same period were collected. The Cpk and the annual BMSCC average (AAVG) of all the herds were calculated. Confronting the herd's performance explained by the Cpk and AAVG with the European Union (EU) official limit for BMSCC of 400,000 cells/mL, it was noticed that the Cpk accurately classified the compliance of the 414 farms, whereas the AAVG misclassified 166 (40%) of the 414 selected farms. The annual prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SMP) of each herd was calculated with individual SCC data from the same 13-mo period. Cows with more than 200,000 SCC/mL were considered as having subclinical mastitis. A logistic regression model to relate the Cpk and the herd's subclinical mastitis prevalence was calculated. The model is: SMPe = 0.475 e(-0.5286 x Cpk). The validation of the model was carried out evaluating the relation between the observed SMP and the predicted SMPe, in terms of the linear correlation coefficient (R2) and the mean difference between SMP and SMPe (i.e., mean square error of prediction). The validation suggests that our model can be used to estimate the herd's SMP with the herd's Cpk. The Cpk equation relates the herd's BMSCC with the EU official SCC limit, thus the logistic regression model enables the adoption of critical limits for subclinical mastitis, taking into consideration the legal standard for SCC

  18. Rubber Flooring Impact on Production and Herdlife of Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The overall objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate production, reproduction, and retention of first and second lactations of cows assigned to either rubber (RUB) or concrete (CON) flooring at the fe...

  19. Rubber Flooring Impact on Health of Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate locomotion, health, production, and immunity over the first 180d of each of the 1st and 2nd lactations of cows assigned to free-stall housing with either r...

  20. Milk drop due to leptospirosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    Leptospiral milk drop in dairy cows. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis in a cow. Systemic pasteurellosis in lambs. Encephalopathy due to water deprivation/salt poisoning suspected in weaned lambs. Biliary cystadenoma in a red deer hind. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for November 2014 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:25748187

  1. Quantification of antimicrobial consumption in adult cattle on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium, and associations with udder health, milk quality, and production performance.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Dewulf, J; De Vliegher, S

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to quantify the (compound-specific) antimicrobial consumption (AMC) in adult cattle in a convenience sample of Flemish dairy herds. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained between 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidence (ATI), with the unit of the ATI being the number of defined daily doses animal (DDDA) used per 1,000 cow-days. Herds were stratified by DDDA into low-, medium-, and high-consuming herds to study the AMC per route of administration, and associations with parameters reflecting udder health, milk quality, and production performances were examined. The average ATI in adult dairy cattle for all compounds was 20.78 DDDA (per 1,000 cow-days). Large variation existed between herds (ranging from 8.68 to 41.62 DDDA). Fourth-generation cephalosporins were used most (4.99 DDDA), followed by penicillins (3.70 DDDA) and third-generation cephalosporins (2.95 DDDA). The average ATI of the critically important antimicrobials for human health (i.e., third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones according to the World Organisation for Animal Health classification) was somewhat lower than the average ATI of the other antimicrobials (8.59 and 12.18 DDDA, respectively). The average ATI for intramammary treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis, for dry-cow therapy, and for systemically administered antimicrobials was 6.30, 6.89, and 7.44 DDDA, respectively. In low-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used for dry-cow therapy, whereas in high-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used as injectable or intramammary mastitis therapy. The incidence rate of treated mastitis was positively associated with ATI. Herds that applied blanket dry-cow therapy tended to have a higher ATI than herds in which cows were selectively dried off with long-acting antimicrobials. The ATI decreased with an increasing prevalence of primiparous cows. PMID:26778315

  2. Dairy cows seek isolation at calving and when ill.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, K L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-05-01

    Dairy cows are typically gregarious, but isolate themselves in the hours before calving when kept on pasture. Self-isolation is also a common behavior of ill animals. The objectives of this study were to determine if dairy cows would (1) isolate to calve when housed indoors in an individual maternity pen and (2) continue to isolate when ill after calving. We selected individuals from a pool of 79 multiparous Holstein dairy cows based on inclusion criteria created to address each objective. Cows were moved from a group pen to 1 of 10 adjacent maternity pens. Half of these individual pens were partially covered with plywood, creating a secluded corner as well as a window that provided visual access to the group pen. The other individual pens were uncovered on all sides. For our first objective, we selected 39 cows that were moved into the maternity pens >8h before calving (partially covered: n=19; uncovered: n=20). For our second objective, we selected 18 cows housed in the partially covered pens: 9 cows with high rectal temperature after calving and signs of an infectious disease (mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, or some combination), and 9 healthy cows paired with ill cows based on the amount of time they spent in the maternity pen before calving. Ten-minute scan sampling was used to record the location and lying time from 6h before to 72 h after calving. Individual feed intake was measured after calving. Binomial tests were used to determine if cows in both pen types were more likely to calve in the corner or window side of the pen. Repeated-measures ANOVA were used to determine if cows used the corner more as calving approached and if ill cows spent more time lying or more time in the corner compared with healthy cows in the 72 h after calving. Cows in the uncovered pens were equally likely to calve on both sides of the pen (10 vs. 10), but 79% of cows in the partially covered pens calved on the corner side of the pen (15 vs. 4). Cows in the partially covered pens

  3. Prepartum supplementation of selenium and vitamin E to dairy cows: assessment of selenium status and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Hidiroglou, M; McAllister, A J; Williams, C J

    1987-06-01

    Incidence of retained placenta in dairy cows was evaluated in 627 parturitions. The herd was divided prepartum into three groups: 1) control, no treatment (n = 217 cows); 2) cows injected intramuscularly (n = 190) 21 to 10 d prior parturition with 45 mg Se and 2040 IU of vitamin E; and 3) cows intraruminally administered (n = 220) with two 30-g pellets containing 10% elemental selenium 2 mo prior to expected calving. Incidence of retained placenta (22.1%) was not reduced by Se in combination with vitamin E injection or intraruminal Se pellet nor were other measures of reproduction improved for cows fed a prepartum diet adequate in Se. At parturition the blood plasma Se concentrations were higher in treated postpartum with Se than in untreated cows. No difference in blood plasma Se was observed at parturition between cows with or without placenta retention. Cows dosed intraruminally with Se had a significant increase in milk Se, but this was too small to be a danger to human health. The present results on placenta retention suggest that this disorder is not a Se responsive disease in the dairy cow. PMID:3611484

  4. Relationship between Escherichia coli virulence factors and postpartum metritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kassé, F N; Fairbrother, J M; Dubuc, J

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to report the prevalence of Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows before the onset of postpartum metritis (PPM) and to quantify their association with subsequent occurrence of PPM, to quantify the association between the presence of genes encoding E. coli virulence factors (VF) and PPM, and to determine the accuracy of using early postpartum uterine bacteriology results (bacteria and VF) to identify cows at risk of PPM. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 3 commercial dairy farms. Uterine swabs were collected from 371 Holstein dairy cows (3 commercial herds) at 1 to 7d in milk and submitted to the laboratory for identification of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and E. coli VF. A total of 40 VF were tested using the radioactive probe hybridization method. Postpartum metritis was defined as the presence of a fetid watery red-brown uterine discharge, associated with fever (rectal temperature >39.5°C), and systemic signs of illness (dullness, reduced appetite, and milk production). Surveillance of PPM was done by trained farmers blinded to laboratory results and cows were followed until 21d in milk. Statistical analyses were conducted using 2×2 tables and mixed logistical regression models. Prevalences of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and PPM were 42, 34, and 15%, respectively. A total of 32 VF were found in E. coli isolates. Most prevalent VF were extraintestinal pathogenic genes such as fimH (89%), hlyE (87%), and iss (70%). Cows positive for intrauterine E. coli were 3.2 times more likely to have subsequent PPM compared with bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF hra1 in their uterus were 2.7 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for hra1 and 5.9 times more likely than bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF kpsMTII in their uterus were 3.2 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for kpsMTII and 6.2 times more likely

  5. Estimated BVDV-prevalence, -contact and -vaccine use in dairy herds in Northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Niza-Ribeiro, J; Pereira, Adelaide; Souza, João; Madeira, Helena; Barbosa, Abigaíl; Afonso, Carla

    2005-11-15

    A study to evaluate BVDV-prevalence, recent -contact and -vaccine use in dairy herds in the "Entre Douro e Minho" (EDM) region in North Portugal was carried out in 124 dairy herds in 2003. Herds were visited to ascertain BVDV-vaccine use and to collect a bulk tank milk (BTM) sample and serum from 1268 cattle to analyse BVDV-antibodies using an NS2-3 ELISA. Fifty-three percent of farmers used inactivated BVDV-vaccines whilst the remaining farmers were not presently using BVDV-vaccines. BMT-antibody results included 35% positives, 25% negative and 39% inconclusive, and were similar in vaccinated and non-vaccinated herds (p>0.05) and allowed estimating a 10% BVDV herd-prevalence from prior knowledge of the relationship between BMT-antibody results and probability of PI cattle in the herd. Overall individual seroprevalence was 27% and was 23% in non-vaccinated and 36% in vaccinated cattle (p<0.05). Contact of the herd with BVDV was assessed according to seroprevalence in young and adult cattle in the herd and it was estimated that 35% of herds were infected or had recent contact with BVDV, 40% were not infected and did not have recent contact with BVDV and the BVDV-infection and -contact status of remaining herds was undetermined. The results from this study indicate BVDV is endemic and BVDV-vaccines are widespread in the dairy-cattle population in EDM region in Portugal. PMID:16216353

  6. Impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Gilson Antonio; Martini, Ana Paula; Trentin, Janislene Mach; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Leonardi, Carlos Eduardo Porciuncula; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flôres; de Sá Filho, Manoel Francisco; Rubin, Mara Iolanda Batistella; Silva, Carlos Antonio Mondino

    2016-02-01

    The impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Data from 1273 females (878 multiparous and 395 first-calving cows) from six preselected dairy herds were analyzed. Cows were classified as seropositive (SP) (prevalence, 24%; range, 11%-33%) or seronegative (SN) by indirect immunofluorescence detection of antibodies against N caninum. Seropositive cows (prevalence, 40.0%) presented higher (P < 0.001) incidence of abortion compared with SN cows (prevalence, 4.1%). Neospora caninum DNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 44.4% of intact aborted fetuses from SP cows, whereas none was found in those aborted from SN cows. The average daily milk production adjusted to 305 days was lower (P < 0.001) in SP (22.5 ± 0.3 L/day) than in SN cows (24.8 ± 0.2 L/day). Furthermore, SP cows presented greater occurrence of retained placenta (17.1% vs. 6.0%; P < 0.001) and acute postpartum metritis (9.8% vs. 2.4%; P < 0.001). Despite similar pregnancy rates after first postpartum artificial insemination (27.6% vs. 31.8%; P = 0.40), cumulative pregnancy rates during 300 days in milk (94.7% vs. 98.5%; P = 0.005) were greater in SN cows. A reduced (P = 0.0001) Cox proportional hazard of pregnancy rate at 300 days in milk and a longer interval from parturition or abortion to conception (median, 111 vs. 101 days) were observed in SP compared with SN cows. Spontaneous N caninum infection is a significant contributing factor of pregnancy loss and occurrence of uterine disease (i.e., retained placenta and metritis), negatively affecting subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows. PMID:26542136

  7. Suitability of feeding and chewing time for estimation of feed intake in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pahl, C; Hartung, E; Grothmann, A; Mahlkow-Nerge, K; Haeussermann, A

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of feeding and rumination behaviour can provide useful information for dairy herd management. The feeding behaviour of dairy cows can be recorded by different techniques, such as video cameras, weighing troughs or chewing sensors. Among feeding characteristics, individual feed intake of cows is of utmost interest, but as weighing troughs have high space and cost requirements they are used primarily in research studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether records on feeding time or chewing activity or a combination of both contain enough information to estimate feed intake with sufficient accuracy. Feed intake and feeding time per cow were recorded by means of weighing troughs. Concurrently, chewing activity of seven cows was recorded by MSR-ART pressure sensors during five to eight measuring days per cow. Feeding and chewing behaviour were evaluated in time slots (1 min) and additionally assigned to feeding bouts for further analysis. The 1 min time slots were classified into feeding/no feeding or chewing/no chewing by the two systems, and agreement was found in 92.2% of the records. On average, cows spent 270±39 min/day at the feeding troughs and chewed 262±48 min/day. The average fresh matter intake (FMI) was 49.6±5.1 kg/day. Feed intake was divided into 9.7 bouts/day during which cows fed in average 27.8±21.7 min/bout and chewed 27.0±23.1 min/bout. The correlation between FMI and feeding time was r=0.891 and between FMI and chewing time r=0.780 overall cows. Hence, both systems delivered suitable information for estimating feed intake. PMID:26201971

  8. Short communication: Relationship between natural antibodies and postpartum uterine health in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Machado, V S; Bicalho, M L S; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2014-12-01

    Postpartum uterine diseases of dairy cows compromise animal welfare and may result in early removal from the herd or impaired reproductive performance. The relationship between poor immune status around calving and uterine diseases is well established; however, that between natural antibodies (NAb) and uterine health has not yet been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of circulating NAb levels around parturition with puerperal metritis, clinical endometritis, and the intrauterine presence of the Escherichia coli virulence factor FimH. One hundred six pregnant heifers were enrolled; NAb in serum samples collected at 30 ± 3 d prepartum and at 2 ± 1 and 35 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) were measured by ELISA. Puerperal metritis was defined as the presence of fetid, watery, red-brown uterine discharge and rectal temperature >39.5°C at 6 ± 1 DIM. Clinical endometritis was defined as presence of pus in the uterine lavage sample collected at 35 ± 3 DIM. The intrauterine presence of the fimH gene at 2 ± 1 DIM was evaluated by PCR. The overall optical density (wavelength of 650 nm) of ELISA-detected serum NAb was lower for cows diagnosed with puerperal metritis than for cows that did not have puerperal metritis. Additionally, cows diagnosed with clinical endometritis tended to have lower levels of NAb than did cows without clinical endometritis. Finally, FimH-positive cows had lower overall levels of serum NAb compared with FimH-negative cows. In conclusion, NAb detected in serum around parturition was associated with uterine health of dairy cows. PMID:25262191

  9. Dynamic changes in antibody levels as an early warning of Salmonella Dublin in bovine dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Stockmarr, A; Bødker, R; Nielsen, L R

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Dublin is a bacterium that causes disease and production losses in cattle herds. In Denmark, a surveillance and control program was initiated in 2002 to monitor and reduce the prevalence of Salmonella Dublin. In dairy herds, the surveillance includes herd classification based on bulk tank milk measurements of antibodies directed against Salmonella Dublin at 3-mo intervals. In this study, an "alarm herd" concept, based on the dynamic progression of these repeated measurements, was formulated such that it contains predictive power for Salmonella Dublin herd classification change from "likely free of infection" to "likely infected" in the following quarter of the year, thus warning the farmer 3 mo earlier than the present system. The alarm herd concept was defined through aberrations from a stable development over time of antibody levels. For suitable parameter choices, alarm herd status was a positive predictor for Salmonella Dublin status change in dairy herds, in that alarm herds had a higher risk of changing status in the following quarter compared with nonalarm herds. This was despite the fact that both alarm and nonalarm herds had antibody levels that did not indicate the herds being "likely infected" according to the existing classification system in the present quarter. The alarm herd concept can be used as a new early warning element in the existing surveillance program. Additionally, to improve accuracy of herd classification, the alarm herd concept could be incorporated into a model including other known risk factors for change in herd classification. Furthermore, the model could be extended to other diseases monitored in similar ways. PMID:24140322

  10. Layouts for small freestall dairy barns: effect on milk yield for cows in different parities.

    PubMed

    Næss, G; Bøe, K E; Osterås, O

    2011-03-01

    Freestall housing for dairy cows has many different layouts and the space allocated for cows differs considerably. The objective of the present study was to investigate possible associations between barn layout and milk yield for different parities in small dairy freestall barns. Layouts of 204 Norwegian freestall barns constructed during the period from 1995 to 2005, and with a mean herd size of 42.7±15.5 cows, were obtained and merged with milk yield data and calving interval, for each parity, from the Norwegian Milk Recording System (NDHRS). The milk yield data set contained 20,221 different lactations from these 204 herds. Both simple mixed models, including the different explanatory variables one by one together with parity, calving interval, and herd as random effect, and a final mixed model, including all significant explanatory variables, were created. According to variables tested in this study, the final mixed model estimates show that only primiparous cows benefit significantly from increased free space allocation. Milk yield was generally higher in automatic milking system barns compared with that in barns with milking parlors, but not for primiparous cows. Milk yield was higher for all parities for barns using separation pens in accordance with the recommendations. Barns with 2 or more dead-end alleys had lower milk yield compared with that from layouts without dead-end alleys. Primiparous cows benefited from water troughs located for easy access and responded with increased milk yield. In 10% of the barns, the water trough capacity was less than 47% of the recommendations, and all parities benefited from a water trough capacity higher than this level. Higher parities had increased milk yield when water trough capacity was more than 80%. Feed bunk space, number of freestall rows, and the location of freestalls had no significant effect on the milk yield. The present study showed that increased space and improved access to water is beneficial to

  11. Prevalence, quantitative load and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle herds in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease, and animals such as poultry, pigs and cattle may act as reservoirs for Campylobacter spp. Cattle shed Campylobacter spp. into the environment and they can act as a reservoir for human infection directly via contact with cattle or their faeces or indirectly by consumption of contaminated food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the quantitative load and the genetic strain diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle of different age groups. Results Faecal samples of 200 dairy cattle from three farms in the central part of Lithuania were collected and examined for Campylobacter. Cattle herds of all three farms were Campylobacter spp. positive, with a prevalence ranging from 75% (farm I), 77.5% (farm II) to 83.3% (farm III). Overall, the highest prevalence was detected in calves (86.5%) and heifers (86.2%). In contrast, the lowest Campylobacter prevalence was detectable in dairy cows (60.6%). C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus subsp. fetus were identified in faecal samples of dairy cattle. C. upsaliensis was not detectable in any sample. The high counts of Campylobacter spp. were observed in faecal material of dairy cattle (average 4.5 log10 cfu/g). The highest numbers of Campylobacter spp. were found in faecal samples from calves (average 5.3 log10 cfu/g), whereas, faecal samples from cows harboured the lowest number of Campylobacter spp. (average 3.7 log10 cfu/g). Genotyping by flaA PCR-RFLP analysis of selected C. jejuni isolates showed that some genotypes were present in all farms and all age groups. However, farm or age specific genotypes were also identified. Conclusions Future studies are needed to investigate risk factors related to the degree of colonisation in cattle. Based on that, possible measures to reduce the colonisation and subsequent shedding of Campylobacter in cattle could be established. It is important to further investigate the epidemiology of Campylobacter in the

  12. Management of Reproductive Disease in Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Robert O

    2016-07-01

    Postpartum diseases are common in dairy cows, and their incidence contributes to reduced fertility and increased risk of culling, making their prevention and management extremely important. Reproductive efficiency has a major impact on economic success of any dairy production unit. Optimizing reproductive efficiency contributes to overall efficiency of production units, minimizing environmental impacts and contributing to sustainability of food production. Additionally, control of reproductive diseases is important for maintenance of health and welfare of dairy cows; for minimizing use of antibiotics; and ensuring a wholesome, safe, and nutritious product. PMID:27324451

  13. Low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish dairy herds highlight differences between serotypes.

    PubMed

    Ågren, Estelle C C; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna; Wahlström, Helene; Emanuelson, Ulf; Frössling, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    Legislated Salmonella control in Sweden has been in place since the 1960s. The purpose of this study was to investigate presence of Salmonella antibodies in dairy cattle herds and to provide a basis for decisions on how surveillance and control can be improved. Bulk milk samples from all Swedish dairy herds (n=4 683) were analysed with two different ELISAs; one detecting antibodies against Salmonella Dublin (Dublin ELISA), and one detecting antibodies against several of the serotypes causing bovine salmonellosis including S. Dublin (Bovine ELISA). Information about herds, i.e. geographical location, local animal density, number of test positive herds within 5km, animal trade and herd size, was based on register data. The results confirm a very low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish dairy herds throughout the country with the exception of an island in the southeast. The test positive herds split into two groups; 41 herds (1%) positive in the Dublin ELISA, and 101 herds (2%) positive in the Bovine ELISA but negative in the Dublin ELISA. Geographical location of positive herds, and comparison of the results of the screening with serotypes previously isolated from some of the herds, indicated that the first group represents herds presently or previously infected with S. Dublin while the second group represents herds presently or previously infected with other serotypes. Differences in serological status between herds in different regions, of different size, with different animal purchase patterns et cetera, were tested using logistic regression. Presence of positive herds within 5km was significantly associated to testing positive. For herds testing positive in the Dublin ELISA, significant associations were also seen with herd size. Purchase of animals during the last year was not significantly associated with the outcome in the final models. We conclude that for future surveillance, the Bovine ELISA can be used to help in identifying infected herds, and the Dublin

  14. [Possible causes of unspecific reduced productivity in dairy herds in SchIeswig-Holstein: an explorative case-control study].

    PubMed

    Campe, Amely; Hohmeier, Stefan; Koesters, Sarah; Hartmann, Maria; Ruddat, Inga; Mahlkow-Nerge, Katrin; Heilemann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Recently unspecific productivity losses were observed in dairy herds in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. This case-control study on cattle health investigated the possible association between a multifactorial event and the occurrence of unspecific productivity losses. 35 dairy farms were defined as cases and 65 farms as controls, when they met two out of three eligibility criteria, respectively (cell count, mortality and life production of cows). Case farms had relevantly more often problems with forage collection (too low cutting height), feed storage (no foil used), and energy supply of dairy cattle (insufficient feeding of corn silage and lowered energy content of grass silage). Case farms had relevantly more often dirty lying areas, feeding and walking alleys, feed bunks and watering places as well as more cows with dirty udders, flanks and legs than control farms. Farm individual self-control as well as veterinarian and agricultural consultancy should focus on these management areas. Furthermore, the health situation should be checked regularly on an individual animal level for diseases of the locomotor (especially by intensifying claw care), metabolic and reproductive systems. Additionally, 22 so-called intermediate farms with considerable herd health problem during the study period were investigated for possible exogenous influences on the farm performance. There were no indications for influences by the soil type, weather conditions at harvesting or wild bird occurrence on cropland, which might be as well due to the explorative nature of the study. However, herd health problems were apparent in case and intermediate farms more often and more diversely than in control farms. PMID:27169149

  15. Managing variations in dairy cow nutrient supply under grazing.

    PubMed

    Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2013-03-01

    Grazed pasture, which is the cheapest source of nutrients for dairy cows, should form the basis of profitable and low-input animal production systems. Management of high-producing dairy cows at pasture is thus a major challenge in most countries. The objective of the present paper is to review the factors that can affect nutrient supply for grazing dairy cows in order to point out areas with scope for improvement on managing variations in nutrient supply to achieve high animal performance while maintaining efficient pasture utilisation per hectare (ha). Reviewing the range in animal requirements, intake capacity and pasture nutritive values shows that high-producing cows cannot satisfy their energy requirements from grazing alone and favourable to unfavourable situations for grazing dairy cows may be classified according to pasture quality and availability. Predictive models also enable calculation of supplementation levels required to meet energy requirements in all situations. Solutions to maintain acceptable level of production per cow and high output per ha are discussed. Strategies of concentrate supplementation and increasing use of legumes in mixed swards are the most promising. It is concluded that although high-producing cow cannot express their potential milk production at grazing, there is scope to improve animal performance at grazing given recent developments in our understanding of factors influencing forage intake and digestion of grazed forages. PMID:23031792

  16. An outbreak of sand impaction in postpartum dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Melendez, Pedro; Krueger, Traci; Benzaquen, Mauricio; Risco, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-two cases of indigestion occurred in a 650-cow herd. Five cows had severe sand abomasal impaction, diagnosed by laparotomy. The pH of prepartum cows’ urine was < 6.0 and of sand 8.0. Feed showed a dietary cation-anion difference ≤ −110 mEq/kg. After feeding management corrections, no more cases were diagnosed. PMID:17987969

  17. Consequence of alternative standards for bulk tank somatic cell count of dairy herds in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparison of dairy operations failing compliance with current US and European Union (EU) standards for bulk-tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) as well as BTSCC standards proposed by 3 national organizations were evaluated using 2 populations of US dairy herds: Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHI) ...

  18. Assessment of Early Postpartum Reproductive Performance in Two High Producing Estonian Dairy Herds

    PubMed Central

    Kask, K; Kurykin, J; Lindjärv, R; Kask, A; Kindahl, H

    2003-01-01

    Early postpartum (6 weeks) ovarian activity, hormonal profiles, uterine involution, uterine infections, serum electrolytes, glucose, milk acetoacetate and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were studied in 2 Estonian high producing dairy herd with annual milk production of 7688 (Farm A) and 9425 (Farm B). From each farm 10 cows, with normal calving performance were used. Blood samples for the hormonal (PGF2α-metabolite, progesterone) analyses were withdrawn. On day 25 PP blood serum samples were taken for the evaluation of metabolic/electrolyte status. On the same day estimation of milk acetoacetate values was done. The ultrasound (US) was started on day 7 PP and was performed every 3rd day until the end of experiment. Uterine content, follicular activity and sizes of the largest follicle and corpus luteum were monitored and measured. Vaginal discharge and uterine tone were recorded during the rectal palpation. Each animal in the study was sampled for bacteriological examination using endometrial biopsies once a week. Two types of PGF2α-metabolite patterns were detected: elevated levels during 14 days PP, then decline to the basal level and then a second small elevation at the time of final elimination of the bacteria from the uterus; or elevated levels during first 7 days PP, then decline to the basal level and a second small elevation before the final elimination of bacteria. Endometritis was diagnosed in 5 cows in farm A and in 3 cows in farm B respectively. In farm A, 5 cows out of 10 ovulated during experimental period and in 1 cow cystic ovaries were found. In farm B, 3 cows out of 10 ovulated. In 3 cows cystic ovaries were found. Altogether 40% of cows had their first ovulation during the experimental period. Three cows in farm A and 5 cows in farm B were totally bacteria negative during the experimental period. The most frequent bacteria found were A. pyogenes, Streptococcus spp., E. coli., F. necrophorum and Bacteroides spp. The highest incidence of

  19. Effect of health disorders on the hazard of culling on the first or second lactation in Iranian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Hamid; Kostoulas, Polychronis; Bahonar, Alireza; Bokaie, Saied; Vodjgani, Mehdi; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Leontides, Leonidas

    2013-04-01

    We conducted a longitudinal retrospective study in order to assess the effect of health disorders (HDs) on culling in the 1st or 2nd lactation cows, in Iranian dairy herds. In total, 7067 first- and second-parity Holstein cows, from 32 Iranian dairy herds, which calved from March 2007 to March 2008, were followed until the next calving or culling. Parametric survival models with time-dependent covariates were used to capture the effect of HDs with different duration and recurrence episodes on the risk of culling. Mastitis, locomotor disorders, ovarian cysts, abortion, diarrhea, rumen disorders, displaced abomasum and respiratory disorders were associated with an increased risk of culling. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 2.78 (2.31; 3.35), 3.4 (2.79; 4.13) and 1.62 (1.15; 2.78) for mastitis, locomotor disorders and ovarian cysts as common HDs, respectively. Parity and milk-yield were identified as confounder and effect modifier, respectively. The risk of culling in the presence of uterine infection or traumatic reticulo-peritonitis increased with decreasing milk yield. PMID:23026369

  20. Analysis of reproductive performance of lactating cows on large dairy farms using machine learning algorithms.

    PubMed

    Caraviello, D Z; Weigel, K A; Craven, M; Gianola, D; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K V; Fricke, P M; Wiltbank, M C

    2006-12-01

    The fertility of lactating dairy cows is economically important, but the mean reproductive performance of Holstein cows has declined during the past 3 decades. Traits such as first-service conception rate and pregnancy status at 150 d in milk (DIM) are influenced by numerous explanatory factors common to specific farms or individual cows on these farms. Machine learning algorithms offer great flexibility with regard to problems of multicollinearity, missing values, or complex interactions among variables. The objective of this study was to use machine learning algorithms to identify factors affecting the reproductive performance of lactating Holstein cows on large dairy farms. This study used data from farms in the Alta Genetics Advantage progeny-testing program. Production and reproductive records from 153 farms were obtained from on-farm DHI-Plus, Dairy Comp 305, or PCDART herd management software. A survey regarding management, facilities, labor, nutrition, reproduction, genetic selection, climate, and milk production was completed by managers of 103 farms; body condition scores were measured by a single evaluator on 63 farms; and temperature data were obtained from nearby weather stations. The edited data consisted of 31,076 lactation records, 14,804 cows, and 317 explanatory variables for first-service conception rate and 17,587 lactation records, 9,516 cows, and 341 explanatory variables for pregnancy status at 150 DIM. An alternating decision tree algorithm for first-service conception rate classified 75.6% of records correctly and identified the frequency of hoof trimming maintenance, type of bedding in the dry cow pen, type of cow restraint system, and duration of the voluntary waiting period as key explanatory variables. An alternating decision tree algorithm for pregnancy status at 150 DIM classified 71.4% of records correctly and identified bunk space per cow, temperature for thawing semen, percentage of cows with low body condition scores, number of

  1. Occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous Estonian dairy cows in different housing conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kalmus, Piret; Viltrop, Arvo; Aasmäe, Birgit; Kask, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    Background Objectives of the study were to document the impact of some management factors on the occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous dairy cows and to identify common udder pathogens of clinical mastitis in freshly calved heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving. Methods A one-year study was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 11 selected Estonian dairy herds. Data consisted of 68 heifers with clinical mastitis and 995 heifers without clinical mastitis on the day of calving. Multivariable logistic regression with a random herd effect was used to investigate any association between housing system or the time interval from movement of heifers to the calving facility and day of calving on occurrence of clinical mastitis. Milk samples for bacteriological analysis were collected from affected heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving Results Clinical mastitis occurrence in the study population of freshly calved heifers equalled 6.1 %. Housing system was not a significant risk factor for clinical mastitis of freshly calved heifers. Moving heifers to the cowbarn less than two weeks before calving in tiestall farms increased risk (OR = 5.9 p = 0.001) for clinical mastitis at parturition. The most frequently isolated udder pathogens among heifers were Escherichia coli (22.1%), Streptococcus uberis (19.1%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (8.8%). In comparison, the main pathogen in multiparous cows with clinical mastitis at parturition was Staphylococcus aureus (11.2%). Conclusion Moving heifers to the calving facilities too late in tiestall farms increased risk for clinical mastitis at parturition. The isolated udder pathogens did not differ significantly in tiestall farms compared to freestall farms in heifers, but differences were found between heifers and multiparous cows at parturition. PMID:17118174

  2. Quarter, cow, and farm risk factors for intramammary infections with major pathogens relative to minor pathogens in Thai dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from May to September 2011 on 35 smallholder dairy farms in Chiang Mai, Thailand, to identify the quarter, cow, and farm factors that relate to intramammary infections (IMI) from major specified pathogens, compared to infections from minor pathogens. Data on general farm management, milking management, and dry cow management were recorded for each herd. Quarter milk samples were collected from either clinical or subclinical mastitis quarters. Dependent variables were binary data defining the specified major pathogens, including Streptococcus agalactiae (7.1 %), Streptococcus uberis (9.4 %), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (4.0 %), and other streptococci (16.7 %), as a case, and all minor pathogens as a control, in each dependent variable. The occurrence of S. agalactiae IMI was lower in first-parity cows and cows with short milking time. Cows with body condition score (BCS) <2.5 had higher occurrence of S. agalactiae IMI. The occurrence of S. uberis IMI was higher in quarters with California mastitis test (CMT) score 2, score 3, and having clinical mastitis and in farms with increasing age of vacuum system. Quarters with CMT score 3, having clinical mastitis, cow with manual milking after detaching milking cluster, and farms with high bulk milk somatic cell counts (BMSCC >500,000 cells/ml) had higher occurrence of S. dysgalactiae IMI. For other streptococci, quarters having clinical mastitis, BCS <2.5, and pulling down of milking cluster while milking increased occurrence of other streptococci IMI relative to minor pathogen IMI. These results highlight the importance of individual cow factors, milking characteristics, and BMSCC in determining the risk of IMI from major pathogens. PMID:24823898

  3. Use of early lactation milk recording data to predict the calving to conception interval in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Cook, J G; Green, M J

    2016-06-01

    Economic success in dairy herds is heavily reliant on obtaining pregnancies at an early stage of lactation. Our objective in this study was to attempt to predict the likelihood of conception occurring by d 100 and 150 of lactation (days in milk, DIM) by Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis using test day milk recording data and reproductive records gathered retrospectively from 8,750 cows from 33 dairy herds located in the United Kingdom. Overall, 65% of cows recalved with 30, 46, and 65% of cows conceiving by 100 DIM, 150 DIM, and beyond 150 DIM, respectively. Overall conception rate (total cows pregnant/total number of inseminations) was 27.47%. Median and mean calving to conception intervals were 123 and 105 d, respectively. The probability of conception by both 100 DIM and 150 DIM was positively associated with the average daily milk weight produced during the fourth week of lactation (W4MK) and protein percentage for test day samples collected between 0 to 30 and 31 to 60 DIM. Butterfat percentage at 0 to 30 DIM was negatively associated with the probability of conception by 100 DIM but not at 150 DIM. High somatic cell count (SCC) at both 0 to 30 and 31 to 60 DIM was negatively associated with the probability of conception by 100 DIM, whereas high SCC at 31 to 60 DIM was associated with a reduced probability of conception by 150 DIM. Increasing parity was associated with a reduced odds of pregnancy. Posterior predictions of the likelihood of conception for cows categorized as having "good" (W4MK >30kg and protein percentage at 0 to 30 and 31 to 60 DIM >3.2%) or "poor" (W4MK <25kg and protein percentage at 0 to 30 and 31 to 60 DIM <3.0%) early lactation attributes with actual observed values indicated model fit was good. The predicted likelihood of a "good" cow conceiving by 100 and 150 DIM was 0.39 and 0.57, respectively (actual observed values 0.40 and 0.59). The corresponding values for a "poor" cow were 0.28 and 0.42 (actual observed values 0.26 and 0

  4. Relationship of electric power quality to milk production of dairy herds - field study with literature review.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Donald; Stetzer, Dave; Graham, Martin; Goeke, Charles L; Mathson, Kurt E; Vanhorn, Harold H; Wilcox, Charles J

    2013-03-01

    Public Utility Commissions (PUC) in several states adopted 0.5 volt rms (root mean squared) or 1.0 milliampere as the actionable limit for utilities to respond to complaints of uncontrolled voltage. This study clearly shows that the actionable level should be reduced to 10 mV p-p (peak-to-peak), which is 140 times less than the current standard. Dairy farmer complaints that animal behavior and milk production were affected by electrical shocks below adopted standards were investigated on 12 farms in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota. Milk production per cow was determined from daily tank-weight pickup and number of cows milked. Number of transient events, transients, voltage p-p, waveform phase angle degree, sags, and sag-Vrms were measured from event recorders plugged into milk house wall outlets. Data from 1705 cows and 939 data points were analyzed by multiherd least-squares multiple regression and SAS-ANOVA statistical programs. In five herds for 517 days, milk/cow/day decreased -0.0281 kg/transient event as transient events increased from 0 to 122/day (P<0.02). Negative effects on milk/cow/day from event recorder measurements were significant for eight independent electrical variables. Step-potential voltage and frequency of earth currents were measured by oscilloscope from metal plates grouted into the floor of milking stalls. Milk decreased as number of 3rd, 5th, 7th, 21st, 28th, and 42nd harmonics and the sum of triplen harmonics (3rd, 9th, 15th, 21st, 27th, 33rd, and 39th) increased/day (P<0.003). Event recorder transient events were positively correlated with oscilloscope average V p-p event readings. Steps/min counted from videotapes of a dancing cow with no contact to metal in the barnyard were correlated with non-sinusoidal 8.1 to 14.6 mV p-p impulses recorded by oscilloscope for 5 min from EKG patches on legs. PUC standards and use of 500-Ohm resistors in test circuits underestimate effects of non-sinusoidal, higher frequency voltage/current common

  5. Effect of fertirelin acetate or buserelin on conception rate at first or second insemination in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chenault, J R

    1990-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if fertirelin acetate and buserelin, two GnRH agonists, improve conception rate when administered at the time of first or second AI in lactating dairy cows. The study consisted of a common protocol conducted at 10 commercial dairy farms. Approximately 150 cows within each dairy were assigned randomly in replicates to receive intramuscularly either no injection or injection of 25, 50, 75, or 100 micrograms fertirelin acetate or 10 micrograms buserelin immediately after AI. Cows were subjected to the reproductive management practices normal for each location. Cows at each location were palpated for pregnancy status at 35 to 60 d postinjection. No improvement in conception rate was detected in response to either agonist (control = 48%, fertirelin acetate = 41.5%, buserelin = 39.7%). Conception rate was unaffected by either days postpartum at injection or overall fertility of the individual herds. These observations do not support the routine use of doses of 25 to 100 micrograms fertirelin acetate or 10 micrograms buserelin at the time of first or second AI as a means to improve conception rate in lactating dairy cows. PMID:2111339

  6. Discovery of Bovine Digital Dermatitis-Associated Treponema spp. in the Dairy Herd Environment by a Targeted Deep-Sequencing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Martin W.; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Tim K.

    2014-01-01

    The bacteria associated with the infectious claw disease bovine digital dermatitis (DD) are spirochetes of the genus Treponema; however, their environmental reservoir remains unknown. To our knowledge, the current study is the first report of the discovery and phylogenetic characterization of rRNA gene sequences from DD-associated treponemes in the dairy herd environment. Although the spread of DD appears to be facilitated by wet floors covered with slurry, no DD-associated treponemes have been isolated from this environment previously. Consequently, there is a lack of knowledge about the spread of this disease among cows within a herd as well as between herds. To address the issue of DD infection reservoirs, we searched for evidence of DD-associated treponemes in fresh feces, in slurry, and in hoof lesions by deep sequencing of the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with identification at the operational-taxonomic-unit level. Using treponeme-specific primers in this high-throughput approach, we identified small amounts of DNA (on average 0.6% of the total amount of sequence reads) from DD-associated treponemes in 43 of 64 samples from slurry and cow feces collected from six geographically dispersed dairy herds. Species belonging to the Treponema denticola/Treponema pedis-like and Treponema phagedenis-like phylogenetic clusters were among the most prevalent treponemes in both the dairy herd environment and the DD lesions. By the high-throughput approach presented here, we have demonstrated that cow feces and environmental slurry are possible reservoirs of DD-associated treponemes. This method should enable further clarification of the etiopathogenesis of DD. PMID:24814794

  7. Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Wilhelm

    2016-01-15

    The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high-input/high-output system maximising annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate-based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture-based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high-yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals' health. On pasture, lighter-weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year-round indoor feeding of high-yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human-edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilise the evolutionary advantages of ruminants. PMID:26010136

  8. Environmental sampling to predict fecal prevalence of Salmonella in an intensively monitored dairy herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although dairy cattle are known reservoirs for salmonellae, cattle that are shedding this organism are often asymptomatic and difficult to identify. A dairy herd that was experiencing an outbreak of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Cerro was monitored for two years. Fecal samples from the lacta...

  9. Lying behavior and postpartum health status in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Varas, P; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-10-01

    Many cows have difficulty making the transition from pregnancy to lactation, as evidenced by the high incidence of disease that occurs in the weeks after calving. Changes in lying behavior can be used as an indicator of illness, yet no work to date has evaluated this relationship in dairy cows on pasture. The objectives of this study were to describe the lying behavior of grazing dairy cows during the first 3 wk after calving and determine the relationships between transition diseases and lying behavior. Our convenience sample included 227 multiparous and 47 primiparous Holstein cows from 6 commercial farms. Cows were recruited as they calved during the spring calving period. Electronic data loggers (Hobo Pendant G Acceleration, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) recorded lying behavior at 1-min intervals. Diseases were recorded up to 21 d in milk, and cows were subsequently categorized into 3 health categories: (1) healthy, not lame and had no other signs of clinical (retained placenta, milk fever, metritis, mastitis) or subclinical (ketosis, hypocalcemia) postpartum diseases; (2) lame, identified as being clinically or severely lame with no other signs of clinical or subclinical postpartum disease; and (3) sick, diagnosed as having one or more clinical postpartum diseases (with or without a subclinical disease) but not lame. This last group was further divided into 2 groups: those that were diagnosed with a single clinical health event and those diagnosed with more than one clinical event. Lying behavior differed between primiparous and multiparous cows; primiparous cows divided their lying time into more bouts than did multiparous cows (9.7 ± 0.54 vs. 8.4 ± 0.26 bouts/d) and spent less time lying down than multiparous cows (7.5 ± 0.38 h/d vs. 8.5 ± 0.19 h/d). Lying behavior was also affected by illness; primiparous cows that developed more than one clinical disease, excluding lameness, spent more time lying, and tended to have longer lying bouts in the days

  10. Cross-sectional study of the association of abomasal displacement or volvulus with serum electrolyte and mineral concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Lecaroz, R; Warnick, L D; Guard, C L; Smith, M C; Barry, D A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate serum mineral and electrolyte concentrations at the time of on-farm diagnosis of left displaced abomasum, right displaced abomasum, or abomasal volvulus in dairy cows. Data were collected from 104 affected cows and 96 control cows matched with cases, based on herd, parity, and stage of lactation. Cows with abomasal displacement or volvulus had significantly lower calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, and chloride concentrations and increased anion gap at the time of diagnosis compared with control cows from the same herds. The percentages of cases and controls with total serum calcium concentrations below the lower limit of the laboratory reference range (2.08 mmol/L [8.3 mg/dL]) were 70% and 23%, respectively. Based on the large percentage of cases with hypocalcemia, administering calcium salts at the time of treatment of field cases of abomasal displacement or volvulus may be beneficial. PMID:10769767

  11. Cross-sectional study of the association of abomasal displacement or volvulus with serum electrolyte and mineral concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Lecaroz, R; Warnick, L D; Guard, C L; Smith, M C; Barry, D A

    2000-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate serum mineral and electrolyte concentrations at the time of on-farm diagnosis of left displaced abomasum, right displaced abomasum, or abomasal volvulus in dairy cows. Data were collected from 104 affected cows and 96 control cows matched with cases, based on herd, parity, and stage of lactation. Cows with abomasal displacement or volvulus had significantly lower calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, and chloride concentrations and increased anion gap at the time of diagnosis compared with control cows from the same herds. The percentages of cases and controls with total serum calcium concentrations below the lower limit of the laboratory reference range (2.08 mmol/L [8.3 mg/dL]) were 70% and 23%, respectively. Based on the large percentage of cases with hypocalcemia, administering calcium salts at the time of treatment of field cases of abomasal displacement or volvulus may be beneficial. PMID:10769767

  12. Invited review: An evaluation of the likely effects of individualized feeding of concentrate supplements to pasture-based dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hills, J L; Wales, W J; Dunshea, F R; Garcia, S C; Roche, J R

    2015-03-01

    In pasture-based dairy systems, supplementary feeds are used to increase dry matter intake and milk production. Historically, supplementation involved the provision of the same amount of feed (usually a grain-based concentrate feed) to each cow in the herd during milking (i.e., flat-rate feeding). The increasing availability of computerized feeding and milk monitoring technology in milking parlors, however, has led to increased interest in the potential benefits of feeding individual cows (i.e., individualized or differential feeding) different amounts and types of supplements according to one or more parameters (e.g., breeding value for milk yield, current milk yield, days in milk, body condition score, reproduction status, parity). In this review, we consider the likely benefits of individualized supplementary feeding strategies for pasture-based dairy cows fed supplements in the bail during milking. A unique feature of our review compared with earlier publications is the focus on individualized feeding strategies under practical grazing management. Previous reviews focused primarily on research undertaken in situations where cows were offered ad libitum forage, whereas we consider the likely benefits of individualized supplementary feeding strategies under rotational grazing management, wherein pasture is often restricted to all or part of a herd. The review provides compelling evidence that between-cow differences in response to concentrate supplements support the concept of individualized supplementary feeding. PMID:25582585

  13. Evaluation of a contract breeding management program in selected Ohio dairy herds with event-time analysis II. Parametric frailty models.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Cheyney; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J; Frazer, Grant S; Phillips, Gary; Meiring, Richard W; Hoblet, Kent H

    2007-07-16

    The effect of a contract breeding program offered by a breeding co-operative was assessed using parametric frailty models with event-time analysis technique in a field study of Ohio dairies. The program featured tail chalking and daily evaluation of cows for insemination by co-operative technicians; dairy employees no longer handled estrus detection activities. Test day records were obtained between early 2002 and mid-2004 for 16,453 lactations representing 11,398 cows in 31 herds identified as well-managed client herds by the breeding co-operative. Various parametric distributions for event times available in a commercial software (Stata 9.1, College Station, TX) were tested to assess which distribution fit the calving-to-conception data best. After identifying the distribution with the best fit, a full model with potential confounders and other significant predictors of time to pregnancy was developed and then frailty terms were included in the model. Generalized gamma and log-normal distributions fit the data best, but since gamma distribution does not allow the use of frailty effects, log-normal distribution was used in further modeling. Separate accelerated failure time models with frailty terms to account for latent effects at the herd, cow, or lactation level were developed, testing both gamma and inverse Gaussian frailty distributions. In these models, potential confounders and statistically significant predictors were also controlled for, and the association between the contract breeding program and the mean time to pregnancy was characterized using time ratios. The log-normal model identified that interval to pregnancy was associated with breed, herd size, use of ovulation synchronization protocols, parity, calving season and somatic cell score (above or below 4.5) and maximum milk yield prior to pregnancy or censoring. While controlling for these factors, there was a reduction in average time to pregnancy among cows managed under the contract breeding

  14. Clinicopathological evaluation of downer dairy cows with fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Panousis, Nikolaos; Roubies, Nikolaos; Giadinis, Nektarios; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Georgiadis, Marios; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between severity of fatty liver and macromineral status in downer dairy cows and determined the usefulness of selected biochemical analytes for assessing prognosis. Blood and liver biopsy specimens were obtained from 36 Holstein downer cows shortly after the cows became recumbent and before they were treated. Liver tissue was examined histologically and serum activity of liver-derived enzymes and concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, bile acids, glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetic acid, total bilirubin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and macrominerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P) were determined. Fatty liver infiltration was severe in 44% of the cows and moderate in 44%. Serum activities of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase, and NEFA/cholesterol ratio were good indicators of fatty liver. Cows with severe fatty liver had the lowest mean K values. The prognosis is guarded for downer cows with moderate and severe fatty liver and when total bilirubin concentration is high. PMID:20808573

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Different Test Combinations for Diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infecting Dairy Herds in India

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Rajni; Patil, Prasanna Kumar; Sharma, Shukriti; Gandham, Ravi Kumar; Singh, Ajay Vir; Filia, Gurusimiran; Singh, Pravin Kumar; Jayaraman, Sujata; Gupta, Saurabh; Chaubey, Kundan Kumar; Saminathan, Mani

    2015-01-01

    A total of 355 cows were sampled (serum, n = 315; faeces, n = 355; milk, n = 209) from dairy farms located in the Punjab state of India. Faeces and serum/milk samples were screened by acid fast staining and “indigenous ELISA,” respectively. IS900 PCR was used to screen faeces and milk samples. Bio-load of MAP in dairy cows was 36.9, 15.6, 16.3, and 14.4%, using microscopy, serum ELISA, milk ELISA and milk PCR, respectively. Estimated kappa values between different test combinations: serum and milk ELISA, faecal microscopy and faecal PCR, milk ELISA and milk PCR, faecal PCR and serum ELISA were 0.325, 0.241, 0.682, and 0.677, respectively. Estimation of the relative sensitivity and specificity of different tests in the present study indicated that “serum ELISA” and “milk ELISA” were good screening tests, add “milk PCR” was “confirmatory test” for MAP infection. Combination of milk ELISA with milk PCR may be adopted as a model strategy for screening and diagnosis of JD in lactating/dairy cattle herds in Indian conditions. PMID:25945351

  16. Vulvovaginal laceration as a risk factor for uterine disease in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Neto, A; Lima, F S; Santos, J E P; Mingoti, R D; Vasconcellos, G S; Risco, C A; Galvao, K N

    2016-06-01

    The main objective was to evaluate the association between vulvovaginal laceration and uterine diseases in dairy cows. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the association between vulvovaginal laceration and cyclicity, and reproductive performance. The vulvovaginal region of 660 Holstein cows from a 5,000 lactating-cows herd was inspected at 4d in milk (DIM) for the presence of lacerations, and scored (VLS) as follows: 0=no laceration; 1=laceration <2cm at the dorsal commissure of the vulva or lateral walls of the vulva/vagina; 2=laceration ≥2cm at the dorsal commissure of the vulva or at the lateral walls of the vulva/vagina, or both. Vaginal discharge was scored at 4, 6, and 8 DIM for diagnosis of metritis, and then at 32 DIM for diagnosis of purulent vaginal discharge (PVD). Data were analyzed using LOGISTIC and PHREG procedures of SAS. Cows with VLS 2 had greater incidence of metritis than cows with VLS 0 (69.1 vs. 42.4%), and cows with VLS 1 tended to have greater incidence of metritis than cows with VLS 0 (52.0 vs. 42.4%). Cows with VLS 2 had greater incidence of PVD than cows with VLS 0 (56.5 vs. 43.1%). A lower proportion of cows with VLS 2 than VLS 0 were cyclic by 64 DIM (70.0 vs. 86.8%). A lower proportion of cows with VLS 2 than VLS 0 were pregnant at 60 d after first AI (28.7 vs. 33.6%). Proportion of pregnant cows at 60d after AI tended to be lower for VLS 1 than VLS 0 (28.4 vs. 33.6%). Hazard of pregnancy by 300 DIM was not affected by VLS. Hazard of pregnancy was decreased for cows with metritis, PVD, and anovular cows. In summary, vulvovaginal laceration was associated with uterine disease and cyclicity, which were negatively associated with reproductive performance. Vulvovaginal laceration was recognized as a risk factor for postpartum uterine disease. PMID:27016827

  17. Associations between Mycobacterium paratuberculosis sero-status, milk quality parameters, and reproduction in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pesqueira, María N; Factor, Camino; Mato, Ivan; Sanjuán, María L; Macias, Laura; Eiras, Carmen; Arnaiz, Ignacio; Camino, Fernando; Yus, Eduardo; Diéguez, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Mycobocterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) sero-status of dairy cows on different milk production variables and reproductive traits. The study was carried out on 40 herds from the region of Galicia (North-West Spain). These herds were randomly selected from a larger group that had taken part in a voluntary paratuberculosis control program since 2005, which involves regular serum sampling of every adult animal to run antibody-ELISA tests. Milk production and reproductive data were obtained from the "Dairy Herd Improvement Program (DHIP) of Galicia". All the gathered data were processed following a linear regression model. Results indicated that there was no significant effect of MAP sero-status on individual milk production variables. However, a significant difference was observed at the calving-to-first-insemination interval, with an average increase of 14 days in positive animals compared to negatives. It has to be taken into consideration that the paratuberculosis status was only defined by the serological status. Since para tb-infected animals may have antbodies or may not, para tb-positive animals can also be included in the sero-negative group of animals, which may bias the results. PMID:26591382

  18. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    PubMed

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw. PMID:24359828

  19. Relative contributions of neighbourhood and animal movements to Coxiella burnetii infection in dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Nusinovici, Simon; Hoch, Thierry; Widgren, Stefan; Joly, Alain; Lindberg, Ann; Beaudeau, François

    2014-05-01

    Q fever in dairy cattle herds occurs mainly after inhalation of contaminated aerosols generated from excreta by shedder animals. Propagation of Coxiella burnetii, the cause of the disease between ruminant herds could result from transmission between neighbouring herds and/or the introduction of infected shedder animals in healthy herds. The objective of this study were (i) to describe the spatial distribution C. burnetii-infected dairy cattle herds in two different regions: the Finistère District in France (2,829 herds) and the island of Gotland in Sweden (119 herds) and (ii) to quantify and compare the relative contributions of C. burnetii transmission related to neighbourhood and to animal movements on the risk for a herd to be infected. An enzyme--linked immunosorbent assay was used for testing bulk tank milk in May 2012 and June 2011, respectively. Only one geographical cluster of positive herds was identified in north-western Finistère. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of risk for a herd to test positively with local cattle density (the total number of cattle located in a 5 km radius circle) and the in-degree (ID) parameter, a measure of the number of herds from which each herd had received animals directly within the last 2 years. The risk for a herd to test positively was higher for herds with a higher local cattle density [odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-3.2, for herds with a local density between 100 and 120 compared to herds with a local density 60]. The risk was also higher for herds with higher IDs (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.2, for herds with ID 3 compared to herds that did not introduce animals). The proportion of cases attributable to infections in the neighbourhood in high-density areas was twice the proportion attributable to animal movements, suggesting that wind plays a main role in the transmission. PMID:24893024

  20. Subclinical hypocalcemia, plasma biochemical parameters, lipid metabolism, postpartum disease, and fertility in postparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chamberlin, W G; Middleton, J R; Spain, J N; Johnson, G C; Ellersieck, M R; Pithua, P

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential association between Ca status at calving and postpartum energy balance, liver lipid infiltration, disease occurrence, milk yield and quality parameters, and fertility in Holstein cows. One hundred cows were assigned to 1 of 2 groups based on whole-blood ionized Ca concentration ([iCa]) on the day of calving [d 0; hypocalcemic [iCa] <1.0 mmol/L (n=51); normocalcemic [iCa] ≥ 1.0 mmol/L (n=49)]. Cows were blocked based on calving date and parity. Blood samples were collected approximately 14 d from expected calving date (d -14), the day of calving (d 0), and on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 35 postpartum for measurement of plasma nonesterified fatty acid, iCa, total Ca, glucose, and total and direct bilirubin concentrations, and plasma aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase activities. Liver biopsies were obtained from a subset of cows on d 0, 7, and 35 for quantification of lipid content. Milk samples were collected on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 35 postpartum for measurement of somatic cell count and percentages of protein, fat, and solids-not-fat. Data for peak test-day milk yield, services per conception, and days open were obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement Association herd records. Disease occurrence was determined based on herd treatment records. Hypocalcemic cows had significantly higher nonesterified fatty acids on d 0. Hypocalcemic cows also had significantly more lipid in hepatocytes on d 7 and 35 postpartum. However, no statistically significant differences were observed between groups for plasma aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase activities or total and direct bilirubin concentrations. Milk protein percentage was lower in hypocalcemic cows on d 21 and 35. However other milk quality variables (somatic cell count, milk fat percentage, and solids-not-fat) and milk yield variables (peak test-day milk yield and 305-d mature-equivalent 4% fat-corrected milk yield) did not differ between

  1. The effects on claw health of supplement feeding grazing dairy cows on feed pads.

    PubMed

    Coombe, Joanne E; Pyman, Michael F; Mansell, Peter D; Auldist, Martin J; Anderson, Garry A; Wales, William J; Malmo, Jakob; Conley, Melanie J; Fisher, Andrew D

    2013-12-01

    The effects of feeding and management systems on the health and welfare of grazing dairy cows were investigated by comparing the claw health of cows fed grain during milking and pasture silage in the paddock (Control), with cows fed a grain-based partial mixed ration (PMR) on a concrete feed pad. Cows were assessed on three occasions during lactation: (1) early lactation (20-81 days in milk [DIM]) before allocation to feeding treatments; (2) mid-lactation (97-158 DIM) immediately following an intensive feeding experiment, and (3) late lactation (173-243 DIM) several months after return to initial management groups. At the final examination, claw puncture resistance was measured. The results showed that for the most prevalent lesions (white line disease, paintbrush haemorrhage and traumatic bruising), there was no effect of feeding system or amount of supplement on the presence of the moderate to severe forms in early lactation, but cows were more likely to have a particular lesion at the second assessment if it was present in early lactation. Puncture resistance of the claw was not related to presence of a lesion for any of the most prevalent lesion types. It was concluded for this herd that for most indicators of claw health, there was no overall effect of different feeding systems (supplement fed during milking or on a feed pad) or amount of supplement. PMID:24206633

  2. Hock lesion epidemiology in cubicle housed dairy cows across two breeds, farming systems and countries.

    PubMed

    Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Dippel, Sabine; Brinkmann, Jan; March, Solveig; Winckler, Christoph; Knierim, Ute

    2013-05-01

    This cross-sectional study examined various aspects of cubicle design and management in terms of their potential as risk factors for hock lesions, using an epidemiological approach. Cubicle dairy farms in Germany and Austria with Holstein Friesian or Simmental cows were visited during the winter housing season. 105 farms and 3691 cows were included in the analysis which consisted of three steps: bifactorial regression, regression trees and multiple linear regression. The mean farm prevalence of hock lesions, i.e. scabs, wounds, and swellings was 50%, with a range from 0 to 100%. The final model contained eight factors which were largely related to lying comfort and explained 75% of the variance. The presence of a curb turned out to be the most influential beneficial factor. Additionally, there were fewer hock lesions when cows were housed with deep bedded cubicles compared to cubicles without deep bedding. Other factors in the regression model were softness and length of the lying surface and height of free space under cubicle partitions, the proportion of overconditioned cows and a variable encoding three different combinations of region, husbandry system (organic and conventional) and breed. Independently from the risk factor model hock lesions were positively correlated with lameness at herd level as well as at animal level. This probably results from related risk factors for both conditions. It can be concluded that lying comfort of dairy cows should be improved in order to prevent hock lesions. In addition, preventive measures for hock lesions at the same time have a potential of reducing lameness and thus to improve cow welfare in several aspects. PMID:23174217

  3. [Homeopathic prophylaxis in dairy cows on an organic farm part 1--fertility].

    PubMed

    Fidelak, Ch; Klocke, P; Heuwieser, W

    2007-07-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy of different prophylactically applied homeopathic compounds on health and fertility during the periparturient period on an organic dairy farm. In a randomised double blinded study 146 dairy cows were enrolled in two treatment groups. The average milk yield was about 5100 kg per cow per lactation. The treatment group received the homeopathic compounds Carduus comp. and Coenzyme comp. at drying off, Traumeel on the day of calving, Lachesis comp. on day 7 post partum (p.p.) and Carduus comp. and Coenzyme comp. on day 14 days p.p. The control group followed the same protocol with a placebo (physiological saline solution). Each drug was administered subcutaneously in a dosage of 5 ml. At drying off, the day of calving and in weekly intervals until day 35 p.p. clinical examinations as well as blood sampling were performed. The effect of treatment was measured by clinical parameters, reproductive performance and serum profiles (Ca, P, AST, Urea, Bilirubin). Data of reproductive performance (days to first service, days open, conception rate) were compared between treatment groups and to those in the previous lactation. There was no significant difference between both treatment groups. Cows of the treatment group had an earlier onset of cyclic activity, especially when milk yield was considered as an influencing factor (82% vs. 57%, P < 0,05). In contrast the cows of the treatment group had a significant lower submission rate. The prophylactic treatment of all cows did not have an effect in general, but in cows with increased milk yield, especially in the current lactation. The reproductive performance in the previous lactation did not have any effects on the success of the homeopathic treatment. Reproductive performance in the herd could be enhanced slightly compared to the previous lactation. PMID:17724935

  4. Risk factors for subclinical and clinical ketosis and association with production parameters in dairy cows in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Vanholder, T; Papen, J; Bemers, R; Vertenten, G; Berge, A C B

    2015-02-01

    Ketosis is associated with many transition cow diseases and the subclinical form has been found to be a common condition in high-producing dairy cows. The objectives of this field study in the Netherlands were (1) to determine risk factors for subclinical ketosis [SCK; 1.2-2.9mmol of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA)/L of serum] and clinical ketosis (CK: ≥3.0mmol of BHBA/L of serum) at 7 to 14 d in milk and (2) to assess the association of SCK and CK with production parameters at the first dairy herd improvement (DHI) testing. Twenty-three dairies were enrolled by a local veterinary practice from 2009 to 2010, and 1,715 cows were screened for ketosis by measuring serum BHBA concentrations at 7 to 14 d in milk. Overall, 47.2% of cows had SCK and 11.6% had CK. Mixed generalized logit models with a random effect of herd were used to evaluate cow level factors associated with SCK and CK. The associations of SCK and CK with milk production parameters were tested using mixed linear models with a random effect of herd. Cows at a moderate (3.25-3.75) or fat (≥4) body condition score before calving were more likely to develop SCK and CK than thin (body condition score≤3.0) cows. The risk for developing SCK was higher in parity 2 and older cows compared with heifers, whereas for CK only, parity ≥3 cows had a higher risk. The quarter of the year in which a cow calved was associated with the risk for SCK and CK. For SCK quarter 1 (January-March) and quarter 2 (April-June), and for CK quarter 1, quarter 2, and quarter 3 (July-September) all increased the risk of development of the condition compared with quarter 4 (October-December). An increased yield of colostrum at first milking was associated with increasing risk for SCK and CK. Prolonged previous lactation length and dry period length were both associated with increased odds for SCK and CK. Subclinical ketosis and CK were associated with a higher milk yield, a higher milk fat percentage, and a lower milk protein percentage

  5. Genetic improvement of dairy cow reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Berglund, B

    2008-07-01

    The welfare of cow along with profitability in production are important issues in sustainable animal breeding programmes. Along with an intense/intensive selection for increased milk yield, reproductive performance has declined in many countries, in part due to an unfavourable genetic relationship. The largely unchanged genetic trend in female fertility and calving traits for Scandinavian Red breeds shows that it is possible to avoid deterioration in these traits if they are properly considered in the breeding programme. Today's breeding is international with a global selection and extensive use of the best bulls. The Nordic countries have traditionally recorded and performed genetic evaluation for a broad range of functional traits including reproduction. In recent years many other countries have also implemented genetic evaluation for these traits. Thus, the relative emphasis of dairy cattle breeding objectives has gradually shifted from production to functional traits such as reproduction. Improved ways of recording traits, e.g. physiological measures, early indicator traits, assisted reproductive techniques and increased knowledge of genes and their regulation may improve the genetic selection strategies and have large impact on present and future genetic evaluation programmes. Extensive data bases with phenotypic recordings of traits for individuals and their pedigree are a prerequisite. Quantitative trait loci have been associated to the reproductive complex. Most important traits, including reproduction traits are regulated by a multitude of genes and environmental factors in a complex relationship, however. Genomic selection might therefore be important in future breeding programmes. Information on single nucleotide polymorphism has already been introduced in the selection programmes of some countries. PMID:18638109

  6. Cystic ovarian follicles and thyroid activity in the dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Mutinati, M; Rizzo, A; Sciorsci, R L

    2013-05-01

    Thyroid activity affects the functionality of the reproductive axis and thyroid dysfunction has been associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome, in human medicine. This study investigates serum17- estradiol, progesterone, thyrotropic and thyroid hormone levels, in cyclic dairy cows on heat (Group H) and in dairy cows with ovarian follicular cysts (Group FC). Both 17- estradiol and progesterone serum concentrations were statistically higher in cystic than in cyclic cows (estradiol: 8.51±1.91 vs 6.32±1pg/mL) (progesterone: 0.49±0.17 vs 0.13±0.03ng/mL), whereas TSH and fT4 serum concentrations were statistically lower in cows with cystic ovarian follicles (COF), compared to cyclic ones (TSH: 2.48±1.31 vs 3.56±1.03ng/mL) (fT4: 5.86±1.69 vs 8.63±1.08). fT3 serum levels were similar, in both cystic and cyclic subjects (2.94±0.65 vs 3.02±0.9, respectively). Based on these results it was decided to examine the function of the thyrothropic axis of dairy cows in a similar manner to that conducted on humans. If severe hypothyroidism should be found, a hormone replacement therapy could be attempted in cystic cows refractory to "ordinary" therapies. PMID:23567219

  7. Reproductive responses of dairy cows with ovarian cysts to simultaneous human chorionic gonadotropin or gonadotropin-releasing hormone and cloprostenol compared to gonadotropin-releasing hormone alone treatment

    PubMed Central

    Taktaz, T.; Kafi, M.; Mokhtari, Adel; Heidari, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Bovine ovarian cysts are a common cause of economic loss in modern dairy herds. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the reproductive responses to three protocols using hCG, GnRH and cloprostenol when the definite diagnosis of the type of ovarian cyst is/is not possible in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 144 lactating dairy cows with ovarian cysts were divided into three groups. At diagnosis (Day 0), cows in Group 1 (the conventional method, n=47) were injected with 0.02 mg of a GnRH analogue i.m. (Buserelin); cows in Group 2 (n=47) were intramuscularly treated with 0.02 mg Buserelin plus 500 µg cloprostenol; and cows in Group 3 (n=50) were intramuscularly treated with 1500 IU hCG plus 500 µg cloprostenol. All cows received 500 µg cloprostenol intramuscularly on Day 10. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in the recovery time, interval to conception, conception rate at first AI, and pregnancy rates by Days 70 and 100 after treatment among the three groups. Conclusions: Simultaneous treatment of ovarian cysts with hCG or GnRH and cloprostenol appeared to have no advantage over the conventional method, GnRH alone, in dairy cows. Furthermore, hCG and GnRH have an equal therapeutic effect in cows with ovarian cysts. PMID:27047149

  8. Stocking density, milking duration, and lying times of lactating cows on Canadian freestall dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Charlton, G L; Haley, D B; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M

    2014-05-01

    Lying time is an important measure of cow comfort, and the lying behavior of dairy cattle can now be recorded automatically with the use of accelerometers. To assess the effect that stall stocking density and the time that cows spend away from the home pen being milked has on the lying behavior of Holstein cattle, a total of 111 commercial freestall dairy farms were visited in Canada. Accelerometers were used to automatically record the lying behavior of 40 focal cows per farm. Total duration of lying, lying bout frequency, and the mean duration of lying bouts were calculated. Pen population was the total number of cows in the pen. To calculate stall stocking density (%) the number of cows in the pen and the number of useable stalls were counted and multiplied by 100, and the length × width of the pen was divided by the number of cows in the pen to calculate area/cow (m(2)). Time away from the pen per day was recorded from when the first cow in each pen was taken out of the home pen for milking until the last cow returned to the home pen after milking, and this time was multiplied by daily milking frequency. The median value for lying duration at the farm level was 10.6h/d, with 10.5 lying bouts/d, and a median lying bout duration of 1.2h. Stall stocking density ranged from 52.2 to 160.0%, with very few farms (7%) stocking at greater than 120%. Although stall stocking density was not significantly correlated with lying behavior, the results showed that no farm with stocking density greater that 100% achieved an average herd lying duration of 12h/d or higher, whereas 21.6% of farms with a stocking density of 100% or less did achieve the target lying time of ≥ 12 h/d, as recommended by the Canadian Code of Practice (χ(2)=4.86, degrees of freedom = 1). Area/cow (m(2)) was not correlated with any aspect of lying behavior, but regardless of space per cow, pen population was correlated with daily frequency and duration of lying bouts. As the number of cows in the pen

  9. Hot topic: Early postpartum treatment of commercial dairy cows with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs increases whole-lactation milk yield.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, A J; Ylioja, C M; Vargas, C F; Mamedova, L K; Mendonça, L G; Coetzee, J F; Hollis, L C; Gehring, R; Bradford, B J

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that postpartum administration of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) sodium salicylate can increase 305-d milk yield in older dairy cattle (parity 3 and greater). However, in this prior work, sodium salicylate was delivered to cows via the drinking water, a method that does not align well with current grouping strategies on commercial dairy farms. The objective of the current study was to replicate these results on a commercial dairy farm with a simplified treatment protocol and to compare sodium salicylate with another NSAID, meloxicam. Dairy cattle in their second lactation and greater (n=51/treatment) were alternately assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition, with treatments lasting for 3d. Experimental treatments began 12 to 36 h after parturition and were (1) 1 placebo bolus on the first day and 3 consecutive daily drenches of sodium salicylate (125 g/cow per day; SAL); (2) 1 bolus of meloxicam (675 mg/cow) and 3 drenches of an equal volume of water (MEL); or (3) 1 placebo bolus and 3 drenches of water (CON). Blood samples were collected on the first day of treatment, immediately following the last day of treatment, and 7d after the last day of treatment; plasma was analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), free fatty acids, haptoglobin, and paraoxonase. Milk production, body condition score, reproductive status, and retention in the herd were monitored for 365 d posttreatment, and effects of treatment, parity, days in milk, and interactions were evaluated in mixed effects models. Significance was declared at P<0.05. Whole-lactation milk and protein yields were greater in NSAID-treated cows, although 305-d fat production was not affected. There was a significant interaction of treatment and parity for plasma glucose concentration; MEL increased plasma glucose concentrations compared with CON and SAL in older cows. Sodium salicylate decreased plasma BHB concentration compared with MEL at 7d posttreatment

  10. Short communication: Preference for flavored concentrate premixes by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Weeks, H L; Faugeron, J; Hristov, A N

    2016-08-01

    Flavor preferences may be used to stimulate feed intake in dairy cows, which may improve use of robotic milking systems and increase feed intake of sick cows. A cafeteria-design experiment was used to determine if dairy cows have flavor preferences. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows averaging 197±32d in milk, 1.9±0.8 lactations, 27.8±4.2kg/d of dry matter intake, and 41.5±7.4kg/d of milk yield were involved in the experiment. Cows were offered 7 flavored concentrate premixes (FCP) and 1 control premix. The FCP flavors were anise, fenugreek, honey, orange, thyme, molasses, and vanilla; the absence of flavor, neutral, acted as a control. The inclusion rate of the flavors in FCP was 250 to 300g/t on an as-is basis. Cows were not adapted to the flavors before the experiment. Cows were housed in a tiestall barn and offered, on each day, 4 different FCP (1kg each) in plastic bins placed in front of each cow. The experiment lasted 6 consecutive days. Each FCP was presented to each cow once every 2d, 2h after the morning feeding. Flavors and position of the bins in front of the cows were randomized. As a result, each flavor was presented to each cow 3 times during the experiment, at 3 different bin locations. Each cow had access to the FCP for 5min from the time they started eating. Eating time and amount eaten were recorded. The vanilla and fenugreek FCP were consumed the most, at 408 and 371g/5-min offering, respectively, whereas the orange and anise FCP were consumed the least, at 264 and 239g/5-min offering, respectively. Similarly, cows spent the most time eating the vanilla and fenugreek FCP at 99 and 75 s/offering, respectively, and the least amount of time eating the orange and anise FCP at 49 and 50 s/offering, respectively. We detected an effect of bin position: the 2 center FCP were consumed more than the outer 2 FCP. Flavor had no effect on consumption rate. In conclusion, relative to the control, concentrate intake was not affected by flavor, but dairy cows

  11. The high producing dairy cow and its reproductive performance

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, H; Smith, RF; Royal, MD; Knight, CH; Sheldon, IM

    2009-01-01

    Contents: Intensive genetic selection has resulted in modern dairy cow with very high milk yields but reduced fertility, due mainly to an increase in postpartum clinical problems, poor expression of oestrus, defective oocytes/embryos and uterine infections. It is a challenge to get enough food into these cows to meet the high demands of peak milk yields in early lactation and the animals require considerable veterinary attention in the early period after calving. Both genetic and management changes to increase the persistency of lactations would reduce the number and intensity of clinical risk periods throughout a cow's life without compromising milk output. PMID:17688598

  12. Maximizing Use of Extension Beef Cattle Benchmarks Data Derived from Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Jennifer M.; Hanna, Lauren L. Hulsman; Ringwall, Kris A.

    2016-01-01

    One goal of Extension is to provide practical information that makes a difference to producers. Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software (CHAPS) has provided beef producers with production benchmarks for 30 years, creating a large historical data set. Many such large data sets contain useful information but are underutilized. Our goal was to create…

  13. Lifetime risk and cost of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in relation to heifer rearing conditions in southwest Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hultgren, J; Svensson, C

    2009-07-01

    Relationships between heifer rearing conditions and the risk of veterinary-reported clinical mastitis (VRCM) during productive life were studied by generalized linear mixed modeling at the lactation level. Data consisted of 5,693 lactations in 2,126 Swedish Reds, Swedish Holsteins, or dairy cows of other or mixed breeds, representing all female animals born in 110 herds in southwest Sweden in 1998. During a lactation, a cow was defined as affected by VRCM if one or more cases were reported by a veterinarian, starting from 7 d precalving. The applied model of VRCM included effects of breed, parity, diarrhea between 3 and 7 mo of age, increase in body weight from weaning to first breeding, increase in daily concentrate ration before first calving, herd-level median age at first calving, cow housing, and random effects of cow and herd. The VRCM incidence was 14% in a given lactation, or 0.11 cases/cow annually; 31% of the cows had VRCM at least once during their productive life. Ninety percent of the variation in mastitis risk was due to factors at the lactation level such as parity, milk yield, cow diseases, and other disturbances, instead of cow or herd factors. Severe diarrhea between 3 and 7 mo of age was associated with 2.8-fold higher odds of VRCM compared with mild diarrhea during the same period, whereas the VRCM odds of calves with mild diarrhea were half that without diarrhea. The odds of VRCM had a predicted maximum at an estimated prepubertal growth rate of 859 g/d and increased with 10% for every 1-kg increase in concentrate ration during the last 2 mo before first calving. Costs of VRCM were estimated based on assumptions regarding veterinary service, extra labor, culling and herd replacement, discarded milk, and production loss depending on parity and lactation stage when VRCM was diagnosed. The total mean costs of VRCM were estimated to be $735 per lactation with a diagnosis of CM, $103 per lactation across all cows, or $95 per cow annually during

  14. Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies using quantitative real-time PCR and bacterial culture to identify contagious mastitis cases in large dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Murai, Kiyokazu; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Champagne, John D; Glenn, Kathy; Aly, Sharif S

    2014-03-01

    Diagnostic strategies to detect contagious mastitis caused by Mycoplasma bovis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in dairy herds during an outbreak have been minimally studied with regard to cost and diagnostic sensitivity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies for identification of infected cows in two California dairy herds during contagious mastitis outbreaks. M. bovis was investigated in a subset of a herd (n=1210 cows) with an estimated prevalence of 2.8% (95% CI=1.9, 3.7), whereas Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae were studied in a second herd (n=351 cows) with an estimated prevalence of 3.4% (95% CI=1.5, 5.3) and 16.8% (95% CI=12.9, 20.7), respectively. Diagnostic strategies involved a combination of testing stages that utilized bacterial culture, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), or both. Strategies were applied to individual or pooled samples of 5, 10, 50 or 100 samples. Culture was considered the gold standard for sensitivity estimation of each strategy. The reference strategy was the strategy with the lowest cost per culture-positive cow which for both M. bovis and Strep. agalactiae consisted of 2 stages, culture of samples in pools of 5 followed by culture of individual samples in positive pools with a sensitivity of 73.5% (95% CI: 55.6, 87.1) and 96.6% (95% CI: 27.7, 84.8), respectively. The reference strategy for Staph. aureus consisted of 3 stages, culture of individual samples in pools of 100 (stage 1), culture constituents of those positive from stage 1 in pools of 5 (stage 2), culture constituents of those positive from stage 2 individually (stage 3) which resulted in a sensitivity of 58.3% (95% CI: 88.3, 99.6). The most cost-effective alternative to the reference strategy was whole herd milk culture for all 3 pathogens. QPCR testing was a component of the second most cost-effective alternative for M. bovis and the third most cost-effective alternatives for

  15. Factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Morin, D E; Constable, P D; Maunsell, F P; McCoy, G C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows, as measured by a commercially available hydrometer (Colostrometer). Colostral specific gravity was measured in 1085 first-milking colostrum samples from 608 dairy cows of four breeds on a single farm during a 5-yr period. Effects of breed, lactation number, and month and year of calving on colostral specific gravity were determined, as were correlations between colostral specific gravity, nonlactating period length, and 305-d yields of milk, protein, and fat. For 75 multiparous Holstein cows, relationships between colostral specific gravity, colostral IgG1, protein, and fat concentrations, and season of calving were determined. Colostral specific gravity values were lower for Brown Swiss and Ayrshire cows than for Jersey and Holstein cows, and lower for cows entering first or second lactation than third or later lactations. Month of calving markedly affected colostral specific gravity values, with highest values occurring in autumn and lowest values in summer. In multiparous Holstein cows, colostral specific gravity was more strongly correlated with colostral protein concentration (r = 0.76) than IgG1 concentration (r = 0.53), and colostral protein concentration varied seasonally (higher in autumn than summer). Our results demonstrate that colostral specific gravity more closely reflects colostral protein concentration than IgG1 concentration and is markedly influenced by month of calving. These results highlight potential limitations of using colostral specific gravity as an indicator of IgG1 concentration. PMID:11352170

  16. Vitamin D3 toxicity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Littledike, E T; Horst, R L

    1982-05-01

    Large parenteral doses of vitamin D3 (15 to 17.5 x 10(6) IU vitamin D3) were associated with prolonged hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and large increases of vitamin D3 and its metabolites in the blood plasma of nonlactating nonpregnant and pregnant Jersey cows. Calcium concentrations 1 day postpartum were higher in cows treated with vitamin D3 about 32 days prepartum (8.8 mg/100 ml) than in control cows (5.5 mg/100 ml). None of the cows treated with vitamin D3 showed signs of milk fever during the peripartal period; however, 22% of the control cows developed clinical signs of milk fever during this period. Signs of vitamin D3 toxicity were not observed in nonlactating nonpregnant cows; however, pregnant cows commonly developed severe signs of vitamin D3 toxicity and 10 of 17 cows died. There was widespread metastatic calcification in the cows that died. Because of the extreme toxicity of vitamin D3 in pregnant Jersey cows and the low margin of safety between doses of vitamin D3 that prevent milk fever and doses that induce milk fever, we concluded that vitamin D3 cannot be used practically to prevent milk fever when injected several weeks prepartum. PMID:6286738

  17. ABATING AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM DAIRY BARNS THROUGH FEED, HERD AND BEDDING MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy farms are thought to emit large amounts of ammonia and therefore contribute to nitrogen (N) fertilization of natural ecosystems and provide precursors for particulates that adversely affect visibility and human health. Approximately 20 to 35% of the N (crude protein, CP) fed to a dairy cow is ...

  18. First Portuguese isolate of Neospora caninum from an aborted fetus from a dairy herd with endemic neosporosis.

    PubMed

    Canada, Nuno; Meireles, Carla S; Rocha, António; Sousa, Susana; Thompson, Gertrude; Dubey, J P; Romand, S; Thulliez, P; Correia da Costa, J M

    2002-12-11

    Neospora caninum was isolated from the brain of an aborted 4-month-old fetus from a dairy cow herd with endemic neosporosis in Porto, Portugal. The fetal brain homogenate was inoculated interperitoneally first into outbred Swiss Webster mice given dexamethasone and then the peritoneal exudates from these mice was co-inoculated with mouse sarcoma cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice given dexamethasone. N. caninum tachyzoites were seen in peritoneal exudate of the second passage. Tachyzoites from the peritoneal exudate reacted positively with anti-N. caninum antibodies and not with anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and contained N. caninum specific DNA. This Portuguese isolate of N. caninum has been successfully maintained in cell culture. The dam of the aborted fetus had an antibody titer of 1:10240 in the Neospora agglutination test (NAT). Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 76 of 106 cows from this herd in titers of 1:40 in 31, 1:80 in 22, > or =1:160 or more in 23 in the Neospora agglutination test. This is the first isolation of a viable N. caninum-like parasite from any host in Portugal. PMID:12446085

  19. The cost of a case of subclinical ketosis in Canadian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gohary, Khaled; Overton, Michael W; Von Massow, Michael; LeBlanc, Stephen J; Lissemore, Kerry D; Duffield, Todd F

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a model to estimate the cost of a case of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in Canadian dairy herds. Costs were derived from the default inputs, and included increased clinical disease incidence attributable to SCK, $76; longer time to pregnancy, $57; culling and death in early lactation attributable to SCK, $26; milk production loss, $44. Given these figures, the cost of 1 case of SCK was estimated to be $203. Sensitivity analysis showed that the estimated cost of a case of SCK was most sensitive to the herd-level incidence of SCK and the cost of 1 day open. In conclusion, SCK negatively impacts dairy herds and losses are dependent on the herd-level incidence and factors included in the calculation. PMID:27429460

  20. Evaluation of the change of serum copper and zinc concentrations of dairy cows with subclinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigang; Liu, Guowen; Li, Xiaobing; Gao, Li; Guo, Changming; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Zhe

    2010-12-01

    Ketosis in dairy cows can lead to poor reproductive success and decreased milk production. Since the serum concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are closely associated with the health status of cows, we investigated whether serum concentrations of Cu and Zn differed in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis and healthy dairy cows. Blood samples of 19 healthy dairy cows and 15 subclinically ketotic dairy cows were collected from three farms, and the concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), Cu, and Zn were determined. Subclinically ketotic dairy cows had significantly higher BHBA and NEFA levels (p < 0.01) and lower glucose (p < 0.01) than healthy dairy cows. Likewise, serum concentrations of Zn were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis. There was no significant difference observed for serum Cu concentration between healthy and subclinically ketotic dairy cows. This study suggests that a decreased serum Zn concentration could be a cause of decreased reproductive performance in subclinically ketotic dairy cows. PMID:20101474

  1. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in adult dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of G. duodenalis genotypes was determined in adult dairy cows. Fecal specimens were collected from two farms each in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida. Specimens, cleaned of fecal debris and concentrated using CsCl density gradient centr...

  2. Omasal dilation and displacement in 4 Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Bicalho, Rodrigo C.; Mayers, Heather M.; Cheong, Soon Hon; Rosa, Brielle V.; Guard, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Cases of omasal dilation and displacement in 4 dairy cows are described. The disease was initially diagnosed by a combination of history and clinical signs that included right-sided abdominal distension, rectal palpation, and decreased milk production. The condition was confirmed by laparotomy or necropsy. PMID:19436447

  3. A longitudinal study of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal samples were collected from 30 dairy cows on the same farm beginning at 1 week of age and continuing for 2 years. Samples were collected weekly from 1 wk to 8 wks of age, bi-weekly from 2 mo to 6 mo of age and monthly thereafter. The samples were concentrated and cleaned of fecal debris on a...

  4. A questionnaire on the health, management, and performance of cow-calf herds in Québec.

    PubMed Central

    Dutil, L; Fecteau, G; Bouchard, E; Dutremblay, D; Paré, J

    1999-01-01

    Questionnaires were mailed to 520 cow-calf producers in Québec in order to compare management practices and herd performance according to herd size (small: < 40 females, or large: > or = 40 females) and in 4 geographic areas for the 1995 calving season. Owners of large herds adopted management practice and preventive measures more often than did owners of small herds. Average calving and weaning rates were 95% and 87% respectively. Average perinatal and preweaning mortality rates were between 4.9% and 5.6%. A greater percentage of owners with large herds than owners of small herds reported diarrhea and pneumonia problems. Among large herds, the number of herds experiencing pneumonia and calf mortality associated with diarrhea tended to be higher in areas of the northwest. Calf mortality due to pneumonia was higher in the northeast. No regional variation was found among small herds. Further research is needed to identify diseases risk factors. Images Figure 1. PMID:10495908

  5. Cow- and farm-level risk factors for lameness on dairy farms with automated milking systems.

    PubMed

    Westin, R; Vaughan, A; de Passillé, A M; DeVries, T J; Pajor, E A; Pellerin, D; Siegford, J M; Witaifi, A; Vasseur, E; Rushen, J

    2016-05-01

    Lameness is a major concern to animal health and welfare within the dairy industry. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of lameness in high-producing cows on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) and to identify the main risk factors for lameness at the animal and farm level. We visited 36 AMS farms across Canada and Michigan. Farm-level factors related to stall design, bedding use, flooring, and stocking rates were recorded by trained observers. Cows were scored for lameness, leg injuries, body condition (BCS), and body size (hip width and rump height; n=1,378; 25-40 cows/farm). Mean herd prevalence of clinical lameness was 15% (range=2.5-46%). Stall width relative to cow size and parity was found to be the most important factor associated with lameness. Not fitting the average stall width increased the odds of being lame 3.7 times in primiparous cows. A narrow feed alley [<430cm; odds ratio (OR)=1.9], obstructed lunge space (OR=1.7), a low BCS (OR=2.1 for BCS ≤2.25 compared with BCS 2.75-3.0), and presence of hock lesions (OR=1.6) were also identified as important risk factors for lameness. Only 1 of 36 farms had stalls of adequate width and length for the cows on their farm. For lameness prevention, it can be concluded that more emphasis needs be placed on either building stalls of appropriate width or selecting for smaller-framed cows that fit the existing stalls. PMID:26923045

  6. Lymphocyte functions in dairy cows in hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Scalia, Daniela; Ronchi, Bruno; Kuzminsky, Giorgina; Nardone, Alessandro

    2005-11-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the effects of intense high environmental temperatures (HET) on lymphocyte functions in periparturient dairy cows. The study was undertaken from the beginning of March through the end of July 2003 in a commercial dairy unit located approximately 40 km north of Rome. Thirty-four Holstein cows were utilised in the study. Twenty-two of these cows gave birth in spring (SP cows), from 28 March to 30 April. The remaining 12 cows gave birth in summer (SU cows), between 15 June and 2 July. The two groups of cows were balanced for parity and were fed the same rations. Blood samples were taken 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before calving, and 1, 2 and 4 weeks after calving, in order to evaluate peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) function in vitro, and to determine plasma cortisol concentrations. After isolation, the PBMC were stimulated with mitogens and their response in terms of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion was measured. During spring, either the day (9 20 h) or the night (21 8 h) temperature humidity index (THI) was below the upper critical THI (72) established for dairy cows. During summer, the mean daily THI values were 79.5±2.9 during the day and 70.1±4.7 during the night. Furthermore, during summer, three heat waves (a period of at least 3 consecutive days during which there were less than 10 recovery hours) occurred. Recovery hours were intended hours with a THI below 72. The first heat wave lasted 5 days, the second 6 days, and the third 15 days. Compared to the SP cows, over the entire periparturient period the extent of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion levels were lower (P ranging from <0.01 to 0.0001) and higher (P<0.01) respectively, in the SU cows. Before calving, the SU cows also presented higher (P<0.01) concentrations of plasma cortisol compared to the SP cows. This study indicates that the effects of HET on the immune response depend on the specific immune function under consideration, and that neuroendocrinal changes

  7. Lameness scoring system for dairy cows using force plates and artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ghotoorlar, S Mokaram; Ghamsari, S Mehdi; Nowrouzian, I; Ghotoorlar, S Mokaram; Ghidary, S Shiry

    2012-02-01

    Lameness scoring is a routine procedure in dairy industry to screen the herds for new cases of lameness. Subjective lameness scoring, which is the most popular lameness detection and screening method in dairy herds, has several limitations. They include low intra-observer and inter-observer agreement and the discrete nature of the scores which limits its usage in monitoring the lameness. The aim of this study is to develop an automated lameness scoring system comparable with conventional subjective lameness scoring by means of artificial neural networks. The system is composed of four balanced force plates installed in a hoof-trimming box. A group of 105 dairy cows was used for the study. Twenty-three features extracted from ground reaction force (GRF) data were used in a computer training process which was performed on 60 per cent of the data. The remaining 40 per cent of the data were used to test the trained system. Repeatability of the lameness scoring system was determined by GRF samples from 25 cows, captured at two different times from the same animals. The mean sd was 0.31 and the mean coefficient of variation was 14.55 per cent, which represents a high repeatability in comparison with subjective vision-based scoring methods. Although the highest sensitivity and specificity values were seen in locomotion score groups 1 and 4, the automatic lameness system was both sensitive and specific in all groups. The sensitivity and specificity were higher than 72 per cent in locomotion score groups 1 to 4, and it was 100 per cent specific and 50 per cent sensitive for group 5. PMID:22141114

  8. Economics of fertility in high-yielding dairy cows on confined TMR systems.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, V E

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this review paper was to summarise the latest findings in dairy cattle reproductive economics with an emphasis on high yielding, confined total mixed ration systems. The economic gain increases as the reproductive efficiency improves. These increments follow the law of diminishing returns, but are still positive even at high reproductive performance. Reproductive improvement results in higher milk productivity and, therefore, higher milk income over feed cost, more calf sales and lower culling and breeding expenses. Most high-yielding herds in the United States use a combination of timed artificial insemination (TAI) and oestrous detection (OD) reproductive programme. The ratio of achievable pregnancies between OD and TAI determines the economic value difference between both and their combinations. Nonetheless, complex interactions between reproductive programme, herd relative milk yield, and type of reproductive programme are reported. For example, higher herd relative milk yield would favour programme relying more on TAI. In addition, improved reproductive efficiency produces extra replacements. The availability of additional replacements could allow more aggressive culling policies (e.g. less services for non-pregnant cows) to balance on-farm supply and demand of replacements. Balancing heifer replacement availability in an efficient reproductive programme brings additional economic benefits. New technologies such as the use of earlier chemical tests for pregnancy diagnosis could be economically effective depending on the goals and characteristics of the farm. Opportunities for individual cow reproductive management within defined reproductive programme exist. These decisions would be based on economic metrics derived from the value of a cow such as the value of a new pregnancy, the cost of a pregnancy loss, or the cost of an extra day open. PMID:24679357

  9. Dairy cow manure digester and cogenerator performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pigg, D.L.; Vetter, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A 94 m/sup 3/ mesophilic digester with a 15 kW engine-generator was monitored. The average manure collected was 6.48 kg VS/cow/day. An ultimate methane yield (Bo) of 0.25 L CH4/g VS was calculated. The potential gross energy production was determined to be 3 kWh/cow/day.

  10. Plasma exosome profiles from dairy cows with divergent fertility phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, M D; Scholz-Romero, K; Reed, S; Peiris, H N; Koh, Y Q; Meier, S; Walker, C G; Burke, C R; Roche, J R; Rice, G; Salomon, C

    2016-09-01

    Cell-to-cell communication in physiological and pathological conditions may be influenced by neighboring cells, distant tissues, or local environmental factors. Exosomes are specific subsets of extracellular vesicles that internalize and deliver their content to near and distant sites. Exosomes may play a role in the maternal-embryo crosstalk vital for the recognition and maintenance of a pregnancy; however, their role in dairy cow reproduction has not been established. This study aimed to characterize the exosome profile in the plasma of 2 strains of dairy cow with divergent fertility phenotypes. Plasma was obtained and characterized on the basis of genetic ancestry as fertile (FERT; <23% North American genetics, New Zealand Holstein-Friesian strain, n=8) or subfertile (SUBFERT; >92% North American genetics, North American Holstein-Friesian strain, n=8). Exosomes were isolated by differential and buoyant density centrifugation and characterized by size distribution (nanoparticle tracking analysis, NanoSight NS500, NanoSight Ltd., Amesbury, UK), the presence of CD63 (Western blot), and their morphology (electron microscopy). The total number of exosomes was determined by quantifying the immunoreactive CD63 (ExoELISA kit, System Biosciences), and the protein content established by mass spectrometry. Enriched exosome fractions were identified as cup-shape vesicles with diameters around 100 nm and positive for the CD63 marker. The concentration of exosomes was 50% greater in FERT cows. Mass spectrometry identified 104 and 117 proteins in FERT and SUBFERT cows, of which 23 and 36 were unique, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment for proteins involved in immunomodulatory processes and cell-to-cell communication. Although the role of exosomes in dairy cow reproduction remains to be elucidated, their quantification and content in models with divergent fertility phenotypes could provide novel information to support both physiological and genetic

  11. Effects of two stall flooring systems on the behaviour of tied dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hultgren, J

    2001-08-01

    Effects on dairy cow behaviour of a new type of flooring in tie-stalls, with the ability to drain faeces and urine, was studied in a controlled randomised trial in one Swedish university herd. Forty-two Swedish Red and White cows were kept tied in traditional long-stalls (2.20m). In 21 stalls (one stall row), the rearmost 0.74m of the solid stall floor had been replaced with nine rubber-coated 53mm wide slats, divided by 29mm slots. Stalls with rubber slats were equipped with 20mm ethyl-vinyl-acetate (EVA) mats in the front part and littered with 0.7kg of wood shavings daily, while stalls with a solid floor had standard rubber mats and received 3kg of chopped straw daily as bedding. Behaviour was compared between the two stall types, using video recordings of 12 matched pairs of cows for two complete 24h periods each. Statistical analysis was done using the Student's t-test for matched pairs or the sign test. Cows on the rubber slatted flooring lie down and rise normally and without any increased risk of slipping. They lay down more comfortably, i.e. spent on an average 23% less time preparing to lie down, and slipped less frequently during rising. There was some evidence of a preference for a solid floor when lying. PMID:11376835

  12. Dairy cow preference and usage of an alternative freestall design.

    PubMed

    Abade, C C; Fregonesi, J A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2015-02-01

    Freestall housing for dairy cows was created to reduce the amount of bedding and labor needed to keep stalls clean. However, some aspects of stall design may restrict stall usage by cows. The aim of this study was to assess dairy cow preference and usage of a conventional stall (with a neck rail and metal stall dividers) and an alternative stall design with no neck rail or stall dividers other than a wooden board protruding slightly (8cm) above the lying surface. In the no-choice phase of the study, 48 cows were randomly assigned to 8 groups (of 6 cows each); groups were alternately allocated to the 2 treatments. Each group was observed for 7 d on one treatment and then switched to the alternate treatment for 7 d. For the choice phase (also 7 d), groups in adjacent pens were merged (to form 4 groups, each with 12 cows) and cows had free access to both treatments within the merged pen. In the no-choice phase, cows spent more time standing with 4 hooves in the alternative versus conventional freestall (0.60±0.06 vs. 0.05±0.06h/d), but stall designs had no effect on time spent lying down (13.2±0.4 vs. 12.9±0.4h/d). In the choice phase, cows spent more time lying down in the conventional freestall (9.4±0.8 vs. 4.1±0.8h/d) and more time standing with all 4 hooves in the alternative stall (0.24±0.03 vs. 0.02±0.03h/d). These results illustrate how different stall design features can affect different types of stall use; the more open design facilitated standing fully in the stall, but the protruding partitions likely made the stall less suitable for lying. PMID:25497827

  13. [Comparison of productivity and veterinary expenses in Swiss dairy farms with and without integrated veterinary herd health service].

    PubMed

    Hässig, M; Kemper-Gisler, D; Liesegang, A; Braun, U

    2010-10-01

    The goal of this study was to compare production variables and veterinary costs between dairy herds enrolled in an integrated herd health program and herds with a conventional, non-computerized herd management. Four variables were used to assess the performance of the herds, including calving interval, milk production per lactation, as well as the product of calving interval x veterinary costs per year and the ratio of production to veterinary costs per year. A total of 22 dairy herds, serviced by the ambulatory clinic, University of Zurich, were investigated. There were 11 experimental herds that had been enrolled in an integrated herd health program, INTERHERD©, and 11 control herds. Data of the latter were derived from a computerized accounting system, OBLON DATA©. A total of 92'350 records from the years 1999 - 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. During the investigation period the calving interval did not significantly increase in experimental herds, whereas milk production steadily increased in both groups. The integrated herd health program did not result in additional costs when the dairy farms have no problems on a herd basis. From our study, differences in farms with and without herd health program are only marginal. PMID:20886443

  14. Minimum cost to control bovine tuberculosis in cow-calf herds

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebecca L.; Tauer, Loren W.; Sanderson, Michael W.; Grohn, Yrjo T.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) outbreaks in US cattle herds, while rare, are expensive to control. A stochastic model for bTB control in US cattle herds was adapted to more accurately represent cow-calf herd dynamics and was validated by comparison to 2 reported outbreaks. Control cost calculations were added to the model, which was then optimized to minimize costs for either the farm or the government. The results of the optimization showed that test-and-removal costs were minimized for both farms and the government if only 2 negative whole-herd tests were required to declare a herd free of infection, with a 2–3 month testing interval. However, the optimal testing interval for governments was increased to 2–4 months if the model was constrained to reject control programs leading to an infected herd being declared free of infection. Although farms always preferred test-and-removal to depopulation from a cost standpoint, government costs were lower with depopulation more than half the time in 2 of 8 regions. Global sensitivity analysis showed that indemnity costs were significantly associated with a rise in the cost to the government, and that low replacement rates were responsible for the long time to detection predicted by the model, but that improving the sensitivity of slaughterhouse screening and the probability that a slaughtered animal’s herd of origin can be identified would result in faster detection times. PMID:24703601

  15. Minimum cost to control bovine tuberculosis in cow-calf herds.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebecca L; Tauer, Loren W; Sanderson, Michael W; Gröhn, Yrjo T

    2014-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) outbreaks in US cattle herds, while rare, are expensive to control. A stochastic model for bTB control in US cattle herds was adapted to more accurately represent cow-calf herd dynamics and was validated by comparison to 2 reported outbreaks. Control cost calculations were added to the model, which was then optimized to minimize costs for either the farm or the government. The results of the optimization showed that test-and-removal costs were minimized for both farms and the government if only 2 negative whole-herd tests were required to declare a herd free of infection, with a 2-3 month testing interval. However, the optimal testing interval for governments was increased to 2-4 months if the model was constrained to reject control programs leading to an infected herd being declared free of infection. Although farms always preferred test-and-removal to depopulation from a cost standpoint, government costs were lower with depopulation more than half the time in 2 of 8 regions. Global sensitivity analysis showed that indemnity costs were significantly associated with a rise in the cost to the government, and that low replacement rates were responsible for the long time to detection predicted by the model, but that improving the sensitivity of slaughterhouse screening and the probability that a slaughtered animal's herd of origin can be identified would result in faster detection times. PMID:24703601

  16. Effect of buserelin on pregnancy rates in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Drew, S B; Peters, A R

    1994-03-12

    Three field trials were carried out to assess the effect of buserelin on the fertility of dairy cows. In the first, 10 micrograms of buserelin was injected on the day of insemination; there were no significant effects on fertility in comparison with untreated control cows. In the second study the cows were injected 12 days after insemination; the mean pregnancy rates to first insemination were 53.4 and 65.4 per cent for the control and treated cows, respectively (P < 0.01) and the mean pregnancy rates to repeat inseminations were 52.9 and 59.4 per cent for the control and treated cows. The mean calving to conception intervals were 91.4 and 85.3 days (P < 0.01) and the incidences of barren cows were 10.2 and 5.2 per cent. In the third study the cows were injected with buserelin either eight days or 10 days after insemination; there were no significant effects on fertility in comparison with untreated control cows. PMID:8197694

  17. Short communication: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk of dairy cows and effect of swine population density.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, C; Cremonesi, P; Bertocchi, L; Zanoni, M G; Barberio, A; Drigo, I; Varisco, G; Castiglioni, B; Bronzo, V; Moroni, P

    2016-03-01

    The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has recently frequently been reported in dairy cattle, usually with low prevalence. The livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) ST398 is especially involved in cases of subclinical and clinical mastitis. Swine carry LA-MRSA without clinical symptoms and are considered its reservoir and shedder. People exposed to swine are particularly at risk of LA-MRSA colonization. Environments with relevant livestock density are a demonstrated risk factor for humans to be carriers of a LA-MRSA. This work investigated dairy farms located in an area with a high livestock density, mainly represented by swine. Bulk tank milk samples from 224 dairy farms were collected, and their status was defined as MRSA-positive or MRSA-negative based on culture on chromogenic medium. The number of fattening swine and of fattening swine herds was calculated in an area of 3 km around each dairy farm through georeferencing. The probability of a Staphylococcus aureus-positive dairy farm to be MRSA positive based on the extent of potential infective pressure due to swine density was calculated. Both the number of swine herds and the number of swine were associated with the MRSA status of dairy herds. The 9 MRSA isolated were typed by multi-locus sequence typing and spa-typing, and characterized for their virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance profiles. The ST and spa-types detected are consistent with those present in the Italian swine population. Virulence and resistance profiles are mostly consistent with the types detected. This work provides the first evidence of the epidemiological challenge exerted by the density of the swine population on MRSA in dairy cows. PMID:26805972

  18. Effect of intrauterine dextrose on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows diagnosed with purulent vaginal discharge under certified organic management.

    PubMed

    Maquivar, M G; Barragan, A A; Velez, J S; Bothe, H; Schuenemann, G M

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess responses to treatments (clinical cure and resumption of estrous cycles) of cows with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) that received intrauterine infusion of a hypertonic solution of 50% dextrose (DEX) or untreated control (CON) cows and the subsequent pregnancy per artificial insemination (PAI) in cows with and without PVD. Cows (n=2,852) from 2 dairy herds were screened for PVD using the gloved hand technique at exam 1 [26±3 d in milk (DIM)]. Cows with vaginal discharge scores of 2 or 3 (0-3 scale) were stratified by parity and randomly allocated into 1 of 2 treatment groups: (1) intrauterine infusion (~200 mL) of 50% DEX solution (n=456), or (2) untreated control animals (CON, n=491). Fourteen days posttherapy (40±3 DIM), cows with PVD were re-examined at exam 2 (40±3 DIM) to assess the response to treatments. All cows were subjected to the same reproductive program, which consisted of estrus detection twice daily (using tail chalking and visual observation) for the first 5 artificial inseminations; then, open lactating cows were turned out with bulls. Cows displaying signs of standing estrus underwent AI and no reproductive hormones were used. Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was performed via transrectal palpation at 40±3 d post-AI. The risk of culling within 14 d posttherapy was not different among treatment groups. Cows with PVD had greater cervical diameter at exam 1 and decreased PAI compared with cows without PVD. Treatment with DEX increased the proportion of cows with clear vaginal discharge (clinical cure) and cyclicity 14 d posttherapy compared with CON cows. Pregnancy per AI for DEX (29.2±2%) cows was significantly greater than that for CON (22.5±2%) cows. Cows without PVD had a greater proportion of cycling cows (65.6%) and PAI (37%) with reduced pregnancy losses (5.7%) compared with DEX or CON cows. The use of intrauterine DEX alone improved reproductive performance of cows with PVD. PMID:25828665

  19. Long-term alteration of follicular steroid concentrations in relation to subclinical endometritis in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Green, M P; Ledgard, A M; Beaumont, S E; Berg, M C; McNatty, K P; Peterson, A J; Back, P J

    2011-11-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the effect of subclinical endometritis (scEndo) on ovarian follicular steroid concentrations in early postpartum pasture-fed dairy cows. Mixed-age lactating dairy cows (n = 169) were examined to ascertain uterine health status on d 21 postpartum (±3 d). From this herd, a cohort of scEndo and uninfected cows (n = 47) were selected using uterine cytology to determine scEndo. To ensure cows with scEndo were selected for the study, a conservative threshold [>18% polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells among uterine nucleated cells] was chosen as a selection threshold. Ovarian follicular dynamics were assessed by ultrasonography on d 21, 42, and 63 postpartum. On the latter 2 d, all follicles >4 mm in diameter were ablated, and 4 d later, the largest (F1) and second largest (F2) follicles were measured and their follicular fluid aspirated. Hematological variables and plasma metabolites were measured also on these days to further characterize scEndo cows. On d 21, the prevalence of scEndo was approximately 9% in this herd; by d 42 infections had self-resolved in the majority (81%) of those cows classified as having scEndo on d 21. The scEndo cows had a delayed return to cyclicity; however, no effect was evident on ovarian follicle size or growth rate. Weeks after scEndo had self-resolved and cyclicity was restored, decreased (P = 0.07) testosterone and increased (P = 0.07) cortisol concentrations were evident in F1 follicles of scEndo compared with uninfected cows. Progesterone concentrations of F1 increased (P < 0.05) in 11- to 16-mm diameter follicles of scEndo cows, whereas estradiol, androstendione, and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations were decreased (P < 0.05) in F1 8- to 10-mm diameter follicles of scEndo cows. These 3 steroids also differed (P < 0.05) between F1 follicle size categories of scEndo but not uninfected cows. On d 21, mean plasma albumin concentration was decreased (P = 0.02) in scEndo cows. In summary, early

  20. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in fecal generic Escherichia coli isolated in western Canadian beef herds. Part II — Cows and cow-calf pairs

    PubMed Central

    Gow, Sheryl P.; Waldner, Cheryl L.; Rajíc, Andrijana; McFall, Margaret E.; Reid-Smith, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe antimicrobial resistance in fecal generic Escherichia coli isolated from cows and cow-calf pairs from western Canadian beef herds. Susceptibility testing was completed on 1555 E. coli isolates (n = 533 cows from 69 herds) harvested from fresh fecal samples in the spring of 2002, and 630 isolates (n = 105 cow-calf pairs from 10 herds) collected in the spring of 2003. Only 1 cow isolate was resistant to an antimicrobial classified by Health Canada as being of very high importance to human medicine. Resistance to at least 2 antimicrobials was detected in 7.1% of the 2002 cow isolates, in 3.4% of the 2003 cow isolates, and 23.2% of the 2003 calf isolates. In the cows, resistance to at least 1 antimicrobial was not associated with cow breed (P = 0.16), cow age (P = 0.14), or previous cow treatment (P = 0.56). In the calves, resistance to at least 1 antimicrobial was not predicted by whether or not its dam was resistant to at least 1 antimicrobial (P = 0.36). PMID:18505197

  1. FGF-21: promising biomarker for detecting ketosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuang; Xu, Qiushi; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Yu, Hongjiang; Zhu, Kuilin; Shen, Taiyu; Zhang, Ziyang

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), a protein mainly synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive biomarker for diagnosis of ketosis in dairy cows. Ninety Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 healthy and 30 ketosis cases) were selected and divided into a Ketosis group (K), and a Control group (C). We measured serum FGF-21 and other biochemical parameters by commercial ELISA kits. In a combined population of all 90 cows, we found that serum FGF-21 level was lower (P < 0.001) in cows suffering from ketosis. When the β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) level increased over 1.2 mmol/L, the FGF-21 level tended to decline below 300.85 pg/ml. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) for serum FGF-21 for diagnosis of fatty liver was 0.952-0.025 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.904, 1.000] which was higher than the AUC-ROC for glucose (Glc) and other tested parameters. We concluded that FGF-21 could be a diagnostic parameter in the evaluation and auxiliary diagnosis of changes in the energy metabolism state, and serum FGF-21 measurement would have a considerable clinical impact and lead to greater profitability in the dairy industry. PMID:26728033

  2. Feeding a higher forage diet prepartum decreases incidences of subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vickers, L A; Weary, D M; Veira, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2013-02-01

    A common feeding practice during the dry period is to switch dairy cows to an energy-dense diet 3 wk prepartum, but this practice may lead to the overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of metabolic disease postpartum. The aim of this trial was to compare the metabolic status of transition Holstein dairy cows fed a 77% forage diet (77F; NEl = 1.46 Mcal/kg; NDF = 41%) vs. those fed an 87% forage diet (87F; NEl = 1.41 Mcal/kg; 48% NDF). Approximately 60 d before calving, cows were dried off, housed in a free stall barn, and fed the 87F diet. Three weeks before expected calving, cows were randomly assigned to either the 77F treatment and switched to this diet (n = 45) or assigned to the 87F treatment and stayed on the dry cow ration until parturition (n = 42). After parturition, all cows were fed a common lactation diet (NEl = 1.59 Mcal/kg; 36% NDF). Dry matter intake was measured daily from 2 wk before to 2 wk after calving. Blood was sampled daily for 10 d postpartum. Subclinical ketosis was diagnosed using a threshold of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) ≥ 1.0 mmol/L after calving. The percentage of cows pregnant and odds of being pregnant for each treatment group were determined at 60, 90, and 120 d in milk through ultrasound by the herd veterinarian. Cows on the 87F diet consumed less DM prepartum than those on the 77F diet (12.7 ± 0.3 kg/d vs. 15.4 ± 0.3 kg/d, P < 0.001), but no difference in DMI was detected after calving (19.7 ± 5.5 kg/d; P = 0.87). Although the calculated prepartum required energy intake was the same for the 2 treatments (15.3 ± 1.2 Mcal/d; P = 0.16), cows on the 77F diet consumed 4.5 Mcal/d more than those on the 87F diet (22.5 ± 0.5 Mcal/d vs. 18.0 ± 0.5 Mcal/d; P < 0.001). Postpartum concentration of BHBA was less for cows fed the 87F diet prepartum (0.49 ± 0.02 mmol/L vs. 0.59 ± 0.02 mmol/L; P = 0.02), and fewer animals on this diet were diagnosed subclinical ketosis (SCK; 49% vs. 17%; P = 0.001). Milk production tended to be

  3. A field trial on the effect of propylene glycol on displaced abomasum, removal from herd, and reproduction in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R

    2012-05-01

    The purpose was to determine the effect of oral propylene glycol (PG) administration in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis (SCK). Measured outcomes were development of displaced abomasum (DA) and removal from herd in the first 30 d in milk (DIM), conception to first service, and time to conception within 150 DIM. Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 DIM on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays using the Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). Subclinical ketosis was defined as a blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Cows with SCK were randomized to treatment group (oral PG) or untreated control group (no PG); treatment cows were orally drenched with 300 mL of PG once daily from the day they tested 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L until the day they tested <1.2 mmol/L. Mixed effects multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess the effect of PG on DA, removal from herd, and conception to first service; a semiparametric proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the days-to-conception outcome. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible enrolled cows had at least 1 β-hydroxybutyrate test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Of these, 372 were assigned to the PG treatment group and 369 to the control group. Thirty-nine cows (5.3%) developed a DA after testing positive for SCK and 30 cows (4.0%) died or were sold within the first 30 DIM. Based on risk ratios, control cows were 1.6 times more likely [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.3 to 2.0] to develop a DA and 2.1 times more likely (95% CI=1.2 to 3.6) to die or be sold than cows treated with PG. In addition, PG-treated cows were 1.3 times more likely (risk ratio 95% CI=1.1 to 1.5) to conceive at first insemination than control cows in 3 of the herds. No difference was observed in days to conception within 150 DIM between treatment groups (hazard ratio for PG cows=1.1, 95% CI=0.8 to 1.4), with a median time to

  4. The influence of body condition on the fasting energy metabolism of nonpregnant, nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Birnie, J W; Agnew, R E; Gordon, F J

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of cow body condition score on fasting heat production. Twelve nonpregnant, nonlactating Holstein-Friesian cows were selected from within the dairy herd at the Agricultural Research Institute of Northern Ireland. Six of these animals (group A) had condition scores > or = 4.5, and the remainder (group B) had condition scores <2. All cows were offered dried grass pellets at estimated maintenance energy level (0.58 MJ of metabolizable energy/kg(0.75)) for a minimum of 21 d. The diet also supplied 2.5 times the metabolizable protein requirement for maintenance. Following this, each cow underwent a 5-d fast in open circuit respiration calorimeters during which fasting heat production (FHP) was measured. On completion of measurement, group A was fed to reduce condition score (CS) below 2, while group B was fed to raise each individual condition score above 4.5. When the appropriate condition scores were achieved, dried grass pellets were again offered at maintenance for a minimum of 21 d, and fasting heat production was measured. It was observed that fasting heat production (MJ/kg(0.75)) was significantly higher for cows with low body condition (<2; ultrasonic fat depth < or = 2.9 mm) compared with cows displaying high body condition (> or = 4.5; ultrasonic fat depth > or = 8.2 mm). A linear relationship between condition score and fasting heat production (MJ/kg(0.75)) was defined by regression analysis as; FHP (MJ/kg(0.75)) = 0.501(SE 0.0121) - 0.030CS (SE 0.0035). PMID:10877386

  5. Sand impactions in a Saskatchewan beef cow-calf herd

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Nathan; Hendrick, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Forty beef cows were reported to show signs of abdominal pain and discomfort over a period of 1 wk. Two of the affected animals died and on postmortem examination were found to be impacted with sand in their abomasum and small intestines. Sand-laden barley silage was found to be the cause of these impactions. PMID:21461212

  6. Case study: Comparison of biological active compounds in milk from organic and conventional dairy herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conflicting reports of the quantities of biologically active compounds present in milk from organic grass-fed and conventional herds show that more research is required, especially as these compounds are linked to human health benefits and can improve the health value consumers place on dairy produc...

  7. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella and E. coli from Pennsylvania dairy herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens is an increasing public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella and E. coli isolates from Pennsylvania dairy herds. Manure composite samples were collected from 76 farms: on each farm one sample...

  8. Some observations on the epidemiology of bovine leucosis virus infection in a large dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Wilesmith, J W; Straub, O C; Lorenz, R J

    1980-01-01

    Bovine leucosis infection rates were calculated for two years in a naturally infected dairy herd in which serologically positive animals were not preferentially culled. Transmission of infection was found to occur mainly during the winter housing period. No variation in susceptibility to infection with age was found and young animals did not show a prolonged time from infection to sero-conversion. PMID:6246561

  9. Noninvasive detection of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows with calibrated ultrasonographic image analysis.

    PubMed

    Starke, A; Haudum, A; Weijers, G; Herzog, K; Wohlsein, P; Beyerbach, M; de Korte, C L; Thijssen, J M; Rehage, J

    2010-07-01

    The aim was to test the accuracy of calibrated digital analysis of ultrasonographic hepatic images for diagnosing fatty liver in dairy cows. Digital analysis was performed by means of a novel method, computer-aided ultrasound diagnosis (CAUS), previously published by the authors. This method implies a set of pre- and postprocessing steps to normalize and correct the transcutaneous ultrasonographic images. Transcutaneous hepatic ultrasonography was performed before surgical correction on 151 German Holstein dairy cows (mean +/- standard error of the means; body weight: 571+/-7 kg; age: 4.9+/-0.2 yr; DIM: 35+/-5) with left-sided abomasal displacement. Concentration of triacylglycerol (TAG) was biochemically determined in liver samples collected via biopsy and values were considered the gold standard to which ultrasound estimates were compared. According to histopathologic examination of biopsies, none of the cows suffered from hepatic disorders other than hepatic lipidosis. Hepatic TAG concentrations ranged from 4.6 to 292.4 mg/g of liver fresh weight (FW). High correlations were found between the hepatic TAG and mean echo level (r=0.59) and residual attenuation (ResAtt; r=0.80) obtained in ultrasonographic imaging. High correlation existed between ResAtt and mean echo level (r=0.76). The 151 studied cows were split randomly into a training set of 76 cows and a test set of 75 cows. Based on the data from the training set, ResAtt was statistically selected by means of stepwise multiple regression analysis for hepatic TAG prediction (R(2)=0.69). Then, using the predicted TAG data of the test set, receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to summarize the accuracy and predictive potential of the differentiation between various measured hepatic TAG values, based on TAG predicted from the regression formula. The area under the curve values of the receiver operating characteristic based on the regression equation were 0.94 (<50 vs. >or=50mg of TAG/g of FW

  10. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis.

    PubMed

    Fogsgaard, K K; Røntved, C M; Sørensen, P; Herskin, M S

    2012-02-01

    The consequences of mastitis in terms of dairy cow behavior are relatively unknown. Future assessment of dairy cow welfare during mastitis will be facilitated by knowledge about the potential of mastitis to induce sickness behavior. Our aim was to examine behavior of dairy cows in the period from 2 d before (d -2 and -1) to 3 d (d 0, 1, and 2) after experimental intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli. Effects of experimentally induced mastitis on behavior were examined in 20 primiparous Danish Holstein-Friesian cows, all 3 to 6 wk after calving and kept in tie stalls. After evening milking on d 0, each cow received an intramammary infusion with 20 to 40 cfu of E. coli in 1 healthy front quarter. Paraclinical and bacteriological examinations were conducted to confirm infection. Half of the cows were subjected to liver and udder biopsies twice during the trial. Behavior was video-recorded on 5 consecutive days, d -2 to +2 after challenge when the cows were not disturbed by humans. The behavior of the animals was compared among all days. Infection with E. coli altered the behavior of the dairy cows. Time spent feeding was lower in the initial 24 h after infection compared with that on the other days (16.6±1.1, 16.5±1.0, 13.2±1.2, 18.1±1.1, and 16.0±0.8% of time for d -2, -1, 0, 1, and 2, respectively). The duration of standing idle increased on d 0 compared with that on the control days and d 1 and 2 (29.4±2.6, 28.0±2.3, 39.1±2.6, 31.4±3.8, and 25.9±2.6% of time for d -2, -1, 0, 1 and 2, respectively). The frequency of self-grooming behavior per hour decreased in the initial 24h compared with that on d -2, -1, and 2 (4.1±0.8, 5.4±1.9, 3.2±0.6, 3.6±0.6, and 4.8±1.0 for d -2, -1, 0, 1, and 2, respectively). Likewise, duration of rumination and frequency of turning the head against the udder decreased in the first days after infection (rumination: 32.2±1.6, 34.8±1.8, 27.9±1.7, 30.0±2.6, and 34.8±1.7% of time; and frequency of turning head: 0.6

  11. Mathematical Modeling of the Dynamics of Salmonella Cerro Infection in a US Dairy Herd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, Prem; van Kessel, Jo Ann; Karns, Jeffrey; Wolfgang, David; Schukken, Ynte; Grohn, Yrjo

    2006-03-01

    Salmonellosis has been one of the major causes of human foodborne illness in the US. The high prevalence of infections makes transmission dynamics of Salmonella in a farm environment of interest both from animal and human health perspectives. Mathematical modeling approaches are increasingly being applied to understand the dynamics of various infectious diseases in dairy herds. Here, we describe the transmission dynamics of Salmonella infection in a dairy herd with a set of non-linear differential equations. Although the infection dynamics of different serotypes of Salmonella in cattle are likely to be different, we find that a relatively simple SIR-type model can describe the observed dynamics of the Salmonella enterica serotype Cerro infection in the herd.

  12. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

    2014-01-01

    Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were

  13. Recycling manure as cow bedding: Potential benefits and risks for UK dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Leach, Katharine A; Archer, Simon C; Breen, James E; Green, Martin J; Ohnstad, Ian C; Tuer, Sally; Bradley, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    Material obtained from physical separation of slurry (recycled manure solids; RMS) has been used as bedding for dairy cows in dry climates in the US since the 1970s. Relatively recently, the technical ability to produce drier material has led to adoption of the practice in Europe under different climatic conditions. This review collates the evidence available on benefits and risks of using RMS bedding on dairy farms, with a European context in mind. There was less evidence than expected for anecdotal claims of improved cow comfort. Among animal health risks, only udder health has received appreciable attention. There are some circumstantial reports of difficulties of maintaining udder health on RMS, but no large scale or long term studies of effects on clinical and subclinical mastitis have been published. Existing reports do not give consistent evidence of inevitable problems, nor is there any information on clinical implications for other diseases. The scientific basis for guidelines on management of RMS bedding is limited. Decisions on optimum treatment and management may present conflicts between controls of different groups of organisms. There is no information on the influence that such 'recycling' of manure may have on pathogen virulence. The possibility of influence on genetic material conveying antimicrobial resistance is a concern, but little understood. Should UK or other non-US farmers adopt RMS, they are advised to do so with caution, apply the required strategies for risk mitigation, maintain strict hygiene of bed management and milking practices and closely monitor the effects on herd health. PMID:26388545

  14. Attitudes and expectations of producers to the use of a microcomputer-based management information system to monitor dairy herd performance

    PubMed Central

    Lissemore, Kerry D.; Leslie, Ken E.; Martin, S. Wayne; Menzies, Paula I.; Meek, Alan H.

    1992-01-01

    The attitudes and expectations of producers toward the use of a microcomputer-based herd management information system were assessed. The study was conducted over a two-year period, beginning in January 1986, and was operated as a bureau service. The implementation and use of the program are described elsewhere. Pre- and posttrial questionnaires were administered to assess producer attitudes. We found that the monthly analysis reports were used in the management of the dairy farms and were found to be a useful management tool. The majority of producers indicated a willingness to pay, on average, $6.86/cow/year for such a service. PMID:17423946

  15. Comparison of selected animal observations and management practices used to assess welfare of calves and adult dairy cows on organic and conventional dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Bergman, M A; Richert, R M; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L

    2014-07-01

    Differences in adoption of selected practices used in welfare assessment and audit programs were contrasted among organic (ORG; n=192) herds and similarly sized conventional grazing herds (CON-GR; n=36), and conventional nongrazing herds (CON-NG; n=64). Criteria from 3 programs were assessed: American Humane Association Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle, Farmers Assuring Responsible Management (FARM), and the Canadian Codes of Practice (CCP). Data were collected by trained study personnel during a herd visit and included information about neonatal care, dehorning, pain relief, calf nutrition, weaning, record keeping, use of veterinarians, and animal observations. Associations of management type (ORG, CON-GR, or CON-NG) with adoption of selected practice were assessed. Almost all farms (97%) met criteria suggested for age at weaning but fewer CON-NG farmers weaned calves at ≥5 wk of age compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Only 23% of farms met program requirements for use of pain relief during dehorning, and fewer CON-NG farmers used pain relief for calves after dehorning compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Calves on ORG farms were fed a greater volume of milk and were weaned at an older age than calves on CON-GR and CON-NG farms. Calves on CON-GR farms were dehorned at a younger age compared with calves on ORG and CON-NG farms. The calving area was shared with lactating cows for a larger proportion of ORG herds compared with conventional herds. About 30% of herds met welfare program criteria for body condition score but only about 20% met criteria for animal hygiene scores. The least proportion of cows with hock lesions was observed on ORG farms. Regular use of veterinarians was infrequent for ORG herds. Results of this study indicate that most of the organic and conventional farms enrolled in this study would have been unlikely to achieve many criteria of audit and assessment programs currently used in the US dairy industry. PMID:24819133

  16. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150 days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5 °C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21 days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P + I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the

  17. Effect on Production of Replacing Dietary Starch With Sucrose in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replacing dietary starch with sugar has been reported to improve production in dairy cows. Two sets of 24 Holstein cows averaging 41 kg/d of milk were fed a covariate diet and then blocked by DIM and randomly assigned in two phases to four groups of 6 cows each. Cows were fed experimental diets cont...

  18. Metabolites and immune variables associated with somatic cell counts of primiparous dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nyman, A-K; Emanuelson, U; Holtenius, K; Ingvartsen, K L; Larsen, T; Waller, K Persson

    2008-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate associations between serum concentrations of several blood variables related to metabolic and immunological status around calving, and udder health measured as milk somatic cell counts (SCC), Box-Cox transformed to bcSCC, at first test-milking in 287 primiparous cows in 20 Swedish dairy herds. Possible systematic effects of breed and age at calving on blood profiles were also investigated. Ordinary linear regression models, with robust standard errors and adjusting for clustering within herds, were used to investigate associations between blood variables and bcSCC. Hierarchical linear regression models, with herd as random factor, were used to investigate systematic effects on blood variables. The results showed that greater concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and glucose before calving were associated with lesser bcSCC at first test-milking, whereas greater concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) before calving and greater delta NEFA (describing the difference in concentrations before and after calving) were associated with greater bcSCC at first test-milking. In addition, greater alpha-tocopherol concentrations in the period -5 to +5 d relative to calving were associated with lesser bcSCC at first test-milking, whereas greater concentrations of collectin of 43 kDa (CL-43) postpartum (1 to 21 d after calving) were associated with greater bcSCC. Postpartum concentrations of conglutinin and haptoglobin were also associated with bcSCC, but not independently of each other. Moreover, significant breed differences were observed for insulin, urea nitrogen, conglutinin, cholesterol, NEFA, and CL-43, the latter 3 as an interaction with period. Overall, cows of the Swedish Red breed had greater concentrations of insulin, cholesterol, urea nitrogen, and conglutinin, and lesser concentrations of NEFA and CL-43 than cows of the Swedish Holstein breed. Age at calving as main effect was significantly

  19. Prediction of drinking water intake by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Judy, J V; Kebreab, E; Kononoff, P J

    2016-09-01

    Mathematical models that predict water intake by drinking, also known as free water intake (FWI), are useful in understanding water supply needed by animals on dairy farms. The majority of extant mathematical models for predicting FWI of dairy cows have been developed with data sets representing similar experimental conditions, not evaluated with modern cows, and often require dry matter intake (DMI) data, which may not be routinely available. The objectives of the study were to (1) develop a set of new empirical models for predicting FWI of lactating and dry cows with and without DMI using literature data, and (2) evaluate the new and the extant models using an independent set of FWI measurements made on modern cows. Random effect meta-regression analyses were conducted using 72 and 188 FWI treatment means with and without dietary electrolyte and daily mean ambient temperature (TMP) records, respectively, for lactating cows, and 19 FWI treatment means for dry cows. Milk yield, DMI, body weight, days in milk, dietary macro-nutrient contents, an aggregate milliequivalent concentration of dietary sodium and potassium (NaK), and TMP were used as potential covariates to the models. A model having positive relationships of DMI, dietary dry matter (DM%), and CP (CP%) contents, NaK, and TMP explained 76% of variability in FWI treatment means of lactating cows. When challenged on an independent data set (n=261), the model more accurately predicted FWI [root mean square prediction error as a percentage of average observed value (RMSPE%)=14.4%] compared with a model developed without NaK and TMP (RMSPE%=17.3%), and all extant models (RMSPE%≥15.7%). A model without DMI included positive relationships of milk yield, DM%, NaK, TMP, and days in milk, and explained 63% of variability in the FWI treatment means and performed well (RMSPE%=17.9%), when challenged on the independent data. New models for dry cows included positive relationships of DM% and TMP along with DMI or body

  20. Reproductive efficiency and calf survival in Ontario beef cow-calf herds: a cross-sectional mail survey.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, R W; Martin, S W; Meek, A H

    1985-01-01

    A survey of the efficiency of production of Ontario beef cow-calf herds was conducted using a stratified systematic random sample of Ontario producers. In general, about 87% of females exposed to breeding produced a live calf and 6% of these died before reaching four weeks of age. The herd to herd variation in these rates was quite large, the coefficient of variation being about 17%. The stillbirth rate was 1.7% and the abortion rate 1.2%. In general, herds in northern Ontario and herds whose owners kept breeding and calving records, had reduced livebirth rates, the latter probably reflecting accuracy of data. Herds with a restricted (less than three months) breeding season had increased livebirth rates. Herds using injectable vitamins ADE, and prophylactic antibiotics, had increased neonatal losses. Herds with a restricted calving season (less than or equal to 3 months) and/or feeding free choice salt to cows had decreased neonatal losses. Herdsize and calf mortality rate were directly related, but this did not appear to be due to increased density of cows at calving time. In herds, where calving occurred during the spring, using scour vaccines in calves was associated with increased calf mortality. PMID:3986678

  1. Dynamics of Escherichia coli Virulence Factors in Dairy Herds and Farm Environments in a Longitudinal Study in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S.; Cao, Huilin; Schukken, Ynte H.; Wolfgang, David R.; Smith, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli or its associated virulence factors have been frequently detected in dairy cow manure, milk, and dairy farm environments. However, it is unclear what the long-term dynamics of E. coli virulence factors are and which farm compartments act as reservoirs. This study assessed the occurrence and dynamics of four E. coli virulence factors (eae, stx1, stx2, and the gamma allele of the tir gene [γ-tir]) on three U.S. dairy farms. Fecal, manure, water, feed, milk, and milk filter samples were collected from 2004 to 2012. Virulence factors were measured by postenrichment quantitative PCR (qPCR). All factors were detected in most compartments on all farms. Fecal and manure samples showed the highest prevalence, up to 53% for stx and 21% for γ-tir in fecal samples and up to 84% for stx and 44% for γ-tir in manure. Prevalence was low in milk (up to 1.9% for stx and 0.7% for γ-tir). However, 35% of milk filters were positive for stx and 20% were positive for γ-tir. All factors were detected in feed and water. Factor prevalence and levels, expressed as qPCR cycle threshold categories, fluctuated significantly over time, with no clear seasonal signal independent from year-to-year variability. Levels were correlated between fecal and manure samples, and in some cases autocorrelated, but not between manure and milk filters. Shiga toxins were nearly ubiquitous, and 10 to 18% of the lactating cows were potential shedders of E. coli O157 at least once during their time in the herds. E. coli virulence factors appear to persist in many areas of the farms and therefore contribute to transmission dynamics. PMID:25911478

  2. Control and eradication programme of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) from selected dairy herds in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Burgu, I; Alkan, F; Karaoglu, T; Bilge-Dagalp, S; Can-Sahna, K; Güngör, B; Demir, B

    2005-07-01

    Serum samples of 15,909 cattle from 31 dairy herds located in various regions of Turkey were tested for the presence of antibodies against bovine leucosis virus (BLV) using Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion technique (AGID). 48.3% (15/31) of the herds had seropositive animals and positivity rates were detected from 0.5-34.4% in these herds. In an EBL control/eradication programme all seropositive animals were culled in the infected herds. Thereafter, a total of 74,347 sera were tested for the presence of BLV specific antibodies. The serological results and detail of EBL control/eradication programme were shown in this paper. PMID:16124702

  3. Evaluation of a contract breeding management program in selected Ohio dairy herds with event-time analysis I. Cox proportional hazards models.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Cheyney; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J; Frazer, Grant S; Meiring, Richard W; Hoblet, Kent H

    2006-12-18

    An observational study was conducted in order to assess the impact of a contract breeding program on the reproductive performance in a selected group of Ohio dairies using event-time analysis. The contract breeding program was offered by a breeding co-operative and featured tail chalking and daily evaluation of cows for insemination by co-operative technicians. Dairy employees no longer handled estrus detection activities. Between early 2002 and mid-2004, test-day records related to production and reproduction were obtained for 16,453 lactations representing 11,398 cows in a non-random sample of 31 dairies identified as well-managed client herds of the breeding co-operative. Of the 31 herds, 15 were using the contract breeding at the start of the data acquisition period, having started in the previous 2 years. The remaining 16 herds managed their own breeding program and used the co-operative for semen purchase. Cox proportional hazards modeling techniques were used to estimate the association of the contract breeding, as well as the effect of other significant predictors, with the hazard of pregnancy. Two separate Cox models were developed and compared: one that only considered fixed covariates and a second that included both fixed and time-varying covariates. Estimates of effects were expressed as the hazard ratio (HR) for pregnancy. Results of the fixed covariates model indicated that, controlling for breed, herd size, use of ovulation synchronization protocols in the herd, whether somatic cell score exceeded 4.5 prior to pregnancy or censoring, parity, calving season, and maximum test-day milk prior to pregnancy or censoring, the contract breeding program was associated with an increased hazard of pregnancy (HR=1.315; 95% CI 1.261-1.371). The results of the time-varying covariates model, which controlled for breed, herd size, use of ovulation synchronization protocols, somatic cell score above 4.5, parity, calving season, and testing season also found that the

  4. Climatic effects in Central Europe on the frequency of medical treatments of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sanker, C; Lambertz, C; Gauly, M

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, the relationship between the temperature-humidity index (THI) and the incidence of medical treatments in lactating dairy cows in Lower Saxony, Germany, was investigated. Records of all veterinary-treated cases over 2 years (2003 and 2005) from eight Holstein-Friesian dairy herds raised in loose-housing systems (55 to 170 cows per herd) were evaluated. After exclusion of management-dependent and climate-independent cases, a total of 5547 treatments were analyzed. Treatments were clustered into the following groups: metabolism, fertility, udder and foot/leg. Meteorological data were compiled from the nearest weather station (average distance ± s.d. 39 ± 13 km). Hourly temperatures and relative humidity values were used to calculate the THI, which was divided into classes. Out of the total number of treatments, 37.4%, 32.9%, 21.6% and 8.1% belonged to metabolism, udder, fertility and foot/leg, respectively. Data were analyzed with a mixed model that included THI class, season and year as fixed effects and farm as random effect. In general, incidences were neither affected by the year (P > 0.05) and season (P > 0.05) nor by THI classes (P > 0.05). In tendency, incidences of metabolic treatments increased with increasing THI and incidences of udder treatments increased with decreasing THI. In conclusion, indications of moderate heat stress during summer months in Central Europe were found in the present study, although THI and season did not affect the different disease complexes significantly. PMID:23034127

  5. The effect of heat waves on dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    Vitali, A; Felici, A; Esposito, S; Bernabucci, U; Bertocchi, L; Maresca, C; Nardone, A; Lacetera, N

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the mortality of dairy cows during heat waves. Mortality data (46,610 cases) referred to dairy cows older than 24mo that died on a farm from all causes from May 1 to September 30 during a 6-yr period (2002-2007). Weather data were obtained from 12 weather stations located in different areas of Italy. Heat waves were defined for each weather station as a period of at least 3 consecutive days, from May 1 to September 30 (2002-2007), when the daily maximum temperature exceeded the 90th percentile of the reference distribution (1971-2000). Summer days were classified as days in heat wave (HW) or not in heat wave (nHW). Days in HW were numbered to evaluate the relationship between mortality and length of the wave. Finally, the first 3 nHW days after the end of a heat wave were also considered to account for potential prolonged effects. The mortality risk was evaluated using a case-crossover design. A conditional logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for mortality recorded in HW compared with that recorded in nHW days pooled and stratified by duration of exposure, age of cows, and month of occurrence. Dairy cows mortality was greater during HW compared with nHW days. Furthermore, compared with nHW days, the risk of mortality continued to be higher during the 3 d after the end of HW. Mortality increased with the length of the HW. Considering deaths stratified by age, cows up to 28mo were not affected by HW, whereas all the other age categories of older cows (29-60, 61-96, and >96mo) showed a greater mortality when exposed to HW. The risk of death during HW was higher in early summer months. In particular, the highest risk of mortality was observed during June HW. Present results strongly support the implementation of adaptation strategies which may limit heat stress-related impairment of animal welfare and economic losses in dairy cow farm during HW. PMID:25958287

  6. Isolation of Staphylococcus microti from milk of dairy cows with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Król, Jarosław; Wanecka, Anna; Twardoń, Jan; Mrowiec, Jacek; Dropińska, Agata; Bania, Jacek; Podkowik, Magdalena; Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Paściak, Mariola

    2016-01-15

    The present paper is a case-report of multiple udder infections in a dairy herd caused by Staphylococcus microti. Over a 22-month period, eleven S. microti isolates from milk samples from 9 cows were collected. The animals experienced subclinical (with one exception) intramammary infections with a high self-cure rate. The identification of the microorganism was carried out by means of two independent approaches: nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, as well as some housekeeping genes (sodA, rpoB, dnaJ), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. All S. microti isolates belonged to an apparently single clone (as detected by the RAPD analysis), indicating that the microorganism could adapt, to some degree, to the bovine mammary gland or even spread from cow to cow in a contagious manner. This report is, to our knowledge, the first ever case of bovine mastitis caused by S. microti and the first instance of isolation of this microorganism from domesticated animals. PMID:26711044

  7. Phenotyping and genotyping of streptococci in bovine milk in Argentinean dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Reinoso, Elina; Dieser, Silvana; Calvinho, Luis; Bogni, Cristina; Odierno, Liliana

    2010-09-01

    Most veterinary and milk hygiene laboratories identify streptococci and enterococci based on serological and biochemical tests. The analysis of 16S rDNA was suggested to be used for more exact identification; however, its use has not been considered so far in monitoring studies. The objective of the present study was to compare a conventional phenotypic method with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rDNA (16S rDNA RFLP) for identification of streptococci isolated from composite milk samples collected in connection with intramammary infection (IMI) in six Argentinean dairy farms. Composite milk samples (n = 1223) from cows belonging to six herds were collected for bacteriological analysis. Twelve reference strains and fifty streptococci or streptococcuslike isolates were identified to species level by the API 20 Strep system, conventional biochemical tests and 16S rDNA RFLP in a blind assay. The remaining streptococci or streptococcus-like isolates (n = 40) were identified to the species level both by 16S rDNA RFLP and conventional biochemical tests. As indicated by Kappa values, agreement between the 16S rDNA RFLP and the conventional scheme for identification of Streptococcus agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, S. equinus and Enterococcus faecalis was 0.91, 0.73, 0.92, 0.81 and 0.85, respectively. Together with the less frequently isolated streptococcal species, the conventional scheme correctly identified 77 out of 90 isolates (85.5%). Thus, the use of 16S rDNA RFLP is considered valuable for monitoring studies due to its affordable cost for standard laboratories. PMID:20713320

  8. Modeling heat loss from the udder of a dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Wu, Binxin

    2016-07-01

    A mechanistic model that predicts sensible and latent heat fluxes from the udder of a dairy cow was developed. The prediction of the model was spot validated against measured data from the literature, and the result agreed within 7% of the measured value for the same ambient temperature. A dairy cow can lose a significant amount of heat (388W/m(2)) from the udder. This suggests that the udder could be considered as a heat sink. The temperature profile through the udder tissue (core to skin) approached the core temperature for an air temperature ≥37°C whereas the profile decreased linearly from the core to skin surface for an air temperature less than 37°C. Sensible heat loss was dominant when ambient air temperature was less than 37.5°C but latent heat loss was greater than sensible heat loss when air temperature was ≥37.5°C. The udder could lose a total (sensible + latent) heat flux of 338W/m(2) at an ambient temperature of 35°C and blood-flow rate of 3.2×10(-3)m(3)/(sm(3) tissue). The results of this study suggests that, in time of heat stress, a dairy cow could be cooled by cooling the udder only (e.g., using an evaporative cooling jacket). PMID:27264885

  9. Metabolomic biomarkers correlating with hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver disease is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that compromises animal performance and, hence, causes heavy economic losses worldwide. This syndrome, occurring during the critical transition from gestation to early lactation, leads to an impaired health status, decreased milk yield, reduced fertility and shortened lifetime. Because the prevailing clinical chemistry parameters indicate advanced liver damage independently of the underlying disease, currently, hepatic lipidosis can only be ascertained by liver biopsy. We hypothesized that the condition of fatty liver disease may be accompanied by an altered profile of endogenous metabolites in the blood of affected animals. Results To identify potential small-molecule biomarkers as a novel diagnostic alternative, the serum samples of diseased dairy cows were subjected to a targeted metabolomics screen by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. A subsequent multivariate test involving principal component and linear discriminant analyses yielded 29 metabolites (amino acids, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelines) that, in conjunction, were able to distinguish between dairy cows with no hepatic lipidosis and those displaying different stages of the disorder. Conclusions This proof-of-concept study indicates that metabolomic profiles, including both amino acids and lipids, distinguish hepatic lipidosis from other peripartal disorders and, hence, provide a promising new tool for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis. By generating insights into the molecular pathogenesis of hepatic lipidosis, metabolomics studies may also facilitate the prevention of this syndrome. PMID:24888604

  10. Completeness of metabolic disease recordings in Nordic national databases for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Espetvedt, M N; Wolff, C; Rintakoski, S; Lind, A; Østerås, O

    2012-06-01

    The four Nordic countries Denmark (DK), Finland (FI), Norway (NO) and Sweden (SE) all have national databases where diagnostic events in dairy cows are recorded. Comparing and looking at differences in disease occurrence between countries may give information on factors that influence disease occurrence, optimal diseases control and treatment strategies. For such comparisons to be valid, the data in these databases should be standardised and of good quality. The objective of the study presented here was to assess the quality of metabolic disease recordings, primarily milk fever and ketosis, in four Nordic national databases. Completeness of recording figures of database registrations at two different levels was chosen as a measure of data quality. Firstly, completeness of recording of all disease events on a farm regardless of veterinary involvement, called 'Farmer observed completeness', was determined. Secondly, completeness of recording of veterinary treated disease events only, called 'Veterinary treated completeness', was determined. To collect data for calculating these completeness levels a simple random sample of herds was obtained in each country. Farmers who were willing to participate, recorded for 4 months in 2008, on a purpose made registration form, any observed illness in cows, regardless of veterinary involvement. The number of participating herds was 105, 167, 179 and 129 in DK, FI, NO and SE respectively. In total these herds registered 247, 248, 177 and 218 metabolic events for analysis in DK, FI, NO and SE, respectively. Data from national databases were subsequently extracted, and the two sources of data were matched to find the proportion, or completeness, of diagnostic events registered by farmers that also existed in national databases. Matching was done using a common diagnostic code system and allowed for a discrepancy of 7 days for registered date of the event. For milk fever, the Farmer observed completeness was 77%, 67%, 79% and 79

  11. Aquagrams of raw milk for oestrus detection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Takemura, G; Bázár, G; Ikuta, K; Yamaguchi, E; Ishikawa, S; Furukawa, A; Kubota, Y; Kovács, Z; Tsenkova, R

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop rapid and cost-effective method for oestrus detection in dairy cows by means of near infrared spectroscopy and aquaphotomics, using raw milk from individual cows. We found that aquaphotomics approach showed consistent specific water spectral pattern of milk at the oestrus periods of the investigated Holstein cows. Characteristic changes were detected especially in foremilk collected at morning milking. They were reflected in calculated aquagrams of milk spectra where distinctive spectral pattern of oestrus showed increased light absorbance of strongly hydrogen-bonded water. Results showed that monitoring of raw milk near infrared spectra provides an opportunity for analysing hormone levels indirectly, through the changes of water spectral pattern caused by complex physiological changes related to fertile periods. PMID:25704193

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of intramuscular versus intramammary treatment of subclinical Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis in dairy cows in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Reyes, J; Chaffer, M; Sanchez, J; Torres, G; Macias, D; Jaramillo, M; Duque, P C; Ceballos, A; Keefe, G P

    2015-08-01

    A randomized controlled trial was performed in 17 Colombian dairy herds to determine the cure risk among cows subclinically infected with Streptococcus agalactiae exposed to 2 antibiotic therapies. Composite milk samples were collected before milking at the onset of the trial (pretreatment) and 2 subsequent times over a period of approximately 63 d. The intramammary application (IMM) of ampicillin-cloxacillin was compared with the intramuscular application (IM) of penethamate hydriodide, and cure risks after an initial and retreatment application were assessed. Cure risk after the initial treatment was higher (82.4%) for the IMM treatment than for IM therapy (65.8%). However, no difference was observed in the cure risk of refractory cases after retreatment (IMM=52.6% vs. IM=51.2%). The cumulative cure risk (both initial and retreatment) was 90.4 and 82.9% for the IMM and IM products, respectively. A 2-level random effects logistic model that controlled for pretreatment cow-level somatic cell count, indicated that IM treatment (odds ratio=0.37) had a lower cure risk than IMM and a tendency for a lower cure risk with increasing baseline somatic cell count. Our findings suggest that both products and administration routes can reduce the prevalence of S. agalactiae in affected herds, but the IMM product had a better efficacy in curing the infection. In addition to the treatment protocol, the cow somatic cell count should be considered when making management decisions for cows infected with S. agalactiae. PMID:26074229

  13. Pathogen group specific risk factors at herd, heifer and quarter levels for intramammary infections in early lactating dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Piepers, S; Peeters, K; Opsomer, G; Barkema, H W; Frankena, K; De Vliegher, S

    2011-05-01

    Risk factors for intramammary infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, contagious major pathogens and environmental major pathogens in early lactating heifers were evaluated at the herd, heifer and quarter levels. In total, 764 quarters of 191 dairy heifers in 20 randomly selected farms in Flanders (Belgium) were sampled. Quarter milk samples were collected between 1 and 4 days in milk and between 5 and 8 days in milk for bacteriological culture. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel logistic regression analysis. Higher average herd milk somatic cell count (>200,000 cells/mL), not having an effective fly control strategy, contact with lactating cows prior to calving and moderate to severe udder edema prior to calving increased the odds of intramammary infections caused by contagious major pathogens. Poor heifer hygiene and lack of mineral/vitamin supplementation prior to calving were risk factors for intramammary infection caused by environmental major pathogens. Teat apex colonization with coagulase-negative staphylococci prior to calving seemed to protect quarters against intramammary infections caused by major pathogens. Poor heifer hygiene before calving, a non-clipped udder and not practicing of teat dipping prior to calving increased the odds of intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci. Although management is important in the prevention and control of intramammary infections in early lactating heifers, most variation in the prevalence of intramammary infections resided at the heifer and quarter levels, indicating that the susceptibility for intramammary infections around calving is mainly determined by heifer and quarter characteristics. PMID:21411160

  14. Pathogen-specific effects on milk yield in repeated clinical mastitis episodes in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of clinical mastitis (CM) cases due to different pathogens on milk yield in Holstein cows. The first 3 CM cases in a cow's lactation were modeled. Eight categories of pathogens were included: Streptococcus spp.; Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; cases with CM signs but no bacterial growth (above the level detectable by our microbiological procedures) observed in the culture sample, and cases with contamination (≥ 3 pathogens in the sample); other pathogens that may be treated with antibiotics (included Citrobacter, Corynebacterium bovis, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas; "other treatable"); and other pathogens not successfully treated with antibiotics (Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma, Prototheca, yeasts; "other not treatable"). Data from 38,276 lactations in cows from 5 New York State dairy herds, collected from 2003-2004 until 2011, were analyzed. Mixed models with an autoregressive correlation structure (to account for correlation among the repeated measures of milk yield within a lactation) were estimated. Primiparous (lactation 1) and multiparous (lactations 2 and 3) cows were analyzed separately, as the shapes of their lactation curves differed. Primiparas were followed for up to 48 wk of lactation and multiparas for up to 44 wk. Fixed effects included parity, calving season, week of lactation, CM (type, case number, and timing of CM in relation to milk production cycle), and other diseases (milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum). Herd was modeled as a random effect. Clinical mastitis was more common in multiparas than in primiparas. In primiparas, Streptococcus spp. occurred most frequently as the first case. In multiparas, E. coli was most common as the first case. In subsequent cases, CM cases with no specific growth or contamination were most common in both parity groups. The hazard of

  15. Progression of Coxiella burnetii infection after implementing a two-year vaccination program in a naturally infected dairy cattle herd

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection in dairy cattle herds recently reported and the long survival time of the bacterium in the environment pose a risk to human and animal health that calls for the implementation of control measures at herd level. This study presents the results of a 2-year vaccination program with an inactivated phase I vaccine in a Spanish dairy herd naturally infected with C. burnetii. Calves older than 3 months and non-pregnant heifers and cows were vaccinated in April 2011 and the farm was subsequently visited at a monthly basis for vaccination of recently calved cows and calves that reached the age of 3 months. Annual booster doses were given to previous vaccinated animals as well. The effectiveness of the vaccine was assessed in terms of level of C. burnetii shedding through milk and uterine fluids and environmental contamination as determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results The percentage of shedder animals through uterine fluids and milk progressively decreased, and C. burnetii DNA load in bulk-tank milk samples was low at the end of the study. The average seroconversion rate in not yet vaccinated animals, which acted as control group, was 8.6% during the first year and 0% in the second year. DNA of C. burnetii was found in aerosols and dust samples taken in the calving area only at the beginning of the study, whereas slurry samples remained C. burnetii PCR positive for at least 18 months. Multiple Locus Variable number tandem-repeat Analysis identified the same genotype in all C. burnetii DNA positive samples. Conclusions In the absence of any changes in biosecurity, the overall reduction of C. burnetii infection in animals to 1.2% milk shedders and the reduced environment contamination found at the end of the study was ascribed to the effects of vaccination together with the culling of milk shedders. Vaccination has to be planned as a medium-long term strategy to suppress risks of re

  16. Simulation-model evaluation of bovine tuberculosis-eradication strategies in Argentine dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Perez, Andres M; Ward, Michael P; Ritacco, Viviana

    2002-08-30

    We used stochastic modification of the Reed-Frost model to assess the impact of 14 different eradication strategies on bovine tuberculosis, under three scenarios of disease introduction, in Argentine dairy herds. All strategies investigated were based on a test-and-cull approach using either the caudal-fold test (CFT), the single cervical test (SCT), the gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN) test or a combination of these tests. The maximum, minimum and most-likely sensitivity and specificity were investigated in three scenarios simulating different epidemiological conditions. Simulation results were highly variable; therefore, it is difficult to predict the effect of disease-control strategies within individual herds. On average, the use of the SCT was less efficient in eradicating tuberculosis from the simulated herd than the CFT. Eradication would be achieved most efficiently by strategies in which the CFT was used assuming maximum possible sensitivity and specificity (difficult to achieve in the field) and/or the gamma-IFN test-which has both economical and logistical limitations to its widespread application in Argentina. When disease-control was simulated in situations in which herd tuberculosis prevalence is > or = 22%, all strategies we simulated were less efficient than herd depopulation. Considering that Argentine dairy producers are not compensated financially for cattle culled because of tuberculosis, eradication strategies currently used in the Argentine national tuberculosis eradication might not succeed. PMID:12163251

  17. The motivation of dairy cows for access to pasture.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Gemma L; Rutter, S Mark; East, Martyn; Sinclair, Liam A

    2013-07-01

    Several factors influence whether dairy cattle prefer to be indoors or at pasture, including weather conditions and milk yield, but it is unclear how motivated cows are for access to pasture. One way to measure motivation is to require the animal to work (e.g., walk different distances) for access to a resource. This study investigated whether pasture access located 60, 140, or 260m from the indoor housing would affect the proportion of time dairy cows spent at pasture. Thirty-two Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used during the study, which took place in the United Kingdom from May to July 2010. The experiment consisted of four 18-d experimental periods, with 8 cows in each period, which were further divided into 2 groups of 4 cows. Following a training period, the cows were randomly allocated to distances of 60, 140, or 260m to pasture over three 4-d measurement periods. A video camera was used to record time spent indoors and outdoors 24h/d, and manual behavior observations (0700 to 2200h) took place 6 times during each period to record how the cows spent their time in each location. The video data showed that cows spent, on average, 57.8% (±3.44) of their time outside (either at pasture or on the track). One-sample t-tests revealed that this value was different from 0% (t=16.80), 50% (t=2.26), and 100% (t=-12.28). Analysis of the percentage time spent outside revealed that distance did not influence nighttime pasture use (2100 to 0430h; F2,8=0.16; 81.0% vs. 81.0% vs. 76.7%, for 60m vs. 140m vs. 260m, respectively). In contrast, during the day (0700 to 2100h; from behavior observations), time spent at pasture declined as distance increased; that is, cows spent more time at pasture when they had to walk 60m (F2,80=10.09) than when they had to walk 140 or 260m (45.3% vs. 27.4% vs. 21.2%, respectively). Time spent at pasture decreased on rainy days (y=-1.0672x + 59.646, R(2)=0.09, n=48d), but the indoor temperature-humidity index (THI), the outdoor THI, and body

  18. Prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in bulk tank milk from unvaccinated irish dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Bulk tank milk samples, collected from 347 herds throughout the Republic of Ireland using a sampling frame based on seven milk-recording organisations, were tested by ELISA for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo. These herds, which had not been vaccinated against leptospirosis within the previous five years, were categorised according to their province, milk-recording organisation and size. Two-hundred-and-seventy-three herds (79%) had a positive ELISA titre. Both the probability of a herd being seropositive and the antibody level in the herd milk sample were affected by the province (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) and the herd size category (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Larger herds were significantly more likely to have positive reactions and higher mean concentrations of antibody. It was concluded that a high proportion of unvaccinated Irish dairy herds have been exposed to infection with Leptospira hardjo. PMID:21851657

  19. Efficacy of extended intramammary ceftiofur therapy against mild to moderate clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cows: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Truchetti, Geoffrey; Bouchard, Émile; DesCôteaux, Luc; Scholl, Daniel; Roy, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the efficacy of extended ceftiofur therapy and none have focused on extended therapy for naturally occurring clinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of extended intramammary ceftiofur therapy of 8 d duration with a standard 2-day regimen for the treatment of naturally occurring mild to moderate clinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows. Holstein cows from 22 dairy herds (n = 241) were randomly allocated to the 2 treatment groups. For each case of mastitis, 125 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride was administered intramammary once a day for 2 or 8 d. Clinical cure, 21 d after the last treatment, was 89% (98/110) in each group. Bacteriological cure 21 d after the last treatment for the 2- and 8-day regimens were 32% (15/47) and 61% (25/41), respectively, for all bacteria (P = 0.007), 64% (9/14) and 82% (9/11), respectively, for streptococci (P = 0.50), and 0% (0/20) and 47% (9/19), respectively, for Staphylococcus aureus (P = 0.0004). There were no statistical differences between groups for new intramammary infections. Overall, ceftiofur extended therapy increased cure when compared to a 2-day regimen for the treatment of naturally occurring mild to moderate clinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows. PMID:24396178

  20. Evaluation of vaginal discharge with the Metricheck device and the relationship to reproductive performance in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, Christian; Völker, Denise; Janowitz, Ulrich; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    Vaginal mucus during estrus was examined with the Metricheck device and the relationship to the reproduction of high-yielding dairy cows was studied. The study was conducted in 99 dairy herds located in Western Germany and 1348 Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows showing spontaneous estrus were examined. Independent of the Metricheck result, the animals were inspected by professional insemination technicians and those suitable for insemination (n = 989) were bred by artificial insemination (AI). Reproductive performance was characterized by non-return rate at 90 days (NRR90). The discharge of the animals predominantly had a clear appearance (70%) and a stringy consistency (80%). Animals with clear vaginal discharge had higher NRR90 (56%; n = 697) than animals with abnormal (turbid, mucopurulent, purulent, sanguineous) vaginal secretion (48%, n = 292; P < 0.05). NRR90 was lower in animals with short calving to AI interval (< 70 days; 39%) than with medium (70-130 days; 54%) or long (> 130 days; 62%) intervals (P < 0.05). NRR90 decreased by 12% from the lowest (< 15 kg) to the highest (> 45 kg) milk yield class. In conclusion, the use of the Metricheck device integrated into the insemination procedure is recommended to identify dairy cows suffering severely from uterine disease. PMID:24961582

  1. Changes in serum copper and zinc levels in peripartum healthy and subclinically hypocalcemic dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhe; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Baoyu; Liu, Guowen

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of serum copper and zinc in subclinically hypocalcemic peripartum dairy cows in comparison to healthy animals. Blood samples were taken from 219 multiparous Holstein cows near parturition (from 4 weeks prepartum to 4 weeks postpartum) and 51 cows with subclinical hypocalcemia. The results showed that the serum copper concentration increased gradually at 1 week prepartum and remained high for the first 4 weeks postpartum in the healthy periparturient dairy cows. The serum zinc concentration reached a nadir at 1 week postpartum and subsequently increased gradually to baseline. The serum zinc concentration was significantly decreased (P<0.01) in dairy cows with subclinical hypocalcemia compared with healthy cows. There was no significant difference in the serum copper concentration between cows with subclinical hypocalcemia and healthy cows. These data demonstrate that the concentrations of copper and zinc in serum change dramatically during the peripartum period in dairy cows, which is a tremendous challenge for the body and for the maintenance of dairy cow health. The present study further suggests that a decreased serum zinc concentration could be a cause of decreased productive performance and increased susceptibility to other diseases due to immunosuppression in dairy cows with subclinical hypocalcemia. Additionally, this decreased zinc concentration may be involved in the pathogenesis of subclinical hypocalcemia. PMID:24859816

  2. A case-control study to estimate the effects of acute clinical infection with the Schmallenberg virus on milk yield, fertility and veterinary costs in Swiss dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, M; Lechner, I; Aebi, M; Vögtlin, A; Posthaus, H; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Meylan, M

    2016-04-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was first detected in Switzerland in July 2012 and many Swiss dairy farmers reported acute clinical signs in dairy cattle during the spread of the virus until December 2012. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of an acute infection with SBV on milk yield, fertility and veterinary costs in dairy farms with clinical signs of SBV infection (case farms), and to compare those farms to a matched control group of dairy farms in which cattle did not show clinical signs of SBV infection. Herd size was significantly (p<0.001) larger in case farms (33 cows, n=77) than in control farms (25 cows, n=84). Within case herds, 14.8% (median) of the cows showed acute clinical signs. Managers from case farms indicated to have observed a higher abortion rate during the year with SBV (6.5%) than in the previous year (3.7%). Analysis of fertility parameters based on veterinary bills and data from the breeding associations showed no significant differences between case and control farms. The general veterinary costs per cow from July to December 2012 were significantly higher (p=0.02) in case (CHF 19.80; EUR 16.50) than in control farms (CHF 15.90; EUR 13.25). No differences in milk yield were found between groups, but there was a significant decrease in milk production in case farms in the second half year in 2012 compared to the same period in 2011 (p<0.001) and 2013 (p=0.009). The average daily milk yield per cow (both groups together) was +0.73kg higher (p=0.03) in the second half year 2011 and +0.52kg (p=0.12) in the second half year 2013 compared to the same half year 2012. Fifty-seven percent of the cows with acute clinical signs (n=461) were treated by a veterinarian. The average calculated loss after SBV infection for a standardized farm was CHF 1606 (EUR 1338), which can be considered as low at the national level, but the losses were subject to great fluctuations between farms, so that individual farms could have very

  3. Q Fever Dairy Herd Status Determination Based on Serological and Molecular Analysis of Bulk Tank Milk.

    PubMed

    Anastácio, S; Carolino, N; Sidi-Boumedine, K; da Silva, G J

    2016-04-01

    Ruminants are recognized as the main reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii. EFSA highlighted the lack of knowledge about Q fever prevalence in many European countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out in randomly selected dairy herds (n = 109) from central Portugal to screen for C. burnetii infection and to correlate it with herd factors. Bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from cattle (n = 45) and small ruminant (n = 64) herds were tested by ELISA and PCR. The apparent seroprevalence of Q fever was estimated in 45.9% (95% CI: 36.3-55.7) being higher in small ruminants (51.6; 95% CI: 39.6-63.4) than in cattle (37.8; 95% CI: 25.1-52.4). The shedding of C. burnetii in BTM was detected in 11.9% (95% CI: 7.1-19.4) of BTM, and it was higher in cattle (20%; 95% CI: 10.9-33.8) than in sheep and mixed herds (6.3%; 95% CI: 2.5-15). A high bacterial load (≥ 3 × 10(3) bacteria/ml) was observed in 85% of PCR-positive BTM. A significant correlation was found between the bacterial load and positive samples on ELISA (P < 0.001). Antibody positivity was significantly associated with the increased herd size (P < 0.01) and the occurrence of abortion (P < 0.05), whereas the shedding of C. burnetii was significantly associated with the report of infertility (P < 0.05). The results highlight that serological and molecular methods in combination are a useful tool to screen for Q fever and to clarify the herd infection status. The shedding of C. burnetii through milk is important, especially in dairy cattle, and thus, the role of milk as a potential source of infection among dairy workers should not be neglected. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting C. burnetii infection in dairy livestock in Portugal showing that Q fever is significant in dairy herds, leading to economic losses and being a risk for public health, which highlights the need of implementation of control measures. PMID:25208655

  4. Latent heat loss of dairy cows in an equatorial semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis; de Queiroz, João Paulo A. Fernandes

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate evaporative heat transfer of dairy cows bred in a hot semi-arid environment. Cutaneous ( E S) and respiratory ( E R) evaporation were measured (810 observations) in 177 purebred and crossbred Holstein cows from five herds located in the equatorial semi-arid region, and one herd in the subtropical region of Brazil. Rectal temperature ( T R), hair coat surface temperature ( T S) and respiratory rate ( F R) were also measured. Observations were made in the subtropical region from August to December, and in the semi-arid region from April to July. Measurements were done from 1100 to 1600 hours, after cows remained in a pen exposed to the sun. Environmental variables measured in the same locations as the animals were black globe temperature ( T G), air temperature ( T A), wind speed ( U), and partial air vapour pressure ( P V). Data were analysed by mixed models, using the least squares method. Results showed that average E S and E R were higher in the semi-arid region (117.2 W m-2 and 44.0 W m-2, respectively) than in the subtropical region (85.2 W m-2 and 30.2 W m-2, respectively). Herds and individual cows were significant effects ( P < 0.01) for all traits in the semi-arid region. Body parts did not affect T S and E S in the subtropical region, but was a significant effect ( P < 0.01) in the semi-arid region. The average flank T S (42.8°C) was higher than that of the neck and hindquarters (39.8°C and 41.6°C, respectively). Average E S was higher in the neck (133.3 W m-2) than in the flank (116.2 W m-2) and hindquarters (98.6 W m-2). Coat colour affected significantly both T S and E S ( P < 0.01). Black coats had higher T S and E S in the semi-arid region (41.7°C and 117.2 W m-2, respectively) than white coats (37.2°C and 106.7 W m-2, respectively). Rectal temperatures were almost the same in both subtropical and semi-arid regions. The results highlight the need for improved management methods specific for semi-arid regions.

  5. Implementation and use of a microcomputer-based management information system to monitor dairy herd performance

    PubMed Central

    Lissemore, Kerry D.; Leslie, Ken E.; Menzies, Paula I.; Martin, S. Wayne; Meek, Alan H.; Etherington, Wayne G.

    1992-01-01

    A microcomputer-based herd management information system was implemented as part of the herd health program provided to 13 dairy clients by the Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph. The study was conducted over a two year period. Data were collected from on-farm event diaries, veterinary visit reports, and production testing information. Selected indices of reproduction, udder health, production, and heifer performance were reported. It was concluded that the implementation of a microcomputer-based information management system, operated as a bureau service, was feasible. However, limitations to the implementation in veterinary practice were identified. PMID:17423945

  6. Evaluation of effects of metritis management in a complex dairy herd health management program.

    PubMed

    Krogh, M A; Enevoldsen, C

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the effects of all interventions in a dairy herd, including the effects of various herd health management programs (HHMP), is highly relevant. A traditional randomized controlled trial is the gold standard but is likely practically impossible or prohibitively expensive to use for a general evaluation of a HHMP. Generalizability may also be poor because of the dynamics of the production contexts. In this study, we demonstrate an approach for evaluating the effects of an HHMP in the field, specifying an intervention theory for an ongoing HHMP in the context of the Danish dairy industry. As an example, we suggest one coherent analytical approach for studying the possible effects on milk production of systematic postpartum examinations of vaginal discharge, which is supposed to improve detection and treatment of metritis or endometritis. This routine is one component of the HHMP. The data consisted of 121 herds and 76,953 lactations over a 15-yr period. For parity group 1, the negative effects of metritis (despite treatment) on 305-d milk production after a normal calving were reduced by 116 kg of energy-corrected milk after enrollment in the HHMP. For parity group 2 and parity group >2, enrollment in the HHMP resulted in a 129-kg and an 80-kg energy-corrected milk yield increase in milk production, respectively. The results indicate that effects of the HHMP existed, which were mediated through improved metritis detection. This study demonstrates the importance of a clear-cut intervention theory, although even with a theory, the research question can be too herd and context specific. In such a case, a within-herd randomized controlled trial study design seems to be the only way to achieve a valid result for a given herd, and acquiring valid results from an observational multi-herd study will be very difficult. PMID:24239087

  7. Effect of delayed breeding during the summer on profitability of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gobikrushanth, M; De Vries, A; Santos, J E P; Risco, C A; Galvão, K N

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this retrospective observational cohort study, combined with simulation, was to evaluate the effect of extending the voluntary waiting period (VWP) during the summer on profitability on a Florida dairy farm. Data from Holstein cows (n=1,416) that calved between June and September of 2007 and 2008 were used. Cows that calved between June 1 and July 21 (regular group; REG; n=719) were artificially inseminated (AI) for the first time upon estrus detection (ED) after the second PGF₂α of the Presynch protocol administered between 57 and 63 d in milk (DIM), or underwent timed AI using the Ovsynch protocol (TAI) if not detected in estrus. Cows that calved between July 22 and September 18 (extended group; EXT; n=697) underwent AI for the first time after the first or second PGF₂α starting November 14 or November 21 or underwent TAI if not detected in estrus. For second and subsequent AI, all cows underwent AI upon ED or enrolled on TAI after nonpregnancy diagnosis. Following these schemes, average VWP in the REG group and EXT group were 60 and 83 d, respectively. Overall profitability for both experimental and subsequent parities were calculated by subtracting the costs existing of feeding costs ($0.30/kg lactating cow diet; $0.25/kg dry cow diet), breeding costs ($2.65/dose PGF₂α; $2.40/dose GnRH; $0.25/injection administration; $10/semen straw; $5/AI; $3/pregnancy diagnosis), and other costs ($3/d) from the daily revenues with milk sales ($0.44/kg of milk), cow sales ($1.76/kg of live weight), and calf sales ($140/calf). A herd budget simulation was used to predict future cash flow after culling or end of subsequent parity until 6 yr after the start of the study to account for all cash flow consequences of extended VWP. Cows in the EXT group had greater first-service pregnancy per AI (PAI1) but still had greater days open and calving interval. Delaying breeding did not affect total cash flow because the EXT group had greater combined

  8. Lameness detection via leg-mounted accelerometers on dairy cows on four commercial farms.

    PubMed

    Thorup, V M; Munksgaard, L; Robert, P-E; Erhard, H W; Thomsen, P T; Friggens, N C

    2015-10-01

    Lameness in dairy herds is traditionally detected by visual inspection, which is time-consuming and subjective. Compared with healthy cows, lame cows often spend longer time lying down, walk less and change behaviour around feeding time. Accelerometers measuring cow leg activity may assist farmers in detecting lame cows. On four commercial farms, accelerometer data were derived from hind leg-mounted accelerometers on 348 Holstein cows, 53 of them during two lactations. The cows were milked twice daily and had no access to pasture. During a lactation, locomotion score (LS) was assessed on average 2.4 times (s.d. 1.3). Based on daily lying duration, standing duration, walking duration, total number of steps, step frequency, motion index (MI, i.e. total acceleration) for lying, standing and walking, eight accelerometer means and their corresponding coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated for each week immediately before an LS. A principal component analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the variables. The effects of LS and farm on the principal components (PC) and on the variables were analysed in a mixed model. The first four PC accounted for 27%, 18%, 12% and 10% of the total variation, respectively. PC1 corresponded to Activity variability due to heavy loading by five CV variables related to standing and walking. PC2 corresponded to Activity level due to heavy loading by MI walking, MI standing and walking duration. PC3 corresponded to Recumbency due to heavy loading by four variables related to lying. PC4 corresponded mainly to Stepping due to heavy loading by step frequency. Activity variability at LS4 was significantly higher than at the lower LS levels. Activity level was significantly higher at LS1 than at LS2, which was significantly higher than at LS4. Recumbency was unaffected by LS. Stepping at LS1 and LS2 was significantly higher than at LS3 and LS4. Activity level was significantly lower on farm 3 compared with farms 1 and 2

  9. Harnessing the genetics of the modern dairy cow to continue improvements in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    VandeHaar, M J; Armentano, L E; Weigel, K; Spurlock, D M; Tempelman, R J; Veerkamp, R

    2016-06-01

    Feed efficiency, as defined by the fraction of feed energy or dry matter captured in products, has more than doubled for the US dairy industry in the past 100 yr. This increased feed efficiency was the result of increased milk production per cow achieved through genetic selection, nutrition, and management with the desired goal being greater profitability. With increased milk production per cow, more feed is consumed per cow, but a greater portion of the feed is partitioned toward milk instead of maintenance and body growth. This dilution of maintenance has been the overwhelming driver of enhanced feed efficiency in the past, but its effect diminishes with each successive increment in production relative to body size and therefore will be less important in the future. Instead, we must also focus on new ways to enhance digestive and metabolic efficiency. One way to examine variation in efficiency among animals is residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of efficiency that is independent of the dilution of maintenance. Cows that convert feed gross energy to net energy more efficiently or have lower maintenance requirements than expected based on body weight use less feed than expected and thus have negative RFI. Cows with low RFI likely digest and metabolize nutrients more efficiently and should have overall greater efficiency and profitability if they are also healthy, fertile, and produce at a high multiple of maintenance. Genomic technologies will help to identify these animals for selection programs. Nutrition and management also will continue to play a major role in farm-level feed efficiency. Management practices such as grouping and total mixed ration feeding have improved rumen function and therefore efficiency, but they have also decreased our attention on individual cow needs. Nutritional grouping is key to helping each cow reach its genetic potential. Perhaps new computer-driven technologies, combined with genomics, will enable us to optimize management for

  10. Why is it getting more difficult to successfully artificially inseminate dairy cows?*

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, H.; Walker, S. L.; Morris, M. J.; Routly, J. E.; Smith, R. F.

    2009-01-01

    Successfully using artificial insemination (AI) is defined as getting cows pregnant when the farmer wants them in-calf and making the best use of appropriate genetic potential. Over the past 30 to 50 years, the percentage of animals in oestrus that stand-to-be-mounted (STBM) has declined from 80% to 50%, and the duration of STBM from 15 h to 5 h; both in parallel with a reduction in first-service-pregnancy-rate from 70% to 40%. Meanwhile, the incidence of lameness and mastitis has not decreased; and it takes more than an extra 40 and 18 days, respectively, to get a lame or mastitic cow in-calf compared to healthy herd-mates. The intensity of oestrus is 50% lower in severely lame cows, and fewer lame cows ovulate. Luteal phase milk progesterone concentrations are also 50% lower in lame cows, and follicular phase oestradiol is also lower in non-ovulating lame cows compared to ovulating animals. Furthermore, lame cows that do not ovulate do not have an LH surge, and the LH pulse frequency in their late follicular phase is lower (0.53 v. 0.76 pulses/h). Thus, we suggest that the stress of lameness reduces LH pulsatility required to drive oestradiol production by the dominant follicle. The consequent low oestradiol results in less-intense oestrus behaviour and failure to initiate an LH surge; hence there is no ovulation. A series of experimental studies substantiate our hypothesis that events activating the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis interfere at both the hypothalamus and the pituitary level to disrupt LH and oestradiol secretion, and thus the expression of oestrus behaviour. Our inability to keep stress at a minimum by appropriately feeding and housing high-production cows is leading to a failure to meet genetic potential for yield and fertility. We must provide realistic solutions soon, if we want to successfully use AI to maintain a sustainable dairy industry for the future. PMID:20396609

  11. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow's milk quality.

    PubMed

    Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria species on the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae- and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes

  12. Lameness Detection in Dairy Cows: Part 2. Use of Sensors to Automatically Register Changes in Locomotion or Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Van Nuffel, Annelies; Zwertvaegher, Ingrid; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Pastell, Matti; Thorup, Vivi M.; Bahr, Claudia; Sonck, Bart; Saeys, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary As lame cows produce less milk and tendto have other health problems, finding and treating lame cows is very importantfor farmers. Sensors that measure behaviors associated with lameness in cowscan help by alerting the farmer of those cows in need of treatment. This reviewgives an overview of sensors for automated lameness detection and discussessome practical considerations for investigating and applying such systems inpractice. Abstract Despite the research on opportunities toautomatically measure lameness in cattle, lameness detection systems are notwidely available commercially and are only used on a few dairy farms. However, farmers need to be aware of the lame cows in their herds in order treat themproperly and in a timely fashion. Many papers have focused on the automatedmeasurement of gait or behavioral cow characteristics related to lameness. Inorder for such automated measurements to be used in a detection system, algorithms to distinguish between non-lame and mildly or severely lame cowsneed to be developed and validated. Few studies have reached this latter stageof the development process. Also, comparison between the different approachesis impeded by the wide range of practical settings used to measure the gait or behavioralcharacteristic (e.g., measurements during normal farming routine or duringexperiments; cows guided or walking at their own speed) and by the differentdefinitions of lame cows. In the majority of the publications, mildly lame cowsare included in the non-lame cow group, which limits the possibility of alsodetecting early lameness cases. In this review, studies that used sensortechnology to measure changes in gait or behavior of cows related to lamenessare discussed together with practical considerations when conducting lamenessresearch. In addition, other prerequisites for any lameness detection system onfarms (e.g., need for early detection, real-time measurements) are discussed. PMID:26479390

  13. Modeling conductive cooling for thermally stressed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Wu, Binxin; Perano, K

    2016-02-01

    Conductive cooling, which is based on direct contact between a cow lying down and a cooled surface (water mattress, or any other heat exchanger embedded under the bedding), allows heat transfer from the cow to the cooled surface, and thus alleviate heat stress of the cow. Conductive cooling is a novel technology that has the potential to reduce the consumption of energy and water in cooling dairy cows compared to some current practices. A three-dimensional conduction model that simulates cooling thermally-stressed dairy cows was developed. The model used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method to characterize the air-flow field surrounding the animal model. The flow field was obtained by solving the continuity and the momentum equations. The heat exchange between the animal and the cooled water mattress as well as between the animal and ambient air was determined by solving the energy equation. The relative humidity was characterized using the species transport equation. The conduction 3-D model was validated against experimental temperature data and the agreement was very good (average error is 4.4% and the range is 1.9-8.3%) for a mesh size of 1117202. Sensitivity analyses were conducted between heat losses (sensible and latent) with respect to air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, and level of wetness of skin surface to determine which of the parameters affect heat flux more than others. Heat flux was more sensitive to air temperature and level of wetness of the skin surface and less sensitive to relative humidity. PMID:26857982

  14. Using Simulation to Interpret a Discrete Time Survival Model in a Complex Biological System: Fertility and Lameness in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Christopher D.; Huxley, Jonathan N.; Green, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    The ever-growing volume of data routinely collected and stored in everyday life presents researchers with a number of opportunities to gain insight and make predictions. This study aimed to demonstrate the usefulness in a specific clinical context of a simulation-based technique called probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) in interpreting the results of a discrete time survival model based on a large dataset of routinely collected dairy herd management data. Data from 12,515 dairy cows (from 39 herds) were used to construct a multilevel discrete time survival model in which the outcome was the probability of a cow becoming pregnant during a given two day period of risk, and presence or absence of a recorded lameness event during various time frames relative to the risk period amongst the potential explanatory variables. A separate simulation model was then constructed to evaluate the wider clinical implications of the model results (i.e. the potential for a herd’s incidence rate of lameness to influence its overall reproductive performance) using PSA. Although the discrete time survival analysis revealed some relatively large associations between lameness events and risk of pregnancy (for example, occurrence of a lameness case within 14 days of a risk period was associated with a 25% reduction in the risk of the cow becoming pregnant during that risk period), PSA revealed that, when viewed in the context of a realistic clinical situation, a herd’s lameness incidence rate is highly unlikely to influence its overall reproductive performance to a meaningful extent in the vast majority of situations. Construction of a simulation model within a PSA framework proved to be a very useful additional step to aid contextualisation of the results from a discrete time survival model, especially where the research is designed to guide on-farm management decisions at population (i.e. herd) rather than individual level. PMID:25101997

  15. Assessment of visceral pain associated with metritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stojkov, J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Marchant-Forde, J N; Weary, D M

    2015-08-01

    Metritis is a common disease in dairy cattle, but to our knowledge, no work has assessed pain associated with this disease. Tissue palpation is commonly used to assess pain in human and veterinary medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate visceral pain responses during rectal palpation, with and without uterine palpation, in healthy cows and in cows diagnosed with metritis. A total of 49 Holstein dairy cows (mean ± standard deviation parity of 2.8±1.8) were subjected to systematic health checks every 3 d after parturition for 21 d, scoring for vaginal discharge (0 to 4); 13 cows showed a discharge score ≥2 during at least 1 health check and were classified as metritic, whereas 29 cows were classified as healthy and showed no sign of this or any other disease (including mastitis and lameness). Back arch and heart rate variability before examination and during palpation were recorded using video and heart rate monitors. Back arch (cm(2)) on the day of diagnosis was greater in metritic versus healthy cows (1,034±72 vs. 612±48cm(2)), and greater during rectal palpation with uterine palpation versus rectal palpation without uterine palpation (869±45 vs. 777±45cm(2)). Heart rate frequency domain analysis showed that the low-frequency portion was higher in cows with metritis versus healthy cows (16.5±1.2 vs. 12.9±1.0). Time domain analysis showed that the standard deviation between normal to normal interbeat intervals and the root mean square of successive differences both decreased during rectal palpation with uterine palpation versus rectal palpation without uterine palpation (1.9±0.1 vs. 2.5±0.1 and 1.3±0.1 vs. 1.7±0.1, respectively). Together, these results indicate that the inflammation associated with metritis is painful, and that the pain response can be detected during rectal palpation with and without uterine palpation. Rectal palpation with uterine palpation appears to be more aversive than rectal palpation without uterine palpation

  16. [Prevalence of subclinical udder infections and individual somatic cell counts in three dairy goat herds during a full lactation].

    PubMed

    Schaeren, W; Maurer, J

    2006-12-01

    For dairy goats, both the determination of the somatic cell counts (SCC) and the interpretation of these values may be a problem. Several investigations have shown that SCC for goat's milk, even from not infected mammary halves, are often higher than for cows milk. In the three herds examined about 40% of mammary halves and 30% of the goats were infected. However large differences between the three herds could be observed. In most cases, infections were caused by coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) or corynebacteria. The SCC of individual milk samples from goats without any udder infection hardly differed from those of goats with at least one udder half infected with CNS. In 20% and 30% of the cases the SCC was higher than 750'000 cells/ml, respectively. The relation between California Mastitis Test (CMT) reactions and udder infections was not very close. Over 20% of mammary halves infected with CNS showed negative CMT reactions. On the other hand, 25% of samples from mammary halves without a proven infection reacted positively. The large differences in individual cell counts on herd and animal level indicate that production and breeding systems might be important reasons for the higher SCC. As a consequence, the most common methods for or the control of udder health and udder infections (SCC, California Mastitis Test) are of limited value for goats. Since there was only a weak relation between milk quality properties and SCC, any arguments for the introduction of legal limits below 1 million cells per ml can hardly be found. PMID:17263081

  17. Feeding Behaviors of Transition Dairy Cows Fed Glycerol as a Replacement for Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed sorting is a natural behavior of dairy cows that can result in inconsistencies in nutritive value of a TMR. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing high moisture corn with glycerol on feed sorting and feeding behavior of transition dairy cows. Twenty-six Holstein ...

  18. Alcohol, volatile fatty acid, phenol, and methane emissions from dairy cows and fresh manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 2.5 million dairy cows in California. Emission inventories list dairy cows and their waste as the major source of regional air pollutants, but data on their actual emissions remain sparse, particularly for smog-forming volatile organic compounds (VOC) and greenhouse gases (GH...

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infection in dairy cows in subtropical southern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, M J; Liu, Q Y; Fu, J H; Nisbet, A J; Shi, D S; He, X H; Pan, Y; Zhou, D H; Song, H Q; Zhu, X Q

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are closely related protozoan parasites which cause lowered production and increased abortion in dairy cows. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum infection in dairy cows in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), subtropical southern China. In total, 875 serum samples were collected from the tail veins of dairy cows in 6 main dairy cow-rearing districts of 4 administrative cities in GZAR. The samples were surveyed for T. gondii antibody using the Indirect Haemagglutination Test (IHA), and 365 of the serum samples were examined for N. caninum antibody by indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in dairy cows was 13·71% (120/875), and the average seroprevalence of N. caninum was 15·07% (55/365). There were significant differences in the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection between different districts (P = 0·002, χ 2 = 9·261). The highest prevalences of T. gondii and N. caninum were found in cows older than 8 years and those that had completed 5-6 pregnancies. Five cows (1·37%) presented antibodies against both T. gondii and N. caninum, and dairy cows with both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies had higher abortion rates. The present results indicate widespread exposure of dairy cows to T. gondii and N. caninum in GZAR, subtropical southern China. PMID:22717118

  20. Effect of prepartum administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin on health and performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gohary, K; LeBlanc, S J; Lissemore, K D; Overton, M W; Von Massow, M; Duffield, T F

    2014-10-01

    A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 5 commercial dairy herds in southern Ontario with 1,362 cows enrolled to evaluate the effect of prepartum administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on health and performance. Cows were randomly assigned to receive either 325 mg of sometribove zinc suspension (n=680) or a placebo injection (n=682; control) subcutaneously every 14 d until calving. Treatments started 28 to 22 d before expected calving, with a maximum of 3 treatments per cow. Serum samples taken at the time of enrollment, 1 wk before calving, and weekly for 3 wk after calving were analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, and haptoglobin. Diseases were recorded by farm staff. Incidences of clinical ketosis, clinical mastitis, displaced abomasum, metritis, retained placenta, milk fever, and lameness were similar between groups. Body condition score was lower for treated than for control cows at 3 wk after calving (3.13 and 3.17, respectively). Serum NEFA tended to be higher for treated than for control cows by 0.01 mmol/L. Overall BHBA was not different between groups, but BHBA for treated cows was higher in wk 1 after calving (750 and 698 μmol/L, respectively) and tended to be higher in wk 2 after calving (779 and 735 μmol/L, respectively). Incidence of hyperketonemia was similar between groups. Treated cows had higher serum glucose compared with control cows (2.8 and 2.7 mmol/L, respectively). We detected no differences in serum aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, or haptoglobin between groups. Milk yield was recorded daily for each cow for 63 d, and did not differ between groups (37.1 ± 0.5 kg and 36.7 ± 0.5 kg, respectively) but we detected a tendency for treated cows to produce 0.8 kg/d more milk than control cows in wk 1 after calving. We observed no difference between groups in the time from calving to first insemination or the probability of

  1. Atypical rumen acidosis in a dairy herd from whiskey distillery by-products.

    PubMed

    Davenport, D F; Kerr, L A

    2001-06-01

    Decreased milk and reproductive performance, high incidence of gastrointestinal surgeries, and acute deaths were investigated in a herd of Holstein cows. The health problems were due to abnormally low rumen pH's from ingestion of 30 gal/hd/d of a 3.4 pH liquid feed ingredient. A combination of acid neutralizing agents (calcium hydroxide plus sodium carbonate) alleviated the toxic effects of the feed ingredient. PMID:11383660

  2. Economic evaluation of stall stocking density of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    De Vries, Albert; Dechassa, Hailegziabher; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-05-01

    An increase in stall stocking density (SSD), as measured by the number of lactating cows per stall in a freestall barn, reduces cow performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but may increase farm profitability. Our objectives were to calculate effects of varying SSD on profit per stall for a range of effects on cow performances and external farm factors and store results in regression metamodels. The literature on quantified effects of SSD on cow performance that directly affects cash flow was found to be weak. We assumed effects of SSD on milk yield, probability of conception, and probability of culling. External farm factors were probability of insemination, feed price, and milk price. A herd budget-simulation model was used which mimics the performance of cows in a herd and calculates profit per stall per year and other results. The SSD varied from 100 (no overstocking) to 150% (severe overstocking) in steps of 10%. Sensitivity analyses for effects of SSD on cow performance and effects of external farm factors were performed. Three regression metamodels were developed. The first metamodel accurately predicted profitability at 100% SSD for all variations in the external farm factors. Optimal SSD varied from 100 to 150% SSD, depending on the combination of inputs, and was very sensitive to changes in the size of the milk loss and milk and feed prices. Average optimal SSD of all 2,187 combinations of inputs was 120% SSD and average maximum increase in profit was $99/stall per year. Of the 2,187 combinations of inputs, 18% were ascending (maximum increase in profit >150% SSD), 33% were descending (maximum profit at 100% SSD), and 50% had a maximum increase in profit between 100 and 150% SSD. The second metamodel accurately captured changes in profit for all combinations of biological and external inputs and SSD. A third metamodel captured breakeven daily milk losses which would result in the same profit as at 100% SSD given the same external farm factors. In

  3. Concurrent-schedule performance in dairy cows: persistent undermatching.

    PubMed

    Foster, T M; Temple, W; Robertson, B; Nair, V; Poling, A

    1996-01-01

    Performance of dairy cows responding under concurrent variable-interval variable-interval schedules of food delivery was examined, with results analyzed in terms of the generalized matching equation. In Experiment 1, bias measures indicated that crushed barley was preferred over meatmeal when these foods were available under the alternative schedules. For whole-session data, substantial undermatching of response and time-allocation ratios to obtained reinforcement ratios was evident. Postreinforcement pause time ratios approximately matched obtained reinforcement rates. Subtracting these times from total time-allocation values yielded net time-allocation ratios that undermatched obtained reinforcement ratios to a greater degree than did whole-session time-allocation ratios. In Experiment 2, substantial undermatching was evident when the same foods (hay for 2 cows, crushed barley for 2 others) were available under the alternative schedules. Food-related activities and other defined behavior not related to food were quantified by direct observation, and were found to occupy a substantial proportion (roughly 40% to 80%) of experimental sessions. Subtracting the time spent in these activities from the time allocated to each component schedule did not reduce the degree of undermatching obtained. Across all conditions in both experiments, slopes of regression lines relating behavioral outputs to environmental inputs characteristically were below 0.6, which agrees with prior findings and suggests that, contrary to suggestions in the literature, undermatching in dairy cows is not the result of using different foods under alternative schedules or differential pausing under those schedules. PMID:8583205

  4. Survival analysis of factors affecting incidence risk of Salmonella Dublin in Danish dairy herds during a 7-year surveillance period.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2012-12-01

    A national surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin, based on regular bulk-tank milk antibody screening and movements of cattle, was initiated in Denmark in 2002. From 2002 to end of 2009 the prevalence of test-positive dairy herds was reduced from 26% to 10%. However, new infections and spread of S. Dublin between herds continued to occur. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting incidence risk of S. Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds between 2003 and 2009. Herds were considered at risk when they had been test-negative for at least four consecutive year-quarters (YQs), either at the start of the study period or after recovery from infection. Survival analysis was performed on a dataset including 6931 dairy herds with 118,969 YQs at risk, in which 1523 failures (new infection events) occurred. Predictors obtained from register data were tested in a multivariable, proportional hazard model allowing for recurrence within herds. During October to December the hazard of failures was higher (hazard ratio HR=3.4, P=0.0005) than the rest of the year. Accounting for the delay in bulk-tank milk antibody responses to S. Dublin infection, this indicates that introduction of bacteria was most frequent between July and October. Purchase from test-positive cattle herds within the previous 6 months was associated with higher hazard of failures (HR=2.5, P<0.0001) compared to no purchase and purchase from test-negative herds. Increasing local prevalence, herd size and bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts were also associated with increasing hazard of failures. The effect of prior infection was time-dependent; the hazard of failures was reduced following a logarithmic decline with increasing time at risk. The hazard was markedly higher in herds with prior infections the first year after becoming at risk again, and then approached the hazard in herds without known prior infections 2-3 years after becoming test-negative. This showed that herds with prior

  5. Neospora caninum, potential cause of abortions in dairy cows: the current serological follow-up in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Reiterová, K; Spilovská, S; Antolová, D; Dubinský, P

    2009-01-22

    Neosporosis is considered to be a contributing risk factor for abortions in dairy cows and other farm animals and has negative economic impact on their breeding. In respect of the rapid spread of neosporosis in herds throughout the world, our aim was to detect the prevalence of anti-Neospora antibodies in cows post-abortion (PA) (PA Group n=716) and in cows without any reproduction problems (Control Group n=247) on large breeding farms from Eastern Slovakia. The overall mean seropositivity in PA Group (20.1%) was significantly higher (p<0.0001) in comparison with the Control Group (2.3%), and this demonstrates the causal dependency of abortions on neosporosis. On farms from south-east region, 15.6% of cows were seropositive on average ranging from 7.8% to 25.8% in different districts. In the northern region, significantly (p=0.0002) higher 26.2% mean seropositivity was detected. The seroprevalence in different districts ranged from 2.9% to 39.4%. In the PA Group a high seropositivity to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (41.5%) and sporadic occurrence of Q-fever, leptospirosis and chlamydiosis was also detected. From 11 Toxoplasma-seropositive cows, only one animal was simultaneously positive to Neospora. The relatively high prevalence rate in cows warrants the attention and a need of surveillance in Slovak herds. A better knowledge of epidemiology of this etiological agent and the mechanisms of its transmission may help in the introduction of more effective preventive and control measures. PMID:19019551

  6. Prevalence and etiological agents of subclinical mastitis at the end of lactation in nine dairy herds in North-East Poland.

    PubMed

    Sztachańska, M; Barański, W; Janowski, T; Pogorzelska, J; Zduńczyk, S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and etiological agents of subclinical mastitis at the end of lactation in nine dairy herds in North-East Poland. In total, 387 Polish HF were involved in the study. The diagnosis of mastitis was performed on the basis of clinical examination of the udder, macroscopic evaluation of milk, determination of somatic cell count and bacteriological examination of milk. Subclinical mastitis was found in an average of 36.7% (range from 21.0% to 53.1%) of cows and of 15.7% (range from 9.6% to 25.2%) of quarters. Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS; 31.6% of quarters), Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae (15.6% of quarters), Staphylococcus (Staph.) aureus (12.1% of quarters) and fungi (12.2% of quarters) were most frequently isolated from subclinical mastitis. Etiological agents of subclinical mastitis differed strongly between herds. The results of this study showed that the incidence of subclinical mastitis at the end of lactation in dairy herds in North-East Poland is high. CNS were the most frequently isolated from subclinical mastitis cases, however mastitis caused by the contagious pathogens Str. agalactiae and Staph. aureus is still a problem. The fungal infections of the mammary gland also play an important role. PMID:27096795

  7. Reduced milk production in udder quarters with subclinical mastitis and associated economic losses in crossbred dairy cows in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mungube, E O; Tenhagen, B A; Regassa, F; Kyule, M N; Shiferaw, Y; Kassa, T; Baumann, M P O

    2005-08-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the losses associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM) in crossbred dairy cows in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. A split udder investigation was performed with 30 cows to determine production losses associated with SCM. Each quarter of the study cows was examined using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and quarter milk production was measured over a period of 8 days. Production losses were determined for different CMT scores by comparing production of quarters with CMT score 0 to quarters with CMT scores trace, 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Using data from a recently published study, economic losses were determined for different farm sizes and production subsystems by multiplying the prevalence of the respective CMT scores with the production losses associated with these CMT scores. Mean quarter milk production was 0.82 +/- 0.40 kg per milking in the split udder trial. Milk production was reduced by 1.2%, 6.3%, and 33% in quarters with CMT scores 1+, 2+, and 3+, respectively. Using data from the published study, a quarter with SCM lost an average of 17.2% of its milk production. Production losses associated with SCM were estimated at 5.6% for the Addis Ababa Milk Shed. Stratified losses were highest (9.3%) in urban dairy farms (UDF) and small-scale farms (6.3%). The estimates of the financial losses ranged from US dollars 29.1 in dairy herds in secondary towns (DHIST) to US dollars 66.6 in UDF. A total loss of US dollars 38 was estimated for each cow per lactation. Reducing mastitis in UDF (highest prevalence) to the level of DHIST (lowest prevalence) could reduce the loss by US dollars 35. As this does not include costs associated with treatment or culling of diseased cows, this figure probably underestimates the possible benefits of control measures. PMID:16248222

  8. Veterinary treatment strategies for clinical mastitis in dairy cows in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Persson Waller, K; Hårdemark, V; Nyman, A-K; Duse, A

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate if Swedish veterinary guidelines on use of antimicrobials in cases of clinical mastitis in dairy cows have been adopted by veterinary practitioners, their treatment strategies were evaluated in a cross-sectional study using a web-based questionnaire. Another aim was to study if the strategies differed among veterinarians due to year and country of exam, sex, region, numbers of mastitis cases per month, and postgraduate training in herd health using multivariable logistic regression models. In total, 267 of 741 (36 per cent) veterinarians contacted answered the questionnaire satisfactorily. Most considered bacteriological diagnostics important, but many veterinarians made treatment decisions without collecting information on antimicrobial susceptibility. Moreover, few veterinarians used measuring tape to assess bodyweight before dosing parenteral antimicrobials. Year of exam and postgraduate training were the veterinary demographic factors associated with most treatment routines. The questions associated with most demographic factors were if antimicrobial treatment is affected by knowledge on earlier udder pathogens in the herd, and how often NSAID and follow-up of treatment using milk somatic cell count are used. Overall, the veterinarians followed the Swedish guidelines rather well, but discrepancies in need for improvement were found. PMID:26864025

  9. Factors affecting abortion frequency in dairy herd improvement herds in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequency of abortions among lactating cows during 1995-2005 was studied. Only lactations with breeding dates were used. Abortion frequency was 1.51% among 2,980,527 lactations (>151d pregnant by end of lactation). Observed frequency of abortion was 1.6% in 2005. Analyses were conducted to determine...

  10. Effect of Sand and Sawdust Bedding Materials on the Fecal Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    LeJeune, Jeffrey T.; Kauffman, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Farm management practices that reduce the prevalence of food-borne pathogens in live animals are predicted to enhance food safety. To ascertain the potential role of livestock bedding in the ecology and epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on farms, the survival of this pathogen in used-sand and used-sawdust dairy cow bedding was determined. Additionally, a longitudinal study of mature dairy cattle housed on 20 commercial dairy farms was conducted to compare the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle bedded on sand to that in cattle bedded on sawdust. E. coli O157:H7 persisted at higher concentrations in used-sawdust bedding than in used-sand bedding. The overall average herd level prevalence (3.1 versus 1.4%) and the number of sample days yielding any tests of feces positive for E. coli O157:H7 (22 of 60 days versus 13 of 60 days) were higher in sawdust-bedded herds. The choice of bedding material used to house mature dairy cows may impact the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 on dairy farms. PMID:15640205

  11. Events of elevated somatic cell counts in high-producing dairy cows are associated with daily body weight loss in early lactation.

    PubMed

    van Straten, M; Friger, M; Shpigel, N Y

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine associations between body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) variables indicating a more severe negative energy balance in early lactation and events of somatic cell counts (SCC) >250,000 cells/mL and SCC >400,000 cells/mL in dairy cows. We studied lactations from 634 primiparous and 1,086 multiparous Israeli Holstein dairy cows originating from 7 commercial dairy farms. Generalized mixed models with a random herd effect were used to quantify the effects of BW and BCS variables in early lactation on events of elevated SCC. Data were analyzed using 2 different approaches. In the first approach, only first events in a lactation were taken into account, whereas in the second approach, all events in a lactation were analyzed and repeated events from the same cow were accounted for. Although no associations were found between the different BW and BCS variables and first events of elevated SCC, associations were present between these variables and events of elevated SCC when all events were analyzed. The cumulative incidence of a lactation with multiple events of SCC >250,000 cells/mL was 8.8 and 27.7% for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The odds of an event of SCC >250,000 cells/mL were 25% greater for cows belonging to the upper quartile in relative BW loss from calving to nadir BW (loss >12.3, 15.0, and 15.7% for first-, second-, and third- parity and greater cows, respectively) compared with cows losing less relative BW. Odds of an event were 44% greater for cows with ketosis when compared with cows without. The cumulative incidence of a lactation with multiple events of SCC >400,000 cells/mL was 4.1 and 14.3% for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The odds of an event of SCC >400,000 cells/mL were 43% greater for cows belonging to the upper quartile in relative BW loss from calving to nadir BW compared with cows losing less relative BW. Odds of an event were 33% greater for cows with

  12. Effect of systematic parturition induction of long gestation Holstein dairy cows on calf survival, cow health, production, and reproduction on a commercial farm

    PubMed Central

    Villarroel, Aurora; Lane, V. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of parturition induction on dairy cattle with long gestation (past due-date) single pregnancies on calf survivability, cow health, production, and reproduction. There was an induction period during which all cows and heifers reaching 282 days of gestation were induced with dexamethasone (n = 614). Control cows calved the year after, had a gestation length > 282 d and were not induced (n = 508). As the induced and non-induced groups were not contemporaneous, data were standardized using the ratio between the herd baselines for each period. Multivariate analyses of the data showed that induced cows were 1.41 times more likely (P = 0.020) to become pregnant in the lactation following the studied calving than non-induced cows with long gestation. There was no difference in the risk of difficult calvings, stillbirths, culling due to reproductive reasons, average milk production, average days open or risk of abortion in the following lactation between induced and non-induced cows. There seemed to be a relationship between parturition induction and a lower risk of post-partum death, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.162), because including induction as a factor in the model markedly improved the fit of the data. There was no information on incidence of retained placenta (RP) for the non-induced group. In conclusion, parturition induction resulted in more cows becoming pregnant and a seemingly lower risk of post-spartum death without affecting calving difficulty, calf viability, or milk production. PMID:20592844

  13. Seroprevalence of leptospiral infection in feline population in urban and dairy cattle herds in Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Talebkhan Garoussi, Massoud; Mehravaran, Mohsen; Abdollahpour, Gholamreza; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2015-01-01

    The importance of cats in the Leptospira epidemiology is due to the possibility of transferring leptospirosis to wild and domesticated animals. The purpose of this survey was to determine the prevalence of Leptospira infection in shorthair cats in different location of Mashhad, Iran. Totally, 147 blood samples were taken from 42 (28.57%), 52 (35.37%) and 53 (36.05%) households, stray and cats which lived in industrial dairy cattle herds of Mashhad, Iran, respectively. Sera were tested with seven live Leptospira antigens using microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Sera with 50.00% agglutination at the dilution of ≥ 1/100 were considered as positive samples. Agglutination at dilutions of < 1/100 considered as suspected to Leptospira infection. Overall, 19 (12.92%) out of 147 cats showed reaction in MAT. The seroprevalence at a titer ≥ 1:100 and < 1:100 were 10 (6.80%) and 9 (6.12%), respectively. Serum samples showed positive reaction against Leptospira intterogans hardjo (no = 10; 52.63%), pomona (no = 5; 26.31%) and icterohaemorrhagiae (no = 4; 21.05%). Eight cats (42.10%) belong to dairy cattle herds had the most infection only by L. I. hardjo with 1:200 titer. There were no significant differences among the weight‚ age and sex of infected cats. However, there were significant differences between the infected cats in dairy cattle herds and the cats in the urban area (p < 0.05). It is concluded that cats can be infected by Leptospira spp. especially in commercial dairy cattle herds. Cats can be considered as a sanitation hazards in the area for this zoonotic disease. PMID:26973765

  14. Epidemiology and impact of Fasciola hepatica exposure in high-yielding dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Alison; Baylis, Matthew; Smith, Rob; Pinchbeck, Gina; Williams, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution and is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of exposure to F. hepatica in a group of high yielding dairy herds, to determine the risk factors and investigate their associations with production and fertility parameters. Bulk milk tank samples from 606 herds that supply a single retailer with liquid milk were tested with an antibody ELISA for F. hepatica. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the effect of farm management and environmental risk factors on F. hepatica exposure. Higher rainfall, grazing boggy pasture, presence of beef cattle on farm, access to a stream or pond and smaller herd size were associated with an increased risk of exposure. Univariable regression was used to look for associations between fluke exposure and production-related variables including milk yield, composition, somatic cell count and calving index. Although causation cannot be assumed, a significant (p < 0.001) negative association was seen between F. hepatica exposure and estimated milk yield at the herd level, representing a 15% decrease in yield for an increase in F. hepatica exposure from the 25th to the 75th percentile. This remained significant when fertility, farm management and environmental factors were controlled for. No associations were found between F. hepatica exposure and any of the other production, disease or fertility variables. PMID:26093971

  15. Epidemiology and impact of Fasciola hepatica exposure in high-yielding dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Howell, Alison; Baylis, Matthew; Smith, Rob; Pinchbeck, Gina; Williams, Diana

    2015-09-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution and is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of exposure to F. hepatica in a group of high yielding dairy herds, to determine the risk factors and investigate their associations with production and fertility parameters. Bulk milk tank samples from 606 herds that supply a single retailer with liquid milk were tested with an antibody ELISA for F. hepatica. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the effect of farm management and environmental risk factors on F. hepatica exposure. Higher rainfall, grazing boggy pasture, presence of beef cattle on farm, access to a stream or pond and smaller herd size were associated with an increased risk of exposure. Univariable regression was used to look for associations between fluke exposure and production-related variables including milk yield, composition, somatic cell count and calving index. Although causation cannot be assumed, a significant (p<0.001) negative association was seen between F. hepatica exposure and estimated milk yield at the herd level, representing a 15% decrease in yield for an increase in F. hepatica exposure from the 25th to the 75th percentile. This remained significant when fertility, farm management and environmental factors were controlled for. No associations were found between F. hepatica exposure and any of the other production, disease or fertility variables. PMID:26093971

  16. Herd prevalence and incidence of Streptococcus agalactiae in the dairy industry of Prince Edward Island.

    PubMed

    Keefe, G P; Dohoo, I R; Spangler, E

    1997-03-01

    Herd prevalence and incidence of mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae was determined for dairy cattle on Prince Edward Island during December 1992 and June 1994. For each census, bulk tank milk samples from all dairy herds (n = 452) in the province were tested on two occasions, and the results were interpreted in parallel. The combined sensitivity of the testing protocol was estimated to be 91%. The confirmatory latex agglutination test had previously reported specificities approaching 100%. Therefore, the estimated specificity of the testing protocol was assumed to be 100%. The apparent prevalence of S. agalactiae in December 1992 and in June 1994 was 17.7 and 13.1%, respectively. Based on the characteristics of the test, the estimated true prevalence was 18.9% in December 1992 and 14.4% in June 1994. Infection with S. agalactiae was associated with elevated bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC) and elevated standard plate counts. Economic losses associated with S. agalactiae were attributed to production losses (associated with bulk tank SCC), milk quality penalties (associated with bulk tank SCC and standard plate count), and decreases in milk quality (associated with bulk tank SCC). For herds that had been negative for S. agalactiae in December 1992, evaluation in June 1994 yielded an incidence of new infections of 3.51 per 100 herds per year. PMID:9098795

  17. Annual incidence, prevalence and transmission characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Mweu, Marshal M; Nielsen, Søren S; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2012-10-01

    Contagious mastitis pathogens continue to pose an economic threat to the dairy industry. An understanding of their frequency and transmission dynamics is central to evaluating the effectiveness of control programmes. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to estimate the annual herd-level incidence rates and apparent prevalences of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in the population of Danish dairy cattle herds over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 inclusive and (2) to estimate the herd-level entry and exit rates (demographic parameters), the transmission parameter, β, and recovery rate for S. agalactiae infection. Data covering the specified period, on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected annually as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme, were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database and subsequently analysed. There was an increasing trend in both the incidence and prevalence of S. agalactiae over the study period. Per 100 herd-years the value of β was 54.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.0-63.7); entry rate 0.3 (95% CI 0.2-0.4); infection-related exit rate 7.1 (95% CI 5.6-8.9); non-infection related exit rate 9.2 (95% CI 7.4-11.5) and recovery rate 40.0 (95% CI 36.8-43.5). This study demonstrates a need to tighten the current controls against S. agalactiae in order to lower its incidence. PMID:22560559

  18. A benefit to cost analysis of the effect of premilking teat hygiene on somatic cell count and intramammary infections in a commercial dairy herd.

    PubMed Central

    Ruegg, P L; Dohoo, I R

    1997-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to determine the effect of premilking teat disinfection (predipping) on several measures of mastitis in a commercial dairy farm where the predominant organisms isolated from intramammary infections were coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. Cows were randomly assigned to a treated (predipped with 0.5% iodine germicide plus "good udder preparation") or a control group ("good udder preparation" alone). Sterile composite milk samples were collected at the initiation of the trial and on an approximately bimonthly basis throughout the duration of the trial. There was no difference in the prevalence of isolation of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. from composite milk samples obtained during the 6 herd cultures. The incidence rate for clinical mastitis in the control group was 1.38 cases per 1000 cow days. The incidence rate for clinical mastitis in the treatment group was 1.06 cases per 1000 cow days. The ratio of these 2 was 1.3, suggesting a higher rate in the control group, but the ratio was not statistically significant (P = 0.34). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the effect of treatment group was not significant, although the coefficient suggested that predipping reduced the risk of clinical mastitis. The benefit to cost ratio of 0.37 indicated that the benefit of reduced incidence of clinical cases of mastitis would not have justified the added expense required to predip the herd. Images Figure 1. PMID:9332747

  19. Benchmarking dairy herd health status using routinely recorded herd summary data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to non-genetic factors, such as th...

  20. Effects of weekly regrouping of prepartum dairy cows on metabolic, health, reproductive, and productive parameters.

    PubMed

    Silva, P R B; Moraes, J G N; Mendonça, L G D; Scanavez, A A; Nakagawa, G; Fetrow, J; Endres, M I; Chebel, R C

    2013-07-01

    The objectives of the current experiment were to determine the effect of 2 prepartum grouping strategies on the health, metabolic, reproductive, and productive parameters of dairy cows. Jersey cows enrolled in the experiment at 253±3 d of gestation (d 0=calving) were balanced for parity and projected 305-d mature equivalent and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments. Cows assigned to the traditional (TRD; n=6 replicates with a total of 308 cows) treatment were moved to the study pen as a group of 44 cows and weekly thereafter groups of 2 to 15 cows were moved to the study pen to reestablish stocking density. Cows assigned to the all-in-all-out (AIAO; n=6 replicates with a total of 259 cows) treatment were moved to the study pen in groups of 44 cows, but no new cows entered the AIAO pen until the end of the replicate. At the end of each replicate, a new TRD and AIAO group started but pens were switched. Cows were milked thrice daily and monthly milk yield, fat and protein contents, and somatic cell count data were recorded up to 305 d postpartum. Plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration was measured weekly from d -18±3 to 24±3 and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate was measured weekly from d 3±3 to 24±3. Cows were examined on d 1, 4±1, 7±1, 10±1, and 13±1 for diagnosis of uterine diseases and had their ovaries scanned by ultrasound on d 39±3 and 53±3 to determine resumption of ovarian cycles. Average stocking density was reduced for the AIAO (71.9%) treatment compared with the TRD (86.9%) treatment. Treatment did not affect the incidences of retained fetal membranes (TRD=10.9, AIAO=11.6%), metritis (TRD=16.7, AIAO=19.8%), and acute metritis (TRD=1.7, AIAO=3.6%). Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (TRD=80.4±8.2, AIAO=62.9±8.5 µmol/L) and β-hydroxybutyrate (TRD=454.4±10.9, AIAO=446.1±11.1 µmol/L) were not different between treatments. Percentages of cows that resumed ovarian cycles by d 39±3 (TRD=70.8, AIAO=63.1%) and 53±3 (TRD=90.1, AIAO=90.2%) were

  1. Effect of treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin on day 5 after timed artificial insemination on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, A B; Bender, R W; Souza, A H; Ayres, H; Araujo, R R; Guenther, J N; Sartori, R; Wiltbank, M C

    2013-05-01

    Reproductive management programs that synchronize ovulation can ovulate a smaller than normal follicle, potentially resulting in inadequate progesterone (P4) concentrations after artificial insemination (AI). Ovulation of the dominant follicle of the first follicular wave with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment can produce an accessory corpus luteum and increase circulating P4 concentrations. This manuscript reports the results of 2 separate analyses that evaluated the effect of hCG treatment post-AI on fertility in lactating dairy cows. The first study used meta-analysis to combine the results from 10 different published studies that used hCG treatment on d 4 to 9 post-AI in lactating dairy cows. Overall, pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) were increased 3.0% by hCG treatment post-AI [34% (752/2,213) vs. 37% (808/2,184); Control vs. hCG-treated, respectively]. The second study was a field research trial in which lactating Holstein cows (n=2,979) from 6 commercial dairy herds were stratified by parity and breeding number and then randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: control (no further treatment, n=1,519) or hCG [Chorulon i.m.: 2,000 IU (in 3 of the herds) or 3,300 IU (in 3 herds); n=1,460] on d 5 after a timed AI (ovulation synchronized with Ovsynch, Presynch-Ovsynch, or Double-Ovsynch). In a subset of cows, the hCG profile and P4 changes were determined. Treatment with hCG increased P4 (4.3 vs. 5.3 ng/mL on d 12). Pregnancies per AI were greater in cows treated with hCG (40.8%; 596/1,460) than control (37.3%; 566/1,519) cows. Interestingly, an interaction among treatment and parity was observed; primiparous cows had greater P/AI after hCG (49.7%; 266/535) than controls (39.5%; 215/544). In contrast, older cows receiving hCG (35.7%; 330/925) had similar P/AI to controls (36.0%; 351/975).Thus, targeted use of hCG on d 5 after TAI enhances fertility about 3.0% (based on meta-analysis) to 3.5% (based on our field trial). Surprisingly, this

  2. Effect of a phase I Coxiella burnetii inactivated vaccine on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schulze, L S-Ch; Borchardt, S; Ouellet, V; Heuwieser, W

    2016-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. The pathogen is prevalent in ruminants (goats, sheep, cows), which are the main sources of human infection. In the cattle industry around the world, animal (15 to 20%) and herd (38 to 72%) level prevalences of C. burnetii are high. Vaccination of ruminants against Q fever is considered important to prevent spreading of the disease and risk of infection in humans. However, published information on side effects of the Q fever vaccination under field conditions is limited for cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the phase I C. burnetii inactivated vaccine Coxevac on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows. In 2 experiments, a total of 508 cows were randomly divided into 2 groups to determine the effect of first vaccination on body temperature and milk yield. The C. burnetii serostatus of all cows was tested before vaccination with an indirect ELISA. The first experiment took place in the teaching and research barn of the Clinic of Animal Reproduction at the Freie Universität Berlin. Temperature was measured vaginally in 10 cows in a crossover design. The second experiment was conducted on a commercial dairy farm. Milk yield of 498 cows was measured 1 wk before and 1 wk after vaccination. In a subset of 41 cows, temperature was measured rectally. In both experiments, body temperature increased significantly after vaccination (1.0 ± 0.9°C and 0.7 ± 0.8°C). A significant difference was also found in body temperature between vaccinated and control cows. Thirty percent of the vaccinated animals in experiment 1 showed reversible swelling at the injection site as a reaction to the vaccination. The results indicate that vaccination against Q fever causes a transient increase of body temperature that peaks in the first 12 to 24h and declines after that. In experiment 2, vaccinated cows (26.8 ± 0.39 kg/d) produced significantly less milk than did control cows (28.2 ± 0.44 kg

  3. Dairy farms testing positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis have poorer hygiene practices and are less cautious when purchasing cattle than test-negative herds.

    PubMed

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease, is present on most dairy farms in Alberta, causing economic losses and presenting a potential public health concern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify risk factors for Alberta dairy herds being MAP-positive based on environmental samples (ES). Risk assessments were conducted and ES were collected on 354 Alberta dairy farms (62% of eligible producers) voluntarily participating in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative. In univariate logistic regression, risk factors addressing animal and pen hygiene, as well as the use of feeding equipment to remove manure and manure application on pastures, were all associated with the number of positive ES. Furthermore, based on factor analysis, risk factors were clustered and could be summarized as 4 independent factors: (1) animal, pen, and feeder contamination; (2) shared equipment and pasture contamination; (3) calf diet; and (4) cattle purchase. Using these factor scores as independent variables in multivariate logistic regression models, a 1-unit increase in animal, pen, and feeder contamination resulted in 1.31 times higher odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Furthermore, a 1-unit increase in cattle purchase also resulted in 1.31 times the odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Finally, a 100-cow increase in herd size resulted in an odds ratio of 2.1 for having at least 1 positive ES. In conclusion, cleanliness of animals, pens, and feeders, as well as cattle purchase practices, affected risk of herd infection with MAP. Therefore, improvements in those management practices should be the focus of effective tools to control MAP on dairy farms. PMID:26995127

  4. The effect of floor surface on dairy cow immune function and locomotion score

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study evaluated the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion, leukocyte activity and expression of genes associated with lameness, during the dry and peri-parturient period. Cows were assigned to free-stall housing with either rubber (RUB; n=13) or concrete (CON; n=14) at the feed...

  5. Assessment of an application for touchscreen devices to record calving-related events in dairy herds and monitor personnel performance.

    PubMed

    Barragan, A A; Workman, J D; Bas, S; Proudfoot, K L; Schuenemann, G M

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess (1) the effectiveness of a calving training workshop and an application (app) for touchscreen devices to capture calving-related events, and (2) personnel compliance with calving protocols (time from birth to feeding of first colostrum and time that cows spent in labor). Calving personnel (n=23) from 5 large dairy farms (range: 800-10,000 cows) participated in the study. Participants received training through an on-farm workshop regarding calving management practices and functioning of the app before recording calving-related events. Pre- and posttest evaluations were administered to each participant to measure their knowledge gain and satisfaction with the workshop. Calving personnel recorded calving-related events (n=323) using the app for 7 d following training. Furthermore, the records collected with the app were use