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Sample records for dairy herd culling

  1. Characterizing biosecurity, health, and culling during dairy herd expansions.

    PubMed

    Faust, M A; Kinsel, M L; Kirkpatrick, M A

    2001-04-01

    Our objectives were to investigate strategies for biosecurity, expansion, and culling for expanding dairy herds in the Upper Midwest. Eighteen dairies in Iowa and Wisconsin were visited, and dairy managers and veterinarians were interviewed to characterize five biosecurity practices, herd culling practices, vaccines administered, and ensuing disease status for the herds. The majority of herds that were interviewed failed to employ comprehensive biosecurity programs for incoming cattle. Nearly 60% of herds obtained cattle from sources for which it was difficult to document genetic backgrounds and health histories, fewer than half required health testing for incoming cattle, and approximately 50% quarantined new cattle on arrival. Despite high rates of vaccination for bovine viral diarrhea, all herd owners and managers indicated that herd biosecurity was compromised as a result of expansion. Half of the interviewed herds indicated that bovine viral diarrhea and papillomatous digital dermatitis were notable disease problems. Herds that obtained cattle with unknown backgrounds and health status experienced the largest number of diseases. Before expansion, the most frequently cited reasons for culling were reproductively unsound; low milk production; mastitis, poor udder health, and high SCC; during expansion, the strategic decision to cull cows for low milk production was used less often. In addition, the stochastic simulation model, DairyORACLE, was used to evaluate economic outcomes for several expansion alternatives. Five model scenarios studied were: base scenario (herd size was maintained) and four expansion scenarios--all paired combinations of heifer quality (high, low) and voluntary culling (implemented, not implemented). Culling for low milk production yielded an additional $23.29 annually (6-yr annuity) per cow, but on the basis of purchased replacements, no voluntary culling was most profitable. Purchasing high versus low quality replacement heifers for

  2. The average culling rate of Dutch dairy herds over the years 2007 to 2010 and its association with herd reproduction, performance and health.

    PubMed

    Nor, Norhariani Mohd; Steeneveld, Wilma; Hogeveen, Henk

    2014-02-01

    Optimising the number of replacement heifers needed will have positive economic and environmental consequences on herds that rear their own young stock. The number of heifers needed to be kept is closely related with the number of culled dairy cows in the herd. This study therefore looked at the variation that exists in culling rate and herd level factors associated with it. A dataset from 1903 dairy herds available included information at animal level (dates of culling, slaughter/death) and herd level (characteristics of reproduction, performance, health) over the years 2007 to 2010. The average culling rate for slaughter/death was used and was defined for each year as percentage of the herd size that died within 30 d after they were culled. The analysis of the association between average culling rate for slaughter/death and the characteristics of the herd was performed using a mixed model. The results showed that the average culling rate for slaughter/death was 25·4% and varied between 23% (2007) and 28% (2010). More than 70% of the herds have an average culling rate for slaughter/death of less than 30%, showing that there is room for lowering the average culling rate for slaughter/death. A higher average culling rate for slaughter/death is associated with a longer average calving interval, a higher average 305-d protein production, a higher average somatic cell count (SCC), a higher percentage of new high SCC, a more than 5% decrease in herd size, and herds that bought more than 1% of animals per year. A lower average culling rate for slaughter/death is associated with a longer average age, herds that bought less than 1% of animals per year and a more than 5% increase in herd size. In conclusion, the average culling rate for slaughter/death is associated with fertility, udder health and openness of the herd. PMID:24107585

  3. Dynamics of culling for Jersey, Holstein, and Jersey × Holstein crossbred cows in large multibreed dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, P J; Daniels, A; Shumaker, J; De Vries, A

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this observational study was to describe and compare the dynamics of reason-specific culling risk for the genetic groups Jerseys (JE), Holsteins (HO), and Jersey × Holstein crossbreds (JH), considering parity, stage of lactation, and milk yield, among other variables, in large multibreed dairy herds in Texas. The secondary objective was to analyze the association between survival and management factors, such as breeding and replacement policies, type of facilities, and use of cooling systems. After edits, available data included 202,384 lactations in 16 herds, ranging from 407 to 8,773 cows calving per year during the study period from 2007 to 2011. The distribution of lactation records by genetic group was 58, 36, and 6% for HO, JE, and JH crosses, respectively. Overall culling rates across breeds were 30.1, 32.1, and 35.0% for JH, JE, and HO, respectively. The dynamics of reason-specific culling were dependent on genetic group, parity, stage of lactation, milk yield, and herd characteristics. Early lactation was a critical period for "died" and "injury-sick" culling. The risk increased with days after calving for "breeding" and, in the case of HO, "low production" culling. Open cows had a 3.5 to 4.6 times greater risk for overall culling compared with pregnant cows. The odds of culling with reason "died" within the first 60 d in milk (DIM) were not significantly associated with genetic group. However, both JE and JH crosses had lower odds of live culling within the first 60 DIM compared with HO cows (OR=0.72 and 0.82, respectively). Other cow variables significantly associated with the risk of dying within the first 60 DIM were cow relative 305-d mature equivalent (305ME) milk yield, parity, and season of calving. Significant herd-related variables for death included herd size and origin of replacements. In addition to genetic group, the risk of live culling within 60 DIM was associated with cow-relative 305ME milk yield, parity, and season of

  4. Strategies for time of culling in control of paratuberculosis in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Kudahl, A B; Nielsen, S S; Ostergaard, S

    2011-08-01

    Effect of time for culling cows infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on prevalence and profitability was identified through simulations. Seven test-and-cull strategies with different culling criteria and no attempts to close infection routes were compared with strategies with (1) no control and (2) closure of infection routes and no culling. The effects on true prevalence and gross margin were evaluated in a herd with typical reproduction management (heat detection rate of 38%). This was repeated in a herd with poor reproduction management (heat detection rate of 28%), because poor reproduction leads to lack of replacement animals, which was hypothesized to affect the economic effects of culling. Effects of varying prices of milk, replacement heifers, and hourly wages were also evaluated. The simulated results predicted that immediate culling after the first positive antibody ELISA test would be the most effective culling strategy to reduce prevalence. However, closing transmission routes was even more effective in reducing the prevalence. In the first 3 to 6 yr, all test-and-cull strategies reduced gross margin by US$5 to 55/stall per year. These losses were fully compensated by increased gross margin in yr 6 to 19. In the short run (7 yr with typical reproduction and 10 yr with poor reproduction), it was most profitable to cull test-positive cows when their milk yield decreased below 85% of that expected according to their parity and lactation stage, especially in herds with poor reproduction management. However, this strategy only stabilized the prevalence and did not reduce it. In the long term (>7 yr from implementation of a strategy), it was most profitable to cull cows immediately or as soon as possible after testing positive the first time. Varying milk prices did not affect the ranking between the different culling strategies. Increased market price (20%) of replacement heifers made all culling strategies less profitable and made culling

  5. Effect of health disorders on the hazard of culling on the first or second lactation in Iranian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Hamid; Kostoulas, Polychronis; Bahonar, Alireza; Bokaie, Saied; Vodjgani, Mehdi; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Leontides, Leonidas

    2013-04-01

    We conducted a longitudinal retrospective study in order to assess the effect of health disorders (HDs) on culling in the 1st or 2nd lactation cows, in Iranian dairy herds. In total, 7067 first- and second-parity Holstein cows, from 32 Iranian dairy herds, which calved from March 2007 to March 2008, were followed until the next calving or culling. Parametric survival models with time-dependent covariates were used to capture the effect of HDs with different duration and recurrence episodes on the risk of culling. Mastitis, locomotor disorders, ovarian cysts, abortion, diarrhea, rumen disorders, displaced abomasum and respiratory disorders were associated with an increased risk of culling. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 2.78 (2.31; 3.35), 3.4 (2.79; 4.13) and 1.62 (1.15; 2.78) for mastitis, locomotor disorders and ovarian cysts as common HDs, respectively. Parity and milk-yield were identified as confounder and effect modifier, respectively. The risk of culling in the presence of uterine infection or traumatic reticulo-peritonitis increased with decreasing milk yield. PMID:23026369

  6. Dairy cow culling strategies: making economical culling decisions.

    PubMed

    Lehenbauer, T W; Oltjen, J W

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to examine important economic elements of culling decisions, to review progress in development of culling decision support systems, and to discern some of the potentially rewarding areas for future research on culling models. Culling decisions have an important influence on the economic performance of the dairy but are often made in a nonprogrammed fashion and based partly on the intuition of the decision maker. The computer technology that is available for dairy herd management has made feasible the use of economic models to support culling decisions. Financial components--including profit, cash flow, and risk--are major economic factors affecting culling decisions. Culling strategies are further influenced by short-term fluctuations in cow numbers as well as by planned herd expansion. Changes in herd size affect the opportunity cost for postponed replacement and may alter the relevance of optimization strategies that assume a fixed herd size. Improvements in model components related to biological factors affecting future cow performance, including milk production, reproductive status, and mastitis, appear to offer the greatest economic potential for enhancing culling decision support systems. The ultimate value of any culling decision support system for developing economic culling strategies will be determined by its results under field conditions. PMID:9493103

  7. Effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on culling rate, diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Girard, C L; Santschi, D E; Laforest, J-P; Durocher, J; Pellerin, D

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of a combined folic acid and vitamin B12 supplement given in early lactation on culling rate, metabolic disorders and other diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds. A total of 805 cows (271 primiparous and 534 multiparous cows) in 15 commercial dairy herds were involved. Every 2mo from February to December 2010 and within each herd, cows were assigned according to parity, previous 305-d milk production, and calving interval to 5mL of either (1) saline 0.9% NaCl (control group) or (2) 320mg of folic acid + 10mg of vitamin B12 (vitamin group). Treatments were administered weekly by intramuscular injections starting 3wk before the expected calving date until 8wk after parturition. A total of 221 cows were culled before the next dry period. Culling rate was not affected by treatment and was 27.5%; culling rate was greater for multiparous (32.2%) than for primiparous cows (18.8%). Within the first 60d in milk (DIM), 47 cows were culled, representing 21.3% of total culling, and no treatment effect was noted. Ketosis incidence based on a threshold ≥100µmol/L of β-hydroxybutyrate in milk was 38.3±2.9% for the vitamin group and 41.8±3.0% for the control group and was not affected by treatment. The combined supplement of folic acid and vitamin B12 did not decrease incidence of retained placenta, displaced abomasum, milk fever, metritis, or mastitis. However, the incidence of dystocia decreased by 50% in multiparous cows receiving the vitamin supplement, although no effect was observed in primiparous cows. The first breeding postpartum for multiparous cows occurred 3.8d earlier with the vitamin supplement compared with controls, whereas no treatment effect was seen for primiparous cows. Days open, first- and second-breeding conception rates, number of breedings per conception, and percentage of cows pregnant at 150 DIM were not affected by treatment. The reduced percentage of dystocia combined with the

  8. Economic comparison of common treatment protocols and J5 vaccination for clinical mastitis in dairy herds using optimized culling decisions.

    PubMed

    Kessels, J A; Cha, E; Johnson, S K; Welcome, F L; Kristensen, A R; Gröhn, Y T

    2016-05-01

    This study used an existing dynamic optimization model to compare costs of common treatment protocols and J5 vaccination for clinical mastitis in US dairy herds. Clinical mastitis is an infection of the mammary gland causing major economic losses in dairy herds due to reduced milk production, reduced conception, and increased risk of mortality and culling for infected cows. Treatment protocols were developed to reflect common practices in dairy herds. These included targeted therapy following pathogen identification, and therapy without pathogen identification using a broad-spectrum antimicrobial or treating with the cheapest treatment option. The cost-benefit of J5 vaccination was also estimated. Effects of treatment were accounted for as changes in treatment costs, milk loss due to mastitis, milk discarded due to treatment, and mortality. Following ineffective treatments, secondary decisions included extending the current treatment, alternative treatment, discontinuing treatment, and pathogen identification followed by recommended treatment. Average net returns for treatment protocols and vaccination were generated using an existing dynamic programming model. This model incorporates cow and pathogen characteristics to optimize management decisions to treat, inseminate, or cull cows. Of the treatment protocols where 100% of cows received recommended treatment, pathogen-specific identification followed by recommended therapy yielded the highest average net returns per cow per year. Out of all treatment scenarios, the highest net returns were achieved with selecting the cheapest treatment option and discontinuing treatment, or alternate treatment with a similar spectrum therapy; however, this may not account for the full consequences of giving nonrecommended therapies to cows with clinical mastitis. Vaccination increased average net returns in all scenarios. PMID:26947301

  9. The association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Goto, Akira; Nakada, Ken; Katamoto, Hiromu

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of peripartum disorders in dairy herds negatively influences productivity and reproductive performance. Concrete data from local areas are helpful for explaining the importance of peripartum management to dairy farmers. This study was conducted to clarify the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in 179 dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan. A database was compiled from the records of the Livestock Improvement Association of Japan, the Dairy Cooperative Association and the Federation of Agricultural Mutual Relief Association. In this study, we created a comprehensive database of dairy farm production data for epidemiological analysis and used a general linear mixed model to analyze the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with milk production or reproductive performance. The database can be used to describe, analyze and predict the risk of production. A cross-sectional analysis with contrasts was applied to investigate the association of cows served by AI/all cows, pregnant cows/cows served by AI, days open, milk yield and somatic cell counts with culling and death rate within 30 days after calving. The days open value significantly increased with increasing rate of culling and death within 30 days after calving (P for trend <0.001). No significant differences were found for the other comparisons. Our data suggest that proper feeding and management in the dry period may lead to improved postpartum reproductive performance in this dairy cow cohort. PMID:26666177

  10. The association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan

    PubMed Central

    GOTO, Akira; NAKADA, Ken; KATAMOTO, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of peripartum disorders in dairy herds negatively influences productivity and reproductive performance. Concrete data from local areas are helpful for explaining the importance of peripartum management to dairy farmers. This study was conducted to clarify the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in 179 dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan. A database was compiled from the records of the Livestock Improvement Association of Japan, the Dairy Cooperative Association and the Federation of Agricultural Mutual Relief Association. In this study, we created a comprehensive database of dairy farm production data for epidemiological analysis and used a general linear mixed model to analyze the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with milk production or reproductive performance. The database can be used to describe, analyze and predict the risk of production. A cross-sectional analysis with contrasts was applied to investigate the association of cows served by AI/all cows, pregnant cows/cows served by AI, days open, milk yield and somatic cell counts with culling and death rate within 30 days after calving. The days open value significantly increased with increasing rate of culling and death within 30 days after calving (P for trend <0.001). No significant differences were found for the other comparisons. Our data suggest that proper feeding and management in the dry period may lead to improved postpartum reproductive performance in this dairy cow cohort. PMID:26666177

  11. Dairy Herd Management Program.

    PubMed

    Lehenbauer, T W

    1987-11-01

    The Dairy Herd Management Program has served both dairymen and veterinarians very well over the past several years under a variety of conditions. A number of veterinarians have used the Dairy Herd Management Program to provide computerized dairy record service to their clients. In many of these situations, clients have decided to purchase a computer system of their own after discovering the value of having improved, computerized dairy records. The Dairy Herd Management Program is able to efficiently handle data from large dairies without disrupting daily record-keeping routines. With this data, useful reports are generated that measure actual reproductive performance against target levels or goals. Because the Dairy Herd Management Program focuses on specific time intervals and includes data from culled cows, trends or drops in reproductive performance are more quickly detected so that corrective action can be taken to minimize economic losses. The Dairy Herd Management Program's strong points include batch entry of data, an inclusive yet flexible Vet Check List of cows to be examined, and a detailed, comprehensive Reproductive Summary report. Its major weakness is the lack of a custom report generator for specific situations or conditions. This problem is being addressed in the new version. With the improvements scheduled for the new version, the Dairy Herd Management Program should be able to meet all of the needs of dairy managers and veterinarians alike, as well as become a powerful tool for conducting dairy reproductive field trials and research. PMID:3319081

  12. The effect of Jonhe's Disease status on reproduction and culling in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the costs attributed to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in dairy cattle, the impacts on reproduction and culling are the least documented. In order to properly estimate the cost of MAP infections in a dairy herd, the rates of calving and culling were calculated for...

  13. Causes of culling in dairy cows and its relation to age at culling and interval from calving in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ansari-Lari, Maryam; Mohebbi-Fani, Mehdi; Rowshan-Ghasrodashti, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate causes of culling in industrial dairy herds in Fars province and to describe the pattern of reason-specific culling with respect to age of animal and interval from calving to culling. A total number of 9 dairy herds were selected for the study and information about culling reasons, birth date, last calving date and culling date was collected for culled cows during 2005-2006. Infertility (32.6% of all culls) was the most prevalent reason of culling followed by mastitis (6.5%). The time interval from last calving to culling averaged 240 days (SD = 176) and nearly 28% of cows were culled in the first 100 days after calving. Mean age of animals at culling was 6 years (SD = 2.7) and median was 5.7 years. In Cox proportional hazard model for calving to culling interval, infertility (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.26) showed lower risk whereas mastitis (HR = 2.40), left displaced abomasum (HR = 2.60) and peripartum problems (HR = 2.60) had higher risk of culling compared with voluntary cull. In the Cox model for age at culling, risk of culling was significantly higher for infertility (HR = 1.70), left displaced abomasum (HR = 3.15), and peripartum problems (HR = 2.10) compared with voluntary culling. In conclusion, farmers tend to keep infertile cows for longer period from calving to culling while infertile cows are generally culled at younger age. Also, early culling appeared to have a high proportion of culls in the studied herds. PMID:25653764

  14. Reasons That Cows in Dairy Herd Improvement Programs Exit the Herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This new Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory Research Report was initiated to provide the US industry more comprehensive information on a routine basis on why dairy cows leave Dairy Herd Improvement herds. AIPL had previously published some information on culling rate, but the method used did not...

  15. Culling patterns in selected Minnesota swine breeding herds.

    PubMed Central

    D'Allaire, S; Stein, T E; Leman, A D

    1987-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to study culling patterns in swine breeding herds. Data were obtained from 89 Minnesota swine breeding herds and included 5918 sows and 1324 gilts for a total of 7242 culled femaled. Each producer was involved for 12 consecutive months. They were asked to record every female that was removed from the herd, the reason for its culling and its parity. The annual culling rate for the sample averaged 50%, but varied considerably between herds ranging from 15% to 85%. Culled females had produced an average of 3.77 litters. Half of the females culled did not produce more than three litters. Reproductive failure accounted for 32% of all removals. The average parity of the females culled in that category was only 2.37: almost 33% were gilts. Failure to conceive represented 75% of all females culled for reproductive failure. Proportionally, culling as a result of anestrus was higher in gilts. It accounted for 33% of all gilts culled for reproductive failure which was twice as much as for sows. Inadequate performance accounted for 17% of all removals. These sows had produced an average of 5.11 litters. These results indicated that few animals were culled on the basis of first litter performance. Old age comprised 14% of all removals and the average parity at culling for this category was 7.11. Death accounted for 12% and the average parity for these females was 3.40. Locomotor problems and peripartum problems were the cause of 28% and 23% of all deaths, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3453273

  16. Salmonella diversity and burden in cows on and culled from dairy farms in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to further characterize the epidemiology of Salmonella carried by dairy cows culled from herds in the Texas High Plains and marketed for human consumption. Feces were collected from 706 animals culled from a convenience sample of 9 dairies. In addition, individually...

  17. The associations between culling due to clinical Johne's disease or the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis fecal shedding and the diagnosis of clinical or subclinical diseases in two dairy herds in Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Raizman, Eran A; Wells, Scott J; Godden, Sandra M; Fetrow, John; Oakes, J Michael

    2007-07-16

    Our objectives were to identify associations between clinical or subclinical diseases and subsequent culling because of clinical Johne's disease (JD) or the detection of fecal shedding of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (Map) after 305 days in milk (DIM). A total of 1297 cows from two Minnesota dairies were enrolled in the study. From study cows, fecal samples were obtained prior to calving (close-up period) and after at least 305 DIM or at the time of leaving the herd (sold/dead). Between 3 and 21 DIM, blood samples were obtained for serum betahydroxybutyrate (BHB) and serum total-protein testing. Body-condition score (BCS) was evaluated during the close-up period, between 3 and 21 DIM, and at the end of lactation. The diagnosis time (DIM) of clinical disease events (culling because of JD clinical signs, ketosis, lameness, mastitis, displacement abomasum, injury, metritis, milk fever, pneumonia, and retained placenta) was recorded. Sixty-six cows were culled because of JD clinical signs (CCDJ) with average DIM of 209. CCDJ was associated with event of pneumonia (n=131) (OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.0-6.0) and level of fecal shedding (light: OR=13.0, 95% CI=5.3-30.0; moderate: OR=34.0, 95% CI=13.0-89.0; heavy: OR=66.0, 95% CI=26.0-171.0). Detection of fecal shedding at the end of the lactation (n=79) was associated only with event of pneumonia (OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.0-4.0). PMID:17368838

  18. Salmonella Muenster infection in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Radke, Brian R; McFall, Margaret; Radostits, Steve M

    2002-06-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to provide information on animal and occupational health associated with the infection of a diary herd with Salmonella Muenster that would be useful in the management of dairy herds so infected. This retrospective, longitudinal report records a 2-year infection of a 140-cow dairy herd with S. Muenster, which was likely introduced by additions to the herd. Six cows aborted or had diarrhea due to salmonellosis in the last trimester of pregnancy. Additions to the herd and the presence of animals that had not received an Escherichia coli bacterin-toxoid were risk factors for salmonellosis. One neonate died, and 24 of 36 calves born between November 1998 and May 1999 had diarrhea by 1 mo of age. Initially, over 60% of the cows were fecal positive; within 6 months, all cows but I had become infected. The intermittent shedding of the organism and the eventual zero prevalence highlight the inappropriateness of extensive culling as an eradication strategy. Cultures of the bulk-tank milk filters were more sensitive than cultures of the bulk-tank milk samples at detecting S. Muenster. Two months after the index case, S. Muenster was cultured from the milk of 7.8% of the cows. Positive fecal or milk cultures were not associated with impaired health or production. The herd's milk was a zoonotic risk, but contact with infected animals was not. The organism spread easily between operations, likely via manure-contaminated clothing and footwear. PMID:12058570

  19. Culling of dairy cows. Part I. Effects of diseases on culling in Finnish Ayrshire cows.

    PubMed

    Rajala-Schultz, P J; Gröhn, Y T

    1999-07-20

    The effects of 15 diseases on time until culling were studied in 39,727 Finnish Ayrshire cows that calved during 1993 and were followed until the next calving or culling. The diseases studied were: dystocia, milk fever, retained placenta, displacement of the abomasum, metritis, non-parturient paresis, ketosis, rumen disorders, acute mastitis, hypomagnesemia, lameness, traumatic reticuloperitonitis, anestrus, ovarian cysts, and teat injuries. Survival analysis, using the Cox proportional hazards model, was performed and diseases were modeled as time-dependent covariates. Different stages of lactation when culling can occur were also considered. Parity, calving season and herd were included as covariates in every model. Parity had a significant effect on culling, the risk of culling being four times higher for a cow in her sixth or higher parity than for a first parity cow. The effects of diseases varied according to when the diseases occurred and when culling occurred. Mastitis, teat injuries and lameness had a significant effect on culling throughout the whole lactation. Anestrus and ovarian cysts had a protective effect against culling at the time when they were diagnosed. In general, diseases affected culling decisions mostly at the time of their occurrence. The effect seemed to decrease with time from the diagnosis of the disease. However, milk fever, dystocia and metritis also had a significant effect on culling at the end of the lactation. PMID:10448946

  20. Dairy Herd Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanyk, Alison M.; Bishop, Natalie

    This monograph, designed to help secondary students recognize symptoms of major dairy cattle diseases, stresses the need for preventative management practices and cooperation between the dairy farmer and the veterinarian. The first of three parts, The Healthy Animal, is divided into five units: body parts, vital signs, excretions, behavior, and…

  1. Management of Wisconsin dairy herds enrolled in milk quality teams.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A C O; Caraviello, D Z; Ruegg, P L

    2005-07-01

    A study was conducted to characterize Wisconsin dairy herds that enrolled in a team-based milk quality improvement program and to assess association of specific management practices with milking efficiency and milk quality. Management and financial data were obtained from dairy farms (n = 180) that participated in the program. Upon enrollment, herds reported a median bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC) of 333,500 cells/mL, an average of 125 lactating cows, and a mean rolling-herd average of 10,100 kg. Many management practices and bulk milk SCC were strongly associated with herd size and facility type. Managers of herds housed in freestall barns adopted more standardized procedures and recommended management practices compared with managers of herds housed in stall barns. Those managers also reported less bulk milk SCC and greater milk yields, and had a tendency for lower prevalence of subclinical mastitis and reduced estimates of the incidence of clinical mastitis. Managers of freestall herds received more quality premiums for milk shipped, estimated that they had fewer financial losses related to mastitis, and reported more efficient milking performance. A more efficient milking performance did not increase estimates of clinical mastitis or bulk milk SCC. In herds having freestalls, frequent training of employees seemed to be the fundamental factor that increased milking efficiency. Bulk milk SCC was positively associated with standard plate count, estimated rate of clinical mastitis, prevalence of subclinical mastitis, numbers of cows culled for mastitis, and estimated financial losses attributable to mastitis. Herds reporting high bulk milk SCC had an increased prevalence of subclinical mastitis, but incidence did not differ among bulk milk SCC categories. Overall, herds did not discuss milk quality frequently with dairy professionals, and herds having greater bulk milk SCC reported less consultation with their herd veterinarian. PMID:15956328

  2. Minimization of bovine tuberculosis control costs in US dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebecca L; Tauer, Loren W; Schukken, Ynte H; Lu, Zhao; Grohn, Yrjo T

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to minimize the cost of controlling an isolated bovine tuberculosis (bTB) outbreak in a US dairy herd, using a stochastic simulation model of bTB with economic and biological layers. A model optimizer produced a control program that required 2-month testing intervals (TI) with 2 negative whole-herd tests to leave quarantine. This control program minimized both farm and government costs. In all cases, test-and-removal costs were lower than depopulation costs, although the variability in costs increased for farms with high holding costs or small herd sizes. Increasing herd size significantly increased costs for both the farm and the government, while increasing indemnity payments significantly decreased farm costs and increasing testing costs significantly increased government costs. Based on the results of this model, we recommend 2-month testing intervals for herds after an outbreak of bovine tuberculosis, with 2 negative whole herd tests being sufficient to lift quarantine. A prolonged test and cull program may cause a state to lose its bTB-free status during the testing period. When the cost of losing the bTB-free status is greater than $1.4 million then depopulation of farms could be preferred over a test and cull program. PMID:23953679

  3. Factors associated with age at slaughter and carcass weight, price, and value of dairy cull cows.

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, I; De Marchi, M; Cecchinato, A; Berry, D P; Bittante, G

    2014-02-01

    The sale of cull cows contributes to the overall profit of dairy herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with slaughter age (mo), cow carcass weight (kg), price (€/kg of carcass weight), and value (€/head) of dairy cull cows. Data included 20,995 slaughter records in the period from 2003 to 2011 of 5 different breeds: 2 dairy [Holstein Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS)] and 3 dual-purpose [Simmental (Si), Alpine Grey (AG), and Rendena (Re)]. Associations of breed, age of cow (except when the dependent variable was slaughter age), and year and month of slaughter with slaughter age, carcass weight, price, and value were quantified using a mixed linear model; herd was included as a random effect. The seasonal trends in cow price and value traits were inversely related to the number of cows slaughtered, whereas annual variation in external factors affected market conditions. Relative to BS cows, HF cows were younger at slaughter (73.1 vs. 80.7 mo), yielded slightly lighter carcasses (242 vs. 246 kg), and received a slightly lower price (1.69 vs. 1.73 €/kg) and total value (394 vs. 417 €/head). Dual-purpose breeds were older and heavier and received a much greater price and total value at slaughter (521, 516, and 549 €/head, respectively for Si, Re, and AG) than either dairy breed. Of the dual-purpose cows, Si carcasses were heavier (271 kg), whereas the carcasses of local breeds received a higher price (2.05 and 2.18 €/kg for Re and AG, respectively) and Alpine Grey cows were the oldest at slaughter (93.3 mo). The price per kilogram of cull cow carcasses was greatest for very young cows (i.e., <3 yr of age) and the differential in price and value between younger and older cows was greater in dual-purpose than in dairy breeds. Large differences in cull cow whole carcass value (carcass weight × unit price) among dairy breeds suggest that such a trait could be considered in the breeding objectives of the breeds. PMID

  4. Some observations on the epidemiology of bovine leucosis virus infection in a large dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Wilesmith, J W; Straub, O C; Lorenz, R J

    1980-01-01

    Bovine leucosis infection rates were calculated for two years in a naturally infected dairy herd in which serologically positive animals were not preferentially culled. Transmission of infection was found to occur mainly during the winter housing period. No variation in susceptibility to infection with age was found and young animals did not show a prolonged time from infection to sero-conversion. PMID:6246561

  5. The cost of a case of subclinical ketosis in Canadian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gohary, Khaled; Overton, Michael W; Von Massow, Michael; LeBlanc, Stephen J; Lissemore, Kerry D; Duffield, Todd F

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a model to estimate the cost of a case of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in Canadian dairy herds. Costs were derived from the default inputs, and included increased clinical disease incidence attributable to SCK, $76; longer time to pregnancy, $57; culling and death in early lactation attributable to SCK, $26; milk production loss, $44. Given these figures, the cost of 1 case of SCK was estimated to be $203. Sensitivity analysis showed that the estimated cost of a case of SCK was most sensitive to the herd-level incidence of SCK and the cost of 1 day open. In conclusion, SCK negatively impacts dairy herds and losses are dependent on the herd-level incidence and factors included in the calculation. PMID:27429460

  6. Serratia marcescens mastitis in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D J; Kirk, J H; Walker, R D; Bosworth, Q W

    1990-04-01

    Serratia marcescens caused clinical mastitis in 5 cows and nonclinical mastitis in 21 cows of a 190-cow herd. Repeated bacteriologic culture of specimens from the cows, postmilking teat dip, environment, and equipment was performed. Serratia marcescens was not isolated from the dip, environment, or equipment. Progress of the infection in cows was monitored for 10 months. Some cows remained infected with S marcescens for at least 10 months. Economic loss estimates were based on Dairy Herd Improvement Association linear score reports. The average nonclinical loss was about $22/cow. PMID:2184155

  7. Simulation-model evaluation of bovine tuberculosis-eradication strategies in Argentine dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Perez, Andres M; Ward, Michael P; Ritacco, Viviana

    2002-08-30

    We used stochastic modification of the Reed-Frost model to assess the impact of 14 different eradication strategies on bovine tuberculosis, under three scenarios of disease introduction, in Argentine dairy herds. All strategies investigated were based on a test-and-cull approach using either the caudal-fold test (CFT), the single cervical test (SCT), the gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN) test or a combination of these tests. The maximum, minimum and most-likely sensitivity and specificity were investigated in three scenarios simulating different epidemiological conditions. Simulation results were highly variable; therefore, it is difficult to predict the effect of disease-control strategies within individual herds. On average, the use of the SCT was less efficient in eradicating tuberculosis from the simulated herd than the CFT. Eradication would be achieved most efficiently by strategies in which the CFT was used assuming maximum possible sensitivity and specificity (difficult to achieve in the field) and/or the gamma-IFN test-which has both economical and logistical limitations to its widespread application in Argentina. When disease-control was simulated in situations in which herd tuberculosis prevalence is > or = 22%, all strategies we simulated were less efficient than herd depopulation. Considering that Argentine dairy producers are not compensated financially for cattle culled because of tuberculosis, eradication strategies currently used in the Argentine national tuberculosis eradication might not succeed. PMID:12163251

  8. Control and eradication programme of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) from selected dairy herds in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Burgu, I; Alkan, F; Karaoglu, T; Bilge-Dagalp, S; Can-Sahna, K; Güngör, B; Demir, B

    2005-07-01

    Serum samples of 15,909 cattle from 31 dairy herds located in various regions of Turkey were tested for the presence of antibodies against bovine leucosis virus (BLV) using Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion technique (AGID). 48.3% (15/31) of the herds had seropositive animals and positivity rates were detected from 0.5-34.4% in these herds. In an EBL control/eradication programme all seropositive animals were culled in the infected herds. Thereafter, a total of 74,347 sera were tested for the presence of BLV specific antibodies. The serological results and detail of EBL control/eradication programme were shown in this paper. PMID:16124702

  9. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  10. Consequence of changing standards for somatic cell count on US Dairy Herd Improvement herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consequence of noncompliance with European Union (EU) and current US standards for somatic cell count (SCC) as well as SCC standards proposed by the National Milk Producers Federation was examined for US herds. Somatic cell scores (SCS) from 14,854 Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) herds were analyzed. H...

  11. Trends in noncompliance with milk quality standards for Dairy Herd Improvement herds in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequency of herd noncompliance for somatic cell count (SCC) based on current US and European Union (EU) standards as well as for standards proposed by the National Milk Producers Federation (NMPF) was examined for US Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) herds. For current US standards, regulatory action is...

  12. Somatic cell counts of milk from Dairy Herd Improvement herds during 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2010 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to somatic cell count (SCC) for calculating herd and State averages. The ...

  13. Distribution of Penicillin G Residues in Culled Dairy Cow Muscles: Implications for Residue Monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which type of muscle should be analyzed. In order to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type, 7 culled dairy cows were dosed with Penicillin G (Pen G) from ...

  14. Associations among digestive tract lesions and abnormal serum chemistries in cull dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All animals accrue tissue damage with age, but types and prevalence of damage are not known. Tissue lesions could signal impaired organ function which could affect performance. The study objective was to assess prevalence of microscopic lesions in digestive tracts of cull dairy cows, and determine a...

  15. Prevalence and level of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in culled dairy cows at harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and concentration of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 (EHEC-7) in fecal, hide, and pre-intervention carcass surface samples from culled dairy cows at harvest. Matched samples were ...

  16. The Importance of Culling in Johne’s Disease Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johne’s disease is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection and results in economic losses in dairy industry. To control MAP transmission in herds, test-based culling has been recommended and immediate culling of high shedding animals is typically implemented. In this st...

  17. Analysis of Q fever in Dutch dairy goat herds and assessment of control measures by means of a transmission model.

    PubMed

    Bontje, D M; Backer, J A; Hogerwerf, L; Roest, H I J; van Roermund, H J W

    2016-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2009 the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source of infection was traced back to dairy goat herds with abortion problems due to Q fever. The first aim of control measures taken in these herds was the reduction of human exposure. To analyze Q fever dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a within-herd model of Coxiella burnetii transmission in dairy goat herds was developed. With this individual-based stochastic model we evaluated six control strategies and three herd management styles and studied which strategy leads to a lower Q fever prevalence and/or to disease extinction in a goat herd. Parameter values were based on literature and on experimental work. The model could not be validated with independent data. The results of the epidemiological model were: (1) Vaccination is effective in quickly reducing the prevalence in a dairy goat herd. (2) When taking into account the average time to extinction of the infection and the infection pressure in a goat herd, the most effective control strategy is preventive yearly vaccination, followed by the reactive strategies to vaccinate after an abortion storm or after testing BTM (bulk tank milk) positive. (3) As C. burnetii in dried dust may affect public health, an alternative ranking method is based on the cumulative amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment (from disease introduction until extinction). Using this criterion, the same control strategies are effective as when based on time to extinction and infection pressure (see 2). (4) As the bulk of pathogen excretion occurs during partus and abortion, culling of pregnant animals during an abortion storm leads to a fast reduction of the amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment. However, emission is not entirely prevented and Q fever will not be eradicated in the herd by this measure. (5) A search & destroy (i.e. test and cull) method by PCR of individual milk

  18. Cow- and herd-level risk factors for on-farm mortality in Midwest US dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Shahid, M Q; Reneau, J K; Chester-Jones, H; Chebel, R C; Endres, M I

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe on-farm mortality and to investigate cow- and herd-level risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Midwest US dairy herds using lactation survival analysis. We analyzed a total of approximately 5.9 million DHIA lactation records from 10 Midwest US states from January 2006 to December 2010. The cow-level independent variables used in the models were first test-day milk yield, milk fat percent, milk protein percent, fat-to-protein ratio, milk urea nitrogen, somatic cell score, previous dry period, previous calving interval, stillbirth, calf sex, twinning, calving difficulty, season of calving, parity, and breed. The herd-level variables included herd size, calving interval, somatic cell score, 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield, and herd stillbirth percentage. Descriptive analysis showed that overall cow-level mortality rate was 6.4 per 100 cow-years and it increased from 5.9 in 2006 to 6.8 in 2010. Mortality was the primary reason of leaving the herd (19.4% of total culls) followed by reproduction (14.6%), injuries and other (14.0%), low production (12.3%), and mastitis (10.5%). Risk factor analysis showed that increased hazard for mortality was associated with higher fat-to-protein ratio (>1.6 vs. 1 to 1.6), higher milk fat percent, lower milk protein percent, cows with male calves, cows carrying multiple calves, higher milk urea nitrogen, increasing parity, longer previous calving interval, higher first test-day somatic cell score, increased calving difficulty score, and breed (Holstein vs. others). Decreased hazard for mortality was associated with higher first test-day milk yield, higher milk protein, and shorter dry period. For herd-level factors, increased hazard for mortality was associated with increased herd size, increased percentage of stillbirths, higher somatic cell score, and increased herd calving interval. Cows in herds with higher milk yield had lower mortality hazard. Results of the study

  19. Use of partial budgeting to determine the economic outcome of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection reduction strategies in three Ohio dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Hoblet, K H; Miller, G Y

    1991-09-15

    Efforts to reduce the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection were monitored in 3 Ohio dairy herds. Bacteriologic culturing of milk from all lactating cows in each herd was completed multiple times to identify infected cows and monitor reduction. Partial budgeting techniques were used to determine the economic outcome of the reduction program. Of particular emphasis was the economic impact of culling to maintain or achieve milk quality premium payments on the basis of bulk tank somatic cell counts. The prevalence of S aureusinfected cows was reduced in each herd. Culturing of milk from all lactating cows appeared to be an effective method to identify infected cows. Although numbers were limited, it also appeared that culturing of composite quarter samples was effective as a herd screening test to identify S aureus-infected cows. Bacteriologic culturing had a negative financial impact in all 3 herds. Using partial budgeting to assess the economic impact of the programs, it was determined that 2 herds experienced negative financial impacts as a result of an excess culling rate when compared with a 12-month baseline period prior to the initiation of the project. All herds had increased milk production per cow during the study as measured by the mature-equivalent method. However, when actual production was considered, increased milk production in each herd was not as great as that of other Ohio herds enrolled on Dairy Herd Improvement Association testing programs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1955362

  20. Fertility time trends in dairy herds in northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Rocha, A; Martins, A; Carvalheira, J

    2010-10-01

    The economics of dairy production are in great part dictated by the reproductive efficiency of the herds. Many studies have reported a widespread decrease in fertility of dairy cows. In a previous work (Rocha et al. 2001), we found a very poor oestrus detection rate (38%), and consequently a delayed calving to 1st AI and calving to conception intervals. However, a good conception rate at 1st AI was noted (51%) resulting in a low number of inseminations per pregnancy (IAP) (1.4). Here, results from a subsequent fertility time trend assessment study carried out in the same region for cows born from 1992 to 2002 are reported. Statistical linear models were used to analyse the data. Estimate linear contrasts of least square means were computed from each model. The number of observations per studied index varied from 12,130 (culling rate) to 57,589 (non-return rate). Mean age at first calving was 28.9 ± 0.14 months, without (p > 0.05) variation over time. There was a small, but significant (p < 0.05), deterioration of all other parameters. Non-return rates at 90 days and calving rate at 1st AI decreased 0.3% per trimester, with a consequent increase of 0.04 IA/parturition. Oestrus detection rate decreased 0.13% per year, and calving at 1st AI and calving-conception intervals increased 0.17 and 0.07 days/year respectively, while intercalving interval increased 1.7 days per year. From 12,130 cows calving, only 1,816 had a 4th lactation (85% culling/losses). The data was not meant to draw conclusions on the causes for the decreased fertility over time, but an increase of milk production from 6537 kg to 8590 kg (305 days) from 1996 to 2002 is probably one factor to take into consideration. Specific measures to revert or slow down this trend of decreasing fertility are warranted. Available strategies are discussed. PMID:20051042

  1. Concentration of anti-Müllerian hormone in dairy heifers is positively associated with productive herd life.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Krassel, F; Scheetz, D M; Neuder, L M; Ireland, J L H; Pursley, J R; Smith, G W; Tempelman, R J; Ferris, T; Roudebush, W E; Mossa, F; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Ireland, J J

    2015-05-01

    Reliable biomarkers predictive of productive herd life (time in herd after birth of first calf) have heretofore not been discovered in dairy cattle. However, circulating concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) are positively associated with number of follicles or antral follicle count (AFC), ovarian function, and fertility, and approximately 25% of cows have a relatively low AFC and low AMH concentrations. The present study tested the hypothesis that heifers with the lowest AMH concentrations have suboptimal fertility and are removed from a herd for poor reproductive performance at a greater rate, and therefore have a shorter productive herd life compared with age-matched herdmates with higher AMH. To test this hypothesis, 11- to 15-mo-old Holstein heifers (n=281) were subjected to a single measurement of AMH. All heifers not removed from the herd had the opportunity to complete 2 lactations and start their third lactation after calving. During this time, performance and health parameters for each individual were recorded daily by herd managers. Results showed that the quartile of heifers with the lowest AMH concentration also had, on average, a shorter productive herd life (by 196 d), a reduced survival rate after birth of the first calf, the lowest level of milk production (first lactation), the lowest total percentage of cows pregnant (across all lactations), the highest culling rates (first and second lactations and overall), and the highest culling rate for poor reproduction (first lactation) compared with age-matched herdmates with higher AMH. We concluded that a single determination of AMH concentration in young adult dairy heifers may be a simple diagnostic method to predict herd longevity, and AMH may be a useful phenotypic marker to improve longevity of dairy cows. PMID:25726106

  2. Prevalence of subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Timothy A; Lippolis, John D; McCluskey, Brian J; Goff, Jesse P; Horst, Ronald L

    2011-04-01

    The prevalence of subclinical hypocalcemia in the transition cow is unknown. Cows with subclinical hypocalcemia have no clinical signs of hypocalcemia but may be more susceptible to other diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical hypocalcemia in the US dairy herds. As a part of the United States Department of Agriculture's National Animal Health Monitoring System 2002 Dairy study, serum samples were collected from 1462 cows within 48 h of parturition. The samples were sorted by lactation number: 1st (n=454), 2nd (n=447), 3rd (n=291), 4th (n=166), 5th (n=72), and 6th (n=32). Subclinical hypocalcemia (<2.0 mM) increased with age and was present in 25%, 41%, 49%, 51%, 54%, and 42% of 1st-6th lactation cows, respectively. Cows with serum calcium concentrations >2.0 mM had significantly lower serum non-esterified fatty acids indicating better energy balance than those with subclinical hypocalcemia. Subclinical hypocalcemia may make cows more susceptible to secondary diseases but more research will be required to determine if this is true. PMID:20434377

  3. Reproductive Systems for North American Dairy Cattle Herds.

    PubMed

    Chebel, Ricardo C; Ribeiro, Eduardo S

    2016-07-01

    Reproductive inefficiency compromises the profitability of dairy herds and the health and longevity of individual cows. In the average dairy herd, the combination of estrus detection and ovulation synchronization protocols yields the best economic return. Genomic selection of animals is particularly profitable in situations in which little is known about their genetic potential. Biosensor systems in milking parlors may allow for the design of reproductive strategies tailored for cows according to their physiologic needs while optimizing economic return. PMID:27324450

  4. Reproductive trends of dairy herds in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trends for reproductive traits were examined for U.S. Holstein and Jersey herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Information testing. Traits were days from calving to first service (DFS) and to last service, 70-d nonreturn rates (NRR) and conception rates (CR) for first through fifth services, days open, gest...

  5. The selenium status of dairy herds in Prince Edward Island

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Bulk tank milk selenium (Se) concentration was compared with mean serum Se concentration in 15 herds and was found to be an accurate reflection of the herd Se status. The Se status of 109 Prince Edward Island (PEI) dairy herds was monitored for 1 year using bulk tank milk Se concentration. Fifty-nine percent of the herds surveyed were, at some point, found to be marginal or deficient in Se, putting them at risk of disease and suboptimal production. The periods of greatest risk of deficiency were fall and winter, at which time 5% and 4%, respectively, of herds sampled fell in the range considered truly deficient in Se. Herds in which Se supplementation was provided in the form of a commercial dairy concentrate were over 4 times more likely to be Se-adequate than herds not using this method, and adjusted average daily milk yield was 7.6% greater in herds determined to be Se-adequate when compared with Se-marginal herds. We conclude that many dairy producers in PEI are providing insufficient supplementary Se in the ration to meet the recommended Se intake for lactating cows. PMID:15025148

  6. Somatic cell counts of milk from Dairy Herd Improvement herds during 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2009 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  7. Somatic Cell Counts of Milk from Dairy Herd Improvement Herds during 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2006 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  8. Somatic Cell Counts of Milk from Dairy Herd Improvement Herds during 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2007 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  9. Somatic cell counts of milk from Dairy Herd Improvement herds during 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2008 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  10. Within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in endemically infected dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L R

    2013-10-01

    In this study within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin was investigated in three age groups (calves, young stock, adult cows) during five herd visits at 3-month intervals of 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A total of 10162 paired faecal cultures and antibody measurements were used to calculate the age and temporal dynamics of seroprevalence and prevalence of positive faecal cultures. Faecal culture-positive prevalence was generally low. It was highest (5.4%) in calves during December to February. Seroprevalence varied from 0% to 70% between herds, but was generally more stable in young stock and adult cows than in calves. Hierarchical mixed-model results showed that seroprevalence was associated with the bacteriological status in calves and cows, but not in young stock. These results can be used to develop and validate theoretical infection dynamics models and to design effective control programmes for Salmonella Dublin in dairy herds. PMID:23328264

  11. Metabolic predictors of post-partum disease and culling risk in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Seifi, Hesam A; Leblanc, Stephen J; Leslie, Ken E; Duffield, Todd F

    2011-05-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to determine the relationship between serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose and calcium (Ca) with the occurrence of displaced abomasum (DA), clinical ketosis and culling in Holstein cows. Eight hundred and forty-nine cows from 16 farms were sampled weekly for the first 3 weeks post-partum. The cows were under clinical observation from calving until 60 days in milk (DIM) and during this time there were 22 cases of DA, 31 cases of clinical ketosis and 39 cows were culled. Elevated concentrations of BHBA were associated with DA, clinical ketosis and culling. In the first week after calving, cows with serum BHBA ≥1000μmol/L had 13.6 times greater odds of developing DA than cows with lower values. Serum NEFA and BHBA concentrations during week 1 were associated with the subsequent occurrence of clinical ketosis. The odds of clinical ketosis were 6.3 times greater in cows with serum NEFA ≥ 1.0mmol/L in the first week after calving. In addition, cows with BHB ≥1200μmol/L in the first week after calving, were at 4.7 times greater risk of developing clinical ketosis. In the first and second weeks after calving the serum Ca concentration was associated with subsequent culling. In addition, cows with NEFA concentration ≥ 1.0mmol/L were 3.6 times more likely to be culled within the following 2 months. The study indicated that early post-partum serum BHBA, NEFA and Ca concentrations have potential as indicators of disease and culling risk in dairy cows. PMID:20457532

  12. A model of the spread of the bovine viral-diarrhoea virus within a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Viet, Anne-France; Fourichon, Christine; Seegers, Henri; Jacob, Christine; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal

    2004-05-14

    Wet BVDSim (a stochastic simulation model) was developed to study the dynamics of the spread of the bovine viral-diarrhoea virus (BVDV) within a dairy herd. This model took into account herd-management factors (common in several countries), which influence BVDV spread. BVDSim was designed as a discrete-entity and discrete-event simulation model. It relied on two processes defined at the individual-animal level, with interactions. The first process was a semi-Markov process and modelled the herd structure and dynamics (demography, herd management). The second process was a Markov process and modelled horizontal and vertical virus transmission. Because the horizontal transmission occurs by contacts (nose-to-nose) and indirectly, transmission varied with the separation of animals into subgroups. Vertical transmission resulted in birth of persistently infected (PI) calves. Other possible consequences of a BVDV infection during the pregnancy period were considered (pregnancy loss, immunity of calves). The outcomes of infection were modelled according to the stage of pregnancy at time of infection. BVDV pregnancy loss was followed either by culling or by a new artificial insemination depending on the modelled farmer's decision. Consistency of the herd dynamics in the absence of any BVDV infection was verified. To explore the model behaviour, the virus spread was simulated over 10 years after the introduction of a near-calving PI heifer into a susceptible 38 cow herd. Different dynamics of the virus spread were simulated, from early clearance to persistence of the virus 10 years after its introduction. Sensitivity of the model to the uncertainty on transmission coefficient was analysed. Qualitative validation consisted in comparing the bulk-milk ELISA results over time in a sample of herds detected with a new infection with the ones derived from simulations. PMID:15158572

  13. Estimate of the direct production losses in Canadian dairy herds with subclinical Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ashwani; VanLeeuwen, John A.; Dohoo, Ian R.; Keefe, Greg P.; Weersink, Alfons

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the annual losses from Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) for an average, MAP-seropositive, Canadian dairy herd. A partial-budget simulation model was developed with 4 components of direct production losses (decreased milk production, premature voluntary culling, mortality, and reproductive losses). Input values were obtained primarily from a national seroprevalence survey of 373 Canadian dairy farms in 8 of 10 provinces. The model took into account the variability and uncertainty of the required input values; consequently, it produced probability distributions of the estimated losses. For an average Canadian dairy herd with 12.7% of 61 cows seropositive for MAP, the mean loss was $2992 (95% C.I., $143 to $9741) annually, or $49 per cow per year. Additional culling, decreased milk production, mortality, and reproductive losses accounted for 46%, 9%, 16%, and 29% of the losses, respectively. Canadian dairy producers should use best management practices to reduce these substantial annual losses. PMID:18624066

  14. Invited review: Culling: nomenclature, definitions, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Fetrow, J; Nordlund, K V; Norman, H D

    2006-06-01

    Replacing cows on a dairy is a major cost of operation. There is a need for the industry to adopt a more standardized approach to reporting the rate at which cows exit from the dairy, and to reporting the reasons why cows are replaced and their destination as they exit the dairy. Herd turnover rate is recommended as the preferred term for characterizing the cows exiting a dairy, in preference to herd replacement rate, culling rate, or percent exiting, all of which have served as synonyms. Herd turnover rate should be calculated as the number of cows that exit in a defined period divided by the animal time at risk for the population being characterized. The terms voluntary and involuntary culling suffer from problems of definition and their use should be discouraged. Destination should be recorded for all cows that exit the dairy and opportunities to record one or more reasons for exiting should be provided by management systems. Comparing reported reasons between dairies requires considerable caution because of differences in case definitions and recording methods. Relying upon culling records to monitor disease has been and will always be an ineffective management strategy. Dairies are encouraged to record and monitor disease events and reproductive performance and use this information as the basis for management efforts aimed at reducing the need to replace cows. PMID:16702253

  15. Benchmarking dairy herd health status using routinely recorded herd summary data.

    PubMed

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2016-02-01

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to nongenetic factors, such as the environment. More rapid improvement of dairy cattle health may be attainable if herd health programs incorporate environmental and managerial aspects. More than 1,100 herd characteristics are regularly recorded on farm test-days. We combined these data with producer-recorded health event data, and parametric and nonparametric models were used to benchmark herd and cow health status. Health events were grouped into 3 categories for analyses: mastitis, reproductive, and metabolic. Both herd incidence and individual incidence were used as dependent variables. Models implemented included stepwise logistic regression, support vector machines, and random forests. At both the herd and individual levels, random forest models attained the highest accuracy for predicting health status in all health event categories when evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracy (SD) ranged from 0.61 (0.04) to 0.63 (0.04) when using random forest models at the herd level. Accuracy of prediction (SD) at the individual cow level ranged from 0.87 (0.06) to 0.93 (0.001) with random forest models. Highly significant variables and key words from logistic regression and random forest models were also investigated. All models identified several of the same key factors for each health event category, including movement out of the herd, size of the herd, and weather-related variables. We concluded that benchmarking health status using routinely collected herd data is feasible. Nonparametric models were better suited to handle this complex data with numerous variables. These data mining techniques were able to perform prediction of health status and could add evidence to personal experience in herd

  16. Systemic prepartum treatment of end-term dairy heifers with penethamate hydriodide: effect on udder health, milk yield, and culling until 120 days in milk.

    PubMed

    Passchyn, P; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S

    2013-10-01

    Prepartum intramammary treatment with antimicrobials of end-term dairy heifers has frequently been proposed as a practice to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) at calving. From a safety standpoint for both animal and administrator, systemic treatment is preferred. A clinical trial was conducted on heifers from 10 well-managed, commercial dairy farms with a low prevalence of heifer mastitis. The aim was to assess both the short- and long-term effects of a systemic prepartum therapy with penethamate hydriodide on udder health and milk production. Because it was hypothesized that some herds would benefit more from this treatment than others, specific herd-level information was collected before the start of the actual trial to screen for and explain potential herd-specific treatment effects. Further, the effect of treatment on antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococcal isolates was monitored. End-term heifers were either treated systemically (over 3 consecutive days) 2 wk before expected calving date with penethamate hydriodide (n=76) or remained untreated (n=73). Systemic prepartum treatment of end-term heifers with penethamate hydriodide resulted in fewer IMI in early lactation. However, all 6 cases of clinical mastitis in early lactation occurred in the treatment group [Streptococcus uberis (n=1), Corynebacterium bovis (n=1), Staphylococcus aureus (n=1); 1 sample was contaminated; 2 samples remained culture negative]. No long-term treatment effects (from 4 to 120 d in milk) on milk production, udder health, or culling hazard during later lactation were detected, although treated heifers belonging to herds classified as having low-yielding heifers out-produced the control heifers. Moreover, penicillin susceptibility of staphylococci isolated from milk samples of treated or control heifers did not differ. Herds with a low prevalence of heifer mastitis are not likely to benefit from prepartum systemic antimicrobial treatment of the end

  17. Unusual cause of abortions in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    2013-02-01

    Abortion due to Rhizopus microsporus in a dairy herd Outbreaks of nutritional myopathy and hypovitaminosis A in calves Marked rise in diagnoses of acute fasciolosis in sheep Arcanobacterium haemolyticum arthritis diagnosed in fattening boars Infectious laryngotracheitis causes mortality in backyard poultry These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for November 2012 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:23378310

  18. Assessing the potential impact of Salmonella vaccines in an endemically infected dairy herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella spp. in cattle are contributing to bacterial foodborne disease for humans. Reduction of Salmonella prevalence in herds is important to prevent human Salmonella infections. Typical control measures are culling of infectious animals, vaccination, and improved hygiene management. Vaccines ha...

  19. Epidemiology of Salmonella sp. in California cull dairy cattle: prevalence of fecal shedding and diagnostic accuracy of pooled enriched broth culture of fecal samples

    PubMed Central

    Abu Aboud, Omran A.; Adaska, John M.; Williams, Deniece R.; Rossitto, Paul V.; Champagne, John D.; Lehenbauer, Terry W.; Atwill, Robert; Li, Xunde

    2016-01-01

    Background The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the crude, seasonal and cull-reason stratified prevalence of Salmonella fecal shedding in cull dairy cattle on seven California dairies. A secondary objective was to estimate and compare the relative sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) for pools of 5 and 10 enriched broth cultures of fecal samples for Salmonella sp. detection. Methods Seven dairy farms located in the San Joaquin Valley of California were identified and enrolled in the study as a convenience sample. Cull cows were identified for fecal sampling once during each season between 2014 and 2015, specifically during spring, summer, fall, and winter, and 10 cows were randomly selected for fecal sampling at the day of their sale. In addition, study personnel completed a survey based on responses of the herd manager to questions related to the previous four month’s herd management. Fecal samples were frozen until testing for Salmonella. After overnight enrichment in liquid broth, pools of enrichment broth (EBP) were created for 5 and 10 samples. All individual and pooled broths were cultured on selective media with putative Salmonella colonies confirmed by biochemical testing before being serogrouped and serotyped. Results A total of 249 cull cows were enrolled into the study and their fecal samples tested for Salmonella. The survey-weighted period prevalence of fecal shedding of all Salmonella sp. in the cull cow samples across all study herds and the entire study period was 3.42% (N = 249; SE 1.07). The within herd prevalence of Salmonella shed in feces did not differ over the four study seasons (P = 0.074). The Se of culture of EBP of five samples was 62.5% (SE = 17.12), which was not statistically different from the Se of culture of EBP of 10 (37.5%, SE = 17.12, P = 0.48). The Sp of culture of EBP of five samples was 95.24% (SE = 3.29) and for pools of 10 samples was 100.00% (SE = 0). There was no statistical difference

  20. Survey of facility and management characteristics of large, Upper Midwest dairy herds clustered by Dairy Herd Improvement records.

    PubMed

    Brotzman, R L; Döpfer, D; Foy, M R; Hess, J P; Nordlund, K V; Bennett, T B; Cook, N B

    2015-11-01

    A survey of management practices was conducted to investigate potential associations with groupings of herds formed by cluster analysis (CA) of Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) data of 557 Upper Midwest herds of 200 cows or greater. Differences in herd management practices were identified between the groups, despite underlying similarities; for example, freestall housing and milking in a parlor. Group 6 comprised larger herds with a high proportion of primiparous cows and most frequently utilized practices promoting increased production [e.g., 84.4% used recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)], decreased lameness (e.g., 96.9% used routine hoof trimming for cows), and improved efficiency in reproduction [e.g., 93.8% synchronized the first breeding in cows (SYNCH)] and labor (e.g., mean ± SD, 67 ± 19 cows per 50-h per week full-time equivalent worker). Group 1 had the best mean DHI performances and followed most closely group 6 for the rate of adoption of intensive management practices while tending to outperform group 6 despite a generally smaller mean herd size (e.g., 42.3 ± 3.6 kg vs. 39.9 ± 3.6 kg of energy-corrected milk production; 608 ± 352 cows vs. 1,716 ± 1,405 cows). Group 2 were smaller herds with relatively high levels of performance that used less intensive management (e.g., 100% milked twice daily) and less technology (33.3 vs. 73.0% of group 1 used rbST). Group 4 were smaller but poorer-performing herds with low turnover and least frequently used intensive management practices (e.g., 39.1% SYNCH; 30.4% allowed mature, high-producing cows access to pasture). Group 5 used modern technologies and practices associated with improved production, yet had the least desirable mean DHI performance of all 6 groups. This group had the lowest proportion of deep loose-bedded stalls (only 52.2% used sand bedding) and the highest proportion (34.8%) of herds not using routine hoof trimming. The survey of group 3 herds did not reveal strong trends in management. The

  1. Dairy Herd On-line Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Satoshi

    As the business circumstances have become worse, computational breeding management based on the scientific matters has been needed for dairy farming in our country. In this connection it was urgent to construct the system which provided data effectively used in the fields for dairy farmers. The Federation has executed to provide dairy farming technical data promptly through its own on-line network being composed of middle sized general-purpose computer (main memory : 5MB, and fixed disk : 1100MB) and 22 terminals.

  2. Copper toxicity in a New Zealand dairy herd

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic copper toxicity was diagnosed in a Jersey herd in the Waikato region of New Zealand following an investigation into the deaths of six cattle from a herd of 250 dry cows. Clinical signs and post-mortem examination results were consistent with a hepatopathy, and high concentrations of copper in liver and blood samples of clinically affected animals confirmed copper toxicity. Liver copper concentrations and serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were both raised in a group of healthy animals sampled at random from the affected herd, indicating an ongoing risk to the remaining cattle; these animals all had serum copper concentrations within normal limits. Serum samples and liver biopsies were also collected and assayed for copper from animals within two other dairy herds on the same farm; combined results from all three herds showed poor correlation between serum and liver copper concentrations. To reduce liver copper concentrations the affected herd was drenched with 0.5 g ammonium molybdate and 1 g sodium sulphate per cow for five days, and the herd was given no supplementary feed or mineral supplements. Liver biopsies were repeated 44 days after the initial biopsies (approximately 1 month after the end of the drenching program); these showed a significant 37.3% decrease in liver copper concentrations (P <0.02). Also there were no further deaths after the start of the drenching program. Since there was no control group it is impossible to quantify the effect of the drenching program in this case, and dietary changes were also made that would have depleted liver copper stores. Historical analysis of the diet was difficult due to poor record keeping, but multiple sources of copper contributed to a long term copper over supplementation of the herd; the biggest source of copper was a mineral supplement. The farmer perceived this herd to have problems with copper deficiency prior to the diagnosis of copper toxicity, so this case demonstrates the importance of

  3. Mycobacterium chelonei Mastitis in a Quebec Dairy Herd

    PubMed Central

    Ménard, L.; Vanasse, C.; Diaz, C.; Rivard, G.

    1983-01-01

    An epizootic of bovine mastitis caused by a nontuberculous mycobacterial agent occurred in a large Quebec dairy herd. This mastitis problem was characterized by the occurrence of a high number of cows with severely inflamed, indurated and therapeutically incurable quarters. Routine diagnostic laboratory methods yielded negative cultural findings. Approximately 40% of the milking cows developed chronic mastitis. Poor sanitation, improper milking procedures and a faulty milking system prevailed at that time. PMID:17422316

  4. Management practices on organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R; Wolff, L J; Michels, L; Schroth, S; Kelton, D F; Heins, B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe and compare husbandry practices on organic and conventional dairy farms of similar sizes in Minnesota. Organic (ORG, n=35), same-sized conventional (SC, n=15, <200 cows) and medium-sized conventional (MC, n=13, ≥200 cows) dairy herds were visited in 2012, and farmers were interviewed once about their farm, herd demographics, and herd management practices concerning nutrition, housing, and reproductive programs. Organic farms had been established as long as conventional farms, and ORG producers had most commonly selected ORG farming because of a negative perception of pesticides for human health. The distribution of cattle breeds and ages differed across farm types. Organic farms had more crossbred cows and a greater number of older cows than conventional farms, who had mainly Holstein cattle. Organic farms did not dock tails, were more likely to use breeding bulls, and were less likely to conduct pregnancy diagnoses in cattle. All conventional farmers fed corn, corn silage, and hay, but no forage or feed supplement was fed by all ORG farms with the exception of pasture. Kelp was supplemented on most ORG farms but on none of the conventional farms. In summary, although there were differences across farm types regarding the use of pasture, feeds, and feed additives, breed and age distribution, reproductive management, and the use of tail docking, observations in other management areas showed large overlap across herd types. PMID:26830734

  5. Veterinary dairy herd health management in Europe: constraints and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cannas da Silva, J; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Vagneur, M; Bexiga, R; Gelfert, C C; Baumgartner, W

    2006-03-01

    The nature of veterinary work in dairy health management in Europe has changed over the past years and will change even more dramatically in the near future. The consumers and the media show increasing concern about animal welfare, safety of products of animal origin and traceability of animal products. Farmers in Europe have to produce under strict, often expensive and laborious regulations, while still commercially competing with farmers outside the EU and not subject to the same rules. Veterinarians should adapt their knowledge and skills to the new challenges and developments of the dairy sector. Dairy farmers nowadays ask for support in areas that go beyond clinical activities: environmental protection, welfare, nutrition, grassland management, economics and business management. Bovine practitioners should be able to advise in many different areas and subjects--that is the challenge to our profession. Veterinary education with regards to cattle health management should start with individual animal clinical work, which constitutes the basis of herd health advisory programmes. The bovine practitioner should then look beyond that and regard the herd as the unit. Each diseased cow or group of cows should be detected early enough to avoid financial losses or such losses should be prevented altogether by detecting and managing risk factors contributing to disease occurrence. Herd health and production management programmes represent the first level to optimise dairy farm performance. Expansions to that should further be considered, comprising both animal health and welfare issues, as well as food safety and public health issues. The latter could be addressed by quality risk management programmes following the HACCP-principles. Cattle veterinarians should follow recent developments and invest in new skills and knowledge in order to maintain their usefulness to the modern dairy farmer. Finally we are convinced that the cattle practitioner should evolve into this

  6. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  7. Cluster analysis of Dairy Herd Improvement data to discover trends in performance characteristics in large Upper Midwest dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Brotzman, R L; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K; Bennett, T B; Gomez Rivas, A; Döpfer, D

    2015-05-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a variable reduction method used on over-parameterized data sets with a vast number of variables and a limited number of observations, such as Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) data, to select subsets of variables that describe the largest amount of variance. Cluster analysis (CA) segregates objects, in this case dairy herds, into groups based upon similarity in multiple characteristics simultaneously. This project aimed to apply PCA to discover the subset of most meaningful DHI variables and to discover groupings of dairy herds with similar performance characteristics. Year 2011 DHI data was obtained for 557 Upper Midwest herds with test-day mean ≥200 cows (assumed mostly freestall housed), that remained on test for the entire year. The PCA reduced an initial list of 22 variables to 16. The average distance method of CA grouped farms based on best goodness of fit determined by the minimum cophenetic distance. Six groupings provided the optimal fitting number of clusters. Descriptive statistics for the 16 variables were computed per group. On observations of means, groups 1, 2, and 6 demonstrated the best performances in most variables, including energy-corrected milk, linear somatic cell score (log of somatic cell count), dry period intramammary infection cure rate, new intramammary infection risk, risk of subclinical intramammary infection at first test, age at first calving, days in milk, and Transition Cow Index. Groups 3, 4, and 5 demonstrated the worst mean performances in most the PCA-selected variables, including DIM, age at first calving, risk of subclinical intramammary infection at first test, and dry period intramammary infection cure rate. Groups 4 and 5 also had the worst mean herd performances in energy-corrected milk, Transition Cow Index, linear somatic cell score, and new intramammary infection risk. Further investigation will be conducted to reveal patterns of management associated with herd categorization. The

  8. Paratuberculosis sero-status and milk production, SCC and calving interval in Irish dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of paratuberculosis sero-status on milk yield, fat, protein, somatic cell count and calving interval in Irish dairy herds. Serum from all animals over 12 months of age (n = 2,602) in 34 dairy herds was tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using an ELISA. Herds were categorised by sero-status into positive, non-negative and negative, where a positive herd contained two or more positive cows, a non-negative herd contained only one positive cow and a negative herd contained no positive cows. Data at animal, parity and herd-level were analysed by multiple regression using general linear models. Positive herds (mean herd size = 129 cows) and non-negative herds (81 cows) were larger than negative herds (72 cows) (P < 0.01). Negative herds had the highest economic breeding index (EBI), while positive herds had the highest estimated breeding value (EBV) for milk yield. There was no significant effect of paratuberculosis sero-status at animal, parity or herd-level on milk yield, milk fat or protein production, somatic cell count score (SCCS) or calving interval. Negative herds tended to have a lower SCCS than positive and nonnegative herds (P = 0.087). This study only examined the effects of paratuberculosis sero-status but did not examine the clinical effects of Johne's disease at the farm or dairy industry levels. PMID:21851733

  9. Prevalence of intramammary infection in Dutch dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Sampimon, Otlis; Barkema, Herman W; Berends, Inge; Sol, Jan; Lam, Theo

    2009-05-01

    A survey was carried out in 2003 in 49 dairy herds to determine the overall and pathogen-specific prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) in Dutch dairy herds, and to compare the distribution with four studies performed from 1973 to 1985 in The Netherlands. Herds were randomly selected stratified over the 12 Dutch provinces, had at least 40 lactating cows and participated in the Dutch milk recording system. Quarter milk samples were collected from all 408 cows with a somatic cell count (SCC) >or=250,000 cells/ml and 145 heifers with SCC >or=150,000 cells/ml at the last milk test before the farm visit. Additionally, samples were collected from 519 (approximately 25%) of the remaining low-SCC cows and heifers with a SCC at the last milk test before the farm visit of <250 000 and <150 000 cells/ml, respectively. Bacterial growth occurred in 37.3% of milk samples of high-SCC cows and in 21.1% of low-SCC cows. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently isolated group of bacteria (10.8% of quarters) and were found in all herds. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus IMI was lower in 2003 than in 1973, respectively 1.8% and 6.2% of quarters. Prevalence of Streptococcus uberis and Str. dysgalactiae IMI was almost the same in the five samplings during the 30-year period, at 1.1-1.7 and 0.9-1.5%, respectively. Str. agalactiae was not found in this study. Prevalence of CNS IMI was higher in lactating heifers, while prevalence of Str. uberis, Str. dysgalactiae and penicillin-resistant Staph. aureus IMI was higher in older cows. Because distribution of pathogens changes over time, herd-level samples for bacteriological culturing must be taken regularly to monitor udder health. Additionally, national mastitis prevalence studies give important information through monitoring the national udder health status. PMID:19121233

  10. Effect of exposure to Neospora caninum, Salmonella, and Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo on the economic performance of Irish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    O' Doherty, E; Sayers, R; O' Grady, L; Shalloo, L

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to quantify the effects of exposure to Salmonella, Neospora caninum, and Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo (L. hardjo) on dairy farm profitability and to simulate the effect of vaccination for Salmonella and L. hardjo on dairy farm profitability. The production effects associated with exposure to each of these pathogens in study herds were defined under 3 categories: (1) milk production effects, (2) reproduction effects (including culling), and (3) mortality effects. The production effects associated with exposure to Salmonella, N. caninum, and L. hardjo were incorporated into the Moorepark Dairy Systems Model. In the analysis, herds negative for exposure to Salmonella, N. caninum, and L. hardjo were assumed baseline herds, with all results presented relative to this base. In simulations examining the effect of vaccination for Salmonella and L. hardjo on farm profitability, vaccinated herds (vaccination costs included) were considered as baseline herds and results were presented relative to this base. Total annual profits in unvaccinated herds were reduced by €77.31, €94.71, and €112.11 per cow at milk prices of €0.24, €0.29, and €0.34/L, respectively, as a result of exposure to Salmonella. In the current study, herds positive for exposure to Salmonella recorded a 316-kg reduction in milk yield, whereas no association was detected between exposure to N. caninum or L. hardjo and milk production. Exposure to both N. caninum and L. hardjo was associated with compromised reproductive performance. Herds positive for exposure to N. caninum and Salmonella had greater rates of adult cow mortality and calf mortality, respectively. Vaccination for both Salmonella and L. hardjo was associated with improved performance in study herds. Exposure to N. caninum resulted in a reduction in annual farm profits of €11.55, €12, and €12.44 per cow at each milk price, whereas exposure to L. hardjo resulted in a reduction in

  11. Factors associated with survival in the herd for dairy cows following surgery to correct left displaced abomasum.

    PubMed

    Reynen, Jennifer L; Kelton, David F; LeBlanc, Stephen J; Newby, Nathalie C; Duffield, Todd F

    2015-06-01

    Left displaced abomasum (LDA) is a common problem in dairy cows. There have been numerous studies focused on predicting prognosis for right displaced abomasal corrective surgery, but a paucity of studies exist focused on more common LDA surgeries. Our objective was to determine if survival to 60 d or 1 yr after surgery could be predicted from the physical exam findings, periparturient disease status, and a biochemical profile from a blood sample obtained at the time of LDA diagnosis. Blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were measured immediately using a hand-held meter. Data obtained from CanWest DHI (Guelph, ON, Canada) for all of the study subjects (n=179 cases, by 24 veterinarians from 4 clinics), including cull date, cull reason, and test-day milk production. Cows were classified based on whether or not they were culled within 60 d or 1 yr of surgery. Based on logistic regression, cows that had dystocia [odds ratio (OR)=13, 95% confidence interval (CI)=7-26] or were not ketotic (blood BHBA<1.2 mmol/L; OR=3, 95% CI=1.03-9) at the time of corrective surgery were more likely to be culled within 60 d. Higher serum concentrations of BHBA (OR=0.95, 95% CI=0.92-0.98), nonesterified fatty acids (OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.75-0.88), and Mg (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.35-0.68) all had a protective effect against culling within 1 yr of LDA surgery. Based on survival analysis, longevity in the herd for 365 d following corrective surgery was associated with higher BHBA and Mg at the time of LDA diagnosis before surgery, as well as milk production following surgery. PMID:25892696

  12. Evaluation of testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    More, S J; Cameron, A R; Strain, S; Cashman, W; Ezanno, P; Kenny, K; Fourichon, C; Graham, D

    2015-08-01

    As part of a broader control strategy within herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), individual animal testing is generally conducted to identify infected animals for action, usually culling. Opportunities are now available to quantitatively compare different testing strategies (combinations of tests) in known infected herds. This study evaluates the effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of different testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be MAP infected. A model was developed, taking account of both within-herd infection dynamics and test performance, to simulate the use of different tests at a single round of testing in a known infected herd. Model inputs included the number of animals at different stages of infection, the sensitivity and specificity of each test, and the costs of testing and culling. Testing strategies included either milk or serum ELISA alone or with fecal culture in series. Model outputs included effectiveness (detection fraction, the proportion of truly infected animals in the herd that are successfully detected by the testing strategy), cost, and cost-effectiveness (testing cost per true positive detected, total cost per true positive detected). Several assumptions were made: MAP was introduced with a single animal and no management interventions were implemented to limit within-herd transmission of MAP before this test. In medium herds, between 7 and 26% of infected animals are detected at a single round of testing, the former using the milk ELISA and fecal culture in series 5 yr after MAP introduction and the latter using fecal culture alone 15 yr after MAP introduction. The combined costs of testing and culling at a single round of testing increases with time since introduction of MAP infection, with culling costs being much greater than testing costs. The cost-effectiveness of testing varied by testing strategy. It was also

  13. Short communication: Bulk milk somatic cell penalties in herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement programs.

    PubMed

    Hand, K J; Godkin, M A; Kelton, D F

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of somatic cell count (SCC) monitoring at the cow level through Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) programs on the risk of bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) penalties. For the year 2009, BTSCC for all producers in Ontario were examined, for a total of 2,898 DHI herds, 1,186 non-DHI herds, and 48,250 BTSCC records. Two penalty levels were examined, where BTSCC exceeded 499,000 (P500) and 399,000 (P400) cells/mL. Data were modeled first to determine the odds of a BTSCC exceeding a set penalty threshold and second to determine the odds of incurring a penalty under the Ontario Milk Act. All data were modeled as a generalized mixed model with a binary link function. Random effects included herd, fixed effects included season of BTSCC (summer, May to September, and winter, October to April), total milk shipped per month (L), fat paid per month (kg), protein paid per month (kg), and participation or not in the DHI program. The likelihood of a BTSCC exceeding a penalty threshold in a non-DHI herd compared with a DHI herd was significantly greater than 1 at both penalty levels, where the odds ratios were estimated to be 1.42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19 to 1.69] and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.25 to 1.54) for P500 and P400, respectively. The likelihood of incurring a BTSCC penalty (where 3 out of 4 consecutive BTSCC exceeded penalty thresholds) was not significantly different at P500; however, it was significantly different for P400, where the odds ratio was estimated to be 1.42 (95% CI: 1.12 to 1.81). PMID:22192202

  14. An outbreak of mucosal disease in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Løken, T; Gamlem, H; Lysbakken, O

    1989-01-01

    An outbreak of mucosal disease (MD) was studied in a dairy herd, comprising 12 cows, 9 heifers and 18 calves. During a period of 1 month, six 5 to 8 month-old calves showed typical signs of MD. They all died or were killed in extremis after 2-8 days with progressively worsening clinical signs. Post mortem lesions were examined in one calf. Non-cytopathogenic MD virus was isolated from serum or tissues from 3 clinically affected calves and from 1 healthy heifer. All cows and heifers except for the viremic one possessed neutralizing antibodies against bovine pestivirus. According to the current MD-pathogenesis concept, the affected calves were probably infected transplacentally during the first half of foetal life with pestivirus from the persistently infected heifer in the herd. PMID:2629507

  15. Prevalence and Level of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Culled Dairy Cows at Harvest.

    PubMed

    Stromberg, Zachary R; Lewis, Gentry L; Aly, Sharif S; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Moxley, Rodney A

    2016-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and level of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 (collectively EHEC-6) plus EHEC O157 in fecal, hide, and preintervention carcass surface samples from culled dairy cows. Matched samples (n = 300) were collected from 100 cows at harvest and tested by a culture-based method and two molecular methods: NeoSEEK STEC (NS) and Atlas STEC EG2 Combo. Both the culture and NS methods can be used to discriminate among the seven EHEC types (EHEC-7), from which the cumulative prevalence was inferred, whereas the Atlas method can discriminate only between EHEC O157 and non-O157 EHEC, without discrimination of the serogroup. The EHEC-7 prevalence in feces, hides, and carcass surfaces was 6.5, 15.6, and 1.0%, respectively, with the culture method and 25.9, 64.9, and 7.0%, respectively, with the NS method. With the Atlas method, the prevalence of non-O157 EHEC was 29.1, 38.3, and 28.0% and that of EHEC O157 was 29.1, 57.0, and 3.0% for feces, hides, and carcasses, respectively. Only two samples (a hide sample and a fecal sample) originating from different cows contained quantifiable EHEC. In both samples, the isolates were identified as EHEC O157, with 4.7 CFU/1,000 cm(2) in the hide sample and 3.9 log CFU/g in the fecal sample. Moderate agreement was found between culture and NS results for detection of EHEC O26 (κ = 0.58, P < 0.001), EHEC O121 (κ = 0.50, P < 0.001), and EHEC O157 (κ = 0.40, P < 0.001). No significant agreement was observed between NS and Atlas results or between culture and Atlas results. Detection of an EHEC serogroup in fecal samples was significantly associated with detection of the same EHEC serogroup in hide samples for EHEC O26 (P = 0.001), EHEC O111 (P = 0.002), EHEC O121 (P < 0.001), and EHEC-6 (P = 0.029) based on NS detection and for EHEC O121 (P < 0.001) based on detection by culture. This study provides evidence that non-O157 EHEC are

  16. Somatic Cell Count in Milk of Goats Enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement Program in 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of breed, parity, stage of lactation (month), herd size, and regions/states on somatic cell count (SCC) and production of milk from dairy goats enrolled in the Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) program in the United States in 2007 were investigated to monitor the current status of SCC and to ...

  17. Characteristics of the USA dairy herd as related to management and demographic elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data characteristics of the United States dairy herd related to animals enrolled in milk recording (dairy herd improvement) are the basic foundation and important influencers for the management and genetic progress achieved in a population or animal production unit. The amount, characteristics ...

  18. The epidemiology of Salmonella dublin infection in a dairy herd

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, G. H. K.; McPherson, E. A.; Laing, A. H.; Wooding, P.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes the epidemiologically relevant events that took place in a dairy herd infected by Salmonella dublin. The evidence presented indicates that it may be possible to eliminate infection from the farm and that residual infection or persistent excretion are uncommon. In two animals infection persisted, in one instance in the tonsil and in the other in the gall bladder. In this latter case the infection remained from the neonatal period until adulthood. It is possible that both these animals are relevant in a more general context and are indicative of the source of infection in outbreaks in which the origin of infection cannot be determined by more routine examinations. PMID:4602034

  19. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Dairy Herds.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jeffrey S

    2016-07-01

    Timed artificial insemination (AI) programs are commonly used in the dairy industry for lactating cows, but less so in replacement heifers. Excellent programs using combinations of prostaglandin F2α and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in protocols relying on timed AI without detection of estrus or in protocols that combine timed AI with inseminations performed after detected estrus are able to achieve acceptable pregnancy percentages. In herds with excellent estrus detection, timed AI programs serve as a failsafe system to address cows or heifers not yet inseminated after a defined period of estrus detection. PMID:27039693

  20. A Survey of Mastitis in Selected Ontario Dairy Herds

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, B. W.; Barnum, D. A.; Meek, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    A mastitis survey involving 74 Ontario dairy herds was conducted. The prevalence of infection at the quarter level was found to be 4.1% with Streptococcus agalactiae, 4.5% with other streptococcal species and 8.0% with Staphylococcus aureus. Regardless of the infection status, the geometric mean somatic cell count was found to increase with age of the cow but no increase was observed with increasing stage of lactation. The percentage of cows from which a bacterial pathogen was isolated increased with age but not with stage of lactation. PMID:17422140

  1. Association between bovine-leukosis virus seroprevalence and herd-level productivity on US dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Ott, S L; Johnson, R; Wells, S J

    2003-12-12

    Bovine-leukosis virus (BLV; also termed 'bovine-leukemia virus') is a retrovirus that primarily affects lymphoid tissue of dairy and beef cattle. Our objective was to investigate the association between BLV infection and annual value of production (AVP) on dairy herds within the United States, as part of the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System's 1996 dairy study. 1006 herds (in 20 states) with at least 30 dairy cows were interviewed during 1996. The agar-gel immunodiffusion test was used to detect serum antibodies to BLV. 10-40 cows from each herd were tested and each tested cow was classified as negative or positive based on results of a single test. A multivariable regression model was used with the 976 herds with complete data for analysis. When compared to herds with no test-positive cows, herds with test-positive cows produced 218 kg per cow (i.e. 3%) less milk. The average reduction in AVP was $59 per cow for test-positive herds relative to test-negative herds. For the dairy industry as a whole, BLV seropositivity was associated with loss to producers of $285 million and $240 million for consumers. Most of this $525 million industry loss was due to reduced milk production in test-positive herds. PMID:14623410

  2. The relationship between herd level disease incidence and a return over feed index in Ontario dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, Chris J.; Lissemore, Kerry D.; Duffield, Todd F.; Leslie, Ken E.; Kelton, David F.; Grexton, Bill

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the current research was to examine the association of herd level disease incidence with the return over feed (ROF) (milk income minus feed cost) herd profit index offered through Canwest Dairy Herd Improvement. The lactational incidence risks (LIR) for displaced abomasum, retained placenta, clinical mastitis, milk fever, clinical ketosis, and lameness submitted by producers (n = 48) were similar to previous reports. However, there was no negative association of clinical disease LIR’s with ROF. Subclinical ketosis and subclinical mastitis cumulative incidence were determined during the early postpartum period by using a cow-side test for betahydroxybutyrate in milk and the California Mastitis Test, respectively. Subclinical mastitis was not associated with ROF. However, a unit increase in the cumulative incidence of subclinical ketosis was associated with a decrease of $0.015/cow/day in the ROF. The results highlight the economic significance that subclinical ketosis may have in Ontario dairy herds. PMID:16933554

  3. Exploring relationships between Dairy Herd Improvement monitors of performance and the Transition Cow Index in Wisconsin dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Schultz, K K; Bennett, T B; Nordlund, K V; Döpfer, D; Cook, N B

    2016-09-01

    Transition cow management has been tracked via the Transition Cow Index (TCI; AgSource Cooperative Services, Verona, WI) since 2006. Transition Cow Index was developed to measure the difference between actual and predicted milk yield at first test day to evaluate the relative success of the transition period program. This project aimed to assess TCI in relation to all commonly used Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) metrics available through AgSource Cooperative Services. Regression analysis was used to isolate variables that were relevant to TCI, and then principal components analysis and network analysis were used to determine the relative strength and relatedness among variables. Finally, cluster analysis was used to segregate herds based on similarity of relevant variables. The DHI data were obtained from 2,131 Wisconsin dairy herds with test-day mean ≥30 cows, which were tested ≥10 times throughout the 2014 calendar year. The original list of 940 DHI variables was reduced through expert-driven selection and regression analysis to 23 variables. The K-means cluster analysis produced 5 distinct clusters. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the 23 variables per cluster grouping. Using principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and network analysis, 4 parameters were isolated as most relevant to TCI; these were energy-corrected milk, 3 measures of intramammary infection (dry cow cure rate, linear somatic cell count score in primiparous cows, and new infection rate), peak ratio, and days in milk at peak milk production. These variables together with cow and newborn calf survival measures form a group of metrics that can be used to assist in the evaluation of overall transition period performance. PMID:27320672

  4. Time budgets of lactating dairy cattle in commercial freestall herds.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Cook, N B

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the time budgets of 205 lactating dairy cows housed in 16 freestall barns in Wisconsin and to determine the relationships between components of the time budget and herd- and cow-level fixed effects using mixed models. Using continuous video surveillance, time lying in the stall, time standing in the stall, time standing in the alleys (including drinking), time feeding, and time milking (time out of the pen for milking and transit) during a 24-h period were measured for each cow. In addition, the number of lying bouts and the mean duration of each lying bout per 24-h period were determined. Time milking varied between cows from 0.5 to 6.0 h/d, with a mean ± standard deviation of 2.7 ± 1.1h/d. Time milking was influenced significantly by pen stocking density, and time milking negatively affected time feeding, time lying, and time in the alley, but not time standing in the stall. Locomotion score, either directly or through an interaction with stall base type (a rubber crumb-filled mattress, MAT, or sand bedding, SAND), influenced pen activity. Lame cows spent less time feeding, less time in the alleys, and more time standing in the stalls in MAT herds, but not in SAND herds. The effect of lameness on lying time is complex and dependent on the time available for rest and differences in resting behavior observed between cows in MAT and SAND herds. In MAT herds, rest was characterized by a larger number of lying bouts of shorter duration than in SAND herds (mean = 14.4; confidence interval, CI: 12.4 to 16.5 vs. mean = 10.2; CI: 8.2 to 12.2 bouts per d, and mean = 1.0; CI: 0.9 to 1.1 vs. mean = 1.3, CI: 1.2 to 1.4h bout duration for MAT and SAND herds, respectively). Lameness was associated with an increase in time standing in the stall and a reduction in the mean (CI) number of lying bouts per day from 13.2 (CI: 12.3 to 14.1) bouts/d for nonlame cows to 10.9 (CI: 9.30 to 12.8) bouts/d for moderately lame cows, and an overall

  5. Associations between age at first calving, rearing average daily weight gain, herd milk yield and dairy herd production, reproduction, and profitability.

    PubMed

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Kvapilík, J; Burdych, J; Crump, P

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of variable intensity in rearing dairy heifers on 33 commercial dairy herds, including 23,008 cows and 18,139 heifers, with age at first calving (AFC), average daily weight gain (ADG), and milk yield (MY) level on reproduction traits and profitability. Milk yield during the production period was analyzed relative to reproduction and economic parameters. Data were collected during a 1-yr period (2011). The farms were located in 12 regions in the Czech Republic. The results show that those herds with more intensive rearing periods had lower conception rates among heifers at first and overall services. The differences in those conception rates between the group with the greatest ADG (≥0.800 kg/d) and the group with the least ADG (≤0.699 kg/d) were approximately 10 percentage points in favor of the least ADG. All the evaluated reproduction traits differed between AFC groups. Conception at first and overall services (cows) was greatest in herds with AFC ≥800 d. The shortest days open (105 d) and calving interval (396 d) were found in the middle AFC group (799 to 750 d). The highest number of completed lactations (2.67) was observed in the group with latest AFC (≥800 d). The earliest AFC group (≤749 d) was characterized by the highest depreciation costs per cow at 8,275 Czech crowns (US$414), and the highest culling rate for cows of 41%. The most profitable rearing approach was reflected in the middle AFC (799 to 750 d) and middle ADG (0.799 to 0.700 kg) groups. The highest MY (≥8,500 kg) occurred with the earliest AFC of 780 d. Higher MY led to lower conception rates in cows, but the highest MY group also had the shortest days open (106 d) and a calving interval of 386 d. The same MY group had the highest cow depreciation costs, net profit, and profitability without subsidies of 2.67%. We conclude that achieving low AFC will not always be the most profitable approach, which will depend upon farm

  6. Severe disease in adult dairy cattle in three UK dairy herds associated with BVD virus infection.

    PubMed

    David, G P; Crawshaw, T R; Gunning, R F; Hibberd, R C; Lloyd, G M; Marsh, P R

    1994-04-30

    During 1993 outbreaks of diarrhoea in adult dairy cows in three geographically unrelated herds were found to be caused by bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The affected animals showed signs of acute watery diarrhoea, agalactia and pyrexia (39.4 to 42 degrees C). Ulceration of the buccal mucosa, a mucoid nasal discharge and stiffness were inconsistent signs. The disease spread rapidly in each case. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of non-cytopathic BVDV from blood and tissues and by the demonstration of significantly rising titres to BVDV by an ELISA. The highest morbidity recorded was 40 per cent with one herd experiencing a 10 per cent mortality. There was no increased incidence of abortion in any of the herds, either at the time of or subsequent to the outbreaks of diarrhoea. In one herd the purchase of a persistently viraemic heifer 14 days before the outbreak was thought to be the source of infection, but in the other two herds the source was not established. PMID:8059512

  7. A screening sampling plan to detect Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis-positive dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Serraino, A; Arrigoni, N; Ostanello, F; Ricchi, M; Marchetti, G; Bonilauri, P; Bonfante, E; Giacometti, F

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic contagious bacterial disease primarily affecting dairy cattle. Paratuberculosis represents a dual problem for the milk production chain: in addition to economic losses to affected herds, MAP may have zoonotic potential. Infected herds must be identified in order to implement programs designed to reduce the incidence of disease within and between herds and to prevent MAP from entering the food chain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a screening sampling plan (SSP) to detect MAP-positive dairy herds by repetitive analysis of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples by ELISA and in-line milk filter (ILMF) samples by PCR. Samples from BTM and ILMF were collected twice from 569 dairy herds in southern Italy. Additionally, 12,016 individual milk samples were collected: 9,509 from 102 SSP-positive herds (SSP MAP-positive) and 2,507 from 21 randomly selected SSP-negative herds (SSP MAP-negative). There was a total of 126 SSP MAP-positive herds (i.e., 21.3% SSP MAP-positive herds; 95% confidence interval=18.0-24.9); the within-herd apparent prevalence (AP) ranged between 0.00 and 22.73% (mean 6.07%). A significant difference in within-herd AP was shown between SSP MAP-positive herds and SSP MAP-negative herds. A highly significant association was shown between the median AP herd status (>5%) and positivity to at least one ILMF or BTM sample. The SSP detected a minimum of 56.25% of low AP herds (AP ≤ 2.0%) up to a maximum of 100% of herds with a within-herd AP ≥ 8.0%. Overall, the SSP detected 85.57% of herds in which at least one individual milk sample was positive by ELISA. The proposed SSP was an inexpensive and useful tool to detect MAP-positive herds with a higher risk of infection diffusion and milk contamination. Although the SSP cannot be used for MAP-free certification of herds, it could be useful to prioritize appropriate

  8. Molecular characterization of Prototheca strains isolated from Italian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Ricchi, M; Goretti, M; Branda, E; Cammi, G; Garbarino, C A; Turchetti, B; Moroni, P; Arrigoni, N; Buzzini, P

    2010-10-01

    One hundred sixty-one Prototheca spp. strains isolated from composite milk and barn-surrounding environmental samples (bedding, feces, drinking, or washing water, surface swabs) of 24 Italian dairy herds were characterized by genotype-specific PCR analysis. Overall, 97.2% of strains isolated from composite milk samples were characterized as Prototheca zopfii genotype 2, confirming its role as the main mastitis pathogen, whereas Prototheca blaschkeae was only sporadically isolated (2.8%). Regarding environmental sampling, 84.9% of isolates belonged to P. zopfii genotype 2, 13.2% to P. blaschkeae, and 1.9% to P. zopfii genotype 1. The data herein contradict previous hypotheses about the supposed exclusive role of P. zopfii genotype 2 as the causative agent of protothecal mastitis and, on the contrary, confirm the hypothesis that such pathology could be caused by P. blaschkeae in a few instances. PMID:20854996

  9. Serum C-reactive protein in dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Chuan; Hsiao, Huo-Cheng; Wu, Ying-Ling; Lin, Jyh-Hung; Lee, Yen-Pai; Fung, Hang-Poung; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Chu, Rea-Min

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactation and health status. Blood samples were collected every 2 wk for 12 mo from 29 randomly selected dairy cattle on 3 farms. At the time the blood samples were collected, the stage of pregnancy, lactation status, breeding records, general health condition, reproductive status, and body condition score were recorded for each cow. Serum CRP was detected with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western immunoblotting. C-reactive protein levels were measured with a densitometer and expressed as an optimal dose value. C-reactive protein levels were correlated with the body condition score, lactation status, and animal health (P < 0.05), but not with ambient temperature, animal age, or parity. C-reactive protein levels increased with milk production, peaking during high lactation (2 to 4 mo of pregnancy), and decreased when lactation ceased. In addition, the CRP level was highest during naturally occurring infections, such as mastitis and other tissue inflammation. Thus, the CRP level can confirm the presence of inflammation. The stress effect of taking blood samples as measured by the CRP level, was also examined. The CRP level became rapidly elevated 12 h after the blood samples were taken but returned to normal 36 h later. In conclusion, the stresses resulting from overall poor health, heavy lactation, and blood sampling caused the elevation of serum CRP. C-reactive protein is a marker or tool for evaluating the health status of a herd. C-reactive protein should also be considered as a useful criteria to assess the stress levels and may be useful in early surveillance of disease conditions in a dairy herd. PMID:12760474

  10. Copper poisoning in a dairy herd fed a mineral supplement

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Charles H.

    1993-01-01

    Copper poisoning in a dairy herd resulted in the death of 9 of 63 (14%) adult Holstein cows. Clinical signs were acute anorexia, weakness, mental dullness, poor pupillary light reflexes, and scant nasal discharge. These were followed by recumbency, chocolate-colored blood, jaundice, and death. Four animals exhibited signs of hyperesthesia and/or rumen stasis prior to death. At necropsy there was generalized icterus of body tissues, with the liver appearing orange and the kidneys dark blue. Histologically, there was accumulation of hemosiderin in Kupffer cells, and severe to moderate hepatocellular necrosis in all cases. Ammonium molybdate added to the ration, combined with the cessation of mineral supplementation, arrested the outbreak. These cases illustrate significant mortality, due to copper poisoning, in adult cattle fed a low-dose mineral dietary supplement for over two years. Dietary copper intake of the herd (on a dry matter basis) was 37.5 mg/kg for lactating cows and 22.6 mg/kg for dry cows. PMID:17424221

  11. Bovine besnoitiosis (Besnoitia besnoiti) in an Irish dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E G; Lee, A; Carty, C; O'Shaughnessy, J; Kelly, P; Cassidy, J P; Sheehan, M; Johnson, A; de Waal, T

    2016-06-11

    Bovine besnoitiosis, caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti, was diagnosed in an Irish dairy herd. This is the first diagnosis of besnoitiosis in Ireland or the UK and the most northerly European outbreak yet described. The diagnosis occurred following a farm investigation in June 2015 into an unusual dermatological problem that had been ongoing since 2010. On an annual basis, 1-2 per cent of cows in the herd exhibited clinical signs, including skin thickening, alopecia, weight loss and poor performance. Others displayed pyrexia, limb oedema, respiratory distress and reduced milk yield. Histopathological examination of skin revealed granulomatous and eosinophilic dermatitis, with characteristic intradermal protozoal cysts, consistent with cutaneous besnoitiosis. Follow-up serological testing and clinical examination of cattle (n=228) on the farm found that 68 per cent (144/212) were seropositive for B. besnoiti In addition, 51 per cent (117/228) had characteristic scleral conjunctival cysts and 68 per cent (134/198) had vulval cysts. Postmortem examination of a severely affected animal revealed typical gross and histopathological lesions of B. besnoiti infection. These results confirmed endemic infection with B. besnoiti The identification of this exotic disease highlights the importance of veterinary surveillance at both local and national level, particularly in relation to emerging diseases. PMID:27122500

  12. Severe Mycoplasma bovis outbreak in an Austrian dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Pothmann, Harald; Spergser, Joachim; Elmer, Josef; Prunner, Isabella; Iwersen, Michael; Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Drillich, Marc

    2015-11-01

    A conventional dairy farm, housing 19 Austrian Simmental cows, experienced a spontaneous outbreak of a Mycoplasma bovis infection, showing severe clinical signs of respiratory tract disease, clinical mastitis, and tremendous drop in milk production. Despite intensive therapy, 5 cows died within 2 weeks or were euthanized. From the remaining cows, bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction revealed M. bovis in 10 of 14 milk samples. Mycoplasma bovis was found in 1 of 5 randomly collected nasal swabs. Autopsy of 1 cow revealed infection of the lungs and the udder with M. bovis. The 13 M. bovis isolates from milk samples, nasal swabs, lungs, and udder were genotyped by multilocus variable number of tandem-repeat analysis, and indicated that described infections were caused by a single M. bovis strain. The virulent M. bovis strain resulted in dramatic economic loss to the farmer. To control the disease, culling of all animals, including heifers and calves, was recommended, and strict hygienic measures were implemented before introducing new animals to the farm. PMID:26450838

  13. Estimated BVDV-prevalence, -contact and -vaccine use in dairy herds in Northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Niza-Ribeiro, J; Pereira, Adelaide; Souza, João; Madeira, Helena; Barbosa, Abigaíl; Afonso, Carla

    2005-11-15

    A study to evaluate BVDV-prevalence, recent -contact and -vaccine use in dairy herds in the "Entre Douro e Minho" (EDM) region in North Portugal was carried out in 124 dairy herds in 2003. Herds were visited to ascertain BVDV-vaccine use and to collect a bulk tank milk (BTM) sample and serum from 1268 cattle to analyse BVDV-antibodies using an NS2-3 ELISA. Fifty-three percent of farmers used inactivated BVDV-vaccines whilst the remaining farmers were not presently using BVDV-vaccines. BMT-antibody results included 35% positives, 25% negative and 39% inconclusive, and were similar in vaccinated and non-vaccinated herds (p>0.05) and allowed estimating a 10% BVDV herd-prevalence from prior knowledge of the relationship between BMT-antibody results and probability of PI cattle in the herd. Overall individual seroprevalence was 27% and was 23% in non-vaccinated and 36% in vaccinated cattle (p<0.05). Contact of the herd with BVDV was assessed according to seroprevalence in young and adult cattle in the herd and it was estimated that 35% of herds were infected or had recent contact with BVDV, 40% were not infected and did not have recent contact with BVDV and the BVDV-infection and -contact status of remaining herds was undetermined. The results from this study indicate BVDV is endemic and BVDV-vaccines are widespread in the dairy-cattle population in EDM region in Portugal. PMID:16216353

  14. Relationship between leukocyte population and nutritive conditions in dairy herds with frequently appearing mastitis.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kohiruimaki, Masayuki; Hayashi, Tomohito; Katsuda, Ken; Matsuda, Kei-ichi; Masui, Machiko; Abe, Ryo; Kawamura, Sei-ichi

    2006-02-01

    To clarify the relationship between cellular immune status and nutritive condition, feeding program, blood profiles, and leukocyte populations were analyzed in two dairy herds experiencing frequent mastitis. Fourteen of the 35 lactating cows in herd A, and 18 of the 50 lactating cows in herd B scored positive on the California Mastitis Test (CMT), and 3 of the 73 lactating cows were CMT positive in herd C, which was the control. All herds were evaluated during five different milking stages, and blood was collected from five cows at each stage. With regard to feed content, the percentages of total digestible nutrients (TDN) and crude protein (CP) were found to be lower in herds A and B than in herd C. Levels of serum total cholesterol and blood urea nitrogen were lower in herds A and B than those in herd C. Neutrophil counts in herds A and B were increased compared to the neutrophil counts in herd C. On the other hand, the numbers of CD3(+) T cells and CD14-MHC class(+) cells were lower in herd A and B than in herd C. A decrease in peripheral lymphocytes and undernourishment were observed in the herds with frequent occurring mastitis. PMID:16520531

  15. Dynamic changes in antibody levels as an early warning of Salmonella Dublin in bovine dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Stockmarr, A; Bødker, R; Nielsen, L R

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Dublin is a bacterium that causes disease and production losses in cattle herds. In Denmark, a surveillance and control program was initiated in 2002 to monitor and reduce the prevalence of Salmonella Dublin. In dairy herds, the surveillance includes herd classification based on bulk tank milk measurements of antibodies directed against Salmonella Dublin at 3-mo intervals. In this study, an "alarm herd" concept, based on the dynamic progression of these repeated measurements, was formulated such that it contains predictive power for Salmonella Dublin herd classification change from "likely free of infection" to "likely infected" in the following quarter of the year, thus warning the farmer 3 mo earlier than the present system. The alarm herd concept was defined through aberrations from a stable development over time of antibody levels. For suitable parameter choices, alarm herd status was a positive predictor for Salmonella Dublin status change in dairy herds, in that alarm herds had a higher risk of changing status in the following quarter compared with nonalarm herds. This was despite the fact that both alarm and nonalarm herds had antibody levels that did not indicate the herds being "likely infected" according to the existing classification system in the present quarter. The alarm herd concept can be used as a new early warning element in the existing surveillance program. Additionally, to improve accuracy of herd classification, the alarm herd concept could be incorporated into a model including other known risk factors for change in herd classification. Furthermore, the model could be extended to other diseases monitored in similar ways. PMID:24140322

  16. Low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish dairy herds highlight differences between serotypes.

    PubMed

    Ågren, Estelle C C; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna; Wahlström, Helene; Emanuelson, Ulf; Frössling, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    Legislated Salmonella control in Sweden has been in place since the 1960s. The purpose of this study was to investigate presence of Salmonella antibodies in dairy cattle herds and to provide a basis for decisions on how surveillance and control can be improved. Bulk milk samples from all Swedish dairy herds (n=4 683) were analysed with two different ELISAs; one detecting antibodies against Salmonella Dublin (Dublin ELISA), and one detecting antibodies against several of the serotypes causing bovine salmonellosis including S. Dublin (Bovine ELISA). Information about herds, i.e. geographical location, local animal density, number of test positive herds within 5km, animal trade and herd size, was based on register data. The results confirm a very low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish dairy herds throughout the country with the exception of an island in the southeast. The test positive herds split into two groups; 41 herds (1%) positive in the Dublin ELISA, and 101 herds (2%) positive in the Bovine ELISA but negative in the Dublin ELISA. Geographical location of positive herds, and comparison of the results of the screening with serotypes previously isolated from some of the herds, indicated that the first group represents herds presently or previously infected with S. Dublin while the second group represents herds presently or previously infected with other serotypes. Differences in serological status between herds in different regions, of different size, with different animal purchase patterns et cetera, were tested using logistic regression. Presence of positive herds within 5km was significantly associated to testing positive. For herds testing positive in the Dublin ELISA, significant associations were also seen with herd size. Purchase of animals during the last year was not significantly associated with the outcome in the final models. We conclude that for future surveillance, the Bovine ELISA can be used to help in identifying infected herds, and the Dublin

  17. Consequence of alternative standards for bulk tank somatic cell count of dairy herds in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparison of dairy operations failing compliance with current US and European Union (EU) standards for bulk-tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) as well as BTSCC standards proposed by 3 national organizations were evaluated using 2 populations of US dairy herds: Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHI) ...

  18. Mastitis and related management factors in certified organic dairy herds in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Cecilia; Emanuelson, Ulf; Forslund, Kristina; Hansson, Ingrid; Ekman, Torkel

    2006-01-01

    Background Mastitis is one of the major threats to animal health, in organic farming as well as conventional. Preliminary studies of organic dairy herds have indicated better udder health in such herds, as compared to conventional herds. The aim of this paper was to further study mastitis and management related factors in certified organic dairy herds. Methods An observational study of 26 certified organic dairy herds in mid-eastern Sweden was conducted during one year. A large-animal practitioner visited the herds three times and clinically examined and sampled cows, and collected information about general health and management routines. Data on milk production and disorders treated by a veterinarian in the 26 herds, as well as in 1102 conventional herds, were retrieved from official records. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between herd type (organic vs. conventional) and incidence of disorders. Results The organic herds that took part in the study ranged in size from 12 to 64 cows, in milk production from 3772 to 10334 kg per cow and year, and in bulk milk somatic cell counts from 83000 to 280000 cells/ml. The organic herds were found to have a lower incidence of clinical mastitis, teat injuries, and a lower proportion of cows with a high somatic cell count (as indicated by the UDS, Udder Disease Score) compared to conventional herds. The spectrum of udder pathogenic bacteria was similar to that found in other Swedish studies. Treatment of mastitis was found to be similar to what is practised in conventional herds. Homeopathic remedies were not widely used in the treatment of clinical mastitis. The calves in most of these organic herds suckled their dams for only a few days, which were not considered to substantially affect the udder health. The main management factor that was different from conventional herds was the feeding strategy, where organic herds used a larger share of forage. Conclusion Udder health in Swedish organic

  19. Environmental sampling to predict fecal prevalence of Salmonella in an intensively monitored dairy herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although dairy cattle are known reservoirs for salmonellae, cattle that are shedding this organism are often asymptomatic and difficult to identify. A dairy herd that was experiencing an outbreak of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Cerro was monitored for two years. Fecal samples from the lacta...

  20. Identifying risk factors associated with lameness in pasture-based dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, S; Rabiee, A R; Gunn, A; House, J K

    2016-09-01

    Lameness is a significant welfare concern for dairy farmers and a major contributing economic loss to the dairy industry. Information is limited on environmental and managerial risk factors associated with lameness in Australian dairy herds. The objective of this study was to explore and quantify the environmental and management risk factors associated with lameness in pasture-based dairy herds. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 63 pasture-based dairy herds between 2011 and 2014, where all lactating cows were locomotion scored (scale 1-4) during a single visit. Environmental and management variables, such as length of main track and animal handling practices, were recorded during the visit. The prevalence of lameness was measured for each farm and associated risk factors were analyzed using a Generalized Linear Model, where farm was the unit of analysis. Estimated average prevalence of lameness was 18.9% (range 5 to 44.5%). The prevalence of lameness was associated with the amount of rainfall during the 30 d before the farm assessment, smoothness of concrete surface and available space per cow in the holding yard, and length of feed-pad available per cow. Inappropriate handling of cows on the track (e.g., causing sideways pushing among cows) was also a contributing risk factor to high prevalence of lameness in these dairy herds. The findings of this study suggest that by managing several environmental and farming practices, producers can reduce the prevalence of lameness, leading to improved productivity of their herds. PMID:27394954

  1. Bulk tank milk surveillance as a measure to detect Coxiella burnetii shedding dairy goat herds in the Netherlands between 2009 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Van den Brom, R; Santman-Berends, I; Luttikholt, S; Moll, L; Van Engelen, E; Vellema, P

    2015-06-01

    In the period from 2005 to 2009, Coxiella burnetii was a cause of abortion waves at 28 dairy goat farms and 2 dairy sheep farms in the Netherlands. Two years after the first abortion waves, a large human Q fever outbreak started mainly in the same region, and aborting small ruminants were regarded as most probable source. To distinguish between infected and noninfected herds, a surveillance program started in October 2009, based on PCR testing of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, which had never been described before. The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of this surveillance program and to evaluate both the effect of culling of pregnant dairy goats on positive farms and of vaccination on BTM results. Bulk tank milk samples were tested for C. burnetii DNA using a real-time PCR, and results were analyzed in relation to vaccination, culling, and notifiable (officially reported to government) C. burnetii abortion records. In spring and autumn, BTM samples were also tested for antibodies using an ELISA, and results were evaluated in relation to the compulsory vaccination campaign. Between October 2009 and April 2014, 1,660 (5.6%) out of 29,875 BTM samples from 401 dairy goat farms tested positive for C. burnetii DNA. The percentage of positive samples dropped from 20.5% in 2009 to 0.3% in 2014. In a multivariable model, significantly higher odds of being PCR positive in the BTM surveillance program were found in farms of which all pregnant dairy goats were culled. Additionally, the risk for C. burnetii BTM PCR positivity significantly decreased after multiple vaccinations. Bulk tank milk ELISA results were significantly higher after vaccination than before. The ELISA results were higher after multiple vaccinations compared with a single vaccination, and ELISA results on officially declared infected farms were significantly higher compared with noninfected farms. In conclusion, BTM surveillance is an effective and useful tool to detect C. burnetii shedding

  2. Screening and confirmatory analyses of flunixin in tissues and bodily fluids after intravenous or intramuscular administration to cull dairy cows with or without lipopolysaccharide challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty cull dairy cows (645 ± 83 kg) were treated with 2.2 mg/kg bw flunixin by intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) administration with, or without, exposure to lipopolysaccharide in a two factor balanced design. The usefulness of screening assays to identify violative flunixin levels in a varie...

  3. Relative contributions of neighbourhood and animal movements to Coxiella burnetii infection in dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Nusinovici, Simon; Hoch, Thierry; Widgren, Stefan; Joly, Alain; Lindberg, Ann; Beaudeau, François

    2014-05-01

    Q fever in dairy cattle herds occurs mainly after inhalation of contaminated aerosols generated from excreta by shedder animals. Propagation of Coxiella burnetii, the cause of the disease between ruminant herds could result from transmission between neighbouring herds and/or the introduction of infected shedder animals in healthy herds. The objective of this study were (i) to describe the spatial distribution C. burnetii-infected dairy cattle herds in two different regions: the Finistère District in France (2,829 herds) and the island of Gotland in Sweden (119 herds) and (ii) to quantify and compare the relative contributions of C. burnetii transmission related to neighbourhood and to animal movements on the risk for a herd to be infected. An enzyme--linked immunosorbent assay was used for testing bulk tank milk in May 2012 and June 2011, respectively. Only one geographical cluster of positive herds was identified in north-western Finistère. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of risk for a herd to test positively with local cattle density (the total number of cattle located in a 5 km radius circle) and the in-degree (ID) parameter, a measure of the number of herds from which each herd had received animals directly within the last 2 years. The risk for a herd to test positively was higher for herds with a higher local cattle density [odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-3.2, for herds with a local density between 100 and 120 compared to herds with a local density 60]. The risk was also higher for herds with higher IDs (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.2, for herds with ID 3 compared to herds that did not introduce animals). The proportion of cases attributable to infections in the neighbourhood in high-density areas was twice the proportion attributable to animal movements, suggesting that wind plays a main role in the transmission. PMID:24893024

  4. Parasites and parasite management practices of organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R D; Stromberg, B E; Schroth, S L; Michels, L; Wolff, L J; Kelton, D F; Heins, B J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and practices used to manage internal helminth parasites and external arthropod parasites on organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota. All organic (ORG) dairy herds in Minnesota (n=114) and a convenience sample of conventional herds were invited to participate in the study. Thirty-five ORG herds and 28 conventional herds were visited once in summer and fall of 2012. Conventional dairy herds were split into small conventional (SC,<200 cows) and medium-sized conventional herds (MC, ≥200 cows) so that SC herds were comparable in size to the ORG herds. Dairy managers were surveyed to assess their farm management practices and perceptions about parasites, hygiene scores were recorded for adult stock, and fecal samples were collected from a nominal 20 breeding-age heifers to characterize abundance of internal parasites. Nonparametric tests were used to compare fecal egg counts per gram (FEC) among farms grouped by management systems and practices. Organic farms had more designated pasture and were more likely to use rotational grazing compared with conventional farms, but the stocking densities of animals on pasture were similar among farm types. The overall FEC were very low, and only a few individual ORG heifers had FEC >500 eggs/gram. Samples from heifers on ORG farms had significantly more strongyle-type eggs than those on SC and MC farms (ORG: 6.6±2.1; SC: 0.5±0.3; MC: 0.8±0.7), but egg counts of other types of gastrointestinal parasites did not differ significantly among the 3 herd groups. Fly control measures were applied mainly to milking cows and preweaned calves and were used on 88.6% of ORG herds, 60.0% of SC herds, and 91.7% of MC herds. Approximately half of the producers reported having seen skin conditions suggestive of lice or tail mange in their cattle during the previous winter (ORG: 48.6%, SC: 57.1%, MC: 53.9%). Although most conventional producers reported treating these skin

  5. [Relationship between the intensity of gynecologic supervision during the postpartum period and fertility results in dairy cow herds].

    PubMed

    Bostedt, H; Maurer, G

    1990-10-01

    The efficiency of regular post-partum gynaecological care in the dairy cow can only be correctly evaluated if cows with a normal post-partum period and those with problems during this time are distinguished. From 1,125 dairy cows being fed a high proportion of maize silage it was shown that gynaecological examinations on days 12, 28 and 40 post-partum had a positive effect on herd fertility. Regular checks resulted in significant reductions in the calving to conception interval, the insemination index and in the percentage culled due to fertility problems in comparison to the control animals (n = 451) where veterinary control took place only occasionally. In particular the early detection and treatment of endometritis and ovary function abnormalities contributed to a high conception rate with appropriate calving interval. The administration of GnRH (20 micrograms Buserelin) to cows with problems in the post-partum period and under continuous gynaecological supervision resulted in improvements in only some aspects (uterine involution, ovarian cyst incidence). The conception rates in the treated group and in the intensively controlled group were the same. PMID:2124734

  6. Prevalence of pathogens causing subclinical mastitis in 15 dairy herds in the Republic of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Milk samples from 285 cows in 15 dairy herds were collected for bacteriological analysis. Cows were selected on the basis of a somatic cell count (SCC) exceeding 200,000 cells per ml at the three most recent milk recordings prior to sampling. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis were the predominant isolates accounting for 21% (n = 61) and 19% (n = 53) of isolates, respectively. Streptococcus uberis was more frequently isolated from split-calving herds than from spring-calving herds and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.005). Herds with suboptimal housing had a significantly greater prevalence of S. uberis than did herds where housing was adequate (P < 0.005). The isolation rates for S. aureus was significantly greater in herds where parlour hygiene was suboptimal (P < 0.05). PMID:21851671

  7. A large Markovian linear program to optimize replacement policies and dairy herd net income for diets and nitrogen excretion.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, V E

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was 2-fold: 1) to propose a novel modeling framework using Markovian linear programming to optimize dairy farmer-defined goals under different decision schemes and 2) to illustrate the model with a practical application testing diets for entire lactations. A dairy herd population was represented by cow state variables defined by parity (1 to 15), month in lactation (1 to 24), and pregnancy status (0 nonpregnant and 1 to 9 mo of pregnancy). A database of 326,000 lactations of Holsteins from AgSource Dairy Herd Improvement service (http://agsource.crinet.com/page249/DHI) was used to parameterize reproduction, mortality, and involuntary culling. The problem was set up as a Markovian linear program model containing 5,580 decision variables and 8,731 constraints. The model optimized the net revenue of the steady state dairy herd population having 2 options in each state: keeping or replacing an animal. Five diets were studied to assess economic, environmental, and herd structural outcomes. Diets varied in proportions of alfalfa silage (38 to 98% of dry matter), high-moisture ear corn (0 to 42% of dry matter), and soybean meal (0 to 18% of dry matter) within and between lactations, which determined dry matter intake, milk production, and N excretion. Diet ingredient compositions ranged from one of high concentrates to alfalfa silage only. Hence, the model identified the maximum net revenue that included the value of nutrient excretion and the cost of manure disposal associated with the optimal policy. Outcomes related to optimal solutions included the herd population structure, the replacement policy, and the amount of N excreted under each diet experiment. The problem was solved using the Excel Risk Solver Platform with the Standard LP/Quadratic Engine. Consistent replacement policies were to (1) keep pregnant cows, (2) keep primiparous cows longer than multiparous cows, and (3) decrease replacement rates when milk and feed prices are favorable

  8. Factors affecting death rate of lactating cows in Dairy Herd Improvement herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequencies of deaths of lactating cows of all breeds during 2001 to 2005 were estimated from an approximate 10% sample of national DHI herds (based on units position of herd code). Herds with <400 lactations across years were excluded. Because the trait is binomially distributed, PROC GENMOD of SAS...

  9. Death Losses for Lactating Cows in Herds Enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement Test Plans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Factors that affect frequency of death were investigated for lactating cows in 45,032 herds for lactations from 1995 through 2005. Analyses included effects of herd, year, month, and stage of lactation in which lactation ended, parity, breed, and milk yield. A sample of 1,645 herds was employed to ...

  10. Risk factors for displaced abomasum or ketosis in Swedish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Stengärde, L; Hultgren, J; Tråvén, M; Holtenius, K; Emanuelson, U

    2012-03-01

    Risk factors associated with high or low long-term incidence of displaced abomasum (DA) or clinical ketosis were studied in 60 Swedish dairy herds, using multivariable logistic regression modelling. Forty high-incidence herds were included as cases and 20 low-incidence herds as controls. Incidence rates were calculated based on veterinary records of clinical diagnoses. During the 3-year period preceding the herd classification, herds with a high incidence had a disease incidence of DA or clinical ketosis above the 3rd quartile in a national database for disease recordings. Control herds had no cows with DA or clinical ketosis. All herds were visited during the housing period and herdsmen were interviewed about management routines, housing, feeding, milk yield, and herd health. Target groups were heifers in late gestation, dry cows, and cows in early lactation. Univariable logistic regression was used to screen for factors associated with being a high-incidence herd. A multivariable logistic regression model was built using stepwise regression. A higher maximum daily milk yield in multiparous cows and a large herd size (p=0.054 and p=0.066, respectively) tended to be associated with being a high-incidence herd. Not cleaning the heifer feeding platform daily increased the odds of having a high-incidence herd twelvefold (p<0.01). Keeping cows in only one group in the dry period increased the odds of having a high incidence herd eightfold (p=0.03). Herd size was confounded with housing system. Housing system was therefore added to the final logistic regression model. In conclusion, a large herd size, a high maximum daily milk yield, keeping dry cows in one group, and not cleaning the feeding platform daily appear to be important risk factors for a high incidence of DA or clinical ketosis in Swedish dairy herds. These results confirm the importance of housing, management and feeding in the prevention of metabolic disorders in dairy cows around parturition and in early

  11. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in three dairy herds in southwest Germany.

    PubMed

    Spohr, M; Rau, J; Friedrich, A; Klittich, G; Fetsch, A; Guerra, B; Hammerl, J A; Tenhagen, B-A

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in three dairy herds in the southwest of Germany that had experienced individual cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis associated with MRSA. The herds were identified by the detection of MRSA during routine resistance testing of mastitis pathogens. All quarters of all cows in the herds that were positive on California Mastitis Test were sampled for bacteriological analysis on two occasions. Bulk tank milk samples were also tested. Furthermore, nasal swabs were collected from people working on the farms and from cattle. Environmental samples were collected from associated pig holdings. Isolates were characterized using spa-typing and testing for antimicrobial resistance. Our results revealed a substantial spread of MRSA in the three dairy herds. In the first of the two investigations carried out on all cows in the three herds, milk samples of 5.1-16.7% of dairy cows were found positive for MRSA. The respective proportions in the second herd level investigation were 1.4-10.0%. Quarters harbouring MRSA had higher somatic cell counts than quarters that were negative on culture. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were also detected in nasal swabs of staff (7/9), cows (7/15) and calves (4/7), bulk tank milk samples (3/3) and environmental samples from pig premises (4/5) on the farm. Herds B and C had no contact to herd A. However, in all three herds MRSA of spa-type t011 were detected in milk samples. Results show that MRSA of spa-type t011 is a problem in dairy farms that needs urgent attention. PMID:20630047

  12. Optimizing productivity, herd structure, environmental performance, and profitability of dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Liang, D; Cabrera, V E

    2015-04-01

    This study used the Integrated Farm System Model to simulate the whole farm performance of a representative Wisconsin dairy farm and predict its economic and environmental outputs based on 25 yr of daily local weather data (1986 to 2010). The studied farm, located in southern Wisconsin, had 100 milking cows and 100 ha of cropland with no replacement heifers kept on the farm. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the effect of management strategies on energy-corrected milk production (ECM; 4.0% fat and 3.5% protein), net return to management, and greenhouse gas (GHG; including biogenic CO2) emission. The management strategies included (1) target milk production, for which the model optimized available resources to attain, and (2) herd structure, represented by the percentage of first-lactation cows. Weather conditions affected the outputs by changing the farm quantity and the quality of produced feed resources. As expected, when target milk production increased, the ECM increased positively and linearly to a certain level, and then it increased nonlinearly at a decreasing rate, constrained by available feed nutrients. Thereafter, the ECM reached the maximum potential milk production and remained flat regardless of higher target milk production input. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased between 3.4 and 7.3% at different first-lactation cow percentages. As the first-lactation cow percent increased from 15 to 45% in 5% intervals, GHG increased between 9.4 and 11.3% at different levels of target milk production. A high percentage of first-lactation cows reduced the maximum potential milk production. Net return to management had a similar changing trend as ECM. As the target milk production increased from 9,979 to 11,793 kg, the net return to management increased between 31 and 46% at different first-lactation cow percentages. Results revealed a win-win situation when increasing milk production or improving herd structure, which concurrently increased farm net

  13. Influence of herd structure and type of virus introduction on the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) within a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Ezanno, Pauline; Fourichon, Christine; Seegers, Henri

    2008-01-01

    A herd is a population structured into groups not all equally in contact, which may influence within-herd spread of pathogens. Herd structure varies among cattle herds. However, published models of the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) assume no herd structure or a unique structure chosen as a representative. Our objective was to identify--for different index cases introduced into an initially BVDV--free dairy herd - risky (favourable) herd structures, which increased (decreased) BVDV spread and persistence compared to a reference structure. Classically, dairy herds are divided into calves, young heifers, bred heifers, lactating cows and dry cows. In the reference scenario, groups are all equally in contact. We evaluated the effect of isolating or merging groups. Three index cases were tested: an open persistently-infected (PI) heifer, an open transiently-infected heifer, an immune heifer carrying a PI foetus. Merging all groups and merging calves and lactating cows were risky scenarios. Isolating each group, isolating lactating cows from other groups, and merging calves and young heifers were favourable scenarios. In most structures, the most risky index cases were the following: first, the entry of a PI heifer; second, the birth of a PI calf; last, the entry of a transiently-infected heifer. Recommendations for dairy herds are to raise young animals together before breeding and to isolate lactating cows from others as much as possible. These recommendations will be less efficient if a PI adult enters into the herd. PMID:18346451

  14. Streptococcus agalactiae in the environment of bovine dairy herds--rewriting the textbooks?

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H J; Nordstoga, A B; Sviland, S; Zadoks, R N; Sølverød, L; Kvitle, B; Mørk, T

    2016-02-29

    Many free-stall bovine dairy herds in Norway fail to eradicate Streptococcus agalactiae despite long-term control measures. In a longitudinal study of 4 free-stall herds with automatic milking systems (AMS), milk and extramammary sites were sampled 4 times with 1-2 month intervals. Composite milk, rectal- and vaginal swabs were collected from dairy cows; rectal swabs from heifers and young stock; rectal- and tonsillar swabs from calves; and environmental swabs from the AMS, the floors, cow beds, watering and feeding equipment. A cross sectional study of 37 herds was also conducted, with 1 visit for environmental sampling. Fifteen of the herds were known to be infected with S. agalactiae while the remaining 22 had not had evidence of S. agalactiae mastitis in the preceding 2 years. All samples were cultured for S. agalactiae, and selected isolates (n=54) from positive herds were genotyped by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results show that the bovine gastrointestinal tract and the dairy cow environment are reservoirs of S. agalactiae, and point to the existence of 2 transmission cycles; a contagious transmission cycle via the milking machine and an oro-fecal transmission cycle, with drinking water as the most likely vehicle for transmission. Ten sequence types were identified, and results suggest that strains differ in their ability to survive in the environment and transmit within dairy herds. Measures to eradicate S. agalactiae from bovine dairy herds should take into account the extra-mammary reservoirs and the potential for environmental transmission of this supposedly exclusively contagious pathogen. PMID:26854346

  15. [Comparison of productivity and veterinary expenses in Swiss dairy farms with and without integrated veterinary herd health service].

    PubMed

    Hässig, M; Kemper-Gisler, D; Liesegang, A; Braun, U

    2010-10-01

    The goal of this study was to compare production variables and veterinary costs between dairy herds enrolled in an integrated herd health program and herds with a conventional, non-computerized herd management. Four variables were used to assess the performance of the herds, including calving interval, milk production per lactation, as well as the product of calving interval x veterinary costs per year and the ratio of production to veterinary costs per year. A total of 22 dairy herds, serviced by the ambulatory clinic, University of Zurich, were investigated. There were 11 experimental herds that had been enrolled in an integrated herd health program, INTERHERD©, and 11 control herds. Data of the latter were derived from a computerized accounting system, OBLON DATA©. A total of 92'350 records from the years 1999 - 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. During the investigation period the calving interval did not significantly increase in experimental herds, whereas milk production steadily increased in both groups. The integrated herd health program did not result in additional costs when the dairy farms have no problems on a herd basis. From our study, differences in farms with and without herd health program are only marginal. PMID:20886443

  16. A descriptive epidemiological study of mastitis in 12 Irish dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Factors relating to the occurrence of mastitis were studied on 12 Irish dairy herds with histories of elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and/or increased incidence of clinical mastitis cases. Milk recording data were analysed, housing conditions and calving areas were examined; dry cow therapy, clinical mastitis records, milking technique and aspects of milking machine function were assessed. Herds with a ratio of less than 110 cubicles per 100 cows were more likely to experience environmental mastitis. Herds with inadequate calving facilities, where cows spent prolonged periods on straw bedding, were likely to acquire environmental mastitis. In the majority of the herds, the selection of dry cow therapy lacked adequate planning. The majority of farmers took no action to reduce pain experienced by cows suffering mastitis. Deficiencies in parlour hygiene were evident in all herds experiencing elevation in SCC. PMID:21851663

  17. Management characteristics, lameness, and body injuries of dairy cattle housed in high-performance dairy herds in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Cook, N B; Hess, J P; Foy, M R; Bennett, T B; Brotzman, R L

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to benchmark the prevalence of lameness, hock and knee injuries, and neck and back injuries among high-performance, freestall-housed dairy herds in Wisconsin. A random selection of 66 herds with 200 or more cows was derived from herds that clustered with high performance in year 2011 Dairy Herd Improvement records for milk production, udder health, reproduction, and other health parameters. Herds were surveyed to collect information about management, facilities, and well-being. Well-being measures were obtained through direct observation of the high-producing mature cow group, surveying 9,690 cows in total. Total herd size averaged (mean ± standard deviation) 851±717 cows, ranging 203 to 2,966 cows, with an energy-corrected milk production of 40.1±4.4kg/cow per day. Prevalence of clinical lameness (5-point scale, locomotion score ≥3) and severe lameness (locomotion score ≥4) averaged 13.2±7.3 and 2.5±2.7%, respectively. The prevalence of all hock and knee injuries, including hair loss, swelling, and ulceration, was similar at 50.3±28.3 and 53.0±24.0%, respectively. Severe (swelling and ulceration) hock and knee injury prevalence were 12.2±15.3 and 6.2±5.5%, respectively. The prevalence of all neck injuries (including hair loss, swelling and ulceration) was 8.6±16.3%; whereas the prevalence of swollen or abraded necks was low, averaging 2.0±4.1%. Back injuries (proportion of cows with missing or abraded spinous processes, hooks, or pins) followed a similar trend with a low mean prevalence of 3.6±3.4%. Overall, physical well-being characteristics of this selection of high-producing, freestall-housed dairy herds provide evidence that lameness and injury are not inevitable consequences of the confinement housing of large numbers of dairy cattle. In particular, lameness prevalence rivals that of lower-production grazing systems. However, hock and other injury risk remains a concern that can be addressed through a choice in

  18. Use of herd management programmes to improve the reproductive performance of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S; Heuer, C; Morton, J; Brownlie, T

    2014-05-01

    There has been a long history of herd health and production management programmes in many dairy industries around the world, but evidence for the efficacy of such programmes is limited. In response to a perceived decline in fertility of dairy cows, a herd reproductive management programme (InCalf) was introduced in New Zealand in 2007. This programme uses a management cycle approach that includes an assessment of the current herd status, identification of areas for improvement, development of a plan, implementation of this plan and finally a review process. The programme uses facilitators who work with farmers either in a one-to-one manner or in a formalised group setting that involves a series of meetings over a 12-month period (the farmer action group). The hypothesis that involvement in a reproductive management programme would improve herd reproductive performance was tested using a herd-level controlled randomised study (the National Herd Fertility Study) involving herds in four geographic regions of New Zealand over 2 years. Within each region, herds were ranked on the basis of the 6-week in-calf rate (i.e. the proportion of the herd pregnant in the first 6 weeks of the seasonal breeding programme) in the year preceding commencement of the study and then randomly assigned to be involved in a farmer action group or left as untreated controls. The key outcome variable of the study was the 6-week in-calf rate. Pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken at 12 weeks after the start of the seasonal breeding programme, which allowed determination of conception dates and hence calculation of the 6-week in-calf rate. Additional measurements including heifer live weight and body condition score (pre-calving and pre-mating) were undertaken to test whether treatment resulted in measurable changes in some of the key determinants of herd reproductive performance. Involvement in the farmer action group of InCalf resulted in a 2 percentage point increase in the 6-week in-calf rate

  19. Herd-level determinants of bovine leukaemia virus prevalence in dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Ronald J; Bartlett, Paul C; Byrem, Todd M; Render, Chelsea L; Febvay, Catherine; Houseman, Jessica T

    2012-11-01

    The prevalence of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) was determined in 113 Michigan dairy herds by ELISA testing for anti-BLV antibodies in milk. Additionally, an interview regarding management practices with cooperating herd managers identified farm-level variables thought to be associated with prevalence of BLV. Twenty-three risk factors (P ≤ 0·1) were identified on one-way ANOVA or simple linear regression. Multivariate analysis identified several management practices whose predictive value for increased prevalence of BLV may relate to transmission among herd mates, e.g. reuse of hypodermic needles, lack of fly control, gouge dehorning and increased use of injections in dry cows. Additionally, exclusive breeding of heifers with artificial insemination was associated with decreased BLV prevalence, as compared with at least some use of natural service by a bull. Although intervention studies are needed before causal relationships can be concluded, and unaccounted variables related to transmission exist among dairy herds, these findings suggest management practices that may help dairy producers reduce the transmission of BLV within their herds. PMID:22963749

  20. Risk factors associated with Neospora caninum abortion in Ontario Holstein dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Hobson, J C; Duffield, T F; Kelton, D; Lissemore, K; Hietala, S K; Leslie, K E; McEwen, B; Peregrine, A S

    2005-02-28

    The objective of this epidemiological study was to identify risk factors for Neospora caninum-related abortions in Ontario Holstein dairy herds. A total of 88 herds, consisting of 5080 cattle, and utilizing Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) services, were divided into three groups. Case (n = 30) and first control (n = 31) herds were selected from 1998 and 1999 fetal abortion submissions to the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, that were histopathologically positive or negative, respectively, for N. caninum. A second control group (n = 27) was selected from multiple sources of herds sampled within the previous 4 years that had a low seroprevalence (<7%) to N. caninum. Between May and December 1999, all available cows on all farms, in parity one or greater, were blood sampled. The sera were then analyzed for antibody to N. caninum using a kinetic ELISA. A survey administered at the time of sampling recorded information on housing, animal species present, manure management, reproduction, biosecurity practices, wildlife observations, peri-parturient cow management, herd disease history and nutrition. Production and other herd parameters were obtained from DHI records. Logistic regression indicated that the following parameters were positively associated with a N. caninum abortion in a herd: the N. caninum herd seroprevalence (OR = 1.1), the total number of dogs on a farm (OR = 2.8), the frequency that dogs were observed defecating in mangers (OR = 2.8), the number of horses on a farm (OR = 3.1), the observed annual rate of retained fetal membranes (OR = 1.2) and the observed annual rate of cows returning to estrus after pregnancy confirmation (OR = 1.2). Factors negatively associated were the frequency of stray cats and wild canids observed on a farm (OR = 0.4 and OR = 0.7, respectively) and the housing of heifers on loafing packs (a housing pen divided into feed manger, scrape alley and bedded pack areas, OR = 0.1). PMID:15710518

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus uberis Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds: Strain Heterogeneity and Transmission.

    PubMed

    Davies, P L; Leigh, J A; Bradley, A J; Archer, S C; Emes, R D; Green, M J

    2016-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing was successfully completed on 494 isolates of Streptococcus uberis from clinical mastitis cases in a study of 52 commercial dairy herds over a 12-month period. In total, 195 sequence types (STs) were identified. S. uberis mastitis cases that occurred in different cows within the same herd and were attributed to a common ST were classified as potential transmission events (PTEs). Clinical cases attributed to 35 of the 195 STs identified in this study were classified PTE. PTEs were identified in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases, which include the first recorded occurrence of that ST in that herd (index case) and all persistent infections with that PTE ST, represented 40% of all the clinical mastitis cases and occurred in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases accounted for >50% of all S. uberis clinical mastitis cases in 33% of the herds. Nine STs (ST-5, -6, -20, -22, -24, -35, -233, -361, and -512), eight of which were grouped within a clonal complex (sharing at least four alleles), were statistically overrepresented (OVR STs). The findings indicate that 38% of all clinical mastitis cases and 63% of the PTEs attributed to S. uberis in dairy herds may be caused by the nine most prevalent strains. The findings suggest that a small subset of STs is disproportionally important in the epidemiology of S. uberis mastitis in the United Kingdom, with cow-to-cow transmission of S. uberis potentially occurring in the majority of herds in the United Kingdom, and may be the most important route of infection in many herds. PMID:26491180

  2. Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus uberis Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds: Strain Heterogeneity and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, J. A.; Bradley, A. J.; Archer, S. C.; Emes, R. D.; Green, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing was successfully completed on 494 isolates of Streptococcus uberis from clinical mastitis cases in a study of 52 commercial dairy herds over a 12-month period. In total, 195 sequence types (STs) were identified. S. uberis mastitis cases that occurred in different cows within the same herd and were attributed to a common ST were classified as potential transmission events (PTEs). Clinical cases attributed to 35 of the 195 STs identified in this study were classified PTE. PTEs were identified in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases, which include the first recorded occurrence of that ST in that herd (index case) and all persistent infections with that PTE ST, represented 40% of all the clinical mastitis cases and occurred in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases accounted for >50% of all S. uberis clinical mastitis cases in 33% of the herds. Nine STs (ST-5, -6, -20, -22, -24, -35, -233, -361, and -512), eight of which were grouped within a clonal complex (sharing at least four alleles), were statistically overrepresented (OVR STs). The findings indicate that 38% of all clinical mastitis cases and 63% of the PTEs attributed to S. uberis in dairy herds may be caused by the nine most prevalent strains. The findings suggest that a small subset of STs is disproportionally important in the epidemiology of S. uberis mastitis in the United Kingdom, with cow-to-cow transmission of S. uberis potentially occurring in the majority of herds in the United Kingdom, and may be the most important route of infection in many herds. PMID:26491180

  3. Flunixin urine residues in culled dairy cows and its relevance to food safety and environmental concerns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flunixin is a US-FDA approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent; it is prominent due to violative meat residues detected by the US-FSIS in dairy cows. The effects of route of administration (2.2 mg/kg) and endotoxin challenge on flunixin elimination and residues were investigated. High urinary ...

  4. Longitudinal study of the distribution of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the environment of dairy herds in the Michigan Johne’s disease control demonstration herd project

    PubMed Central

    Pillars, Roxanne B.; Grooms, Daniel L.; Kaneene, John B.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the distribution of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in the environment of infected dairy farms over time. Johne’s disease (JD) prevalence was monitored annually in 7 Michigan dairy herds. Environmental samples were collected bi-annually and cultured for MAP. Of 731 environmental samples that were cultured, 81 (11%) were positive. The lactating cow floor and manure storage areas were the areas most commonly contaminated, representing 30% and 33% of positive samples, respectively. When herd prevalence was > 2%, MAP was cultured from the lactating cow floor and/or manure storage area 75% of the time. When herd prevalence was ≤ 2%, MAP was never cultured from samples collected. For every 1 unit increase in number of positive environmental samples, within herd JD prevalence increased 1.62%. Environmental contamination with MAP is consistent over time on infected dairy farms, and management practices to reduce environmental contamination are warranted. PMID:20046602

  5. Case study: Comparison of biological active compounds in milk from organic and conventional dairy herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conflicting reports of the quantities of biologically active compounds present in milk from organic grass-fed and conventional herds show that more research is required, especially as these compounds are linked to human health benefits and can improve the health value consumers place on dairy produc...

  6. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella and E. coli from Pennsylvania dairy herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens is an increasing public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella and E. coli isolates from Pennsylvania dairy herds. Manure composite samples were collected from 76 farms: on each farm one sample...

  7. Factors associated with frequency of abortions recorded through Dairy Herd Improvement test plans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequency of abortions recorded through Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) testing was summarized for cows with lactations completed from 2001 through 2009. Reported abortions were 1.3% for 8.5 million DHI lactations of cows with recorded breeding dates and that were >151 d pregnant at lactation terminati...

  8. Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be the primary source of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-se...

  9. Progression of Coxiella burnetii infection after implementing a two-year vaccination program in a naturally infected dairy cattle herd

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection in dairy cattle herds recently reported and the long survival time of the bacterium in the environment pose a risk to human and animal health that calls for the implementation of control measures at herd level. This study presents the results of a 2-year vaccination program with an inactivated phase I vaccine in a Spanish dairy herd naturally infected with C. burnetii. Calves older than 3 months and non-pregnant heifers and cows were vaccinated in April 2011 and the farm was subsequently visited at a monthly basis for vaccination of recently calved cows and calves that reached the age of 3 months. Annual booster doses were given to previous vaccinated animals as well. The effectiveness of the vaccine was assessed in terms of level of C. burnetii shedding through milk and uterine fluids and environmental contamination as determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results The percentage of shedder animals through uterine fluids and milk progressively decreased, and C. burnetii DNA load in bulk-tank milk samples was low at the end of the study. The average seroconversion rate in not yet vaccinated animals, which acted as control group, was 8.6% during the first year and 0% in the second year. DNA of C. burnetii was found in aerosols and dust samples taken in the calving area only at the beginning of the study, whereas slurry samples remained C. burnetii PCR positive for at least 18 months. Multiple Locus Variable number tandem-repeat Analysis identified the same genotype in all C. burnetii DNA positive samples. Conclusions In the absence of any changes in biosecurity, the overall reduction of C. burnetii infection in animals to 1.2% milk shedders and the reduced environment contamination found at the end of the study was ascribed to the effects of vaccination together with the culling of milk shedders. Vaccination has to be planned as a medium-long term strategy to suppress risks of re

  10. Mathematical Modeling of the Dynamics of Salmonella Cerro Infection in a US Dairy Herd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, Prem; van Kessel, Jo Ann; Karns, Jeffrey; Wolfgang, David; Schukken, Ynte; Grohn, Yrjo

    2006-03-01

    Salmonellosis has been one of the major causes of human foodborne illness in the US. The high prevalence of infections makes transmission dynamics of Salmonella in a farm environment of interest both from animal and human health perspectives. Mathematical modeling approaches are increasingly being applied to understand the dynamics of various infectious diseases in dairy herds. Here, we describe the transmission dynamics of Salmonella infection in a dairy herd with a set of non-linear differential equations. Although the infection dynamics of different serotypes of Salmonella in cattle are likely to be different, we find that a relatively simple SIR-type model can describe the observed dynamics of the Salmonella enterica serotype Cerro infection in the herd.

  11. Management practices associated with presence of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk from Ohio dairy herds.

    PubMed

    da Costa, L B; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Schuenemann, G M

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common contagious mastitis pathogen affecting cows worldwide. Practices to control this organism have been advocated for decades, and identification of risk factors in individual herds is crucial in prevention and control of Staph. aureus. The objectives of this paper were to estimate prevalence of Staph. aureus in Ohio dairies and to determine a potential association of herd characteristics and management practices with isolation of Staph. aureus in bulk tank milk. A questionnaire about herd characteristics, milking procedures, udder health, mastitis control, and biosecurity practices was mailed to 780 dairy producers; the response rate for the survey was 49%. Staphylococcus aureus prevalence was 48, 64, and 69% when 1, 2, or 3 samples of bulk tank milk from each herd were considered, respectively. Herds practicing prestrip, pre- and postmilking teat dip, and using a single towel per cow as part of the milking routine as well as herds where owners were involved in milking were at significantly reduced odds for detection of Staph. aureus in their bulk tank milk. PMID:26686713

  12. Exploration of the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on bovine tuberculosis incidence in cattle herds

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, C. A.; Bento, A. I.; Goodchild, A. V.; Downs, S. H.

    2015-01-01

    In the UK, badgers (Meles meles) are a well-known reservoir of infection, and there has been lively debate about whether badger culling should play a role within the British Government's strategy to control and eventually eradicate tuberculosis (TB) in cattle. The key source of information on the potential for badger culling to reduce cattle TB in high-cattle-TB-incidence areas remains the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT). In late 2013, two pilot areas were subjected to industry-led badger culls. These culls differed importantly from RBCT culling in that free-ranging as well as cage-trapped badgers were shot, and culling took place over a longer time period. Their impacts will be harder to evaluate because culling was not randomised between comparable areas for subsequent comparisons of culling versus no culling. However, the authors present calculations that explore the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on cattle TB incidence. The rollout of industry-led culling as a component of a national cattle TB control policy would be controversial. The best possible estimates of the effects of such culling on confirmed cattle TB incidence should be made available to inform all stakeholders and policy-makers. PMID:26374782

  13. Exploration of the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on bovine tuberculosis incidence in cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, C A; Bento, A I; Goodchild, A V; Downs, S H

    2015-10-24

    In the UK, badgers (Meles meles) are a well-known reservoir of infection, and there has been lively debate about whether badger culling should play a role within the British Government's strategy to control and eventually eradicate tuberculosis (TB) in cattle. The key source of information on the potential for badger culling to reduce cattle TB in high-cattle-TB-incidence areas remains the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT). In late 2013, two pilot areas were subjected to industry-led badger culls. These culls differed importantly from RBCT culling in that free-ranging as well as cage-trapped badgers were shot, and culling took place over a longer time period. Their impacts will be harder to evaluate because culling was not randomised between comparable areas for subsequent comparisons of culling versus no culling. However, the authors present calculations that explore the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on cattle TB incidence. The rollout of industry-led culling as a component of a national cattle TB control policy would be controversial. The best possible estimates of the effects of such culling on confirmed cattle TB incidence should be made available to inform all stakeholders and policy-makers. PMID:26374782

  14. Management of the calving pen is a crucial factor for paratuberculosis control in large dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Donat, Karsten; Schmidt, Mandy; Köhler, Heike; Sauter-Louis, Carola

    2016-05-01

    Improvement of hygiene and herd management to reduce the contact of calves with adult cow feces to prevent new infections is one of the basic strategies to manage paratuberculosis-affected dairy herds. Control programs should recommend an evidence-based selection of factors that demonstrably reduce the transmission of the infectious agent and decrease the prevalence of infected cattle to improve acceptance and implementation of the recommended measures among farmers. This study aimed to assess the influence of several management measures on control success in a longitudinal study in 28 large dairy herds with a median size of 415 cows in Thuringia, Germany. The cumulative incidence of cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) per year was determined by individual fecal culture of all cows during 5 consecutive years. Relevant management practices as well as herd size, milk yield, and purchase of cattle were recorded by on-farm risk assessment. Mean holding time of MAP shedders within the herd was calculated from individual data of each shedding cow. Using multiple regression models, separate calving pens for shedders and disinfection of the pen after use were identified as significant risk factors that reduced the cumulative incidence of MAP shedders per year on the herd level. The results provide evidence that, in addition to other factors, calving hygiene and management of the calving pens are crucial for paratuberculosis control, particularly in large dairy herds. Considered together with the outcome from other studies, these results might be important to weight various risk factors and to avoid overburdening and overwhelming farmers and keeping them committed. PMID:26947285

  15. Some factors affecting the number of days open in Argentinean dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Piccardi, M; Funes, A Capitaine; Balzarini, M; Bó, G A

    2013-03-15

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative contribution of factors affecting how quickly cattle become pregnant in Argentine dairy herds. Data from 76,401 cows from 249 dairy herds were analyzed. A hazard model was used to explore days open (DO). The factors considered were milk yield, lactation number, calving season, and breeding technique (i.e., type of service: artificial insemination [AI], or combined service). Cows with lower milk yield had 1.09 to 1.38 higher likelihood to become pregnant than those with higher milk yield (P < 0.0001). The number of DO increased linearly with an increasing number of lactations (P < 0.0001). Cows calving in fall-winter had a shorter interval to conception than those calving in summer. The hazard rate for combined service was 1.27; therefore, cows with combined service were more likely to become pregnant during the observation period than those bred by AI. The difference in DO between cows of high versus low milk yield was smaller when dairies used AI as the main breeding technique than when they used combined service. Furthermore, dairies using mainly combined service had lower milk yield (5693.7 L) than those using mainly AI (7684.4 L). Although lactation number and calving season contributed to explain the number of DO, the influence of production level, the type of service, and the interaction between them was also associated with reproductive efficiency in Argentine dairy herds. PMID:23290433

  16. Questionnaire identifying management practices surrounding calving on spring-calving dairy farms and their associations with herd size and herd expansion.

    PubMed

    Cummins, C; Berry, D P; Sayers, R; Lorenz, I; Kennedy, E

    2016-05-01

    Healthy calves are fundamental to any profitable dairy enterprise. Research to-date, has focused on year-round calving systems which experience many different challenges compared to spring-calving systems. The objective of the present study was to determine the on-farm dry cow, calving, and colostrum management practices of spring-calving dairy production systems, and quantify their associations with herd size and herd expansion status (i.e. expanding or not expanding). Information on these management practices was available from a survey of 262 Irish spring-calving dairy farmers, representative of the Irish national population. Herd expansion in the 2 years before, and the year that the survey was conducted was not associated with any of the management practices investigated. Fifty-three percent of respondents had an average calving season length of 10 to14 weeks with 35% of herds having a longer calving season. Previous research in cattle has documented that both colostrum source and feeding management are associated with the transmission of infectious disease from cow to calf. In the present study 60% of respondents fed calves colostrum from their own dam; however, 66% of those respondents allowed the calf to suckle the dam, 23% of survey respondents fed calves pooled colostrum. Larger herds were more likely (P<0.01) to use pooled colostrum supplies, while smaller herds were more likely (P<0.05) to allow the calf to suckle the dam. The majority (86%) of respondents had stored supplies of colostrum; average-sized herds had the greatest likelihood of storing colostrum (P<0.05), compared to other herd sizes; larger sized herds had a lesser likelihood (P<0.05) of storing colostrum in a freezer, compared to other herd sizes. Although freezing colostrum was the most common method used to store colostrum (54% of respondents), 17% of respondents stored colostrum at room temperature, 29% of which stored it at room temperature for greater than 4 days. The results from the

  17. Paratuberculosis: decrease in milk production of German Holstein dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis depends on within-herd prevalence.

    PubMed

    Donat, K; Soschinka, A; Erhardt, G; Brandt, H R

    2014-05-01

    Paratuberculosis impairs productivity of infected dairy cows because of reduced milk production and fertility and enhanced risk of culling. The magnitude of the milk yield depression in individual cows is influenced by factors such as parity, the stage of the disease and the choice of test used. The objectives of this case-control study were to substantiate the influence of the different levels of the within-herd prevalence (WHP) on individual milk yield of fecal culture (FC)-positive cows (FC+) compared with FC-negative herd-mates (FC-), and to estimate the magnitude of the deviation of the milk yield, milk components and somatic cell count (SCC) in an FC-based study. Of a total of 31 420 cows from 26 Thuringian dairy herds tested for paratuberculosis by FC, a subset of 1382 FC+ and 3245 FC- with milk recording data were selected as cases and controls, respectively. The FC- cows were matched for the same number and stage of lactation (±10 days in milk) as one FC+ from the same herd. Within a mixed model analysis using the fixed effects of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status, lactation number, days in milk, prevalence class of farm and the random effect of farm on milk yield per day (kg), the amount of fat and protein (mg/dl) and lactose (mg/dl) as well as the SCC (1000/ml) were measured. On the basis of least square means, FC+ cows had a lower test-day milk yield (27.7±0.6 kg) compared with FC- (29.0±0.6 kg), as well as a lower milk protein content and a slightly diminished lactose concentration. FC status was not associated with milk fat percentage or milk SCC. In FC+ cows, reduction in milk yield increased with increasing WHP. An interaction of FC status and farm was found for the test-day milk yield, and milk protein percentage, respectively. We conclude that the reduction in milk yield of FC+ cows compared with FC- herd-mates is significantly influenced by farm effects and depends on WHP class. Owners of MAP-positive dairy herds may

  18. Efficacy of antibiotic treatment and test-based culling strategies for eradicating brucellosis in commercial swine herds.

    PubMed

    Dieste-Pérez, L; Frankena, K; Blasco, J M; Muñoz, P M; de Jong, M C M

    2016-04-01

    Swine brucellosis caused by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease in continental Europe. Without effective vaccines being available, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommends the full depopulation of infected herds as the only strategy to eradicate B. suis outbreaks. Using data collected from 8 herds suffering natural swine brucellosis outbreaks, we assessed the efficacy of four control strategies: (i) oxytetracycline treatment only, as a default scenario, (ii) oxytetracycline treatment combined with skin testing and removal of positive animals, (iii) oxytetracycline treatment combined with serological testing (Rose Bengal test-RBT-and indirect ELISA -iELISA-) and removal of seropositive animals and (iv) oxytetracycline treatment combined with both serological (RBT/iELISA) and skin testing and removal of positive animals. A Susceptible-Infectious-Removal model was used to estimate the reproduction ratio (R) for each strategy. According to this model, the oxytetracycline treatment alone was not effective enough to eradicate the infection. However, this antibiotic treatment combined with diagnostic testing at 4-monthly intervals plus immediate removal of positive animals showed to be effective to eradicate brucellosis independent of the diagnostic test strategy used in an acceptable time interval (1-2 years), depending on the initial number of infected animals. PMID:26899897

  19. Can calcium chloride injection facilitate the ageing-derived improvement in the quality of meat from culled dairy cows?

    PubMed

    Bunmee, T; Jaturasitha, S; Kreuzer, M; Wicke, M

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated whether the positive effects of ageing on tenderness of meat from culled dairy cows can be facilitated by CaCl₂. Injections of 250 mM CaCl₂ solution (10% wt/wt) were performed on Longissimus dorsi samples from 32 7-yrs old cows. Samples were vacuum packaged and aged for 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. Ageing alone produced lighter and less red meat with lower shear force, higher myofibrillar fragmentation and tenderness scores but also elevated lipid oxidation. For most traits investigated, CaCl₂-injected meat exhibited similar ageing effects, but drip loss increased with age. The CaCl₂-injected meat had a lower shear force and myofibrillar fragmentation increased more rapidly, but drip loss, off-flavour scores, colour stability and oxidative stability were inferior to untreated meat. Overall, it was found possible to accelerate tenderisation of such meat with CaCl₂, but only at the cost of adverse effects in some other quality traits. PMID:24398003

  20. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy cattle herds in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nilnont, Theerakul; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Kanistanont, Kwankate; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Kampa, Jaruwan

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus causes a wide range of clinical manifestation with subsequent economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Our study of a population of dairy cattle in Thailand based on 933 bulk tank milk samples from nine public milk collection centers aimed to monitor infective status and to evaluate the effect of the infection in cows as well as to examine the reproductive performance of heifers to provide effective recommendations for disease control in Thailand. The results showed a moderate antibody-positive prevalence in the herd (62.5 %), with the proportion of class-3 herd, actively infected stage, being 17.3 %. Fourteen persistently infected (PI) animals were identified among 1196 young animals from the class-3 herds. Most of the identified PI animals, 11/14, were born in one sub-area where bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) investigation has not been performed to date. With respect to reproductive performance, class-3 herds also showed higher median values of reproductive indices than those of class-0 herds. Cows and heifers in class-3 herds had higher odds ratio of calving interval (CI) and age at first service (AFS) above the median, respectively, compared to class-0 herds (OR = 1.29; P = 0.02 and OR = 1.63; P = 0.02). Our study showed that PI animals were still in the area that was previously studied. Furthermore, a newly studied area had a high prevalence of BVDV infection and the infection affected the reproductive performance of cows and heifers. Although 37.5 % of the population was free of BVDV, the lack of official disease prevention and less awareness of herd biosecurity may have resulted in continuing viral spread and silent economic losses have potentially occurred due to BVDV. We found that BVDV is still circulating in the region and, hence, a national control program is required. PMID:27154218

  1. Post-milking teat dip use in dairy herds with high or low somatic cell counts.

    PubMed

    Erskine, R J; Eberhart, R J

    1991-12-15

    Milk samples for bacteriologic culture were submitted from 71 dairy herds, 24 with low somatic cell count (SCC) and 47 with high SCC and high prevalence of subclinical mastitis. At the time of sample submission to the Mastitis Diagnostic Laboratory of Pennsylvania State University, information regarding the herd mastitis control practices was collected. A combined program of post-milking teat dipping (PMTD) and antibiotic treatment of all cows at the start of the nonlactating period was practiced more frequently for herds with low SCC, (P less than 0.001) than for herds with high SCC. Among all herds for which PMTD was practiced, a higher proportion (P less than 0.001) of those for which chlorhexidine-based products were used had low SCC than high SCC. Conversely, a higher proportion of herds for which a dip with an acrylic latex barrier was used had high SCC rather than low SCC (P = 0.002). For herds with high prevalence of subclinical mastitis, and despite a program of PMTD and treatment of all cows at the start of the nonlactating period, a change to a different germicidal teat dip product may be indicated to help reduce prevalence of infection. PMID:1813466

  2. Use of Stochastic Simulation to Evaluate the Reduction in Methane Emissions and Improvement in Reproductive Efficiency from Routine Hormonal Interventions in Dairy Herds.

    PubMed

    Archer, Simon C; Hudson, Christopher D; Green, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    This study predicts the magnitude and between herd variation in changes of methane emissions and production efficiency associated with interventions to improve reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. Data for 10,000 herds of 200 cows were simulated. Probability of conception was predicted daily from the start of the study (parturition) for each cow up to day 300 of lactation. Four scenarios of differing first insemination management were simulated for each herd using the same theoretical cows: A baseline scenario based on breeding from observed oestrus only, synchronisation of oestrus for pre-set first insemination using 2 methods, and a regime using prostaglandin treatments followed by first insemination to observed oestrus. Cows that did not conceive to first insemination were re-inseminated following detection of oestrus. For cows that conceived, gestation length was 280 days with cessation of milking 60 days before calving. Those cows not pregnant after 300 days of lactation were culled and replaced by a heifer. Daily milk yield was calculated for 730 days from the start of the study for each cow. Change in mean reproductive and economic outputs were summarised for each herd following the 3 interventions. For each scenario, methane emissions were determined by daily forage dry matter intake, forage quality, and cow replacement risk. Linear regression was used to summarise relationships. In some circumstances improvement in reproductive efficiency using the programmes investigated was associated with reduced cost and methane emissions compared to reliance on detection of oestrus. Efficiency of oestrus detection and the time to commencement of breeding after calving influenced variability in changes in cost and methane emissions. For an average UK herd this was a saving of at least £50 per cow and a 3.6% reduction in methane emissions per L of milk when timing of first insemination was pre-set. PMID:26061424

  3. Use of Stochastic Simulation to Evaluate the Reduction in Methane Emissions and Improvement in Reproductive Efficiency from Routine Hormonal Interventions in Dairy Herds

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Simon C.; Hudson, Christopher D.; Green, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study predicts the magnitude and between herd variation in changes of methane emissions and production efficiency associated with interventions to improve reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. Data for 10,000 herds of 200 cows were simulated. Probability of conception was predicted daily from the start of the study (parturition) for each cow up to day 300 of lactation. Four scenarios of differing first insemination management were simulated for each herd using the same theoretical cows: A baseline scenario based on breeding from observed oestrus only, synchronisation of oestrus for pre-set first insemination using 2 methods, and a regime using prostaglandin treatments followed by first insemination to observed oestrus. Cows that did not conceive to first insemination were re-inseminated following detection of oestrus. For cows that conceived, gestation length was 280 days with cessation of milking 60 days before calving. Those cows not pregnant after 300 days of lactation were culled and replaced by a heifer. Daily milk yield was calculated for 730 days from the start of the study for each cow. Change in mean reproductive and economic outputs were summarised for each herd following the 3 interventions. For each scenario, methane emissions were determined by daily forage dry matter intake, forage quality, and cow replacement risk. Linear regression was used to summarise relationships. In some circumstances improvement in reproductive efficiency using the programmes investigated was associated with reduced cost and methane emissions compared to reliance on detection of oestrus. Efficiency of oestrus detection and the time to commencement of breeding after calving influenced variability in changes in cost and methane emissions. For an average UK herd this was a saving of at least £50 per cow and a 3.6% reduction in methane emissions per L of milk when timing of first insemination was pre-set. PMID:26061424

  4. Premilking teat disinfection: is it worthwhile in pasture-grazed dairy herds?

    PubMed

    Morton, John M; Penry, John F; Malmo, Jakob; Mein, Graeme A

    2014-12-01

    A controlled trial was conducted in 5 pasture-grazed commercial dairy herds in Australia in 2012 to determine whether premilking teat disinfection and drying of teats reduces clinical mastitis incidence during early lactation by at least 50%. A 50% reduction was estimated to be the minimum required to justify additional costs of labor, disinfectants, and other resources if premilking teat disinfection was implemented in a 500-cow herd averaging 8 clinical cases per 100 cow-months. A secondary aim was to determine whether this premilking teat disinfection routine reduces incidence of new udder infections. Treatment was applied in each herd for approximately 60 d (range of 59.5 to 61 d), commencing in each herd soon after the start of the herd's main or only calving period. Within each herd, cows were allocated to either the treatment (premilking disinfection) or the control (no premilking disinfection) group based on their herd identity number. During the trial period, any cow having a new case of clinical mastitis or an individual cow cell count greater than 250,000 cells/mL of milk (when preceded by individual cow cell counts of 250,000 cells/mL of milk or below) was deemed to have had a new infection. Overall, neither clinical mastitis incidence nor new infection rate differed significantly between treatment and control groups. Over the whole study period, 98 of the 1,029 cows in the premilking disinfection group and 97 of the 1,025 cows in the control group had clinical mastitis. Total cow-days at risk of clinical mastitis were similar in each group. However, clinical incidence rates were markedly lower in treatment cows in one herd (herd 3; incidence rate ratio=0.34) and there was some evidence that new infection incidence rates were lower in treated cows in this herd (incidence rate ratio=0.42). Rainfall during the study period was below long-term district average in all 5 study herds. Cows' teats were less dirty than in previous, wetter years for the 4 herds

  5. A review of the feeding-health-production complex in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Ostergaard, S; Sørensen, J T

    1998-08-01

    Diseases may be an important link in the relationship between feeding and production in a dairy herd. The low frequency of relevant disorders calls for studies on survey data on a large population. However, this approach suffers from lack of detailed herd feeding data and consequently only few have studied feeding as a risk factor for disease. Therefore, we reviewed information from various studies to integrate what is known of the feeding-health-production complex in a dairy herd. The need for putting together information from different sources, the herd effects, and the fact that the effect of one factor cannot be kept constant for investigation in a real-life dynamic herd call for a conceptual model as a framework for the review. The complexity is minimized to allow the representation of important elements. Within-cow relationships (such as feeding-disease relationships, disease interrelationships, and disease-production relationships) are reviewed specifically for: ketosis, milk fever, displaced abomasum, acidosis, sole ulcers and laminitis, and bloat. The major feeding management factors involved are concentrate feeding (level and how it is provided) and overconditioned cows. Disease interrelationships are important. Generalization of production loss from diseases is complicated due to the variety of estimates and measures used. PMID:9762733

  6. Prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in bulk tank milk from unvaccinated irish dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Bulk tank milk samples, collected from 347 herds throughout the Republic of Ireland using a sampling frame based on seven milk-recording organisations, were tested by ELISA for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo. These herds, which had not been vaccinated against leptospirosis within the previous five years, were categorised according to their province, milk-recording organisation and size. Two-hundred-and-seventy-three herds (79%) had a positive ELISA titre. Both the probability of a herd being seropositive and the antibody level in the herd milk sample were affected by the province (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) and the herd size category (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Larger herds were significantly more likely to have positive reactions and higher mean concentrations of antibody. It was concluded that a high proportion of unvaccinated Irish dairy herds have been exposed to infection with Leptospira hardjo. PMID:21851657

  7. A multiarm randomized field trial evaluating strategies for udder health improvement in Swiss dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Tschopp, A; Reist, M; Kaufmann, T; Bodmer, M; Kretzschmar, L; Heiniger, D; Berchtold, B; Wohlfender, F; Harisberger, M; Boss, R; Strabel, D; Cousin, M-E; Graber, H U; Steiner, A; van den Borne, B H P

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the effectiveness of specialist advice about udder health in Swiss dairy herds and to compare 3 different udder health improvement strategies against a negative control group. In 2010, 100 Swiss dairy herds with a high (between 200,000 and 300,000 cells/mL) yield-corrected bulk milk somatic cell count (YCBMSCC) were recruited for a 1-yr multiarm randomized field trial. The herds were visited between September and December 2011 to evaluate udder health-management practices and then randomly allocated into 1 of 4 study arms containing 25 herds each. The negative control study arm received neither recommendations for improving udder health nor any active support. The remaining 75 farmers received a herd-specific report with recommendations to improve udder health management. The positive control study arm received no further active support during 2012. The veterinarian study arm received additional support in the form of monthly visits by their herd veterinarian. Finally, the study group study arm received support in the form of bimonthly study group meetings where different topics concerning udder health were discussed. One year later, implementation of recommendations and changes in udder health were assessed. Of the recommendations given, 44.3% were completely implemented, 23.1% partially, and 32.6% were not implemented. No differences in implementation of recommendations were noted between the 3 study arms. At study enrollment, farmers were asked for the study arm of their preference but were subsequently randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 study arms. Farmers that were assigned to the study arm of their preference implemented more recommendations than farmers assigned to a study arm not of their preference. No decrease in the within-herd prevalence of cows that had a high (≥200,000 cells/mL) composite somatic cell count was observed in herds that had a YCBMSCC ≥200,000 cells/mL at the start of intervention. However, the 3

  8. Q Fever Dairy Herd Status Determination Based on Serological and Molecular Analysis of Bulk Tank Milk.

    PubMed

    Anastácio, S; Carolino, N; Sidi-Boumedine, K; da Silva, G J

    2016-04-01

    Ruminants are recognized as the main reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii. EFSA highlighted the lack of knowledge about Q fever prevalence in many European countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out in randomly selected dairy herds (n = 109) from central Portugal to screen for C. burnetii infection and to correlate it with herd factors. Bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from cattle (n = 45) and small ruminant (n = 64) herds were tested by ELISA and PCR. The apparent seroprevalence of Q fever was estimated in 45.9% (95% CI: 36.3-55.7) being higher in small ruminants (51.6; 95% CI: 39.6-63.4) than in cattle (37.8; 95% CI: 25.1-52.4). The shedding of C. burnetii in BTM was detected in 11.9% (95% CI: 7.1-19.4) of BTM, and it was higher in cattle (20%; 95% CI: 10.9-33.8) than in sheep and mixed herds (6.3%; 95% CI: 2.5-15). A high bacterial load (≥ 3 × 10(3) bacteria/ml) was observed in 85% of PCR-positive BTM. A significant correlation was found between the bacterial load and positive samples on ELISA (P < 0.001). Antibody positivity was significantly associated with the increased herd size (P < 0.01) and the occurrence of abortion (P < 0.05), whereas the shedding of C. burnetii was significantly associated with the report of infertility (P < 0.05). The results highlight that serological and molecular methods in combination are a useful tool to screen for Q fever and to clarify the herd infection status. The shedding of C. burnetii through milk is important, especially in dairy cattle, and thus, the role of milk as a potential source of infection among dairy workers should not be neglected. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting C. burnetii infection in dairy livestock in Portugal showing that Q fever is significant in dairy herds, leading to economic losses and being a risk for public health, which highlights the need of implementation of control measures. PMID:25208655

  9. Implementation and use of a microcomputer-based management information system to monitor dairy herd performance

    PubMed Central

    Lissemore, Kerry D.; Leslie, Ken E.; Menzies, Paula I.; Martin, S. Wayne; Meek, Alan H.; Etherington, Wayne G.

    1992-01-01

    A microcomputer-based herd management information system was implemented as part of the herd health program provided to 13 dairy clients by the Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph. The study was conducted over a two year period. Data were collected from on-farm event diaries, veterinary visit reports, and production testing information. Selected indices of reproduction, udder health, production, and heifer performance were reported. It was concluded that the implementation of a microcomputer-based information management system, operated as a bureau service, was feasible. However, limitations to the implementation in veterinary practice were identified. PMID:17423945

  10. Evaluation of effects of metritis management in a complex dairy herd health management program.

    PubMed

    Krogh, M A; Enevoldsen, C

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the effects of all interventions in a dairy herd, including the effects of various herd health management programs (HHMP), is highly relevant. A traditional randomized controlled trial is the gold standard but is likely practically impossible or prohibitively expensive to use for a general evaluation of a HHMP. Generalizability may also be poor because of the dynamics of the production contexts. In this study, we demonstrate an approach for evaluating the effects of an HHMP in the field, specifying an intervention theory for an ongoing HHMP in the context of the Danish dairy industry. As an example, we suggest one coherent analytical approach for studying the possible effects on milk production of systematic postpartum examinations of vaginal discharge, which is supposed to improve detection and treatment of metritis or endometritis. This routine is one component of the HHMP. The data consisted of 121 herds and 76,953 lactations over a 15-yr period. For parity group 1, the negative effects of metritis (despite treatment) on 305-d milk production after a normal calving were reduced by 116 kg of energy-corrected milk after enrollment in the HHMP. For parity group 2 and parity group >2, enrollment in the HHMP resulted in a 129-kg and an 80-kg energy-corrected milk yield increase in milk production, respectively. The results indicate that effects of the HHMP existed, which were mediated through improved metritis detection. This study demonstrates the importance of a clear-cut intervention theory, although even with a theory, the research question can be too herd and context specific. In such a case, a within-herd randomized controlled trial study design seems to be the only way to achieve a valid result for a given herd, and acquiring valid results from an observational multi-herd study will be very difficult. PMID:24239087

  11. Diversity of Listeria monocytogenes within a U.S. dairy herd, 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Haley, Bradd J; Sonnier, Jakeitha; Schukken, Ynte H; Karns, Jeffrey S; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S

    2015-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis, is frequently isolated from the environment. Dairy cows and dairy farm environments are reservoirs of this pathogen, where fecal shedding contributes to its environmental dispersal and contamination of milk, dairy products, and meat. The molecular diversity of 40 L. monocytogenes isolates representing 3 serogroups (1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b) collected between 2004 and 2010 from the feces of dairy cattle on a single dairy farm was assessed using a multivirulence locus sequence typing (MVLST) assay. The dairy farm L. monocytogenes MVLST patterns were compared to those from 138 strains isolated globally from clinical cases, foods, and the environment. Results of the study demonstrated that several distantly related L. monocytogenes strains persisted among members of the herd over the course of the study while other strains were transient. Furthermore, some strains isolated during this study appear to be distantly related to previously isolated L. monocytogenes while others are closely related to Epidemic Clones associated with human illness. This work demonstrates that dairy cows can be reservoirs of a diverse population of potentially human pathogenic L. monocytogenes that represents a risk to consumers of milk, dairy products, and meat. PMID:26325149

  12. Spread of Coxiella burnetii between dairy cattle herds in an enzootic region: modelling contributions of airborne transmission and trade.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Pranav; Hoch, Thierry; Ezanno, Pauline; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2016-01-01

    Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a looming concern for livestock and public health. Epidemiological features of inter-herd transmission of C. burnetii in cattle herds by wind and trade of cows are poorly understood. We present a novel dynamic spatial model describing the inter-herd regional spread of C. burnetii in dairy cattle herds, quantifying the ability of airborne transmission and animal trade in C. burnetii propagation in an enzootic region. Among all the new herd infections, 92% were attributed to airborne transmission and the rest to cattle trade. Infections acquired following airborne transmission were shown to cause relatively small and ephemeral intra-herd outbreaks. On the contrary, disease-free herds purchasing an infectious cow experienced significantly higher intra-herd prevalence. The results also indicated that, for short duration, both transmission routes were independent from each other without any synergistic effect. The model outputs applied to the Finistère department in western France showed satisfactory sensitivity (0.71) and specificity (0.80) in predicting herd infection statuses at the end of one year in a neighbourhood of 3 km around expected incident herds, when compared with data. The model developed here thus provides important insights into the spread of C. burnetii between dairy cattle herds and paves the way for implementation and assessment of control strategies. PMID:27048416

  13. Herd management and social variables associated with bulk tank somatic cell count in dairy herds in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Schewe, R L; Kayitsinga, J; Contreras, G A; Odom, C; Coats, W A; Durst, P; Hovingh, E P; Martinez, R O; Mobley, R; Moore, S; Erskine, R J

    2015-11-01

    The ability to reduce somatic cell counts (SCC) and improve milk quality depends on the effective and consistent application of established mastitis control practices. The US dairy industry continues to rely more on nonfamily labor to perform critical tasks to maintain milk quality. Thus, it is important to understand dairy producer attitudes and beliefs relative to management practices, as well as employee performance, to advance milk quality within the changing structure of the dairy industry. To assess the adoption rate of mastitis control practices in United States dairy herds, as well as assess social variables, including attitudes toward employees relative to mastitis control, a survey was sent to 1,700 dairy farms in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Florida in January and February of 2013. The survey included questions related to 7 major areas: sociodemographics and farm characteristics, milking proficiency, milking systems, cow environment, infected cow monitoring and treatment, farm labor, and attitudes toward mastitis and related antimicrobial use. The overall response rate was 41% (21% in Florida, 39% in Michigan, and 45% in Pennsylvania). Herd size ranged from 9 to 5,800 cows. Self-reported 3-mo geometric mean bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) for all states was 194,000 cells/mL. Multivariate analysis determined that proven mastitis control practices such as the use of internal teat sealants and blanket dry cow therapy, and not using water during udder preparation before milking, were associated with lower BTSCC. Additionally, farmer and manager beliefs and attitudes, including the perception of mastitis problems and the threshold of concern if BTSCC is above 300,000 cells/mL, were associated with BTSCC. Ensuring strict compliance with milking protocols, giving employees a financial or other penalty if BTSCC increased, and a perceived importance of reducing labor costs were negatively associated with BTSCC in farms with nonfamily employees. These findings highlight the

  14. Blood parameters in Swedish dairy herds with high or low incidence of displaced abomasum or ketosis.

    PubMed

    Stengärde, Lena; Holtenius, Kjell; Emanuelson, Ulf; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni; Tråvén, Madeleine

    2011-10-01

    Sixty dairy herds were studied to investigate the association between long-term incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis and body condition score and blood profiles, including parameters estimating energy metabolism and hepatic lipidosis in the periparturient period and early lactation. Blood samples were taken around parturition and in early lactation from cows without apparent clinical symptoms of metabolic disorders. A difference in metabolism between high and low incidence herds was shown post-partum by a lower metabolic index (the revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index, RQUICKI), and tendencies for higher concentrations of glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids in the high incidence herds. High incidence herds had more cows and produced on average 1400kg energy-corrected milk per cow per year more than the low incidence herds. No differences were found in parameters reflecting liver cell damage. In the first 3weeks post-partum the RQUICKI was a more sensitive marker of herds with a high incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis than any of the individual parameters, but further research is needed before practical applications of the RQUICKI can be foreseen. PMID:21982532

  15. Cow level sampling factors affecting analysis and interpretation of milk urea concentrations in 2 dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Eicher, R; Bouchard, E; Tremblay, A

    1999-01-01

    The goals of this study were to determine the influence of the variations among udder quarters, the somatic cell count, the time of sampling during the day, sample conservation, and centrifugation on milk urea (UREA) concentrations, and to propose a sample collection procedure for herds that are not on a Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) program. Forty cows from 2 herds with different feeding practices were randomly selected. The quarter sampled and the somatic cell count did not significantly influence UREA concentrations. Milk urea concentrations were highest in the morning. The diurnal pattern was not influenced by intrinsic factors like parity, days postpartum, or daily milk yield. The UREA concentrations were significantly higher after refrigeration for one week (mean UREA change = +0.41 +/- 0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.0001) and freezing for one month (mean UREA change = +1.52 +/- 1.25 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Urea concentrations were slightly higher in lactoserum than in whole milk (mean UREA difference = +0.17 +/- 0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Although this study included only 2 herds and does not allow extrapolation, differences were found in the diurnal pattern of UREA in these 2 herds, which possibly reflect differences in feeding strategy. With consideration of these results, a 6-point sampling procedure for herds that are not on a DHI program is proposed. PMID:10416068

  16. Survival analysis of factors affecting incidence risk of Salmonella Dublin in Danish dairy herds during a 7-year surveillance period.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2012-12-01

    A national surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin, based on regular bulk-tank milk antibody screening and movements of cattle, was initiated in Denmark in 2002. From 2002 to end of 2009 the prevalence of test-positive dairy herds was reduced from 26% to 10%. However, new infections and spread of S. Dublin between herds continued to occur. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting incidence risk of S. Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds between 2003 and 2009. Herds were considered at risk when they had been test-negative for at least four consecutive year-quarters (YQs), either at the start of the study period or after recovery from infection. Survival analysis was performed on a dataset including 6931 dairy herds with 118,969 YQs at risk, in which 1523 failures (new infection events) occurred. Predictors obtained from register data were tested in a multivariable, proportional hazard model allowing for recurrence within herds. During October to December the hazard of failures was higher (hazard ratio HR=3.4, P=0.0005) than the rest of the year. Accounting for the delay in bulk-tank milk antibody responses to S. Dublin infection, this indicates that introduction of bacteria was most frequent between July and October. Purchase from test-positive cattle herds within the previous 6 months was associated with higher hazard of failures (HR=2.5, P<0.0001) compared to no purchase and purchase from test-negative herds. Increasing local prevalence, herd size and bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts were also associated with increasing hazard of failures. The effect of prior infection was time-dependent; the hazard of failures was reduced following a logarithmic decline with increasing time at risk. The hazard was markedly higher in herds with prior infections the first year after becoming at risk again, and then approached the hazard in herds without known prior infections 2-3 years after becoming test-negative. This showed that herds with prior

  17. Breed Composition of the United States Dairy Cattle Herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breed composition of the gene pool of all cows (purebred and crossbred) with pedigree data in the USDA national dairy database was summarized by birth year of cow. Partial breed contributions were assigned for individual cows. For cows born in 2005, 1.1% of all genes and 35.1% of genes in crossbreds...

  18. An observational study of Corynebacterium bovis in selected Ontario dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, B W; Barnum, D A; Meek, A H

    1983-01-01

    An observational study of Corynebacterium bovis was conducted in 74 Ontario dairy herds. The levels of infection with C. bovis were 19.9, 36.2 and 85.6% at the quarter, cow and herd level, respectively. Teat disinfection was found to be the variable best able to distinguish between herds with a high or low C. bovis quarter infection rate. Mean total milk somatic cell counts for 1103 quarters and 107 cows infected with only C. bovis ranged between 150,000 and 200,000/mL and were significantly higher than for uninfected quarters or cows. The rate of infection with mastitis pathogens was not significantly different in quarters previously colonized with only C. bovis compared to previously uninfected quarters. PMID:6831308

  19. Seroprevalence of leptospiral infection in feline population in urban and dairy cattle herds in Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Talebkhan Garoussi, Massoud; Mehravaran, Mohsen; Abdollahpour, Gholamreza; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2015-01-01

    The importance of cats in the Leptospira epidemiology is due to the possibility of transferring leptospirosis to wild and domesticated animals. The purpose of this survey was to determine the prevalence of Leptospira infection in shorthair cats in different location of Mashhad, Iran. Totally, 147 blood samples were taken from 42 (28.57%), 52 (35.37%) and 53 (36.05%) households, stray and cats which lived in industrial dairy cattle herds of Mashhad, Iran, respectively. Sera were tested with seven live Leptospira antigens using microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Sera with 50.00% agglutination at the dilution of ≥ 1/100 were considered as positive samples. Agglutination at dilutions of < 1/100 considered as suspected to Leptospira infection. Overall, 19 (12.92%) out of 147 cats showed reaction in MAT. The seroprevalence at a titer ≥ 1:100 and < 1:100 were 10 (6.80%) and 9 (6.12%), respectively. Serum samples showed positive reaction against Leptospira intterogans hardjo (no = 10; 52.63%), pomona (no = 5; 26.31%) and icterohaemorrhagiae (no = 4; 21.05%). Eight cats (42.10%) belong to dairy cattle herds had the most infection only by L. I. hardjo with 1:200 titer. There were no significant differences among the weight‚ age and sex of infected cats. However, there were significant differences between the infected cats in dairy cattle herds and the cats in the urban area (p < 0.05). It is concluded that cats can be infected by Leptospira spp. especially in commercial dairy cattle herds. Cats can be considered as a sanitation hazards in the area for this zoonotic disease. PMID:26973765

  20. Herd prevalence and incidence of Streptococcus agalactiae in the dairy industry of Prince Edward Island.

    PubMed

    Keefe, G P; Dohoo, I R; Spangler, E

    1997-03-01

    Herd prevalence and incidence of mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae was determined for dairy cattle on Prince Edward Island during December 1992 and June 1994. For each census, bulk tank milk samples from all dairy herds (n = 452) in the province were tested on two occasions, and the results were interpreted in parallel. The combined sensitivity of the testing protocol was estimated to be 91%. The confirmatory latex agglutination test had previously reported specificities approaching 100%. Therefore, the estimated specificity of the testing protocol was assumed to be 100%. The apparent prevalence of S. agalactiae in December 1992 and in June 1994 was 17.7 and 13.1%, respectively. Based on the characteristics of the test, the estimated true prevalence was 18.9% in December 1992 and 14.4% in June 1994. Infection with S. agalactiae was associated with elevated bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC) and elevated standard plate counts. Economic losses associated with S. agalactiae were attributed to production losses (associated with bulk tank SCC), milk quality penalties (associated with bulk tank SCC and standard plate count), and decreases in milk quality (associated with bulk tank SCC). For herds that had been negative for S. agalactiae in December 1992, evaluation in June 1994 yielded an incidence of new infections of 3.51 per 100 herds per year. PMID:9098795

  1. Epidemiology and impact of Fasciola hepatica exposure in high-yielding dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Alison; Baylis, Matthew; Smith, Rob; Pinchbeck, Gina; Williams, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution and is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of exposure to F. hepatica in a group of high yielding dairy herds, to determine the risk factors and investigate their associations with production and fertility parameters. Bulk milk tank samples from 606 herds that supply a single retailer with liquid milk were tested with an antibody ELISA for F. hepatica. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the effect of farm management and environmental risk factors on F. hepatica exposure. Higher rainfall, grazing boggy pasture, presence of beef cattle on farm, access to a stream or pond and smaller herd size were associated with an increased risk of exposure. Univariable regression was used to look for associations between fluke exposure and production-related variables including milk yield, composition, somatic cell count and calving index. Although causation cannot be assumed, a significant (p < 0.001) negative association was seen between F. hepatica exposure and estimated milk yield at the herd level, representing a 15% decrease in yield for an increase in F. hepatica exposure from the 25th to the 75th percentile. This remained significant when fertility, farm management and environmental factors were controlled for. No associations were found between F. hepatica exposure and any of the other production, disease or fertility variables. PMID:26093971

  2. Epidemiology and impact of Fasciola hepatica exposure in high-yielding dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Howell, Alison; Baylis, Matthew; Smith, Rob; Pinchbeck, Gina; Williams, Diana

    2015-09-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution and is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of exposure to F. hepatica in a group of high yielding dairy herds, to determine the risk factors and investigate their associations with production and fertility parameters. Bulk milk tank samples from 606 herds that supply a single retailer with liquid milk were tested with an antibody ELISA for F. hepatica. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the effect of farm management and environmental risk factors on F. hepatica exposure. Higher rainfall, grazing boggy pasture, presence of beef cattle on farm, access to a stream or pond and smaller herd size were associated with an increased risk of exposure. Univariable regression was used to look for associations between fluke exposure and production-related variables including milk yield, composition, somatic cell count and calving index. Although causation cannot be assumed, a significant (p<0.001) negative association was seen between F. hepatica exposure and estimated milk yield at the herd level, representing a 15% decrease in yield for an increase in F. hepatica exposure from the 25th to the 75th percentile. This remained significant when fertility, farm management and environmental factors were controlled for. No associations were found between F. hepatica exposure and any of the other production, disease or fertility variables. PMID:26093971

  3. Annual incidence, prevalence and transmission characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Mweu, Marshal M; Nielsen, Søren S; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2012-10-01

    Contagious mastitis pathogens continue to pose an economic threat to the dairy industry. An understanding of their frequency and transmission dynamics is central to evaluating the effectiveness of control programmes. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to estimate the annual herd-level incidence rates and apparent prevalences of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in the population of Danish dairy cattle herds over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 inclusive and (2) to estimate the herd-level entry and exit rates (demographic parameters), the transmission parameter, β, and recovery rate for S. agalactiae infection. Data covering the specified period, on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected annually as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme, were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database and subsequently analysed. There was an increasing trend in both the incidence and prevalence of S. agalactiae over the study period. Per 100 herd-years the value of β was 54.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.0-63.7); entry rate 0.3 (95% CI 0.2-0.4); infection-related exit rate 7.1 (95% CI 5.6-8.9); non-infection related exit rate 9.2 (95% CI 7.4-11.5) and recovery rate 40.0 (95% CI 36.8-43.5). This study demonstrates a need to tighten the current controls against S. agalactiae in order to lower its incidence. PMID:22560559

  4. Benchmarking dairy herd health status using routinely recorded herd summary data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to non-genetic factors, such as th...

  5. [Importance of herd management in loose housing systems in the social behavior of dairy cows].

    PubMed

    Menke, C; Waiblinger, S; Fölsch, D W

    2000-07-01

    In five loose housed dairy herds three different kinds of herd management were tested in two variants with respect to frequencies of agonistic social behaviour. Treatments were (1) a short (0.5 h) and a long (3 h) fixation time in the feeding rack, (2) single and group (3 animals) introduction of new heifers into the herd and (3) an open and a closed outdoor yard during nighttime. The investigated agonistic behaviour patterns were: pushing and chasing. The herds were observed in the evening after milking during one four-hour period starting one hour after opening the feeding rack when testing treatment (3) and immediately after opening the feeding rack when testing treatment (1) and (2). Statistical analysis were carried out with the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test for matched samples. Effects of fixation time differed inconsistently and were not significant. In 3 out of 5 farms the frequency of agonistic behaviour was lower, when cows were restrained 3 h in the feeding rack compared to 0.5 h. In two of these 3 herds, the animals had the possibility to drink water from bowls directly at the feeding rack, in the third herd the food was silage which has a higher water content. Therefore in these herds, the agonistic interactions at the drinking facility in the stable after opening the feeding rack was low. Contrary, in the two other herds, with dry feed (hay) and no drinking bowls at the feeding rack, frequency of agonistic behaviour was higher after the long restraint which might be due to higher competition at the drinking facilities. Agonistic interactions per cow as well as per new introduced heifer were lower (p < or = 0.05) when only a single heifer was introduced to the herd compared to the introduction of a group of 3 heifers. The frequency of agonistic social behaviour of horned dairy cows that had access to a yard at night was significantly lower compared to the situation when the yard was closed over night (p < or = 0.05). This may be due to the higher space

  6. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE DYNAMICS OF SALMONELLA CERRO INFECTION IN A U.S. DAIRY HERD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a mathematical model of the transmission dynamics of Salmonella to describe an outbreak of S. Cerro infection that occurred in a Pennsylvania dairy herd. The data were collected as part of a cooperative research project between the Regional Dairy Quality Management Alliance and the Agri...

  7. Risk factors for Coxiella burnetii antibodies in bulk tank milk from Danish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Agger, Jens Frederik; Paul, Suman; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to identify risk factors associated with Coxiella burnetii antibody positivity in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from 100 randomly selected Danish dairy cattle herds. Antibody levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Before testing the herds, the farm managers were interviewed about hired labour, biosecurity, housing and herd health during the 12 months prior to the study. Variables considered important for C. burnetii antibody positivity in multivariable logistic regression analysis included the sharing of machines between farms (OR = 3.6), human contacts (OR = 4.2), artificial insemination by other people than artificial insemination technicians (OR = 7.7), routine herd health contract with the veterinarian (OR = 4.3) and hygiene precautions taken by veterinarians (OR = 5). In addition, herd size, hired labour, trading of cattle between farms, quarantine and use of calving and disease pens also showed significant association in univariable analysis. This study demonstrates that strict biosecurity is important for the prevention of infections with C. burnetii. PMID:24228845

  8. Relationship between periparturient management, prevalence of MAP and preventable economic losses in UK dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Radia, D; Bond, K; Limon, G; van Winden, S; Guitian, J

    2013-10-12

    Johne's disease (JD) is an infectious, progressive, gastrointestinal disease affecting ruminants. Calves are mostly infected in their first six months of life, or in utero. We investigated the impact of specific periparturient management practices on within-herd JD prevalence and economic losses foregone in UK dairy herds by means of data synthesis (systematic appraisal of published evidence and expert elicitation) and use of a pre-existing simulation model. Our results show the scarcity of accurate estimates of the impact of specific periparturient management practices on within-herd JD prevalence, which could, in part, be explained by challenges associated with the chronic nature of JD. Management practices aiming to limit the faecal-oral transmission route of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) were found to be most effective at reducing within-herd prevalence of JD. Practices aiming to limit MAP transmission via colostrum and milk were found to be less effective. Losses foregone for a hypothetical herd of 200 milking cows were considerable; based on the assumptions, it is reasonable to expect between £7000 and £11,000 of losses foregone when management practices are implemented as a package of measures. The findings of this study are envisaged to enable farmers and veterinarians to make more informed decisions on changes to periparturient management to control JD. PMID:23897995

  9. Evaluation of pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Jafari Dehkordi, A; Shahbazkia, HR; Ronagh, N

    2011-01-01

    Background and objectives Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR. Materials and Methods Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood) were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extracted and purified from the plasma and urine samples and concentrated on diatoms in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN). PCR products were detected and identified as Leptospira by ilumination of the expected size of DNA bands after staining of the agarose gel with ethidium bromide gels. PCR products were purified and sequenced. Results The results showed that 28% of urine samples and 23% of plasma samples were contaminated. The major serotypes were Icterohaemorrhagiae (50%) and Pomona (37.5%). The urine samples of 17 cows were positive for Leptospira without positive plasma samples. This indicated that these cows are reservoirs in dairy herds of Shahrekord and dangerous for human health. The plasma samples of twelve cows were positive for Leptospira without positive urine samples. Conclusions Leptospira serotypes can be maintained in relatively dry regions and must be considered when dealing with leptospirosis in dairy farms of Shahrekord and human health. PMID:22347596

  10. Factors associated with variation in bulk tank milk Mycoplasma bovis antibody-ELISA results in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Mette B; Krogh, Kaspar; Nielsen, Liza R

    2016-05-01

    The relevance and limitations for using measurements of antibodies against Mycoplasma bovis in bulk tank milk (BTM) as a potentially cost-effective diagnostic tool for herd classification has not been evaluated before. Assuming that an increasing or high seroprevalence is a result of on-going or recent spread of M. bovis in a dairy herd, we tested the hypothesis that increasing prevalence of antibody-positive cows and young stock are associated with increasing BTM antibody ELISA values against M. bovis in Danish dairy herds with different courses of M. bovis infection. Furthermore, we tested whether herd size was associated with variations in the BTM responses. Thirty-nine Danish dairy herds selected to represent 4 different herd-level infection groups [8 control herds, 14 acute outbreak herds, 7 herds with previous outbreaks, and 10 herds with elevated BTM ELISA-values directed against M. bovis (>64% optical density measurement)] were visited 4 to 5 times, approximately 3mo apart. At each visit, 65 young stock were blood sampled. At the milk recording date closest to the herd visit date, 50 milk recording samples from individual lactating cows were randomly selected. In addition, a BTM sample was collected as a representative sample directly from the bulk tank by the dairies' milk truck drivers as part of the mandatory milk quality-control scheme. Blood and milk samples were tested for antibodies against M. bovis with a commercially available ELISA test (Bio-X BIO K 302, Bio-X Diagnostics, Rochefort, Belgium). A linear mixed effects model was used to analyze the effects of the prevalence of antibody-positive lactating cows and young stock and herd size on the BTM M. bovis ELISA results. Herd was included as a random effect to account for clustering of BTM samples originating from the same herd. Increasing prevalence of antibody-positive lactating cows was the only variable associated with increasing M. bovis BTM ELISA optical density measurement. In contrast, the

  11. Epidemiologic study on Besnoitia besnoiti infection in dairy herds in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Al-Majali, Ahmad M; Ababneh, Mohammad M; Abutarbush, Sameeh M

    2015-07-01

    Besnoitia besnoiti is an apicomplexan parasite and the causative agent of bovine besnoitiosis which is considered as a re-emergent disease in Europe. A cross-sectional serological study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with B. besnoiti infection in 68 dairy herds (n = 806 cows) in Jordan during the period from January to June 2007 and the spring of 2014. Data regarding herd's management was obtained by filling questionnaires through personal interviews with farmers. An indirect ELISA test was used to detect antibodies against B. besnoiti. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity to B. besnoiti. At the individual cow and herd level, the true prevalence of seropositive animals was 6 and 28.7 %, respectively. Cows between 2 and 6 years of age had significantly higher seroprevalence of B. besnoiti than other age groups. The highest seroprevalence of B. besnoiti was found in Zarqa and Irbid governorates. Multivariable logistic regression model identified that exchanging visits by farm workers to neighboring farms as a risk factor for seropositivity to B. besnoiti, while smaller herd size and twice a day farm cleaning using sweeping and water hosing were identified as protective factors. This is the first study that investigated the seroprevalence of B. besnoiti infection in dairy herds in Jordan. Further studies are warranted to explore the clinical manifestation of B. besnoiti infection as well as to identify the possible presence of other Besnoitia species and definitive hosts for the parasite. PMID:25843571

  12. [Lactational incidences of common diseases in dairy herds in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany): effect of first test-day milk yield, herd milk yield and number of lactation].

    PubMed

    Gundling, Natascha; Ruddat, Inga; Prien, Kristin; Hellerich, Birte; Hoedemaker, Martina

    2015-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to record common diseases in dairy cows in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, and to describe associations between lactation number (LN: 1, 2, > 2), first test-day milk yield (TD1: < 30 kg, ≥ 30 kg) and herd milk yield (HM: ≤ 7500 kg, > 7500 kg), the latter parameter serving as a proxy for herd management (extensive vs. intensive). Data of 98 dairy herds (6439 lactations) were processed on cow level using mixed logistic regression models with LN< TD1, HM and calving season as fixed effects and herd as random effect. Lactational incidences were as follows: hypocalcaemia (5.0%), dystocia (13.2%), retained placental membranes (7.2%), clinical metritis/endometritis (4.9%), clinical mastitis (15.3%), subclinical mastitis (61.9%), ketosis (1.6%), displaced abomasum (0.4%), lameness (15.4%). Number of lactation (2, > 2 vs. 1) was a risk factor for hypocalcaemia (OR 3.715, 23.047), retained placental membranes (OR 1.764, 2.479), clinical mastitis (> 2 vs. 1 OR 2.118), subclinical mastitis (OR 1.668,4.397), ketosis (> 2 vs. 1 OR 3.936) and lameness (OR 1.275, 2.070). Older cows had a lower risk for dystocia (OR 0.373, 0.357). TD1 (≥ 30 kg) was not a risk factor of disease except for subclinical mastitis in first parity animals (OR 1.319). Herd milk yield (> 7500 kg) was a risk factor for clinical metritis/endometritis (OR 1.971), displaced abomasum (OR 7.764), lameness (OR 1.618) and hypocalcaemia (cows with high TD1 [OR 2.273]). In conclusion, not individual milk yield, but herd milk yield as an indicator of differences in intensity of herd management as well as number of lactation seemed to influence the frequency of common diseases in dairy cows. PMID:26054229

  13. Genotype-specific risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus in Swiss dairy herds with an elevated yield-corrected herd somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Berchtold, B; Bodmer, M; van den Borne, B H P; Reist, M; Graber, H U; Steiner, A; Boss, R; Wohlfender, F

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a frequent problem in Swiss dairy herds. One of the main pathogens causing significant economic loss is Staphylococcus aureus. Various Staph. aureus genotypes with different biological properties have been described. Genotype B (GTB) of Staph. aureus was identified as the most contagious and one of the most prevalent strains in Switzerland. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with the herd-level presence of Staph. aureus GTB and Staph. aureus non-GTB in Swiss dairy herds with an elevated yield-corrected herd somatic cell count (YCHSCC). One hundred dairy herds with a mean YCHSCC between 200,000 and 300,000cells/mL in 2010 were recruited and each farm was visited once during milking. A standardized protocol investigating demography, mastitis management, cow husbandry, milking system, and milking routine was completed during the visit. A bulk tank milk (BTM) sample was analyzed by real-time PCR for the presence of Staph. aureus GTB to classify the herds into 2 groups: Staph. aureus GTB-positive and Staph. aureus GTB-negative. Moreover, quarter milk samples were aseptically collected for bacteriological culture from cows with a somatic cell count ≥150,000cells/mL on the last test-day before the visit. The culture results allowed us to allocate the Staph. aureus GTB-negative farms to Staph. aureus non-GTB and Staph. aureus-free groups. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression models were built to identify risk factors associated with the herd-level presence of Staph. aureus GTB and Staph. aureus non-GTB. The prevalence of Staph. aureus GTB herds was 16% (n=16), whereas that of Staph. aureus non-GTB herds was 38% (n=38). Herds that sent lactating cows to seasonal communal pastures had significantly higher odds of being infected with Staph. aureus GTB (odds ratio: 10.2, 95% CI: 1.9-56.6), compared with herds without communal pasturing. Herds that purchased heifers had significantly higher odds of being infected with

  14. Treatments of clinical mastitis occurring in cows on 51 large dairy herds in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, L; Ruegg, P L

    2014-09-01

    Antimicrobials are frequently used for treatment of bovine mastitis and few studies have examined modern treatment strategies on large US dairy farms. The objective of this study was to describe treatment practices for clinical mastitis occurring in cows on large dairy herds in Wisconsin. Treatments performed on 747 cows experiencing cases of mild, moderate, or severe symptoms of clinical mastitis were recorded on 51 Wisconsin dairy farms. Duplicate milk samples were collected from the affected quarter for microbiological analysis at the onset of clinical mastitis and 14 to 21 d after treatment ended. Cows were treated according to individual farm protocol. Drugs and doses used for treatments were recorded for each case. Among all herds, 5 intramammary (IMM) antimicrobials (amoxicillin, hetacillin, pirlimycin, ceftiofur, and cephapirin) were used to treat cows for clinical mastitis. Of 712 cows with complete treatment data, 71.6% were treated with IMM ceftiofur either solely or combined with other antimicrobials (administered either IMM or systemically). Of cows experiencing severe symptoms of clinical mastitis, 43.8% received IMM treatment concurrent with systemic antimicrobials. Of all cows treated, 23.1% received an additional secondary treatment (either IMM, systemic, or both) because of perceived lack of response to the initial treatment. The majority of IMM treatments were administered to cows with a microbiological diagnosis of no growth (34.9%) or Escherichia coli (27.2%). Half of the cows experiencing cases caused by E. coli were treated using systemic antimicrobials in contrast to only 6.8% of cows experiencing cases caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. In conflict with FDA regulations, which do not allow extra-label treatments using sulfonamides, a total of 22 cows from 8 farms were treated with systemic sulfadimethoxine either solely or in combination with oxytetracycline. Antimicrobial drugs were used on all herds and many cows received extra

  15. The economic effects of whole-herd versus selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Charlier, J; Levecke, B; Devleesschauwer, B; Vercruysse, J; Hogeveen, H

    2012-06-01

    Current control practices against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cows rely strongly on anthelmintic use. To reduce the development of anthelmintic resistance or disposition of drug residues in the environment, novel control approaches are currently proposed that target anthelmintic treatment to individual animals instead of the whole herd. However, such selective treatment strategies come with additional costs for labor and diagnostics and, so far, no studies have addressed whether they could be economically sustainable. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the economic effects at farm level of whole-herd versus more selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in adult dairy cows, and (2) determine how these economic effects depend on level of infection and herd size. A Monte Carlo simulation, fed by current epidemiological and economical knowledge, was used to estimate the expected economic effects and possible variation of different control strategies under Belgian conditions. Four treatment strategies were compared with a baseline situation in which no treatments were applied: whole herd at calving (S1), selective at calving with (S2) or without (S3) treatment of the first-calf cows, and whole-herd when animals are moved from grazing to the barn in the fall (housing treatment, S4). The benefit per lactation for an average dairy herd varied between -$2 and $131 (average $64) for S1, between -$2 and $127 (average $62) for S2, between -$17 and $104 (average $43) for S3, and between -$41 and $72 (average $15) for S4. The farmer's risk associated with any treatment strategy, as indicated by the width of the 95% credible intervals of economic benefit of anthelmintic treatment, decreased with increasing level of exposure, as assessed by bulk tank milk ELISA. The order of the different strategies when sorted by expected benefit was robust to changes in economic input parameters. We conclude that, on average, strategies applying anthelmintic

  16. Short communication: isolation of Prototheca species strains from environmental sources in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Scaccabarozzi, L; Turchetti, B; Buzzini, P; Pisoni, G; Bertocchi, L; Arrigoni, N; Boettcher, P; Bronzo, V; Moroni, P

    2008-09-01

    Composite milk samples from 548 cows, and samples from feces, feed, bedding, water, liners (before and after milking), and the postdipping product were aseptically collected from 2 Italian dairy herds from February to November of 2006. Prototheca zopfii was isolated from 11.9% of milk samples, 15% of feces, and 33.3% of bedding samples. No viable cells of P. zopfii were observed in water before washing procedures, whereas 25 to 28.6% of samples from water used for washing both refrigeration tanks and milking equipment were contaminated with this yeast-like microalga. Analogously, the presence of P. zopfii was detected only on swabs collected from the liners after milking. Interestingly, in 1 of the 2 herds, water from the drinking trough was contaminated by viable cells of both P. zopfii and the related environmental species Prototheca stagnora. No viable cells were observed in cow feed. On the basis of the results presented herein, P. zopfii seemed to be widespread throughout the environments of dairy herds where outbreaks of bovine mastitis had occurred. PMID:18765606

  17. Efficiency of dairy farms participating and not participating in veterinary herd health management programs.

    PubMed

    Derks, Marjolein; Hogeveen, Henk; Kooistra, Sake R; van Werven, Tine; Tauer, Loren W

    2014-12-01

    This paper compares farm efficiencies between dairies who were participating in a veterinary herd health management (VHHM) program with dairies not participating in such a program, to determine whether participation has an association with farm efficiency. In 2011, 572 dairy farmers received a questionnaire concerning the participation and execution of a VHHM program on their farms. Data from the questionnaire were combined with farm accountancy data from 2008 through 2012 from farms that used calendar year accounting periods, and were analyzed using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). Two separate models were specified: model 1 was the basic stochastic frontier model (output: total revenue; input: feed costs, land costs, cattle costs, non-operational costs), without explanatory variables embedded into the efficiency component of the error term. Model 2 was an expansion of model 1 which included explanatory variables (number of FTE; total kg milk delivered; price of concentrate; milk per hectare; cows per FTE; nutritional yield per hectare) inserted into the efficiency component of the joint error term. Both models were estimated with the financial parameters expressed per 100 kg fat and protein corrected milk and per cow. Land costs, cattle costs, feed costs and non-operational costs were statistically significant and positive in all models (P<0.01). Frequency distributions of the efficiency scores for the VHHM dairies and the non-VHHM dairies were plotted in a kernel density plot, and differences were tested using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test. VHHM dairies had higher total revenue per cow, but not per 100 kg milk. For all SFA models, the difference in distribution was not statistically different between VHHM dairies and non-VHHM dairies (P values 0.94, 0.35, 0.95 and 0.89 for the basic and complete model per 100 kg fat and protein corrected milk and per cow respectively). Therefore we conclude that with our data farm participation in VHHM is not related

  18. Evaluation of milk yield losses associated with Salmonella antibodies in bulk tank milk in bovine dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T D; Green, L E; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2012-09-01

    The effect of Salmonella on milk production is not well established in cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate whether introduction of Salmonella into dairy cattle herds was associated with reduced milk yield and determine the duration of any such effect. Longitudinal data from 2005 through 2009 were used, with data from 12 mo before until 18 mo after the estimated date of infection. Twenty-eight case herds were selected based on an increase in the level of Salmonella-specific antibodies in bulk-tank milk from <10 corrected optical density percentage (ODC%) to ≥70 ODC% between 2 consecutive three-monthly measurements in the Danish Salmonella surveillance program. All selected case herds were conventional Danish Holstein herds. Control herds (n=40) were selected randomly from Danish Holstein herds with Salmonella antibody levels consistently <10 ODC%. A date of herd infection was randomly allocated to the control herds. Hierarchical mixed effect models with the outcome test-day yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM)/cow were used to investigate daily milk yield before and after the estimated herd infection date for cows in parities 1, 2, and 3+. Control herds were used to evaluate whether the effects in the case herds could be reproduced in herds without Salmonella infection. Herd size, days in milk, somatic cell count, season, and year were included in the models. Yield in first-parity cows was reduced by a mean of 1.4 kg (95% confidence interval: 0.5 to 2.3) of ECM/cow per day from 7 to 15 mo after the estimated herd infection date, compared with that of first-parity cows in the same herds in the 12 mo before the estimated herd infection date. Yield for parity 3+ cows was reduced by a mean of 3.0 kg (95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 4.8) of ECM/cow per day from 7 to 15 mo after herd infection compared with that of parity 3+ cows in the 12 mo before the estimated herd infection. We observed minor differences in yield in second-parity cows before and

  19. Stochastic modeling of imperfect Salmonella vaccines in an adult dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhao; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Smith, Rebecca L; Karns, Jeffrey S; Hovingh, Ernest; Schukken, Ynte H

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of bacterial foodborne disease. Human salmonellosis results in significant public health concerns and a considerable economic burden. Dairy cattle are recognized as a key source of several Salmonella serovars that are a threat to human health. To lower the risk of Salmonella infection, reduction of Salmonella prevalence in dairy cattle is important. Vaccination as a control measure has been applied for reduction of preharvest Salmonella prevalence on dairy farms. Salmonella vaccines are usually imperfect (i.e., vaccines may provide a partial protection for susceptible animals, reduce the infectiousness and shedding level, shorten the infectious period of infected animals, and/or curb the number of clinical cases), and evaluation of the potential impacts of imperfect Salmonella vaccines at the farm level is valuable to design effective intervention strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of imperfect Salmonella vaccines on the stochastic transmission dynamics in an adult dairy herd. To this end, we developed a semi-stochastic and individual-based continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) vaccination model with both direct and indirect transmission, and applied the CTMC vaccination model to Salmonella Cerro transmission in an adult dairy herd. Our results show that vaccines shortening the infectious period are most effective in reducing prevalence, and vaccines decreasing host susceptibility are most effective in reducing the outbreak size. Vaccines with multiple moderate efficacies may have the same effectiveness as vaccines with a single high efficacy in reducing prevalence, time to extinction, and outbreak size. Although the environment component has negligible contributions to the prevalence, time to extinction, and outbreak size for Salmonella Cerro in the herd, the relative importance of environment component was not assessed. This study indicates that an effective vaccination program against Salmonella Cerro

  20. Evaluation of a protocol to reduce the incidence of neonatal calf diarrhoea on dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Meganck, V; Hoflack, G; Piepers, S; Opsomer, G

    2015-01-01

    Calf diarrhoea causes substantial economic losses in cattle herds worldwide. Neonatal calves are particularly sensitive to infections with enteropathogens. The present study focused on prevention against the main infectious causes of neonatal calf diarrhoea i.e. Escherichia coli, rota- and coronavirus, and Cryptosporidium parvum. Dairy herds (n=24) with a high percentage of neonatal calves scouring (>10%) were included and calves were sampled for the presence of these four enteropathogens. To decrease diarrhoea problems among neonatal calves, a standard protocol was tested on 13 herds (treatment group) where both C. parvum and either E. coli or rota- or coronavirus were identified as being involved, the other 11 herds served as control group. The protocol consisted of 2 points of action: preventive vaccination of dams against E. coli, rota- and coronavirus, and preventive administration of halofuginone lactate to newborn calves. The average percentage of calves suffering from neonatal diarrhoea (39.7% versus 14.3%, P<0.01) and the average percentage of faecal samples positive for C. parvum (34% versus 11%, P<0.05) differed significantly between control herds and treatment herds after implementation of the protocol. No significant differences between control and treatment group were observed in the percentage of calves excreting E. coli, rotavirus and coronavirus, both before and at the end of the trial. Furthermore, risk factors potentially associated with the development of neonatal calf scours were determined. Non-significant results were obtained for the effect of the protocol on duration of diarrhoea and the effect of the colostral IgG quantity on the risk of diarrhoea. Passive immunity transfer status of the calves, measured both before the onset and at the end of the study, were non-significant between groups. PMID:25475689

  1. The effect of sire selection on cow mortality and early lactation culling in adverse and favorable cow survival environments.

    PubMed

    Dechow, C D; Goodling, R C; Rhode, S P

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the extent that genetic selection can help reduce dairy cow mortality and early lactation culling in adverse cow survival environments. Two datasets were constructed. The first contained 100,911 mortality records and 171,178 sixty-day culling records from 1467 herds. Cows that left the herd (culled or died) from 21 days prior to a due date through 60 days in milk were considered a 60-day cull. Cows were classified as belonging to herds with adverse cow survival environments (≥ 4.4% mortality rate and ≥ 7.1% 60-day cull rate) or favorable cow survival environments (<4.4% mortality rate and <7.1% 60-day cull rate). The second dataset included 20,438 mortality records and 34,942 sixty-day culling records from 314 herds with a known herd management system. Cows from both datasets were stratified into quartiles based on their sire's predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for productive life and other traits. Cows in the first dataset were also stratified into high (>50th percentile) and low (≤ 50th percentile) groups based on their sire's PTA for daughter calving ease and daughter stillbirth rates. Mortality and 60-day culling in the first dataset were evaluated with logistic regression models with the independent effects of sire PTA quartile, cow survival environment (adverse or favorable), the interaction of sire PTA quartile with cow survival environment, lactation number, age within lactation number, and herd-calving-cluster. The second dataset was analyzed in the same manner, but with cow survival environment replaced by herd management system. The estimated proportion of lactations that ended in death declined from 9.0% to 6.8% and 60-day culling incidence from 7.6% to 4.9% as sire productive life PTA went from the lowest to highest quartile in adverse cow survival environments. The corresponding reduction in mortality (0.7%) and 60-day culling (0.9%) were also significant in favorable cow survival environments

  2. Spatiotemporal patterns, annual baseline and movement-related incidence of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in Danish dairy herds: 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Mweu, Marshal M; Nielsen, Søren S; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2014-02-01

    Several decades after the inception of the five-point plan for the control of contagious mastitis pathogens, Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) persists as a fundamental threat to the dairy industry in many countries. A better understanding of the relative importance of within- and between-herd sources of new herd infections coupled with the spatiotemporal distribution of the infection, may aid in effective targeting of control efforts. Thus, the objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the spatiotemporal patterns of infection with S. agalactiae in the population of Danish dairy herds from 2000 to 2009 and (2) to estimate the annual herd-level baseline and movement-related incidence risks of S. agalactiae infection over the 10-year period. The analysis involved registry data on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme as well as live cattle movements into dairy herds during the specified 10-year period. The results indicated that the predicted risk of a herd becoming infected with S. agalactiae varied spatiotemporally; the risk being more homogeneous and higher in the period after 2005. Additionally, the annual baseline risks yielded significant yet distinctive patterns before and after 2005 - the risk of infection being higher in the latter phase. On the contrary, the annual movement-related risks revealed a non-significant pattern over the 10-year period. There was neither evidence for spatial clustering of cases relative to the population of herds at risk nor spatial dependency between herds. Nevertheless, the results signal a need to beef up within-herd biosecurity in order to reduce the risk of new herd infections. PMID:24269038

  3. Prevalence and herd-level risk factors for intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci in Dutch dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Sampimon, O C; Barkema, H W; Berends, I M G A; Sol, J; Lam, T J G M

    2009-02-16

    In this study, the prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) in The Netherlands was estimated on 49 randomly selected herds with at least 40 lactating cows. In total, 4220 quarter milk samples were collected. The prevalence of CNS IMI in The Netherlands was estimated at 10.8% at quarter level and 34.4% at cow level, making it the most frequently isolated group of pathogens. Fourteen species of CNS were identified; the most frequently isolated species was Staphylococcus chromogenes (30.3%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.9%) and Staphylococcus capitis (11.0%). Prevalence of CNS IMI was higher in heifers compared to older cows. Geometric mean quarter SCC of CNS-positive quarters was 109,000 cells/ml, which was approximately twice as high as culture-negative quarters. Quarters infected with S. chromogenes, S. capitis and Staphylococcus xylosus had a higher SCC (P<0.05) than culture-negative quarters, while quarters that were culture-positive for S. epidermidis and Staphylococcus hyicus tended to have a higher SCC than culture-negative quarters. An increased prevalence of CNS IMI was associated with the herd-level variables source of drinking water not being tap water, housing of dry cows in one group instead of multiple groups, measurement of cow SCC every month, udder health monitoring by the veterinarian, pasturing during outdoor season, percentage of stalls contaminated with milk, and BMSCC>250,000 cells/ml. Although a causal relation between these factors and prevalence of CNS is not proven and for some factors not even likely, knowledge of the associations found may be helpful when approaching CNS problems on dairy farms. PMID:18977613

  4. Longitudinal study of udder cleft dermatitis in 5 Dutch dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Bouma, A; Nielen, M; van Soest, E; Sietsma, S; van den Broek, J; Dijkstra, T; van Werven, T

    2016-06-01

    Udder cleft dermatitis (UCD) is a skin lesion in dairy cows, most often located between anterior parts of the udder and abdomen, but also found between the front quarters. A few recent studies have investigated the prevalence of UCD, but relatively little is known about its pathogenesis, clinical course, and duration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and recovery of UCD on high-prevalence herds. Five Dutch dairy herds with a UCD prevalence of at least 6% were visited weekly for 19 wk, followed by visits every other week for 26 wk. During each visit, all dry and lactating cows were inspected for the presence of UCD signs. If a UCD case was detected, the affected skin was photographed and the photo was subsequently examined by a research assistant. Cows were then classified according to the appearance of the skin into 3 categories: healthy (no photo: no signs), mild (photo: affected skin but no wound), or severe (photo: open wound). The overall mean within-herd prevalence of UCD was 38% and the overall mean incidence was 1.94 UCD episodes per 100 cow-weeks at risk. Incidence of UCD was significantly higher in cows in third or higher parity and significantly increased with DIM. Median observed duration of UCD was 16 wk. The UCD recovery was 3 times more likely for mild than for severe lesions. The probability of moving from one category to another between 2 consecutive visits was very low, indicating that rapid changes in appearance did not occur. The observed incidence of UCD was rather low, and the relatively high prevalence in the selected herds was most likely due to the long duration of lesions rather than a high incidence of new UCD cases. PMID:27016832

  5. A pathogen-specific approach towards udder health management in dairy herds: Using culture and somatic cell counts from routine herd investigations.

    PubMed

    Petzer, Inge-Marié; Karzis, Joanne; Donkin, Edward F; Webb, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    A dedicated udder health diagnostic programme was developed and used over a 15-year period in South Africa to analyse milk samples based on microbiological and cytological patterns within various groups and for individual cows and udder quarters in dairy herds. These pathogen-specific analyses are utilised for pro-active improvement and management of udder health in South African commercial dairy herds. The programme acts as a monitoring tool and identifies management areas at risk and individual cows with udder disease and uses both quarter and composite milk samples. Intra-mammary infection (IMI) is a dynamic situation and depending on the time a milk sample is taken, false-negative results may be obtained. A new IMI and an infection that is curing may both have low somatic cell counts (SCCs), masking the true bacterial status. SCC in individual infected udder quarters may differ greatly depending on the causative bacterial species, its pathogenicity, the host immune status and the environmental factors involved. A pathogen-specific udder health approach was followed with repeated herd tests to take account of these udder health dynamics. The results of the herd IMI investigation are applied in practice to assist veterinarians, udder health consultants and managers to make informed and specific detailed decisions at both a herd and on an individual cow basis regarding udder health. PMID:27608503

  6. A field study to determine the prevalence, dairy herd management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Berge, Anna C; Vertenten, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, major management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds. A total of 131 dairies were enrolled in Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom during 2011 to 2012. A milk-based test for ketones (Keto-Test; Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co. Ltd., Nagoya, Japan; distributed by Elanco Animal Health, Antwerp, Belgium) was used for screening cows between d 7 and 21 after calving and ketosis was defined as a Keto-Test ≥100µmol/L. Study cows were observed for clinical disease up to 35d postcalving. Multivariate analysis (generalized estimating equation logistic regression) was performed to determine country, farm, management, feed, and cow factors associated with ketosis and to determine associations between ketosis and fresh cow diseases. Thirty-nine percent of the cows were classified as having ketosis. The herd average of ketosis was 43% in Germany, 53% in France, 31% in Italy, 46% in the Netherlands, and 31% in the United Kingdom. Of the 131 farms, 112 (85%) had 25% or more of their fresh cows resulting as positive for ketosis. Clinical ketosis was not reported in most farms and the highest level of clinical ketosis reported was 23%. The risks of ketosis were significantly lower in Italy and the United Kingdom compared with France, the Netherlands, and Germany. Larger herd size was associated with a decreased risk of ketosis. The farms that fed partially mixed rations had 1.5 times higher odds of ketosis than those that fed total mixed rations. Cows that calved in April to June had the highest odds of ketosis, with about twice as high odds compared with cows that calved in July to September. The cows that calved in January to March tended to have 1.5 times higher risk of ketosis compared with cows that calved in July to September. The odds of ketosis in parity 2 and parity 3 to 7 was significantly higher (1.5 and 2.8 times higher

  7. The Application of Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Counts to Monitoring Mastitis Levels in Dairy Herds

    PubMed Central

    Meek, A.H.; Barnum, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of developing a system whereby measurements taken on bulk tank milk samples could be used to monitor the level of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. The variables that were examined were the logarithmically transformed total somatic cell counts and percentages of cell volume in channel 8 (volumes from 89.2 to 178.3 µm3), the presence or absence of Streptococcus agalactiae and various husbandry/management factors including herdsize and the use of teat dips. Each of the use of actual monthly and rolling average bulk tank cell count determinations was investigated. It was found that the inclusion of all variables resulted in a correct classification of approximately 85% of herds and that no improvement was achieved by the use of rolling as opposed to actual monthly values. The inclusion of various husbandry/management practices improved the percentage correct classification to some extent over that achieved by the sole use of total somatic cell counts and percentages of cell volume in channel 8 when the herds were grouped on the basis of quarter infection rate (<10%, >10%) but not in the case of the cow infection rate categories (<20%, >20%). The use of both total cell counts and percentages of cell volume in channel 8 did not improve the overall predictive value over that achieved by the sole use of percentage of cell volume in channel 8 in the case of the quarter infection rate groupings but did to some extent in the case of the cow infection rate groupings. When the classification functions were applied prospectively and considering combinations of the two cell count determinations only, it was found that they were able to correctly classify, on the basis of the quarter infection rate groupings, approximately 75% of the study herds. It is concluded that the system described herein has limited application as a basis for selecting problem herds. PMID:7042053

  8. A case-control study to identify risk factors for acute salmonellosis in New Zealand dairy herds, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, M A; Morgan, P L; Sanhueza, J; Oakley, G E; Bateman, R S; McFADDEN, A; MacPHERSON, N; Owen, K L; Burton, L; Walsh, S; Weston, J; Marchant, R

    2016-07-01

    In late 2011 the New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries reported an increase in confirmed laboratory diagnoses of salmonellosis in dairy herds. To identify risk factors for herd-level outbreaks of salmonellosis we conducted a case-control study of New Zealand dairy herds in 2011-2012. In a multivariable analysis, use of continuous feed troughs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6·2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·0-20], use of pelletized magnesium supplements (aOR 10, 95% CI 3·3-33) and use of palm kernel meal as a supplementary feed (aOR 8·7, 95% CI 2·5-30) were positively associated with a herd-level outbreak of salmonellosis between 1 July 2011 and 31 January 2012. We conclude that supplementary feeds used on dairy farms (regardless of type) need to be stored and handled appropriately to reduce the likelihood of bacterial contamination, particularly from birds and rodents. Magnesium supplementation in the pelletized form played a role in triggering outbreaks of acute salmonellosis in New Zealand dairy herds in 2011-2012. PMID:26956947

  9. Prevalence and seasonality of bulk milk antibodies against Dictyocaulus viviparus and Ostertagia ostertagi in Irish pasture-based dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Bloemhoff, Yris; Forbes, Andrew; Good, Barbara; Morgan, Eric; Mulcahy, Grace; Strube, Christina; Sayers, Ríona

    2015-04-15

    Infections with Dictyocaulus viviparus and Ostertagia ostertagi nematode parasites are of importance to bovine health and production in temperate areas across the world. Losses due to these parasites in dairy herds can be considerable due to decreased milk productivity and fertility. However, information on current epidemiological patterns in Irish dairy herds is limited. Bulk milk samples were collected from a total of 319 dairy farms across the Republic of Ireland. The D. viviparus samples were tested with an ELISA based on recombinant major sperm protein, while the O. ostertagi samples were tested with an ELISA based on crude saline extract, whole worm O. ostertagi antigen. Management data were collected from the farms using a questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to find significant associations between the presence of antibodies against D. viviparus and O. ostertagi and management factors. The overall prevalence of D. viviparus infection was 62.8%, while over 98% of herds had antibodies to O. ostertagi at the specified cut-off. Both D. viviparus and O. ostertagi antibodies were highest in November, which could be explained by the accumulated uptake of larvae through the grazing season. In herds of farmers that dosed their in-calf heifers with anthelmintics were significantly more likely to be positive for antibodies against D. viviparus infection. This study highlights that both D. viviparus and O. ostertagi infections are widespread in dairy herds in Ireland throughout the grazing season. PMID:25709092

  10. Bayesian estimation of prevalence of paratuberculosis in dairy herds enrolled in a voluntary Johne's Disease Control Programme in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McAloon, Conor G; Doherty, Michael L; Whyte, Paul; O'Grady, Luke; More, Simon J; Messam, Locksley L McV; Good, Margaret; Mullowney, Peter; Strain, Sam; Green, Martin J

    2016-06-01

    Bovine paratuberculosis is a disease characterised by chronic granulomatous enteritis which manifests clinically as a protein-losing enteropathy causing diarrhoea, hypoproteinaemia, emaciation and, eventually death. Some evidence exists to suggest a possible zoonotic link and a national voluntary Johne's Disease Control Programme was initiated by Animal Health Ireland in 2013. The objective of this study was to estimate herd-level true prevalence (HTP) and animal-level true prevalence (ATP) of paratuberculosis in Irish herds enrolled in the national voluntary JD control programme during 2013-14. Two datasets were used in this study. The first dataset had been collected in Ireland during 2005 (5822 animals from 119 herds), and was used to construct model priors. Model priors were updated with a primary (2013-14) dataset which included test records from 99,101 animals in 1039 dairy herds and was generated as part of the national voluntary JD control programme. The posterior estimate of HTP from the final Bayesian model was 0.23-0.34 with a 95% probability. Across all herds, the median ATP was found to be 0.032 (0.009, 0.145). This study represents the first use of Bayesian methodology to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in Irish dairy herds. The HTP estimate was higher than previous Irish estimates but still lower than estimates from other major dairy producing countries. PMID:27237395

  11. Predictive values of serum and bulk milk sampling for the presence of persistently infected BVDV carriers in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, G; Schoustra, W; Graat, E A M

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether it is possible to predict the presence of persistently infected (PI) animals with bovine viral diarrhoea virus on dairy farms in The Netherlands, based on a few blood samples of the herd, possibly in combination with a bulk milk test for antibodies. In 25 herds with, and 24 herds without, PI animal(s) the probabilities of obtaining at least x antibody positive animals out of a sample of n animals were calculated, with n varying from 3 to 7 and values for x that were considered were n, n - 1 to n - x. This probability, among animals 9-24 months old, ranged from 0.70 to 0.96 for herds with PI animals and from 0.13 to 0.37 for herds without. Using the result of bulk milk testing in addition did not add to the prediction. It was concluded that, due to the high percentage and large variation of antibody positive animals in herds without PI animals, it is not possible to predict the presence of PI animal(s) in dairy herds in The Netherlands using these methods. PMID:12002642

  12. Pre-Calving and Calving Management Practices in Dairy Herds with a History of High or Low Bovine Perinatal Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Mee, John F.; Grant, Jim; Sánchez-Miguel, Cosme; Doherty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Mortality of full-term calves at calving is an increasing problem in dairy industries internationally. Multiple herd management factors contribute to such losses. This case-control study identified factors which differed between herds with high and low calf mortality. These included breeding, dietary, health and calving factors. It was concluded that calving, not pre-calving, management appears to be the most important area of concern in herds with high perinatal mortality. This indicates that farmers and their veterinarians need to focus on calving management when investigating such problems and when attempting to reduce losses in herds with high rates of bovine perinatal mortality. Abstract Bovine perinatal mortality is an increasing problem in dairy industries internationally. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with high and low herd-level calf mortality. Thirty herds with a history of either high (case) or low (control) calf mortality were recruited. A herd-level questionnaire was used to gather information on management practices likely to impact bovine perinatal mortality. The questionnaire was divided into four subsections dealing with pre-calving (breeding, diet and body condition score, endemic infectious diseases) and calving factors. Most of the significant differences between case and control herds were found in calving management. For example, in case herds, pregnant cattle were less likely to be moved to the calving unit two or more days and more likely to be moved less than 12 hours pre-calving, they were also less likely to calve in group-calving facilities and their calves were more likely to receive intranasal or hypothermal resuscitation. These management procedures may cause social isolation and periparturient psychogenic uterine atony leading to dystocia, more weak calves requiring resuscitation and high perinatal calf mortality. The key finding is that calving, not pre-calving, management

  13. Evaluation of a contract breeding management program in Ohio dairy herds: test day summary and economic measures.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Cheyney; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J; Frazer, Grant S; Meiring, Richard W; Hoblet, Kent H

    2008-03-01

    A field study was conducted to assess the impact of a contract breeding program that was offered by a breeding co-operative and featured tail chalking and daily evaluation of cows for insemination by co-operative technicians; dairy employees no longer handled estrous detection and insemination activities. From early 2002 until mid-2004, herd-level test day summary records related to production and reproduction were obtained for 32 herds identified as well-managed client herds of the breeding co-operative. Using analyses that controlled for other predictors and random herd-level effects, average days to first service were less by 13 days (P=0.0037) and estrous detection rate was greater by 12% (P=0.0011) for program than for non-program herds. Although first service conception rate was slightly less and the program herds used 0.34 more services per conception (P=0.1488) than non-program herds, the program herds averaged 16 fewer days before pregnancy (P=0.028). Test day summary information and representative estimates of feed, milk, and semen prices were used in a spreadsheet-based model to estimate a partial budget annuity value for an average cow in each herd on each test day. Value of an average cow from a contract herd did not significantly differ from a non-contract herd, even though the analyses suggested an economic benefit for the program herds; the modeling did not, however, account for costs of the program implementation. Additional analyses did not find any significant associations between technician and on days to first service, first service conception rate, estrous detection rate, services per conception, or days open. PMID:17391874

  14. Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis

    PubMed Central

    Stengärde, Lena; Tråvén, Madeleine; Emanuelson, Ulf; Holtenius, Kjell; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni

    2008-01-01

    Background Body condition score and blood profiles have been used to monitor management and herd health in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to examine BCS and extended metabolic profiles, reflecting both energy metabolism and liver status around calving in high-producing herds with a high incidence of abomasal displacement and ketosis and to evaluate if such profiles can be used at herd level to pinpoint specific herd problems. Methods Body condition score and metabolic profiles around calving in five high-producing herds with high incidences of abomasal displacement and ketosis were assessed using linear mixed models (94 cows, 326 examinations). Cows were examined and blood sampled every three weeks from four weeks ante partum (ap) to nine weeks postpartum (pp). Blood parameters studied were glucose, fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and cholesterol. Results All herds had overconditioned dry cows that lost body condition substantially the first 4–6 weeks pp. Two herds had elevated levels of NEFA ap and three herds had elevated levels pp. One herd had low levels of insulin ap and low levels of cholesterol pp. Haptoglobin was detected pp in all herds and its usefulness is discussed. Conclusion NEFA was the parameter that most closely reflected the body condition losses while these losses were not seen in glucose and fructosamine levels. Insulin and cholesterol were potentially useful in herd profiles but need further investigation. Increased glutamate dehydrogenase suggested liver cell damage in all herds. PMID:18687108

  15. The effect of lactation length on greenhouse gas emissions from the national dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Wall, E; Coffey, M P; Pollott, G E

    2012-11-01

    Many governments have signed up to greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) reduction programmes under their national climate change obligations. Recently, it has been suggested that the use of extended lactations in dairy herds could result in reduced GHGE. Dairy GHGE were modelled on a national basis and the model was used to compare emissions from lactations of three different lengths (305, 370 and 440 days), and a current 'base' scenario on the basis of maintaining current milk production levels. In addition to comparing GHGE from the average 'National Herd' under these scenarios, results were used to investigate how accounting for lactations of different lengths might alter the estimation of emissions calculated from the National Inventory methodology currently recommended by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Data for the three lactation length scenarios were derived from nationally recorded dairy performance information and used in the GHGE model. Long lactations required fewer milking cows and replacements to maintain current milk yield levels than short ones, but GHGEs were found to rise from 1214 t of CO2 equivalent (CE)/farm per year for lactations of 305 days to 1371 t CE/farm per year for 440-day lactations. This apparent anomaly can be explained by the less efficient milk production (kg milk produced per kg cow weight) found in later lactation, a more pronounced effect in longer lactations. The sensitivity of the model to changes in replacement rate, persistency and level of milk yield was investigated. Changes in the replacement rate from 25% to 20% and in persistency by −10% to +20% resulted in very small changes in GHGE. Differences in GHGE due to the level of milk yield were much more dramatic with animals in the top 10% for yield, producing about 25% less GHGE/year than the average animal. National Inventory results were investigated using a more realistic spread of lactation lengths than recommended for such calculations using emissions

  16. Effect of coagulase-negative staphylococci on somatic cell count in Dutch dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Sampimon, Otlis; van den Borne, Bart Hp; Santman-Berends, Inge; Barkema, Herman W; Lam, Theo

    2010-08-01

    The effect was quantified of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) intramammary infections on quarter- and cow-level somatic cell count (SCC) and on bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) in different BMSCC cohorts in Dutch dairy herds. Two datasets were used for this purpose. In the first dataset, on 49 randomly selected dairy farms a total of 4220 quarter milk samples of 1072 cows were collected of all cows and heifers with a test-day SCC 250 000 and 150 000 cells/ml, respectively, and of 25% of cows and heifers below these thresholds. In the second dataset, on 39 selected dairy farms a total of 8329 quarter milk samples of 2115 cows were collected of all cows with a test-day SCC 250 000 cells/ml following two consecutive SCC <250 000 cells/ml, and of heifers using the same SCC criteria but with a threshold of 150 000 cells/ml. These cows and heifers were defined as new high SCC. In both datasets, CNS was the most frequently isolated pathogen, 11% in the first dataset and 12% in the second dataset. In both datasets, quarters with CNS IMI had a lower SCC than quarters infected with major pathogens, and a higher SCC than culture-negative quarters. The same was found for SCC at cow level. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were more often found in quarters with SCC 200 000 cells/ml in dairy farms with a BMSCC <150 000 cells/ml compared with dairy farms with a higher BMSCC. Prevalence of CNS in cows and heifers with a high SCC was higher in dairy farms with a BMSCC <150 000 cells/ml compared with dairy farms with a medium or high BMSCC: 30, 19 and 18%, respectively. This indicates that CNS IMI as a cause of subclinical mastitis is relatively more important in dairy farms with a low BMSCC and may become a point of attention in udder health management on that type of farm. PMID:20450528

  17. Evidence of birth seasonality and clustering of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in US dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Zare, Y; Shook, G E; Collins, M T; Kirkpatrick, B W

    2013-11-01

    Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a contagious intestinal infection of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). In cattle, young calves are at the highest risk for acquiring the infection which occurs mainly through ingestion of MAP from contaminated milk, colostrum and feces or environmental contacts. Data consisted of birth dates and ELISA results of 8000 mature cows from 24 Jersey herds from throughout the US and 4 Wisconsin Holstein herds. Some herds also had complete fecal culture (FC) results. The first infection (case) definition (CD1) relied on only ELISA results. A second case definition (CD2) was used in which results of both ELISA and FC tests were considered: animals testing positive to either test were considered "test-positives" and cows testing negative to ELISA or to both ELISA and FC were regarded as "test-negatives". Objective one was to assess seasonality in birth of MAP-infected animals. The effects of age, breed, herd and season of birth (expressed as the sine and cosine functions of birth days within year) were examined using logistic regression. Age was significantly associated with the MAP infection status of dairy cows for both CDs (OR=1.11; 95% CI 1.09, 1.14; P<0.0001 for CD1; OR=1.16; 95% CI 1.08, 1.24; P<0.0001 for CD2). Season of birth had a significant effect on the risk of MAP infection based on CD1 (OR=0.79; 95% CI 0.71, 0.89; P<0.001 for cosine of birth days) with a peak in summer and a trough in winter based on the fitted model. Objective two was to assess whether test-positive animals were randomly distributed or were clustered by date of birth within herds. A temporal cluster analysis approach (scan statistic) implemented in SaTScan software was used for each case definition to detect clusters of birth cohorts using birthdates. Results identified significant clustering of MAP infection cases for CD1 in multiple herds (P<0.05). These results necessitate matching cases and controls of MAP

  18. Salmonella Dublin faecal excretion probabilities in cattle with different temporal antibody profiles in 14 endemically infected dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L R

    2013-09-01

    This longitudinal field study investigated the hypothesis that persistently high antibody levels indicate a high risk of Salmonella Dublin shedding in animals in 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse 6614 paired faecal cultures and four types of temporal antibody profiles from cattle aged ≥180 days. Age and repeated measurements on animals nested within herds were taken into account. Overall, the prevalence of faecal shedders was low (0·3% and 2·8% in the lowest and highest risk groups, respectively). An important predictor of faecal shedding was young age. There was a significant, but modest increase in risk in cattle with persistently high or recently increased antibody levels, but no difference between these two groups. Contrary to previous recommendations, the detection of carriers by the use of repeated antibody testing is not likely to be a plausible control option in most Salmonella Dublin-infected dairy herds. PMID:23158650

  19. Eradication of bovine tuberculosis at a herd-level in Madrid, Spain: study of within-herd transmission dynamics over a 12 year period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eradication of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) through the application of test-and-cull programs is a declared goal of developed countries in which the disease is still endemic. Here, longitudinal data from more than 1,700 cattle herds tested during a 12 year-period in the eradication program in the region of Madrid, Spain, were analyzed to quantify the within-herd transmission coefficient (β) depending on the herd-type (beef/dairy/bullfighting). In addition, the probability to recover the officially bTB free (OTF) status in infected herds depending on the type of herd and the diagnostic strategy implemented was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. Results Overall, dairy herds showed higher β (median 4.7) than beef or bullfighting herds (2.3 and 2.2 respectively). Introduction of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as an ancillary test produced an apparent increase in the β coefficient regardless of production type, likely due to an increase in diagnostic sensitivity. Time to recover OTF status was also significantly lower in dairy herds, and length of bTB episodes was significantly reduced when the IFN-γ was implemented to manage the outbreak. Conclusions Our results suggest that bTB spreads more rapidly in dairy herds compared to other herd types, a likely cause being management and demographic-related factors. However, outbreaks in dairy herds can be controlled more rapidly than in typically extensive herd types. Finally, IFN-γ proved its usefulness to rapidly eradicate bTB at a herd-level. PMID:22748007

  20. Postpartum uterine diseases and their impacts on conception and days open in dairy herds in Italy.

    PubMed

    Toni, F; Vincenti, L; Ricci, A; Schukken, Y H

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence and the impact of postpartum uterine diseases in postpartum cows on future uterine status and reproductive performance in large Italian dairy herds. This study provides an important quantitative estimate of uterine and postpartum diseases incidence that afflict high-producing Italian dairy cows. The total number of cows included in the study was 1498 on three farms; all cows were followed from the dry period until 300 days postpartum. All farms used high-quality data collection systems and standard operating procedures: weekly herd health visits, monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association visits, and, due to cheese-making milk quality requirements, a supplementary milk sample collected at 7 ± 3 days postpartum evaluated for milk components. Clinical metritis in primiparous cows did not change the time to the first artificial insemination (AI) or days open; conversely, clinical metritis in multiparous cows had impact on the time to first AI (hazard ratio: 0.66, P < 0.01) and resulted in a lower conception rate at first insemination and a increase in days open (odds ratio: 0.64, P < 0.05). Clinical endometritis had a strong deleterious effect on first AI conception rate (odds ratio: 0.34, P < 0.05) and days open across all lactations (hazard ratio: 0.68, P < 0.05). Persistent metritis, defined as the presence of both clinical metritis and clinical endometritis in the same animal in the same lactation, caused low conception rate both in the first-lactation and in older cows and had a strong negative effect on the proportion of pregnant cows at 300 days (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the impact of endometritis on fertility was true across lactation groups. A good management and precocious diagnosis of the pathologies is not resolutive to restore good fertility parameters, and understanding the immune response in first-lactation cows may be of value for developing alternative intervention protocols for older

  1. Farm management factors associated with bulk tank total bacterial count in Irish dairy herds during 2006/07

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that total bacterial count (TBC), which is the bacterial growth per ml of milk over a fixed period of time, can be decreased by good hygiene and farm management practices. The objective of the current study was to quantify the associations between herd management factors and bulk tank TBC in Irish spring calving, grass-based dairy herds. The relationship between bulk tank TBC and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 400 randomly selected Irish dairy farms where the basal diet was grazed grass. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC were identified using linear models with herd annual total bacterial score (i.e., arithmetic mean of the natural logarithm of bulk tank TBC) included as the dependent variable. All herd management factors were individually analysed in a separate regression model, that included an adjustment for geographical location of the farm. A multiple stepwise regression model was subsequently developed. Median bulk tank TBC for the sample herds was 18,483 cells/ml ranging from 10,441 to 130,458 cells/ml. Results from the multivariate analysis indicated that the following management practices were associated with low TBC; use of heated water in the milking parlour; participation in a milk recording scheme; and tail clipping of cows at a frequency greater than once per year. Increased level of hygiene of the parlour and cubicles were also associated with lower TBC. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC in Irish grazing herds were generally in agreement with most previous studies from confinement systems of milk production. PMID:21851723

  2. Survey of beef quality assurance on California dairies.

    PubMed

    Aly, S S; Rossow, H A; Acetoze, G; Lehenbauer, T W; Payne, M; Meyer, D; Maas, J; Hoar, B

    2014-03-01

    In October 2011, a mail and online survey of California dairy personnel was conducted to assess producer familiarity with and support of the Dairy Animal Care and Quality Assurance (DACQA) program. The DACQA program addresses cattle of all ages (birth to culling) and standard practices that affect the use of dairy cattle for beef. The survey was mailed to a random sample of 1,071 California dairies (65%) stratified by county, proportional to the number of dairies in each respective county. Data from the 158 responses received (15%) showed that 90% of culled cows on California dairies were sold for beef. However, personnel on more than one-half of California dairies (56%) had no knowledge of how their herd cull cows ranked in terms of beef quality measures (body condition score, US Department of Agriculture carcass grade, and hot carcass weight). Survey results showed that a considerable proportion of California dairy personnel were aware of recommended injection practices including a preference for subcutaneous injections (45%). A drug inventory was maintained on approximately 50% of the state's dairies. Management at these dairies was twice as likely to test for drug residues compared with dairies that did not maintain a drug inventory. More information about the DACQA program was requested by more than half of California dairies. PMID:24418277

  3. Exploring the characteristics and dynamics of Ontario dairy herds experiencing increases in bulk milk somatic cell count during the summer.

    PubMed

    Shock, D A; LeBlanc, S J; Leslie, K E; Hand, K; Godkin, M A; Coe, J B; Kelton, D F

    2015-06-01

    Regionally aggregated bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) data from around the world shows a repeatable cyclicity, with the highest levels experienced during warm, humid seasons. No studies have evaluated this seasonal phenomenon at the herd level. The objectives of this study were to define summer seasonality in BMSCC on an individual herd basis, and subsequently to describe the characteristics and dynamics of herds with increased BMSCC in the summer. The data used for this analysis were from all dairy farms in Ontario, Canada, between January 2000 and December 2011 (n≈4,000 to 6,000 herds/yr). Bulk milk data were obtained from the milk marketing board and consisted of bulk milk production, components (fat, protein, lactose, other solids), and quality (BMSCC, bacterial count, inhibitor presence, freezing point), total milk quota of the farm, and milk quota and incentive fill percentage. A time-series linear mixed model, with random slopes and intercepts, was constructed using sine and cosine terms as predictors to describe seasonality, with herd as a random effect. For each herd, seasonality was described with reference to 1 cosine function of variable amplitude and phase shift. The predicted months of maximal and minimal BMSCC were then calculated. Herds were assigned as low, medium, and high summer increase (LSI, MSI, and HSI, respectively) based on percentiles of amplitude in BMSCC change for each of the 4 seasons. Using these seasonality classifications, 2 transitional repeated measures logistic regression models were built to assess the characteristics of MSI and HSI herds, using LSI herds as controls. Based on the analyses performed, a history of summer BMSCC increases increased the odds of experiencing a subsequent increase. As herd size decreased, the odds of experiencing HSI to MSI in BMSCC increased. Herds with more variability in daily BMSCC were at higher odds of experiencing MSI and HSI in BMSCC, as were herds with lower annual mean BMSCC. Finally

  4. Short communication: Streptococcus canis is able to establish a persistent udder infection in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Król, Jarosław; Twardoń, Jan; Mrowiec, Jacek; Podkowik, Magdalena; Dejneka, Grzegorz; Dębski, Bogdan; Nowicki, Tadeusz; Zalewski, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus canis is relatively rare. Consequently, many epidemiologic aspects of the infection, including factors that mediate crossing of host species barriers by the pathogen, infectiousness of the microorganism to the mammary gland, and the course of the disease within a herd, are still not elucidated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe results of a 15-mo observation of subclinical Strep. canis mastitis on a dairy farm housing 76 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Upon 3 visits to the farm during a period between April 2013 and June 2014, Strep. canis was cultured from milk samples of 17 (22.4% of the herd), 7 (9.6%), and 8 (11.3%) cows, respectively. The isolates obtained were characterized phenotypically by means of the API Strep identification kit (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), as well as genetically by using random amplified polymorphic DNA and macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All strains displayed the same biochemical features, and the molecular methods revealed that the isolates belonged to a single clone or were very closely related. Results of the study indicate that Strep. canis is capable of causing intramammary infections of long duration, behaving in a contagious manner. Because a persistently infected cow may serve as the source of Strep. canis infection for other animals, effective control of this type of udder infection within a herd may require similar measures to those adopted in Streptococcus agalactiae eradication programs. PMID:26233445

  5. Frequency and causes of infectious abortion in a dairy herd in Queretaro, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, H Patricia; Martínez, M José Juan; Medina, C Mario; Morales, S Elizabeth

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious bovine abortion and to identify some of its causes, specifically brucellosis, leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and neosporosis. The study was carried out in a dairy herd in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, between September 2002 and March 2003. At the beginning of the study, blood samples were taken from a random 33% of the 300 lactating or pregnant cows; antibodies against Leptospira interrogans were the most commonly identified, in 91% of the 99 samples. Blood samples were also taken 14 to 28 d after the 26 subsequent abortions in the herd in the 6-mo study period, as well as from 22 cows that had not aborted within 5 d after the abortions in the other group. Seroconversion was most frequent for L. hardjo, occurring in 8 (67%) of the 12 dams that aborted after the initial serologic sampling and for which paired serum samples were therefore available. Of the 16 collected fetuses, 10 had histologic lesions suggesting infection in various organs, the features correlating with the serologic results for the dams in 7 cases. Thus, the abortions may have been caused by more than 1 infectious agent. PMID:17955907

  6. Frequency and causes of infectious abortion in a dairy herd in Queretaro, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Escamilla, H. Patricia; Martínez, M. José Juan; Medina, C. Mario; Morales, S. Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious bovine abortion and to identify some of its causes, specifically brucellosis, leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and neosporosis. The study was carried out in a dairy herd in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, between September 2002 and March 2003. At the beginning of the study, blood samples were taken from a random 33% of the 300 lactating or pregnant cows; antibodies against Leptospira interrogans were the most commonly identified, in 91% of the 99 samples. Blood samples were also taken 14 to 28 d after the 26 subsequent abortions in the herd in the 6-mo study period, as well as from 22 cows that had not aborted within 5 d after the abortions in the other group. Seroconversion was most frequent for L. hardjo, occurring in 8 (67%) of the 12 dams that aborted after the initial serologic sampling and for which paired serum samples were therefore available. Of the 16 collected fetuses, 10 had histologic lesions suggesting infection in various organs, the features correlating with the serologic results for the dams in 7 cases. Thus, the abortions may have been caused by more than 1 infectious agent. PMID:17955907

  7. Association of Histophilus somni with spontaneous abortions in dairy cattle herds from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Voltarelli, Daniele; de Oliveira, Victor Henrique Silva; Bronkhorst, Dalton Evert; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Filho, Luiz Carlos Negri; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the participation of infectious agents in spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems at eight dairy cattle herds from three geographical regions of Brazil. Fourteen aborted fetuses and the organ sections of one cow with history of repeated abortions were received for pathological evaluations and molecular diagnostics. PCR/RT-PCR assays targeted specific genes of abortifacient agents of cattle: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Listeria monocytogenes, Neospora caninum, Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus, and Histophilus somni. Six fetuses were adequate for pathological investigations; one of these did not demonstrate remarkable pathological alterations. Significant histopathological findings included vasculitis, hemorrhage, and fibrinous thrombosis of the cerebrum (n = 4); necrotizing myocarditis (n = 3); and hemorrhagic enteritis (n = 3). The placenta and uterus of the cow as well as the kidney, pancreas, and liver of her aborted fetus contained H. somni DNA and demonstrated histopathological evidence of histophilosis. All fetuses contained H. somni DNA in multiple organs. Coinfections of H. somni with B. abortus (n = 2), N. caninum (n = 2), BVDV (n = 1), and BoHV-1 (n = 1) were identified; two fetuses demonstrated three pathogens. These findings suggest that H. somni was associated with the spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems of these herds. However, the exact cause of fetal death might not be attributed only to H. somni in all aborted fetuses, since some of these were infected with other abortifacient agents. PMID:25480485

  8. Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling of national milk-recording data of seasonal-calving New Zealand dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Clements, A C A; Pfeiffer, D U; Hayes, D

    2005-10-12

    A spatio-temporal analysis was undertaken with the aim of identifying the dynamics of herd mean individual cow SCCs (MICSCC) in seasonally calving New Zealand dairy herds. Two datasets were extracted from the Livestock Improvement Corporation's extensive national dairy recording database: (1) milk-recording data aggregated at the herd-level and (2) sales questionnaire data containing information on the size, location and infrastructure of each farm. A Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling approach was applied to the analysis. The data were aggregated by 10 km(2) grid cells and linear regression models were developed with spatially structured and unstructured random effects, a linear temporal trend random effect and spatial-temporal interactions for log-transformed median MISCC (ln(median MISCC)). Significant associations were found between ln(median MISCC) and milk yield, milk fat, milk protein, farm area and number of cups in the dairy. This led us to suggest that SCCs should be adjusted for volume and constituents prior to determining a threshold MISCC for identification of subclinical mastitis (SCM) problem herds. Part, or all, of the temporal trend in MISCC in the spatio-temporal model was accounted for by inclusion of yield and milk constituents as independent variables. This supports the hypothesis of a dilution effect with potential consequences for misdiagnosis of SCM, particularly in late lactation. Unmeasured covariates were similarly likely to be spatially structured and unstructured. PMID:16107283

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in Dutch dairy cattle herds based on bulk tank milk testing.

    PubMed

    van Engelen, E; Schotten, N; Schimmer, B; Hautvast, J L A; van Schaik, G; van Duijnhoven, Y T H P

    2014-11-01

    Despite cattle herds can harbor Coxiella burnetii, risk factors for C. burnetii presence in dairy cattle herds are largely unknown. Therefore, C. burnetii herd prevalence and risk factors for bulk tank milk (BTM) positivity were investigated. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was filled out by the farmer and BTM from 301 farms was tested by ELISA for presence of C. burnetii antibodies and PCR for presence of C. burnetii DNA. Risk factors were identified by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Antibodies to C. burnetii were detected in 81.6% (CI: 77.2-85.9) and C. burnetii DNA in 18.8% (CI: 14.4-23.1) of the BTM samples. Herd size (OR=1.1 per 10 cows), cleaning the bedding of the cubicles at most every other day (OR=2.8) and purchase of cattle from at least two addresses (OR=3.1) showed a significant and positive association with ELISA positivity and use of an automatic milking system a negative association (OR=0.3). Risk factors for PCR positivity were purchase of cattle from at least two delivery addresses (OR=3.2), presence of cows with ticks (OR=2.0), use of an automatic milking system (OR=0.2) and presence of goats or sheep on the farm (OR=0.4). Biosecurity and general hygiene seem associated with introduction and spread of C. burnetii in dairy herds. PMID:25239684

  10. Use of every ten-day criteria for metabolic profile test after calving and dry off in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Kida, Katsuya

    2002-11-01

    The traditional metabolic profile test cannot be applied to peripartum dairy cows, because these cows are in a state of physiological abnormality making it difficult to interpret their blood components. This study aimed at establishing and evaluating the practicability of interpreting a metabolic profile test every 10 days (Ten-day criteria) during the dry and lactation periods in herds with high and no incidence of peripartum diseases. Data from 29,043 cows in 1,130 commercial dairy herds were used to establish standard values every 10 days, mean +/- 1.0 standard deviation for the metabolic profile test. The practicability of these criteria was evaluated in herds with peripartum diseases. In the ten-day criteria, the body condition score, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, total cholesterol, nonesterified fatty acids, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and aspartate aminotransferase, fluctuated during the dry and early lactation periods and there were very big changes in packed cell volume, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol and magnesium just after calving. The ten-day criteria were able to detect overconditioned cows, low levels of albumin, total cholesterol and magnesium, and high nonesterified fatty acids in herds with a high incidence of peripartum diseases. In conclusion, the ten-day criteria can be successfully applied to peripartum cows, and is recommended because it is able to detect metabolic abnormalities not only in the herd, but also in individual cows. PMID:12499685

  11. Short communication: Factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in milk of commercial dairy herds: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Pellerin, D; Cue, R I; Girard, C L

    2016-06-01

    Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12, and this requires adequate Co supply. The natural source of vitamin B12 in human diets comes from animal products, especially those from ruminants. This study aimed to describe variability regarding vitamin B12 concentration in milk among and within commercial dairy herds in early lactation. A secondary objective was to explore potential causes for this variability such as genetic variation and diet characteristics. In total, 399 dairy cows (135 primiparous and 264 multiparous; 386 Holstein and 13 Jersey cows) in 15 commercial herds were involved. Milk samples were taken at 27.4±4.1 and 55.4±4.1d in milk. Neither parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) nor sampling time affected milk concentrations of vitamin B12. Nevertheless, vitamin B12 concentration in milk was highly variable among and within dairy herds. The lowest vitamin B12 concentration in milk of cows was observed in the Jersey herd. Among herds, vitamin B12 concentration in milk ranged from 2,309 to 3,878 pg/mL; one glass (250mL) of milk from those herds would provide between 23 and 40% of the vitamin B12 recommended daily allowance. Among individual cows, however, this provision varied between 16 and 57% of the recommendation. In spite of the limited size of the studied population, the heritability value was 0.23, suggesting that genetic selection could modify milk vitamin B12 concentration. We observed a positive relationship between milk vitamin B12 concentration and dietary acid detergent fiber content and a negative relationship between milk concentration of vitamin B12 and dietary crude protein content. PMID:27040783

  12. Expanding the dairy herd in pasture-based systems: the role for sexed semen use on virgin heifers.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, I A; Shalloo, L; Butler, S T

    2013-02-01

    A model was developed to examine the effects of sexed semen use on replacement heifer numbers and rate of herd expansion in a seasonal dairy production system. Three separate herds were established according to the type of semen used on virgin heifers: conventional frozen-thawed (Conv), sexed fresh (SFre), or sexed frozen-thawed (SFro). In the model, sexed semen was used for the first and second inseminations in heifers only. Pregnancy rates achieved with sexed fresh and sexed frozen-thawed semen were assumed to be 94% and 75% of those achieved with conventional frozen-thawed semen, respectively. Initial herd size was 100 cows, which was maintained for the first 2 yr of the 15-yr simulation, after which all available replacement heifers were retained to facilitate herd expansion. Two different scenarios of land availability (S1 and S2) were examined for each of the 3 herds using different semen types: land available allowed expansion to a maximum herd size of 150 cows (S1) or 300 cows (S2). Once maximum herd size was reached, sexed semen use was discontinued and all excess heifer calves were sold at 1 mo of age. All capital expenditure associated with expansion was financed with a 15-yr loan. Each of the different options was evaluated in terms of annual farm profit, annual cash flow, and total discounted net profit. The analysis was completed at a milk price of € 0.27/L, and sensitivity around milk price was carried out at € 0.22/L and € 0.32/L. The use of SFre generated more replacement heifers and thus faster herd expansion compared with SFro and Conv semen. Maximum herd size was reached in yr 5, 6, and 7 under S1, and in yr 10, 12, and 14 under S2 for SFre, SFro, and Conv herds, respectively. Total discounted net profit under S1 for the SFre herd was € 19,929 greater than that of the SFro herd and € 41,852 greater than that of the Conv herd. Under S2, discounted net profit for the SFre herd was € 138,587 greater than that of the SFro herd and

  13. Antibiotic use in dairy herds in the Netherlands from 2005 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, A; Koops, W J; Wemmenhove, H

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the variation in antibiotic use and the effects of external factors on trends in antibiotic use at the herd level by using the number of daily dosages as an indicator for antibiotic use. For this purpose, antibiotic use was analyzed in 94 dairy herds in the Netherlands from 2005 to 2012. The herds were divided into 3 groups of farmers: one group was guided in their antibiotic use from 2008 to 2010 as part of the project, whereas the other 2 groups were not actively guided. The farms were located in 10 of the 12 provinces and were clients of 32 of the 300 veterinary practices that treat cattle. Sales invoices from the veterinary practices provided the antibiotic and cost data for the participating farmers. The number of animal-defined daily dosages (ADDD) indicates the number of days per year that the average cow in a herd is given antibiotic treatment. The average ADDD for all farms from 2005 to 2012 was 5.86 (standard deviation=2.14); 68% of ADDD were used for udder health, 24% for clinical mastitis and 44% for dry-cow therapy. Variation in ADDD among herds decreased during the study period. The trend in ADDD can be described as having 3 phases: (1) a period of increasing use coinciding with little public concern about antibiotic use (2005-2007), (2) a period of growing awareness and stabilization of use (2007-2010), and (3) a period of decreasing use coinciding with increasing societal concerns (2010-2012). The greatest reduction in use was for drugs other than those used to treat the udder. Drug use for mastitis treatment fell considerably in the final year of the study period, whereas farmers were reluctant to reduce use for dry-cow therapy. Almost 40% of the herds were given less than 2.5 ADDD for dry-cow therapy, which is equivalent to 2.5 tubes per average cow in the herd, and 20% used more than 3 tubes per cow. Use of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones dropped from 18% of ADDD during 2005 to

  14. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T D; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious heifer were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 12 scenarios. These 12 scenarios were combinations of three herd sizes (85, 200 and 400 cows) and four management levels (very good, good, poor and very poor). Input parameters for effects of S. Dublin on production and animal health were based on literature and calibrations to mimic real life observations. Mean annual GMs per cow stall were compared between herds experiencing within-herd spread of S. Dublin and non-infected reference herds over a 10-year period. The estimated GM losses were largest in the first year after infection, and increased with poorer management and herd size, e.g. average annual GM losses were estimated to 49 euros per stall for the first year after infection, and to 8 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10 years after herd infection for a 200 cow stall herd with very good management. In contrast, a 200 cow stall herd with very poor management lost on average 326 euros per stall during the first year, and 188 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10-year period following introduction of infection. The GM losses arose from both direct losses such as reduced milk yield, dead animals, treatment costs and abortions as well as indirect losses such as reduced income from sold heifers and calves, and lower milk yield of replacement animals. Through sensitivity analyses it was found that the

  15. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing) in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms. PMID:21851722

  16. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing.

    PubMed

    Boersema, Jsc; Noordhuizen, Jptm; Vieira, A; Lievaart, Jj; Baumgartner, W

    2008-01-01

    Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing) in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms. PMID:21851722

  17. Survey of infectious etiologies of bovine abortion during mid- to late gestation in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Barkallah, Mohamed; Gharbi, Yaakoub; Hassena, Amal Ben; Slima, Ahlem Ben; Mallek, Zouhir; Gautier, Michel; Greub, Gilbert; Gdoura, Radhouane; Fendri, Imen

    2014-01-01

    Bovine abortion of unknown infectious etiology still remains a major economic problem. Thus, we investigated whether Brucella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Coxiella burnetii are associated with abortion and/or stillbirth in Tunisian dairy cattle. Using a pan-Chlamydiales PCR, we also investigated the role of Chlamydiaceae, Waddlia chondrophila, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and other members of the Chlamydiales order in this setting. Veterinary samples taken from mid to late-term abortions from twenty dairy herds were tested. From a total of 150 abortion cases collected, infectious agents were detected by PCR in 73 (48.66%) cases, 13 (8.66%) of which represented co-infections with two infectious agents. Detected pathogens include Brucella spp (31.3%), Chlamydiaceae (4.66%), Waddlia chondrophila (8%), Parachlamydia acanthamoebae (5.33%), Listeria monocytogenes (4.66%) and Salmonella spp. (3.33%). In contrast, Campylobacter spp. and Coxiella burnetii DNA were not detected among the investigated veterinary samples. This demonstrates that different bacterial agents may cause bovine abortion in Tunisia. This is the first report suggesting the role of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in bovine abortion in Africa. Further studies with a larger number of samples are necessary to confirm whether this emerging pathogen is directly linked to abortion in cattle. PMID:24662769

  18. Prevalence, quantitative load and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle herds in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease, and animals such as poultry, pigs and cattle may act as reservoirs for Campylobacter spp. Cattle shed Campylobacter spp. into the environment and they can act as a reservoir for human infection directly via contact with cattle or their faeces or indirectly by consumption of contaminated food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the quantitative load and the genetic strain diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle of different age groups. Results Faecal samples of 200 dairy cattle from three farms in the central part of Lithuania were collected and examined for Campylobacter. Cattle herds of all three farms were Campylobacter spp. positive, with a prevalence ranging from 75% (farm I), 77.5% (farm II) to 83.3% (farm III). Overall, the highest prevalence was detected in calves (86.5%) and heifers (86.2%). In contrast, the lowest Campylobacter prevalence was detectable in dairy cows (60.6%). C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus subsp. fetus were identified in faecal samples of dairy cattle. C. upsaliensis was not detectable in any sample. The high counts of Campylobacter spp. were observed in faecal material of dairy cattle (average 4.5 log10 cfu/g). The highest numbers of Campylobacter spp. were found in faecal samples from calves (average 5.3 log10 cfu/g), whereas, faecal samples from cows harboured the lowest number of Campylobacter spp. (average 3.7 log10 cfu/g). Genotyping by flaA PCR-RFLP analysis of selected C. jejuni isolates showed that some genotypes were present in all farms and all age groups. However, farm or age specific genotypes were also identified. Conclusions Future studies are needed to investigate risk factors related to the degree of colonisation in cattle. Based on that, possible measures to reduce the colonisation and subsequent shedding of Campylobacter in cattle could be established. It is important to further investigate the epidemiology of Campylobacter in the

  19. Genomic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with high within-herd prevalence of intramammary infections in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, P; Pozzi, F; Raschetti, M; Bignoli, G; Capra, E; Graber, H U; Vezzoli, F; Piccinini, R; Bertasi, B; Biffani, S; Castiglioni, B; Luini, M

    2015-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important causes of mastitis in dairy cattle. Based on previous research, Staph. aureus genotypes with different pathogenic and contagious properties can cause intramammary infection (IMI) and coexist in the same herd. Our study aimed to compare Staph. aureus strains from herds that differed in IMI prevalence using different molecular approaches such as ribosomal spacer (RS)-PCR, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multiplex PCR. For this purpose, 31 dairy herds with Staph. aureus IMI were selected, and 16 of these were chosen for a comparison study: the 8 high-prevalence (HP) herds had Staph. aureus IMI prevalence >28% and the 8 low-prevalence (LP) herds had an IMI prevalence <4%. A total of 650 isolates of Staph. aureus from mammary quarters of all positive cows were genotyped with RS-PCR, a technique based on amplification of a portion of the intergenic spacer 16S-23S rRNA, and a subset of 54 strains was also analyzed by multiplex PCR, ribotyping, PFGE, MLST, and spa typing. The RS-PCR analysis revealed 12 different profiles. Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from 5 out of 8 HP herds showed a profile identical to the genotype B (GTB), described in previous studies as being strongly associated with high within-herd prevalence of Staph. aureus mastitis and the presence of the genes coding for enterotoxins sea, sed, and sej, a long x-region of spa gene, and 3 lukE fragments. Moreover, all strains isolated in the HP herds possessed genes coding for staphylococcal enterotoxins. In LP herds, a limited number of strains of 6 genotypes, different from those isolated in HP herds, were identified and GTB was not found. Within these genotypes, 4 strains were positive for the mecA gene. Preliminary results and comparison with other genotyping methods confirmed that genotyping by RS-PCR is an accurate, rapid, and inexpensive tool for future field studies on Staph

  20. Genomic selection for producer-recorded health event data in US dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emphasizing increased profit through increased dairy cow production has revealed a negative relationship with fitness and health traits. Decreased cow health can impact herd profitability through increased rates of involuntary culling and decreased or lost milk sales. Improvement of health traits t...

  1. Evaluating results of the Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation model for classification of dairy cattle welfare at the herd level.

    PubMed

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Botreau, R; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

    2013-10-01

    The Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation (WQ-ME) model aggregates scores of single welfare measures into an overall assessment for the level of animal welfare in dairy herds. It assigns herds to 4 welfare classes: unacceptable, acceptable, enhanced, or excellent. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relative importance of single welfare measures for WQ-ME classification of a selected sample of Dutch dairy herds. Seven trained observers quantified 63 welfare measures of the Welfare Quality protocol in 183 loose housed- and 13 tethered Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 10 to 211 cows). First, values of welfare measures were compared among the 4 welfare classes, using Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-squared tests. Second, observed values of single welfare measures were replaced with a fictitious value, which was the median value of herds classified in the next highest class, to see if improvement of a single measure would enable a herd to reach a higher class. Sixteen herds were classified as unacceptable, 85 as acceptable, 78 as enhanced, and none as excellent. Classification could not be calculated for 17 herds because data were missing (15 herds) or data were deemed invalid because the stockperson disturbed behavioral observations (2 herds). Herds classified as unacceptable showed significantly more very lean cows, more severely lame cows, and more often an insufficient number of drinkers than herds classified as acceptable. Herds classified as acceptable showed significantly more cows with high somatic cell count, with lesions, that could not be approached closer than 1m, colliding with components of the stall while lying down, and lying outside the lying area, and showed fewer cows with diarrhea, more often had an insufficient number of drinkers, and scored lower for the descriptors "relaxed" and "happy" than herds classified as enhanced. Increasing the number of drinkers and reducing the percentage of cows colliding with components of the stall while lying down

  2. The marketing of herd health and production management services on Dutch dairy farms: perceptions of dairy farmers and their veterinary surgeons

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire-based survey on veterinary herd health and production management services was conducted on 194 specialist dairy veterinarians and 466 dairy farmers. The farmers were randomly selected from greater than 6,000 farmer clients of the surveyed veterinarians. This paper reports these survey findings and the findings of an earlier survey conducted among the veterinarians. The survey included questions on the attributes of the service itself, the practitioners delivering the service, reasons for participation and the expected future of herd health and production management services. Reasons farmers participated in herd health and production management programmes included; access to routine screening of their herd; increasing profits; and receiving regular veterinary advice or solutions to remedy existing problems. Advantages of participation named included: good management support; higher profits; structural solutions to problems; and being better informed. Differences between farming styles were observed, pointing to the different needs and goals of farming styles. Farmers cited high costs and the time investment required as major disadvantages. The proportion of farmers citing these reasons was lower than expected by the veterinarians. In the future, preventive healthcare will be the main reason of farmers to participate. Farmers who are not using the service can potentially be encouraged to engage the services after gaining increased insight into the herd health and management service structure, the planning of activities, the cost-benefit of the service, veterinary surgeons being more co-operative with other farm advisors and veterinarians being more willing to pay attention to quality issues on the dairy farm. PMID:21851703

  3. Association of herd BRSV and BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease and reproductive performance in adult dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD) occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and Mycoplasma bovis. A questionnaire was used to collect data concerning herd management factors and reproductive performance, as well as the occurrence of clinical signs of respiratory disease in the last two years, as evaluated by the veterinarian or farm manager. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify and quantify the risk factors. Results A low to moderate prevalence (1-49%) of BRSV antibodies among youngstock was associated with a high occurrence of respiratory disease (OR = 6.2, p = 0.010) in cows and in-calf heifers. Employees of the farm may participate in the spread of such disease. Larger herd size, loose-housing of cows, housing youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, and purchasing new animals were factors possibly related to a high occurrence of respiratory disease symptoms in pregnant heifers and cows. The highest risk of abortions (> 1.3%) and increased insemination index (number of inseminations per pregnancy) (> 1.9) occurred in herds with a moderate prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies (1-49%) in cows. Conclusions BHV-1 was not associated with acute respiratory disease in adult dairy cattle, however was significantly related to reproductive performance. BRSV possesses the main role in respiratory disease complex in adult dairy cattle. PMID:22289165

  4. Spatial pattern in prevalence of paratuberculosis infection diagnosed with misclassification in Danish dairy herds in 2009 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Bihrmann, Kristine; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2016-02-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of economic importance to the dairy industry. The infection may be latent for years, which makes diagnostic misclassification a general challenge. The objective of this study was to identify the spatial pattern in infection prevalence, when results were adjusted for covariate information and diagnostic misclassification. Furthermore, we compared the estimated spatial pattern with the spatial pattern obtained without adjustment for misclassification. The study included 1242 herds in 2009 and 979 herds in 2013. The within-herd prevalence was modelled using a hierarchical logistic regression model and included a spatial component modelled by a continuous Gaussian field. The Stochastic Partial Differential Equation (SPDE) approach and Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) were used for Bayesian inference. We found a significant spatial component, and our results suggested that the estimated range of influence and the overall location of areas with increased prevalence are not very sensitive to diagnostic misclassification. PMID:26919750

  5. Predicting fadeout versus persistence of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd for management and control purposes: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological models enable to better understand the dynamics of infectious diseases and to assess ex-ante control strategies. For Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), possible transmission routes have been described, but Map spread in a herd and the relative importance of the routes are currently insufficiently understood to prioritize control measures. We aim to predict early after Map introduction in a dairy cattle herd whether infection is likely to fade out or persist, when no control measures are implemented, using a modelling approach. Both vertical transmission and horizontal transmission via the ingestion of colostrum, milk, or faeces present in the contaminated environment were modelled. Calf-to-calf indirect transmission was possible. Six health states were represented: susceptible, transiently infectious, latently infected, subclinically infected, clinically affected, and resistant. The model was partially validated by comparing the simulated prevalence with field data. Housing facilities and contacts between animals were specifically considered for calves and heifers. After the introduction of one infected animal in a naive herd, fadeout occurred in 66% of the runs. When Map persisted, the prevalence of infected animals increased to 88% in 25 years. The two main transmission routes were via the farm's environment and in utero transmission. Calf-to-calf transmission was minor. Fadeout versus Map persistence could be differentiated with the number of clinically affected animals, which was rarely above one when fadeout occurred. Therefore, early detection of affected animals is crucial in preventing Map persistence in dairy herds. PMID:21324117

  6. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from bulk tank milk of dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Kreausukon, K; Fetsch, A; Kraushaar, B; Alt, K; Müller, K; Krömker, V; Zessin, K-H; Käsbohrer, A; Tenhagen, B-A

    2012-08-01

    It was the objective of the study to estimate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in bulk tank milk from German dairy herds and to characterize isolates from bulk tank milk with respect to their Staph. aureus protein A (spa) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type, their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance and resistance- resp. virulence-associated genes using broth microdilution and a microarray for Staph. aureus. Bulk tank milk samples (25 mL) were tested for MRSA using a 2-step selective enrichment protocol. Presumptive MRSA were confirmed by PCR. Thirty-six isolates collected from bulk tank milk of dairy herds in 2009 and 2010 were included in the characterization. All isolates displayed spa-types assigned to the clonal complex CC398. Based on the epidemiological cut-off values for the interpretation of minimum inhibitory concentrations isolates were resistant to tetracycline (100%), clindamycin (58%), erythromycin (52%), quinupristin/dalfopristin (36%), and kanamycin (27%). Isolates did not carry genes associated with typical virulence factors for Staph. aureus such as the Panton-Valentine leukocidin. However, they did carry hemolysin genes. Livestock-associated MRSA of CC398 does occur in German dairy herds and the strains have similar properties as described for strains from pigs. PMID:22818451

  7. Seroprevalence estimation and management factors associated with high herd seropositivity for Anaplasma marginale in commercial dairy farms of Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Urdaz-Rodríguez, J H; Fosgate, G T; Alleman, A R; Rae, D O; Donovan, G A; Melendez, P

    2009-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine individual cow seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in adult lactating dairy cattle of Puerto Rico (PR) and to assess the associations of farm management factors on herd seroprevalence. Antibody activity against A. marginale was determined using the MSP-5 competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum samples were obtained from 2,414 adult lactating dairy cattle from 76 randomly selected commercial dairy farms. Herd seroprevalence ranged from 3 to 100% with an overall individual cow seroprevalence for A. marginale of 27.4%. Factors associated with high herd seropositivity were pasture grazing as the main feed source (OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.2-34), observed monkeys on the premises (OR = 13, 95% CI = 1.2-138), use of 11% permethrin (OR = 17, 95% CI = 2.2-129), farmers who attended an acaricide certification program (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.04-0.74), and lack of a fly control program (OR = 5.6, 95% CI = 1.3-24). PMID:19337849

  8. Use of Ovsynch in dairy herds--differences between primiparous and multiparous cows.

    PubMed

    Tenhagen, Bernd Alois; Surholt, Ralf; Wittke, Miriam; Vogel, Corinna; Drillich, Marc; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2004-03-01

    Ovsynch protocols are used to increase service rate and decrease days open and cullings for infertility. Recent reports have indicated better results after Ovsynch in primiparous than in older cows. However, this was not observed in all investigations on the subject. The objective of the study was to evaluate differences between primiparous and multiparous cows after synchronization of ovulation with an Ovsynch protocol in six trials. A total of 1584 cows (583 primiparous and 1001 multiparous cows, respectively) on three dairy farms were synchronized with an Ovsynch protocol consisting of a GnRH-analogue at Days 0 and 9, and a prostaglandin F(2alpha) analogue on Day 7. AI was carried out in all cows 16-20 h after the last treatment. Cows were categorized into primiparous and multiparous cows for analysis. Conception rate (CR) to timed AI, to further AI, overall conception rate and proportion of cows pregnant by 200 days in milk were compared between the age groups. Finally, two logistic regression models were calculated with conception to first service and conception by 200 DIM as the outcome variables. Independent variables were trial (categorical) and age group (primiparous versus multiparous). Conception rates to TAI were higher in primiparous than in older cows (37.9% versus 31.6%, P=0.015). Likewise pregnancy rates by 200 DIM were higher in primiparous cows (81.8% versus 75.4%, P=0.003). However, the extent of the difference varied between trials. Results indicate that Ovsynch protocols are more effective in primiparous than in older cows. PMID:14749044

  9. Johne’s disease in Canada: Part I: Clinical symptoms, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prevalence in dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ashwani; VanLeeuwen, John A.; McKenna, Shawn L.B.; Keefe, Greg P.; Barkema, Herman W.

    2006-01-01

    Recent international developments in the area of infectious disease control and nontariff trade barriers, along with possible zoonotic concerns, have provoked a revival of interest in Johne’s disease in Canada and elsewhere. The bacterium causing Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, is distributed worldwide and causes chronic granulomatous enteritis, also known as paratuberculosis, in domestic and exotic ruminants, including cattle. The subclinical form of this disease results in progressive weight loss, reduced milk production, lower slaughter value, and premature culling, with possible impacts on fertility and udder health. Eventually, infection can lead to the clinical form that manifests as chronic diarrhea, emaciation, debilitation, and eventual death. Currently, available tests to detect infected animals produce many false-negative results and some false-positives, particularly in subclinically infected animals, thus making their interpretation and utilization challenging in control programs. The objective of this 2-part review is to critically review the literature about Johne’s disease in dairy cattle for bovine practitioners in Canada. Part I covers the clinical stages, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prevalence of infection in Canada, while Part II discusses impacts, risk factors, and control programs relevant to Canadian dairy farms. By reviewing the scientific literature about Johne’s disease, control of the disease could be pursued through informed implementation of rational biosecurity efforts and the strategic use of testing and culling. PMID:17017652

  10. Management practices as risk factors for the presence of bulk milk antibodies to Salmonella, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in Irish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    O' Doherty, E; Berry, D P; O' Grady, L; Sayers, R

    2014-06-01

    A survey of management practices in 309 Irish dairy herds was used to identify risk factors for the presence of antibodies to Salmonella, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in extensively managed unvaccinated dairy herds. A previous study documented a herd-level seroprevalence in bulk milk of 49%, 19% and 86% for Salmonella, Neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, respectively in the unvaccinated proportion of these 309 herds in 2009. Association analyses in the present study were carried out using multiple logistic regression models. Herds where cattle were purchased or introduced had a greater likelihood of being positive to leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo (P<0.01) and Salmonella (P<0.01). Larger herds had a greater likelihood of recording a positive bulk milk antibody result to leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo (P<0.05). Herds that practiced year round calving were more likely to be positive to Neospora caninum (P<0.05) compared to herds with a spring-calving season, with no difference in risk between herds that practiced split calving compared to herds that practiced spring calving. No association was found between presence of dogs on farms and prevalence of Neospora caninum possibly due to limited access of dogs to infected materials including afterbirths. The information from this study will assist in the design of suitable control programmes for the diseases under investigation in pasture-based livestock systems. PMID:24661904

  11. Bacterial subclinical mastitis and its effect on milk yield in low-input dairy goat herds.

    PubMed

    Gelasakis, A I; Angelidis, A S; Giannakou, R; Filioussis, G; Kalamaki, M S; Arsenos, G

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to record the major pathogens associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM), (2) to calculate their incidence during the milking period, and (3) to estimate the effect of SCM on daily milk yield (DMY) for goats reared under low-input management schemes. Dairy goats (n=590) of Skopelos and indigenous Greek breeds from 4 herds were randomly selected for the study. The study included monthly monitoring, milk yield recording, and bacteriological analyses of milk of individual goats during the course of 2 successive milking periods. Incidence and cumulative incidence were calculated for SCM cases. Moreover, 2 mixed linear regression models were built to assess the effects of (1) SCM and (2) different pathogens isolated from SCM cases, on DMY. The estimated incidence and cumulative incidence of SCM for the first and the second year of the study were 69.5 and 96.4 new cases of SCM/1,000 goat-months, and 24.1 and 31.7%, respectively. A total of 755 milk samples were subjected to microbiological examination, resulting in 661 positive cultures. Coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 50.2 and 34.5% of the positive cultures, respectively. The incidence of infections (new infections per 1,000 goat-months) for the first and the second year of the study were 34 and 53 for coagulase-negative staphylococci, 23 and 28 for coagulase-positive staphylococci, 3 and 5 for Streptococcus/Enterococcus spp., and 5.5 and 9.1 for gram-negative bacteria. Goats with SCM had lower DMY when compared with goats without SCM (ca. 47g/d, corresponding to a 5.7% decrease in DMY). In particular, goats with SCM due to coagulase-positive staphylococci infection produced approximately 80g/d less milk (a reduction of ca. 9.7%) compared with uninfected ones, whereas SCM due to gram-negative bacteria resulted in approximately 15% reduction in DMY. Investigating the epidemiology of SCM and its effects on production traits is critical for

  12. Trends in udder health and emerging mastitogenic pathogens in South African dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Petzer, I-M; Karzis, J; Watermeyer, J C; van der Schans, T J; van Reenen, R

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the results of milk samples obtained from South African dairy herds during the period 1996 to April 2007 in order to identify possible trends in isolates of microorganisms and their pathogenicity under field conditions. Milk samples were obtained from 7 of the 9 provinces in South Africa where there are low numbers of dairy cows. Although there is scientific limitation to a country wide survey, such as the variation in herd size, management skills, parity, milk yield, milking frequency and other parameters, the size of this database helps to give a fair indication of general udder health in South Africa. Cytology and routine bacteriology were performed on 379,000 milk samples of lactating cows and bacteriology on 11,946 samples from non-lactating cows. According to the results obtained, mastitis did not decrease in South Africa over the test period. The prevalence of mastitis and teat canal infection was lowest in 2002. Mastitis and teat canal infection increased from 2002 to 2006 from 8.1% and 24.1% to 15.4 and 30.0% respectively. The percentage of mastitogenic pathogens isolated from cows over these years also varied. Previously unknown or almost eradicated mastitogenic pathogens such as alphabeta haemolytic Staphylococcus aureus which is thought to be of human origin, Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus canis were responsible for numerous mastitis outbreaks seen in the test samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated bacteria in milk samples from both lactating and dry cows, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. Although Staphylococcus aureus remained the principal mastitogenic pathogen in South Africa, owing to its chronic nature and resultant economic losses, most cases of mastitis were caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. This finding increases the importance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (formerly described as a minor pathogen

  13. Cost-benefit analysis model of badger (Meles meles) culling to reduce cattle herd tuberculosis breakdowns in Britain, with particular reference to badger perturbation.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D; Bennett, R; McFarlane, I; Rushton, S; Shirley, M; Smith, G C

    2009-10-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is an important economic disease. Badgers (Meles meles) are the wildlife source implicated in many cattle outbreaks of TB in Britain, and extensive badger control is a controversial option to reduce the disease. A badger and cattle population model was developed, simulating TB epidemiology; badger ecology, including postcull social perturbation; and TB-related farm management. An economic cost-benefit module was integrated into the model to assess whether badger control offers economic benefits. Model results strongly indicate that although, if perturbation were restricted, extensive badger culling could reduce rates in cattle, overall an economic loss would be more likely than a benefit. Perturbation of the badger population was a key factor determining success or failure of control. The model highlighted some important knowledge gaps regarding both the spatial and temporal characteristics of perturbation that warrant further research. PMID:19901382

  14. The relationship between Salmonella detection from milk filters and bulk milk and the fecal shedding prevalence of Salmonella in a dairy herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although dairy cattle are known reservoirs for salmonellae, cattle that are shedding this organism are often asymptomatic and difficult to identify. A dairy herd that was experiencing an outbreak of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Cerro was monitored for two years. Fecal samples from the lacta...

  15. Evaluation of an O antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of milk samples for Salmonella dublin infection in dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Hoorfar, J; Lind, P; Bitsch, V

    1995-01-01

    Levels of antibodies to the O antigens (O:1,9,12) of Salmonella dublin were tested in 1355 serum, 1143 cow milk and 160 bulk milk samples from dairy herds using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In order to define the background reaction, milk samples from all lactating cows and serum samples from 9 animals were collected in each of 20 salmonellosis-free herds located on the island of Bornholm, where cattle salmonellosis has not been reported. Similar samples were collected from all stalled animals in 10 herds with recent (< 6 months) outbreaks of salmonellosis located in Jutland, where salmonella infection is enzootic. Using herd history of salmonellosis, herd location and clinical status of the herds as criteria, the optimal cutoff in the milk ELISA was determined as being at least 5% of the samples having optical density > 0.5, resulting in herd sensitivity of 1.0 and herd specificity of 0.95. While none of the sera in the herds from Bornholm was ELISA positive, 2 herds had a few reactors in the milk ELISA. Using the same cutoff, all but 1 bulk milk sample from 150 herds on Bornholm was ELISA-negative, and all 10 salmonellosis-positive herds from Jutland were ELISA-positive. A significant correlation was found between ELISA reactions in milk and in serum of cows (34% and 32% respectively, rs = 0.69, P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7648527

  16. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages among dairy herds in the New York City Watershed.

    PubMed

    Mark-Carew, Miguella P; Wade, Susan E; Chang, Yung-Fu; Schaaf, Stephanie; Mohammed, Hussni O

    2012-04-30

    A longitudinal herd-level study was carried out to determine the cumulative incidence of Giardia duodenalis infections in dairy cattle in the New York City Watershed. We also sought to assess the changes in infection pattern of animals diagnosed as shedding Giardia over time, determine risk factors that may be associated with G. duodenalis infections, and identify potentially zoonotic infections. A total of 2109 fecal samples were randomly collected from dairy cattle at 34 farms in the New York City Watershed on a seasonal basis. A total of 504 Giardia-positive samples were identified by zinc sulfate flotation. The overall cumulative incidence of G. duodenalis based on flotation results was 23.9% with 73.8% of all infections occurring in animals under 180 days of age (372/504). The intensity of infection ranged from 2 to 563,200 cysts/gram of feces. Cattle shedding Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were twice as likely to shed G. duodenalis cysts in comparison to the animals that did not shed oocysts (1.81 95% CI 1.26-2.60 p=0.0012). In the multivariate analysis, only the age of the animal and the presence of dogs on the farm were significantly associated with the likelihood of shedding G. duodenalis. DNA was extracted from positive samples and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the beta-giardin and triosephosphate isomerase genes of Giardia spp. 304 samples were analyzed by PCR of which 131 were sequenced. 22.1% of sequenced samples were identified as assemblage A and 77.9% were identified as assemblage E. Interestingly, 100% of specimens identified as assemblage A were from calves under 84 days of age indicating that younger cattle are important reservoirs for potentially zoonotic assemblages of G. duodenalis. PMID:21993211

  17. Comparison of Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Organic and Conventional Dairy Herds in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Sato, K.; Bartlett, P. C.; Kaneene, J. B.; Downes, F. P.

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. isolates from bovine feces were compared between organic and conventional dairy herds. Thirty organic dairy herds, where antimicrobials are rarely used for calves and never used for cows, were compared with 30 neighboring conventional dairy farms, where antimicrobials were routinely used for animals for all ages. Fecal specimens from 10 cows and 10 calves on 120 farm visits yielded 332 Campylobacter isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in organic and conventional farms was 26.7 and 29.1%, and the prevalence was not statistically different between the two types of farms. Campylobacter prevalence was significantly higher in March than in September, higher in calves than in cows, and higher in smaller farms than in large farms. The rates of retained placenta, pneumonia, mastitis, and abortion were associated with the proportion of Campylobacter isolation from fecal samples. The gradient disk diffusion MIC method (Etest) was used for testing susceptibility to four antimicrobial agents: ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Two isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and none of isolates was resistant to gentamicin or erythromycin. Resistance to tetracycline was 45% (148 of 332 isolates). Tetracycline resistance was found more frequently in calves than in cows (P = 0.042), but no difference was observed between organic and conventional farms. When we used Campylobacter spp. as indicator bacteria, we saw no evidence that restriction of antimicrobial use on dairy farms was associated with prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. PMID:15006764

  18. Helicobacteraceae in Bulk Tank Milk of Dairy Herds from Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Valentina; Recordati, Camilla; Borella, Laura; Gualdi, Valentina; Scanziani, Eugenio; Selvatico, Elisa; Luini, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is responsible for gastritis and gastric adenocarcinoma in humans, but the routes of transmission of this bacterium have not been clearly defined. Few studies led to supposing that H. pylori could be transmitted through raw milk, and no one investigated the presence of other Helicobacteraceae in milk. In the current work, the presence of Helicobacteraceae was investigated in the bulk tank milk of dairy cattle herds located in northern Italy both by direct plating onto H. pylori selective medium and by screening PCR for Helicobacteraceae, followed by specific PCRs for H. pylori, Wolinella spp., and "Candidatus Helicobacter bovis." Three out of 163 bulk milk samples tested positive for Helicobacteraceae, but not for the subsequent PCRs. H. pylori was not isolated in any case. However, given similar growth conditions, Arcobacter butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, and A. skirrowii were recovered. In conclusion, the prevalence of Helicobacteraceae in raw milk was negligible (1.8%), and H. pylori was not identified in any of the positive samples, suggesting that, at least in the farming conditions of the investigated area, bovine milk does not represent a potential source of infection. PMID:26090429

  19. A HACCP-based approach to mastitis control in dairy herds. Part 2: Implementation and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Beekhuis-Gibbon, Lies; Devitt, Catherine; Whyte, Paul; O'Grady, Luke; More, Simon J; Redmond, Bairbre; Quin, Suzanne; Doherty, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Part 1 of the study described the development of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) based programme and accompanying handbook for the control of mastitis. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of customised HACCP-based programmes, which were developed from the handbook and assessed on six Irish dairy farms. Both quantitative and qualitative (action research) research methodologies were used to measure the success of implementation and efficacy of control of sub-clinical mastitis as measured by Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and the degree of compliance by farmers in adopting and maintaining recommendations throughout the course of the study period. No overall differences in SCC before and during the implementation of the study were found when all six farms were considered together. Three of the six study farms experienced a significant decrease in herd milk recorded SCC during the implementation of the control programme. An essential part of the study was achieving initial agreement on recommendations as well as ongoing monitoring of compliance during the study. This pilot study shows that HACCP can be implemented on farms as a means of working towards the control of mastitis and that farmer attitude, and understanding of mastitis are crucial in terms of motivation irrespective of practical approaches used to manage mastitis. PMID:21777494

  20. Capability index--a statistical process control tool to aid in udder health control in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Niza-Ribeiro, J; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Menezes, J C

    2004-08-01

    Bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) averages have been used to evaluate udder health both at the individual or the herd level as well as milk quality and hygiene. The authors show that the BMSCC average is not the best tool to be used in udder health control programs and that it can be replaced with advantage by the capability index (Cpk). The Cpk is a statistical process control tool traditionally used by engineers to validate, monitor, and predict the expected behavior of processes or machines. The BMSCC data of 13 consecutive months of production from 414 dairy herds as well as SCC from all cows in the DHI program from 264 herds in the same period were collected. The Cpk and the annual BMSCC average (AAVG) of all the herds were calculated. Confronting the herd's performance explained by the Cpk and AAVG with the European Union (EU) official limit for BMSCC of 400,000 cells/mL, it was noticed that the Cpk accurately classified the compliance of the 414 farms, whereas the AAVG misclassified 166 (40%) of the 414 selected farms. The annual prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SMP) of each herd was calculated with individual SCC data from the same 13-mo period. Cows with more than 200,000 SCC/mL were considered as having subclinical mastitis. A logistic regression model to relate the Cpk and the herd's subclinical mastitis prevalence was calculated. The model is: SMPe = 0.475 e(-0.5286 x Cpk). The validation of the model was carried out evaluating the relation between the observed SMP and the predicted SMPe, in terms of the linear correlation coefficient (R2) and the mean difference between SMP and SMPe (i.e., mean square error of prediction). The validation suggests that our model can be used to estimate the herd's SMP with the herd's Cpk. The Cpk equation relates the herd's BMSCC with the EU official SCC limit, thus the logistic regression model enables the adoption of critical limits for subclinical mastitis, taking into consideration the legal standard for SCC

  1. Observed management practices in relation to the risk of infection with paratuberculosis and to the spread of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Swiss dairy and beef herds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have been conducted to define risk factors for the transmission of bovine paratuberculosis, mostly in countries with large herds. Little is known about the epidemiology in infected Swiss herds and risk factors important for transmission in smaller herds. Therefore, the presence of known factors which might favor the spread of paratuberculosis and could be related to the prevalence at animal level of fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were assessed in 17 infected herds (10 dairy, 7 beef). Additionally, the level of knowledge of herd managers about the disease was assessed. In a case–control study with 4 matched negative control herds per infected herd, the association of potential risk factors with the infection status of the herd was investigated. Results Exposure of the young stock to feces of older animals was frequently observed in infected and in control herds. The farmers’ knowledge about paratuberculosis was very limited, even in infected herds. An overall prevalence at animal level of fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis of 6.1% was found in infected herds, whereby shedders younger than 2 years of age were found in 46.2% of the herds where the young stock was available for testing. Several factors related to contamination of the heifer area with cows’ feces and the management of the calving area were found to be significantly associated with the within-herd prevalence. Animal purchase was associated with a positive herd infection status (OR = 7.25, p = 0.004). Conclusions Numerous risk factors favoring the spread of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from adult animals to the young stock were observed in infected Swiss dairy and beef herds, which may be amenable to improvement in order to control the disease. Important factors were contamination of the heifer and the calving area, which were associated with higher within-herd prevalence of fecal shedding. The

  2. A structural equation model to evaluate direct and indirect factors associated with a latent measure of mastitis in Belgian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Detilleux, J; Theron, L; Beduin, J-M; Hanzen, C

    2012-12-01

    In dairy cattle, many farming practices have been associated with occurrence of mastitis but it is often difficult to disentangle the causal threads. Structural equation models may reduce the complexity of such situations. Here, we applied the method to examine the links between mastitis (subclinical and clinical) and risk factors such as herd demographics, housing conditions, feeding procedures, milking practices, and strategies of mastitis prevention and treatment in 345 dairy herds from the Walloon region of Belgium. During the period January 2006 to October 2007, up to 110 different herd management variables were recorded by two surveyors using a questionnaire for the farm managers and during a farm visit. Monthly somatic cell counts of all lactating cows were collected by the local dairy herd improvement association. Structural equation models were created to obtain a latent measure of mastitis and to reduce the complexity of the relationships between farming practices, between indicators of herd mastitis and between both. Robust maximum likelihood estimates were obtained for the effects of the herd management variables on the latent measure of herd mastitis. Variables associated directly (p<0.05) with the latent measure of herd mastitis were the addition of urea in the rations; the practices of machine stripping, of pre-and post-milking teat disinfection; the presence of cows with hyperkeratotic teats, of cubicles for housing and of dirty liners before milking; the treatment of subclinical cases of mastitis; and the age of the herd (latent variable for average age and parity of cows, and percentage of heifers in the herd). Treatment of subclinical mastitis was also an intermediate in the association between herd mastitis and post-milking teat disinfection. The study illustrates how structural equation model provides information regarding the linear relationships between risk factors and a latent measure of mastitis, distinguishes between direct relationships

  3. Distribution of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species from milk and environment of dairy cows differs between herds.

    PubMed

    Piessens, V; Van Coillie, E; Verbist, B; Supré, K; Braem, G; Van Nuffel, A; De Vuyst, L; Heyndrickx, M; De Vliegher, S

    2011-06-01

    In many parts of the world, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant pathogens causing intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cows. The cows' environment is thought to be a possible source for CNS mastitis and this was investigated in the present paper. A longitudinal field study was carried out in 6 well-managed dairy herds to determine the distribution and epidemiology of various CNS species isolated from milk, causing IMI and living freely in the cows' environment, respectively. In each herd, quarter milk samples from a cohort of 10 lactating cows and environmental samples from stall air, slatted floor, sawdust from cubicles, and sawdust stock were collected monthly (n=13). Isolates from quarter milk samples (n=134) and the environment (n=637) were identified to species level using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyping. Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. haemolyticus, S. epidermidis, and S. simulans accounted for 81.3% of all CNS milk isolates. Quarters were considered infected with CNS (positive IMI status) only when 2 out of 3 consecutive milk samples yielded the same CNS AFLP type. The species causing IMI were S. chromogenes (n=35 samples with positive IMI status), S. haemolyticus (n=29), S. simulans (n=14), and S. epidermidis (n=6). The observed persistent IMI cases (n=17) had a mean duration of 149.4 d (range 63.0 to 329.8 d). The CNS species predominating in the environment were S. equorum, S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus, and S. fleurettii. Herd-to-herd differences in distribution of CNS species were observed in both milk and the environment, suggesting that herd-level factors are involved in the establishment of particular species in a dairy herd. Primary reservoirs of the species causing IMI varied. Staphylococcus chromogenes and S. epidermidis were rarely found in the environment, indicating that other reservoirs were more important in their epidemiology. For S. haemolyticus and S. simulans, the environment was found as a

  4. Associations between herd-level factors and lying behavior of freestall-housed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Chapinal, N; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the associations between herd-level factors and lying behavior of high-producing dairy cows housed in freestall barns. Lying behavior of approximately 40 focal cows in one high-producing pen was monitored on each of 40 farms in the northeastern United States (NE) and 39 farms in California (CA). All cows within the pen were gait scored using a 1-to-5 scale to calculate the prevalence of clinical lameness (score ≥3) and severe lameness (score ≥4). Facility and management measures, including stall design, bedding, and flooring type within the pen, were collected. Herd-level factors associated with daily lying time, standard deviation (SD) of daily lying time, frequency of lying bouts, and lying bout duration at the univariate level were submitted to multivariable general linear models. In the NE, daily lying time increased with the use of deep bedding (estimate = 0.80±0.31h/d) and as average days in milk (DIM) of the focal cows increased (estimate = 0.08±0.04h/d for a 10-d increase in DIM). The SD of daily lying time decreased as stall stocking density increased (estimate = -0.08±0.03h/d for a 10% increase), and increased with the presence of rubber flooring in the pen (estimate = 0.16±0.08h/d) and percentage of stalls with fecal contamination (estimate = 0.04±0.01h/d for a 10% increase). Frequency of lying bouts decreased (estimate = -1.90±0.63 bouts/d) and average bout duration increased (estimate = 15.44±3.02 min) with the use of deep bedding. In CA, where all farms used deep bedding, daily lying time increased as average DIM of the focal cows increased (estimate = 0.08±0.03h/d for a 10-d increase). The SD of daily lying time decreased when feed was delivered more than once per day (estimate = -0.24±0.08h/d). The percentage of lame cows was correlated with the percentage of stalls with fecal contamination (r=0.45), which in turn was associated with fewer (estimate = -0.25±0.06 bouts/d) and longer lying bouts (estimate

  5. An evaluation of over-wintering feeding strategies prior to finishing at pasture for cull dairy cows on live animal performance, carcass and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Minchin, W; Buckley, F; Kenny, D A; Monahan, F J; Shalloo, L; O'Donovan, M

    2010-07-01

    Fifty-six spring calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (body weight=607 kg and body condition score=2.75), destined for culling, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental treatments. Cows were confirmed non-pregnant by rectal palpation. The experiment was split into two periods: over-wintering period (OWP) and spring finishing period (SFP). Animals were assigned to one of four treatments: a control group (C) was slaughtered after am milking on day 0; three dietary treatments, two of which were dried pre-experiment; ad libitum grass silage (GS+G); 75% grass silage and 25% straw (GS+S); and one with the extended lactation concept applied, cows were offered grass silage plus 6 kg concentrate DM/cow/day and milked twice daily (EXTLAC). EXTLAC cows were dried-off 1 week prior to turnout. The OWP lasted 84 days. Subsequent to the OWP cows were turned out to pasture (SFP). All cows were finished to a pre-defined carcass specification; >272 kg cold carcass weight, P+carcass conformation class and 3 carcass fat class. Over the entire experimental period, average daily gain (ADG) was lower (P<0.001) for the EXTLAC treatment compared with the two other dietary treatments. The GS+G treatment finished 33 and 38 days (P<0.001) earlier than the GS+S and EXTLAC treatments, respectively. Total feed utilized on a DM basis was 1.9, 2.0 and 2.5 tonnes/cow for the GS+G, GS+S and EXTLAC dietary treatments, respectively. All finishing treatments resulted in a significant improvement in carcass weight, as well as carcass quality traits, compared to the C group. A significant improvement occurred in muscle redness between the C group and treatments offered a finishing period prior to slaughter. PMID:20416797

  6. Relative associations of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) seropositivity in beef and dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gates, M C; Woolhouse, M E J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W

    2013-11-01

    The success of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication campaigns can be undermined by spread through local transmission pathways and poor farmer compliance with biosecurity recommendations. This work combines recent survey data with cattle movement data to explore the issues likely to impact on the success of BVDV control in Scotland. In this analysis, data from 249 beef suckler herds and 185 dairy herds in Scotland were studied retrospectively to determine the relative influence of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity on BVDV seropositivity. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that cattle movement risk factors had approximately 3 times greater explanatory power than risk factors for local spread amongst beef suckler herds, but approximately the same explanatory power as risk factors for local spread amongst dairy herds. These findings are most likely related to differences in cattle husbandry practices and suggest that where financial prioritization is required, focusing on reducing movement-based risk is likely to be of greatest benefit when applied to beef suckler herds. The reported use of biosecurity measures such as purchasing cattle from BVDV accredited herds only, performing diagnostic screening at the time of sale, implementing isolation periods for purchased cattle, and installing double fencing on shared field boundaries had minimal impact on the risk of beef or dairy herds being seropositive for BVDV. Only 28% of beef farmers and 24% of dairy farmers with seropositive herds recognized that their cattle were affected by BVDV and those that did perceive a problem were no less likely to sell animals as replacement breeding stock and no more likely to implement biosecurity measures against local spread than farmers with no perceived problems. In relation to the current legislative framework for BVDV control in Scotland, these findings emphasize the importance of requiring infected herds take appropriate biosecurity measures

  7. Schmallenberg virus antibody development and decline in a naturally infected dairy cattle herd in Germany, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Holsteg, Mark; Sasserath, Michael; Beer, Martin

    2015-12-31

    In late 2011, the novel insect-transmitted orthobunyavirus Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in Central Europe. Since that year, a dairy cattle herd kept in the German region in which the virus was initially detected was continuously monitored. In order to evaluate the development of the within-herd seroprevalence, but also to assess the long-term persistence of antibodies against SBV in individual animals, blood samples of all cows older than 24 months were taken yearly after the respective vector season and serologically analyzed. In December 2011, in 74% of the tested animals SBV-specific antibodies were detectable. Additional scattered seroconversions were observed between the 2011 and 2012 vector seasons, thereafter all seronegative animals remained negative. Until December 2014, the intra-herd seroprevalence decreased to 58%. A total of 122 cows infected presumable in autumn 2011 were sampled every year, 9 of them became seronegative until December 2014. Consequently, though SBV-specific antibodies were detected in about 90% of the monitored animals for more than three years, a lifelong antibody-based immunity is not expected in every animal. The loss of anti-SBV antibodies in individual animals combined with the missing infection of young stock results in a declining herd seroprevalence and increases the risk of a renewed virus circulation to a greater extent within the next years. PMID:26518458

  8. Resistance to penicillin of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cows with high somatic cell counts in organic and conventional dairy herds in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Bennedsgaard, Torben W; Thamsborg, Stig M; Aarestrup, Frank M; Enevoldsen, Carsten; Vaarst, Mette; Christoffersen, Anna B

    2006-01-01

    Background Quarter milk samples from cows with high risk of intramammary infection were examined to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and penicillin resistant SA (SAr) in conventional and organic dairy herds and herds converting to organic farming in a combined longitudinal and cross-sectional study. Methods 20 conventional herds, 18 organic herds that converted before 1995, and 19 herds converting to organic farming in 1999 or 2000 were included in the study. Herds converting to organic farming were sampled three times one year apart; the other herds were sampled once. Risk of infection was estimated based on somatic cell count, milk production, breed, age and lactation stage. Results The high-risk cows represented about 49 % of the cows in the herds. The overall prevalence of SA and SAr among these cows was 29% (95% confidence interval: 24%–34%) and 4% (95% confidence interval: 2%–5%) respectively. The prevalence of penicillin resistance among SA infected cows was 12% (95% confidence interval: 6%–19%) when calculated from the first herd visits. No statistically significant differences were observed in the prevalence of SAr or the proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin between herd groups. Conclusion The proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin was low compared to studies in other countries except Norway and Sweden. Based on the low prevalence of penicillin resistance of SA, penicillin should still be the first choice of antimicrobial agent for treatment of bovine intramammary infection in Denmark. PMID:17125515

  9. Phenotyping and genotyping of streptococci in bovine milk in Argentinean dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Reinoso, Elina; Dieser, Silvana; Calvinho, Luis; Bogni, Cristina; Odierno, Liliana

    2010-09-01

    Most veterinary and milk hygiene laboratories identify streptococci and enterococci based on serological and biochemical tests. The analysis of 16S rDNA was suggested to be used for more exact identification; however, its use has not been considered so far in monitoring studies. The objective of the present study was to compare a conventional phenotypic method with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rDNA (16S rDNA RFLP) for identification of streptococci isolated from composite milk samples collected in connection with intramammary infection (IMI) in six Argentinean dairy farms. Composite milk samples (n = 1223) from cows belonging to six herds were collected for bacteriological analysis. Twelve reference strains and fifty streptococci or streptococcuslike isolates were identified to species level by the API 20 Strep system, conventional biochemical tests and 16S rDNA RFLP in a blind assay. The remaining streptococci or streptococcus-like isolates (n = 40) were identified to the species level both by 16S rDNA RFLP and conventional biochemical tests. As indicated by Kappa values, agreement between the 16S rDNA RFLP and the conventional scheme for identification of Streptococcus agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, S. equinus and Enterococcus faecalis was 0.91, 0.73, 0.92, 0.81 and 0.85, respectively. Together with the less frequently isolated streptococcal species, the conventional scheme correctly identified 77 out of 90 isolates (85.5%). Thus, the use of 16S rDNA RFLP is considered valuable for monitoring studies due to its affordable cost for standard laboratories. PMID:20713320

  10. Factors affecting pregnancy loss for single and twin pregnancies in a high-producing dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Silva-Del-Río, N; Colloton, J D; Fricke, P M

    2009-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the magnitude of, and factors affecting, pregnancy loss for lactating Holstein cows on a commercial dairy farm when diagnosed with twin (n=98) or single (n=518) pregnancies using transrectal ultrasonography. Pregnancy losses were assessed with records of non-viable embryos at first pregnancy examination and embryo losses between the first (25-40 d after AI) and second (48 and 82 d after AI) post-breeding pregnancy examinations. Among cows diagnosed with single pregnancies, 3.7% were diagnosed with a non-viable embryo at first pregnancy examination, and 4.6% of those diagnosed with a viable embryo underwent pregnancy loss by the second examination. A total of 11.2% of cows diagnosed with twins experienced a single embryo reduction, whereas 13.3% lost both embryos. Overall, the total proportion of cows experiencing pregnancy loss or experiencing embryo reduction was greater for cows diagnosed with twin than single pregnancies (odds ratio; OR=3.6), resulting in an embryo survival rate of 91.9% for cows diagnosed with single compared to 75.5% for cows diagnosed with twin pregnancies. Season of breeding and milk production were associated with pregnancy loss for single pregnancies, whereas CL number was associated negatively with embryo reduction and pregnancy loss for twin pregnancies. The risk of twinning and double ovulation among pregnant cows increased with days in milk (DIM), and the risk of double ovulation was greater for cows diagnosed with ovarian cysts and lacking a CL at initiation of an Ovsynch protocol. We concluded that in this herd, embryo reduction and pregnancy loss during early gestation was greater for lactating Holstein cows diagnosed with twin compared to single pregnancies. In addition, cows diagnosed with ovarian cysts and lacking a CL had an increased risk for double ovulation. PMID:19269023