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Sample records for dam hydropower operational

  1. Classification of US hydropower dams by their modes of operation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Oigbokie, II, Clement O.; Kao, Shih -Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S.

    2016-02-19

    A key challenge to understanding ecohydrologic responses to dam regulation is the absence of a universally transferable classification framework for how dams operate. In the present paper, we develop a classification system to organize the modes of operation (MOPs) for U.S. hydropower dams and powerplants. To determine the full diversity of MOPs, we mined federal documents, open-access data repositories, and internet sources. W then used CART classification trees to predict MOPs based on physical characteristics, regulation, and project generation. Finally, we evaluated how much variation MOPs explained in sub-daily discharge patterns for stream gages downstream of hydropower dams. After reviewingmore » information for 721 dams and 597 power plants, we developed a 2-tier hierarchical classification based on 1) the storage and control of flows to powerplants, and 2) the presence of a diversion around the natural stream bed. This resulted in nine tier-1 MOPs representing a continuum of operations from strictly peaking, to reregulating, to run-of-river, and two tier-2 MOPs, representing diversion and integral dam-powerhouse configurations. Although MOPs differed in physical characteristics and energy production, classification trees had low accuracies (<62%), which suggested accurate evaluations of MOPs may require individual attention. MOPs and dam storage explained 20% of the variation in downstream subdaily flow characteristics and showed consistent alterations in subdaily flow patterns from reference streams. Lastly, this standardized classification scheme is important for future research including estimating reservoir operations for large-scale hydrologic models and evaluating project economics, environmental impacts, and mitigation.« less

  2. Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on flow and stage in the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, S.C.L.; Cho, H.E.; McCoy, J.J.; Palmer, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the development of Flaming Gorge Reservoir release patterns and resulting downstream flows and stages for four potential hydropower operational scenarios. The release patterns were developed for three representative hydrologic years: moderate, dry, and wet. Computer models were used to estimate flows and stages in the Green River resulting from these release patterns for the moderate water year. The four hydropower operational scenarios for Flaming Gorge Dam were year-round high fluctuating flows, seasonally adjusted high fluctuating flows, seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuating flows, and seasonally adjusted steady flows. The year-round high fluctuating flow scenario assumes that the monthly total reservoir releases would be the same as historical releases. The remaining seasonally adjusted flow scenarios would comply with the 1992 Biological Opinion of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, which requires high flows in the spring and limited hourly fluctuations, especially in summer and autumn releases, to protect endangered fish. Within one year, the maximum daily river stage fluctuations resulting from hydropower operations under the seasonally adjusted high fluctuating flow scenario would be similar to the maximum daily fluctuations under the year-round high fluctuating flow scenario. However, reduced or no fluctuations would occur in some time periods under the former scenario. The maximum daily river stage fluctuations under the seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuating flow scenario would be about half of those under the seasonally adjusted high fluctuating flow scenario.

  3. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation.

  4. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on the fishes of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    Aerial videography and modeling were used to evaluate the impacts of four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah, on trout and native fishes in the Green River, Utah and Colorado. The four operational scenarios studied were year-round high fluctuations, seasonally adjusted high fluctuations, seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuations, and seasonally adjusted steady flows. Impacts on trout were evaluated by examining differences among scenarios in the areas of inundated substrates that serve as spawning and feeding habitat. All scenarios would provide at least 23 acres per mile of habitat for spawning and food production; seasonally adjusted operations would provide additional areas during periods of sustained high release. Seasonally adjusted high fluctuations would increase inundated areas by 12 to 26% for a short period in winter and spring, but food production and reproduction would not be expected to increase. Seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuations and steady flows would produce similar increases in area, but the longer period of inundation could also result in increased food production and provide additional spawning sites for trout. Impacts on native fishes were assessed by examining daily changes in backwater nursery areas. Compared with year-round high fluctuations, the daily changes in backwater area would decrease by about 47, 89, and 100% under the seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, moderate fluctuation, and steady flow scenarios, respectively. Similarly, daily stage fluctuations during the nursery period would decrease by 72, 89, and 100% under the seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, moderate fluctuation, and steady flow scenarios, respectively. These reductions in daily fluctuations in backwater area and stage would improve conditions in nursery habitats and could in turn improve recruitment and overwinter survival. Introduced fish species could also benefit from the seasonally adjusted operational scenarios.

  5. Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on sediment transport in the Browns Park reach of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G.P.; Tomasko, D.; Cho, H.E.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1995-05-01

    Three methods for comparing sediment transport were applied to four proposed hydropower operational scenarios under study for Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah. These methods were effective discharge, equilibrium potential, and cumulative sediment load with flow exceedance plots. Sediment loads transported by the Green River in the Browns Park reach were calculated with the Engelund-Hansen equation for three historical water years and four hydropower operational scenarios. A model based on the Engelund-Hansen equation was developed using site-specific information and validated by comparing predictions for a moderate water year with measured historical values. The three methods were used to assess the impacts of hydropower operational scenarios on sediment resources. The cumulative sediment load method provided the most useful information for impact evaluation. Effective discharge was not a useful tool because of the limited number of discrete flows associated with synthetic hydrographs for the hydropower operational scenarios. The equilibrium potential method was relatively insensitive to the variations in operating conditions, rendering it comparatively ineffective for impact evaluation.

  6. Effects of hydropower operations on recreational use and nonuse values at Glen Canyon and Flaming Gorge Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    Increases in streamflows are generally positively related to the use values of angling and white-water boating, and constant flows tend to increase the use values more than fluctuating flows. In most instances, however, increases in streamflows beyond some threshold level cause the use values to decrease. Expenditures related to angling and white-water boating account for about $24 million of activity in the local economy around Glen Canyon Dam and $24.8 million in the local economy around flaming Gorge Dam. The range of operational scenarios being considered in the Western Area Power Administration`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, when use rates are held constant, could change the combined use value of angling and white-water boating below Glen Canyon Dam, increasing it by as much as 50%, depending on prevailing hydrological conditions. Changes in the combined use value below Flaming Gorge Dam could range from a decrease of 9% to an increase of 26%. Nonuse values, such as existence and bequest values, could also make a significant contribution to the total value of each site included in this study; however, methodological and data limitations prevented estimating how each operational scenario could change nonuse values.

  7. PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Pasha, MD Fayzul K; Stewart, Kevin M; Bender, Merlynn; Schneider, Michael L.

    2012-07-01

    Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and

  8. Wind-Driven Ecological Flow Regimes Downstream from Hydropower Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, J.; Characklis, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    Conventional hydropower can be turned on and off quicker and less expensively than thermal generation (coal, nuclear, or natural gas). These advantages enable hydropower utilities to respond to rapid fluctuations in energy supply and demand. More recently, a growing renewable energy sector has underlined the need for flexible generation capacity that can complement intermittent renewable resources such as wind power. While wind power entails lower variable costs than other types of generation, incorporating it into electric power systems can be problematic. Due to variable and unpredictable wind speeds, wind power is difficult to schedule and must be used when available. As a result, integrating large amounts of wind power into the grid may result in atypical, swiftly changing demand patterns for other forms of generation, placing a premium on sources that can be rapidly ramped up and down. Moreover, uncertainty in wind power forecasts will stipulate increased levels of 'reserve' generation capacity that can respond quickly if real-time wind supply is less than expected. These changes could create new hourly price dynamics for energy and reserves, altering the short-term financial signals that hydroelectric dam operators use to schedule water releases. Traditionally, hourly stream flow patterns below hydropower dams have corresponded in a very predictable manner to electricity demand, whose primary factors are weather (hourly temperature) and economic activity (workday hours). Wind power integration has the potential to yield more variable, less predictable flows at hydro dams, flows that at times could resemble reciprocal wind patterns. An existing body of research explores the impacts of standard, demand-following hydroelectric dams on downstream ecological flows; but weighing the benefits of increased reliance on wind power against further impacts to ecological flows may be a novel challenge for the environmental community. As a preliminary step in meeting this

  9. Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Elizabeth P.; Pringle, C.M.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    1. Costa Rica has recently experienced a rapid proliferation of dams for hydropower on rivers draining its northern Caribbean slope. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, eight hydropower plants were built between 1990 and 1999 and more projects are either under construction or proposed. The majority of these dams are small (< 15 m tall) and operate as water diversion projects. 2. While the potential environmental effects of individual projects are evaluated prior to dam construction, there is a need for consideration of the basin-scale ecological consequences of hydropower development. This study was a first attempt to quantify the extent of river fragmentation by dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin. 3. Using simple spatial analyses, the length of river upstream from dams and the length of de-watered reaches downstream from dams was measured. Results indicated that there are currently 306.8 km of river (9.4% of the network) upstream from eight existing dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin and 30.6 km of rivers (0.9% of the network) with significantly reduced flow downstream from dams. Rivers upstream from dams primarily drain two life zones: Premontane Rain Forest (107.9km) and Lower Montane Rain Forest (168.2km). 4. Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity.

  10. Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole

    2009-07-01

    In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas. PMID:18992986

  11. Hydropower study. Blackwater Dam, Webster, New Hampshire. Reconnaissance report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The principal thrust of this limited reconnaissance effort is to determine whether any economically feasible hydropower development could be undertaken at Blackwater Dam. Baseline environmental, recreational, social and cultural conditions in the study area have been identified. Due to time and funding limitations only two alternatives were considered. If the study is continued several alternatives will be evaluated.

  12. Rock Mass Behavior Under Hydropower Embankment Dams: A Two-Dimensional Numerical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarchuk, A.; Ask, M. V. S.; Dahlström, L.-O.; Nordlund, E.

    2012-09-01

    Sweden has more than 190 large hydropower dams, of which about 50 are pure embankment dams and over 100 are concrete/embankment dams. This paper presents results from conceptual analyses of the response of typical Swedish rock mass to the construction of a hydropower embankment dam and its first stages of operation. The aim is to identify locations and magnitudes of displacements that are occurring in the rock foundation and grout curtain after construction of the dam, the first filling of its water reservoir, and after one seasonal variation of the water table. Coupled hydro-mechanical analysis was conducted using the two-dimensional distinct element program UDEC. Series of the simulations have been performed and the results show that the first filling of the reservoir and variation of water table induce largest magnitudes of displacement, with the greatest values obtained from the two models with high differential horizontal stresses and smallest spacing of sub-vertical fractures. These results may help identifying the condition of the dam foundation and contribute to the development of proper maintenance measures, which guarantee the safety and functionality of the dam. Additionally, newly developed dams may use these results for the estimation of the possible response of the rock foundation to the construction.

  13. Temporospatial Patterns of Manganese Concentrations in a Hydropower Dam Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munger, Z.; Schreiber, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Concentrations of manganese (Mn) downstream of a hydropower dam are strongly influenced by seasonal reservoir dynamics. During warm months reservoirs experience stratification that results in the depletion of dissolved oxygen at depth and the concurrent release of dissolved Mn from the sediment into the water column. After being released from the dam these Mn rich waters are mixed with oxygenated river water and the Mn may become oxidized and removed from the water column over time. Previous studies have largely focused on patterns of Mn distribution within the first 20 km or less downstream of a dam. However, water quality issues at our field site extend much further downstream. The primary goal of our work was to investigate how seasonal dynamics in the reservoir couple with heterogeneity at the watershed scale to drive temporal and spatial patterns across large distances. Mn concentrations were monitored downstream of a hydropower dam in southwest Virginia over a two year period that covered the Roanoke River between Leesville Dam and a water treatment plant 150 km downstream. Data that we have collected over the past two years show that Mn concentrations are highest near the dam during reservoir stratification in late summer and fall and decrease with distance downstream. A mass balance of the first 19 km downstream from the dam suggests loss of Mn via sedimentation and filtering of particulates. Mn concentrations appear to reach a consistent minimum at 50 km downstream. However, after the 50 km inflection, Mn concentrations increase with distance downstream. Along the downstream reach (>50 km), Mn concentrations in the river also exhibit a better correlation with stream discharge and the suspended particle load. Tributaries to this reach are also characterized by higher concentrations of Mn than observed in the first 50 km which appear to be driving these increases in concentration. These results provide new insights into the temporospatial patterns of Mn

  14. Prediction of Total Dissolved Gas (TDG) at Hydropower Dams throughout the Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Pasha, MD Fayzul K; Hadjerioua, Boualem; Stewart, Kevin M; Bender, Merlynn; Schneider, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. The entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin cause elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) saturation. Physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been characterized throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and at real-time water quality monitoring stations. These data have been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange which are site specific and account for the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant transport and exchange in route to the downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the findings from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow for the formulation of optimal water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases.

  15. Comparative effects on trout habitat of hydropower modification with and without reregulation in the Cumberland River below Wolf Creek Dam, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, L.T.; Nestler, J.M.; Martin, J.L.

    1987-03-01

    The U.S. Army Engineer District, Nashville regulates flows in the Cumberland River at Wolf Creek Dam to provide for hydropower generation and flood control. To meet future demands for power in the region, the ORN is considering optimizing the generating capability at Wolf Creek Dam by both uprating existing turbines and adding more generating capability. Reregulation of the increased releases from Wolf Creek Dam is under consideration to alleviate the flow fluctuations associated with the upgrade. This report describes and quantifies the effects on trout habitat of hydropower modification and peaking operation at Wolf Creek Dam on trout habitat in the reach of the Cumberland River between Wolf Creek Dam and the site of the reregulation dam both with and without reregulation. The results of this comparison indicate that reregulation will generally have a beneficial impact on trout habitat, primarily because the backwater effects caused by the reregulation dam reduce the water velocities associated with peak discharge.

  16. Operating multireservoir hydropower systems for downstream water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Hydropower reservoir operations often impact tailwater quality and water quality in the stream or river below the impoundment for many miles. Determining optimal operating strategies for a system of hydropower reservoirs involves solving a highly dimensional nonlinear, nonconvex optimization problem. This research adds the additional complexities of downstream water quality considerations within the optimization formulation to determine operating strategies for a system of hydropower reservoirs operating in series (tandem) or parallel. The formulation was used to determine operating strategies for six reservoirs of the upper Cumberland river basin in Tennessee and Kentucky. Significant dissolved oxygen (DO) violations occur just upstream of Nashville, Tennessee below Old Hickory dam during the months of August and September. Daily reservoir releases were determined for the period of June through September which would produce the maximum hydropower revenue while meeting downstream water quality objectives. Optimal releases for three operational strategies were compared to historical operations for the years 1985, 1986, and 1988. These strategies included: spilling as necessary to meet water quality criteria, near normal operation (minimal spills), and drawdown of reservoirs as necessary to meet criteria without spills. Optimization results showed an 8% to 15% hydropower loss may be necessary to meet water quality criteria through spills and a 2% to 9% improvement in DO below Old Hickory may be possible without significant spills. Results also showed that substantial increases in initial headwater elevations would be necessary to meet daily DO criteria and avoid spills. The optimal control theory algorithm used to solve the problem proved to be an efficient and robust solver of this large optimization problem.

  17. Ecological consequences of hydropower development in Central America: Impacts of small dams and water diversion on neotropical stream fish assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Elizabeth P.; Freeman, Mary C.; Pringle, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Small dams for hydropower have caused widespread alteration of Central American rivers, yet much of recent development has gone undocumented by scientists and conservationists. We examined the ecological effects of a small hydropower plant (Dona Julia Hydroelectric Center) on two low-order streams (the Puerto Viejo River and Quebradon stream) draining a mountainous area of Costa Rica. Operation of the Dona Julia plant has dewatered these streams, reducing discharge to ~ 10% of average annual flow. This study compared fish assemblage composition and aquatic habitat upstream and downstream of diversion dams on two streams and along a ~ 4 km dewatered reach of the Puerto Viejo River in an attempt to evaluate current instream flow recommendations for regulated Costa Rican streams. Our results indicated that fish assemblages directly upstream and downstream of the dam on the third order Puerto Viejo River were dissimilar, suggesting that the small dam (< 15 in high) hindered movement of fishes. Along the ~ 4 km dewatered reach of the Puerto Viejo River, species count increased with downstream distance from the dam. However, estimated species richness and overall fish abundance were not significantly correlated with downstream distance from the dam. Our results suggested that effects of stream dewatering may be most pronounced for a subset of species with more complex reproductive requirements, classified as equilibrium-type species based on their life-history. In the absence of changes to current operations, we expect that fish assemblages in the Puerto Viejo River will be increasingly dominated by opportunistic-type, colonizing fish species. Operations of many other small hydropower plants in Costa Rica and other parts of Central America mirror those of Doha Julia; the methods and results of this study may be applicable to some of those projects.

  18. Balancing hydropower production and river bed incision in operating a run-of-river hydropower scheme along the River Po

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denaro, Simona; Dinh, Quang; Bizzi, Simone; Bernardi, Dario; Pavan, Sara; Castelletti, Andrea; Schippa, Leonardo; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

    2013-04-01

    Water management through dams and reservoirs is worldwide necessary to support key human-related activities ranging from hydropower production to water allocation, and flood risk mitigation. Reservoir operations are commonly planned in order to maximize these objectives. However reservoirs strongly influence river geomorphic processes causing sediment deficit downstream, altering the flow regime, leading, often, to process of river bed incision: for instance the variations of river cross sections over few years can notably affect hydropower production, flood mitigation, water supply strategies and eco-hydrological processes of the freshwater ecosystem. The river Po (a major Italian river) has experienced severe bed incision in the last decades. For this reason infrastructure stability has been negatively affected, and capacity to derive water decreased, navigation, fishing and tourism are suffering economic damages, not to mention the impact on the environment. Our case study analyzes the management of Isola Serafini hydropower plant located on the main Po river course. The plant has a major impact to the geomorphic river processes downstream, affecting sediment supply, connectivity (stopping sediment upstream the dam) and transport capacity (altering the flow regime). Current operation policy aims at maximizing hydropower production neglecting the effects in term of geomorphic processes. A new improved policy should also consider controlling downstream river bed incision. The aim of this research is to find suitable modeling framework to identify an operating policy for Isola Serafini reservoir able to provide an optimal trade-off between these two conflicting objectives: hydropower production and river bed incision downstream. A multi-objective simulation-based optimization framework is adopted. The operating policy is parameterized as a piecewise linear function and the parameters optimized using an interactive response surface approach. Global and local

  19. 76 FR 75542 - Porcupine Dam Hydropower Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Porcupine Dam Hydropower Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... 20, 2011, Porcupine Reservoir Company, Utah, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the...

  20. Surface Flow Outlets to Protect Juvenile Salmonids Passing through Hydropower Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2006-10-27

    We reviewed results of research conducted by engineers and biologists over the past 50 years related to development of surface flow outlets (SFOs) for juvenile salmonids that migrate downstream past hydropower dams. An SFO is a non-turbine, water-efficient passage route with an overflow structure through which flow and fish pass over a dam. Our review covered 69 SFOs in Europe and North America. We identified five main types of SFOs ? low-flow bypass/sluices, high-flow sluices, forebay collectors, powerhouse retrofits, and surface spills. Most low-flow bypass/sluices are sited in Europe and on the east coast of North America, where mean annual project discharge and hydropower production for the dams we reviewed were 95 m3/s and 15 MW, respectively. The other four SFO types are found at dams on the west coast of North America with 2184 m3/s mean annual discharge and 788 MW mean output. A conceptual framework based on fish behavior and hydraulics for different regions of a hydropower project was developed to evaluate SFO performance. For all SFO types, fish collection efficiency averaged 54%, with an average effectiveness ratio of 17:1 (fish to inflow). Surface flow outlet technology can meet the goal of concurrent anadromous fish protection and hydropower generation.

  1. Optimal Reservoir Operation for Hydropower Generation using Non-linear Programming Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, R.; Jothiprakash, V.

    2012-05-01

    Hydropower generation is one of the vital components of reservoir operation, especially for a large multi-purpose reservoir. Deriving optimal operational rules for such a large multi-purpose reservoir serving various purposes like irrigation, hydropower and flood control are complex, because of the large dimension of the problem and the complexity is more if the hydropower production is not an incidental. Thus optimizing the operations of a reservoir serving various purposes requires a systematic study. In the present study such a large multi-purpose reservoir, namely, Koyna reservoir operations are optimized for maximizing the hydropower production subject to the condition of satisfying the irrigation demands using a non-linear programming model. The hydropower production from the reservoir is analysed for three different dependable inflow conditions, representing wet, normal and dry years. For each dependable inflow conditions, various scenarios have been analyzed based on the constraints on the releases and the results are compared. The annual power production, combined monthly power production from all the powerhouses, end of month storage levels, evaporation losses and surplus are discussed. From different scenarios, it is observed that more hydropower can be generated for various dependable inflow conditions, if the restrictions on releases are slightly relaxed. The study shows that Koyna dam is having potential to generate more hydropower.

  2. Assessment of Dissolved Oxygen Mitigation at Hydropower Dams Using an Integrated Hydrodynamic/Water Quality/Fish Growth Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bevelhimer, Mark S; Coutant, Charles C

    2006-07-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) in rivers is a common environmental problem associated with hydropower projects. Approximately 40% of all FERC-licensed projects have requirements to monitor and/or mitigate downstream DO conditions. Most forms of mitigation for increasing DO in dam tailwaters are fairly expensive. One area of research of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Program is the development of advanced turbines that improve downstream water quality and have other environmental benefits. There is great interest in being able to predict the benefits of these modifications prior to committing to the cost of new equipment. In the case of turbine replacement or modification, there is a need for methods that allow us to accurately extrapolate the benefits derived from one or two turbines with better design to the replacement or modification of all turbines at a site. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate a modeling approach that integrates the effects of flow and water quality dynamics with fish bioenergetics to predict DO mitigation effectiveness over long river segments downstream of hydropower dams. We were particularly interested in demonstrating the incremental value of including a fish growth model as a measure of biological response. The models applied are a suite of tools (RMS4 modeling system) originally developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for simulating hydrodynamics (ADYN model), water quality (RQUAL model), and fish growth (FISH model) as influenced by DO, temperature, and available food base. We parameterized a model for a 26-mile reach of the Caney Fork River (Tennessee) below Center Hill Dam to assess how improvements in DO at the dam discharge would affect water quality and fish growth throughout the river. We simulated different types of mitigation (i.e., at the turbine and in the reservoir forebay) and different levels of improvement. The model application successfully demonstrates how a modeling approach like this one can be used

  3. Identifying and Evaluating Options for Improving Sediment Management and Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams in the Lower Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, T. B.; Reed, P. M.; Loucks, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia is undergoing intensive and pervasive hydropower development to satisfy demand for increased energy and income to support its growing population of 60 million people. Just 20 years ago this river flowed freely. Today some 30 large dams exist in the basin, and over 100 more are being planned for construction. These dams will alter the river's natural water, sediment and nutrient flows, thereby impacting river morphology and ecosystems, and will fragment fish migration pathways. In doing so, they will degrade one of the world's most valuable and productive freshwater fish habitats. For those dams that have not yet been constructed, there still exist opportunities to modify their siting, design and operation (SDO) to potentially achieve a more balanced set of tradeoffs among hydropower production, sediment/nutrient passage and fish passage. We introduce examples of such alternative SDO opportunities for Sambor Dam in Cambodia, planned to be constructed on the main stem of the Mekong River. To evaluate the performance of such alternatives, we developed a Python-based simulation tool called PySedSim. PySedSim is a daily time step mass balance model that identifies the relative tradeoffs among hydropower production, and flow and sediment regime alteration, associated with reservoir sediment management techniques such as flushing, sluicing, bypassing, density current venting and dredging. To date, there has been a very limited acknowledgement or evaluation of the significant uncertainties that impact the evaluation of SDO alternatives. This research is formalizing a model diagnostic assessment of the key assumptions and parametric uncertainties that strongly influence PySedSim SDO evaluations. Using stochastic hydrology and sediment load data, our diagnostic assessment evaluates and compares several Sambor Dam alternatives using several performance measures related to energy production, sediment trapping and regime alteration, and

  4. Analysis of information systems for hydropower operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. L.; Becker, L.; Estes, J.; Simonett, D.; Yeh, W. W. G.

    1976-01-01

    The operations of hydropower systems were analyzed with emphasis on water resource management, to determine how aerospace derived information system technologies can increase energy output. Better utilization of water resources was sought through improved reservoir inflow forecasting based on use of hydrometeorologic information systems with new or improved sensors, satellite data relay systems, and use of advanced scheduling techniques for water release. Specific mechanisms for increased energy output were determined, principally the use of more timely and accurate short term (0-7 days) inflow information to reduce spillage caused by unanticipated dynamic high inflow events. The hydrometeorologic models used in predicting inflows were examined to determine the sensitivity of inflow prediction accuracy to the many variables employed in the models, and the results used to establish information system requirements. Sensor and data handling system capabilities were reviewed and compared to the requirements, and an improved information system concept outlined.

  5. Development of Dam Operation Scheme in a Hydrology Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.; Liang, X.

    2013-12-01

    A novel scheme for dam operation has been developed based on the artificial neural network approach to predict the reservoir management and hydrologic effects in response to climate variation and change. The scheme is built upon the historic management information of operating each dam, including climate, ecology properties and attributes (e.g., storage, surface area) for all relevant reservoirs. The scheme implicitly introduces the relationship between water demand and supply for downstream fluvial ecosystem, agriculture irrigation, and hydropower. This study will first present the fundamental formulation of the predictive scheme along with detailed analysis of the historical management data, and then evaluate the performance for its application in the Colorado River basin. Caveats and merits will also be discussed.

  6. Capturing the Green River -- Multispectral airborne videography to evaluate the environmental impacts of hydropower operations

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.

    1996-02-01

    The 500-mile long Green River is the largest tributary of the Colorado River. From its origin in the Wind River Range mountains of western Wyoming to its confluence with the Colorado River in southeastern Utah, the Green River is vital to the arid region through which it flows. Large portions of the area remain near-wilderness with the river providing a source of recreation in the form of fishing and rafting, irrigation for farming and ranching, and hydroelectric power. In the late 1950`s and early 1960`s hydroelectric facilities were built on the river. One of these, Flaming Gorge Dam, is located just south of the Utah-Wyoming border near the town of Dutch John, Utah. Hydropower operations result in hourly and daily fluctuations in the releases of water from the dam that alter the natural stream flow below the dam and affect natural resources in and along the river corridor. In the present study, the authors were interested in evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the downstream natural resources. Considering the size of the area affected by the daily pattern of water release at the dam as well as the difficult terrain and limited accessibility of many reaches of the river, evaluating these impacts using standard field study methods was virtually impossible. Instead an approach was developed that used multispectral aerial videography to determine changes in the affected parameters at different flows, hydrologic modeling to predict flow conditions for various hydropower operating scenarios, and ecological information on the biological resources of concern to assign impacts.

  7. Operational constraints and hydrologic variability limit hydropower in supporting wind integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Alisha R.; Blumsack, Seth A.; Reed, Patrick M.

    2013-06-01

    Climate change mitigation will require rapid adoption of low-carbon energy resources. The integration of large-scale wind energy in the United States (US) will require controllable assets to balance the variability of wind energy production. Previous work has identified hydropower as an advantageous asset, due to its flexibility and low-carbon emissions production. While many dams currently provide energy and environmental services in the US and globally, we find that multi-use hydropower facilities would face significant policy conflicts if asked to store and release water to accommodate wind integration. Specifically, we develop a model simulating hydroelectric operational decisions when the electric facility is able to provide wind integration services through a mechanism that we term ‘flex reserves’. We use Kerr Dam in North Carolina as a case study, simulating operations under two alternative reservoir policies, one reflecting current policies and the other regulating flow levels to promote downstream ecosystem conservation. Even under perfect information and significant pricing incentives, Kerr Dam faces operational conflicts when providing any substantial levels of flex reserves while also maintaining releases consistent with other river management requirements. These operational conflicts are severely exacerbated during periods of drought. Increase of payments for flex reserves does not resolve these operational and policy conflicts.

  8. Optimizing Wind And Hydropower Generation Within Realistic Reservoir Operating Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, T. M.; Clement, M. A.; Zagona, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the benefits of utilizing the flexibility of hydropower systems to balance the variability and uncertainty of wind generation. However, previous hydropower and wind coordination studies have simplified non-power constraints on reservoir systems. For example, some studies have only included hydropower constraints on minimum and maximum storage volumes and minimum and maximum plant discharges. The methodology presented here utilizes the pre-emptive linear goal programming optimization solver in RiverWare to model hydropower operations with a set of prioritized policy constraints and objectives based on realistic policies that govern the operation of actual hydropower systems, including licensing constraints, environmental constraints, water management and power objectives. This approach accounts for the fact that not all policy constraints are of equal importance. For example target environmental flow levels may not be satisfied if it would require violating license minimum or maximum storages (pool elevations), but environmental flow constraints will be satisfied before optimizing power generation. Additionally, this work not only models the economic value of energy from the combined hydropower and wind system, it also captures the economic value of ancillary services provided by the hydropower resources. It is recognized that the increased variability and uncertainty inherent with increased wind penetration levels requires an increase in ancillary services. In regions with liberalized markets for ancillary services, a significant portion of hydropower revenue can result from providing ancillary services. Thus, ancillary services should be accounted for when determining the total value of a hydropower system integrated with wind generation. This research shows that the end value of integrated hydropower and wind generation is dependent on a number of factors that can vary by location. Wind factors include wind penetration level

  9. Adapting Dam and Reservoir Design and Operations to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, René; Braun, Marco; Chaumont, Diane

    2013-04-01

    In order to identify the potential initiatives that the dam, reservoir and water resources systems owners and operators may undertake to cope with climate change issues, it is essential to determine the current state of knowledge of their impacts on hydrological variables at regional and local scales. Future climate scenarios derived from climate model simulations can be combined with operational hydrological modeling tools and historical observations to evaluate realistic pathways of future hydrological conditions for specific drainage basins. In the case of hydropower production those changes in hydrological conditions may have significant economic impacts. For over a decade the state owned hydropower producer Hydro Québec has been exploring the physical impacts on their watersheds by relying on climate services in collaboration with Ouranos, a consortium on regional climatology and adaptation to climate change. Previous climate change impact analysis had been including different sources of climate simulation data, explored different post-processing approaches and used hydrological impact models. At a new stage of this collaboration the operational management of Hydro Quebec aspired to carry out a cost-benefit analysis of considering climate change in the refactoring of hydro-power installations. In the process of the project not only a set of scenarios of future runoff regimes had to be defined to support long term planning decisions of a dam and reservoir operator, but also the significance of uncertainties needed to be communicated and made understood. We provide insight into a case study that took some unexpected turns and leaps by bringing together climate scientists, hydrologists and hydro-power operation managers. The study includes the selection of appropriate climate scenarios, the correction of biases, the application of hydrological models and the assessment of uncertainties. However, it turned out that communicating the science properly and

  10. Benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators of biological condition below hydropower dams on west slope Sierra Nevada streams, California, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 50 hydropower dams in California will undergo relicensing by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in the next 15 years. An interpretive framework for biological data collected by relicensing studies is lacking. This study developed a multi-metric index of biotic...

  11. Hydropower and the environment: A case study at Glen Canyon Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Wegner, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    The management of hydroelectric resources in the Colorado River requires a balancing of hydrologic, social, natural and cultural resources. The resulting management often has to deal with inherently conflicting objectives, short and long-term goals, time frames and operational flexibility. Glen Canyon Dam, AZ, on the Colorado River, controls the release of water into the Grand Canyon. The dam has been under intense public scrutiny since it was completed in 1963. An Environmental Impact Statement evaluating the future operations and options for Glen Canyon Dam was initiated by the Department of the Interior in 1989 and completed in 1995. An Adaptive Management approach to future operational management has been developed as part of the Glen Canyon Dam Environmental Impact Statement process. Future operations at Glen Canyon Dam will take into consideration the need to balance water movement and hydroelectricity development with natural, recreation, Native American and cultural needs. Future management of rivers requires acknowledgement of the dynamic nature of ecosystems and the need to link scientific information into the decision-making process. Lessons learned and programs developed at Glen Canyon Dam may be applied to other river systems.

  12. reservoir operation and hydropower generation schemes for regional scale hydrological models: case study in the northeastern united states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsani, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.; Rosenzweig, B.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the development of the Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM), we are developing an integrated hydrologic modeling framework that incorporates various aspects of the coupled human-hydrologic system, from supply to demand, into a single framework. This framework provides temporally and spatially explicit information on the regional water system under different scenarios of climate, population, and land use/ land cover change. To support these efforts, we have incorporated two new modules into the Water Balance Model (WBM) that simulate reservoir operation and calculate the hydropower production from dams. Dams and reservoirs are key characteristics of the modern hydrologic system, with a particular impact on natural stream flow, sediment flux, thermal characteristics and biogeochemical fluxes of rivers. In the Northeast Region of the United States alone, the National Inventory of Dams (NID) lists over 12000 reservoirs. Depending on site-specific characteristics of the dam, its watershed and its intended purpose, each will have a specific optimum operating rule. Since no comprehensive dataset of these operating rules exists, we have to simulate them. We developed an Artificial Neural Network and used data from 35 dams for calibration. Approximately 60 % of the dataset was dedicated to training process, 20 % to validation and the other 20 % used for testing. If (t) represents current time, we use three sets of inputs; inflow [It , It-1 , It-2], release in previous months [Rt-1 , Rt-2] and month (Mt), to calculate release from reservoir (Rt). We also used a simple continuity equation for reservoirs by considering the maximum (from NID) and minimum reservoir storage to improve the model's performance in extreme wet and dry events. Using results from WBM we show how reservoirs regionally alter discharge in streams of Northeast United States compared to their natural state. We also are assessing the effects of climate change on water availability and

  13. Predicted effects of hydropower uprate on trout habitat in the Cumberland River, Downstream of Wolf Creek Dam, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nestler, J.M.; Gore, J.A.; Curtis, L.T.; Martin, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    The US Army Engineer District, Nashville (ORN), regulates flows in the Cumberland River at Wolf Creek Dam to provide for hydropower generation and flood control. The ORN is considering uprating the Wolf Creek Dam powerhouse to meet future demands for power in the region by replacing existing turbines with new units having higher capacity. With the proposed new units, maximum hydropower discharge will increase with a concomitant decrease in duration of generation. This report describes and quantifies the effects of hydropower uprating on downstream habitat of adult rainbow trout, juvenile brown trout, and adult brown trout using Instream Flow Incremental Methodology concepts. The relative downstream habitat impacts of hydropower uprate are assessed by contrasting existing and uprate release schedules under the following three hydrologic conditions: low flow (90% exceedance), average flow (50% exceedance), and high flow (10% exceedance). In general, predicted habitat availability for adult rainbow trout and adult brown trout decreases under uprate release schedules for low- and average-flow hydrologic conditions. Under high-flow conditions, habitat availability for the adult-life stages increases. Habitat for juvenile brown trout is generally negligible under both existing and uprate release schedules, and consistent patterns were not observed.

  14. Reservoir release patterns for hydropower operations at the Aspinall Unit on the Gunnison River, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, S.C.L.; McCoy, J.J.; Sedlacek, J.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the development of reservoir release patterns for the Aspinall Unit, which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal Reservoirs on the Gunnison River in Colorado. Release patterns were assessed for two hydropower operational scenarios--seasonally adjusted steady flows and seasonally adjusted high fluctuating flows--and three representative hydrologic years--moderate (1987), dry (1989), and wet (1983). The release patterns for the operational scenarios were developed with the aid of monthly, daily, and hourly reservoir operational models, which simulate the linked operation of the three Aspinall Unit reservoirs. Also presented are reservoir fluctuations and downstream water surface elevations corresponding to the reservoir release patterns. Both of the hydropower operational scenarios evaluated are based on the ecological research flows proposed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service for the Aspinall Unit. The first operational scenario allows only seasonally adjusted steady flows (no hourly fluctuations at any dam within one day), whereas the second scenario permits high fluctuating flows from Blue Mesa and Morrow Point Reservoirs during certain times of the year. Crystal Reservoir would release a steady flow within each day under both operational scenarios.

  15. Hydropower research and development

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report is a compilation of information on hydropower research and development (R and D) activities of the Federal government and hydropower industry. The report includes descriptions of on-going and planned R and D activities, 1996 funding, and anticipated future funding. Summary information on R and D projects and funding is classified into eight categories: fish passage, behavior, and response; turbine-related; monitoring tool development; hydrology; water quality; dam safety; operations and maintenance; and water resources management. Several issues in hydropower R and D are briefly discussed: duplication; priorities; coordination; technical/peer review; and technology transfer/commercialization. Project information sheets from contributors are included as an appendix.

  16. Fuzzy multiobjective models for optimal operation of a hydropower system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teegavarapu, Ramesh S. V.; Ferreira, André R.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2013-06-01

    Optimal operation models for a hydropower system using new fuzzy multiobjective mathematical programming models are developed and evaluated in this study. The models use (i) mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) with binary variables and (ii) integrate a new turbine unit commitment formulation along with water quality constraints used for evaluation of reservoir downstream impairment. Reardon method used in solution of genetic algorithm optimization problems forms the basis for development of a new fuzzy multiobjective hydropower system optimization model with creation of Reardon type fuzzy membership functions. The models are applied to a real-life hydropower reservoir system in Brazil. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are used to (i) solve the optimization formulations to avoid computational intractability and combinatorial problems associated with binary variables in unit commitment, (ii) efficiently address Reardon method formulations, and (iii) deal with local optimal solutions obtained from the use of traditional gradient-based solvers. Decision maker's preferences are incorporated within fuzzy mathematical programming formulations to obtain compromise operating rules for a multiobjective reservoir operation problem dominated by conflicting goals of energy production, water quality and conservation releases. Results provide insight into compromise operation rules obtained using the new Reardon fuzzy multiobjective optimization framework and confirm its applicability to a variety of multiobjective water resources problems.

  17. 94. DAM TAINTER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY METHOD OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. DAM - TAINTER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY - METHOD OF ATTACHING LIFTING CHAINS TO DRUMS OF HOIST - LAKESIDE TYPE (ML-4&5-55/34-FS), February 1938 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 4, Alma, Buffalo County, WI

  18. Short-term Hydropower Reservoir Operations in Chile's Central Interconnected System: Tradeoffs between Hydrologic Alteration and Economic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Hydropower accounts for about 50% of the installed capacity in Chile's Central Interconnected System (CIS) and new developments are envisioned in the near future. Large projects involving reservoirs are perceived negatively by the general public. In terms of operations, hydropower scheduling takes place at monthly, weekly, daily and hourly intervals, and operations at each level affect different environmental processes. Due to its ability to quickly and inexpensively respond to short-term changes in demand, hydropower reservoirs often are operated to provide power during periods of peak demand. This operational scheme, known as hydropeaking, changes the hydrologic regime by altering the rate and frequency of changes in flow magnitude on short time scales. To mitigate impacts on downstream ecosystems, operational constraints -typically minimum instream flows and maximum ramping rates- are imposed on hydropower plants. These operational restrictions limit reduce operational flexibility and can reduce the economic value of energy generation by imposing additional costs on the operation of interconnected power systems. Methods to predict the degree of hydrologic alteration rely on statistical analyses of instream flow time series. Typically, studies on hydrologic alteration use historical operational records for comparison between pre- and post-dam conditions. Efforts to assess hydrologic alteration based on future operational schemes of reservoirs are scarce. This study couples two existing models: a mid-term operations planning and a short-term economic dispatch to simulate short-term hydropower reservoir operations under different future scenarios. Scenarios of possible future configurations of the Chilean CIS are defined with emphasis on the introduction of non-conventional renewables (particularly wind energy) and large hydropower projects in Patagonia. Both models try to reproduce the actual decision making process in the Chilean Central Interconnected System

  19. Reduced Spill at Hydropower Dams: Opportunities for More Generation and Increased Fish Population

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, Charles C; Mann, Roger; Sale, Michael J

    2006-09-01

    This report indicates that reduction of managed spill at hydropower dams can speed implementation of technologies for fish protection and achieve economic goals. Spill of water over spillways is managed in the Columbia River basin to assist downstream-migrating juvenile salmon, and is generally believed to be the most similar to natural migration, benign and effective passage route; other routes include turbines, intake screens with bypasses, and surface bypasses. However, this belief may be misguided, because spill is becoming recognized as less than natural, with deep intakes below normal migration depths, and likely causing physical damages from severe shear on spillways, high turbulence in tail waters, and collisions with baffle blocks that lead to disorientation and predation. Some spillways induce mortalities comparable to turbines. Spill is expensive in lost generation, and controversial. Fish-passage research is leading to more fish-friendly turbines, screens and bypasses that are more effective and less damaging, and surface bypasses that offer passage of more fish per unit water volume than does spill (leaving more water for generation). Analyses by independent economists demonstrated that goals of increased fish survival over the long term and net gain to the economy can be obtained by selectively reducing spill and diverting some of the income from added power generation to research, development, and installation of fish-passage technologies. Such a plan would selectively reduce spill when and where least damaging to fish, increase electricity generation using the water not spilled and use innovative financing to direct monetary gains to improving fish passage.

  20. Sluiceway Operations to Pass Juvenile Salmonids at The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Skalski, J. R.; Klatte, Bernard A.

    2013-11-20

    Existing ice and trash sluiceways are commonly used to pass juvenile salmonids downstream at hydropower dams through a benign, non-turbine route. At The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River, managers undertook optimizing operations of sluiceway weirs to maximize survival of juvenile salmonids at the powerhouse. We applied fixed-location hydroacoustic methods to compare fish passage rates and sluiceway efficiencies for two weir configurations during 2004 and 2005: three weirs versus six weirs, located at the mid- versus east powerhouse, respectively. We also analyzed horizontal distributions of passage at the sluiceway and turbines and the effects of operating turbines beneath open sluiceway gates to provide supporting data relevant to operations optimization. Based on the findings, we recommend the following for long-term operations for the sluiceway at The Dalles Dam: open six rather than three sluiceway weirs to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway; open the three weirs above the western-most operating main turbine unit (MU) and the three weirs at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high; operate the turbine units below open sluiceway weirs as a standard procedure; operate the sluiceway 24 h/d year-round to maximize its benefits to juvenile salmonids; and use the same operations for spring and summer emigrants. These operational concepts are transferable to dams where sluiceway surface flow outlets are used protect downstream migrating fishes.

  1. Control models for hydropower system analysis and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Georgakakos, A.P.; Yao, H.; Yu, Y.

    1995-03-01

    In this work, several new models for hydropower systems analysis and operation have been developed and tested. More specifically, the new models are designed to address the following issues: (1) Determination of the dependable power capacity for a system of hydropower facilities, (2) Determination of the firm energy for a system of hydropower facilities, with or without dependable capacity commitments, and (3) optimization of the hydroelectric energy value. (The value of energy is measured by the savings in thermal plant fuel consumption). The models of the first two categories have a time discretization of one day, while those of the third are hourly. All models share a common structure consisting of a turbine load allocation module and a reservoir control module. In addition to a detailed representation of the hydroelectric facilities, this control model structure is also able to model most aspects of water management. The models are applied to the Lanier-Allatoona-Carters reservoir system on the Chattahoochee and Coosa River Basins in the southeastern U.S.

  2. Designing multi-reservoir system designs via efficient water-energy-food nexus trade-offs - Selecting new hydropower dams for the Blue Nile and Nepal's Koshi Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harou, J. J.; Hurford, A.; Geressu, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    Many of the world's multi-reservoir water resource systems are being considered for further development of hydropower and irrigation aiming to meet economic, political and ecological goals. Complex river basins serve many needs so how should the different proposed groupings of reservoirs and their operations be evaluated? How should uncertainty about future supply and demand conditions be factored in? What reservoir designs can meet multiple goals and perform robustly in a context of global change? We propose an optimized multi-criteria screening approach to identify best performing designs, i.e., the selection, size and operating rules of new reservoirs within multi-reservoir systems in a context of deeply uncertain change. Reservoir release operating rules and storage sizes are optimized concurrently for each separate infrastructure design under consideration across many scenarios representing plausible future conditions. Outputs reveal system trade-offs using multi-dimensional scatter plots where each point represents an approximately Pareto-optimal design. The method is applied to proposed Blue Nile River reservoirs in Ethiopia, where trade-offs between capital costs, total and firm energy output, aggregate storage and downstream irrigation and energy provision for the best performing designs are evaluated. The impact of filling period for large reservoirs is considered in a context of hydrological uncertainty. The approach is also applied to the Koshi basin in Nepal where combinations of hydropower storage and run-of-river dams are being considered for investment. We show searching for investment portfolios that meet multiple objectives provides stakeholders with a rich view on the trade-offs inherent in the nexus and how different investment bundles perform differently under plausible futures. Both case-studies show how the proposed approach helps explore and understand the implications of investing in new dams in a global change context.

  3. HEPS4Power - Extended-range Hydrometeorological Ensemble Predictions for Improved Hydropower Operations and Revenues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, Konrad; Monhart, Samuel; Liniger, Mark; Spririg, Christoph; Jordan, Fred; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    In recent years large progresses have been achieved in the operational prediction of floods and hydrological drought with up to ten days lead time. Both the public and the private sectors are currently using probabilistic runoff forecast in order to monitoring water resources and take actions when critical conditions are to be expected. The use of extended-range predictions with lead times exceeding 10 days is not yet established. The hydropower sector in particular might have large benefits from using hydro meteorological forecasts for the next 15 to 60 days in order to optimize the operations and the revenues from their watersheds, dams, captions, turbines and pumps. The new Swiss Competence Centers in Energy Research (SCCER) targets at boosting research related to energy issues in Switzerland. The objective of HEPS4POWER is to demonstrate that operational extended-range hydro meteorological forecasts have the potential to become very valuable tools for fine tuning the production of energy from hydropower systems. The project team covers a specific system-oriented value chain starting from the collection and forecast of meteorological data (MeteoSwiss), leading to the operational application of state-of-the-art hydrological models (WSL) and terminating with the experience in data presentation and power production forecasts for end-users (e-dric.ch). The first task of the HEPS4POWER will be the downscaling and post-processing of ensemble extended-range meteorological forecasts (EPS). The goal is to provide well-tailored forecasts of probabilistic nature that should be reliable in statistical and localized at catchment or even station level. The hydrology related task will consist in feeding the post-processed meteorological forecasts into a HEPS using a multi-model approach by implementing models with different complexity. Also in the case of the hydrological ensemble predictions, post-processing techniques need to be tested in order to improve the quality of the

  4. Analysis of information systems for hydropower operations: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. L.; Becker, L.; Estes, J.; Simonett, D.; Yeh, W.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was performed of the operations of hydropower systems, with emphasis on water resource management, to determine how aerospace derived information system technologies can effectively increase energy output. Better utilization of water resources was sought through improved reservoir inflow forecasting based on use of hydrometeorologic information systems with new or improved sensors, satellite data relay systems, and use of advanced scheduling techniques for water release. Specific mechanisms for increased energy output were determined, principally the use of more timely and accurate short term (0-7 days) inflow information to reduce spillage caused by unanticipated dynamic high inflow events. The hydrometeorologic models used in predicting inflows were examined in detail to determine the sensitivity of inflow prediction accuracy to the many variables employed in the models, and the results were used to establish information system requirements. Sensor and data handling system capabilities were reviewed and compared to the requirements, and an improved information system concept was outlined.

  5. Decision Support Systems to Optimize the Operational Efficiency of Dams and Maintain Regulatory Compliance Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, S.; Morehead, M. D.; Conner, J. T.; Frye, C.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing demand for water and electricity, increasing variability in weather and climate and stricter requirements for riverine ecosystem health has put ever more stringent demands on hydropower operations. Dam operators are being impacted by these constraints and are looking for methods to meet these requirements while retaining the benefits hydropower offers. Idaho Power owns and operates 17 hydroelectric plants in Idaho and Oregon which have both Federal and State compliance requirements. Idaho Power has started building Decision Support Systems (DSS) to aid the hydroelectric plant operators in maximizing hydropower operational efficiency, while meeting regulatory compliance constraints. Regulatory constraints on dam operations include: minimum in-stream flows, maximum ramp rate of river stage, reservoir volumes, and reservoir ramp rate for draft and fill. From the hydroelectric standpoint, the desire is to vary the plant discharge (ramping) such that generation matches electricity demand (load-following), but ramping is limited by the regulatory requirements. Idaho Power desires DSS that integrate real time and historic data, simulates the rivers behavior from the hydroelectric plants downstream to the compliance measurement point and presents the information in an easily understandable display that allows the operators to make informed decisions. Creating DSS like these has a number of scientific and technical challenges. Real-time data are inherently noisy and automated data cleaning routines are required to filter the data. The DSS must inform the operators when incoming data are outside of predefined bounds. Complex river morphologies can make the timing and shape of a discharge change traveling downstream from a power plant nearly impossible to represent with a predefined lookup table. These complexities require very fast hydrodynamic models of the river system that simulate river characteristics (ex. Stage, discharge) at the downstream compliance point

  6. DESCHUTES. WICKIUP DAM. OPERATING MECHANISM OF 96" RING FOLLOWER GATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DESCHUTES. WICKIUP DAM. OPERATING MECHANISM OF 96" RING FOLLOWER GATES IN CONCRETE BLOCK POURED TO ELEV. 4276.25. M.E. WALSH, INSPECTOR. Photocopy of historic photograph (original photograph on file at National Archives, Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, CO). Unknown USBR photographer, June 26, 1940 - Wickiup Dam, Outlet Works, Deschutes River, La Pine, Deschutes County, OR

  7. Attitudes of Operative Dentistry Faculty toward Rubber Dam Isolation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackett, William W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Dental faculty responses (N=332) to a survey concerning use of rubber dams for excluding fluids from the working field in operative dentistry procedures indicated students receive adequate instruction in rubber dam use and are proficient at graduation, though motivating students to its use is problematic and patient resistance a factor. (MSE)

  8. Sediment and water discharge rates of Turkish Black Sea rivers before and after hydropower dam construction

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, B.J. )

    1994-06-01

    Presently, the water discharge rate to the Black Sea by Turkish rivers is approximately 41 km[sup 3]/yr. The sediment discharge rate of Turkish rivers to the Black Sea is 28 x 10[sup 6] t/yr. Before construction of the hydroelectric dams, the sediment discharge rate was approximately 70 x 10[sup 6] t/yr. The sharp reduction in sediment load is largely a result of the dams near the mouths of the Yesil Irmak and Kizil Irmak rivers. Before the construction of dams, Turkish rivers contributed approximately one third of the total amount of sediment received by the Black Sea from all surrounding rivers. The life-span of the major reservoirs varies from approximately only one century (Yesil Irmak river reservoirs) to several thousand years (Sakarya river reservoirs). Life-span for the large Altinkaya Dam reservoir is estimated with approximately 500 yr.

  9. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Riegel Dam, Trion, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1982-05-10

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Riegel Dam near Trion, Georgia for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 17 ft., was built in 1900 for supplying hydroelectric power for a textile mill, and currently provides cooling water to the mill. The study of environmental, institutional, safety and economic factors showed that hydroelectric power development at this site would require new generating equipment and that such retrofitting appears to be economically feasible. (LCL)

  10. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Carr Fork Dam, Sassafras, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1982-05-24

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Carr Fork Dam near Hazard, KY for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 80 ft and was built in 1975 to provide flood protection. The study of environmental, institutional, safety, and economic factors showed that the total investment cost would be $909,600 and that hydroelectric power development at this site is not feasible unless a higher price could be obtained for the power sold. (LCL)

  11. A multiobjective optimization model for dam removal: an example trading off salmon passage with hydropower and water storage in the Willamette basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuby, Michael J.; Fagan, William F.; ReVelle, Charles S.; Graf, William L.

    2005-08-01

    We introduce the use of systematic, combinatorial, multiobjective optimization models to analyse ecological-economic tradeoffs and to support complex decision-making associated with dam removal in a river system. The model's ecological objective enhances salmonid migration and spawning by maximizing drainage area reconnected to the sea. The economic objective minimizes loss of hydropower and storage capacity. We present a proof-of-concept demonstration for the Willamette River watershed (Oregon, USA). The case study shows a dramatic tradeoff in which removing twelve dams reconnects 52% of the basin while sacrificing only 1.6% of hydropower and water-storage capacity. Additional ecological gains, however, come with increasingly steeper economic costs. A second model incorporates existing fish-passage systems. Because of data limitations and model simplifications, these results are intended solely for the purpose of illustrating a novel application of multiobjective programming to dam-removal issues. Far more work would be needed to make policy-relevant recommendations. Nevertheless, this research suggests that the current practice of analysing dam-removal decisions on a dam-by-dam basis be supplemented by evaluation on a river-system basis, trading off economic and ecological goals.

  12. Use of aerial videography to evaluate the effects of Flaming Gorge Dam operations on natural resources of the Green River

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.; Greaney, M.M.; Kuiper, J.A.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    Peaking hydropower operations can profoundly alter natural stream flow and thereby affect the natural resources dependent on these flows. In this paper, we describe how aerial videography was used to collect environmental data and evaluate impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on natural resources of the Green River. An airborne multispectral video/radiometer remote sensing system was used to collect resource data under four different flow conditions from seven sites (each about one mile in length) located downstream from the dam. Releases from Flaming Gorge Dam during data collection ranged from approximately 800 to 4,000 cubic feet/sec (cfs), spanning most of the normal operating range for this facility. For each site a series of contiguous, non-overlapping images was prepared from the videotapes and used to quantify surface water area, backwater habitats, and areas of riparian vegetation under varying flow conditions. From this information, relationships between flow and habitat parameters were developed and used in conjunction with hydrologic modeling and ecological information to evaluate impacts of various modes of operation.

  13. On the effect of operation of the hydropower plant on the water quality of Rapel reservoir, central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossel, V.; De La Fuente, A.

    2013-12-01

    Eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs is a common problem in systems with high incoming loads of nutrients. The consequent algae bloom related to the eutrophication alters the water quality and generates an incompatibility with the tourist and recreational activities. This study is focused on Rapel reservoir: an old, dentritic and monomictic reservoir, located in central Chile (34°S, 71.6°W), that has experienced numerous algae bloom events in the past years produced by high loads of nutrients, sediments and metals. This reservoir was originally constructed in 1968 for hydropower generation without environmental restrictions on its operation. Rapel is part of Chile's Central Interconnected System (SIC), and is controlled by an independent system operator (ISO) that decides the optimal allocation of water by minimizing the SIC's operation cost. As a result of this framework, Rapel reservoir operates based on a hydropeaking scheme, thus producing energy few hours a day while zero outflows are observed the remaining hours, impacting on Rapel river located downstream the reservoir. However, previous research showed that this hydropeaking has important effects on the hydrodynamic of the reservoir as well. Particularly, it enhances vertical mixing nears the dam, and reduces horizontal dispersion. Furthermore, hydropeaking defines the outflows water temperature, and the temperature profile near the dam. As a consequence of this role of hydropeaking on the hydrodynamics and mixing of Rapel reservoir, it is expected to be a link between hydropeaking and water quality. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of the operation of hydropower plant on the water quality of Rapel reservoir, for which the reservoir system is modeled using the three dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model ELCOM-CAEDYM. Field data to validate the results and to define boundary and initial conditions are available for the austral summer period of 2009-2010. Different scenarios of

  14. A review of proposed Glen Canyon Dam interim operating criteria

    SciTech Connect

    LaGory, K.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Tomasko, D.; Hayse, J.; Durham, L.

    1992-04-01

    Three sets of interim operating criteria for Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River have been proposed for the period of November 1991, to the completion of the record of decision for the Glen Canyon Dam environmental impact statement (about 1993). These criteria set specific limits on dam releases, including maximum and minimum flows, up-ramp and down-ramp rates, and maximum daily fluctuation. Under the proposed interim criteria, all of these parameters would be reduced relative to historical operating criteria to protect downstream natural resources, including sediment deposits, threatened and endangered fishes, trout, the aquatic food base, and riparian plant communities. The scientific bases of the three sets of proposed operating criteria are evaluated in the present report:(1) criteria proposed by the Research/Scientific Group, associated with the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies (GCES); (2) criteria proposed state and federal officials charged with managing downstream resources; and (3) test criteria imposed from July 1991, to November 1991. Data from Phase 1 of the GCES and other sources established that the targeted natural resources are affected by dam operations, but the specific interim criteria chosen were not supported by any existing studies. It is unlikely that irreversible changes to any of the resources would occur over the interim period if historical operating criteria remained in place. It is likely that adoption of any of the sets of proposed interim operating criteria would reduce the levels of sediment transport and erosion below Glen Canyon Dam; however, these interim criteria could result in some adverse effects, including the accumulation of debris at tributary mouths, a shift of new high-water-zone vegetation into more flood-prone areas, and further declines in vegetation in the old high water zone.

  15. Operation of hydropower generation systems in the Alps under future climate and socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Alpine hydropower systems are an important source of renewable energy for many countries in Europe. In Switzerland, for instance, they represent the most important domestic source of renewable energy (around 55%). However, future hydropower production may be threatened by unprecedented challenges, such as a decreasing water availability, due to climate change (CC) and associated glacier retreat, and uncertain operating conditions, such as future power needs and highly fluctuating demand on the energy market. This second aspect has gained increasingly relevance since the massive introduction of solar and wind generating systems in the portfolios of many European countries. Because hydropower systems have the potential to provide backup storage of energy to compensate for fluctuations that are typical, for instance, of solar and wind generation systems, it is important to investigate how the increased demand for flexible operation, together with climate change challenge and fluctuating markets, can impact their operating policies. The Swiss Competence Center on Supply of Electricity (www.sccer-soe.ch) has been recently established to explore new potential paths for the development of future power generation systems. In this context, we develop modelling and optimization tools to design and assess new operation strategies for hydropower systems to increase their reliability, flexibility, and robustness to future operation conditions. In particular, we develop an advanced modelling framework for the integrated simulation of the operation of hydropower plants, which accounts for CC-altered streamflow regimes, new demand and market conditions, as well as new boundary conditions for operation (e.g., aquatic ecosystem conservation). The model construction consists of two primary components: a physically based and spatially distributed hydrological model, which describes the relevant hydrological processes at the basin scale, and an agent based decision model, which

  16. Hydropower, adaptive management, and Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieringa, Mark J.; Morton, Anthony G.

    1996-11-01

    Adaptive management is a policy framework within which an iterative process of decision making is followed based on the observed responses to and effectiveness of previous decisions. The use of adaptive management allows science-based research and monitoring of natural resource and ecological community responses, in conjunction with societal values and goals, to guide decisions concerning man's activities. The adaptive management process has been proposed for application to hydropower operations at Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, a situation that requires complex balancing of natural resources requirements and competing human uses. This example is representative of the general increase in public interest in the operation of hydropower facilities and possible effects on downstream natural resources and of the growing conflicts between uses and users of river-based resources. This paper describes the adaptive management process, using the Glen Canyon Dam example, and discusses ways to make the process work effectively in managing downstream natural resources and biodiversity.

  17. Ex post power economic analysis of record of decision operational restrictions at Glen Canyon Dam.

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-07-31

    On October 9, 1996, Bruce Babbitt, then-Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior signed the Record of Decision (ROD) on operating criteria for the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD). Criteria selected were based on the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF) Alternative as described in the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam, Colorado River Storage Project, Arizona, Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (Reclamation 1995). These restrictions reduced the operating flexibility of the hydroelectric power plant and therefore its economic value. The EIS provided impact information to support the ROD, including an analysis of operating criteria alternatives on power system economics. This ex post study reevaluates ROD power economic impacts and compares these results to the economic analysis performed prior (ex ante) to the ROD for the MLFF Alternative. On the basis of the methodology used in the ex ante analysis, anticipated annual economic impacts of the ROD were estimated to range from approximately $15.1 million to $44.2 million in terms of 1991 dollars ($1991). This ex post analysis incorporates historical events that took place between 1997 and 2005, including the evolution of power markets in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council as reflected in market prices for capacity and energy. Prompted by ROD operational restrictions, this analysis also incorporates a decision made by the Western Area Power Administration to modify commitments that it made to its customers. Simulated operations of GCD were based on the premise that hourly production patterns would maximize the economic value of the hydropower resource. On the basis of this assumption, it was estimated that economic impacts were on average $26.3 million in $1991, or $39 million in $2009.

  18. Dam operations affect route-specific passage and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon at a main-stem diversion dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Russell W.; Kock, Tobias J.; Couter, Ian I; Garrison, Thomas M; Hubble, Joel D; Child, David B

    2016-01-01

    Diversion dams can negatively affect emigrating juvenile salmon populations because fish must pass through the impounded river created by the dam, negotiate a passage route at the dam and then emigrate through a riverine reach that has been affected by reduced river discharge. To quantify the effects of a main-stem diversion dam on juvenile Chinook salmon in the Yakima River, Washington, USA, we used radio telemetry to understand how dam operations and river discharge in the 18-km reach downstream of the dam affected route-specific passage and survival. We found evidence of direct mortality associated with dam passage and indirect mortality associated with migration through the reach below the dam. Survival of fish passing over a surface spill gate (the west gate) was positively related to river discharge, and survival was similar for fish released below the dam, suggesting that passage via this route caused little additional mortality. However, survival of fish that passed under a sub-surface spill gate (the east gate) was considerably lower than survival of fish released downstream of the dam, with the difference in survival decreasing as river discharge increased. The probability of fish passing the dam via three available routes was strongly influenced by dam operations, with passage through the juvenile fish bypass and the east gate increasing with discharge through those routes. By simulating daily passage and route-specific survival, we show that variation in total survival is driven by river discharge and moderated by the proportion of fish passing through low-survival or high-survival passage routes.

  19. Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiquí River Basin, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Elizabeth P.; Pringle, Catherine M.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiquí River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity.

  20. How run-of-river operation affects hydropower generation and value.

    PubMed

    Jager, Henriette I; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2007-12-01

    Regulated rivers in the United States are required to support human water uses while preserving aquatic ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of hydropower license requirements nationwide has not been demonstrated. One requirement that has become more common is "run-of-river" (ROR) operation, which restores a natural flow regime. It is widely believed that ROR requirements (1) are mandated to protect aquatic biota, (2) decrease hydropower generation per unit flow, and (3) decrease energy revenue. We tested these three assumptions by reviewing hydropower projects with license-mandated changes from peaking to ROR operation. We found that ROR operation was often prescribed in states with strong water-quality certification requirements and migratory fish species. Although benefits to aquatic resources were frequently cited, changes were often motivated by other considerations. After controlling for climate, the overall change in annual generation efficiency across projects because of the change in operation was not significant. However, significant decreases were detected at one quarter of individual hydropower projects. As expected, we observed a decrease in flow during peak demand at 7 of 10 projects. At the remaining projects, diurnal fluctuations actually increased because of operation of upstream storage projects. The economic implications of these results, including both producer costs and ecologic benefits, are discussed. We conclude that regional-scale studies of hydropower regulation, such as this one, are long overdue. Public dissemination of flow data, license provisions, and monitoring data by way of on-line access would facilitate regional policy analysis while increasing regulatory transparency and providing feedback to decision makers. PMID:17891438

  1. How Run-of-River Operation Affects Hydropower Generation and Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jager, Henriette I.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.

    2007-12-01

    Regulated rivers in the United States are required to support human water uses while preserving aquatic ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of hydropower license requirements nationwide has not been demonstrated. One requirement that has become more common is “run-of-river” (ROR) operation, which restores a natural flow regime. It is widely believed that ROR requirements (1) are mandated to protect aquatic biota, (2) decrease hydropower generation per unit flow, and (3) decrease energy revenue. We tested these three assumptions by reviewing hydropower projects with license-mandated changes from peaking to ROR operation. We found that ROR operation was often prescribed in states with strong water-quality certification requirements and migratory fish species. Although benefits to aquatic resources were frequently cited, changes were often motivated by other considerations. After controlling for climate, the overall change in annual generation efficiency across projects because of the change in operation was not significant. However, significant decreases were detected at one quarter of individual hydropower projects. As expected, we observed a decrease in flow during peak demand at 7 of 10 projects. At the remaining projects, diurnal fluctuations actually increased because of operation of upstream storage projects. The economic implications of these results, including both producer costs and ecologic benefits, are discussed. We conclude that regional-scale studies of hydropower regulation, such as this one, are long overdue. Public dissemination of flow data, license provisions, and monitoring data by way of on-line access would facilitate regional policy analysis while increasing regulatory transparency and providing feedback to decision makers.

  2. Efficient operation of a multi-purpose reservoir in Chile: Tradeoffs between irrigation and hydropower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Olivares, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study proposes a method to develop efficient operational policies for a reservoir the southern Chile. The main water uses in this system are hydropower and irrigation, with conflicting seasonal demands. The conflict between these two uses is currently managed through a so-called "irrigation agreement" which defines a series of operational conditions on the reservoir by restricting volumes used for power production depending on reservoir storage level. Other than that, the reservoir operation is driven by cost-minimization over the power grid. Recent evidence shows an increasing degree of conflict in this basin, which suggests that the static approach of irrigation agreements, might no longer be appropriate. Moreover, this agreement could be revised in light of decreased water availability. This problem poses a challenge related to the spatial scope of analysis. Thus, irrigation benefits are driven by decisions made within the basin, whereas hydropower benefits depend on the operation of the entire power grid. Exploring the tradeoffs between these two water uses involves modeling both scales. The proposed methodology integrates information from both a grid-wide power operations model and a basin-wide agro-economic model into a decision model for optimal reservoir operation. The first model, a hydrothermal coordination tool, schedules power production by each plant in the grid, and allows capturing technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoirs. The agro-economic model incorporates economic features of irrigation in the basin, and allows obtaining irrigation water demand functions. Finally, the results of both models are integrated into a single model for optimal reservoir operation considering the tradeoffs between the two uses. The result of the joint operation of water resources, show a flexible coordination of uses, revealing the opportunity cost of irrigation, which it gives the possibility of negotiating transfers of water to

  3. Simulation of Breach Outflow for Earthfill Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razad, Azwin Zailti Abdul; Sabri Muda, Rahsidi; Mohd Sidek, Lariyah; Azia, Intan Shafilah Abdul; Hanum Mansor, Faezah; Yalit, Ruzaimei

    2013-06-01

    Dams have been built for many reasons such as irrigation, hydropower, flood mitigation, and water supply to support development for the benefit of human. However, the huge amount of water stored behind the dam can seriously pose adverse impacts to the downstream community should it be released due to unwanted dam break event. To minimise the potential loss of lives and property damages, a workable Emergency Response Plan is required to be developed. As part of a responsible dam owner and operator, TNB initiated a study on dam breach modelling for Cameron Highlands Hydroelectric Scheme to simulate the potential dam breach for Jor Dam. Prediction of dam breach parameters using the empirical equations of Froehlich and Macdonal-Langridge-Monopolis formed the basis of the modelling, coupled with MIKE 11 software to obtain the breach outflow due to Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). This paper will therefore discuss the model setup, simulation procedure and comparison of the prediction with existing equations.

  4. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Patrick W.; Zhang, Qin Fen; DeNeale, Scott T.; Chalise, Dol Raj; Centurion, Emma E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost-estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  5. [Ecological risk assessment of hydropower dam construction on aquatic species in middle reaches of Lancang River, Southwest China based on ESHIPPO model].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Yan; Peng, Ming-Chun; Dong, Shi-Kui; Liu, Shi-Liang; Li, Jin-Peng; Yang, Zhi-Feng

    2013-02-01

    An investigation was conducted on the phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish at 8 sampling sections in the Manwan Reservoir before and after the construction of Xiaowan Hydropower Dam. The modified ESHIPPO model was applied to study the changes of the featured aquatic species, including endangered species, endemic specie, peis resource species, and native fish, aimed to make an ecological risk assessment of the dam construction on the aquatic species. The dam construction had definite ecological risk on the aquatic species, especially the endemic fish, in Langcang River, due to the changes of hydrological conditions. The endemic species including Bangia atropurpurea, Lemanea sinica, Prasiola sp., Attheyella yunnanensis, and Neutrodiaptomus mariadvigae were at high ecological risk, and thus, besides monitoring, protection measures were needed to be taken to lower the possibility of the species extinction. The widely distributed species of phytoplankton and zooplankton were at medium ecological risk, and protection measures besides monitoring should be prepared. Twelve kinds of native fish, including Barbodes huangchuchieni, Sinilabeo laticeps, Racoma lantsangensis, Racoma lissolabiatus, Paracobitis anguillioides, Schistura latifasciata, Botia nigrolineata, Vanmanenia striata, Homaloptera yunnanensis, Platytropius longianlis, Glyptothorax zanaensis, and Pseudecheneis immaculate, were at high ecological risk, and protection measures needed to be developed to prevent the possibility of the species loss and extinction. PMID:23705400

  6. Analysis of Daily-Peaking and Run-of-River Dam Operations on Flow Variability Metrics Considering Subdaily to Seasonal Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, N. A.; O'Connor, B. L.; Hayse, J.; Bevelhimer, M.; Endreny, T. A.

    2011-12-01

    Stakeholders are applying increasing pressure on many hydropower owners to change plant operations such that downstream river flows are more conducive to healthy aquatic biological communities. These changes often result in a move away from daily-peaking operations to lower-energy run-of-river operations based on the assumption that downstream biological communities will improve under more natural flow regimes. Previous studies on natural flow regimes have focused primarily on characterizing pre- and post-dam effects by using metrics of flow variability based on daily-averaged flows, which do not accurately represent flow variability resulting from daily-peaking hydropower operations or natural flow pulses. We evaluated flow variability at four hydropower projects located in Michigan and Vermont, where the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing process resulted in a change in operations from daily-peaking to run-of-river. These hydropower projects were chosen because the relicensing occurred in the 1990s, thereby allowing for a sufficient post-operation flow record. In addition, the hydropower projects evaluated are located on rivers for which subdaily flow data were available for locations downstream of the facilities and at representative unregulated reaches. The flow data collected for the four sites were processed using three analytical tools: Indicators of Hydrological Alteration, GeoTools, and a subdaily flow worksheet developed for this study. Flow metrics were calculated using the three analytical tools, which depict flow variability at subdaily to seasonal timescales. Comparisons in flow metrics were made between unregulated and regulated reaches, as well as between daily-peaking and run-of-river operations. Results indicate that flow variability metrics calculated for run-of-river operations closely resemble unregulated reaches across temporal scales. Small to large variations in flow variability metrics were observed between daily-peaking and

  7. Operational value of ensemble streamflow forecasts for hydropower production: A Canadian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Tremblay, Denis; Luc, Perreault; François, Anctil

    2010-05-01

    Ensemble and probabilistic forecasts have many advantages over deterministic ones, both in meteorology and hydrology (e.g. Krzysztofowicz, 2001). Mainly, they inform the user on the uncertainty linked to the forecast. It has been brought to attention that such additional information could lead to improved decision making (e.g. Wilks and Hamill, 1995; Mylne, 2002; Roulin, 2007), but very few studies concentrate on operational situations involving the use of such forecasts. In addition, many authors have demonstrated that ensemble forecasts outperform deterministic forecasts in terms of performance (e.g. Jaun et al., 2005; Velazquez et al., 2009; Laio and Tamea, 2007). However, such performance is mostly assessed on the basis of numerical scoring rules, which compare the forecasts to the observations, and seldom in terms of management gains. The proposed case study adopts an operational point of view, on the basis that a novel forecasting system has value only if it leads to increase monetary and societal gains (e.g. Murphy, 1994; Laio and Tamea, 2007). More specifically, Environment Canada operational ensemble precipitation forecasts are used to drive the HYDROTEL distributed hydrological model (Fortin et al., 1995), calibrated on the Gatineau watershed located in Québec, Canada. The resulting hydrological ensemble forecasts are then incorporated into Hydro-Québec SOHO stochastic management optimization tool that automatically search for optimal operation decisions for the all reservoirs and hydropower plants located on the basin. The timeline of the study is the fall season of year 2003. This period is especially relevant because of high precipitations that nearly caused a major spill, and forced the preventive evacuation of a portion of the population located near one of the dams. We show that the use of the ensemble forecasts would have reduced the occurrence of spills and flooding, which is of particular importance for dams located in populous area, and

  8. Operational value of ensemble streamflow forecasts for hydropower production: A Canadian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Tremblay, Denis; Luc, Perreault; François, Anctil

    2010-05-01

    Ensemble and probabilistic forecasts have many advantages over deterministic ones, both in meteorology and hydrology (e.g. Krzysztofowicz, 2001). Mainly, they inform the user on the uncertainty linked to the forecast. It has been brought to attention that such additional information could lead to improved decision making (e.g. Wilks and Hamill, 1995; Mylne, 2002; Roulin, 2007), but very few studies concentrate on operational situations involving the use of such forecasts. In addition, many authors have demonstrated that ensemble forecasts outperform deterministic forecasts in terms of performance (e.g. Jaun et al., 2005; Velazquez et al., 2009; Laio and Tamea, 2007). However, such performance is mostly assessed on the basis of numerical scoring rules, which compare the forecasts to the observations, and seldom in terms of management gains. The proposed case study adopts an operational point of view, on the basis that a novel forecasting system has value only if it leads to increase monetary and societal gains (e.g. Murphy, 1994; Laio and Tamea, 2007). More specifically, Environment Canada operational ensemble precipitation forecasts are used to drive the HYDROTEL distributed hydrological model (Fortin et al., 1995), calibrated on the Gatineau watershed located in Québec, Canada. The resulting hydrological ensemble forecasts are then incorporated into Hydro-Québec SOHO stochastic management optimization tool that automatically search for optimal operation decisions for the all reservoirs and hydropower plants located on the basin. The timeline of the study is the fall season of year 2003. This period is especially relevant because of high precipitations that nearly caused a major spill, and forced the preventive evacuation of a portion of the population located near one of the dams. We show that the use of the ensemble forecasts would have reduced the occurrence of spills and flooding, which is of particular importance for dams located in populous area, and

  9. Seasonal-Scale Optimization of Conventional Hydropower Operations in the Upper Colorado System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bier, A.; Villa, D.; Sun, A.; Lowry, T. S.; Barco, J.

    2011-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing the Hydropower Seasonal Concurrent Optimization for Power and the Environment (Hydro-SCOPE) tool to examine basin-wide conventional hydropower operations at seasonal time scales. This tool is part of an integrated, multi-laboratory project designed to explore different aspects of optimizing conventional hydropower operations. The Hydro-SCOPE tool couples a one-dimensional reservoir model with a river routing model to simulate hydrology and water quality. An optimization engine wraps around this model framework to solve for long-term operational strategies that best meet the specific objectives of the hydrologic system while honoring operational and environmental constraints. The optimization routines are provided by Sandia's open source DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) software. Hydro-SCOPE allows for multi-objective optimization, which can be used to gain insight into the trade-offs that must be made between objectives. The Hydro-SCOPE tool is being applied to the Upper Colorado Basin hydrologic system. This system contains six reservoirs, each with its own set of objectives (such as maximizing revenue, optimizing environmental indicators, meeting water use needs, or other objectives) and constraints. This leads to a large optimization problem with strong connectedness between objectives. The systems-level approach used by the Hydro-SCOPE tool allows simultaneous analysis of these objectives, as well as understanding of potential trade-offs related to different objectives and operating strategies. The seasonal-scale tool will be tightly integrated with the other components of this project, which examine day-ahead and real-time planning, environmental performance, hydrologic forecasting, and plant efficiency.

  10. Dam operation for environmental water releases; the case of Osborne dam, Save catchment, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symphorian, Griphin R.; Madamombe, E.; van der Zaag, Pieter

    There is limited capacity in terms of knowledge and experience on how to calculate the environmental water requirements (EWR) in Zimbabwe. In this paper the EWR were assessed using the desktop model developed by [A Desktop Model used to provide an initial estimate of the ecological instream flow requirements of rivers in South Africa. Institute for Water Research, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, 2001] and a spreadsheet model (Waflex) was developed to incorporate a component of EWR in reservoir simulation. The paper assesses whether EWR as established by Hughes method can be incorporated into a reservoir simulation and water allocation model, and if it is possible to derive EWR directly from naturalised flow series. The paper further considers the possibility of using the concept of capacity sharing for allocating water rights to the environment. The results show that at present use levels the EWR in the Odzi river can easily be met. However when in future water abstractions will increase, the effective water releases for the environmental will increase significantly. Also a very simple method is proposed to establish a first approximation of EWR. The paper shows that the capacity sharing model concept is a transparent institutional arrangement, which can be used to allocate water rights to the environment. It can be concluded that the Waflex model can provide practical guidelines to catchment managers and dam operators to implement EWR.

  11. Relationships between Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing program and hydropower operations at Salt Lake City area integrated projects

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Folga, S.; Poch, L.A.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum provides background information on the Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the physical characteristics of the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) hydropower plants, which include the Colorado River Storage Project, the Rio Grande Project, and the Collbran Project. In addition, the history, electrical capacity, storage capacity, and flow restrictions at each dam are presented. An overview of Western`s current programs and services, including a review of statutory authorities, agency discretion, and obligations, is also provided. The variability of SLCA/IP hourly generation under various alternative marketing strategies and purchasing programs is discussed. The effects of Western`s services, such as area load control, outage assistance, and transmission, on SLCA/IP power plant operations are analyzed.

  12. A New Tool for Environmental and Economic Optimization of Hydropower Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, S.; Hayse, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, researchers from Argonne, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated on the development of an integrated toolset to enhance hydropower operational decisions related to economic value and environmental performance. As part of this effort, we developed an analytical approach (Index of River Functionality, IRF) and an associated software tool to evaluate how well discharge regimes achieve ecosystem management goals for hydropower facilities. This approach defines site-specific environmental objectives using relationships between environmental metrics and hydropower-influenced flow characteristics (e.g., discharge or temperature), with consideration given to seasonal timing, duration, and return frequency requirements for the environmental objectives. The IRF approach evaluates the degree to which an operational regime meets each objective and produces a score representing how well that regime meets the overall set of defined objectives. When integrated with other components in the toolset that are used to plan hydropower operations based upon hydrologic forecasts and various constraints on operations, the IRF approach allows an optimal release pattern to be developed based upon tradeoffs between environmental performance and economic value. We tested the toolset prototype to generate a virtual planning operation for a hydropower facility located in the Upper Colorado River basin as a demonstration exercise. We conducted planning as if looking five months into the future using data for the recently concluded 2012 water year. The environmental objectives for this demonstration were related to spawning and nursery habitat for endangered fishes using metrics associated with maintenance of instream habitat and reconnection of the main channel with floodplain wetlands in a representative reach of the river. We also applied existing mandatory operational constraints for the

  13. Reservoir operation under variable climate: Case of Rozva Dam, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ncube, S. P.; Makurira, H.; Kaseke, E.; Mhizha, A.

    The challenge of maintaining or improving the quality of rural livelihoods against the increasing threat of climate change (CC) and climate variability (CV) calls for the development of robust and tested systems, tools and procedures for the management of water resources. The research aimed at assessing reservoir operation under variable climate for Rozva Dam, a medium-sized reservoir in Zimbabwe. Rozva Dam is located in the Bikita District of Zimbabwe and has a full supply capacity of 2.8 Mm 3 at a maximum water level of 17.3 m. The research analysed 46 years of rainfall and temperature data to assess climate variability and or change. The CROPWAT model was used to estimate crop water requirements for the adjacent 80 hectare irrigation scheme. The WAFLEX model was applied to simulate the performance of the system under three scenarios: (1) existing demands and operational rules, (2) reduced water availability due to climate change, as predicted by the Ministry of Mines, but with increasing annual demands and (3) climate change situation coupled with change in irrigation technology. The results show a general decreasing linear trend for rainfall although the variance was not statistically significant at p = 0.05. A clearer cyclic pattern was observed for the decadal analysis. An increasing trend in both maximum and minimum temperature was observed although, again, these were not statistically significant with a Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient ( R sp) of below 0.5. The research used rainfall and temperature data as the basis for confirmation climate change and variability in the study area. Analyses show that the area is experiencing more of CV than CC. Modelling results show that the reservoir can satisfy current demands but will fail to cope under the forecasted increase in demand. The conclusions from the research are that the available water resources in the studied system are sufficient to satisfy the current demands. The predicted level of climate

  14. Subdaily Hydrologic Alteration due to Hydropower Operations in the Bio-Bio river in Southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares, M. A.; Fernandez, M.; Benavides, C.; Palma, R.

    2012-12-01

    Hydropower plants can inexpensively respond to short-term changes in power demand. This can cause fluctuating operations at a subdaily scale. This work includes an assessment of the degree of subdaily hydrologic alteration (SDHA) due to operation two reservoir hydropower plants in the Bio-Bio river in southern Chile. Alternative operational constraints in the form of minimum instream flows (MIFs) and maximum ramping rates (MRRs) were defined and included into an economic dispatch model for hydrothermal scheduling with hourly stages and a weekly horizon. The model minimizes weekly total costs -including thermal production costs, failure costs, and expected future cost of water- over the entire grid (Chile's Central Interconnected System). Subdaily hydrologic alteration was assessed by computing a set of indicators compiled by Zimmerman et al. (2010). These indicators are obtained from hourly time series for 24-hour periods. Assessment of SDHA was based on a comparison of the indicador values obtained for actual recent operations to those obtained for a natural subdaily flow regime derived from hydrologic techniques and flow gage records. Results showed that current operations cause a downstream subdaily flow regime which deviates significatly from its natural counterpart. In other words, hydropower operations cause a significant degree of subdaily hydrologic alteration in the Bio-Bio river. Environmental constraints were imposed to the downstream reservoir operations. MIFs constraints took values between 30% and 60% of historical monthly average flows, whereas MRRs were set to values between 14 m3/s/hour and 68 m3/s/hour. Results indicate that both types of constraints improve the indicators of subdaily hydrologic alteration. However, under MIF constraints alone, improvement is only observed during some seasons in the year. MRR constraints improve the indicators all year round. Additionally, it was observed that the effect of environmental constraints on the

  15. Operation of the Lower Granite Dam Adult Trap, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Jerrel R.

    2009-01-01

    During 2008 we operated the adult salmonid trap at Lower Granite Dam from 7 March through 25 November, except during a short summer period when water temperatures were too high to safely handle fish. We collected and handled a total of 20,463 steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss and radio-tagged 34 of the hatchery steelhead. We took scale samples from 3,724 spring/summer Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha for age and genetic analysis. We collected and handled a total of 8,254 fall Chinook salmon. Of those fish, 2,520 adults and 942 jacks were transported to Lyons Ferry Hatchery on the Snake River in Washington. In addition, 961 adults and 107 jacks were transported to the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery on the Clearwater River in Idaho. The remaining 3,724 fall Chinook salmon were passed upstream. Scales samples were taken from 780 fall Chinook salmon tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and collected by the sort-by-code system.

  16. The effect of dam operation on the hydrology and ecology of a tropical riverine floodplain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köck, Florian; Blaser, Wilma J.; Shanungu, Griffin

    2014-05-01

    Worldwide, dam operation has been changing the flow regimes of many rivers with significant impact on riverine ecosystems. At the same time, dam management itself provides the key to better control the specifics of this hydraulic alteration and hence to mitigate negative effects of river regulation. In our study we aimed at substantiating the ecological basis for an adapted dam management for the case of a seasonally inundated riverine floodplain system in Zambia, Southern Africa. We quantified dam-induced alterations and investigated the relationship between an altered flow regime and altered ecological conditions in the floodplain. For this, we adapted the "Indicators of Hydraulic Alterations" to seasonal tropical river systems and used them to analyze both the pristine and the regulated hydrological regime, namely the inflow to the floodplain, water level in the floodplain and modeled flooded area in the ecologically most valuable part of the floodplain. We checked the reliability of the adapted indicators and demonstrated how dam operation reduces the correlation between them, making it undesirable to further reduce the number of indicators. Using the limited ecological data available we then identified critical hydrological situations that put at risk the functioning of the dam-impacted, flood-dependent grazing ecosystem and investigated the potential of an adapted dam operation for managing these situations. We formulated targets for an adapted dam operation and assessed the potential and the limitations for achieving these targets, where possible giving water management and monitoring recommendations.

  17. Operation modes of a hydro-generator as a part of the inverter micro hydropower plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukutin, B. V.; Shandarova, E. B.; Matukhin, D. L.; Makarova, A. F.; Fuks, I. L.

    2016-04-01

    The paper dwells on the selection problem of power equipment for a stand-alone inverter micro hydropower plant, in particular a hydro-generator, and evaluation of its operation modes. Numerical experiments included the modes calculation of hydroelectric units of the same type with various nominal power, supplied to the consumer according to the unchanged electric load curve. The studies developed requirements for a hydro-turbine and a synchronous generator in terms of a speed range and installed capacity, depending on the load curve. The possibility of using general industrial hydroelectric units with nominal power equal to half-maximum capacity of a typical daily load curve in rural areas was shown.

  18. The Economic Benefits Of Multipurpose Reservoirs In The United States- Federal Hydropower Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Witt, Adam M.; Stewart, Kevin M.; Bonnet Acosta, Marisol; Mobley, Miles

    2015-09-01

    The United States is home to over 80,000 dams, of which approximately 3% are equipped with hydroelectric generating capabilities. When a dam serves as a hydropower facility, it provides a variety of energy services that range from clean, reliable power generation to load balancing that supports grid stability. In most cases, the benefits of dams and their associated reservoirs go far beyond supporting the nation s energy demand. As evidenced by the substantial presence of non-powered dams with the ability to store water in large capacities, the primary purpose of a dam may not be hydropower, but rather one of many other purposes. A dam and reservoir may support navigation, recreation, flood control, irrigation, and water supply, with each multipurpose benefit providing significant social and economic impacts on a local, regional, and national level. When hydropower is one of the services provided by a multipurpose reservoir, it is then part of an integrated system of competing uses. Operating rules, management practices, consumer demands, and environmental constraints must all be balanced to meet the multipurpose project s objectives. When federal dams are built, they are authorized by Congress to serve one or more functions. Legislation such as the Water Resources Development Act regulates the operation of the facility in order to coordinate the authorized uses and ensure the dam s intended objectives are being met. While multipurpose reservoirs account for billions of dollars in contributions to National Economic Development (NED) every year, no attempt has been made to evaluate their benefits on a national scale. This study is an on-going work conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to estimate the economic benefits of multipurpose hydropower reservoirs in the United States. Given the important role that federal hydropower plays in the U.S., the first focus of this research will target the three main federal hydropower owners Tennessee Valley

  19. Hydropower, adaptive management, and biodiversity

    SciTech Connect

    Wieringa, M.J.; Morton, A.G.

    1996-11-01

    Adaptive management is a policy framework within which an iterative process of decision making is allowed based on the observed responses to and effectiveness of previous decisions. The use of adaptive management allows science-based research and monitoring of natural resource and ecological community responses, in conjunction with societal values and goals, to guide decisions concerning man`s activities. The adaptive management process has been proposed for application to hydropower operations at Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, a situation that requires complex balancing of natural resources requirements and competing human uses. This example is representative of the general increase in public interest in the operation of hydropower facilities and possible effects on downstream natural resources and of the growing conflicts between uses and users of river-based resources. This paper describes the adaptive management process, using the Glen Canyon Dam example, and discusses ways to make the process work effectively in managing downstream natural resources and biodiversity. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Acoustic Camera Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Approach and Fate at Surface Flow Outlets of Two Hydropower Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Johnson, Gary E.; Weiland, Mark A.; Khan, Fenton; Mueller, Robert P.; Serkowski, John A.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Hedgepeth, J.; Skalski, John R.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Klatte, Bernard A.

    2006-08-04

    The objective of this study was to estimate and compare fate probabilities for juvenile salmon approaching two surface flow outlets (SFOs) to identify effective design characteristics. The SFOs differed principally in forebay location, depth, discharge, and water velocity over a sharp-crested weir. Both outlets were about 20 ft wide. The 22-ft deep Bonneville Powerhouse 2 Corner Collector (B2CC) was located in the southwest corner of the forebay and passed 5,000 ft3/s of water at normal-pool elevation. In contrast, The Dalles Dam ice and trash sluiceway outlet above Main Unit 1-3 (TDITC) was not located in a forebay corner, was only 7-ft deep, and discharged about 933 ft3/s at normal-pool elevation. The linear velocity of water over the weir was about 15 ft/s at the B2CC and 5 ft/s at the TDITC. We used a Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar (DIDSON) to record movements of fish within about 65 ft of the B2CC and within 35 ft of the TDITC. We actively tracked fish by manually adjusting pan and tilt rotator angles to keep targets in view. Contrary to expectations, active tracking did not provide a predominance of long tracks that clearly indicated fish fate because most tracks were incomplete. Active tracking did increase error in fish-position estimation, which complicated data processing, so we plan to sample multiple fixed zones in the future. The probability of fish entering each SFO was estimated by a Markov chain analysis, which did not require complete fish tracks. At the B2CC, we tracked 7,943 juvenile salmonids and most of them entered the B2CC. Fish moving south 40 to 60 ft upstream of the dam face were more likely to enter the eddy at the south end of the powerhouse than to enter the B2CC. At the TDITC, we tracked 2,821 smolts. Fish movement was complex with active swimming toward and away from the entrance. The high entrance probability zone (EPZ), where over 90% of tracked fish entered the SFO, extended 32 ft out at the B2CC and only 8 ft out at the TDITC

  1. Improving the flow representation in a stochastic programming model for hydropower operations in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Y.; Olivares, M. A.; Vargas, X.

    2015-12-01

    This research aims to improve the representation of stochastic water inflows to hydropower plants used in a grid-wide, power production scheduling model in central Chile. The model prescribes the operation of every plant in the system, including hydropower plants located in several basins, and uses stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) with possible inflow scenarios defined from historical records. Each year of record is treated as a sample of weekly inflows to power plants, assuming this intrinsically incorporates spatial and temporal correlations, without any further autocorrelation analysis of the hydrological time series. However, standard good practice suggests the use of synthetic flows instead of raw historical records.The proposed approach generates synthetic inflow scenarios based on hydrological modeling of a few basins in the system and transposition of flows with other basins within so-called homogeneous zones. Hydrologic models use precipitation and temperature as inputs, and therefore this approach requires producing samples of those variables. Development and calibration of these models imply a greater demand of time compared to the purely statistical approach to synthetic flows. This approach requires consideration of the main uses in the basins: agriculture and hydroelectricity. Moreover a geostatistical analysis of the area is analyzed to generate a map that identifies the relationship between the points where the hydrological information is generated and other points of interest within the power system. Consideration of homogeneous zones involves a decrease in the effort required for generation of information compared with hydrological modeling of every point of interest. It is important to emphasize that future scenarios are derived through a probabilistic approach that incorporates the features of the hydrological year type (dry, normal or wet), covering the different possibilities in terms of availability of water resources. We present

  2. Optimizing the dammed: water supply losses and fish habitat gains from dam removal in California.

    PubMed

    Null, Sarah E; Medellín-Azuara, Josué; Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lent, Michelle; Lund, Jay R

    2014-04-01

    Dams provide water supply, flood protection, and hydropower generation benefits, but also harm native species by altering the natural flow regime and degrading aquatic and riparian habitat. Restoring some rivers reaches to free-flowing conditions may restore substantial environmental benefits, but at some economic cost. This study uses a systems analysis approach to preliminarily evaluate removing rim dams in California's Central Valley to highlight promising habitat and unpromising economic use tradeoffs for water supply and hydropower. CALVIN, an economic-engineering optimization model, is used to evaluate water storage and scarcity from removing dams. A warm and dry climate model for a 30-year period centered at 2085, and a population growth scenario for year 2050 water demands represent future conditions. Tradeoffs between hydropower generation and water scarcity to urban, agricultural, and instream flow requirements were compared with additional river kilometers of habitat accessible to anadromous fish species following dam removal. Results show that existing infrastructure is most beneficial if operated as a system (ignoring many current institutional constraints). Removing all rim dams is not beneficial for California, but a subset of existing dams are potentially promising candidates for removal from an optimized water supply and free-flowing river perspective. Removing individual dams decreases statewide delivered water by 0-2282 million cubic meters and provides access to 0 to 3200 km of salmonid habitat upstream of dams. The method described here can help prioritize dam removal, although more detailed, project-specific studies also are needed. Similarly, improving environmental protection can come at substantially lower economic cost, when evaluated and operated as a system. PMID:24594701

  3. Effects of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1979-1985 Final Research Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, Patrick

    1986-05-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. Studies concerning operation of the dam on the Flathead River aquatic biota began in 1979 and continued to 1982 under Bureau of Reclamation funding. These studies resulted in flow recommendations for the aquatic biota in the main stem Flathead River, below the influence of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork. Studies concerned specifically with kokanee salmon have continued under Bonneville Power Administration funding since 1982. This completion report covers the entire study period (September 1979 to June 1985). Major results of this study were: (1) development and refinement of methods to assess hydropower impacts on spawning and incubation success of kokanee; (2) development of a model to predict kokanee year class strength from Flathead River flows; and (3) implementation of flows favorable for successful kokanee reproduction. A monitoring program has been developed which will assess the recovery of the kokanee population as it proceeds, and to recommend management strategies to maintain management goals for the kokanee fishery in the river system.

  4. Effect of ice cover on hydropower production

    SciTech Connect

    Yapa, P.D.; Shen H.T.

    1984-09-01

    For hydropower developments in northern regions, the annual occurrence of river ice cover presents various problems of operation and management. The existence of an ice cover can lead to a substantial loss in power production. This loss in power due to the presence of ice cover, however, can be minimized with appropriate ice control measures. In this technical note, a quantitative analysis of power loss is carried out for the St. Lawrence Power Project. Major factors that affect the magnitude of power loss are examined to provide some information for future ice-related hydropower operations. The St. Lawrence River, which conveys water from the Great Lakes Basin to the Atlantic Ocean, has been utilized for hydroelectric power production since the early 1900's. The St. Lawrence Seaway and Power Project, constructed in 1954-58, developed the hydropower potential of the upper St. Lawrence River. The Moses-Saunders Power Dam is located about 100 miles downstream of the outlet of Lake Ontario. Since the development of this power project, the regulation of flow through the dam in relation to the ice conditions has been an important element in its winter operation. The existence of an ice cover reduces the power production capability of the river significantly.

  5. Migration depth and residence time of juvenile salmonids in the forebays of hydropower dams prior to passage through turbines or juvenile bypass systems: implications for turbine-passage survival.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun D; Brown, Richard S; Fu, Tao; Martinez, Jayson J; McMichael, Geoffrey A; Skalski, John R; Townsend, Richard L; Trumbo, Bradly A; Ahmann, Martin L; Renholds, Jon F

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the three-dimensional depth distributions in rivers of individually marked fish that are in close proximity to hydropower facilities. Knowledge of the depth distributions of fish approaching dams can be used to understand how vulnerable fish are to injuries such as barotrauma as they pass through dams. To predict the possibility of barotrauma injury caused by pressure changes during turbine passage, it is necessary to understand fish behaviour relative to acclimation depth in dam forebays as they approach turbines. A guiding study was conducted using high-resolution three-dimensional tracking results of salmonids implanted with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System transmitters to investigate the depth distributions of subyearling and yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) passing two dams on the Snake River in Washington State. Multiple approaches were evaluated to describe the depth at which fish were acclimated, and statistical analyses were performed on large data sets extracted from ∼28 000 individually tagged fish during 2012 and 2013. Our study identified patterns of depth distributions of juvenile salmonids in forebays prior to passage through turbines or juvenile bypass systems. This research indicates that the median depth at which juvenile salmonids approached turbines ranged from 2.8 to 12.2 m, with the depths varying by species/life history, year, location (which dam) and diel period (between day and night). One of the most enlightening findings was the difference in dam passage associated with the diel period. The amount of time that turbine-passed fish spent in the immediate forebay prior to entering the powerhouse was much lower during the night than during the day. This research will allow scientists to understand turbine-passage survival better and enable them to assess more accurately the effects of dam passage on juvenile salmon survival. PMID:27293685

  6. Migration depth and residence time of juvenile salmonids in the forebays of hydropower dams prior to passage through turbines or juvenile bypass systems: implications for turbine-passage survival

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun D.; Brown, Richard S.; Fu, Tao; Martinez, Jayson J.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Trumbo, Bradly A.; Ahmann, Martin L.; Renholds, Jon F.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the three-dimensional depth distributions in rivers of individually marked fish that are in close proximity to hydropower facilities. Knowledge of the depth distributions of fish approaching dams can be used to understand how vulnerable fish are to injuries such as barotrauma as they pass through dams. To predict the possibility of barotrauma injury caused by pressure changes during turbine passage, it is necessary to understand fish behaviour relative to acclimation depth in dam forebays as they approach turbines. A guiding study was conducted using high-resolution three-dimensional tracking results of salmonids implanted with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System transmitters to investigate the depth distributions of subyearling and yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) passing two dams on the Snake River in Washington State. Multiple approaches were evaluated to describe the depth at which fish were acclimated, and statistical analyses were performed on large data sets extracted from ∼28 000 individually tagged fish during 2012 and 2013. Our study identified patterns of depth distributions of juvenile salmonids in forebays prior to passage through turbines or juvenile bypass systems. This research indicates that the median depth at which juvenile salmonids approached turbines ranged from 2.8 to 12.2 m, with the depths varying by species/life history, year, location (which dam) and diel period (between day and night). One of the most enlightening findings was the difference in dam passage associated with the diel period. The amount of time that turbine-passed fish spent in the immediate forebay prior to entering the powerhouse was much lower during the night than during the day. This research will allow scientists to understand turbine-passage survival better and enable them to assess more accurately the effects of dam passage on juvenile salmon survival. PMID:27293685

  7. Inflow forecasting model construction with stochastic time series for coordinated dam operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Jung, Y.; Kim, H.; Heo, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Dam inflow forecasting is one of the most important tasks in dam operation for an effective water resources management and control. In general, dam inflow forecasting with stochastic time series model is possible to apply when the data is stationary because most of stochastic process based on stationarity. However, recent hydrological data cannot be satisfied the stationarity anymore because of climate change. Therefore a stochastic time series model, which can consider seasonality and trend in the data series, named SARIMAX(Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Average with eXternal variable) model were constructed in this study. This SARIMAX model could increase the performance of stochastic time series model by considering the nonstationarity components and external variable such as precipitation. For application, the models were constructed for four coordinated dams on Han river in South Korea with monthly time series data. As a result, the models of each dam have similar performance and it would be possible to use the model for coordinated dam operation.Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant 'Establishing Active Disaster Management System of Flood Control Structures by using 3D BIM Technique' [NEMA-NH-12-57] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, National Emergency Management Agency of Korea.

  8. Optimizing the Dammed: water supply losses and fish habitat gains from dam removal in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Null, S. E.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Lund, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Dams provide water supply, flood protection, and hydropower generation benefits, but have also harmed native species by altering the natural flow regime and degrading aquatic and riparian habitat. Restoring some river reaches to free-flowing conditions may restore substantial environmental benefits, but at some economic cost. This study uses a systems analysis approach to evaluate removing rim dams in California's Central Valley to highlight dams that could be removed as well as existing dams that are most beneficial for providing water supply and hydropower benefits. CALVIN, an economic-engineering optimization model was used to evaluate water storage and scarcity from removing dams. A warm and dry climate model (GFDL CM2.1 A2 emissions scenario) for a 30 year period centered at 2085, and double population scenario for year 2050 water demands represent future conditions. Tradeoffs between water scarcity to urban, agricultural, and instream flow requirements were compared with additional river miles accessible to anadromous species following dam removal. Results show that existing infrastructure is most beneficial if operated as a system (ignoring many current political and institutional constraints). Removing all rim dams is not beneficial for California, but a subset of existing dams are potentially promising candidates for removal from an optimized water supply and free-flowing river perspective. Incorporating environmental considerations into decision-making may lead to better solutions than focusing only on human benefits such as water supply, flood protection, hydropower generation, and recreation. Similarly, improving environmental flows can come at substantially lower economic cost, when viewed and operated as a system.Ratio of Surface Storage to Mean Annual Flow by Watershed

  9. Operational use of distributed hydrological models. Experiences and challenges at a Norwegian hydropower company (Agder Energi).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viggo Matheussen, Bernt; Andresen, Arne; Weisser, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The Scandinavian hydropower industry has traditionally adopted the lumped conceptual hydrological model - HBV, as the tool for producing forecasts of inflows and mountain snow packs. Such forecasting systems - based on lumped conceptual models - have several drawbacks. Firstly, a lumped model does not produce spatial data, and comparisons with remote sensed snow cover data (which are now available) are complicated. Secondly, several climate parameters such as wind speed are now becoming more available and can potentially improve forecasts due to improved estimates of precipitation gauge efficiency, and more physically correct calculation of turbulent heat fluxes. At last, when the number of catchments increases, it is cumbersome and slow to run multiple hydrology models compared to running one model for all catchments. With the drawbacks of the lumped hydrology models in mind, and with inspiration from other forecasting systems using distributed models, Agder Energy decided to develop a forecasting system applying a physically based distributed model. In this paper we describe an operational inflow and snowpack forecast system developed for the Scandinavian mountain range. The system applies a modern macroscale land surface hydrology model (VIC) which in combination with historical climate data and weather predictions can be used to produce both short-term, and seasonal forecasts of inflow and mountain snowpack. Experiences with the forecast system are illustrated using results from individual subcatchments as well as aggregated regional forecasts of inflow and snowpack. Conversion of water volumes into effective energy inflow are also presented and compared to data from the Nordic hydropower system. Further on, we document several important "lessons-learned" that may be of interest to the hydrological research community. Specifically a semi-automatic data cleansing system combining spatial and temporal visualization techniques with statistical procedures are

  10. Developing a Future Dam Operation Alternative to Mitigate Impact of Climate Change on Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    There have been few studies on water quality projection considering climate change. South Korea is not an exception. The simple way to mitigate the future water quality change is to alter dam operations in upstream. In this study, a small watershed in South Korea with two multi-purpose dams is considered. A common chained-modeling procedure for the climate change assessment study is applied to the watershed, i.e. water quality projections are made with GCMs and the LARS-WG downscaling method, and the SWAT hydrologic model. The projections uncertainty is quantified by using multiple scenarios of GCMs. With these future water quality projections, this study first examines how vulnerable to the potential climate change the watershed is and then develop a possible dam operation alternative to improve the future water quality. Finally this study also proposes other water management alternatives that can improve the potential water quality change in addition to the dam operation alternative. Keywords: adaptation, dam operation alternative, HEC-5, LARS-WG, SWAT, water quality, uncertainty.

  11. Modeling Shasta Dam operations to regulate temperatures for Chinook salmon under extreme climate and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, A.; Saito, L.; Sapin, J. R.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hanna, R. B.; Kauneckis, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Chinook salmon populations have declined significantly after the construction of Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River in 1945 prevented them from spawning in the cold waters upstream. In 1994, the winter-run Chinook were listed under the Endangered Species Act and 3 years later the US Bureau of Reclamation began operating a temperature control device (TCD) on the dam that allows for selective withdrawal for downstream temperature control to promote salmon spawning while also maximizing power generation. However, dam operators are responsible to other interests that depend on the reservoir for water such as agriculture, municipalities, industry, and recreation. An increase in temperatures due to climate change may place additional strain on the ability of dam operations to maintain spawning habitat for salmon downstream of the dam. We examined the capability of Shasta Dam to regulate downstream temperatures under extreme climates and climate change by using stochastically generated streamflow, stream temperature, and weather inputs with a two-dimensional CE-QUAL-W2 model under several operational options. Operation performance was evaluated using degree days and cold pool volume (volume of water below a temperature threshold). Model results indicated that a generalized operations release schedule, in which release elevations varied over the year to match downstream temperature targets, performed best overall in meeting temperature targets while preserving cold pool volume. Releasing all water out the bottom throughout the year tended to meet temperature targets at the expense of depleting the cold pool, and releasing all water out uppermost gates preserved the cold pool, but released water that was too warm during the critical spawning period. With higher air temperatures due to climate change, both degree day and cold pool volume metrics were worse than baseline conditions, which suggests that Chinook salmon may be more negatively affected under climate change.

  12. Integrated Flood Forecast and Virtual Dam Operation System for Water Resources and Flood Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Ikoma, Eiji; Lawford, Peter; Oyanagi, Misa; Kanauchi, Shizu; Koudelova, Petra; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Koike, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    While availability of hydrological- and hydrometeorological data shows growing tendency and advanced modeling techniques are emerging, such newly available data and advanced models may not always be applied in the field of decision-making. In this study we present an integrated system of ensemble streamflow forecast (ESP) and virtual dam simulator, which is designed to support river and dam manager's decision making. The system consists of three main functions: real time hydrological model, ESP model, and dam simulator model. In the real time model, the system simulates current condition of river basins, such as soil moisture and river discharges, using LSM coupled distributed hydrological model. The ESP model takes initial condition from the real time model's output and generates ESP, based on numerical weather prediction. The dam simulator model provides virtual dam operation and users can experience impact of dam control on remaining reservoir volume and downstream flood under the anticipated flood forecast. Thus the river and dam managers shall be able to evaluate benefit of priori dam release and flood risk reduction at the same time, on real time basis. Furthermore the system has been developed under the concept of data and models integration, and it is coupled with Data Integration and Analysis System (DIAS) - a Japanese national project for integrating and analyzing massive amount of observational and model data. Therefore it has advantage in direct use of miscellaneous data from point/radar-derived observation, numerical weather prediction output, to satellite imagery stored in data archive. Output of the system is accessible over the web interface, making information available with relative ease, e.g. from ordinary PC to mobile devices. We have been applying the system to the Upper Tone region, located northwest from Tokyo metropolitan area, and we show application example of the system in recent flood events caused by typhoons.

  13. Sluiceway Operations for Adult Steelhead Downstream Passage at The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Tackley, Sean C.

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss; fallbacks and kelts) downstream passage at The Dalles Dam in the Columbia River, USA, during the late fall, winter, and early spring months between 2008 and 2011. The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of operating the dam’s ice-and-trash sluiceway during non-spill months to provide a relatively safe, non-turbine, surface outlet for overwintering steelhead fallbacks and downstream migrating steelhead kelts. We applied the fixed-location hydroacoustic technique to estimate fish passage rates at the sluiceway and turbines of the dam. The spillway was closed during our sampling periods, which generally occurred in late fall, winter, and early spring. The sluiceway was highly used by adult steelhead (91–99% of total fish sampled passing the dam) during all sampling periods. Turbine passage was low when the sluiceway was not operated. This implies that lack of a sluiceway route did not result in increased turbine passage. However, when the sluiceway was open, adult steelhead used it to pass through the dam. The sluiceway may be operated during late fall, winter, and early spring to provide an optimal, non-turbine route for adult steelhead (fallbacks and kelts) downstream passage at The Dalles Dam.

  14. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. VI. Dissolved oxygen concentrations below operating dams

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Kumar, K.D.; Solomon, J.A.; Hildebrand, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of an effort aimed at determining whether or not water quality degradation, as exemplified by dissolved oxygen concentrations, is a potentially significant issue affecting small-scale hydropower development in the US. The approach was to pair operating hydroelectric sites of all sizes with dissolved oxygen measurements from nearby downstream US Geological Survey water quality stations (acquired from the WATSTORE data base). The USGS data were used to calculate probabilities of non-compliance (PNCs), i.e., the probabilities that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the discharge waters of operating hydroelectric dams will drop below 5 mg/l. PNCs were estimated for each site, season (summer vs remaining months), and capacity category (less than or equal to 30 MW vs >30 MW). Because of the low numbers of usable sites in many states, much of the subsequent analysis was conducted on a regional basis. During the winter months (November through June) all regions had low mean PNCs regardless of capacity. Most regions had higher mean PNCs in summer than in winter, and summer PNCs were greater for large-scale than for small-scale sites. Among regions, the highest mean summer PNCs were found in the Great Basin, the Southeast, and the Ohio Valley. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the effects of season and capacity on potential dissolved oxygen problems, cumulative probability distributions of PNC were developed for selected regions. This analysis indicates that low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the tailwaters below operating hydroelectric projects are a problem largely confined to large-scale facilities.

  15. Environmental impacts of increased hydroelectric development at existing dams

    SciTech Connect

    Railsback, S. F.; Cada, G. F.; Petrich, C. H.; Sale, M. J.; Shaakir-Ali, J. A.; Watts, J. A.; Webb, J. W.

    1991-04-01

    This report describes the environmental impacts of a proposed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiative to promote the development of hydropower resources at existing dams. Hydropower development at existing dams has, in general, fewer impacts than development of additional fossil-fueled resources or hydropower at new dams, although potential cumulative impacts of developing multiple hydropower projects have not been explicitly addressed. Environmental review of project impacts and mitigation needs can ensure that additional hydropower development at existing dams can provide a renewable resource with fewer impacts than alternative resources.

  16. Operation of Glen Canyon Dam. Final environmental impact statement, summary, comments and responses

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The Federal action considered in this environmental impact statement (EIS) is the operation of Glen Canyon Dam, Colorado River Storage Project (CRSP), Arizona. The purpose of the reevaluation is to determine specific options that could be implemented to minimize--consistent with law-adverse impacts on the downstream environmental and cultural resources, as well as Native American interests in Glen and Grand Canyons.

  17. Towards Optimization of Reservoir Operations for Hydropower Production in East Africa: Application of Seasonal Climate Forecasts and Remote Sensing Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, S. S.; Gebremichael, M.; Hopson, T. M.; Riddle, E. E.; Yeh, W. W. G.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroelectric generation and interconnections are the major priority areas of infrastructure development in Africa. A number of hydropower projects are currently being developed in East Africa in order to meet the energy demands of the fast growing economy in sustainable and climate-resilient manner. However, the performance efficiency of existing hydropower systems in Africa is much lower (about 30% in some cases) than their design capacity. This study proposes a decision support system (DSS) that integrates climate forecasts and remote sensing products into modeling and optimization of the hydropower systems in order to achieve reliable reservoir operations and enhance hydropower production efficiency. The DSS has three main components; climate system, hydrologic and water resources system, and optimization system. The climate system comprises of tools and interfaces for accessing, customizing and integrating climate forecasts and remote sensing data. The North America Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) seasonal retrospective forecasts for the East Africa Power Pool (EAPP) region are compared with the TRMM rainfall estimates and the CPC unified gauged rainfall data. The errors of the NMME seasonal forecasts have portrayed significant spatial and temporal variability in the EAPP region. The root mean square errors of the seasonal forecasts are relatively higher for wetter locations and months. However, the skills of the NMME seasonal forecasts are not significantly depreciating with lead time for the study region. The seasonal forecast errors vary from one model to another. Here, we present the skills of NMME seasonal forecasts, the physical factors and mechanisms that affect the skills. In addition, we discuss our methodology that derives the best seasonal forecasts for the study region from the NMME seasonal forecasts, and show how the climate forecast errors propagate through hydrologic models into hydrological forecasting.

  18. Regulatory approaches for addressing dissolved oxygen concerns at hydropower facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark J.; Cada, Glenn F.; Sale, Michael J.; Eddlemon, Gerald K.

    2003-03-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are a common water quality problem downstream of hydropower facilities. At some facilities, structural improvements (e.g. installation of weir dams or aerating turbines) or operational changes (e.g., spilling water over the dam) can be made to improve DO levels. In other cases, structural and operational approaches are too costly for the project to implement or are likely to be of limited effectiveness. Despite improvements in overall water quality below dams in recent years, many hydropower projects are unable to meet state water quality standards for DO. Regulatory agencies in the U.S. are considering or implementing dramatic changes in their approach to protecting the quality of the Nation’s waters. New policies and initiatives have emphasized flexibility, increased collaboration and shared responsibility among all parties, and market-based, economic incentives. The use of new regulatory approaches may now be a viable option for addressing the DO problem at some hydropower facilities. This report summarizes some of the regulatory-related options available to hydropower projects, including negotiation of site-specific water quality criteria, use of biological monitoring, watershed-based strategies for the management of water quality, and watershed-based trading. Key decision points center on the health of the local biological communities and whether there are contributing impacts (i.e., other sources of low DO effluents) in the watershed. If the biological communities downstream of the hydropower project are healthy, negotiation for site-specific water quality standards or biocriteria (discharge performance criteria based on characteristics of the aquatic biota) might be pursued. If there are other effluent dischargers in the watershed that contribute to low DO problems, watershed-scale strategies and effluent trading may be effective. This report examines the value of regulatory approaches by reviewing their use in

  19. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. 207.310 Section 207.310 Navigation and Navigable... Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. (a) All...

  20. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Greg; Marotz, Brian L.; Dunnigan, James

    2002-09-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness.

  1. 76 FR 7835 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental... River Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Upper Mississippi River Lock & Dam No. 21 Hydroelectric... hydropower structure consisting of 30 turbine bays, located about 100 feet downstream of the existing dam;...

  2. Estimation of economic parameters of U.S. hydropower resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas G.; Hunt, Richard T.; Reeves, Kelly S.; Carroll, Greg R.

    2003-06-01

    Tools for estimating the cost of developing and operating and maintaining hydropower resources in the form of regression curves were developed based on historical plant data. Development costs that were addressed included: licensing, construction, and five types of environmental mitigation. It was found that the data for each type of cost correlated well with plant capacity. A tool for estimating the annual and monthly electric generation of hydropower resources was also developed. Additional tools were developed to estimate the cost of upgrading a turbine or a generator. The development and operation and maintenance cost estimating tools, and the generation estimating tool were applied to 2,155 U.S. hydropower sites representing a total potential capacity of 43,036 MW. The sites included totally undeveloped sites, dams without a hydroelectric plant, and hydroelectric plants that could be expanded to achieve greater capacity. Site characteristics and estimated costs and generation for each site were assembled in a database in Excel format that is also included within the EERE Library under the title, “Estimation of Economic Parameters of U.S. Hydropower Resources - INL Hydropower Resource Economics Database.”

  3. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling, Version 2

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Patrick W.

    2015-09-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  4. Habitat factors in tailwaters with emphasis on peaking hydropower. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, J.A.; Nestler, J.M.; Layzer, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes habitat conditions in tailwaters downstream of Corps of Engineer's dams, with emphasis on peaking hydropower effects, by summarizing literature information, updating findings made previously under the Environmental and Water Quality Operations Studies Program, and presenting preliminary results of field work performed as part of this research effort. Habitat conditions in tailwaters are presented at two different levels of resolution. First, in general terms, physical and chemical conditions in unregulated streams and in tailwaters downstream of surface- and deep-release projects are compared and contrasted. Many of the generic impacts associated with peaking hydropower operation are also described. Many of the generic impact associated with peaking hydropower operation are also described. Second, the detailed effects of peaking hydropower operation are described for benthos and selected fishes using concepts in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFM). These studies were performed on the Caney Fork River downstream of Centerhill Dam, Tennessee. Based on results of the first phase of field studies, methods are suggested for using a modified IFIM for determining the downstream effects of different release schedules, for assessing downstream effects of upgrading or retrofitting hydropower, and for determining flows necessary to maintain or protect downstream aquatic biota.

  5. Estimating the Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower and Power Marketing

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, Michael J; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Uria Martinez, Rocio; Wei, Yaxing

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently preparing an assessment of the effects of climate change on federal hydropower, as directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the Secure Water Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-11). This paper describes the assessment approach being used in a Report to Congress currently being prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The 9505 assessment will examine climate change effects on water available for hydropower operations and the future power supplies marketed from federal hydropower projects. It will also include recommendations from the Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) on potential changes in operation or contracting practices that could address these effects and risks of climate change. Potential adaption and mitigation strategies will also be identified. Federal hydropower comprises approximately half of the U.S. hydropower portfolio. The results from the 9505 assessment will promote better understanding among federal dam owners/operators of the sensitivity of their facilities to water availability, and it will provide a basis for planning future actions that will enable adaptation to climate variability and change. The end-users of information are Congressional members, their staff, the PMAs and their customers, federal dam owners/operators, and the DOE Water Power Program.

  6. Small Hydropower in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Johnson, Kurt

    2015-09-01

    Small hydropower, defined in this report as hydropower with a generating capacity of up to 10 MW typically built using existing dams, pipelines, and canals has substantial opportunity for growth. Existing small hydropower comprises about 75% of the current US hydropower fleet in terms of number of plants. The economic feasibility of developing new small hydropower projects has substantially improved recently, making small hydropower the type of new hydropower development most likely to occur. In 2013, Congress unanimously approved changes to simplify federal permitting requirements for small hydropower, lowering costs and reducing the amount of time required to receive federal approvals. In 2014, Congress funded a new federal incentive payment program for hydropower, currently worth approximately 1.5 cents/kWh. Federal and state grant and loan programs for small hydropower are becoming available. Pending changes in federal climate policy could benefit all renewable energy sources, including small hydropower. Notwithstanding remaining barriers, development of new small hydropower is expected to accelerate in response to recent policy changes.

  7. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, Jay; Garrow, Larry

    2005-06-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) uses a combination of techniques to collect physical and biological data within the Kootenai River Basin. These data serve several purposes including: the development and refinement of models used in management of water resources and operation of Libby Dam; investigations into the limiting factors of native fish populations, gathering basic life history information, tracking trends in endangered and threatened species, and the assessment of restoration or management activities designed to restore native fishes and their habitats.

  8. Conventional Hydropower Technologies Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-01

    This factsheet gives a description of the U.S. Department of Energy Water Power Program's efforts to increase generating capacity and efficiency at existing hydroelectric facilities, add hydroelectric generating capacity to non-powered dams, and reduce the environmental effects of hydropower.

  9. Modeling Yuba River Watershed using WEHY Model and Dam Operation Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahwa, Prince

    Water is an essential requirement for human existence. However, due to economic and social developments as well as climate change, both water withdrawals and water supplies are changing significantly. Water consumption has an increasing tendency in all the sectors mainly in agricultural use, industrial and power generation use, and domestic use. The total water demand of US is projected to increase by about 12.3 percent between 2000 and 2050. In the meantime, water supplies are being impacted by climate change and anthropogenic impacts. It has, thus, become a necessity to be able to model and predict the water flow based on integration of spatial elements and atmospheric/climatic changes. The purpose of this project is to model the surface run off in the Yuba River Watershed, California, given the geographic and geomorphologic complexities and the presence of dams that regulate the water discharge. The model used, the Watershed Environmental Hydrology Model, WEHY, utilizes upscaled hydrologic conservation equations to describe the evolution of the hydrologic processes and environmental processes within a watershed in time and space. It is capable of accounting for the effect of heterogeneity within natural watersheds. With the development of modern geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technologies, increasingly more watershed physical attributes are digitally available, such as topography, geology, soils, land/vegetation cover, and so on. Because the WEHY model parameters are related to the physical properties of the watershed, it is possible to estimate the geomorphologic parameters and the soil hydraulic parameters of the WEHY model by means of existing GIS data sets that describe the geomorphologic features and the soil conditions. So the geographic and geomorphologic complexities are addressed by WEHY and GIS. Presence of big dams makes it necessary to define operation rules taking care of all the constraints including downstream water demand

  10. Scientific substantiation of safe operation of the Earthen Dams at the Votkinsk HPP

    SciTech Connect

    Deev, A. P.; Fisenko, V. F.; Sol'skii, S. V.; Lopatina, M. G.; Gints, A. V.; Aref'eva, A. N.

    2012-11-15

    Over a period of 15 years, coworkers of the B. E. Vedeneev Scientific-Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering have conducted scientific accompaniment of the operation of the earthen dams at the Votkinsk HPP. During that time, basic performance characteristics associated with complex hydrogeologic and hydrochemical conditions, and the forms of their unfavorable manifestations influencing the reliability and safety of the structures were revealed, and, recommendations and measures were developed for their elimination.

  11. Modelling impacts of present and future hydropower operations on flow regimes in data scarce mountain river ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geris, Josie; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Seibert, Jan; Vis, Marc; Soulsby, Chris

    2014-05-01

    characterise the natural flow regime, assess the regulation impacts, and explore sensitivities to hydrological changes in water management. Overall, changes following regulation in the Lyon include decreases in inter-and intra-annual variability of all aspects of the flow regime that are important in various life stages of the Atlantic Salmon. Sensitivity tests showed that a more variable release regime, as opposed to changes in the efficiency of the present regulation regime, could be most beneficial for the ecological status of the Lyon, while still maintaining viable hydropower generation. The results demonstrated that the simple, conceptual modelling approach developed here can capture the dominant catchment and regulation processes well, especially at the time scale at which operation rules apply. Consequentially, the approach is data undemanding, flexible, and providing a basis for assessing impacts on flow regimes and informing environmental flows in other (data sparse) regions with heavily regulated mountain river ecosystems. Furthermore, its results are easily communicated to stakeholders, providing a basis for discussing the development of new adaptive management strategies.

  12. Seasonal variation of water quality in a lateral hyporheic zone with response to dam operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Chen, L.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic environment of lateral hyporheic zone in a regulated river were investigated seasonally under fluctuated water levels induced by dam operations. Groundwater levels variations in preassembled wells and changes in electronic conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, water temperature and pH in the hyporheic zone were examined as environmental performance indicators for the water quality. Groundwater tables in wells were highly related to the river water levels that showed a hysteresis pattern, and the lag time is associated with the distances from wells to the river bank. The distribution of DO and EC were strongly related to the water temperature, indicating that the cold water released from up-reservoir could determine the biochemistry process in the hyporheic zone. Results also showed that the hyporheic water was weakly alkaline in the study area but had a more or less uniform spatial distribution. Dam release-storage cycles were the dominant factor in changing lateral hyporheic flow and water quality.

  13. Application of optimized water quality mitigation to hydropower development in the Ohio River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Railsback, S.F.; Sale, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    An optimization model was used to determine spill flow requirements for 16 proposed hydropower projects at existing navigation dams in the upper Ohio River Basin. Spill flows are required to provide aeration sufficient to meet dissolved oxygen criteria in this system where effects of individual projects are interactive and cumulative. The optimization model maximizes total power generation of the projects while meeting the dissolved oxygen criteria during critical design conditions. Although some fisheries agencies disputed the uses of modeling to determine spill flow requirements, the modeling technique was accepted by the hydropower licensing commission and the results were included in the operating licenses for the 16 projects. 6 refs.

  14. Application of wavelet analysis for monitoring the hydrologic effects of dam operation: Glen canyon dam and the Colorado River at lees ferry, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, M.A.; Schmidt, J.C.; Topping, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Wavelet analysis is a powerful tool with which to analyse the hydrologic effects of dam construction and operation on river systems. Using continuous records of instantaneous discharge from the Lees Ferry gauging station and records of daily mean discharge from upstream tributaries, we conducted wavelet analyses of the hydrologic structure of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. The wavelet power spectrum (WPS) of daily mean discharge provided a highly compressed and integrative picture of the post-dam elimination of pronounced annual and sub-annual flow features. The WPS of the continuous record showed the influence of diurnal and weekly power generation cycles, shifts in discharge management, and the 1996 experimental flood in the post-dam period. Normalization of the WPS by local wavelet spectra revealed the fine structure of modulation in discharge scale and amplitude and provides an extremely efficient tool with which to assess the relationships among hydrologic cycles and ecological and geomorphic systems. We extended our analysis to sections of the Snake River and showed how wavelet analysis can be used as a data mining technique. The wavelet approach is an especially promising tool with which to assess dam operation in less well-studied regions and to evaluate management attempts to reconstruct desired flow characteristics. Copyright ?? 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, Jay; Garrow, Larry

    2004-06-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan. Montana FWP uses a combination of diverse techniques to collect a variety of physical and biological data within the Kootenai River Basin. These data serve several purposes including: the development and refinement of models used in management of water resources and operation of Libby Dam; investigations into the limiting factors of native fish populations, gathering basic life history information, tracking trends in endangered, threatened species, and the assessment of restoration or management activities intended to restore native fishes and their habitats.

  16. 75 FR 45106 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With...: Great River Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Upper Mississippi River Lock & Dam No. 21 Hydroelectric...' Lock & Dam No. 21, and would consist of the following facilities: (1) A new hydropower...

  17. Hungry Horse Mitigation Plan; Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam, 1990-2003 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fraley, John J.; Marotz, Brian L.; DosSantos, Joseph M.

    2003-04-01

    In this document we present fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives, and recommendations to protect, mitigate, and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. This plan addresses six separate program measures in the 1987 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. We designed the plan to be closely coordinated in terms of dam operations, funding, and activities with the Kerr Mitigation Plan presently before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. This document represents a mitigation plan for consideration by the Northwest Power Planning Council process; it is not an implementation plan. Flathead Lake is one of the cleanest lakes of its size in the world. The exceptional water quality and unique native fisheries make the Flathead Lake/River system extremely valuable to the economy and quality of life in the basin. The recreational fishery in Flathead Lake has an estimated value of nearly eight million dollars annually. This mitigation process represents our best opportunity to reduce the impacts of hydropower in this valuable aquatic system and increase angling opportunity. We based loss estimates and mitigation alternatives on an extensive data base, agency reports, nationally and internationally peer-reviewed scientific articles, and an innovative biological model for Hungry Horse Reservoir and the Flathead River. We conducted an extensive, 14-month scoping and consultation process with agency representatives, representatives of citizen groups, and the general public. This consultation process helped identify issues, areas of agreement, areas of conflict, and advantages and disadvantages of mitigation alternatives. The results of the scoping and consultation process helped shape our mitigation plan. Our recommended plan is based firmly on principles of adaptive management and recognition of biological uncertainty. After we receive direction from the NPPC, we will add more detailed hypotheses and

  18. Enhanced genetic algorithm optimization model for a single reservoir operation based on hydropower generation: case study of Mosul reservoir, northern Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Aqeeli, Yousif H; Lee, T S; Abd Aziz, S

    2016-01-01

    Achievement of the optimal hydropower generation from operation of water reservoirs, is a complex problems. The purpose of this study was to formulate and improve an approach of a genetic algorithm optimization model (GAOM) in order to increase the maximization of annual hydropower generation for a single reservoir. For this purpose, two simulation algorithms were drafted and applied independently in that GAOM during 20 scenarios (years) for operation of Mosul reservoir, northern Iraq. The first algorithm was based on the traditional simulation of reservoir operation, whilst the second algorithm (Salg) enhanced the GAOM by changing the population values of GA through a new simulation process of reservoir operation. The performances of these two algorithms were evaluated through the comparison of their optimal values of annual hydropower generation during the 20 scenarios of operating. The GAOM achieved an increase in hydropower generation in 17 scenarios using these two algorithms, with the Salg being superior in all scenarios. All of these were done prior adding the evaporation (Ev) and precipitation (Pr) to the water balance equation. Next, the GAOM using the Salg was applied by taking into consideration the volumes of these two parameters. In this case, the optimal values obtained from the GAOM were compared, firstly with their counterpart that found using the same algorithm without taking into consideration of Ev and Pr, secondly with the observed values. The first comparison showed that the optimal values obtained in this case decreased in all scenarios, whilst maintaining the good results compared with the observed in the second comparison. The results proved the effectiveness of the Salg in increasing the hydropower generation through the enhanced approach of the GAOM. In addition, the results indicated to the importance of taking into account the Ev and Pr in the modelling of reservoirs operation. PMID:27390638

  19. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnigan, James L.; Marotz, Brian L.; DeShazer, Jay

    2003-06-01

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River Treaty 1964). Libby Reservoir inundated 109 stream miles of the mainstem Kootenai River in the United States and Canada, and 40 miles of tributary streams in the U.S. that provided habitat for spawning, juvenile rearing, and migratory passage (Figure 1). The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power (91.5%), flood control (8.3%), and navigation and other benefits (0.2%; Storm et al. 1982). The Pacific Northwest Power Act of 1980 recognized possible conflicts stemming from hydroelectric projects in the northwest and directed Bonneville Power Administration to ''protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries...'' (4(h)(10)(A)). Under the Act, the Northwest Power Planning Council was created and recommendations for a comprehensive fish and wildlife program were solicited from the region's federal, state, and tribal fish and wildlife agencies. Among Montana's recommendations was the proposal that research be initiated to quantify acceptable seasonal minimum pool elevations to maintain or enhance the existing fisheries (Graham et al. 1982). Research to determine how operations of Libby Dam affect the reservoir and river fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these effects began in May, 1983. The framework for the Libby Reservoir Model (LRMOD) was completed in 1989. Development of Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) for Libby Dam operation was completed in 1996 (Marotz et al. 1996). The Libby Reservoir Model and the IRCs continue to be refined (Marotz et al 1999). Initiation of mitigation projects such as lake rehabilitation and stream restoration began in 1996. The primary focus of the Libby Mitigation project now is to redevelop fisheries and fisheries

  20. Simulating potential structural and operational changes for Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, Oregon, for downstream temperature management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buccola, Norman L.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Sullivan, Annett B.; Risley, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Detroit Dam was constructed in 1953 on the North Santiam River in western Oregon and resulted in the formation of Detroit Lake. With a full-pool storage volume of 455,100 acre-feet and a dam height of 463 feet, Detroit Lake is one of the largest and most important reservoirs in the Willamette River basin in terms of power generation, recreation, and water storage and releases. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers operates Detroit Dam as part of a system of 13 reservoirs in the Willamette Project to meet multiple goals, which include flood-damage protection, power generation, downstream navigation, recreation, and irrigation. A distinct cycle in water temperature occurs in Detroit Lake as spring and summer heating through solar radiation creates a warm layer of water near the surface and isolates cold water below. Controlling the temperature of releases from Detroit Dam, therefore, is highly dependent on the location, characteristics, and usage of the dam's outlet structures. Prior to operational changes in 2007, Detroit Dam had a well-documented effect on downstream water temperature that was problematic for endangered salmonid fish species, releasing water that was too cold in midsummer and too warm in autumn. This unnatural seasonal temperature pattern caused problems in the timing of fish migration, spawning, and emergence. In this study, an existing calibrated 2-dimensional hydrodynamic water-quality model [CE-QUAL-W2] of Detroit Lake was used to determine how changes in dam operation or changes to the structural release points of Detroit Dam might affect downstream water temperatures under a range of historical hydrologic and meteorological conditions. The results from a subset of the Detroit Lake model scenarios then were used as forcing conditions for downstream CE-QUAL-W2 models of Big Cliff Reservoir (the small reregulating reservoir just downstream of Detroit Dam) and the North Santiam and Santiam Rivers. Many combinations of environmental, operational, and

  1. Floodplain Hyporheic Response under Dam Release Hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, T.; Ward, A. S.; O'Connor, B. L.; Endreny, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Hydropower operations cause altered hydrograph patterns downstream of dams, which regulates the direction and magnitude of floodplain and riverbed hyporheic flux. Periodic adjustments in river stage changes temporal and spatial patterns in hydraulic pressure, initiates propagation of lateral and vertical hyporheic flux, and affects the riparian ecological system by changing the hyporheic penetration distance, hyporheic flux rate, and thermal conditions in river banks. While this issue has been largely neglected by watershed scientists and managers, there is the potential to use hyporheic metrics in setting dam release rules and restoring downstream river reaches. In order to evaluate the hyporheic feedbacks of various dam release patterns, this study applied a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate the interaction of open water hydrographs on porous media lateral hyporheic exchange for the Green River, Utah, downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam. The CFD initially represented the river as a straight channel with a thick porous media extending from the channel banks and bottom. The dam release hydrographs changed the patterns of hyporheic flux at the river banks, the penetration distance of the hyporheic flux, the subsurface thermal patterns, and the residence time of water in the subsurface. The results suggest the undulating river stage downstream of dam releases can initiate patterns of hyporheic exchange similar to those induced by restoration of river bed morphology.

  2. Water Quality Monitoring of the Upper St Lawrence River Using Remote Sensor Arrays Placed in a Hydropower Dam Combined with Hydrodynamic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, F.; Sprague, H. M.; Skufca, J. D.; Twiss, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    There are limited long-term data available on the ecological health and environmental state of the Upper St. Lawrence River (CA,US; average discharge 6,910 m3/s). Our research objective is to establish long-term remote water quality monitoring stations in the Moses-Saunders hydroelectric power dam at Massena, New York using a network of sensors. Such a placement of sensors allows for year-round monitoring of water and hence, the ability to measure at times of year and during extreme weather events that previously made monitoring infeasible. The sensor array was installed on 17 June 2014 and draws water from the penstock at a rate of 6-10 L per minute. Sensors in flow through chambers collect data on temperature, turbidity, color dissolved organic material (CDOM), phycocyanin, chlorophyll-a, and specific conductivity at one minute intervals. In combination with a hydrodynamic flow model we are able to hind-cast water movements so that the quality of water passing through the dam can be related to environmental conditions in the river upstream from the sensor array. We conducted field surveys using sensors in a ferry box on a vessel moving upstream (40 km) at a velocity providing a spatial resolution of 100 m and determined that main channel water is more homogenous than water along the shorelines (2 m isopleth) of the river, despite the high turbulence in this river. The sensor array located in the turbine unit nearest the US shore is able to discern tributary inputs for CDOM from the Oswegatchie River (discharge 40-120 m3/s), located 67 km upstream. This research is an important proof-of-concept for installing similar arrays in dams throughout the Great Lakes region and is applicable to smaller rivers containing power dams.

  3. Integrated Data-Archive and Distributed Hydrological Modelling System for Optimized Dam Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Jaranilla-Sanchez, Patricia Ann; Koike, Toshio

    2013-04-01

    Analysis System, a Japanese national project for collecting, integrating and analyzing massive amount of global scale observation data, meaning that the present system is applicable worldwide. We demonstrate the integrated system with observed extreme events in Angat Watershed, the Philippines, and Upper Tone River basin, Japan. The results show promising performance for operational use of the system to support river and dam managers' decision-making.

  4. Hydropower engineering handbook: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Burgoine, D.

    1991-04-01

    This article is a review of a handbook developed out of a four-day course on hydropower development presented by the books editors. The book is designed to provide a short explanation of a particular phenomenon, some design and operational guidelines, and references to other more specific publications. The book also addresses environment impacts of hydropower facilities.

  5. DOE Hydropower Program Biennial Report for FY 2005-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, Michael J; Cada, Glenn F; Acker, Thomas L.; Carlson, Thomas; Dauble, Dennis D.; Hall, Douglas G.

    2006-07-01

    a state-of-the-science review of hydropower optimization methods and published reports on alternative operating strategies and opportunities for spill reduction. Carried out feasibility studies of new environmental performance measurements of the new MGR turbine at Wanapum Dam, including measurement of behavioral responses, biomarkers, bioindex testing, and the use of dyes to assess external injuries. Evaluated the benefits of mitigation measures for instream flow releases and the value of surface flow outlets for downstream fish passage. Refined turbulence flow measurement techniques, the computational modeling of unsteady flows, and models of blade strike of fish. Published numerous technical reports, proceedings papers, and peer-reviewed literature, most of which are available on the DOE Hydropower website. Further developed and tested the sensor fish measuring device at hydropower plants in the Columbia River. Data from the sensor fish are coupled with a computational model to yield a more detailed assessment of hydraulic environments in and around dams. Published reports related to the Virtual Hydropower Prospector and the assessment of water energy resources in the U.S. for low head/low power hydroelectric plants. Convened a workshop to consider the environmental and technical issues associated with new hydrokinetic and wave energy technologies. Laboratory and DOE staff participated in numerous workshops, conferences, coordination meetings, planning meetings, implementation meetings, and reviews to transfer the results of DOE-sponsored research to end-users.

  6. Optimization of Multiple and Multipurpose Reservoir System Operations by Using Matrix Structure (Case Study: Karun and Dez Reservoir Dams).

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mohammad; Othman, Faridah; Taghieh, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Optimal operation of water resources in multiple and multipurpose reservoirs is very complicated. This is because of the number of dams, each dam's location (Series and parallel), conflict in objectives and the stochastic nature of the inflow of water in the system. In this paper, performance optimization of the system of Karun and Dez reservoir dams have been studied and investigated with the purposes of hydroelectric energy generation and providing water demand in 6 dams. On the Karun River, 5 dams have been built in the series arrangements, and the Dez dam has been built parallel to those 5 dams. One of the main achievements in this research is the implementation of the structure of production of hydroelectric energy as a function of matrix in MATLAB software. The results show that the role of objective function structure for generating hydroelectric energy in weighting method algorithm is more important than water supply. Nonetheless by implementing ε- constraint method algorithm, we can both increase hydroelectric power generation and supply around 85% of agricultural and industrial demands. PMID:27248152

  7. Libby Mitigation Program, 2007 Annual Progress Report: Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, J.; Garrow, L.

    2009-05-26

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River Treaty 1964). Libby Reservoir inundated 109 stream miles of the mainstem Kootenai River in the United States and Canada, and 40 miles of tributary streams in the U.S. that provided habitat for spawning, juvenile rearing, and migratory passage (Figure 1). The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power (91.5%), flood control (8.3%), and navigation and other benefits (0.2%; Storm et al. 1982). The Pacific Northwest Power Act of 1980 recognized possible conflicts stemming from hydroelectric projects in the northwest and directed Bonneville Power Administration to 'protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries' (4(h)(10)(A)). Under the Act, the Northwest Power Planning Council was created and recommendations for a comprehensive fish and wildlife program were solicited from the region's federal, state, and tribal fish and wildlife agencies. Among Montana's recommendations was the proposal that research be initiated to quantify acceptable seasonal minimum pool elevations to maintain or enhance the existing fisheries (Graham et al. 1982). Research to determine how operations of Libby Dam affect the reservoir and river fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these effects began in May 1983. The framework for the Libby Reservoir Model (LRMOD) was completed in 1989. Development of Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) for Libby Dam operation was completed in 1996 (Marotz et al. 1996). The Libby Reservoir Model and the IRCs continue to be refined (Marotz et al 1999). Initiation of mitigation projects such as lake rehabilitation and stream restoration began in 1996. The primary focus of the Libby Mitigation project now is to restore the fisheries and fish habitat in

  8. Morphological impact of river below dam due to reservoir desiltation operation in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. W.; Lee, F. Z.; Lai, J. S.; Huang, C. C.; Kang, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The morphological impact of river below dams due to such reservoir desiltation operation was considered and Shihmen reservoir was adopted to discuss such issue due to the new sediment venting tunnel was implemented from 2013 in this study. The Shihmen reservoir had a natural drainage area of 762.4 km2 and located at the northern Taiwan. Due to serious sediment deposition problem from 2004 induced by Typhoon AERE, the stratified withdraw facility was built at dam site to avoid the lack of public water and the one of venting tunnel of power plant was designed to vent turbidity current (Fig. 1(a)). In 2013, the sediment venting tunnel was first operated during Typhoon Soulik and abundant sediment was released to the downstream river. The 2D numerical model with sediment transport consideration was adopted to investigate morphological impact of downstream river, especially at Jiangzicui area in Fig. 1(b). Due to ecological wet land, flood diversion work and ferry boat transportation were concentrated in this area, the sediment transportation and morphological impact is important to be realized. The Fig. 1(b) shows the original morphological bed form before sediment releasing from sediment venting tunnel and Fig. 1(c) shows the simulation results after sediment releasing from sediment venting. It seems 0.2 m morphological changing due to this operation. Fig. 1(d) is the field morphological survey after Typhoon Soulik and comparison to Fig. 1 (b), not significantly deposition or erosion is observed. According to the grain size of released sediment from Shihmen reservoir, d50 is approximately 10 μm and it is belonged to fine sediment. Therefore, the released sediment is classified clay and for the morphological impact is not significantly. So, morphological impact of downstream river below Shihmen dam due to reservoir desiltation operation is unapparent after Typhoon Soulik at Jiangzicui area. Keywords: venting tunnel, turbid current, morphological impact, 2D numerical

  9. The geomorphic evolution and sediment balance of the lower Rhône River (southern France) over the last 130 years: Hydropower dams versus other control factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provansal, Mireille; Dufour, Simon; Sabatier, François; Anthony, Edward J.; Raccasi, Guillaume; Robresco, Sébastien

    2014-08-01

    The geomorphic evolution of large European fluvial systems since the end of the nineteenth century has been determined, according to recent studies, by changes that have affected the drainage basins, notably climatic changes at the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA), agricultural practices, and successive phases of channel management involving embankments and dams. However, the respective roles of these various control factors in modifying sediment storage and channel stability are often difficult to identify. The aim of this paper is to determine the main factors that have driven morphological changes over the past 130 years on the 120-km-long downstream reach of the Rhône River. A GIS-based analysis of maps and aerial photographs available since 1860, coupled with chrono-stratigraphic data on the river's alluvial deposits, has enabled quantification of sediment storage and erosion in different morphological units. Changes measured include riverbed incision, narrowing of the main channel in relation with accumulation of fine sediments along the channel margins, and reduction of sediment input at the mouth. On the basis of local- and reach-scale sediment balances, we show that these changes are synchronous with engineering works carried out at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century, a period that coincided with a decline in river sediment inputs largely generated by human activities. The early stabilisation of mountain slopes resulting from a decline in rural agriculture, rural exodus, reforestation and engineered torrent control has had a much greater impact in geomorphically transforming the Rhône than dams and gravel mining, the major identified causes of river destabilisation in the world. This calls for caution in the all-too-common and wholesale attribution of declining sediment budgets of European rivers, especially in the Mediterranean region, to dams.

  10. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is accelerating and the world urgently needs a shift to clean and renewable energy. Hydropower is currently the largest renewable source of electricity, but its contribution to climate change mitigation is not yet fully understood. Hydroelectric reservoirs are a source of biogenic greenhouse gases and in individual cases can reach the same emission rates as thermal power plants. Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale. Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of 173 kg CO2 and 2.95 kg CH4 emitted per MWh of electricity produced. This results in a combined average carbon footprint of 273 kg CO2e/MWh when using the global warming potential over a time horizon of 100 years (GWP100). Nonetheless, this is still below that of fossil energy sources without the use of carbon capture and sequestration technologies. We identified the dams most promising for capturing methane for use as alternative energy source. The spread among the ~1500 hydropower plants analysed in this study is large and highlights the importance of case-by-case examinations. PMID:27626943

  11. Optimization of Multiple and Multipurpose Reservoir System Operations by Using Matrix Structure (Case Study: Karun and Dez Reservoir Dams)

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Faridah; Taghieh, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Optimal operation of water resources in multiple and multipurpose reservoirs is very complicated. This is because of the number of dams, each dam’s location (Series and parallel), conflict in objectives and the stochastic nature of the inflow of water in the system. In this paper, performance optimization of the system of Karun and Dez reservoir dams have been studied and investigated with the purposes of hydroelectric energy generation and providing water demand in 6 dams. On the Karun River, 5 dams have been built in the series arrangements, and the Dez dam has been built parallel to those 5 dams. One of the main achievements in this research is the implementation of the structure of production of hydroelectric energy as a function of matrix in MATLAB software. The results show that the role of objective function structure for generating hydroelectric energy in weighting method algorithm is more important than water supply. Nonetheless by implementing ε- constraint method algorithm, we can both increase hydroelectric power generation and supply around 85% of agricultural and industrial demands. PMID:27248152

  12. Hydropower Projects

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-02

    The Water Power Program helps industry harness this renewable, emissions-free resource to generate environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity. Through support for public, private, and nonprofit efforts, the Water Power Program promotes the development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced hydropower devices and pumped storage hydropower applications. These technologies help capture energy stored by diversionary structures, increase the efficiency of hydroelectric generation, and use excess grid energy to replenish storage reserves for use during periods of peak electricity demand. In addition, the Water Power Program works to assess the potential extractable energy from domestic water resources to assist industry and government in planning for our nation’s energy future. From FY 2008 to FY 2014, DOE’s Water Power Program announced awards totaling approximately $62.5 million to 33 projects focused on hydropower. Table 1 provides a brief description of these projects.

  13. A Holistic Framework for Environmental Flows Determination in Hydropower Contexts

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2013-05-01

    Among the ecological science community, the consensus view is that the natural flow regime sustains the ecological integrity of river systems. This prevailing viewpoint by many environmental stakeholders has progressively led to increased pressure on hydropower dam owners to change plant operations to affect downstream river flows with the intention of providing better conditions for aquatic biological communities. Identifying the neccessary magnitude, frequency, duration, timing, or rate of change of stream flows to meet ecological needs in a hydropower context is challenging because the ecological responses to changes in flows may not be fully known, there are usually a multitude of competing users of flow, and implementing environmental flows usually comes at a price to energy production. Realistically, hydropower managers must develop a reduced set of goals that provide the most benefit to the identified ecological needs. As a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program, the Instream Flow Project (IFP) was carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argon National Laboratory (ANL) as an attempt to develop tools aimed at defining environmental flow needs for hydropower operations. The application of these tools ranges from national to site-specific scales; thus, the utility of each tool will depend on various phases of the environmental flow process. Given the complexity and sheer volume of applications used to determine environmentally acceptable flows for hydropower, a framework is needed to organize efforts into a staged process dependent upon spatial, temporal, and functional attributes. By far, the predominant domain for determining environmental flows related to hydropower is within the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing process. This process can take multiple years and can be very expensive depending on the scale of each hydropower project. The utility of such a

  14. Estimating irrigation water demand using an improved method and optimizing reservoir operation for water supply and hydropower generation: a case study of the Xinfengjiang reservoir in southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for water due to growth of population and socioeconomic development in the past several decades has posed a worldwide threat to water supply security and to the environmental health of rivers. This study aims to derive reservoir operating rules through establishing a multi-objective optimization model for the Xinfengjiang (XFJ) reservoir in the East River Basin in southern China to minimize water supply deficit and maximize hydropower generation. Additionally, to enhance the estimation of irrigation water demand from the downstream agricultural area of the XFJ reservoir, a conventional method for calculating crop water demand is improved using hydrological model simulation results. Although the optimal reservoir operating rules are derived for the XFJ reservoir with three priority scenarios (water supply only, hydropower generation only, and equal priority), the river environmental health is set as the basic demand no matter which scenario is adopted. The results show that the new rules derived under the three scenarios can improve the reservoir operation for both water supply and hydropower generation when comparing to the historical performance. Moreover, these alternative reservoir operating policies provide the flexibility for the reservoir authority to choose the most appropriate one. Although changing the current operating rules may influence its hydropower-oriented functions, the new rules can be significant to cope with the increasingly prominent water shortage and degradation in the aquatic environment. Overall, our results and methods (improved estimation of irrigation water demand and formulation of the reservoir optimization model) can be useful for local watershed managers and valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  15. 78 FR 55251 - Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Notice of Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Notice of Workshop The Federal... process for the issuance of a license for hydropower development at non-powered dams and closed-loop pumped storage projects in compliance with section 6 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...

  16. 78 FR 58535 - Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Supplemental Notice of Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Supplemental Notice of... two-year process for the issuance of a license for hydropower development at non-powered dams and closed-loop pumped storage projects in compliance with section 6 of the Hydropower Regulatory...

  17. Tapping hidden hydropower potential in Swiss Alpine catchments in the context of the planned nuclear power phase out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Ana Clara; Schaefli, Bettina; Manso, Pedro; Schleiss, Anton; Portela, Maria Manuela; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    In its Energy Strategy 2050, Switzerland is revising its energy perspectives with a strong focus on renewable sources of energy and in particular hydropower. In this context, the Swiss Government funded a number of competence centers for energy research (SCCERs), including one on the Supply of Energy (SCCER-SoE), which develops fundamental research and innovative solutions in geoenergies and hydropower . Hydropower is already the major energy source in Switzerland, corresponding to approximately 55% of the total national electricity production (which was 69 TWh in 2014). The Energy Strategy 2050 foresees at least a net increase by 1.53 TWh/year in average hydrological conditions, in a context were almost all major river systems are already exploited and a straightforward application of recent environmental laws will impact (reduce) current hydropower production. In this contribution, we present the roadmap of the SCCER-SoE and an overview of our strategy to unravel currently non-exploited hydropower potential, in particular in river systems that are already used for hydropower production. The aim is hereby to quantify non-exploited natural flows, unnecessary water spills or storage volume deficits, whilst considering non-conventional approaches to water resources valuation and management. Such a better understanding of the current potential is paramount to justify future scenarios of adaptation of the existing hydropower infrastructure combining the increase of storage capacity with new connections between existing reservoirs, heightening or strengthening existing dams, increasing the operational volume of natural lakes (including new glacier lakes), or by building new dams. Tapping hidden potential shall also require operational changes to benefit from new flow patterns emerging under an evolving climate and in particular in the context of the ongoing glacier retreat. The paper shall present a broad view over the mentioned issues and first conclusions of ongoing

  18. Seismic safety of high concrete dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Houqun

    2014-08-01

    China is a country of high seismicity with many hydropower resources. Recently, a series of high arch dams have either been completed or are being constructed in seismic regions, of which most are concrete dams. The evaluation of seismic safety often becomes a critical problem in dam design. In this paper, a brief introduction to major progress in the research on seismic aspects of large concrete dams, conducted mainly at the Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR) during the past 60 years, is presented. The dam site-specific ground motion input, improved response analysis, dynamic model test verification, field experiment investigations, dynamic behavior of dam concrete, and seismic monitoring and observation are described. Methods to prevent collapse of high concrete dams under maximum credible earthquakes are discussed.

  19. Climate change effects on high-elevation hydropower system in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani Larijani, Kaveh

    The high-elevation hydropower system in California, composed of more than 150 hydropower plants and regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), supplies 74 percent of in-state hydropower. The system has modest reservoir capacities and has been designed to take advantage of snowpack. The expected shift of runoff peak from spring to winter as a result of climate warming, resulting in snowpack reduction and earlier snowmelt, might have important effects on hydropower operations. Estimation of climate warming effects on such a large system by conventional simulation or optimization methods would be tedious and expensive. This dissertation presents a novel approach for modeling large hydropower systems. Conservation of energy and energy flows are used as the basis for modeling high-elevation high-head hydropower systems in California. The unusual energy basis for reservoir modeling allows for development of hydropower operations models to estimate large-scale system behavior without the expense and time needed to develop traditional streamflow and reservoir volume-based models in absence of storage and release capacity, penstock head, and efficiency information. An Energy-Based Hydropower Optimization Model (EBHOM) is developed to facilitate a practical climate change study based on the historical generation data high-elevation hydropower plants in California. Employing recent historical hourly energy prices, energy generation in California is explored for three climate warming scenarios (dry warming, wet warming, and warming-only) over 14 years, representing a range of hydrologic conditions. Currently, the high-elevation hydropower plants in California have to renew their FERC licenses. A method based on cooperative game theory is developed to explore FERC relicensing process, in which dam owners negotiate over the available instream water with other interest groups downstream. It is discussed how the lack of incentive for cooperation results in long

  20. 78 FR 34258 - Safety Zone; Salvage Operations at Marseilles Dam; Illinois River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... extending 600 yards upstream of the Marseilles Dam to Mile Marker 247.2. This zone is intended to restrict.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... Marker 246.9 and extending 600 yards upstream of the Marseilles Dam to Mile Marker 247.2. This rule...

  1. Water resources implications of integrating malaria control into the operation of an Ethiopian dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Julia; Culver, Teresa B.; McCartney, Matthew; Lautze, Jonathan; Kibret, Solomon

    2011-09-01

    This paper investigates the water resources implications of using a method of hydrological control to reduce malaria around the Koka reservoir in central Ethiopia. This method is based on recent findings that malaria is transmitted from the shoreline of the Koka reservoir, and on a similar method that was used to control malaria some 80 yr ago in the United States. To assess the feasibility of implementing hydrological control at Koka, we considered the potential impact of the modified management regime on the benefits derived from current uses of the reservoir water (i.e., hydropower, irrigation, flood control, water supply, and downstream environmental flows). We used the HEC-ResSim model to simulate lowering the reservoir by a rate designed to disrupt larval development, which is expected to reduce the abundance of adult mosquito vectors and therefore reduce malaria transmission during the season in which transmission of the disease peaks. A comparison was made of major reservoir uses with and without the malaria control measure. In the 26-yr simulation, application of the malaria control measure increased total average annual electricity generation from 87.6 GWh × y-1 to 92.2 GWh × y-1 (i.e., a 5.3% increase) but resulted in a small decline in firm power generation (i.e., guaranteed at 99.5% reliability) from 4.16 MW to 4.15 MW (i.e., a 0.2% decrease). Application of the malaria control measure did not impact the ability of the reservoir to meet downstream irrigation demand and reduced the number of days of downstream flooding from 28 to 24 d. These results indicate that targeted use of hydrological control for malaria vector management could be undertaken without sacrificing the key benefits of reservoir operation.

  2. Operational recovery of turbine No. 3 at Potomac Edison`s Dam No. 4 hydrogenerating facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pelczar, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Potomac Edison Dam No. 4 hydroelectric generating station is a historic, turn of the century facility located on the Potomac River near Shepherdstown, West Virginia. The station, originally constructed in 1909, employed twin horizontal Francis hydroturbine generating systems. The systems are unique in that the turbines and generators are offset 37 feet, interconnected by rope and sheaves. In May 1989 a third vertical open flume turbine generating system was added to make use of available site capacity. Both the turbine and speed increaser were the largest products developed by their respective manufacturers for a hydro turbine-generator application. This paper will review the subsequent operational experience which led to the original speed increaser failure on unit No. 3 and replacement of the drive system including special design considerations to the replacement speed increaser and its support structure. Specific design challenges included: (1) Designing and implementing a reliable configuration. (2) Reducing operational sound levels. (3) Minimizing harmful structure-borne vibrations which were affecting the internal rotating elements. (4) Incorporating a system brake for emergency and service purposes.

  3. When and how to activate large new hydropower reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geressu, Robel; Harou, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Water resources system planners are increasingly required to address multiple long and short-term management objectives and the trade-offs these imply. Expansion planning in hydropower reservoir systems, where assets either temporarily or permanently reduce each other's performance, is a complex and potentially conflictual task requiring attention to multiple impacts. This paper proposes a multi-criteria scheduling approach considering many objectives and their associated uncertainties. The method considers the coordination and flexibility of reservoir operation in different expansion stages. The impact of abstraction (i.e., during filling of new reservoirs) and regulation of inflows by upstream reservoirs, is represented by simultaneously optimizing the storage size of reservoirs. Sensitivity analysis of performance given financial uncertainty and hydrological variability reveals which expansion schedules are robust to a wide range of future conditions. This informs how alternative designs compare in multiple performance dimensions and can serve stakeholders with differing attitudes towards risk and opportunity. The method is applied to proposed Blue Nile hydropower reservoirs to find efficient new dam activation schedules considering energy revenues, downstream release requirements, and energy generation during reservoir filling periods. Results take the form of Pareto-optimal trade-offs where each point on the curve or surface represents asset choices, size, activation date, and filling period reservoir operating rules. The results help explore the complex planning and management issues involved in the Blue Nile and demonstrate a possible approach to negotiate the design, filling and coordinated use of hydropower reservoirs.

  4. Inspection of a hydropower tunnel using remotely operated vehicles (ROV): A 5-year case study

    SciTech Connect

    Hosko, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    Since commercial operation in 1988, the 21 MW Raystown Hydroelectric Project, William F. Matson Generating Station in central Pennsylvania, has used several different methods to inspect the condition of the 283-meter (930-foot) long, 3.65-meter (12-foot) diameter, concrete-lined tunnel. These inspections have been required to meet the FERC license conditions and the separate Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Baltimore District and the Licensee, Allegheny Electric Cooperative, Inc., of Harrisburg, PA. Since the tunnel and connected 168-meter (550-foot) long steel penstock are the only water passage to the two-unit generating plant, any intrusive inspection requires an outage, thus the optimal inspection technique minimizes the plant downtime. Inspections have included a lengthy and costly dewatered tunnel walk through, an underwater inspection using commercial divers and hand-held video, and most recently three annual inspections using three different types of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) supplied by vendor services. Each inspection concentrated on the examination of the condition of the tunnel concrete, including radial cracks and condition of construction joints, longitudinal crack propagation, aggregate erosion and concrete patch condition. Use of a computerized database program for mapping will also be discussed as a useful tool. This paper details experience with each of these methods with an emphasis on lessons learned and applications for the hydro industry.

  5. Dam safety: Morris Sheppard Dam rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, J.D.; Waters, R.H.; Focht, J.A. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Morris Sheppard Dam is one of the world`s largest flat slab buttress dams. It is located on the Brazos River about 96 km (60 miles) west of Dallas - Fort Worth. Designed by Ambursen Dam Company, the dam was constructed between 1938 and 1941 at a cost of $8.7 million. In 1987, a maximum buttress movement of 114 mm (4.5 inches) was discovered. The dam was successfully rehabilitated between 1987 and 1994 at a cost of $36 million. This paper will describe: (1) the dam`s construction and operational history, (2) the lowering of the reservoir by 3.94 m (13 feet) as an emergency response when the movement was discovered, (3) the initial stabilization of the dam by the addition of relief wells and grouting, (4) the final stabilization using ballast to increase the weight of the dam, (5) the use of actual dam performance as a full-scale, long-term, load test to back-calculate realistic strength parameters, (6) the multiple sets of design stability criteria used to analyze the structure, and (7) the use of model studies to enlarge the dam`s stilling basin and design an emergency spillway to handle the PMF.

  6. Dams in the Mekong River Basin: Options for Improved Sediment and Fish Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, T. B.; Loucks, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Mekong River and its tributaries comprise one of the most productive fish habitats in the world today. The economic value of the Mekong fishery in Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam is among the highest in the world, providing income and food security to tens of millions of people. However, the construction of multiple dams in the basin will reduce sediment discharge, which will adversely impact nutrient transport and habitat quality and availability, and disrupt fish migration routes. Thus, of considerable interest is the identification of alternatives to the location, design and operation of planned hydropower dams that could improve sediment passage, enable migratory fish passage, and sustain fish production for local use. This paper describes the results of simulation studies designed to identify and evaluate such alternatives, as well as their potential impact on hydropower production. Dam sites in Cambodia and Lao PDR on tributaries and on the mainstream Mekong River will be discussed. Evaluations of sediment management techniques such as flushing, sluicing and bypassing will be discussed. This study is intended to inform decision makers in Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam about potential alternatives to current plans as they prepare decisions regarding the development of over 100 hydropower dams throughout the basin.

  7. Use of an autonomous sensor to evaluate the biological performance of the advanced turbine at Wanapum Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2010-10-13

    Hydropower is the largest renewable energy resource in the United States and the world. However, hydropower dams have adverse ecological impacts because migrating fish may be injured or killed when they pass through hydroturbines. In the Columbia and Snake River basins, dam operators and engineers are required to make those hydroelectric facilities more fish-friendly through changes in hydroturbine design and operation after fish population declines and the subsequent listing of several species of Pacific salmon under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, requested authorization from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the ten turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines designed to improve survival for fish passing through the turbines while improving operation efficiency and increasing power generation. As an additional measure to the primary metric of direct injury and mortality rates of juvenile Chinook salmon using balloon tag-recapture methodology, this study used an autonomous sensor device - the Sensor Fish - to provide insight into the specific hydraulic conditions and physical stresses experienced by the fish as well as the specific causes of fish biological response. We found that the new hydroturbine blade shape and the corresponding reduction of turbulence in the advanced hydropower turbine were effective in meeting the objectives of improving fish survival while enhancing operational efficiency of the dam. The frequency of severe events based on Sensor Fish pressure and acceleration measurements showed trends similar to those of fish survival determined by the balloon tag-recapture methodology. In addition, the new turbine provided a better pressure and rate of pressure change environment for fish passage. Altogether, the Sensor Fish data indicated that the advanced hydroturbine design improved passage of juvenile salmon at Wanapum Dam.

  8. Use of an autonomous sensor to evaluate the biological performance of the advanced turbine at Wanapum Dam

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2010-10-13

    Hydropower is the largest renewable energy resource in the United States and the world. However, hydropower dams have adverse ecological impacts because migrating fish may be injured or killed when they pass through hydroturbines. In the Columbia and Snake River basins, dam operators and engineers are required to make those hydroelectric facilities more fish-friendly through changes in hydroturbine design and operation after fish population declines and the subsequent listing of several species of Pacific salmon under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, requested authorization from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission tomore » replace the ten turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines designed to improve survival for fish passing through the turbines while improving operation efficiency and increasing power generation. As an additional measure to the primary metric of direct injury and mortality rates of juvenile Chinook salmon using balloon tag-recapture methodology, this study used an autonomous sensor device - the Sensor Fish - to provide insight into the specific hydraulic conditions and physical stresses experienced by the fish as well as the specific causes of fish biological response. We found that the new hydroturbine blade shape and the corresponding reduction of turbulence in the advanced hydropower turbine were effective in meeting the objectives of improving fish survival while enhancing operational efficiency of the dam. The frequency of severe events based on Sensor Fish pressure and acceleration measurements showed trends similar to those of fish survival determined by the balloon tag-recapture methodology. In addition, the new turbine provided a better pressure and rate of pressure change environment for fish passage. Altogether, the Sensor Fish data indicated that the advanced hydroturbine design improved passage of juvenile salmon at Wanapum Dam.« less

  9. 76 FR 2359 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for...: Great River Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Upper Mississippi River Lock & Dam No. 21 Hydroelectric... following facilities: (1) A new 796-foot-long by 46-foot-wide by 25-foot-high concrete hydropower...

  10. Is it worth a dam?

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, S

    1997-01-01

    Once a sign of modernization and growth, dams are often seen today as symbols of environmental and social devastation. Over 800,000 dams have been built worldwide to provide drinking water, flood control, hydropower, irrigation, navigation, and water storage. Dams do indeed provide these things,but at the cost of several adverse, unexpected effects: disruption of ecosystems, decline of fish stocks, forced human and animal resettlements, and diseases such as malaria, which are borne by vectors that thrive in quiet waters. PMID:9349830

  11. A spatial assessment of hydrologic alteration caused by dams in the Northeastern United States using a Neural Network based daily reservoir operation scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsani, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.; Rosenzweig, B.; Tessler, Z. D.

    2014-12-01

    Considering the impacts of dams on natural hydrology and ecosystems, it is important to be able to simulate their behavior and effects in hydrological and ecological models. Overlooking human engineering of river systems may significantly affect modelling results and impact decisions addressing water management issues. Simulating reservoir operation at the regional and global scale remains a challenge in water resource and environmental science. There are numerous studies that model the operating rules of a single or small cluster of dams based on available observed data or that try to find an optimized set of rules for their operation based on their characteristics and intended purpose. On the other hand, there are few works that consider the operation of dams for regional and global hydrological models. One major problem in modeling dams operation in such large-scale systems is the lack of efficient algorithms for modelling reservoir operation. Depending on site-specific characteristics of the dam, its watershed and its intended purpose, each dam has a specific and optimum operating rule; as a result, effective simulation of their operation is not a trivial task when hundreds and thousands of dams exist in the area of study. As part of the development of the Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM), we are developing an integrated hydrological modeling framework that incorporates various aspects of the coupled human-hydrologic system, from supply to demand, into a single framework. We use an Artificial Neural Network to develop an accurate yet generalized daily operating rule with minimal input requirements that is suitable for use in large scale hydrological models. We implement this reservoir operating scheme into WBMplus and study how dams alter natural hydrology of the Northeastern United States. We also show how climate change impacts the operation of reservoirs and hence availability of water in the region by the end of the 21st century.

  12. Environmental impacts on increased hydorelectric development at existing dams

    SciTech Connect

    Railsback, S.F.; Cada, G.F.; Petrich, C.H.; Sale, M.J.; Shaakir-Ali, J.A.; Watts, J.A.; Webb, J.W.

    1991-04-01

    This report has been prepared in support of the National Energy Strategy (NES) to examine the potential environmental effects of an initiative to enhance the development of hydropower at existing dams. This initiative is being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a way to increase energy resources that are domestic, renewable, and environmentally acceptable. The initiative would promote both the upgrading (increasing the capacity and energy production) of existing hydropower projects and retrofitting hydropower (constructing new projects) at existing dams. The hydropower development that would result from this proposed initiative would be in addition to the growth in hydropower production that is expected to occur without it. This report compares the environmental effects of the proposed hydropower initiative with the effects of producing the same amount of power using the energy sources that the additional hydropower would likely replace. The impacts of increased power production at existing dams are compared with impacts of two likely alternative electric power sources. Because the hydropower resulting from a proposed initiative is most likely to offset use of new or existing fossil-fueled generation and hydropower at new dams, the impacts of these other energy sources are compared with the impacts of the initiative. 33 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. a Review of Hydropower Reservoir and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, L. P.; Dos Santos, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    Like most manmade projects, hydropower dams have multiple effects on the environment that have been studied in some depth over the past two decades. Among their most important effects are potential changes in water movement, flowing much slower than in the original river. This favors the appearance of phytoplankton as nutrients increase, with methanogenesis replacing oxidative water and generating anaerobic conditions. Although research during the late 1990s highlighted the problems caused by hydropower dams emitting greenhouse gases, crucial aspects of this issue still remain unresolved. Similar to natural water bodies, hydropower reservoirs have ample biota ranging from microorganisms to aquatic vertebrates. Microorganisms (bacteria) decompose organic matter producing biogenic gases under water. Some of these biogenic gases cause global warming, including methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. The levels of GHG emissions from hydropower dams are a strategic matter of the utmost importance, and comparisons with other power generation options such as thermo-power are required. In order to draw up an accurate assessment of the net emissions caused by hydropower dams, significant improvements are needed in carbon budgets and studies of representative hydropower dams. To determine accurately the net emissions caused by hydro reservoir formation is required significant improvement of carbon budgets studies on different representatives' hydro reservoirs at tropical, boreal, arid, semi arid and temperate climate. Comparisons must be drawn with emissions by equivalent thermo power plants, calculated and characterized as generating the same amount of energy each year as the hydropower dams, burning different fuels and with varying technology efficiency levels for steam turbines as well as coal, fuel oil and natural gas turbines and combined cycle plants. This paper brings to the scientific community important aspects of the development of methods and techniques applied

  14. Managing Tradeoffs between Hydropower and the Environment in the Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loucks, Daniel P.; Wild, Thomas B.

    2015-04-01

    Hydropower dams are being designed and constructed at a rapid pace in the Mekong/Lancang River basin in Southeast Asia. These reservoirs are expected to trap significant amounts sediment, decreasing much of the river's capability to transport nutrients and maintain its geomorphology and habitats. We apply a simulation model for identifying and evaluating alternative dam siting, design and operating policy (SDO) options that could help maintain more natural sediment regimes downstream of dams and for evaluating the effect of these sediment-focused SDO strategies on hydropower production and reliability. We apply this approach to the planned reservoirs that would prevent a significant source of sediment from reaching critical Mekong ecosystems such as Cambodia's Tonle Sap Lake and the Mekong delta in Vietnam. Model results suggest that various SDO modifications could increase sediment discharge from this site by 300-450% compared to current plans, but a 30-55% loss in short-term annual energy production depending on various configurations of upstream reservoirs. Simulation results also suggest that sediment management-focused reservoir operating policies could cause ecological damage if they are not properly implemented.

  15. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2014-11-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalaya of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterised by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  16. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2015-04-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalayas of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterized by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  17. Predicting environmental mitigation requirements for hydropower projects through the integration of biophysical and socio-political geographies.

    PubMed

    DeRolph, Christopher R; Schramm, Michael P; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2016-10-01

    Uncertainty about environmental mitigation needs at existing and proposed hydropower projects makes it difficult for stakeholders to minimize environmental impacts. Hydropower developers and operators desire tools to better anticipate mitigation requirements, while natural resource managers and regulators need tools to evaluate different mitigation scenarios and order effective mitigation. Here we sought to examine the feasibility of using a suite of multi-faceted explanatory variables within a spatially explicit modeling framework to fit predictive models for future environmental mitigation requirements at hydropower projects across the conterminous U.S. Using a database comprised of mitigation requirements from more than 300 hydropower project licenses, we were able to successfully fit models for nearly 50 types of environmental mitigation and to apply the predictive models to a set of more than 500 non-powered dams identified as having hydropower potential. The results demonstrate that mitigation requirements are functions of a range of factors, from biophysical to socio-political. Project developers can use these models to inform cost projections and design considerations, while regulators can use the models to more quickly identify likely environmental issues and potential solutions, hopefully resulting in more timely and more effective decisions on environmental mitigation. PMID:27280379

  18. Predicting environmental mitigation requirements for hydropower projects through the integration of biophysical and socio-political geographies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bevelhimer, Mark S.; DeRolph, Christopher R.; Schramm, Michael P.

    2016-06-06

    Uncertainty about environmental mitigation needs at existing and proposed hydropower projects makes it difficult for stakeholders to minimize environmental impacts. Hydropower developers and operators desire tools to better anticipate mitigation requirements, while natural resource managers and regulators need tools to evaluate different mitigation scenarios and order effective mitigation. Here we sought to examine the feasibility of using a suite of multidisciplinary explanatory variables within a spatially explicit modeling framework to fit predictive models for future environmental mitigation requirements at hydropower projects across the conterminous U.S. Using a database comprised of mitigation requirements from more than 300 hydropower project licenses, wemore » were able to successfully fit models for nearly 50 types of environmental mitigation and to apply the predictive models to a set of more than 500 non-powered dams identified as having hydropower potential. The results demonstrate that mitigation requirements have been a result of a range of factors, from biological and hydrological to political and cultural. Furthermore, project developers can use these models to inform cost projections and design considerations, while regulators can use the models to more quickly identify likely environmental issues and potential solutions, hopefully resulting in more timely and more effective decisions on environmental mitigation.« less

  19. 75 FR 10230 - Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and... Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Inglis Hydropower Project. f. Location: The proposed project would be... Inglis Hydropower Project would operate in a run-of-river mode by using flows released to maintain...

  20. Fisheries Mitigation and Implementation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 1998 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks Staff; Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho.

    2003-08-25

    In this document we present fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives, and recommendations to protect, mitigate, and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by the construction and operation of Libby Dam. This plan addresses resident fish program measures in Section 10.3B of the existing Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1995). This document represents a mitigation and implementation plan for consideration by the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) process as called for in 10.3B.11. The work was funded the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA).

  1. Dams on Mekong tributaries as significant contributors of hydrological alterations to the Tonle Sap Floodplain in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.; Lauri, H.; Cochrane, T. A.; Kummu, M.

    2014-02-01

    River tributaries have a key role in the biophysical functioning of the Mekong Basin. Of particular attention are the Sesan, Srepok, and Sekong (3S) rivers, which contribute nearly a quarter of the total Mekong discharge. Forty two dams are proposed in the 3S, and once completed they will exceed the active storage of China's large dam cascade in the upper Mekong. Given their proximity to the lower Mekong floodplains, the 3S dams could alter the flood-pulse hydrology driving the productivity of downstream ecosystems. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to quantify how hydropower development in the 3S would alter the hydrology of the Tonle Sap floodplain, the largest wetland in the Mekong and home to one of the most productive inland fisheries in the world. We coupled results from four numerical models representing the basin's surface hydrology, water resources development, and floodplain hydrodynamics. The scale of alterations caused by hydropower in the 3S was compared with the basin's definite future development scenario (DF) driven by the upper Mekong dam cascade. The DF or the 3S development scenarios could independently increase Tonle Sap's 30 day minimum water levels by 30 ± 5 cm and decrease annual water level fall rates by 0.30 ± 0.05 cm d-2. When analyzed together (DF + 3S), these scenarios are likely to eliminate all baseline conditions (1986-2000) of extreme low water levels, a particularly important component of Tonle Sap's environmental flows. Given the ongoing trends and large economic incentives in the hydropower business in the region, there is a high possibility that most of the 3S hydropower potential will actually be exploited and that dams would be built even in locations where there is a high risk of ecological disruptions. Hence, retrofitting current designs and operations to promote sustainable hydropower practices that optimize multiple river services - rather than just maximize hydropower generation - appear to be the most

  2. Dams on Mekong tributaries as significant contributors of hydrological alterations to the Tonle Sap Floodplain in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.; Lauri, H.; Cochrane, T. A.; Kummu, M.

    2014-12-01

    River tributaries have a key role in the biophysical functioning of the Mekong Basin. Of particular interest are the Sesan, Srepok, and Sekong (3S) rivers, which contribute nearly a quarter of the total Mekong discharge. Forty two dams are proposed in the 3S, and once completed they will exceed the active storage of China's large dam cascade in the Upper Mekong. Given their proximity to the Lower Mekong floodplains, the 3S dams could alter the flood-pulse hydrology driving the productivity of downstream ecosystems. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to quantify how hydropower development in the 3S, together with definite future (DF) plans for infrastructure development through the basin, would alter the hydrology of the Tonle Sap's Floodplain, the largest wetland in the Mekong and home to one of the most productive inland fisheries in the world. We coupled results from four numerical models representing the basin's surface hydrology, water resources development, and floodplain hydrodynamics. The scale of alterations caused by hydropower in the 3S was compared with the basin's DF scenario driven by the Upper Mekong dam cascade. The DF or the 3S development scenarios could independently increase Tonle Sap's 30-day minimum water levels by 30 ± 5 cm and decrease annual water level fall rates by 0.30 ± 0.05 cm day-1. When analyzed together (DF + 3S), these scenarios are likely to eliminate all baseline conditions (1986-2000) of extreme low water levels, a particularly important component of Tonle Sap's environmental flows. Given the ongoing trends and large economic incentives in the hydropower business in the region, there is a high possibility that most of the 3S hydropower potential will be exploited and that dams will be built even in locations where there is a high risk of ecological disruption. Hence, retrofitting current designs and operations to promote sustainable hydropower practices that optimize multiple river services - rather than just

  3. Comparison of environmental issues related to development of small hydropower resources at new versus existing sites

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J. M.; Hildebrand, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    Many of the ecological issues associated with the development of small hydropower resources are similar at both new (undeveloped) sites and those with existing dams that will be retrofitted for hydroelectric generation. Issues that could occur with both types of development are: (1) blockage of fish migration routes; (2) water level fluctuations; (3) instream flows, (4) water quality; (5) dredging and dredged material disposal; and (6) threatened or endangered species. However, new site development projects require the alteration of existing aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems that will be, in most cases, significantly greater than the environmental changes associated with the retrofitting of existing dams. Although project design and operation are important factors controlling the nature and magnitude of the environmental impacts of small hydropower resource development, the mitigation of adverse impacts (and the optimization of beneficial effects) is dependent, in large measure, on our ability to accurately predict physical, chemical, and biological changes. Predicting the impacts of new impoundments may be considerably more difficult than predicting the impacts that might occur if an existing dam/impoundment system is developed. A comparative approach at the ecosystem level can provide valuable insights into the structure and function of reservoir systems and significantly increase our predictive capability.

  4. Historical patterns of river stage and fish communities as criteria for operations of dams on the Illinois River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koel, T.M.; Sparks, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrologic regime of the Illinois River has been altered over the past 100 years. Locks and dams regulate water surface elevations and flow, enabling commercial navigation to continue year round. This study relates changes in water surface elevation to fish abundance in the river, and establishes target criteria for operating locks and dams. Using longterm records of daily river stage, we identified ecologically meaningful hydrological parameters for eight gage locations along the Illinois River. Inter-annual variability of a long-term fisheries dataset beginning in 1957 was related to variability in stage, flood and recession duration, frequency, timing, and rate of change of water levels. Reversals in water surface elevation, maximum stage levels, and lenght of the spring flood were the most important parameters influencing abundance of age-zero fishes in annual collections. Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunneins), and white bass (Morone chrysops) were most abundant in samples during years that approximated the natural water level regime. Of the 33 hydrologic parameters evaluated for the entire water year from an Illinois River gage site on La Grange Reach, all except average stage in January and Julian date (JD) of maximum stage had moderate or high hydrologic alteration based on the historical range of variation (RVA). The highest degree of hydrologic alteration was for minimum stage levels (1-day, 3-day, and 7-day), rate-of-rise, and rate-of-fall. Other parameters that have been severely altered were 30-day minimum stage, 90-day maximum stage, and the annual number of water level reversals. Operations of the La Grange and Peoria locks and dams could be modified so water level variability would approximate that of the late 1800s, when fish and wildlife resources were abundant. The water regime could be regulated to maintain navigation and improve conditions for native plants and

  5. Use of an Autonomous Sensor to Evaluate the Biological Performance of the Advanced Turbine at Wanapum Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2010-10-13

    Hydropower is the largest renewable energy resource in the world and the United States. However, Hydropower dams have adverse ecological impacts because migrating fish may be injured or killed when they pass through hydro turbines. In the Columbia and Snake River basins, dam operators and engineers are required to make these hydroelectric facilities more fish-friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation after fish population declines and the subsequent listing of several species of Pacific salmon in the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Grant County Public Utility District (Grant PUD) requested authorization from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that are designed to improve survival for fish passing through the turbines while improving operation efficiency and increasing power generation. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy provided co-funding to Grant PUD for aspects of performance testing that supported the application. As an additional measure to the primary evaluation measure of direct injury and mortality rates of juvenile Chinook salmon using balloon tag-recapture methodology, this study used an autonomous sensor device to provide insight into the specific hydraulic conditions or physical stresses that the fish experienced or the specific causes of the biological response. We found that the new blade shape and the corresponding reduction of turbulence in the advanced hydropower turbine were effective. The frequency of severe events based on Sensor Fish pressure and acceleration measurements showed trends similar to those of fish survival determined by balloon tag-recapture tests. In addition, the new turbine provided a better pressure and rate of change environment for fish passage. Overall, the Sensor Fish data indicated that the advanced hydro turbine design met the desired fish passage goals for Wanapum Dam.

  6. Water-quality study of proposed reregulation dam downstream of Wolf Creek Dam, Cumberland River, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    This report describes the application of an unsteady, one-dimensional water-quality model to the Cumberland River below Wolf Creek Dam, Kentucky. A hydropower upgrade of Wolf Creek Dam and construction of a reregulation dam, located approximately 10 miles below Wolf Creek Dam, are under consideration. Simulations were conducted under unreregulated conditions and projected conditions following impoundment to provide information concerning the effect of the reregulation dam on water quality in the Cumberland River. Under the conditions simulated, the reregulation dam was predicted to have little impact on temporally averaged water temperatures or dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Temporal variations in water temperatures were retarded under reregulation conditions.

  7. LCOE Uncertainty Analysis for Hydropower using Monte Carlo Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Chalise, Dol Raj; O'Connor, Patrick W; DeNeale, Scott T; Uria Martinez, Rocio; Kao, Shih-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) is an important metric to evaluate the cost and performance of electricity production generation alternatives, and combined with other measures, can be used to assess the economics of future hydropower development. Multiple assumptions on input parameters are required to calculate the LCOE, which each contain some level of uncertainty, in turn affecting the accuracy of LCOE results. This paper explores these uncertainties, their sources, and ultimately the level of variability they introduce at the screening level of project evaluation for non-powered dams (NPDs) across the U.S. Owing to site-specific differences in site design, the LCOE for hydropower varies significantly from project to project unlike technologies with more standardized configurations such as wind and gas. Therefore, to assess the impact of LCOE input uncertainty on the economics of U.S. hydropower resources, these uncertainties must be modeled across the population of potential opportunities. To demonstrate the impact of uncertainty, resource data from a recent nationwide non-powered dam (NPD) resource assessment (Hadjerioua et al., 2012) and screening-level predictive cost equations (O Connor et al., 2015) are used to quantify and evaluate uncertainties in project capital and operations & maintenance costs, and generation potential at broad scale. LCOE dependence on financial assumptions is also evaluated on a sensitivity basis to explore ownership/investment implications on project economics for the U.S. hydropower fleet. The results indicate that the LCOE for U.S. NPDs varies substantially. The LCOE estimates for the potential NPD projects of capacity greater than 1 MW range from 40 to 182 $/MWh, with average of 106 $/MWh. 4,000 MW could be developed through projects with individual LCOE values below 100 $/MWh. The results also indicate that typically 90 % of LCOE uncertainty can be attributed to uncertainties in capital costs and energy production; however

  8. Survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts through a hydropower complex.

    PubMed

    Stich, D S; Bailey, M M; Zydlewski, J D

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt survival through the lower Penobscot River, Maine, U.S.A., and characterized relative differences in proportional use and survival through the main-stem of the river and an alternative migration route, the Stillwater Branch. The work was conducted prior to removal of two main-stem dams and operational changes in hydropower facilities in the Stillwater Branch. Survival and proportional use of migration routes in the lower Penobscot were estimated from multistate (MS) models based on 6 years of acoustic telemetry data from 1669 smolts and 2 years of radio-telemetry data from 190 fish. A small proportion (0·12, 95% c.i. = 0·06-0·25) of smolts used the Stillwater Branch, and mean survival through the two operational dams in this part of the river was relatively high (1·00 and 0·97). Survival at Milford Dam, the dam that will remain in the main-stem of the Penobscot River, was relatively low (0·91), whereas survival through two dams that were removed was relatively high (0·99 and 0·98). Smolt survival could decrease in the Stillwater Branch with the addition of two new powerhouses while continuing to meet fish passage standards. The effects of removing two dams in the main-stem are expected to be negligible for smolt survival based on high survival observed from 2005 to 2012 at those locations. Survival through Milford Dam was been well below current regulatory standards, and thus improvement of passage at this location offers the best opportunity for improving overall smolt survival in the lower river. PMID:25130320

  9. SMA actuated vertical deploy air dam: part 2 operation and test performance of prototype unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy L.; Brown, Jeffrey

    2013-03-01

    Airflow over/under/around a vehicle can affect many important aspects of vehicle performance including vehicle drag (fuel economy) and cooling/heat exchange for the vehicle powertrain and A/C systems. Devices in current use to control airflow, with the exception of a few active spoilers, are of fixed geometry, orientation, and stiffness. Such devices can thus not be relocated, reoriented, etc. as driving conditions change and thus vehicle airflow cannot be adjusted to better suit the changed driving condition. Additionally, under-vehicle airflow control devices also reduce ground clearance presenting a challenge to designers to provide the needed control of airflow while maintaining sufficient ground clearance. The collaborative study, whose second part is documented in this paper, was successful in developing an SMA actuator based approach to reversibly deploying an air dam through vertical translation of its structure. Beyond feasibility, vehicle mounted prototype fully functional units demonstrated that this approach would add little weight to the existing stationary system, and could potentially perform well in the harsh under vehicle environment due to a lack of exposed bearings and pivots. This demonstration showed that actuation speed, force, and cyclic stability all could meet the application requirements. The solution, a dual point balanced actuation approach based on shape memory alloy wires, uses straight linear actuation to produce a reversible height change of 50 mm. On vehicle wind tunnel and onroad tests verified the potential for a reversibly deployable air dam to meet the otherwise conflicting goals of large ground clearance for off-road performance and optimum lower ground clearance for optimum fuel economy benefits.

  10. Comparison of two process based earthen dam failure computation models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dams are an important part of this nation's infrastructure providing flood control, water supply, irrigation, hydropower, navigation, and recreation. Despite their many beneficial uses, dams present a risk to property and life due to their potential to fail. They are also a part of the nation's ag...

  11. Hydroeconomic Analysis of the Balance between Renewable Wind Energy, Hydropower, and Ecosystems Services in the Roanoke River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, A.; Blumsack, S.; Reed, P.

    2012-04-01

    Hydropower can provide inexpensive, flexible fill-in power to compensate for intermittent renewable generation. Policies for hydropower dams maintain multiple services beyond electric generation, including environmental protection, flood control and recreation. We model the decision of a hydroelectric generator to shift some of its power production capacity away from the day-ahead energy market into a "wind-following" service that smoothes the intermittent production of wind turbines. Offering such a service imposes both private and social opportunity costs. Since fluctuations in wind energy output are not perfectly correlated with day-ahead energy prices, a wind-following service will necessarily affect generator revenues. Seasonal wind patterns produce conflicts with the goal of managing rivers for "ecosystem services" - the maintenance or enhancement of downstream ecosystems. We illustrate our decision model using the Kerr Dam in PJM's territory in North Carolina. We simulate the operation of Kerr Dam over a three-year period that features hydrologic variability from normal water years to extreme drought conditions. We use an optimization framework to estimate reservation prices for Kerr Dam offering wind-following services in the PJM market. Wind-following may be profitable for Kerr Dam at low capacity levels during some time periods if ecosystems services are neglected and if side payments, or reserves-type payments, are provided. Wind-following with ecosystem services yields revenue losses that typically cannot be recovered with reserves market payments. Water release patterns are inconsistent with ecosystem-services goals when Kerr Dam dedicates significant capacity to wind-following, particularly in drought years.

  12. Are Wind Power and Hydropower Complements or Competitors? An Analysis of Ecosystem Service Constraints in the Roanoke Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, P. M.; Fernandez, A. R.; Blumsack, S.

    2011-12-01

    Hydropower can provide inexpensive, flexible fill-in power to compensate for intermittent renewable generation. Policies for hydropower dams maintain multiple services beyond electric generation, including environmental protection, flood control and recreation. We model the decision of a hydroelectric generator to shift some of its power production capacity away from the day-ahead energy market into a "wind-following" service that smoothes the intermittent production of wind turbines. Offering such a service imposes both private and social opportunity costs. Since fluctuations in wind energy output are not perfectly correlated with day-ahead energy prices, a wind-following service will necessarily affect generator revenues. Seasonal wind patterns produce conflicts with the goal of managing rivers for "ecosystem services" - the maintenance or enhancement of downstream ecosystems. We illustrate our decision model using the Kerr Dam in PJM's territory in North Carolina. We simulate the operation of Kerr Dam over a three-year period that features hydrologic variability from normal water years to extreme drought conditions. We use an optimization framework to estimate reservation prices for Kerr Dam offering wind-following services in the PJM market. Wind-following may be profitable for Kerr Dam at low capacity levels during some time periods if ecosystems services are neglected and if side payments, or reserves-type payments, are provided. Wind-following with ecosystem services yields revenue losses that typically cannot be recovered with reserves market payments. Water release patterns are inconsistent with ecosystem-services goals when Kerr Dam dedicates significant capacity to wind-following, particularly in drought years.

  13. Spatial design principles for sustainable hydropower development in river basins

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Henriëtte I.; Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Opperman, Jeff J.; Kelly, Michael R.

    2015-02-27

    How can dams be arranged within a river basin such that they benefit society? Recent interest in this question has grown in response to the worldwide trend toward developing hydropower as a source of renewable energy in Asia and South America, and the movement toward removing unnecessary dams in the US. Environmental and energy sustainability are important practical concerns, and yet river development has rarely been planned with the goal of providing society with a portfolio of ecosystem services into the future. We organized a review and synthesis of the growing research in sustainable river basin design around four spatial decisions: Is it better to build fewer mainstem dams or more tributary dams? Should dams be clustered or distributed among distant subbasins? Where should dams be placed along a river? At what spatial scale should decisions be made? We came up with the following design principles for increasing ecological sustainability: (i) concentrate dams within a subset of tributary watersheds and avoid downstream mainstems of rivers, (ii) disperse freshwater reserves among the remaining tributary catchments, (iii) ensure that habitat provided between dams will support reproduction and retain offspring, and (iv) formulate spatial decision problems at the scale of large river basins. Based on our review, we discuss trade-offs between hydropower and ecological objectives when planning river basin development. We hope that future testing and refinement of principles extracted from our review will define a path toward sustainable river basin design.

  14. Spatial design principles for sustainable hydropower development in river basins

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jager, Henriëtte I.; Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Opperman, Jeff J.; Kelly, Michael R.

    2015-02-27

    How can dams be arranged within a river basin such that they benefit society? Recent interest in this question has grown in response to the worldwide trend toward developing hydropower as a source of renewable energy in Asia and South America, and the movement toward removing unnecessary dams in the US. Environmental and energy sustainability are important practical concerns, and yet river development has rarely been planned with the goal of providing society with a portfolio of ecosystem services into the future. We organized a review and synthesis of the growing research in sustainable river basin design around four spatialmore » decisions: Is it better to build fewer mainstem dams or more tributary dams? Should dams be clustered or distributed among distant subbasins? Where should dams be placed along a river? At what spatial scale should decisions be made? We came up with the following design principles for increasing ecological sustainability: (i) concentrate dams within a subset of tributary watersheds and avoid downstream mainstems of rivers, (ii) disperse freshwater reserves among the remaining tributary catchments, (iii) ensure that habitat provided between dams will support reproduction and retain offspring, and (iv) formulate spatial decision problems at the scale of large river basins. Based on our review, we discuss trade-offs between hydropower and ecological objectives when planning river basin development. We hope that future testing and refinement of principles extracted from our review will define a path toward sustainable river basin design.« less

  15. Will We Need to Change the Rules: The Implications of Climate Change for Dam Operations in Oregon's McKenzie River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, A. G.; Grant, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    Dams and reservoirs are common components of many water resource systems, but their operation may be susceptible to climate change impacts due to structural constraints and limited flexibility of operational policies. Federal policy calls for dams to be multipurpose projects that allocate reservoir storage volume and outflow to various uses throughout the year. In order to balance uses and ensure that authorized purposes are met, water control plans are developed at the time of construction using historical hydrological data. Because these plans remain in place unless major structural or authorization changes are mandated, operational policies must be flexible enough to provide the authorized services of the project throughout the variety of climatic conditions over the dam's lifetime. While this implies a more-or-less stationary flow regime, climate change is predicted to have significant effects on streamflow, motivating analysis of the magnitude of effects of these changes on reservoir operations and performance. In particular, we ask whether predicted changes may require changing current operational rules, or whether streamflow objectives for both flood control and summer flow augmentation can continue to be met. We employ a two-part modeling approach to assess the risk of operational performance failures by examining a case study of Cougar Dam, a US Army Corps of Engineers multipurpose flood control dam in Oregon, USA. Synthetic streamflow sequences for historical and future climate were generated using a stochastic model that integrates output from a physically based hydrologic model together with forcing from downscaled global climate data. The synthetic streamflow sequences are the basis for simulating reservoir operations using a simple operations model. We compare past reservoir performance to measured historical elevation and flow data to validate the model. Comparing past and future simulations reveals potential effects of climate change, identifies

  16. Environmental and water-quality operational studies. Prey selection and feeding patterns of fish in a Southern United States hydropower tailwater. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barwick, D.; Hudson, P.L.; Nestler, J.M.

    1985-10-01

    The downstream effects of peaking hydropower generation at Lake Hartwell Georgia-South Carolina, on the diel prey selection and feeding of four species of fish-silver redhorse (Moxostoma anisurum), redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus), green sunfish (L. cyanellus), and bluegill (L. macrochirus)--were determined. Aquatic insects (primarily dipterans, ephemeropterans, and trichopterans), crayfish, and terrestrial organisms (primarily insects) composed most of the food eaten. These fish fed primarily during daylight, before daily hydropower generation began, and little or no feeding occurred during generation. Consequently, few organisms entrained from the reservoir or displaced from the tailwater during hydropower generation were eaten by these fish.

  17. Juvenile Salmon Bypass and CFD Tools for Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Ebner, Laurie L.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2005-03-01

    Flow characteristics within turbine intakes may adversely affect juvenile fish survival and may reduce fish guidance which adversely affects fish survival at large hydropower dams. The factors that affect the flows within these areas can be modeled efficiently and effectively with computational fluid dynamics techniques. These numerical models can be adapted readily to include existing and proposed engineering design features and operational conditions to identify the problem areas associated with fish passage and assist in developing solutions. This study shows how we adapted an existing model to provide decision-makers with information to serve as a basis for structural and operational changes to improve fish passage at a hydroelectric project.

  18. 2014 Hydropower Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Uria-Martinez, Rocio; O'Connor, Patrick W.; Johnson, Megan M.

    2015-04-30

    The U.S. hydropower fleet has been providing clean, reliable power for more than a hundred years. However, no systematic documentation exists of the U.S. fleet and the trends influencing it in recent years. This first-ever Hydropower Market Report seeks to fill this gap and provide industry and policy makers with a quantitative baseline on the distribution, capabilities, and status of hydropower in the United States.

  19. Temperature Effects of Point Sources, Riparian Shading, and Dam Operations on the Willamette River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2007-01-01

    Water temperature is an important factor influencing the migration, rearing, and spawning of several important fish species in rivers of the Pacific Northwest. To protect these fish populations and to fulfill its responsibilities under the Federal Clean Water Act, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality set a water temperature Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in 2006 for the Willamette River and the lower reaches of its largest tributaries in northwestern Oregon. As a result, the thermal discharges of the largest point sources of heat to the Willamette River now are limited at certain times of the year, riparian vegetation has been targeted for restoration, and upstream dams are recognized as important influences on downstream temperatures. Many of the prescribed point-source heat-load allocations are sufficiently restrictive that management agencies may need to expend considerable resources to meet those allocations. Trading heat allocations among point-source dischargers may be a more economical and efficient means of meeting the cumulative point-source temperature limits set by the TMDL. The cumulative nature of these limits, however, precludes simple one-to-one trades of heat from one point source to another; a more detailed spatial analysis is needed. In this investigation, the flow and temperature models that formed the basis of the Willamette temperature TMDL were used to determine a spatially indexed 'heating signature' for each of the modeled point sources, and those signatures then were combined into a user-friendly, spreadsheet-based screening tool. The Willamette River Point-Source Heat-Trading Tool allows the user to increase or decrease the heating signature of each source and thereby evaluate the effects of a wide range of potential point-source heat trades. The predictions of the Trading Tool were verified by running the Willamette flow and temperature models under four different trading scenarios, and the predictions typically were accurate

  20. The role of dams in development.

    PubMed

    Altinbilek, Doğan

    2002-01-01

    Dams are a major issue in sustainable management of finite water resources; they have also become the subject of vigorous public debate. This article considers them in the light of the report of the World Commission on Dams and using the example of Turkey. It is argued that economic development and population growth, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions, make plain the need for dams for hydropower and irrigation. Environmental impact assessment is essential, as are effective programmes for resettlement to avoid the impoverishment of displaced people. PMID:12019817

  1. Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Operations on the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Spawning Habitat Final Report, October 2005 - September 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Arntzen, Evan V.

    2007-11-13

    This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Fish and Wildlife Program directed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council. The study evaluated the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat within the impounded lower Snake River. The objective of the research was to determine if hydroelectric dam operations could be modified, within existing system constraints (e.g., minimum to normal pool levels; without partial removal of a dam structure), to increase the amount of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the lower Snake River. Empirical and modeled physical habitat data were used to compare potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Snake River, under current and modified dam operations, with the analogous physical characteristics of an existing fall Chinook salmon spawning area in the Columbia River. The two Snake River study areas included the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Highway 12 bridge and the Lower Granite Dam tailrace downstream approximately 12 river kilometers. These areas represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We used a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats was the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat use data, including water depth, velocity, substrate size and channelbed slope, from the Wanapum reference area were used to define spawning habitat suitability based on these variables. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat suitability of the Snake River study areas was estimated by applying the Wanapum reference reach habitat

  2. 78 FR 62348 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... Hydropower, L.P. e. Name of Project: Chasm Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Salmon River, in... concrete gravity-type dam having a spillway section with crest elevation 1,283.8 feet mean sea level...

  3. 78 FR 68044 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Boulevard Hydropower, L.P. e. Name of Project: Chasm Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Salmon River... dam having a spillway section with crest elevation 1,283.8 feet mean sea level (msl) about 100...

  4. An Assessment of Reservoir Filling Policies under a Changing Climate for Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A.; Block, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variability and change cause unsteady hydrologic response, commonly experienced through varying river flows. These variations affect the performance and reliability of water resources dependent systems, including domestic, agriculture, energy, and the environment, with economic implications. Long-term design and operation of these systems is therefore inherently uncertain, producing copious risks at time-scales of months to decades. Yet evaluation of system performance under non-stationary climate conditions is typically ignored. Here we demonstrate the potential performance of Ethiopia's forthcoming Grand Renaissance hydropower dam on the Blue Nile River, subject to coincident climate change and reservoir filling policies. Presently, no agreed-upon reservoir retention policy exists between Ethiopia and downstream countries, even though construction has already begun. We will present a tool designed to allow users to select expected future climate conditions and reservoir filling rates, from a stochastic perspective. Additionally, the maximum reservoir volume may also be varied. Major outputs include hydropower generation and downstream flow for use by policy-makers. Ethiopia's desire to rapidly expand hydropower dams on the Nile constitutes an enormous financial investment and latent risk, with further implications on streamflow reduction to Sudan and Egypt, and a need for multi-national energy contracts, necessitating proper advanced planning.

  5. Balancing hydropower development in the Ohio River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, M.J.; Railsback, S.F.; Chang, S.Y.; Coutant, C.C.; Spath, R.E.; Taylor, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    A large number of retrofit hydroelectric projects have been proposed at existing navigation dams in the Ohio River basin. These proposals involve potentially adverse environmental impacts, including reduced dissolved oxygen concentrations from decreased aeration at dams. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission completed an environmental impact statement for 24 proposed projects at 19 dams on the Ohio, Monongahela, Allegheny, and Muskingum rivers, evaluating the cumulative impacts of hydropower development on more than 500 miles (800 km) of river. The use of models in this assessment proved extremely valuable for understanding the cumulative impacts of hydropower development on water quality in the basin and for balancing power and environmental quality considerations in the licensing process. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Hydropower annual report 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn F.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Hunt, Richard T.; Sale, Michael J.; Sommers, Garold L.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes hydropower activities supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Hydropower Program during Fiscal Year 2003 (October 1, 2002 to September 30, 2003). Background on the program, FY03 accomplishments, and future plans are presented in the following sections.

  7. The necessity of field research in prescription of Environmental Flows - A case of the hydropower dominated Middle Zambezi Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwelwa, Elenestina; Crosato, Alessandra; Wright, Nigel; Beevers, Lindsay

    2013-04-01

    The research work in the Middle Zambezi sub-catchment has the key objective to investigate the state of the river and its flood plain in terms of flow variation, river and flood plain morphological variation for both the pre and post hydropower schemes. From the rich biodiversity that this area supports, both Zambia and Zimbabwe has established National Parks with Mana Pools National Park, Sapi and Chewore safari areas being designated as UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1984. The habitat sustenance depend on the river channels and the associated morphological features with the flood and recession interaction whose modification can lead to negative environmental consequences. The research findings on the state of the sub-catchment flows and morphology will be outlined. Highlights will be given on the following findings: dominance of hydropower regulation in the water balance of the river reach, historical map analysis and related rates of river channel morphology changes associated to dam operating events and, bed load sediment characterisation and distribution. With the use of SOBEK-Rural (1D/2D) model, analysis of future state of the sub-catchment will be outlined, taking into account the following scenarios: no dam state of the river reach; continue with current water regulation and operations; modification in water regulation to take into account favorable changes and; climate related variation of droughts. The research deductions and implications for maintaining the current dam operation practices will be outline as relates to the sustainability of the hydro-morphology and ecosystem of the catchment which support a rich wildlife habitat. The research observed critical water needs form the basis for environmental flows prescription and recommendation. Whereas the restoration of regular flooding has been identified to be important, the most critical need however is the timing of flood gate regulation which has been observed as a trigger to loss of islands and bars

  8. Minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, hydropower accounted for only 16% of the world electricity production, with other renewable sources totaling 3%. Thus, it is not surprising that when alternatives are evaluated for new energy developments, there is strong impulse for fossil fuel or nuclear energy as opposed to renewable sources. However, as hydropower schemes are often part of a multipurpose water resources development project, they can often help to finance other components of the project. In addition, hydropower systems and their associated dams and reservoirs provide human well-being benefits, such as flood control and irrigation, and societal benefits such as increased recreational activities and improved navigation. Furthermore, hydropower due to its associated reservoir storage, can provide flexibility and reliability for energy production in integrated energy systems. The storage capability of hydropower systems act as a regulating mechanism by which other intermittent and variable renewable energy sources (wind, wave, solar) can play a larger role in providing electricity of commercial quality. Minimizing water consumption for producing hydropower is critical given that overuse of water for energy production may result in a shortage of water for other purposes such as irrigation, navigation or fish passage. This paper presents a dimensional analysis for finding optimal flow discharge and optimal penstock diameter when designing impulse and reaction water turbines for hydropower systems. The objective of this analysis is to provide general insights for minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower. This analysis is based on the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the penstock, the total hydraulic head and the desired power production. As part of this analysis, various dimensionless relationships between power production, flow discharge and head losses were derived. These relationships were used to withdraw general insights on determining optimal flow discharge and

  9. Effects of the Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1983 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fraley, John J.

    1983-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. This annual report covers the 1982-1983 field season concerning the effects of Hungry Horse operations on kokanee abundance, migration, spawning, egg incubation and fry emergence in the Flathead River system. This report also addresses the expected recovery of the mainstem kokanee population under the flow regime recommended by the Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks in 1982.

  10. The impacts of wind power integration on sub-daily variation in river flows downstream of hydroelectric dams.

    PubMed

    Kern, Jordan D; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Characklis, Gregory W

    2014-08-19

    Due to their operational flexibility, hydroelectric dams are ideal candidates to compensate for the intermittency and unpredictability of wind energy production. However, more coordinated use of wind and hydropower resources may exacerbate the impacts dams have on downstream environmental flows, that is, the timing and magnitude of water flows needed to sustain river ecosystems. In this paper, we examine the effects of increased (i.e., 5%, 15%, and 25%) wind market penetration on prices for electricity and reserves, and assess the potential for altered price dynamics to disrupt reservoir release schedules at a hydroelectric dam and cause more variable and unpredictable hourly flow patterns (measured in terms of the Richards-Baker Flashiness (RBF) index). Results show that the greatest potential for wind energy to impact downstream flows occurs at high (∼25%) wind market penetration, when the dam sells more reserves in order to exploit spikes in real-time electricity prices caused by negative wind forecast errors. Nonetheless, compared to the initial impacts of dam construction (and the dam's subsequent operation as a peaking resource under baseline conditions) the marginal effects of any increased wind market penetration on downstream flows are found to be relatively minor. PMID:25061693

  11. Can the annual flood control volume at Three Gorges Dam be predicted to size a variable flood control pool?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DONG, Q.; Lall, U.

    2014-12-01

    We consider the empirical prediction of the peak flood volume on the Yangtze River at the Three Gorges Dam. The dam is operated for flood control, hydropower production and irrigation. The flood control space reserved in the reservoir each year during the monsoon season limits the ability to supply hydropower and irrigation services. Allocating a variable amount of flood control space based on a pre-season forecast of the peak event flood volume, or of the flood volume over a specific duration is consequently, more useful than a prediction of the annual maximum peak flow for this dam and for other flood control dams. The joint distribution of annual peak flow, the corresponding flood volume, and the event duration is investigated based on the copula theory. A statistical model is developed for the conditional prediction of this joint distribution using pre-season climate indicators. The potential for the guidance for water management in the Yangtze River basin and for insights to the design of the large flood control reservoirs in the future is illustrated.

  12. Using Conventional Hydropower to Help Alleviate Variable Resource Grid Integration Challenges in the Western U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L.

    2011-12-01

    Integrating high penetration levels of wind and solar energy resources into the power grid is a formidable challenge in virtually all interconnected systems due to the fact that supply and demand must remain in balance at all times. Since large scale electricity storage is currently not economically viable, generation must exactly match electricity demand plus energy losses in the system as time unfolds. Therefore, as generation from variable resources such as wind and solar fluctuate, production from generating resources that are easier to control and dispatch need to compensate for these fluctuations while at the same time respond to both instantaneous change in load and follow daily load profiles. The grid in the Western U.S. is not exempt to grid integration challenges associated with variable resources. However, one advantage that the power system in the Western U.S. has over many other regional power systems is that its footprint contains an abundance of hydropower resources. Hydropower plants, especially those that have reservoir water storage, can physically change electricity production levels very quickly both via a dispatcher and through automatic generation control. Since hydropower response time is typically much faster than other dispatchable resources such as steam or gas turbines, it is well suited to alleviate variable resource grid integration issues. However, despite an abundance of hydropower resources and the current low penetration of variable resources in the Western U.S., problems have already surfaced. This spring in the Pacific Northwest, wetter than normal hydropower conditions in combination with transmission constraints resulted in controversial wind resource shedding. This action was taken since water spilling would have increased dissolved oxygen levels downstream of dams thereby significantly degrading fish habitats. The extent to which hydropower resources will be able to contribute toward a stable and reliable Western grid is

  13. Non-powered Dams: An untapped source of renewable electricity in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Wei, Yaxing; Battey, Hoyt; Smith, Brennan T

    2012-01-01

    Hydropower has been a source of clean, renewable electricity in the USA for more than 100 years. Today, approximately 2500 US dams provide 78 GW of conventional and 22 GW of pumped-storage hydropower. In contrast, another approximately 80 000 dams in the USA do not include hydraulic turbine equipment and provide non-energy related services, such as flood control, water supply, navigation, and recreation.

  14. A Population Growth Trend Analysis for Neotricula aperta, the Snail Intermediate Host of Schistosoma mekongi, after Construction of the Pak-Mun Dam

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Stephen W.; Upatham, E. Suchart

    2013-01-01

    Background The Pak-Mun dam is a controversial hydro-power project on the Mun River in Northeast Thailand. The dam is sited in a habitat of the freshwater snail Neotricula aperta, which is the intermediate host for the parasitic blood-fluke Schistosoma mekongi causing Mekong schistosomiasis in humans in Cambodia and Laos. Few data are available which can be used to assess the effects of water resource development on N. aperta. The aim of this study was to obtain data and to analyze the possible impact of the dam on N. aperta population growth. Methodology/Principal Findings Estimated population densities were recorded for an N. aperta population in the Mun River 27 km upstream of Pak-Mun, from 1990 to 2011. The Pak-Mul dam began to operate in 1994. Population growth was modeled using a linear mixed model expression of a modified Gompertz stochastic state-space exponential growth model. The N. aperta population was found to be quite stable, with the estimated growth parameter not significantly different from zero. Nevertheless, some marked changes in snail population density were observed which were coincident with changes in dam operation policy. Conclusions/Significance The study found that there has been no marked increase in N. aperta population growth following operation of the Pak-Mun dam. The analysis did indicate a large and statistically significant increase in population density immediately after the dam came into operation; however, this increase was not persistent. The study has provided the first vital baseline data on N. aperta population behavior near to the Pak-Mun dam and suggests that the operation policy of the dam may have an impact on snail population density. Nevertheless, additional studies are required for other N. aperta populations in the Mun River and for an extended time series, to confirm or refine the findings of this work. PMID:24244775

  15. Squeezing Every Drop of Value from Federal Hydropower under a Continually Challenging Changing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriss, L.

    2011-12-01

    . Understanding how river flows impact archaeological and cultural resources and finding ways to minimize impacts 5. Identifying ways to incorporate traditional cultural knowledge into ongoing research into long-term impacts to the river system that result from dam and powerplant operations 6. Identifying impacts on downstream resources that result from dam and powerplant resources and finding ways to mitigate those impacts. 7. Finding ways to maximize the value of the hydropower while minimizing impacts to other resources 8. Ensuring power revenues remain sufficient to pay for the ongoing power operations and maintenance costs, the initial investment and interest costs, the irrigation costs assigned to power for repayment and the costs that power bears to fund environmental restoration and research. To meet our needs, Western continues to seek opportunities to find ways to identify shared interests and viable solutions to reach these goals. Western will need to continue seeking innovative approaches and partnerships with organizations that have conflicting and competing requirements. Only by finding ways to resolve these competing policy choices will people across the Western Unites States gain the most value from these resources.

  16. Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Key, T.

    2013-02-01

    The report summarizes a 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. The study looked at existing large hydropower operations in the U.S., models for different electricity futures, markets, costs of existing and new technologies as well as trends related to hydropower investments in other parts of the world.

  17. 106. DAM EARTH DIKE SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. DAM - EARTH DIKE - SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE CONN. AT MOVABLE DAM (ML-8-52/2-FS) March 1940 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  18. Assessment of Short Term Flood Operation Strategies Using Numerical Weather Prediction Data in YUVACΙK DAM Reservoir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, G.; Yavuz, O.; Sensoy, A.; Sorman, A.; Akgun, T.; Gezgin, T.

    2011-12-01

    Yuvacik Dam Reservoir Basin, located in the Marmara region of Turkey with 248 km2 drainage area, has steep topography, mild and rainy climate thus induces high flood potential with fast flow response, especially to early spring and fall precipitation events. Moreover, the basin provides considerable snowmelt contribution to the streamflow during melt season since the elevation ranges between 80 - 1548 m. The long term strategies are based on supplying annual demand of 142 hm3 water despite a relatively small reservoir capacity of 51 hm3. This situation makes short term release decisions as the challenging task regarding the constrained downstream safe channel capacity especially in times of floods. Providing the demand of 1.5 million populated city of Kocaeli is the highest priority issue in terms of reservoir management but risk optimization is also required due to flood regulation. Although, the spillway capacity is 1560 m3/s, the maximum amount of water to be released is set as 100 m3/s by the regional water authority taking into consideration the downstream channel capacity which passes through industrial region of the city. The reservoir is a controlled one and it is possible to hold back the 15 hm3 additional water by keeping the gates closed. Flood regulation is set to achieve the maximum possible flood attenuation by using the full flood-control zone capacity in the reservoir before making releases in excess of the downstream safe-channel capacity. However, the operators still need to exceed flood regulation zones to take precautions for drought summer periods in order to supply water without any shortage that increases the risk in times of flood. Regarding to this circumstances, a hydrological model integrated reservoir modeling system, is applied to account for the physical behavior of the system. Hence, this reservoir modeling is carried out to analyze both previous decisions and also the future scenarios as a decision support tool for operators. In the

  19. Evaluation of the Biological Effects of the Northwest Power Conservation Council's Mainstem Amendment on the Fisheries Upstream and Downstream of Libby Dam, Montana, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvester, Ryan; Stephens, Brian; Tohtz, Joel

    2009-04-03

    A new project began in 2005 to monitor the biological and physical effects of improved operations of Hungry Horse and Libby Dams, Montana, called for by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Mainstem Amendment. This operating strategy was designed to benefit resident fish impacted by hydropower and flood control operations. Under the new operating guidelines, July through September reservoir drafts will be limited to 10 feet from full pool during the highest 80% of water supply years and 20 feet from full pool during the lowest 20% of water supply (drought) years. Limits were also established on how rapidly discharge from the dams can be increased or decreased depending on the season. The NPCC also directed the federal agencies that operate Libby and Hungry Horse Dams to implement a new flood control strategy (VARQ) and directed Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks to evaluate biological responses to this operating strategy. The Mainstem Amendment operating strategy has not been fully implemented at the Montana dams as of June 2008 but the strategy will be implemented in 2009. This report highlights the monitoring methods used to monitor the effects of the Mainstem Amendment operations on fishes, habitat, and aquatic invertebrates upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. We also present initial assessments of data and the effects of various operating strategies on physical and biological components of the systems upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Annual electrofishing surveys in the Kootenai River and selected tributaries, along with gill net surveys in the reservoir, are being used to quantify the impacts of dam operations on fish populations upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Scales and otoliths are being used to determine the age structure and growth of focal species. Annual population estimates and tagging experiments provide estimates of survival and growth in the mainstem Kootenai River and selected tributaries. Radio telemetry will be used to

  20. The FAST-T approach for operational, real time, short term hydrological forecasting: Results from the Betania Hydropower Reservoir case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez, Efraín; Angarita, Hector; Rosmann, Thomas; Mendez, Zulma; Angulo, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    A viable quantitative hydrological forecasting service is a combination of technological elements, personnel and knowledge, working together to establish a stable operational cycle of forecasts emission, dissemination and assimilation; hence, the process for establishing such system usually requires significant resources and time to reach an adequate development and integration in order to produce forecasts with acceptable levels of performance. Here are presented the results of this process for the recently implemented Operational Forecast Service for the Betania's Hydropower Reservoir - or SPHEB, located at the Upper-Magdalena River Basin (Colombia). The current scope of the SPHEB includes forecasting of water levels and discharge for the three main streams affluent to the reservoir, for lead times between +1 to +57 hours, and +1 to +10 days. The core of the SPHEB is the Flexible, Adaptive, Simple and Transient Time forecasting approach, namely FAST-T. This comprises of a set of data structures, mathematical kernel, distributed computing and network infrastructure designed to provide seamless real-time operational forecast and automatic model adjustment in case of failures in data transmission or assimilation. Among FAST-T main features are: an autonomous evaluation and detection of the most relevant information for the later configuration of forecasting models; an adaptively linearized mathematical kernel, the optimal adaptive linear combination or OALC, which provides a computationally simple and efficient algorithm for real-time applications; and finally, a meta-model catalog, containing prioritized forecast models at given stream conditions. The SPHEB is at present feed by the fraction of hydrological monitoring network installed at the basin that has telemetric capabilities via NOAA-GOES satellites (8 stages, approximately 47%) with data availability of about a 90% at one hour intervals. However, there is a dense network of 'conventional' hydro

  1. Operational hydrological ensemble forecasts in France. Recent development of the French Hydropower Company (EDF), taking into account rainfall and hydrological model uncertainties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathevet, T.; Garavaglia, F.; Garçon, R.; Gailhard, J.; Paquet, E.

    2009-04-01

    In operational conditions, the actual quality of meteorological and hydrological forecasts do not allow decision-making in a certain future. In this context, meteorological and hydrological ensemble forecasts allow a better representation of forecasts uncertainties. Compared to classical deterministic forecasts, ensemble forecasts improve the human expertise of hydrological forecasts, which is essential to synthesize available informations, coming from different meteorological and hydrological models and human experience. In this paper, we present a hydrological ensemble forecasting system under development at EDF (French Hydropower Company). This forecasting system both takes into account rainfall forecasts uncertainties and hydrological model forecasts uncertainties. Hydrological forecasts were generated using the MORDOR model (Andreassian et al., 2006), developed at EDF and used on a daily basis in operational conditions on a hundred of watersheds. Two sources of rainfall forecasts were used : one is based on ECMWF forecasts, another is based on an analogues approach (Obled et al., 2002). Two methods of hydrological model forecasts uncertainty estimation were used : one is based on the use of equifinal parameter sets (Beven & Binley, 1992), the other is based on the statistical modelisation of the hydrological forecast empirical uncertainty (Montanari et al., 2004 ; Schaefli et al., 2007). Daily operational hydrological 7-day ensemble forecasts during 2 years in 3 alpine watersheds were evaluated. Finally, we present a way to combine rainfall and hydrological model forecast uncertainties to achieve a good probabilistic calibration. Our results show that the combination of ECMWF and analogues-based rainfall forecasts allow a good probabilistic calibration of rainfall forecasts. They show also that the statistical modeling of the hydrological forecast empirical uncertainty has a better probabilistic calibration, than the equifinal parameter set approach

  2. Hydropower and sustainability: resilience and vulnerability in China's powersheds.

    PubMed

    McNally, Amy; Magee, Darrin; Wolf, Aaron T

    2009-07-01

    Large dams represent a whole complex of social, economic and ecological processes, perhaps more than any other large infrastructure project. Today, countries with rapidly developing economies are constructing new dams to provide energy and flood control to growing populations in riparian and distant urban communities. If the system is lacking institutional capacity to absorb these physical and institutional changes there is potential for conflict, thereby threatening human security. In this paper, we propose analyzing sustainability (political, socioeconomic, and ecological) in terms of resilience versus vulnerability, framed within the spatial abstraction of a powershed. The powershed framework facilitates multi-scalar and transboundary analysis while remaining focused on the questions of resilience and vulnerability relating to hydropower dams. Focusing on examples from China, this paper describes the complex nature of dams using the sustainability and powershed frameworks. We then analyze the roles of institutions in China to understand the relationships between power, human security and the socio-ecological system. To inform the study of conflicts over dams China is a particularly useful case study because we can examine what happens at the international, national and local scales. The powershed perspective allows us to examine resilience and vulnerability across political boundaries from a dynamic, process-defined analytical scale while remaining focused on a host of questions relating to hydro-development that invoke drivers and impacts on national and sub-national scales. The ability to disaggregate the affects of hydropower dam construction from political boundaries allows for a deeper analysis of resilience and vulnerability. From our analysis we find that reforms in China's hydropower sector since 1996 have been motivated by the need to create stability at the national scale rather than resilient solutions to China's growing demand for energy and water

  3. Sustainable hydropower in Lower Mekong Countries: Technical assessment and training travel report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Witt, Adam M.

    2015-08-01

    mission of the ORNL Water Power Program is to develop technologies, decision-support tools, and methods of analysis that enable holistic management of water-dependent energy infrastructure and natural resources in support of the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office (DOE-EERE), Federal hydropower agencies, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), energy producers, and other entities. In support of SIM, ORNL completed technical assessments of two hydropower plants owned and operated by the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT): Vajiralongkorn (VRK), with an installed capacity of 300 MW, and Rajjaprabha (RPB), with an installed capacity of 240MW. Technical assessment is defined as the assessment of hydropower operation and performance, and the identification of potential opportunities for performance improvement through plant optimization. At each plant, the assessment included an initial analysis of hydropower operating and performance metrics, provided by dam owners. After this analysis, ORNL engaged with the plant management team in a skills exchange, where best practices, operational methods, and technical challenges were discussed. The technical assessment process was outlined to plant management followed by a presentation of preliminary results and analysis based on 50 days of operational data. EGAT has agreed to provide a full year of operational data so a complete and detailed assessment that captures seasonal variability can be completed. The results of these assessments and discussions will be used to develop a set of best practices, training, and procedure recommendations to improve the efficiency of the two assessed plants

  4. Aeration of hydroturbine discharges at TIMS Ford Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Harshbarger, E.D.; Mobley, M.H.; Brock, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    Tims Ford Dam located on the Elk River in middle Tennessee is a multipurpose project of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) which provides flood control, water supply, and hydropower generation. Because of thermal stratification in the reservoir and biochemical processes, the hydroturbine discharges from Tims Ford have been historically low in dissolved oxygen (DO) content during several months of the year. To increase the DO of these discharges to a concentration level of 6 mg/L, a dual aeration system using both air injection into the turbine and oxygen injection through porous hoses in the turbine penstock has been installed. This paper describes the air and oxygen systems and presents the results of aeration system operation on DO and total dissolved gas in the turbine discharge and on hydroturbine efficiency.

  5. Seasonal forecasting for water resource management: the example of CNR Genissiat dam on the Rhone River in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommanget, Etienne; Bellier, Joseph; Ben Daoud, Aurélien; Graff, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Compagnie Nationale du Rhône (CNR) has been granted the concession to operate the Rhone River from the Swiss border to the Mediterranean Sea since 1933 and carries out three interdependent missions: navigation, irrigation and hydropower production. Nowadays, CNR generates one quarter of France's hydropower electricity. The convergence of public and private interests around optimizing the management of water resources throughout the French Rhone valley led CNR to develop hydrological models dedicated to discharge seasonal forecasting. Indeed, seasonal forecasting is a major issue for CNR and water resource management, in order to optimize long-term investments of the produced electricity, plan dam maintenance operations and anticipate low water period. Seasonal forecasting models have been developed on the Genissiat dam. With an installed capacity of 420MW, Genissiat dam is the first of the 19 CNR's hydropower plants. Discharge forecasting at Genissiat dam is strategic since its inflows contributes to 20% of the total Rhone average discharge and consequently to 40% of the total Rhone hydropower production. Forecasts are based on hydrological statistical models. Discharge on the main Rhone River tributaries upstream Genissiat dam are forecasted from 1 to 6 months ahead thanks to multiple linear regressions. Inputs data of these regressions are identified depending on river hydrological regimes and periods of the year. For the melting season, from spring to summer, snow water equivalent (SWE) data are of major importance. SWE data are calculated from Crocus model (Météo France) and SLF's model (Switzerland). CNR hydro-meteorological forecasters assessed meteorological trends regarding precipitations for the next coming months. These trends are used to generate stochastically precipitation scenarios in order to complement regression data set. This probabilistic approach build a decision-making supports for CNR's water resource management team and provides them with

  6. Survival of migrating salmon smolts in large rivers with and without dams.

    PubMed

    Welch, David W; Rechisky, Erin L; Melnychuk, Michael C; Porter, Aswea D; Walters, Carl J; Clements, Shaun; Clemens, Benjamin J; McKinley, R Scott; Schreck, Carl

    2008-10-28

    The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We measured the survival of salmon smolts during their migration to sea using elements of the large-scale acoustic telemetry system, the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) array. Survival measurements using acoustic tags were comparable to those obtained independently using the Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag system, which is operational at Columbia and Snake River dams. Because the technology underlying the POST array works in both freshwater and the ocean, it is therefore possible to extend the measurement of survival to large rivers lacking dams, such as the Fraser, and to also extend the measurement of survival to the lower Columbia River and estuary, where there are no dams. Of particular note, survival during the downstream migration of at least some endangered Columbia and Snake River Chinook and steelhead stocks appears to be as high or higher than that of the same species migrating out of the Fraser River in Canada, which lacks dams. Equally surprising, smolt survival during migration through the hydrosystem, when scaled by either the time or distance migrated, is higher than in the lower Columbia River and estuary where dams are absent. Our results raise important questions regarding the factors that are preventing the recovery of salmon stocks in the Columbia and the future health of stocks in the Fraser River. PMID:18959485

  7. Effects of dam operation on the endangered Júcar nase, Parachondrostoma arrigonis, related to mesohabitats, microhabitat availability and water temperature regime, in the river Cabriel (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Costa, Rui; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Diego Alcaraz-Hernandez, Juan; Hernandez-Mascarell, Aina

    2010-05-01

    The presence of large dams affects habitat availability, often regarded as the primary factor that limits population and community recovery in rivers. Physical habitat is often targeted in restoration, but there is often a paucity of useful information. Habitat degradation has reduced the complexity and connectivity of the Mediterranean streams in Spain. These changes have diminished the historical range of the endangered Júcar nase, Parachondrostoma arrigonis (Steindachner, 1866), isolated the populations of this species, and probably contributed to its risk of extinction. In the Júcar River basin (Spain), where this fish is endemic, the populations are mainly restricted to the river Cabriel, which is fragmented in two segments by the large dam of Contreras. In this river, 3 main lines of research were developed from 2006 to 2008, i.e., microhabitat suitability, mesohabitat suitability, and water temperature, in order to relate such kind of variables with the flow regime. The main goal of the research project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Environment, was to detect the main reasons of the species decline, and to propose dam operation improvements to contribute to the recovery of the species. The flow and water temperature regimes were also studied in the river Cabriel, upstream and downstream the large dam of Contreras. During the three years of study, below the dam it was observed a small and not significant variation in the proportions of slow and fast habitats; the regulated flow regime was pointed out as the main reason of such variations. At the microhabitat scale, optimal ranges for average depth and velocity were defined; these data allowed us to develop an estimation of weighted useable area under natural and regulated conditions. The Júcar nase were found majorly at depths no greater than 1,15 meters with slow water velocities. It was possible to observe a clear alteration of the flow and water temperature regime below the dam, due to the cold

  8. Fish Passage Assessment of an Advanced Hydropower Turbine and Conventional Turbine Using Blade-strike Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-01-04

    In the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon were listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making those hydroelectric facilities more ecologically friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for re-licensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to the newly installed turbine and an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live fish survival study and a sensor fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experiment results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, there was no statistical evidence that suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines and the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal or better than that through the conventional turbine could not be rejected.

  9. Editorial: Time for green certification for all hydropower?

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-04-10

    While accrediting a large hydropower facility is intrinsically more complex and potentially controversial, it is time to review the progress made in understanding the environmental impacts of large hydropower and the development of environmentally friendly hydropower systems. Over the last two decades, many in-field, laboratory, and modeling technologies have been developed or improved to better understand the mechanisms of fish injury and mortality and to identify turbine design and operation alternatives to reduce such impacts. In 2010, representatives of DOE and the US Department of Interior, and USACE signed a memorandum of understanding to work more closely to develop sustainable hydropower. One of their major objectives is to increase hydropower generation using low-impact and environmentally sustainable approaches. Given the recent scientific and technological advances that have decreased the environmental impact of hydropower and the need to aggressively facilitate development of low impact hydropower, we think it is indeed time to initiate a science-based green certification program that includes rigorous criteria for environmental protection but does not exclude hydropower based on size only.

  10. Hydropower Energy in Lebanon: Adaptation for Changing Climatic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaban, A.

    2012-12-01

    The mountainous terrain of Lebanon makes it a climatic barrier that receives clod air masses from the west and condensate them as rain and snow. Hence the average precipitation rate is about 950mm, creating tremendous water sources, but large portion of this water runs to the sea before utilizing it properly. The natural patterns of surface run-off on the mountainous terrain provide a chance to generate hydropower energy. Thus, Lebanon has 17 hydropower stations on 8 rivers. The productivity of these stations averages about 722 GWh, which provide an integral portion of the Lebanese electrical energy. The population growth and the failure of the existing electrical plants to supply adequate energy have been increased in the last few decades. Thus, there is proposition to construct 13 new hydropower plants. However, challenges for generating hydropower energy has been exacerbated; especially in the view of changing climatic conditions, including fluctuations in precipitation regime, which results an obvious decrease in the volume of run-off. This threatens constructed dams for energy generation. Hence, adapting new instrumentations became a necessity mechanism to be applied before proposing new hydropower station in Lebanon. This study will introduce the applicable adaptation tools to be followed in this respect.

  11. 107. DAM EARTH DIKE SUBMERSIBLE DAMS PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. DAM - EARTH DIKE - SUBMERSIBLE DAMS - PLANS & SECTIONS (ML-8-52/3-FS) March 1940 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  12. 2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF GUARDLOCK (LEFT REAR), DUNDEE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF GUARDLOCK (LEFT REAR), DUNDEE DAM (RIGHT-CENTER REAR), AND REMOVED SITE OF TOWPATH (FOREGROUND) DURING HYDROPOWER FACILITY INSTALLATION - Dundee Canal, Headgates, Guardlock & Uppermost Section, 250 feet northeast of Randolph Avenue, opposite & in line with East Clifton Avenue, Clifton, Passaic County, NJ

  13. DOE Small Hydropower Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, W.W.; McLaughlin, T.B.

    1980-01-01

    The scope of work and activities of the Department of Energy's National Small Hydropower Program are discussed. Each portion of the program is discussed to provide an overall view of the program's depth. The three major subprograms are the Demonstration Projects subprogram, the Engineering Development subprogram, and the Loan subprogram. Program results are presented by graphic illustrations where applicable.

  14. Developing hydropower overseas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.B. )

    1991-10-01

    This article examines how the National Hydropower Association (NHA) has found ways to support its members who desire to expand their business programs to foreign markets through participation in a wide range of government programs. The topics of the article include the market in developing countries, the certificate of review, products and services, and domestic and international competition.

  15. Do we need construct more dams?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Shi, H.

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviews global dam development in association with the growths of global population, economy, and energy consumption in the past several decades, and also evaluates contributions of dam development to future world sustainable development. Eventually, this paper answers whether we need more dams in the future or not. The world population has rapidly increased from 1.6 billion in 1900, 2.5 billion in 1950, 6.1 billion in 2000, to 7.0 billion in 2011, and is projected to reach 9.5 billion in 2050; similarly, the world economy has dramatically expanded. To maintain socioeconomic development, the consumption of water, food and energy has increased rapidly as well. However, the total volume of available water resource over the world is limited, the food production largely depends on water supply, and the main energy sources are still oil, coal and gas at present, which are regarded as non-renewable resources. Accordingly, it is expected that we will face serious problems to deal with the challenges of water crisis, food security and energy shortage in the near future. In order to enhance the capability of regulating water resource, a great number of global dams (and related reservoirs) have been constructed in the last one hundred years; currently, almost all large rivers over the world have been regulated by dams. The reservoirs can supply sufficient water for irrigated land to ensure food production, and the associated hydropower stations can generate electricity. This article collects the dam data from the ICOLD (International Commission on Large Dams) and GRanD (Global Reservoir and Dam) databases, and some socioeconomic data, including population, economy, and consumptions of water, food and energy over the world. Analysis of these data reveals that global dam development has a great impact on the world sustainable development. Further, it is concluded that we need further dam development to maintain our future development.

  16. Performance assessment of deterministic and probabilistic weather predictions for the short-term optimization of a tropical hydropower reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainardi Fan, Fernando; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Alvarado, Rodolfo; Assis dos Reis, Alberto; Naumann, Steffi; Collischonn, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Hydropower is the most important electricity source in Brazil. During recent years, it accounted for 60% to 70% of the total electric power supply. Marginal costs of hydropower are lower than for thermal power plants, therefore, there is a strong economic motivation to maximize its share. On the other hand, hydropower depends on the availability of water, which has a natural variability. Its extremes lead to the risks of power production deficits during droughts and safety issues in the reservoir and downstream river reaches during flood events. One building block of the proper management of hydropower assets is the short-term forecast of reservoir inflows as input for an online, event-based optimization of its release strategy. While deterministic forecasts and optimization schemes are the established techniques for the short-term reservoir management, the use of probabilistic ensemble forecasts and stochastic optimization techniques receives growing attention and a number of researches have shown its benefit. The present work shows one of the first hindcasting and closed-loop control experiments for a multi-purpose hydropower reservoir in a tropical region in Brazil. The case study is the hydropower project (HPP) Três Marias, located in southeast Brazil. The HPP reservoir is operated with two main objectives: (i) hydroelectricity generation and (ii) flood control at Pirapora City located 120 km downstream of the dam. In the experiments, precipitation forecasts based on observed data, deterministic and probabilistic forecasts with 50 ensemble members of the ECMWF are used as forcing of the MGB-IPH hydrological model to generate streamflow forecasts over a period of 2 years. The online optimization depends on a deterministic and multi-stage stochastic version of a model predictive control scheme. Results for the perfect forecasts show the potential benefit of the online optimization and indicate a desired forecast lead time of 30 days. In comparison, the use of

  17. An ecological economic assessment of flow regimes in a hydropower dominated river basin: the case of the lower Zambezi River, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Fanaian, Safa; Graas, Susan; Jiang, Yong; van der Zaag, Pieter

    2015-02-01

    The flow regime of rivers, being an integral part of aquatic ecosystems, provides many important services benefiting humans in catchments. Past water resource developments characterized by river embankments and dams, however, were often dominated by one (or few) economic use(s) of water. This results in a dramatically changed flow regime negatively affecting the provision of other ecosystem services sustained by the river flow. This study is intended to demonstrate the value of alternative flow regimes in a river that is highly modified by the presence of large hydropower dams and reservoirs, explicitly accounting for a broad range of flow-dependent ecosystem services. In this study, we propose a holistic approach for conducting an ecological economic assessment of a river's flow regime. This integrates recent advances in the conceptualization and classification of ecosystem services (UK NEA, 2011) with the flow regime evaluation technique developed by Korsgaard (2006). This integrated approach allows for a systematic comparison of the economic values of alternative flow regimes, including those that are considered beneficial for aquatic ecosystems. As an illustration, we applied this combined approach to the Lower Zambezi Basin, Mozambique. Empirical analysis shows that even though re-operating dams to create environmentally friendly flow regimes reduces hydropower benefits, the gains to goods derived from the aquatic ecosystem may offset the forgone hydropower benefits, thereby increasing the total economic value of river flow to society. The proposed integrated flow assessment approach can be a useful tool for welfare-improving decision-making in managing river basins. PMID:25461048

  18. Libby Dam Hydro-electric Project Mitigation: Efforts for Downstream Ecosystem Restoration.

    SciTech Connect

    Holderman, Charles

    2009-02-10

    Construction of Libby Dam, a large hydropower and flood control dam occurred from 1966 to 1975 on the Kootenai River, near Libby, Montana in the Northwestern United States. Live reservoir storage is substantial, with water residence time of about 5 1/2 months (based on mean annual discharge of about 440 m{sup 3}/s). Downstream river discharge and thermal regimes and the dependent habitat conditions have been significantly altered by dam construction and operation relative to pre-dam conditions. Highly valued Kootenai River fish populations, including white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, burbot Lota lota and bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and their supporting ecological conditions have been deteriorating during post-dam years. Measurements of the presence of very low (ultraoligotrophic) concentrations of dissolved phosphorus in the river downstream from Libby Dam were identified as a critical limitation on primary production and overall ecosystem health. A decision was made to initiate the largest experimental river fertilization project to date in the Kootenai River at the Montana-Idaho border. Pre-treatment aquatic biomonitoring began in 2001; post-treatment monitoring began in 2005. A solar-powered nutrient addition system was custom designed and built to dose small releases of dissolved nutrients at rates from 10 to 40 L/hour, depending on river discharge, which averaged several hundred m3/s. Closely monitored experimental additions of ammonium polyphosphate solution (10-34-0) into the river occurred during the summers of 2005 through 2008. Targets for mixed in-river P concentrations were 1.5 {micro}g/L in 2005, and 3 {micro}g/L in subsequent years. Primary productivity and algal accrual rates along with invertebrate and fish community metrics and conditions were consistently measured annually, before and after experimental fertilization. Initial results from the program are very encouraging, and are reported.

  19. DOE hydropower program biennial report 1988--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Sommers, G.L.; Chappell, J.R.; Rinehart, B.N.; Hildebrand, S.G.; Sale, M.J.; Allegretti, D.W.; Brown, P.W.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN; ELI Corp., Concord, NH )

    1989-08-01

    This report summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hydropower Program for fiscal years 1988 and 1989, and provides an annotated bibliography of research, engineering, operations, regulations, and costs of projects pertinent to hydropower development. The Hydropower Program is reported in five sections: Technology Development, Engineering Research and Development, Technology Transfer, Environmental Research, and Legal and Industrial Aspects. The bibliography discusses reports written by both private and non-Federal Government sectors. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service. 25 refs.

  20. Downstream effects of hydropower production on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two rivers in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Ulloa, Ramsa; Umaña-Villalobos, Gerardo; Springer, Monika

    2014-04-01

    Despite the fact that little is known about the consequences of hydropower production in tropical areas, many large dams (> 15 m high) are currently under construction or consideration in the tropics. We researched the effects of large hydroelectric dams on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two Costa Rican rivers. We measured physicochemical characteristics and sampled aquatic macroinvertebrates from March 2003 to March 2004 in two dammed rivers, Peñas Blancas and San Lorenzo, as well as in the undammed Chachagua River. Sites above and below the dam had differences in their physicochemical variables, with wide variation and extreme values in variables measured below the dam in the San Lorenzo River. Sites below the dams had reduced water discharges, velocities, and depths when compared with sites above the dams, as well as higher temperatures and conductivity. Sites above dams were dominated by collector-gatherer-scrapers and habitat groups dominated by swimmer-clingers, while sites below dams had a more even representation of groups. In contrast, a comparison between two sites at different elevation in the undammed river maintained a similar assemblage composition. Tributaries might facilitate macroinvertebrate recovery above the turbine house, but the assemblage below the turbine house resembled the one below the dam. A massive sediment release event from the dam decreased the abundance per sample and macroinvertebrate taxa below the dam in the Peñas Blancas River. Our study illustrates the effects of hydropower production on neotropical rivers, highlighting the importance of using multiple measures of macroinvertebrate assemblage structure for assessing this type of environmental impact. PMID:25189078

  1. Hydropower resources at risk: The status of hydropower regulation and development - 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.T.; Hunt, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents today`s hydropower licensing and development status based on published data as follows: (a) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) databases, maintained by FERC`s Office of Hydropower Licensing, of: (1) operating FERC-regulated projects, federal projects, and known unlicensed projects; (2) surrendered licenses; and, (3) recent licensing and relicensing actions; (b) Energy Information Administration (EIA) data on installed capacity and generation from 1949 through 1995 for the various resources used to produce electricity in the U.S.; and, (c) FERC licensing orders, and environmental assessments or environmental impact statements for each individual project relicensed since 1980. The analysis conducted to prepare this paper includes the effects of all FERC hydropower licensing actions since 1980, and applies those findings to estimate the costs of hydropower licensing and development activity for the next 15 years. It also quantifies the national cost of hydropower regulation. The future estimates are quite conservative. The are presented in 1996 dollars without speculating on the effects of future inflation, license surrenders, conditions imposed through open-ended license articles, license terms greater than 30 years, or low water years. Instead, they show the most directly predictable influences on licensing outcomes using actual experiences since ECPA (after 1986).

  2. Distributional Impacts of Large Dams in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, X.

    2010-12-01

    Dams on a river are believed to have heterogeneous impacts to the upstream, local and downstream areas. Generally, irrigation dams will bring benefits to the downstream by facilitating more irrigation, while it will bring negative impacts to upstream due to inundation or no impact to local area as a combination result of population dislocation and economic benefits. This paper checked the impacts of large dams (above 100 meters) on the upstream, downstream and local area, using 2000-2008 county level data in China. Robust heterogeneous impacts of different categories of dams (mainly dams serving for irrigation, hydropower, or other purposes) were found on different areas, using IV regression approaches. Dams higher than 100 meters are significantly and heterogeneously impacting agricultural production, urban employment and rural per capita income. Its beneficial impact on agriculture production is significant for downstream especially in continuous drought years. But its impacts on social welfare indicators, such as primary school enrollment and hospital beds, are not heterogeneously different across regions.

  3. Climate change and hydropower generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Peter J.

    1997-07-01

    Many electric utilities use small reservoirs in mountainous regions to generate hydropower to meet peak energy demands. Water input depends on the water budget of the catchment, whereas output depends on user demand, which is influenced by temperature. Hence reservoir performance depends on climatic factors and is sensitive to climate change. A model, based on the systems of Duke Power and Virginia Power in the south-eastern USA, was developed to simulate performance. The annual maximum draw-down of the reservoir, which represents the minimum dam size needed to maintain continuous energy generation, is considered here. The model was tested for four regions in the eastern USA using 1951-1995 observations. The amount of draw-down depended on the linked daily sequences of precipitation and temperature, the former dictating the water available, the latter influencing both evaporation and energy demand. The time and level of the annual extreme emphasized that small changes in the timing of a dry spell had a major impact on the draw-down. Climatic changes were simulated by uniformly increasing temperatures by 2°C and decreasing precipitation by 10 per cent. The resultant draw-down increased from current simulated values by about 10 per cent to 15 per cent with extremes up to 50 per cent. This was of the same order, but in the opposite direction, as the change created by a 10 per cent increase in the efficiency of energy generation. Without such an efficiency increase, many utilities will face the prospect of reduced or less reliable hydroelectric generation if climate changes in the manner examined here.

  4. Modeling Multi-Reservoir Hydropower Systems in the Sierra Nevada with Environmental Requirements and Climate Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinheimer, David Emmanuel

    generally well simulated, mostly limited by the accuracy of inflow hydrology. System-wide hydropower generation is reduced by 9% with 6 °C warming. Most reductions in hydropower generation occur in the highly productive watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada. The central Sierra Nevada sees less reduction in annual runoff and can adapt better to changes in runoff timing. Generation in southern watersheds is expected to decrease. System-wide, reservoirs adapt to capture earlier runoff, but mostly decrease in mean reservoir storage with warming due to decreasing annual runoff. Second, a multi-reservoir optimization model is developed using linear programming that considers the minimum instream flows (MIFs) and weekly down ramp rates (DRRs) in the Upper Yuba River in the northern Sierra Nevada. Weekly DRR constraints are used to mimic spring snowmelt flows, which are particularly important for downstream ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada but are currently missing due to the influence of dams. Trade-offs between MIFs, DRRs and hydropower are explored with air temperature warming (+0, 2, 4 and 6 °C). Under base case operations, mean annual hydropower generation increases slightly with 2 °C warming and decreases slightly with 6 °C warming. With 6 °C warming, the most ecologically beneficial MIF and DRR reduce hydropower generation 5.5% compared to base case operations and a historical climate, which has important implications for re-licensing the hydropower project. Finally, reservoir management for downstream temperatures is explored using a linear programming model to optimally release water from a reservoir using selective withdrawal. The objective function is to minimize deviations from desired downstream temperatures, which are specified to mimic the natural temperature regime in the river. One objective of this study was to develop a method that can be readily integrated into a basin-scale multi-reservoir optimization model using a network representation of system

  5. 33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas. In the interest of flood control, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) shall operate the Marshall Ford Dam and... (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas. 208.19 Section 208.19 Navigation and Navigable...

  6. A Framework for Evaluation of CORDEX Using Dam Operation Policies for the East African Hydroelectric Power Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. A.; Semazzi, F. H. M.

    2014-12-01

    The productivity of hydroelectric dams along the Nile River is to a large extent determined by the level of Lake Victoria, which is primarily dictated by the rainfall and temperature variability over the lake basin. The hydrological balance of Lake Victoria is comprised of tributary inflow (15% of the water balance), rainfall over the lake (85%), evaporation from the lake (80%), and outflow from the lake (20%). The Agreed Curve Policy has been used to manage the outflow from Lake Victoria. It guarantees the natural flow of water out of the lake as if there were no dams. However, declining lake levels and population growth have resulted in chronic load shedding for residential and industrial consumers in the region, leading to the need to develop a new release policy. The development of recently proposed water release policies for the hydroelectric dams at the outlet of Lake Victoria do not thoroughly account for projected climate change. We adopt a comprehensive approach using rainfall data from multiple CORDEX models to estimate lake levels and confidence levels for two different release policies. We then compare exceedence curves for the release rule policies based on observed rainfall data for recent decades. Exceedence curves indicate vulnerability to power supply reliability. Factors affecting precipitation in individual models are examined. There is a distinct dry-wet-dry-wet pattern of annual rainfall over the Lake Victoria basin, which is evident in a comparison of precipitation from rain gauge stations used in the water balance model. Previous studies have demonstrated that this feature is determined by a combination of orographic forcing, the thermodynamics of the lake, and the interaction between the prevailing wind flow and lake-land breeze circulation. ENSO has the most influence on precipitation over the lake basin in terms of annual climatology. We evaluate the CORDEX models based on how well they reproduce these metrics in addition to how well they

  7. Flow regulation and river fragmentation in large basins due to global dam development (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grill, G. O.; Lehner, B.

    2013-12-01

    Dam construction has recently received new interest as an alternative and renewable source of energy, especially in developing countries, and as a means to provide water security in regions with naturally variable water flows. On the other hand, the negative effects from increased fragmentation of the world's large rivers through hydropower and irrigation dams is a matter of great concern for ecologists and conservationists. The main negative effects of dams result from their role as a barrier for migratory fish species, as well as the alteration of the natural flow regime owing to artificial water release schedules. While the trade-offs between these antagonistic effects are usually assessed locally by conducting environmental impact assessments at and in the vicinity of the construction site, the cumulative effects of multiple dams located in the same basin are generally neglected in such plans. To address the cumulative effects at the scale of large river networks, we developed a new impact assessment approach by combining state-of-the-art global scale hydrographic (HydroSHEDS) and hydrological models (WaterGAP) with a river routing scheme (HydroROUT). This combination enables modelers to simulate scenarios for historic, current and future conditions that allow for comparisons between the large river basins of the world. We derive indices that can describe the relative impact of individual and multiple dams regarding flow alteration and habitat fragmentation at a global scale. Our model also allows for the application of tailor-made weighting schemes to include information of eco-hydrological classifications, as well as species richness and diversity. Furthermore, we include natural barriers such as waterfalls, and examine their effect on river network connectivity. Results for the Greater Mekong Region show that ecosystem connectivity and flow alteration are most strongly affected by dams located at the mainstream rivers, particularly for basins where the main

  8. Quadrennial Technology Review 2015: Technology Assessments--Hydropower

    SciTech Connect

    Sam Baldwin, Gilbert Bindewald, Austin Brown, Charles Chen, Kerry Cheung, Corrie Clark, Joe Cresko,

    2015-10-07

    Hydropower has provided reliable and flexible base and peaking power generation in the United States for more than a century, contributing on average 10.5% of cumulative U.S. power sector net generation over the past six and one-half decades (1949–2013). It is the nation’s largest source of renewable electricity, with 79 GW of generating assets and 22 GW of pumped-storage assets in service, with hydropower providing half of all U.S. renewable power-sector generation (50% in 2014). In addition to this capacity, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has identified greater than 80 GW of new hydropower resource potential: at least 5 GW from rehabilitation and expansion of existing generating assets, up to 12 GW of potential at existing dams without power facilities, and over 60 GW of potential low-impact new development (LIND) in undeveloped stream reaches. However, despite this growth potential, hydropower capacity and production growth have stalled in recent years, with existing assets even experiencing decreases in capacity and production from lack of sustaining investments in infrastructure and increasing constraints on water use.

  9. Simulation modeling of hydropower impacts on dissolved oxygen in the upper Ohio river basin

    SciTech Connect

    Railsback, S.F.; Jager, H.I.

    1988-09-01

    A model has been developed to assess the impacts of hydropower development at navigation dams on dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the upper Ohio River basin. Field data were used to fit statistical models of aeration at each dam. The Streeter-Phelps equations were used to model DO concentrations between dams. Input data sources were compiled, and the design conditions used for assessment of hydropower impacts were developed. The model was implemented both as Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheets and as a FORTRAN program. This report contains users' guides for both of these implementations. The sensitivities and uncertainty of the model were analyzed. Modeled DO concentrations are sensitive to water temperature and flow rates, and sensitivities to dam aeration are relatively high in reaches where dam aeration rates are high. Uncertainty in the model was low in reaches dominated by dam aeration and higher in reaches with low dam aeration rates. The 95% confidence intervals for the model range from about /+-/ 0.5 mg/L to about /+-/ 1.5 mg/L.

  10. Hydropower Computation Using Visual Basic for Application Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wang; Hongliang, Hu

    Hydropower computation is essential to determine the operating conditions of hydroelectric station. Among the existing methods for hydropower computation, equal monthly hydropower output and dynamic programming are the most commonly used methods, but both of them are too complex in computation and hard to be finished manually. Taking the advantage of the data processing ability of Microsoft Excel and its attached Visual Basic for Application (VBA) program, the complex hydropower computation can be easily achieved. An instance was analyzed in two methods and all delt with VBA. VBA demonstrates its powerful function in solving problem with complex computation, visualizing, and secondary data processing. The results show that the dynamic programming method was more receptive than the other one.

  11. Hydrology and Mosquito Population Dynamics around a Hydropower Reservoir in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, N.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Malaria is associated with dams because their reservoirs provide mosquitoes, the vector of malaria, with permanent breeding sites. The risk of contracting malaria is likely to be enhanced following the increasing trend of hydropower dam construction to satisfy the expanding energy needs in developing countries. A close examination of its adverse health impacts is critical in the design, construction, and operation phases. We will present results of extensive field studies in 2012 and 2013 around the Koka Reservoir, Ethiopia. The results uncover the importance of reservoir management especially after the rainy seasons. Furthermore, we show the capability of a newly modified hydrology, entomology and malaria transmission simulator, HYDREMATS (Bomblies et al, 2008), and its potential as a tool for evaluating environmental management strategies to control malaria. HYDREMATS was developed to represent how the hydrology in nearby villages is impacted by the reservoir system, and the role of different types of vector ecologies associated with different Anopheles mosquito species. The hydrology component of HYDREMATS simulates three different mosquito breeding habitats: rain-fed pools, groundwater pools, and shoreline water. The entomology component simulates the life cycles of An. funestus and An. arabiensis, the two main vectors around the reservoir. The model was calibrated over the 2012-2013 period. The impact of reservoir water level management on the mosquito population is explored based on numerical model simulations and field experiments.

  12. Effects of a diversion hydropower facility on the hydrological regime of the Correntes River, a tributary to the Pantanal floodplain, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantin-Cruz, Ibraim; Pedrollo, Olavo; Girard, Pierre; Zeilhofer, Peter; Hamilton, Stephen K.

    2015-12-01

    Facilities that produce hydroelectricity by diversion of part of the river's flow, which are often considered to have lower environmental impact than conventional hydropower dams, are being built in large numbers on river systems throughout the world, yet their cumulative impacts are not well understood. This study evaluated the hydrological effects of operation of a diversion hydropower facility on the Correntes River in Brazil (mean discharge 73 m3 s-1), which is potentially important because of the ecological implications for the floodplains of the Pantanal into which it flows. Many similar dams are built or proposed on rivers feeding the Pantanal. The 210-MW facility known as Ponte de Pedra diverts part of the river flow into a diversion channel in a nearly "run-of-river" design. The natural (reconstructed) and regulated (observed) flow regimes were characterized using Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) and Flow Duration Curves (FDC). Seven parameters of IHA were significantly altered by the reservoir formation (magnitude of lowest monthly flow, minimum flows of 1, 3 and 7 days, maximum flow of 90 days and counts of high and low pulses). Among these, Principal Components Analysis identified the maximum flow of 90 days and the count of high flow pulses as integrators of hydrological alterations. The FDC showed that the reservoir also changed the seasonal regime of the flows, with greater changes in the lowest flow season. The reduction of river-floodplain connectivity and loss of associated ecosystem services are the major downstream ecological implications of this altered flow regime. To maintain the seasonal flooding regime while meeting the requirements for hydroelectric production, proposed limits for flow regime alterations are up to ±18% in low flow, ±24% in the rising limb and ±22% in high flow and the falling limb, relative to the natural flow. Operational changes to maintain flows with these limits could easily be implemented because the

  13. Assessing Hydropower in the West

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Johnson, Megan M.; Uria Martinez, Rocio

    2015-06-01

    On April 27, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) released the 2014 Hydropower Market Report, which provides a quantitative baseline on the distribution, capabilities, and status of hydropower in the United States. Although the report shows many interesting trends and figures, this article focuses on those related to the western region.

  14. A new challenge for hydropower in Europe: Rehabilitation what to rehabilitate and when to rehabilitate

    SciTech Connect

    Denis, B.; Piron, V.

    1998-07-01

    Most of the hydropower plants today in operation in Europe were built between the beginning of the century and the sixties. Many of them need to be rehabilitated with the aim of extending their working life, increasing global efficiency and reducing operating and maintenance costs. The required rehabilitation could cover a large diversity of activities ranging from simple rewinding of a stator to the complete refurbishment of a scheme including replacement of all the electromechanical equipment in the plant or even refurbishment or raising of the dam. The main objectives of rehabilitation are generally relative to: Safety--particularly important for dams and appurtenant structures; Availability--limitation of chronic loss of potential output; Extending life-time--restore the equipment to a second life, practically equivalent to the initial life-time; Improvement of operating and maintenance conditions; Improvement of plant performance--increase efficiency or upgrading. The key issues for the owner of the plant are therefore what to rehabilitate and when to rehabilitate. To answer this question, a detailed feasibility study is necessary including expert evaluation with inspections and specific measurements, analysis of rehabilitation options, and economic study with a comparison of the benefits and costs of the various alternatives. The benefits are generally calculated from long term marginal costs (LRMC) for the power system in the country in question, simulating power station operation and optimizing generation to maximize benefits for each option. The costs shall take into account investment cost for each piece of rehabilitation equipment or structure and modification of operating costs due to the new operating and maintenance conditions. After the feasibility study, the owner should be in a position to choose the most appropriate rehabilitation project for his needs and requirements.

  15. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, James R.; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.

    2009-06-23

    In 2008, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the sixteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,565 hatchery steelhead O. mykiss, 15,991 wild steelhead, and 9,714 wild yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. These included 122,061 yearling Chinook salmon tagged at Lower Granite Dam for evaluation of latent mortality related to passage through Snake River dams. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2008 were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead, (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions, and (3) evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2008 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival

  16. After Three Gorges Dam: What have we learned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natali, J.; Williams, P.; Wong, R.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    China is at a critical point in its development path. By investing heavily in large-scale infrastructure, the rewards of economic growth weigh against long-term environmental and social costs. The construction of Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric project, began in 1994. Between 2002 and 2010, its 660 kilometer reservoir filled behind a 181 meter dam, displacing at least 1.4 million people and transforming Asia's longest river (the Yangtze) while generating nearly 100 billion kWh/yr of electricity -- 2.85% of China's current electric power usage. As the mega-project progenitor in a cascade of planned dams, the Three Gorges Dam emerges as a test case for how China will plan, execute and mitigate its development pathway and the transformation of its environment. Post-Project Assessments (PPA) provide a systematic, scientific method for improving the practice of environmental management - particularly as they apply to human intervention in river systems. In 2012, the Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning at University of California, Berkeley organized a symposium-based PPA for the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River. Prior to this symposium, the twelve invited Chinese scientists, engineers and economists with recent research on Three Gorges Dam had not had the opportunity to present their evaluations together in an open, public forum. With a 50-year planning horizon, the symposium's five sessions centered on impacts on flows, geomorphology, geologic hazards, the environment and socioeconomic effects. Three Gorges' project goals focused on flood control, hydropower and improved navigation. According to expert research, major changes in sediment budget and flow regime from reservoir operation have significantly reduced sediment discharge into the downstream river and estuary, initiating a series of geomorphic changes with ecological and social impacts. While the dam reduces high flow stages from floods originating above the

  17. 75 FR 62024 - Metal and Nonmetal Dams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (75 FR 49429) asking interested parties to comment on measures to assure that metal and nonmetal mine operators design, construct, operate and maintain dams in a... Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts 56 and 57 RIN 1219-AB70 Metal and Nonmetal Dams...

  18. Steady and transient regimes in hydropower plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajic, A.

    2013-12-01

    Hydropower plant that has been in operation for about 30 years has to be reconstructed. They have already installed 12 Kaplan turbines, the largest in the world at that time. The existing CAM relationship was determined based on hydraulic model tests and checked by efficiency on-site tests. It was also tested based on turbine bearing vibrations. In order to discover vibrations and long cracks on stay vanes detailed on-site measurements were performed. Influence of the modification of the trailing edges on the dynamic stresses of the stay vanes is also shown. In order to improve power output transient regimes were analyzed, both experimentally and numerically. Reversible hydropower plant, a pioneer in Europe since it was the first Pump storage power plant constructed with the highest head pump-turbines in the world. Analyses of transient regimes discover some problems with S-shaped characteristics coupled with non-symmetrical penstock.

  19. The role of dams in the water stability and oxygenation of semi-enclosed bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos; Kountoura, Krystallia

    2013-04-01

    It is well known that dams were constructed in order to provide significant domestic and economic benefits. Apart from the advantages of these constructions, such as the hydroelectric power production, the flooding control and the storage of water for irrigation, there are also important impacts. Among the most serious of them upstream, is the conversion from a river system to a lake, the sediment transport and changes in the river's temperature and oxygen. However due to the irregular discharge resulting from the dams operation, there are also changes in biodiversity and in bio-geochemical cycle of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus thereby causing changes in temperature, turbidity, stratification, dissolved oxygen, nutrients and heavy metals, downstream. In order to determine how the existence of dams affects both the water stability and the dissolved oxygen conditions, we studied the enclosed bay of Amvrakikos Gulf in Western Greece. The gulf receives freshwater inputs from north by two rivers along which there are three dams. Before the dams, the maximum discharges into the Amvrakikos Gulf were during late winter and spring months. During autumn and early winter stratification was weak and mixing could take place within the entire gulf. After the dams construction, the rivers have been discharging large amounts of freshwater into the gulf in accordance to the Public Power Corporation's needs. Due to the fact that large volumes of fresh water discharged into the system during summer and autumn, much later than would occur without the presence of dams, the water column is characterized by stratification during those periods. As a consequence, the pycnocline which is characterized by high static stability, prevents both the mixing between the surface and the bottom layer and the oxygenation of the isolated water near the bottom. On the other hand due to the limited hydropower needs during spring, the volume of fresh water which discharged into the system is

  20. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M.

    2005-10-01

    In 2004, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the twelfth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,621 hatchery steelhead, 8,128 wild steelhead, and 9,227 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2004 were to (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2004 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival and detection probabilities were estimated precisely for most of the 2004 yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead migrations. Hatchery and

  1. Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, Michael J.; Shih-Chieh, Kao; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Kaiser, Dale P.; Martinez, Rocio; Webb, Cindy; Wei, Yaxing

    2012-10-01

    As directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the SECURE Water Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-11), the US Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the federal Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) and other federal agencies, including federal dam owners, has prepared a comprehensive assessment examining the effects of climate change on water available for hydropower at federal facilities and on the marketing of power from these federal facilities. This Oak Ridge National Laboratory report, referred to as the “9505 Assessment,” describes the technical basis for the report to Congress that was called for in the SECURE Water Act.

  2. Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-01

    This is a formal Department of Energy report to Congress. It outlines the findings of an assessment directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the SECURE Water Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-11), the US Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the federal Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) and other federal agencies, including federal dam owners, has prepared a comprehensive assessment examining the effects of climate change on water available for hydropower at federal facilities and on the marketing of power from these federal facilities.

  3. Hydropower Resource Assessment Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, Alison Marie; Francfort, James Edward

    1999-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Hydropower Program developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software to model the undeveloped hydropower resources in the United States based on environmental, legal, and institutional constraints. This Hydropower Resource Assessment effort has identified 5,677 sites that have an undeveloped total capacity of about 30,000 megawatts. The Hydropower Evaluation Software uses the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Hydroelectric Power Resource Assessment database to identify sites with undeveloped hydropower capacity and the estimated megawatts of undeveloped capacity at each site. The software integrates this information with environmental values from the National Park Service's National Rivers Inventory database. Other constraints to development that are modeled include Federal and state legislative protection for river segments that have been identified as being wild and scenic river segments. River segments containing threatened and/or endangered wildlife and fish are also modeled for their influence on hydropower development. The amount that each attribute affects the likelihood of development is dependent on the prior development of a site.

  4. Hydropower Resource Assessment Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A M; Francfort, J E

    1999-07-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Hydropower Program developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software to model the undeveloped hydropower resources in the United States based on environmental, legal, and institutional constraints. This Hydropower Resource Assessment effort has identified 5,677 sites that have an undeveloped total capacity of about 30,000 megawatts. The Hydropower Evaluation Software uses the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Hydroelectric Power Resource Assessment database to identify sites with undeveloped hydropower capacity and the estimated megawatts of undeveloped capacity at each site. The software integrates this information with environmental values from the National Park Service's National Rivers Inventory database. Other constraints to development that are modeled include Federal and state legislative protection for river segments that have been identified as being wild and scenic river segments. River segments containing threatened and/or endangered wildlife and fish are also modeled for their influence on hydropower development. The amount that each attribute affects the likelihood of development is dependent on the prior development of a site.

  5. Projecting changes in annual hydropower generation using regional runoff data: An assessment of the United States federal hydropower plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Shih -Chieh; Sale, Michael J.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Uria Martinez, Rocio; Kaiser, Dale Patrick; Wei, Yaxing; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2014-12-18

    Federal hydropower plants account for approximately half of installed US conventional hydropower capacity, and are an important part of the national renewable energy portfolio. Utilizing the strong linear relationship between the US Geological Survey WaterWatch runoff and annual hydropower generation, a runoff-based assessment approach is introduced in this study to project changes in annual and regional hydropower generation in multiple power marketing areas. Future climate scenarios are developed with a series of global and regional climate models, and the model output is bias-corrected to be consistent with observed data for the recent past. Using this approach, the median decrease in annual generation at federal projects is projected to be less than –2 TWh, with an estimated ensemble uncertainty of ±9 TWh. Although these estimates are similar to the recently observed variability in annual hydropower generation, and may therefore appear to be manageable, significantly seasonal runoff changes are projected and it may pose significant challenges in water systems with higher limits on reservoir storage and operational flexibility. Lastly, future assessments will be improved by incorporating next-generation climate models, by closer examination of extreme events and longer-term change, and by addressing the interactions among hydropower and other water uses.

  6. Projecting changes in annual hydropower generation using regional runoff data: An assessment of the United States federal hydropower plants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kao, Shih -Chieh; Sale, Michael J.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Uria Martinez, Rocio; Kaiser, Dale Patrick; Wei, Yaxing; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2014-12-18

    Federal hydropower plants account for approximately half of installed US conventional hydropower capacity, and are an important part of the national renewable energy portfolio. Utilizing the strong linear relationship between the US Geological Survey WaterWatch runoff and annual hydropower generation, a runoff-based assessment approach is introduced in this study to project changes in annual and regional hydropower generation in multiple power marketing areas. Future climate scenarios are developed with a series of global and regional climate models, and the model output is bias-corrected to be consistent with observed data for the recent past. Using this approach, the median decrease inmore » annual generation at federal projects is projected to be less than –2 TWh, with an estimated ensemble uncertainty of ±9 TWh. Although these estimates are similar to the recently observed variability in annual hydropower generation, and may therefore appear to be manageable, significantly seasonal runoff changes are projected and it may pose significant challenges in water systems with higher limits on reservoir storage and operational flexibility. Lastly, future assessments will be improved by incorporating next-generation climate models, by closer examination of extreme events and longer-term change, and by addressing the interactions among hydropower and other water uses.« less

  7. 17. Credit PED. View of power house and dam from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Credit PED. View of power house and dam from operator's house, looking toward Maryland. Note the absence of transformers adjacent to power house. Photo c. 1910. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  8. 2. VIEW EAST, WEST END OF DAM AT CENTER, HEADGATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST, WEST END OF DAM AT CENTER, HEADGATE OPERATING MECHANISMS AT LEFT - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Dam, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  9. Impacts of Water Level Fluctuations on Kokanee Reproduction in Flathead Lake; Effects of Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dam on Reproductive Success, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Decker-Hess, Janet; McMullin, Steve L.

    1983-11-01

    Koktneesalmon (Oncorhvnchusnerka), the land-locked form of sockeye salmon, were originally introduced to Flathead Lake in 1916. My 1933, kokanee had become established in the lake and provided a popular summer trolling fishery as well as a fall snagging fishery in shoreline areas. Presently, Flathead Lake supports the second highest fishing pressure of any lake or reservoir in Montana (Montana Department of Fish and Game 1976). During 1981-82, the lake provided 168,792 man-days of fishing pressure. Ninety-two percent of the estimated 536,870 fish caught in Flathead Lake in 1981-82 were kokanee salmon. Kokanee also provided forage for bull trout seasonally and year round for lake trout. Kokanee rear to maturity in Flathead Lake, then return to various total grounds to spawn. Spawning occurred in lake outlet streams, springs, larger rivers and lake shoreline areas in suitable but often limited habitat. Shoreline spawning in Flathead Lake was first documented in the mid-1930's. Spawning kokanee were seized from shoreline areas in 1933 and 21,000 cans were processed and packed for distribution to the needy. Stefanich (1953 and 1954) later documented extensive but an unquantified amount of spawning along the shoreline as well as runs in Whitefish River and McDonald Creek in the 1950's. A creel census conducted in 1962-63 determined 11 to 13 percent of the kokanee caught annually were taken during the spawning period (Robbins 1966). During a 1981-82 creel census, less than one percent of the fishermen on Flathead Lake were snagging kokanee (Graham and Fredenberg 1982). The operation of Kerr Dam, located below Flathead Lake on the Flathead River, has altered seasonal fluctuations of Flathead Lake. Lake levels presently remain high during kokanee spawning in November and decline during the incubation and emergence periods. Groundwater plays an important role in embryo and fry survival in redds of shoreline areas exposed by lake drawdown. Stefanich (1954) and Domrose (1968

  10. DOE: Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-31

    The report summarizes research to Quantify the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. This 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. Methods are described for valuation and planning of pumped storage and conventional hydropower. The project team conducted plant case studies, electric system modeling, market analysis, cost data gathering, and evaluations of operating strategies and constraints. Five other reports detailing these research results are available a project website, www.epri.com/hydrogrid. With increasing deployment of wind and solar renewable generation, many owners, operators, and developers of hydropower have recognized the opportunity to provide more flexibility and ancillary services to the electric grid. To quantify value of services, this study focused on the Western Electric Coordinating Council region. A security-constrained, unit commitment and economic dispatch model was used to quantify the role of hydropower for several future energy scenarios up to 2020. This hourly production simulation considered transmission requirements to deliver energy, including future expansion plans. Both energy and ancillary service values were considered. Addressing specifically the quantification of pumped storage value, no single value stream dominated predicted plant contributions in various energy futures. Modeling confirmed that service value depends greatly on location and on competition with other available grid support resources. In this summary, ten different value streams related to hydropower are described. These fell into three categories; operational improvements, new technologies, and electricity market opportunities. Of these ten, the study was able to quantify a monetary value in six by applying both present day and future scenarios for operating the electric grid. This study confirmed that hydropower resources across the United States contribute significantly to operation of the grid in terms

  11. 78 FR 79433 - Mahoning Hydropower, LLC, Ohio, Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Commission's (Commission or FERC) regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Mahoning Hydropower, LLC's application for a license to construct, operate... Energy Regulatory Commission Mahoning Hydropower, LLC, Ohio, Notice of Availability of...

  12. Numerical simulation of catastrophic flood: the case study of hypothetical failure of the Bielkowo hydro-power plant reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szydłowski, Michał; Szpakowski, Wojciech; Zima, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    The numerical modeling of flood wave propagation following the hypothetical breaks of the embankments of the Bielkowo hydro-power plant storage reservoir (Kolbudy II Reservoir) on the Radunia River in Poland has been presented. The results of computations were used to estimate the parameters of the flood waves, which are indispensable for the flood zone determination and mapping and then for the flood risk analysis. When estimating the reach and area of the inundation, related to the embankments failures, digital terrain model, and mathematical model of flood wave propagation are necessary. For the numerical simulations of flood, the mathematical model of free surface, two-dimensional unsteady water flow was applied. Four locations of potential breaks of the reservoir embankments were considered. The computed flood zones were presented on the flood hazard maps. The maps have been used by the local authorities and the dam owner to manage the flood risk related to hydro-power plants operations on the Radunia River. This type of research has been done for the first time for the water plant managed by the ENERGA Elektrownie Straszyn.

  13. Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir : Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impacts.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada.

    1997-03-01

    This notice announces BPA`s decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  14. DAM Safety and Deformation Monitoring in Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.; Potts, L.; Miiama, J.; Mahgoub, M.; Rahman, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water is the life and necessity to water is increasing day by day with respect to the World population, rising of living standards and destruction of nature. Thus, the importance of water and water structures have been increasing gradually. Dams are among the most important engineering structures used for water supplies, flood controls, agricultural purposes as well as drinking and hydroelectric power. There are about 150.000 large size dams in the World. Especially after the Second World War, higher and larger capacity dams have been constructed. Dams create certain risks like the other manmade structures. No one knows precisely how many dam failures have occurred in the World, whereas hundreds of dam failures have occurred throughout the U.S. history. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. These physical data are measured and monitored by the instruments and equipment. Dams and their surroundings have to be monitored by using essential methods at periodic time intervals in order to determine the possible changes that may occur over the time. Monitoring programs typically consist of; surveillance or visual observation. These programs on dams provide information for evaluating the dam's performance related to the design intent and expected changes that could affect the safety performance of the dam. Additionally, these programs are used for investigating and evaluating the abnormal or degrading performance where any remedial action is necessary. Geodetic and non-geodetic methods are used for monitoring. Monitoring the performance of the dams is critical for producing and maintaining the safe dams. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the

  15. Disappearing rivers — The limits of environmental assessment for hydropower in India

    SciTech Connect

    Erlewein, Alexander

    2013-11-15

    The mountain rivers of the Indian Himalaya possess a vast potential for hydropower generation. After decades of comparatively modest development recent years have seen a major intensification in the construction of new hydropower dams. Although increasingly portrayed as a form of renewable energy generation, hydropower development may lead to extensive alterations of fluvial systems and conflicts with resource use patterns of local communities. To appraise and reduce adverse effects is the purpose of statutory Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) and corresponding mitigation plans. However, in the light of ambitious policies for hydropower expansion conventional approaches of environmental assessment are increasingly challenged to keep up with the intensity and pace of development. This paper aims to explore the systemic limitations of environmental assessment for hydropower development in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. Based on a qualitative methodology involving interviews with environmental experts, document reviews and field observations the study suggests that the current practice of constraining EIAs to the project level fails to address the larger effects of extensive hydropower development. Furthermore, it is critically discussed as to what extent the concept of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) might have the potential to overcome existing shortcomings.

  16. A multi-scale approach to address environmental impacts of small hydropower development

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole M; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine L

    2014-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  17. Hydropower: Partnership with the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This brochure provides useful information on types of hydroelectric facilities as well as general information on capacity, generation, environmental issues, and advanced conventional hydropower technology within the United States.

  18. Multi-Model CIMP5 projected impacts of increased greenhouse gases on the Niger basin and implications for hydropower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyerinde, Ganiyu; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    Climate change could potentially have large impacts on water availability in West Africa and the predictions are accrued with high uncertainties in this region. Countries in the Niger River basin (West Africa) plan the investment of 200 million in the installation of an additional 400MW of hydropower in the nearest future, adding to the existing 685MW. With the impacts of climate change in the basin already occurring, there is a need for comprehending the influence of future hydro-climatic changes on water resources and hydro-power generation in the basin. This study uses a hydrological model to simulate river flow under present and future conditions and evaluates the impacts of potential changes on electricity production of the largest hydroelectric dam (Kainji) in the Niger Basin. The Kainji reservoir produces 25 per cent of the current energy needs of Nigeria and was subject to large fluctuations in energy production as a result of variable inflow and operational reasons. Inflow into the reservoir was simulated using hydroclimatic data from a set of 7 regional climate models (RCM) with two emission scenarios from the CORDEX-Africa regional downscaling experiment, driven with CMIP5 data. Based on observations of inflow, water level in the reservoir, and energy production we developed a simple hydroelectricity production model to simulate future energy production for the reservoir. Results suggest increases in river flow for the majority of RCM data as a result of increases in precipitation in the headwaters of the basin around 2050 and slightly decreasing trends for low emission scenarios by the end of the century. Despite this consistent increase, shifts in timing of river flow can challenge the reliable production of energy. This analysis could help assess the planning of hydropower schemes in the basin for a sustainable production of hydroelectricity in the future.

  19. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations of the Secretary of War relating to the use of the Mississippi River for the generation of power... Secretary of War, March 26, 1908, are rescinded, and the following regulations will govern the operation of... approximately 64,000 cubic feet per second, which corresponds to a normal stage of 6 feet above low water...

  20. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulations of the Secretary of War relating to the use of the Mississippi River for the generation of power... Secretary of War, March 26, 1908, are rescinded, and the following regulations will govern the operation of... approximately 64,000 cubic feet per second, which corresponds to a normal stage of 6 feet above low water...

  1. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulations of the Secretary of War relating to the use of the Mississippi River for the generation of power... Secretary of War, March 26, 1908, are rescinded, and the following regulations will govern the operation of... approximately 64,000 cubic feet per second, which corresponds to a normal stage of 6 feet above low water...

  2. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulations of the Secretary of War relating to the use of the Mississippi River for the generation of power... Secretary of War, March 26, 1908, are rescinded, and the following regulations will govern the operation of... approximately 64,000 cubic feet per second, which corresponds to a normal stage of 6 feet above low water...

  3. Best Practices Implementation for Hydropower Efficiency and Utilization Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brennan T; Zhang, Qin Fen; March, Patrick; Cones, Marvin; Dham, Rajesh; Spray, Michael

    2012-01-01

    By using best practices to manage unit and plant efficiency, hydro owner/operators can achieve significant improvements in overall plant performance, resulting in increased generation and profitability and, frequently, reduced maintenance costs. The Hydropower Advancement Project (HAP) was initiated by the Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with standard methodology, based on the best practices of operations, maintenance and upgrades; to identify the improvement opportunities at existing hydropower facilities; and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The HAP facility assessment includes both quantitative condition ratings and data-based performance analyses. However, this paper, as an overview document for the HAP, addresses the general concepts, project scope and objectives, best practices for unit and plant efficiency, and process and methodology for best practices implementation for hydropower efficiency and utilization improvement.

  4. 75 FR 49429 - Metal and Nonmetal Dams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ..., processing minerals, treating or supplying water, and controlling run- off and sediment. Although many of... 100-foot high dam at a limestone mine in Puerto Rico released over 10 million gallons of water and... slope failure in 1987, the mine operator installed instruments in the dam to monitor internal...

  5. Hydropower licensing and evolving climate: climate knowledge to support risk assessment for long-term infrastructure decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A. J.; Walker, S. H.; Trainor, S. F.; Cherry, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation focuses on linking climate knowledge to the complicated decision process for hydropower dam licensing, and the affected parties involved in that process. The U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission issues of licenses for nonfederal hydroelectric operations, typically 30-50 year licenses, and longer infrastructure lifespan, a similar time frame as the anticipated risks of changing climate and hydrology. Resources managed by other federal and state agencies such as the NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service may be affected by new or re-licensed projects. The federal Integrated Licensing Process gives the opportunity for affected parties to recommend issues for consultative investigation and possible mitigation, such as impacts to downstream fisheries. New or re-licensed projects have the potential to "pre-adapt" by considering and incorporating risks of climate change into their planned operations as license terms and conditions. Hundreds of hydropower facilities will be up for relicensing in the coming years (over 100 in the western Sierra Nevada alone, and large-scale water projects such as the proposed Lake Powell Pipeline), as well as proposed new dams such as the Susitna project in Alaska. Therefore, there is a need for comprehensive guidance on delivering climate analysis to support understanding of risks of hydropower projects to other affected resources, and decisions on licensing. While each project will have a specific context, many of the questions will be similar. We also will discuss best practices for the use of climate science in water project planning and management, and how creating the best and most appropriate science is also still a developing art. We will discuss the potential reliability of that science for consideration in long term planning, licensing, and mitigation planning for those projects. For science to be "actionable," that science must be understood and accepted by the potential users. This process is a negotiation

  6. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproductive Success of Kokanee in the Flathead System; Technical Addendum to the Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, Will; Tohtz, Joel

    1990-03-01

    This addendum to the Final Report presents results of research on the zooplankton and fish communities of Flathead Lade. The intent of the Study has been to identify the impacts of hydroelectric operations at Kerr and Hungry Horse Dam on the reproductive success of kokanee an to propose mitigation for these impacts. Recent changes in the trophic ecology of the lake, have reduced the survival of kokanee. In the last three year the Study has been redirected to identify, if possible, the biological mechanisms which now limit kokanee survival, and to test methods of enhancing the kokanee fishery by artificial supplementation. These studies were necessary to the formulation of mitigation plans. The possibility of successfully rehabilitating the kokanee population, is the doubt because of change in the trophic ecology of the system. This report first presents the results of studies of the population dynamics of crustacean zooplankton, upon which planktivorous fish depend. A modest effort was directed to measuring the spawning escapement of kokanee in 1988. Because of its relevance to the study, we also report assessments of 1989 kokanee spawning escapement. Hydroacoustic assessment of the abundance of all fish species in Flathead Lake was conducted in November, 1988. Summary of the continued efforts to document the growth rates and food habits of kokanee and lake whitefish are included in this report. Revised kokanee spawning and harvest estimates, and management implications of the altered ecology of Flathead Lake comprise the final sections of this addendum. 83 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproductive Success of Kokanee in the Flathead System, 1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, Will; Zubik, Raymond; Clancey, Patrick

    1988-05-01

    Studies of kokanee reproductive success in the Flathead system from 1981 to 1987 have assessed the losses in fish production attributable to hydroelectric operations. We estimated that the Flathead Lake shoreline spawning stock has lost at least 50,000 fish annually, since Kerr Dam was completed in 1938. The Flathead River spawning stock has lost 95,000 spawners annually because of the operations of Hungry Horse Dam. Lakeshore spawning has been adversely affected because Flathead Lake has been drafted to minimum pool during the winter when kokanee eggs are incubating in shallow shoreline redds. Egg mortality from exposure and desiccation of kokanee redds has increased since the mid 1970's. When the lake was drafted more quickly and held longer at minimum pool. Escapement surveys in the early 1950's, and a creel survey in the early 1960's have provided a baseline to which the present escapement levels can be compared, and loss estimated. Main stem Flathead River spawning has also declined since the mid 1970's when fluctuating discharge from Hungry Horse Dam during the spawning and incubation season exposed redds at the river margin and increased mortality. This decline followed an increase in main stem spawning in the late 1950's through the mid 1960's attributable to higher winter water temperature and relatively stable discharge from Hungry Horse Dam. Spawning escapement in the main stem exceeded 300,000 kokanee in the early 1970's as a result. Spawning in spring-influenced sites has comprised 35 percent of the main stem escapement from 1979 to 1986. We took that proportion of the early 1970's escapement (105,000) as the baseline against which to measure historic loss. Agricultural and suburban development has contributed less significantly to degradation of kokanee spawning habitat in the river system and on the Flathead Lake shoreline. Their influence on groundwater quality and substrate composition has limited reproductive success in few sites. Studies of the

  8. 43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section... Operations and Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam must be managed to maintain minimum terminal flow to Lahontan Reservoir or the Carson River...

  9. Dan jiang kou hydropower station turbine refurbishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. Y.; Nie, S. Q.; Bazin, D.; Cheng, J. H.

    2012-11-01

    Dan jiangkou hydropower station refurbished project, isan important project of Chinese refurbishment market. Tianjin Alstom Hydro Co., ltd won this contract by right of good performance and design technology,Its design took into account all the constraints linked to the existing frame. It results in a specific and highly advanced shape.The objective of this paper is to introduce the successful turbine hydraulic design, model test and mechanical design of Dan jiangkou project; and also analyze the cavitation phenomena occurred on runner band surface of Unit 4 after putting into commercial operation. These technology and feedback shall be a good reference and experience for other similar projects

  10. Local Economic Development and Hydropower Along the Brahmaputra River Basin in Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, A.

    2014-12-01

    Large dams have long been controversial. They offer benefits, such as reduced greenhouse gas emissions, energy security, and local development, yet produce negative social and ecological impact, such as wildlife habitat destruction, human displacement, and the disruption of downstream fishing or agricultural industries. In the past decade, the Indian government has signed Memoranda of Understanding with hydroelectric power companies for the building of over 130 large dams on the Brahmaputra River in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India. These dams can generate 43% of India's assessed hydropower potential to sustain India's growing economy. In addition, the Indian government claims that these dams will bring local development with needed jobs. However, local Arunachali people have protested and temporarily halted hydropower projects because of the impact of dams on their existing livelihoods. Using the North Eastern Electric Power Corporation's (NEEPCO) Ranganadi Hydroelectric Project as a case study, our project examined whether dams in Northeast India provide jobs for local people, and whether distance from the dam or work colony to a worker's hometown affects the type of job the worker received. Survey data from residents at NEEPCO's work colony in Doimukh, Arunachal Pradesh, was analyzed using SPSS (n = 18). Our research found that 100% of workers at the dam originally resided in Northeast India, with 33% from Arunachal Pradesh, and 67% from the nearby states of Assam, and Tripura. Further, our analysis revealed no statistically significant relationship between the distance to a worker's hometown and job type (p = .609). Where workers come from did not affect the type of job they received. More research using a larger sample size and additional hydroelectric project case studies is needed to further explore the relationship between worker home location and their job types.

  11. Organizing Environmental Flow Frameworks to Meet Hydropower Mitigation Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Jager, Henriette I.; Troia, Matthew J.

    2016-09-01

    The global recognition of the importance of natural flow regimes to sustain the ecological integrity of river systems has led to increased societal pressure on the hydropower industry to change plant operations to improve downstream aquatic ecosystems. However, a complete reinstatement of natural flow regimes is often unrealistic when balancing water needs for ecosystems, energy production, and other human uses. Thus, stakeholders must identify a prioritized subset of flow prescriptions that meet ecological objectives in light of realistic constraints. Yet, isolating aspects of flow regimes to restore downstream of hydropower facilities is among the greatest challenges of environmental flow science due, in part, to the sheer volume of available environmental flow tools in conjunction with complex negotiation-based regulatory procedures. Herein, we propose an organizational framework that structures information and existing flow paradigms into a staged process that assists stakeholders in implementing environmental flows for hydropower facilities. The framework identifies areas where regulations fall short of the needed scientific process, and provide suggestions for stakeholders to ameliorate those situations through advanced preparation. We highlight the strengths of existing flow paradigms in their application to hydropower settings and suggest when and where tools are most applicable. Our suggested framework increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the e-flow implementation process by rapidly establishing a knowledge base and decreasing uncertainty so more time can be devoted to filling knowledge gaps. Lastly, the framework provides the structure for a coordinated research agenda to further the science of environmental flows related to hydropower environments.

  12. Organizing Environmental Flow Frameworks to Meet Hydropower Mitigation Needs.

    PubMed

    McManamay, Ryan A; Brewer, Shannon K; Jager, Henriette I; Troia, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    The global recognition of the importance of natural flow regimes to sustain the ecological integrity of river systems has led to increased societal pressure on the hydropower industry to change plant operations to improve downstream aquatic ecosystems. However, a complete reinstatement of natural flow regimes is often unrealistic when balancing water needs for ecosystems, energy production, and other human uses. Thus, stakeholders must identify a prioritized subset of flow prescriptions that meet ecological objectives in light of realistic constraints. Yet, isolating aspects of flow regimes to restore downstream of hydropower facilities is among the greatest challenges of environmental flow science due, in part, to the sheer volume of available environmental flow tools in conjunction with complex negotiation-based regulatory procedures. Herein, we propose an organizational framework that structures information and existing flow paradigms into a staged process that assists stakeholders in implementing environmental flows for hydropower facilities. The framework identifies areas where regulations fall short of the needed scientific process, and provide suggestions for stakeholders to ameliorate those situations through advanced preparation. We highlight the strengths of existing flow paradigms in their application to hydropower settings and suggest when and where tools are most applicable. Our suggested framework increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the e-flow implementation process by rapidly establishing a knowledge base and decreasing uncertainty so more time can be devoted to filling knowledge gaps. Lastly, the framework provides the structure for a coordinated research agenda to further the science of environmental flows related to hydropower environments. PMID:27344163

  13. Surprise and Opportunity for Learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, T. S.; Walters, C. J.; Korman, J.

    2013-12-01

    With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem downstream of Glen Canyon Dam in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (GCNRA) and Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) of northern Arizona, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has evaluated experimental flow and nonflow policy tests since 1990. Flow experiments have consisted of a variety of water releases from the dam within pre-existing annual downstream delivery agreements. The daily experimental dam operation, termed the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF), implemented in 1996 to increase daily low flows and decrease daily peaks were intended to limit daily flow range to conserve tributary sand inputs and improve navigation among other objectives, including hydropower energy. Other flow tests have included controlled floods with some larger releases bypassing the dam's hydropower plant to rebuild and maintain eroded sandbars in GCNP. Experimental daily hydropeaking tests beyond MLFF have also been evaluated for managing the exotic recreational rainbow trout fishery in the dam's GCNRA tailwater. Experimental nonflow policies, such as physical removal of exotic fish below the tailwater, and experimental translocation of endangered native humpback chub from spawning habitats in the Little Colorado River (the largest natal origin site for chub in the basin) to other tributaries within GCNP have also been monitored. None of these large-scale field experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions, owing to inadequate monitoring programs and confounding of treatment effects with effects of ongoing natural changes; most notably, a persistent warming of the river resulting from reduced storage in the dam's reservoir after 2003. But there have been several surprising results relative to predictions from models developed to identify monitoring needs and evaluate experimental design options at the start of the adaptive ecosystem assessment and management program in 1997

  14. 75 FR 30852 - Hydroelectric Power Development at Ridgway Dam, Dallas Creek Project, Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... necessary to adequately define impacts on the Dallas Creek Project and the environment of the development... environment. Explain any proposed use of the hydropower development for conservation and utilization of the... Bureau of Reclamation Hydroelectric Power Development at Ridgway Dam, Dallas Creek Project,...

  15. Harnessing Hydropower: The Earth's Natural Resource

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-01

    This document is a layman's overview of hydroelectric power. It includes information on: History of Hydropower; Nature’s Water Cycle; Hydropower Plants; Turbines and Generators; Transmission Systems; power dispatching centers; and Substations. It goes on to discuss The Power Grid, Hydropower in the 21st Century; Energy and the Environment; and how hydropower is useful for Meeting Peak Demands. It briefly addresses how Western Area Power Administration is Responding to Environmental Concerns.

  16. Focusing on dam safety

    SciTech Connect

    Lagassa, G.

    1993-01-01

    With increased relicensing activity and a federal emphasis on safety, dam repair and refurbishment is a growing business. Providers of goods and services are gearing up to meet the dam repair and rehabilitation needs that result.

  17. Proliferation of Hydroelectric Dams in the Andean Amazon and Implications for Andes-Amazon Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics. PMID:22529979

  18. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    PubMed

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics. PMID:22529979

  19. Incorporating Seasonal Forecast of Inflow into Existing Water Resource Management at Ubolratana Dam, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatikavanij, V.; Block, P. J.; Lall, U.

    2011-12-01

    Seasonal forecast of streamflow, coupled with dynamic reservoir operation policy, has been shown to improve water allocation and flood control. By considering current and expected future reservoir level, water managers can make more adaptive and informed judgments about reservoir operation and allocation policy. While seasonal forecast application has shown substantial positive results, its adoption is still lagging due to the difficulties in integrating forecast into the current reservoir management system. This project offers a simple framework for incorporating seasonal streamflow forecasts into existing operation to optimize reservoir management decisions at the Ubolratana Dam in the Northeastern region of Thailand. The framework allows for the retention of existing reservoir policy while altering the application of the upper rule curve based on forecast information. Our objective is to maximize water release for hydropower generation, minimize spill and shortages while meeting demands for irrigation and water quality control during the peak summer monsoon season. Climate variables, including sea-surface temperature and sea-level pressure in March-May, are used to develop streamflow forecast ensembles for September-November. We use a dynamically linked system of forecast and reservoir management models to specify operating rules for end of the month storage levels at the Ubolratana Reservoir. Benefits and reliability based on the forecast ensembles are compared with historical operations and a climatological-based approach. Forecast ensembles are also divided into terciles to evaluate performance during dry and wet years, of particular interest to water managers. Results demonstrate that the dynamic operations contingent on forecasts may increase water releases for hydropower, decrease spill and deficit, and improve reliability compared with the status quo.

  20. Small-dam rehabs

    SciTech Connect

    Denning, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article examines the economics of maintenance, rehabilitation and improvement for small, aging, high-hazard dams. The topics of the article include raising the height of the spillway and repairing deteriorated concrete in the spillway of Fellows Lake Dam, emergency repair of the outlet conduit and replacement of riprap on the upstream slope of Storrie Lake Dam, and extensive rehabilitation of Reeves Lake Dam.

  1. An optimal hydropower contract load determination method considering both human and riverine ecosystem needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xin'an; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Cailing; Zhao, Yanwei

    2015-09-01

    In this research, a new method is developed to determine the optimal contract load for a hydropower reservoir, which is achieved by incorporating environmental flows into the determination process to increase hydropower revenues, while mitigating the negative impacts of hydropower generation on riverine ecosystems. In this method, the degree of natural flow regime alteration is adopted as a constraint of hydropower generation to protect riverine ecosystems, and the maximization of mean annual revenue is set as the optimization objective. The contract load in each month and the associated reservoir operating parameters were simultaneously optimized by a genetic algorithm. The proposed method was applied to China's Wangkuai Reservoir to test its effectiveness. The new method offers two advantages over traditional studies. First, it takes into account both the economic benefits and the ecological needs of riverine systems, rather than only the economic benefits, as in previous methods. Second, although many measures have been established to mitigate the negative ecological impacts of hydropower generation, few have been applied to the hydropower planning stage. Thus, since the contract load is an important planning parameter for hydropower generation, influencing both economic benefits and riverine ecosystem protection, this new method could provide guidelines for the establishment of river protection measures at the hydropower planning stage.

  2. Assessing potential impacts of climate change on hydropower generation of three reservoirs in the Tagus River Basin under ensemble of climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanova, Anastasia; Koch, Hagen; Hattermann, Fred F.; Krysanova, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    The Tagus River basin is an important strategic water and energy source for Portugal and Spain. With an extensive network of 40 reservoirs with more than 15 hm3 capacity and numerous abstraction channels it is ensuring water supply for domestic and industrial usage, irrigation and hydropower production in Spain and Portugal. Growing electricity and water supply demands, over-regulation and construction of new dams, and large inter-basin water transfers aggravated by strong natural variability of climate and aridity of the catchment have already imposed significant pressures on the river. The substantial reduction of discharge, dropping during some months to zero in some parts of the catchment, is observed already now, and projected climatic change is expected to alter the water budget of the catchment further. As the water inflow is a fundamental defining factor in a reservoir operation and hydropower production, the latter are highly sensitive to shifts in water balance of the catchment, and hence to changes in climate. In this study we aim to investigate the effects of projected climate change on water inflows and hydropower generation of the three large reservoirs in the Tagus River Basin, and by that to assess their ability to cover electricity power demands and provide water supply under changed conditions, assuming present management strategies; hydropower and abstraction demands. The catchment scale, process-based eco-hydrological model SWIM was set up, calibrated and validated up to the Santarem gauge at the Tagus outlet, with the implementation of a reservoir module. The reservoir module is able to represent three reservoir operation management options, simulate water abstraction and provide rates of generated hydropower. In total, fifteen largest reservoirs in the Tagus River Basin were included in the model, calibrated and validated against observed inflow, stored water and outflow water volumes. The future climate projections were selected from the

  3. A river might run through it again: criteria for consideration of dam removal and interim lessons from California.

    PubMed

    Pejchar, L; Warner, K

    2001-11-01

    Resource managers are increasingly being challenged by stakeholder groups to consider dam removal as a policy option and as a tool for watershed management. As more dam owners face high maintenance costs, and rivers as spawning grounds for anadromous fish become increasingly valuable, dam removal may provide the greatest net benefit to society. This article reviews the impact of Endangered Species Act listings for anadromous fish and recent shifts in the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's hydropower benefit-costs analysis and discusses their implications for dam removal in California. We propose evaluative criteria for consideration of dam removal and apply them to two case studies: the Daguerre and Englebright Dams on the Yuba River and the Scott and Van Horne Dams on the South Eel River, California. PMID:11568839

  4. Hoover Dam Learning Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This learning packet provides background information about Hoover Dam (Nevada) and the surrounding area. Since the dam was built at the height of the Depression in 1931, people came from all over the country to work on it. Because of Hoover Dam, the Colorado River was controlled for the first time in history and farmers in Nevada, California, and…

  5. Wildlife Mitigation and Restoration for Grand Coulee Dam: Blue Creek Project, Phase 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Merker, Christopher

    1993-04-01

    This report is a recommendation from the Spokane Tribe to the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) for partial mitigation for the extensive wildlife and wildlife habitat losses on the Spokane Indian Reservation caused by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. NPPC`s interim wildlife goal over the next 7 years for the Columbia hydropower system, is to protect, mitigate and enhance approximately 35% basin wide of the lost habitat units. Grand Coulee Dam had the greatest habitat losses of any Dams of the Wildlife Rule.

  6. The impact of climate change on Fantanele reservoir operating rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrache, Ramona; Galie, Andreea-Cristina

    2014-05-01

    The FP 7 research project ECLISE - Enabling Climate Information Service for Europe has the overall objective to develop an European service that meets the needs of climate information of the Member States of the European Union. In this project, four major areas of impact (cities, coasts, water and energy) are analysed. This paper presents the results of the climate change impact on a reservoir with hydropower use. A case study, for a Romanian reservoir (Fantanele reservoir located on the Somes River corresponding to Mariselu hydropower station), was performed. The operating curves/rules, relying on the monthly average discharges, were designed for current state. The modified discharges derived from hydrological model that assumed four climate models (CNRM_RM5.1_ARPEGE (A), HC_HadRM3Q0_HadCM3Q0 (B), SMHI_RCA3_BCM (C), SMHI_RCA3_ECHAM5 (D)) for future water resources estimation were used to design the modified operating rules in case of climate change. Operation lines in assured regime were determined using "Water Supplies - Demand" balance. The water balance has been achieved, in the cross-section of the Fantanele dam, as difference between natural inflow into the lake and regulated discharge for every 30 years, for each month, of the years 2020-2050, respectively for each of the four cases. In order to assess the future turbinated discharge, needed to be used for the design of future operation rules, the regulated discharges were determined for each month and for each of the four cases, applying graphical - analytical method called "wire stretched". Further, a comparative analysis, on the operation lines, in assured regime designed for the period 1984-2010 (current state) and future state (A, B, C and D cases), was performed. The energy production requires higher water quantities, in all four cases. In addition, the paper will estimate the climate change impact on hydropower production. The amount of energy produced by hydropower station Mariselu was calculated in

  7. Deformation Monitoring and Bathymetry Analyses in Rock-Fill Dams, a Case Study at Ataturk Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey has 595 dams constructed between 1936 and 2013 for the purposes of irrigation, flood control, hydroelectric energy and drinking water. A major portion of the dam basins in Turkey are deprived of vegetation and have slope topography on near surrounding area. However, landscaping covered with forest around the dam basin is desirable for erosion control. In fact; the dams, have basins deprived of vegetation, fill up quickly due to sediment transport. Erosion control and forestation are important factors, reducing the sediment, to protect the water basins of the dams and increase the functioning life of the dams. The functioning life of dams is as important as the investment and construction. Nevertheless, in order to provide safety of human life living around, well planned monitoring is essential for dams. Dams are very large and critical structures and they demand the use or application of precise measuring systems. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. Monitoring is an essential component of the dam after construction and during operation and must en­able the timely detection of any behavior that could deteriorate the dam, potentially result in its shutdown or failure. Considering the time and labor consumed by long-term measurements, processing and analysis of measured data, importance of the small structural motions at regular intervals could be comprehended. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the dams, dam safety and related analysis. The case study is the deformation measurements of Atatürk Dam in Turkey which is the 6th largest dam of world considering the filling volume of embankment. Brief information is given about the

  8. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Volume One, Libby Dam Project, Operator, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

    SciTech Connect

    Yde, Chris A.

    1984-10-01

    This assessment addresses the impacts to the wildlife populations and wildlife habitats due to the Libby Dam project on the Kootenai River and previous mitigation of these losses. The current assessment documents the best available information concerning the impacts to the wildlife populations inhabiting the project area prior to construction of the dam and creation of the reservoir. Many of the impacts reported in this assessment differ from those contained in the earlier document compiled by the Fish and Wildlife Service; however, this document is a thorough compilation of the available data (habitat and wildlife) and, though conservative, attempts to realistically assess the impacts related to the Libby Dam project. Where appropriate the impacts resulting from highway construction and railroad relocation were included in the assessment. This was consistent with the previous assessments.

  9. Value of ecosystem hydropower service and its impact on the payment for ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Fu, B; Wang, Y K; Xu, P; Yan, K; Li, M

    2014-02-15

    Hydropower is an important service provided by ecosystems. We surveyed all the hydropower plants in the Zagunao River Basin, Southwest China. Then, we assessed the hydropower service by using the InVEST (The Integrated Value and Tradeoff of Ecosystem Service Tools) model. Finally, we discussed the impact on ecological compensation. The results showed that: 1) hydropower service value of ecosystems in the Zagunao River Basin is 216.29 Euro/hm(2) on the average, of which the high-value area with more than 475.65 Euro/hm(2) is about 750.37 km(2), accounting for 16.12% of the whole watershed, but it provides 53.47% of the whole watershed service value; 2) ecosystem is an ecological reservoir with a great regulation capacity. Dams cannot completely replace the reservoir water conservation function of ecosystems, and has high economic and environmental costs that must be paid as well. Compensation for water conservation services should become an important basis for ecological compensation of hydropower development. 3) In the current PES cases, the standard of compensation is generally low. Cascade development makes the value of upstream ecosystem services become more prominent, reflecting the differential rent value, and the value of ecosystem services should be based on the distribution of differentiated ecological compensation. PMID:24291631

  10. Saxon Falls Dam rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, R.M.; Quist, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The Saxon Falls Hydro Project is a high-head hydro owned and operated by Northern States Power Company (NSP) in northwest Wisconsin. Saxon Falls comprises a concrete buttress overflow spillway; mass-concrete tainter gate spillway, conduit intake, and nonoverflow section; earth dam; 1,600-foot-long, 72-inch-diameter steel conduit; two 150-foot-long, 54-inch-diameter penstocks; steel surge tank; and reinforced concrete powerhouse. All structures are founded on bedrock. Engineering inspections revealed severe concrete deterioration and leakage within the intake and deterioration of the middle nonoverflow section. Subsequent to the inspection, concrete cores confirmed the level of deterioration and indicated that immediate measures were necessary to correct the deficiencies and restore project integrity. Because the dam is located on the border between Michigan and Wisconsin, coordination with the respective Departments of Natural Resources was crucial to obtain permits to construct the repairs. Due to concerns regarding a sensitive fishery, a reservoir drawdown was not allowed. To accomplish the work and allow for a suitable construction area, a special braced sheetpile cofferdam was required to complete the project. NSP elected to complete the construction using its own special-construction crews. Close coordination allowed construction personnel, the owner, and the engineer to overcome difficulties encountered during construction.

  11. US hydropower resource assessment for Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1996-09-01

    US DOE is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model developed by INEL for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was tested using hydropower information and data provided by Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the PC user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes, and generate reports. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Hawaii.

  12. Total Dissolved Gas Monitoring in Chum Salmon Spawning Gravels Below Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Geist, David R.; Panther, Jennifer L.; Dawley, Earl

    2007-01-30

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted research to determine whether total dissolved gas concentrations are elevated in chum salmon redds during spring spill operations at Bonneville Dam. The study involved monitoring the total dissolved gas levels at egg pocket depth and in the river at two chum salmon spawning locations downstream from Bonneville Dam. Dissolved atmospheric gas supersaturation generated by spill from Bonneville Dam may diminish survival of chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon when sac fry are still present in the gravel downstream from Bonneville Dam. However, no previous work has been conducted to determine whether total dissolved gas (TDG) levels are elevated during spring spill operations within incubation habitats. The guidance used by hydropower system managers to provide protection for pre-emergent chum salmon fry has been to limit TDG to 105% after allowing for depth compensation. A previous literature review completed in early 2006 shows that TDG levels as low as 103% have been documented to cause mortality in sac fry. Our study measured TDG in the incubation environment to evaluate whether these levels were exceeded during spring spill operations. Total dissolved gas levels were measured within chum salmon spawning areas near Ives Island and Multnomah Falls on the Columbia River. Water quality sensors screened at egg pocket depth and to the river were installed at both sites. At each location, we also measured dissolved oxygen, temperature, specific conductance, and water depth to assist with the interpretation of TDG results. Total dissolved gas was depth-compensated to determine when levels were high enough to potentially affect sac fry. This report provides detailed descriptions of the two study sites downstream of Bonneville Dam, as well as the equipment and procedures employed to monitor the TDG levels at the study sites. Results of the monitoring at

  13. 33 CFR 208.25 - Pensacola Dam and Reservoir, Grand (Neosho) River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pensacola Dam and Reservoir..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.25 Pensacola Dam and Reservoir... Dam, referred to in this section as the Representative shall operate the dam and reservoir in...

  14. McNary Dam, Ice Harbor Dam, and Lower Monumental Dam Smolt Monitoring Program; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd; Lind, Sharon; Price, William

    1997-07-01

    The Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW) assumed responsibility for the Smolt Monitoring Program at McNary Dam on the Columbia River in 1990 and at the new juvenile collection facility at Lower Monumental Dam on the Snake River in 1993. In 1996, Smolt Monitoring Program activities also began at the new juvenile collection facility located at Ice Harbor Dam. This report summarizes the 1996 Smolt Monitoring work at all three sites. The work at Ice Harbor consisted of Gas Bubble Trauma (GBT) monitoring only. In general, the 1996 passage season at both the McNary and Lower Monumental sites can be characterized by reduced passage of juveniles through the collection systems due to elevated river flows and spill, and low (<1%) overall facility mortality rates most likely resulting from cooler water temperatures. In accordance with the National Marine Fisheries Service recommendations (NMFS, 1995) all spring migrants were bypassed at McNary Dam in 1996. Mechanical problems within the McNary collection system resulted in collection and sampling activities being delayed until April 18 at this site, while sampling and collection began on the scheduled starting date of April 1 at Lower Monumental Dam. Monitoring operations were conducted through December 14 at McNary Dam and through October 28 at Lower Monumental Dam. An ongoing transportation evaluation summer migrant marking program was conducted at McNary Dam in 1996 by the NMFS. This necessitated the sampling of 394,211 additional fish beyond the recommended sampling guidelines. All total, 509,237 and 31,219 juvenile salmonids were anesthetized and individually counted, examined for scale loss, injuries, and brands by WDFW Smolt Monitoring personnel in 1996 at McNary Dam and Lower Monumental Dam, respectively.

  15. Ensemble flood forecasting to support dam water release operation using 10 and 2 km-resolution JMA Nonhydrostatic Model ensemble rainfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Otsuka, S.; Apip; Saito, K.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a study on short-term ensemble flood forecasting specifically for small dam catchments in Japan. Numerical ensemble simulations of rainfall from the Japan Meteorological Agency Nonhydrostatic Model are used as the input data to a rainfall-runoff model for predicting river discharge into a dam. The ensemble weather simulations use a conventional 10 km and a high-resolution 2 km spatial resolution. A distributed rainfall-runoff model is constructed for the Kasahori dam catchment (approx. 70 km2) and applied with the ensemble rainfalls. The results show that the hourly maximum and cumulative catchment-average rainfalls of the 2 km-resolution JMA-NHM ensemble simulation are more appropriate than the 10 km-resolution rainfalls. All the simulated inflows based on the 2 and 10 km rainfalls become larger than the flood discharge of 140 m3 s-1; a threshold value for flood control. The inflows with the 10 km-resolution ensemble rainfall are all considerably smaller than the observations, while, at least one simulated discharge out of 11 ensemble members with the 2 km-resolution rainfalls reproduces the first peak of the inflow at the Kasahori dam with similar amplitude to observations, although there are spatiotemporal lags between simulation and observation. To take positional lags into account of the ensemble discharge simulation, the rainfall distribution in each ensemble member is shifted so that the catchment-averaged cumulative rainfall of the Kasahori dam maximizes. The runoff simulation with the position-shifted rainfalls show much better results than the original ensemble discharge simulations.

  16. Balancing energy and environmental concerns: the case of the Kayraktepe dam, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sever, Ö.; Tiğrek, Ş.; Şarlak, N.

    2012-10-01

    In this study, an alternative solution for a large dam, namely the Kayraktepe Dam in Turkey, is investigated. The dam was planned for flood control, energy generation and flow regulation for a downstream irrigation project more than 30 yr ago, but until now the project has not begun due to it receiving severe criticism about environmental and social considerations. The project formulation was redeveloped several times in the past but the options were not found to be feasible. In this study, a detailed analysis of the available feasibility studies is provided and then a new formulation, consisting of the proposed one medium dam and five run-of-river type hydropower stations instead of a large scale dam, is evaluated. The new formulation is equivalent to the existing project in terms of energy production and flood control. On the other hand, there are some benefits relative to other configurations as solutions to some of the environmental and social problems being addressed.

  17. 78 FR 43188 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing... Hydropower, L.P. e. Name of Project: Chasm Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Salmon River, in... Murphy, Compliance Specialist, Brookfield Renewable Power--New York West Operations, 33 West 1st...

  18. 16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at 320' high, Parker Dam is one of the highest in the world. Much of this height is because dam penetrates well below river bottom to fasten to bedrock. - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  19. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1990--1991 (with updated annotated bibliography)

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, J.R.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. ); Sale, M.J. )

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydropower Program for fiscal years 1990 and 1991, and provides an annotated bibliography of research, engineering, operations, regulations, and costs of projects pertinent to hydropower development. The Hydropower Program is organized as follows: background (including Technology Development and Engineering Research and Development); Resource Assessment; National Energy Strategy; Technology Transfer; Environmental Research; and, the bibliography discusses reports written by both private and non-Federal Government sectors. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Subdaily Hydrologic Variability by Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costigan, K. H.; Ruffing, C.; Smith, J. M.; Daniels, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    The effects dams have on hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecologic regimes has been well characterized using mean daily discharge. Subdaily discharge variation (herein flashiness) has not been well characterized for a variety of dam, watershed, and land cover characteristics. The hourly hydrologic records for 30 sites across the continental United States were analyzed for flashiness using the Richards-Baker Index, coefficient of daily variation, percent of total flow variation, and the percent of the year when daily discharge is greater than mean daily discharge. The goal of this analysis is to evaluate the role of catchment variables such as mean slope and land use conditions across receiving watersheds in predicting flashiness; compare flashiness metrics across sites to identify relationships between dam related variables such as type and size; and determine the most appropriate temporal extent for assessing flashiness in streamflow. Our approach relies on data at the watershed scale with a fine temporal grain to determine flashiness over a decade of operation for each dam.

  1. Stream-reach Identification for New Run-of-River Hydropower Development through a Merit Matrix Based Geospatial Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Pasha, M. Fayzul K.; Yeasmin, Dilruba; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Hadjerioua, Boualem; Wei, Yaxing; Smith, Brennan T

    2014-01-01

    Even after a century of development, the total hydropower potential from undeveloped rivers is still considered to be abundant in the United States. However, unlike evaluating hydropower potential at existing hydropower plants or non-powered dams, locating a feasible new hydropower plant involves many unknowns, and hence the total undeveloped potential is harder to quantify. In light of the rapid development of multiple national geospatial datasets for topography, hydrology, and environmental characteristics, a merit matrix based geospatial algorithm is proposed to help identify possible hydropower stream-reaches for future development. These hydropower stream-reaches sections of natural streams with suitable head, flow, and slope for possible future development are identified and compared using three different scenarios. A case study was conducted in the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) and Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) hydrologic subregions. It was found that a merit matrix based algorithm, which is based on the product of hydraulic head, annual mean flow, and average channel slope, can help effectively identify stream-reaches with high power density and small surface inundation. The identified stream-reaches can then be efficiently evaluated for their potential environmental impact, land development cost, and other competing water usage in detailed feasibility studies . Given that the selected datasets are available nationally (at least within the conterminous US), the proposed methodology will have wide applicability across the country.

  2. A multi-year analysis of spillway survival for juvenile salmonids as a function of spill bay operations at McNary Dam, Washington and Oregon, 2004-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Noah S.; Hansel, Hal C.; Perry, Russell W.; Evans, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed 6 years (2004-09) of passage and survival data collected at McNary Dam to examine how spill bay operations affect survival of juvenile salmonids passing through the spillway at McNary Dam. We also examined the relations between spill bay operations and survival through the juvenile fish bypass in an attempt to determine if survival through the bypass is influenced by spill bay operations. We used a Cormack-Jolly-Seber release-recapture model (CJS model) to determine how the survival of juvenile salmonids passing through McNary Dam relates to spill bay operations. Results of these analyses, while not designed to yield predictive models, can be used to help develop dam-operation strategies that optimize juvenile salmonid survival. For example, increasing total discharge typically had a positive effect on both spillway and bypass survival for all species except sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Likewise, an increase in spill bay discharge improved spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and an increase in spillway discharge positively affected spillway survival for juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The strong linear relation between increased spill and increased survival indicates that increasing the amount of water through the spillway is one strategy that could be used to improve spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead. However, increased spill did not improve spillway survival for subyearling Chinook salmon and sockeye salmon. Our results indicate that a uniform spill pattern would provide the highest spillway survival and bypass survival for subyearling Chinook salmon. Conversely, a predominantly south spill pattern provided the highest spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead. Although spill pattern was not a factor for spillway survival of sockeye salmon, spill bay operations that optimize passage through the north and south spill bays maximized

  3. Influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation on global hydropower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Jia Yi; Turner, Sean; Galelli, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Hydropower contributes significantly to meeting the world's energy demand, accounting for at least 16% of total electrical output. Its role as a mature and cost competitive renewable energy source is expected to become increasingly important as the world transits to a low-carbon economy. A key component of hydropower production is runoff, which is highly dependent on precipitation and other climate variables. As such, it becomes critical to understand how the drivers of climate variability impact hydropower production. One globally-important driver is the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). While it is known that ENSO influences hydrological processes, the potential value of its associated teleconnection in design related tasks has yet to be explored at the global scale. Our work seeks to characterize the impact of ENSO on global hydropower production so as to quantify the potential for increased production brought about by incorporating climate information within reservoir operating models. We study over 1,500 hydropower reservoirs - representing more than half the world's hydropower capacity. A historical monthly reservoir inflow time series is assigned to each reservoir from a 0.5 degree gridded global runoff dataset. Reservoir operating rules are designed using stochastic dynamic programming, and storage dynamics are simulated to assess performance under the climate conditions of the 20th century. Results show that hydropower reservoirs in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Australia, and Eastern China are strongly influenced by ENSO episodes. Statistically significant lag correlations between ENSO indicators and hydropower production demonstrate predictive skill with lead times up to several months. Our work highlights the potential for using these indicators to increase the contribution of existing hydropower plants to global energy supplies.

  4. Large storage operations under climate change: expanding uncertainties and evolving tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Vu, Phuong Nam; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

    2016-03-01

    In a changing climate and society, large storage systems can play a key role for securing water, energy, and food, and rebalancing their cross-dependencies. In this letter, we study the role of large storage operations as flexible means of adaptation to climate change. In particular, we explore the impacts of different climate projections for different future time horizons on the multi-purpose operations of the existing system of large dams in the Red River basin (China-Laos-Vietnam). We identify the main vulnerabilities of current system operations, understand the risk of failure across sectors by exploring the evolution of the system tradeoffs, quantify how the uncertainty associated to climate scenarios is expanded by the storage operations, and assess the expected costs if no adaptation is implemented. Results show that, depending on the climate scenario and the time horizon considered, the existing operations are predicted to change on average from -7 to +5% in hydropower production, +35 to +520% in flood damages, and +15 to +160% in water supply deficit. These negative impacts can be partially mitigated by adapting the existing operations to future climate, reducing the loss of hydropower to 5%, potentially saving around 34.4 million US year-1 at the national scale. Since the Red River is paradigmatic of many river basins across south east Asia, where new large dams are under construction or are planned to support fast growing economies, our results can support policy makers in prioritizing responses and adaptation strategies to the changing climate.

  5. Incorporating Climate Change in Flow Regime Alteration Studies in Hydropower Licensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinheimer, D. E.; Akhbari, M.; Peek, R.; Yarnell, S. M.; Null, S. E.; Viers, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has yet to mandate incorporation of anticipated climate change effects on hydropower system operations when assessing environmental impacts from the renewal of hydropower licenses. One stated reason is the lack of specific project-level specificity in future impacts. We demonstrate how a hydropower system operations model, incorporating the latest climatological realizations (3 GCMs x RCPs 4.5 and 8.5), can be used to assess environmental impacts generally, and hydrological flow alterations in particular, during the hydropower licensing process. We demonstrate that we can, in fact, quantify project-level impacts from climate change, albeit within the context of quantified uncertainty about non-stationary future conditions. The systems operations model analysis encompasses the combined effects of the Yuba River Development Project and Yuba-Bear Drum-Spaulding Projects, an interconnected series of complex hydropower systems located in the Sierra Nevada, California. Daily water system operations are simulated using a monthly-scale optimization model for hydropower decisions. Though there is inherent uncertainty generated by the modeling process and operational assumptions (e.g., static energy demand), there are sufficient data, modeling techniques, and analytical approaches to assess the how management decisions made today may be confounded by non-stationary hydroclimates in 30-50 years, which is the duration of most hydropower licenses. Such decisions need to include adaptive management approaches to address not only non-stationary hydroclimates, but also cumulative impacts to ecological functions and processes caused by serial flow manipulation. This study can help provide the scientific guidance needed to improve climate change policy in hydropower system planning.

  6. Log-Exponential Reservoir Operating Rules for Global And Regional Hydrological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proussevitch, A. A.; Shiklomanov, A. I.; Frolking, S. E.; Glidden, S.; Lammers, R. B.; Wisser, D.

    2013-12-01

    Many hydrological models simulate both runoff (Water Balance Model) and discharge (Water Routing) over given river networks (STN, DRT, HydroSHEDS, etc.). But water infrastructure development (dams, inter-basin water transfer lines, irrigation canal networks, etc.) in industrial and post-industrial time frames impose real challenges to the modeling of water routing and prediction of river discharge, especially for large-scale regional and global geographic extents where detailed information about operating rules for such hydro-infrastructure units often do not exist. The global and regional river dam databases used in water routing simulations (e.g. GRanD and NID) provide some limited information on dam construction dates and purposes (e.g. hydropower, irrigation, water supply, flood control, etc.), but do not indicate how these are being operated over the given hydrological year cycle and over extreme low/high in-flow regimes. So the formulation of generic and use-specific reservoir operating rules for regional and global hydrologic simulations are still debated issues for the hydrology modeling community. In our network independent WBM-TrANS model (Water Balance Model-Transport from Anthropogenic and Natural Systems) we have formulated and tested a new Log-Exponential OPerAting Rule for Dams (LEOPARD) that can be readily parameterized for a generic and/or specific dam purpose. The key features of the LEOPARD formulation include a combination of adjustable logarithmic and exponential functions describing the release of water from the reservoirs and other adjustable parameters for minimum storage and two exponent curvature coefficients (one each for logarithmic and exponential functions). In the LEOPARD model the dam discharge/release calculations are normalized to Average Annual Discharge (AAD), which, in turn, is taken as a running average of the past 5 years. The latter is critical to simulate dam fill-up periods and shifts in the hydrological cycle over long

  7. Stability of the Zhitomir cellular buttress dam

    SciTech Connect

    Zeryukov, V.I.; Karlin, S.I.

    1985-05-01

    This paper reports on the results of inspections of the Zhitomir dam, which show that during its 15-year operation the negligible cracks that have appeared have not affected the strength of the structure. This confirms the main theoretical and construction decisions made in planning the dam. Secondly, to improve monitoring of the conditions of hydraulic structures in general, the authors recommend that they be equipped with measuring instruments such as height markers and piezometers.

  8. 31. AVALON DAM OUTLET WORKS FROM CREST OF DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. AVALON DAM - OUTLET WORKS FROM CREST OF DAM INCLUDING SPILLWAY NO. 1 AND CYLINDER GATE DISCHARGE PORTALS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  9. 9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). Photographer unknown, July, 22, 1926. Source: Maricopa County Municipal Water Conservation District Number One (MWD). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, Richard; Williams, John G.; Smith, Steven G.

    2002-06-01

    In 2001, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the ninth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tagged fish. We PIT tagged and released at Lower Granite Dam a total of 17,028 hatchery and 3,550 wild steelhead. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream of the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release Model. Primary research objectives in 2001 were to: (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2001 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  11. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M.

    2006-05-01

    In 2005, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the thirteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,439 hatchery steelhead, 5,315 wild steelhead, and 6,964 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''single-release model''). Primary research objectives in 2005 were: (1) Estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. (2) Evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions. (3) Evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2005 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here.

  12. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, William D.; Smith, Steven G.; Zabel, Richard W.

    2003-07-01

    In 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the tenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,891 hatchery steelhead at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''Single-Release Model''). Primary research objectives in 2002 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2002 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  13. Field test of ultra-low head hydropower package based on marine thrusters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    The project includes the design, fabrication, assembly, installation, and field test of the first full-scale operating hydropower package (turbine, transmission, and generator) based on a design which incorporates a marine-thruster as the hydraulic prime mover. Included here are: the project overview; engineering design; ultra-low head hydropower package fabrication; component procurement, cost control, and scheduling; thruster hydraulic section installation; site modeling and resulting recommended modifications; testing; and baseline environmental conditions at Stone Drop. (MHR)

  14. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-02-25

    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  15. 78 FR 49735 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Dam Safety Study, Lake Lewisville...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... flood risk management, ] water supply, recreation and non-Federal hydropower. Top of conservation pool... conservation pool of Lewisville was raised from elevation 515 to 522 on November 30, 1988. At elevation 522... Safety Study, Lake Lewisville Dam, Elm Fork Trinity River, Denton County, Texas AGENCY: Department of...

  16. NEW ENGLAND DAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the National Dam Inspection Act (P.L. 92-367) of 1972, Congress authorized the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to inventory dams located in the United States. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (P.L 99-662) authorized USACE to maintain and periodically publish...

  17. Dammed or Damned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes issues raised at a workshop on "People and Dams" organized by the Society for Participatory Research in Asia. Objectives were to (1) understand problems created by dams for people, (2) consider forces affecting displaced populations and rehabilitation efforts, and (3) gain a perspective on popular education efforts among affected…

  18. Organizing environmental flow frameworks to meet hydropower mitigation needs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Jager, Henriette I.; Troia, Matthew J.

    2016-06-25

    The global recognition of the importance of natural flow regimes to sustain the ecological integrity of river systems has led to increased societal pressure on the hydropower industry to change plant operations to improve downstream aquatic ecosystems. However, a complete reinstatement of natural flow regimes is often unrealistic when balancing water needs for ecosystems, energy production, and other human uses. Thus, stakeholders must identify a prioritized subset of flow prescriptions that meet ecological objectives in light of realistic constraints. Yet, isolating aspects of flow regimes to restore downstream of hydropower facilities is among the greatest challenges of environmental flow sciencemore » due, in part, to the sheer volume of available environmental flow tools in conjunction with complex negotiation-based regulatory procedures. Here, we propose an organizational framework that structures information and existing flow paradigms into a staged process that assists stakeholders in implementing environmental flows for hydropower facilities. The framework identifies areas where regulations fall short of the needed scientific process, and provide suggestions for stakeholders to ameliorate those situations through advanced preparation. We highlight the strengths of existing flow paradigms in their application to hydropower settings and suggest when and where tools are most applicable. In conclusion, our suggested framework increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the e-flow implementation process by rapidly establishing a knowledge base and decreasing uncertainty so more time can be devoted to filling knowledge gaps. As a result, the framework provides the structure for a coordinated research agenda to further the science of environmental flows related to hydropower environments.« less

  19. Soil erosion and sediment yield, a double barrel problem in South Africa's only large river network without a dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion not only involves the loss of fertile topsoil but is also coupled with sedimentation of dams, a double barrel problem in semi-arid regions where water scarcity is frequent. Due to increasing water requirements in South Africa, the Department of Water and Sanitation is planning water resource development in the Mzimvubu River Catchment, which is the only large river network in the country without a dam. Two dams are planned including a large irrigation dam and a hydropower dam. However, previous soil erosion studies indicate that large parts of the catchment is severely eroded. Previous studies, nonetheless, used mapping and modelling techniques that represent only a selection of erosion processes and provide insufficient information about the sediment yield. This study maps and models the sediment yield comprehensively by means of two approaches over a five-year timeframe between 2007 and 2012. Sediment yield contribution from sheet-rill erosion was modelled with ArcSWAT (a graphical user interface for SWAT in a GIS), whereas gully erosion contributions were estimated using time-series mapping with SPOT 5 imagery followed by gully-derived sediment yield modelling in a GIS. Integration of the sheet-rill and gully results produced a total sediment yield map, with an average of 5 300 t km-2 y-1. Importantly, the annual average sediment yield of the areas where the irrigation dam and hydropower dam will be built is around 20 000 t km-2 y-1. Without catchment rehabilitation, the life expectancy of the irrigation dam and hydropower dam could be 50 and 40 years respectively.

  20. Recent sediment studies refute Glen Canyon Dam hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, David M.; Topping, David J.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joe; Kaplinski, Matt; Melis, Theodore S.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies of sedimentology hydrology, and geomorphology indicate that releases from Glen Canyon Dam are continuing to erode sandbars and beaches in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, despite attempts to restore these resources. The current strategy for dam operations is based on the hypothesis that sand supplied by tributaries of the Colorado River downstream from the dam will accumulate in the channel during normal dam operations and remain available for restoration floods. Recent work has shown that this hypothesis is false, and that tributary sand inputs are exported downstream rapidly typically within weeks or months under the current flow regime.

  1. Assessment of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival through the Federal Hydropower Projects in the Main-Stem Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Eppard, M. B.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2014-07-11

    High survival through hydropower projects is an essential element in the recovery of salmonid populations in the Columbia River. It is also a regulatory requirement under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) established under the Endangered Species Act. It requires dam passage survival to be ≥0.96 and ≥0.93 for spring and summer outmigrating juvenile salmonids, respectively, and estimated with a standard error ≤ 0.015. An innovative virtual/paired-release design was used to estimate dam passage survival, defined as survival from the face of a dam to the tailrace mixing zone. A coordinated four-dam study was conducted during the 2012 summer outmigration using 14,026 run-of-river subyearling Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic micro-transmitter (AMT) tags released at 9 different locations, and monitored on 14 different detection arrays. Each of the four estimates of dam passage survival exceeded BiOp requirements with values ranging from 0.9414 to 0.9747 and standard errors, 0.0031 to 0.0114. Two consecutive years of survival estimates must meet BiOp standards in order for a hydropower project to be in compliance with recovery requirements for a fish stock.

  2. ESTIMATION OF NAVIGATION - DAM DISCHARGE IN ILLINOIS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiss, Linda S.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques were used to estimate discharge for the Brandon Road Dam on the Des Plaines River and the Dresden Island, Marseilles, and Starved Rock Dams on the Illinois River in northern Illinois. Tainter gates are operated to regulate streamflow at all dams. Additionally, headgates are used for regulation of the Brandon Road Dam. Stage-discharge, gate-opening relations were developed from a total of 91 discharge measurements that range from 198 to 86,400 cubic feet per second (5. 6 to 2,450 cubic meters per second). Values for discharge coefficients, in equations that express discharge as a function of tailwater depth, headwater depth, and vertical height of gate opening, were determined for conditions of free-orifice, submerged-orifice, free-weir, and submerged-weir flow past a tainter gate.

  3. Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam: Two Decades of Large Scale Experimental Treatments Intended to Benefit Resources of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Theodore

    2010-05-01

    Glen Canyon Dam was closed in 1963, primarily to store water for the rapidly developing southwestern United States. The dam's hydropower plant, with a generating capacity of up to 1,300 megawatts of electrical energy, was initially operated without daily peaking constraints from 1966 to 1990, resulting in daily tides on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park of up to 4 meters. The influences of Glen Canyon Dam's peaking operations on downstream river resources through Grand Canyon have been intensively studied for nearly four decades. Following experimental reoperation of the dam in summer 1990, and five years of studies associated with a major environmental impact statement, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program was created in 1997, to evaluate whether a new experimental flow regime, combined with other non-flow treatments, can mitigate the detrimental effects of the former hydropeaking flow regime. Experimental flow treatments associated with the program over the last two decades have included the adoption of hourly and daily operating rules that now govern and constrain hydropeaking, periodic release of experimental controlled floods to rebuild sandbar habitats along shorelines and occasional steady flow tests intended to benefit the river's endangered humpback chub; one of the endemic fish of the Colorado River basin that experienced a population decline following dam closure. Other non-flow experimental treatments being evaluated by the program include removal of nonnative fish species, such as rainbow trout and other exotic fish, as well as translocation of humpback chub into other habitats below the dam where they might successfully spawn. Since 1995, three controlled flood experiments have been released from the dam to determine whether the remaining sand supplies that enter the Colorado River below the dam (about 6 to 16 percent of the predam sand supply) can be managed to create and maintain sandbar habitats used by humpback chub

  4. Quantifying and Generalizing Hydrologic Responses to Dam Regulation using a Statistical Modeling Approach

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous existence of dams within riverscapes, much of our knowledge about dams and their environmental effects remains context-specific. Hydrology, more than any other environmental variable, has been studied in great detail with regard to dam regulation. While much progress has been made in generalizing the hydrologic effects of regulation by large dams, many aspects of hydrology show site-specific fidelity to dam operations, small dams (including diversions), and regional hydrologic regimes. A statistical modeling framework is presented to quantify and generalize hydrologic responses to varying degrees of dam regulation. Specifically, the objectives were to 1) compare the effects of local versus cumulative dam regulation, 2) determine the importance of different regional hydrologic regimes in influencing hydrologic responses to dams, and 3) evaluate how different regulation contexts lead to error in predicting hydrologic responses to dams. Overall, model performance was poor in quantifying the magnitude of hydrologic responses, but performance was sufficient in classifying hydrologic responses as negative or positive. Responses of some hydrologic indices to dam regulation were highly dependent upon hydrologic class membership and the purpose of the dam. The opposing coefficients between local and cumulative-dam predictors suggested that hydrologic responses to cumulative dam regulation are complex, and predicting the hydrology downstream of individual dams, as opposed to multiple dams, may be more easy accomplished using statistical approaches. Results also suggested that particular contexts, including multipurpose dams, high cumulative regulation by multiple dams, diversions, close proximity to dams, and certain hydrologic classes are all sources of increased error when predicting hydrologic responses to dams. Statistical models, such as the ones presented herein, show promise in their ability to model the effects of dam regulation effects at

  5. Virtual Hydropower Prospecting – Searching for Hydropower Gold

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall

    2007-12-01

    The availability of geographic information system (GIS) tools and analytical modeling of natural streams has made it possible to perform virtual “river inventories” that were formerly done using topographic maps, stream flow estimates, and physical reconnaissance. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) virtually assessed the gross power potential of all natural streams in the United States of America and identified feasible potential project sites and estimated their developable power potential. The results of this virtual prospecting have been incorporated into a GIS application called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector that is available for public use on the Internet.

  6. A brief history of 20th century dam construction and a look into the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, Nick

    2010-05-01

    In this presentation, an overview is given of global dam building activities in the 20th century. Political, economical and hydrological factors shaped the building of large dams. The development of the relations between these three factors and dam building over time is examined. One can argue whether or not history is simply "one damn thing after another" but the second half of the 20th century suggests that history is at least reflected by the construction of one dam after another. The financial crisis of the 1930's started the first construction wave of large hydropower dams in the United States. This wave continued into the Second World War. During the Cold War, the weapon race between the USA and USSR was accompanied by a parallel neck-and-neck race in dam construction. By the 1970's, dam construction in the USA tapered off, while that in the USSR continued until its political disintegration. In China, we see two spurts in dam development, the first one coinciding with the disastrous Great Leap Forward and the second with the liberalization of the Chinese economy after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Economic and political events thus shaped to an important extent decisions surrounding the construction of large dams. Clearly, there are some hydrological prerequisites for the construction of dams. The six largest dam building nations are USSR, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, and India, all large countries with ample water resources and mountain ranges. Australia has relatively little reservoir storage for the simple fact that most of this country is flat and dry. A few countries have relatively large amounts of reservoir storage. Especially Uganda (Owens Falls), Ghana (Akosombo), and Zimbabwe (Kariba) are examples of small countries where gorges in major rivers were "natural" places for large dams and reservoirs to be built early on. It seems that, deserts aside, the average potential storage capacity lies for most continents around 10 cm or about 50% of the total

  7. Small-scale hydropower from irrigation canals near Albuquerque, NM. Final report, 1 January 1981-31 December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Heggen, R.J.

    1982-04-01

    Although intermittent stream flows restrict hydroelectric potential throughout New Mexico, there exists a possibility for small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) development. One area of current interest involves irrigation canals. Generally the flows in such canals are seasonal with low volume and low power potential. The environmentally sound nature SSH and the proximity of canal sites to irrigation pumping stations make canal SSH a possible source of hydropower for pumps or other remote, small, seasonal electric demands. The Middle Rio Grande Conservancy District system consists of irrigation canals paralleling the Rio Grande from Cochiti Dam to Bosque del Apache, New Mexico. Assessments of engineering and economic feasibility for two demonstration sites meeting institutional, regulatory, environmental, and legal restrictions were carried out. Design parameters, required equipment and its sizing, power plant layout, power production and the plant operating criteria were evaluated. The canal sites were selected on the basis of available flow and head values to demonstrate the different types of SSH layouts and uses of generated power. One of the sites would require the retrofit of the SSH power plant into the existing concrete canal structure and could use the generated power to operate a nearby irrigation pump. At the second site, the unit would be placed on new site construction.

  8. 1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A GRAVITY SECTION IS THE THIRD DAM BUILT BY SEATTLE CITY LIGHT TO PROVIDE WATER FOR GORGE POWERHOUSE AND WAS COMPLETED IN 1961, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  9. U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - California

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

    1998-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the underdeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of California.

  10. US Hydropower Resource Assessment for Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

  11. US hydropower resource assessment for New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1996-03-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of New Jersey.

  12. US hydropower resource assessment for Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE, menu-driven software application. HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Colorado.

  13. US hydropower resource assessment for Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Montana.

  14. 21st century advanced hydropower turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    Brookshier, P.A.; Flynn, J.V.; Loose, R.R.

    1995-11-01

    While hydropower turbine manufacturers have incrementally improved turbine technology to increase efficiency, the basic design concepts haven`t changed for decades. These late 19th and early 20th century designs did not consider environmental effects, since little was known about environmental effects of hydropower at the time. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the hydropower industry recognize that hydropower plants have an effect on the environment and there is a great need to bring turbine designs into the 21st century. DOE has issued a request for proposals (RFP) that requested proposers to discard conventional thinking, search out innovative solutions, and to visualize innovative turbines designed from a new perspective. This perspective would look at the {open_quotes}turbine system{close_quotes} (intake to tailrace) which will balance environmental, technical, and economic considerations. This paper describes the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program.

  15. US hydropower resource assessment for Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Kansas.

  16. US hydropower resource assessment for New Hampshire

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of New Hampshire.

  17. U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

    1998-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Georgia.

  18. US hydropower resource assessment for Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Texas.

  19. US hydropower resource assessment for Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Wisconsin.

  20. US hydropower resource assessment for Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Utah.

  1. US hydropower resource assessment for Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Indiana.

  2. US hydropower resource assessment for Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Wyoming.

  3. US hydropower resource assessment for Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Iowa.

  4. US hydropower resource assessment for Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Washington.

  5. US hydropower resource assessment for Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose, The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Oklahoma.

  6. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproduction Success of Kokanee in the Flathead River System, 1986 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, Will; Clancey, Patrick

    1987-03-01

    eggs above minimum pool depends on redds being wetted by groundwater seeps. After 40 days exposure by drawdown, eggs in groundwater seeps showed 86 percent survival, whereas outside of the groundwater seeps eggs survived less than six days. These results confirm that exposure by drawdown is the primary factor that limits kokanee reproductive success in redds above minimum pool. We surveyed the west and south shoreline of Flathead Lake to locate potential kokanee spawning habitat. We found conditions which could support incubating eggs at two sites in South Ray and two sites on the west shore of the lake. Seven other sites on the west shore were not suitable due to low groundwater discharge or low dissolved oxygen. In all these areas suitable substrate existed only within the drawdown zone. The lake should be drafted earlier in the fall, and filled earlier in the spring to improve recruitment from lakeshore spawning. We conducted creel surveys during 1985, and estimated that anglers caught 192,000 kokanee. Anglers harvested 49,200 fish during the ice fishery in Skidoo Bay, 129,000 fish during the summer fishery on the lake, and 13,800 during the fall river fishery. Estimated fishing pressure for the year exceeded 188,000 angler hours. The abundance of mysid shrimp in Flathead Lake, measured at six index stations, increased to 130/mIf in 1986. My&Is increased tenfold from 1984 to 1985, and about threefold from 1985 to 1986. Monitoring of mysid shrimp and zooplankton populations in Flathead Lake is supplementing an investigation of the growth and survival of juvenile kokanee. Kokanee and mysid shrimp feed primarily on planktonic crustaceans. This work was designed to detect a potential decline in kokanee recruitment or growth brought about by competitive interaction with mysid shrimp. Fluctuation in adult kokanee year class strength is in part attributable to the negative effects of hydroelectric dam operation on reproductive success in the main stem Flathead River and in

  7. Integrated assessment of the effects of dams on irrigation sustainability in a data scarce watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.; Masumoto, T.; Kudo, R.

    2014-12-01

    Several development projects are currently under way in developing countries to meet growing demand for water and energy. However, due to the lack of the hydro-meteorological data, some projects were conducted without rigorous check of water balance and the potential changes in the flow regime likely to be induced by reservoirs, and their implications for irrigation projects and ecosystems. To cope with this issues, we carried out analysis by using a hydrological model and quasi-observed rainfall data. A distributed water circulation model was introduced as a tool to implement the analysis. Given daily meteorological data, the model calculates spatial distribution of surface runoff, evapotranspiration, river flow and water demand. In addition, it represents operation of water use facilities, and return flow from irrigated areas. We performed a case study in the Pursat River Basin in Cambodia, where multiple projects are ongoing. We first calculated river discharge with observed rain data and calibrated it. Next, we performed a water balance analysis of the basin using the compiled model with 7 years of rainfall data. Because 20-30 years of data is generally required for water resources planning, we thus prepared 25 years of data by using a climate model with a statistically corrected bias. We determined a reference year for irrigation planning from the long-term data such that annual precipitation of 5-year return period. We selected a scenario for irrigated areas from the Water Balance Study Report (JICA, 2013) to project the future water demand, and checked the water balance under no-dam conditions. The results revealed that water supply was more than adequate to meet water demand in the reference year. We finally incorporated the future dam operations into the calculations and evaluated the impact of the dams on river flows and irrigation projects. Even under the changed flow regimes, the water balance was satisfied in the reference year. However, river flows

  8. Simulation analysis of within-day flow fluctuation effects on trout below flaming Gorge Dam.

    SciTech Connect

    Railsback, S. F.; Hayse, J. W.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division; EPRI

    2006-01-01

    In addition to being renewable, hydropower has the advantage of allowing rapid load-following, in that the generation rate can easily be varied within a day to match the demand for power. However, the flow fluctuations that result from load-following can be controversial, in part because they may affect downstream fish populations. At Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in northeastern Utah, concern has been raised about whether flow fluctuations caused by the dam disrupt feeding at a tailwater trout fishery, as fish move in response to flow changes and as the flow changes alter the amount or timing of the invertebrate drift that trout feed on. Western Area Power Administration (Western), which controls power production on submonthly time scales, has made several operational changes to address concerns about flow fluctuation effects on fisheries. These changes include reducing the number of daily flow peaks from two to one and operating within a restricted range of flows. These changes significantly reduce the value of the power produced at Flaming Gorge Dam and put higher load-following pressure on other power plants. Consequently, Western has great interest in understanding what benefits these restrictions provide to the fishery and whether adjusting the restrictions could provide a better tradeoff between power and non-power concerns. Directly evaluating the effects of flow fluctuations on fish populations is unfortunately difficult. Effects are expected to be relatively small, so tightly controlled experiments with large sample sizes and long study durations would be needed to evaluate them. Such experiments would be extremely expensive and would be subject to the confounding effects of uncontrollable variations in factors such as runoff and weather. Computer simulation using individual-based models (IBMs) is an alternative study approach for ecological problems that are not amenable to analysis using field studies alone. An IBM simulates how a

  9. Prioritizing removal of dams for passage of diadromous fishes on a major river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, P.M.; Ross, R.M.; Dropkin, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Native diadromous fishes have been extirpated from much of the Susquehanna River system for nearly a century. Recent restoration efforts have focused on removal of dams, but there are hundreds of dams and presently there is no biologically based system to assist in prioritizing their removal. We present a new method that uses existing habitat suitability index models (HSI) for American shad Alosa sapidissima, alewife A. pseudoharengus, blueback herring A. aestivalis, and American eel Anguilla rostrata to prioritize the removal of non-hydropower dams within the Susquehanna River system. We ranked HSI scores for each of the four species, association between a landscape-scale factor and HSIs, length of river opened by removing a dam, and distance from the mouth at Chesapeake Bay for each dam and then calculated a mean rank prioritization for dam removal by averaging the ranks for the seven criteria. This prioritization method is resistant to outliers, is not strongly affected by somewhat arbitrary decisions on metrics included in the analysis, and provides a biologically based prioritization for dam removal that can be easily amended to include other metrics or adapted to other river systems and that complements other social and economic considerations that must be included in decisions to remove dams.

  10. Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

  11. Impact of Alternative Environmental Flow Prescriptions on Hydropower Production and Fish Habitat Suitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellarin, A.; Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.; Galeati, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities along streams and rivers are increasingly recognized to be a major concern for fluvial ecosystems. The management of water resources, by means of e.g. flow diversions and dams, for industrial, agricultural, water-supply, hydropower production and flood protection purposes induces significant changes to the natural streamflow regime of a river. Indeed, the river flow regime is known to be a major abiotic factor influencing fluvial ecosystems. An established approach aimed at preserving the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species relies on the definition of minimum streamflow requirements (i.e., environmental flows) downstream of dams and diversion structures. Such environmental flows are normally identified through methodologies that have an empirical nature and may not be representative of local ecological and hydraulic conditions. While the effect of imposing a minimum discharge release is easily predictable in terms of e.g. loss of hydropower production, the advantages in terms of species preferences are often poorly understood and seldom assessed. To analyze the interactions between flow releases and the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species (i.e., from periphyton, to benthic invertebrate and fish), one may use a habitat suitability curve, which is a fundamental tool capable of describing species preferences influenced by any generic environmental variable. The outcomes of a real case study applied to several Italian rivers, located in the Marche administrative district in Central Italy (∽10000km2), in which we quantitatively assess the effects of alternative environmental flow scenarios on the existing hydropower network and on two fish species that are quite abundant in the study area (i.e., Leuciscus cephalus cabeda and Barbus barbus plebejus), will be presented and discussed. The proposed analysis, which can be easily adapted to different riparian habitats and hydrological contexts, is a useful tool to guide the

  12. Stream Classification Tool User Manual: For Use in Applications in Hydropower-Related Evironmental Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Troia, Matthew J.; DeRolph, Christopher R.; Samu, Nicole M.

    2016-01-01

    Stream classifications are an inventory of different types of streams. Classifications help us explore similarities and differences among different types of streams, make inferences regarding stream ecosystem behavior, and communicate the complexities of ecosystems. We developed a nested, layered, and spatially contiguous stream classification to characterize the biophysical settings of stream reaches within the Eastern United States (~ 900,000 reaches). The classification is composed of five natural characteristics (hydrology, temperature, size, confinement, and substrate) along with several disturbance regime layers, and each was selected because of their relevance to hydropower mitigation. We developed the classification at the stream reach level using the National Hydrography Dataset Plus Version 1 (1:100k scale). The stream classification is useful to environmental mitigation for hydropower dams in multiple ways. First, it creates efficiency in the regulatory process by creating an objective and data-rich means to address meaningful mitigation actions. Secondly, the SCT addresses data gaps as it quickly provides an inventory of hydrology, temperature, morphology, and ecological communities for the immediate project area, but also surrounding streams. This includes identifying potential reference streams as those that are proximate to the hydropower facility and fall within the same class. These streams can potentially be used to identify ideal environmental conditions or identify desired ecological communities. In doing so, the stream provides some context for how streams may function, respond to dam regulation, and an overview of specific mitigation needs. Herein, we describe the methodology in developing each stream classification layer and provide a tutorial to guide applications of the classification (and associated data) in regulatory settings, such as hydropower (re)licensing.

  13. Impact of alternative environmental flow prescriptions on hydropower production and fish habitat suitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, Serena; Pugliese, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Galeati, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities along streams and rivers are increasingly recognised to be a major concern for fluvial ecosystems. The management of water resources, by means of e.g. flow diversions and dams, for industrial, agricultural, water-supply, hydropower production and flood protection purposes induces significant changes to the natural streamflow regime of a river. Indeed, the river flow regime is known to be a major abiotic factor influencing fluvial ecosystems. An established approach aimed at preserving the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species relies on the definition of minimum streamflow requirements (i.e., environmental flows) downstream of dams and diversion structures. Such environmental flows are normally identified through methodologies that have an empirical nature and may not be representative of local ecological and hydraulic conditions. While the effect of imposing a minimum discharge release is easily predictable in terms of e.g. loss of hydropower production, the advantages in terms of species preferences are often poorly understood and seldom assessed. To analyse the interactions between flow releases and the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species (i.e., from periphyton, to benthic invertebrate and fish), one may use a habitat suitability curve, which is a fundamental tool capable of describing species preferences influenced by any generic environmental variable. The outcomes of a real case study applied to several Italian rivers, located in the Marche administrative district in Central Italy (∽10000km2), in which we quantitatively assess the effects of alternative environmental flow scenarios on the existing hydropower network and on two fish species that are quite abundant in the study area (i.e., Leuciscus cephalus cabeda and Barbus barbus plebejus), will be presented and discussed. The proposed analysis, which can be easily adapted to different riparian habitats and hydrological contexts, is a useful tool to guide the

  14. The impact of Merowe Dam on Simulium hamedense vector of onchocerciasis in Abu Hamed focus - Northern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abu Hamed, the northernmost onchocerciasis focus in the world, is located along the River Nile banks in the Nubian Desert. Hydroelectric dams can alter activity of black flies and may provide breeding sites for black fly. Merowe Dam, the largest hydropower project in Africa, was built west of Abu Hamed focus in 2009. The impact of the Dam on onchocerciasis and its black fly vectors in Abu Hamed focus was measured in this study. Findings Entomological surveys for aquatic stages and adult Simulium hamedense were conducted before and after the inception of Merowe Dam in 2007/2008 and 2010/2011. There was no black fly breeding or adult activity in the previously known breeding sites upstream of the Merowe Dam with the western most breeding site found in AlSarsaf village near the center of the focus. No adult or aquatic stages of black flies were found downstream of the Dam. Conclusions The artificial lake of the Dam flooded all the breeding sites in the western region of the focus and no aquatic stages and/or adult black fly activity were established in the study area upstream of the Dam. The Dam seems to have positive impact on onchocerciasis and its black fly vectors in Abu Hamed focus. These outcomes of the Merowe Dam might have contributed to the recently declared interruption of onchocerciasis transmission in Abu Hamed focus. Continuous entomological surveys are needed to monitor presence of black fly vectors and its impact on the disease. PMID:24708741

  15. Hydropower: Setting a Course for Our Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    Hydropower is an annual publication that provides an overview of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Program. The mission of the program is to conduct research and development that will increase the technical, societal, and environmental benefits of hydropower and provide cost-competitive technologies that enable the development of new and incremental hydropower capacity.

  16. Interactions Between Land Use, Climate and Hydropower in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sample, J.

    2014-12-01

    To promote the transition towards a low carbon economy, the Scottish Government has adopted ambitious energy targets, including generating all electricity from renewable sources by 2020. To achieve this, continued investment will be required across a range of sustainable technologies. Hydropower has a long history in Scotland and the present-day operational capacity of ~1.5 GW makes a substantial contribution to the national energy budget. In addition, there remains potential for ~500 MW of further development, mostly in the form of small to medium size run-of-river schemes. Climate change is expected to lead to an intensification of the global hydrological cycle, leading to changes in both the magnitude and seasonality of river flows. There may also be indirect effects, such as changing land use, enhanced evapotranspiration rates and an increased demand for irrigation, all of which could affect the water available for energy generation. Preliminary assessments of hydropower commonly use flow duration curves (FDCs) to estimate the power generation potential at proposed new sites. In this study, we use spatially distributed modelling to generate daily and monthly FDCs for a range of Scottish catchments using a variety of future land use and climate change scenarios. These are then used to assess Scotland's future hydropower potential under different flow regimes. The results are spatially variable and include large uncertainties, but some consistent patterns emerge. Many locations are predicted to experience enhanced seasonality, with lower power generation potential in the summer months and greater potential during the autumn and winter. Some sites may require infrastructural changes in order to continue operating at optimum efficiency. We discuss the implications and limitations of our results, and highlight design and adaptation options for maximising the resilience of hydropower installations under changing future flow patterns.

  17. Advancing reservoir operation description in physically based hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Giudici, Federico; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Last decades have seen significant advances in our capacity of characterizing and reproducing hydrological processes within physically based models. Yet, when the human component is considered (e.g. reservoirs, water distribution systems), the associated decisions are generally modeled with very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the actual operators' behaviour on a daily or sub-daily basis. For example, reservoir operations are usually described by a target-level rule curve, which represents the level that the reservoir should track during normal operating conditions. The associated release decision is determined by the current state of the reservoir relative to the rule curve. This modeling approach can reasonably reproduce the seasonal water volume shift due to reservoir operation. Still, it cannot capture more complex decision making processes in response, e.g., to the fluctuations of energy prices and demands, the temporal unavailability of power plants or varying amount of snow accumulated in the basin. In this work, we link a physically explicit hydrological model with detailed hydropower behavioural models describing the decision making process by the dam operator. In particular, we consider two categories of behavioural models: explicit or rule-based behavioural models, where reservoir operating rules are empirically inferred from observational data, and implicit or optimization based behavioural models, where, following a normative economic approach, the decision maker is represented as a rational agent maximising a utility function. We compare these two alternate modelling approaches on the real-world water system of Lake Como catchment in the Italian Alps. The water system is characterized by the presence of 18 artificial hydropower reservoirs generating almost 13% of the Italian hydropower production. Results show to which extent the hydrological regime in the catchment is affected by different behavioural models and reservoir

  18. Managing Mekong Mud and its Impact on Fish, Hydropower and People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, T. B.; Loucks, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Lancang/Mekong River flows from the Tibetan Plateau through the Upper Mekong Basin in China (where it is called the Lancang Jiang) to the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) in Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam, before discharging into the South China Sea. The river has remained largely unaltered for much of its history, but today hydropower reservoirs are being designed and developed at a rapid pace. Some 60 million people living in the basin have depended on the basin's ecosystems to produce much of their food and income. The health and productivity of the ecosystems are dependent upon the river's natural flow and sediment regimes, both of which could be significantly altered by the rapid construction of dams. This presentation focuses on the potential impacts of dam development and alternative sediment management options, where feasible, including flushing, sluicing, bypassing, and density current venting. We evaluate whether these techniques can improve reservoir sediment outflows without damaging the environmental system we are attempting to preserve. We also evaluate the accompanying losses in hydropower production necessary to achieve the improved sediment passage. This study focuses on dams in China, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, both on the mainstream Mekong River and on its tributaries. A sediment simulation model was developed specifically to conduct these evaluations. This model implements a daily time-step mass-balance simulation of flow and sediment to predict the spatial and temporal accumulation, depletion, and distribution of sediment in river reaches and in reservoirs under different flow and sediment management policies. Results of simulations suggest that more benign (with regard to sediment) alternatives to the currently proposed locations and designs of dams exist and should be considered. While sediment management alternatives have the potential to increase sediment loads discharged downstream, careful attention must be paid to the

  19. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Guan, Dabo

    2015-01-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 10(9) m(3) (Gm(3)), or 22% of China's total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm(3) yr(-1) or 3.6 m(3) of water to produce a GJ (10(9) J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability. PMID:26158871

  20. 93. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of construction drawing dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of construction drawing dated June 25, 1914 (from Record Group 115, Box 17, Denver Branch of the National Archives, Denver) TOP VIEW OF OPERATING PLATFORM FOR 21 FT. DIA. CYLINDER GATE - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  1. 77 FR 22801 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations and other management actions to protect resources downstream of Glen Canyon...

  2. DESCHUTES PROJECT – WICKIUP DAM, CONTROL TOWER COMPLETE TO ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DESCHUTES PROJECT – WICKIUP DAM, CONTROL TOWER COMPLETE TO ELEVATION 4348.5 WITH TEMPORARY ROOF. BURNING OPERATIONS ON RESERVOIR CLEARING IN THE DISTANCE. Photocopy of historic photographs (original photograph on file at National Archives, Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, CO). Unknown USBR Photographer, August 31, 1943 - Wickiup Dam, Deschutes River, La Pine, Deschutes County, OR

  3. 33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of...

  4. 33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of...

  5. 33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of...

  6. 33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of...

  7. 33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of...

  8. 5. LOOKING WEST ALONG THE AXIS OF THE DAM TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. LOOKING WEST ALONG THE AXIS OF THE DAM TOWARD THE OUTLET STRUCTURE. HAND OPERATED MECHANICAL TAMPERS ARE COMPACTING THE FILL ALONG THE STEEL SHEET PILING CUTOFF WALL IN THE FOREGROUND. Volume XIX, No. 6, April 12, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  9. 3. CREST OF THE SOUTH CHANNEL DAM, SHOWING BLOCK HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CREST OF THE SOUTH CHANNEL DAM, SHOWING BLOCK HOUSE (NOT ORIGINAL) COVERING THE ELECTRICALLY POWERED GATE-LIFTING MECHANISM THAT REPLACED THE ORIGINAL HAND-OPERATED LIFTING DEVICE, LOOKING NORTH. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, South Channel Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  10. 5. VIEW SHOWING HORSE MESA DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THREE PENSTOCKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING HORSE MESA DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THREE PENSTOCKS ARE AT CENTER AND CONCRETE TOWER LINES. AGGREGATE OPERATION IS VISIBLE ABOVE CONSTRUCTION SITE July 22, 1926 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. 88. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of construction drawing dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of construction drawing dated February 9, 1912 (from Record Group 115, Box 17, Denver Branch of the National Archives, Denver) METHOD OF CLOSING UP OLD GATE OPENINGS IN SPILLWAY AND ARRANGEMENT OF TURBINES, OPERATING CYLINDER GATES - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  12. 78 FR 14528 - Mayo Hydropower, LLC, Avalon Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mayo Hydropower, LLC, Avalon Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On November 20, 2012, Mayo Hydropower, LLC (transferor) and Avalon Hydropower, LLC (transferee) filed an application for transfer of...

  13. Project Planning for Cougar Dam during 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haskell, Craig A.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    Cougar Dam is a 158 m-tall, rock fill dam located about 63 km east of Springfield, Oregon. Completed in 1963, the dam is owned and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). It impounds Cougar Reservoir, which is 9.7 km long, has a surface area of 518 ha, and is predominately used for flood control. The pool elevation typically ranges from a maximum conservation pool of 515 m (1,690 ft) National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) in summer to a minimum flood control elevation of 467 m (1,532 ft NGVD) in winter. The reservoir thermally stratifies in the summer, has an average depth of 37 m, and holds 153,500 acre-feet when full. Cougar Dam is located on the South Fork of the McKenzie River 7 km upstream from the mainstem McKenzie River, a tributary of the Willamette River. The McKenzie River Basin basin supports the largest remaining population of wild spawning spring Chinook salmon in the Willamette River Basin (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; NOAA, 2008). Cougar Dam and others were collectively deemed to cause jeopardy to the sustainability of anadromous fish stocks in the Willamette River Basin (NOAA, 2008). Prior to dam construction, as many as 805 redds were observed in the South Fork of the McKenzie River (Willis and others, 1960) and it is estimated that 40 km of spawning habitat were lost when access was blocked after dam construction. The 2008 Willamette Biological Opinion (BIOP) requires improvements to operations and structures to reduce impacts on Upper Willamette River (UWR) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and UWR steelhead (O. mykiss; NOAA, 2008). In 2010, an adult fish collection facility was completed below Cougar Dam to collect returning adult salmon for transport to spawning habitats above the dam. Before that time, returning adult spring Chinook salmon were transported to upstream spawning areas as part of a trap-and-haul program with adults passed ranging annually from 0 to 1,038 (Taylor, 2000). The progeny of

  14. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 2006 through 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    Poch, L. A.; Veselka, T. D.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.

    2011-08-22

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. A report released in January 2011 examined the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. This report continues the analysis and examines the financial implications of the experimental flows conducted at the GCD from 2006 to 2010. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes both that operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and the experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP powerplant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area

  15. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 1997 through 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-04-21

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. This paper examines the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a ''without experiments'' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP power plant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental releases, the GTMax model was

  16. Benthic community of the Savannah River below a peaking hydropower station

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1986-01-01

    The Savannah River below Hartwell Dam, on the South Carolina-Georgia border, contains at least 206 benthic invertebrate taxa, even though this tailwater undergoes substantial daily fluctuations in water flow, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. Oligochaetes, chironomids, and amphipods dominate the community immediately below the dam. Farther downstream, larger organisms (i.e., Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, etc.) dominate the benthic community. The high diversity of this system is primarily attributed to the intensive effort we expended to identify invertebrates to species level. We conclude that tailwaters associated with peaking hydropower stations may in fact have the diverse community assemblages found in natural streams and that this has not been recognized by other investigators because the bulk of the fauna is made up of small forms that are easily overlooked. Comparisons of tailwater fauna communities with those in control areas should be limited to rivers of similar size.

  17. Uniform criteria for U.S. hydropower resource assessment: Hydropower Evaluation Software status report -- 2

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is estimating the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The Hydropower Evaluation Software estimates the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software application. Hydropower Evaluation Software allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This status report describes Hydropower Evaluation Software`s development, its data requirements, and its application to the 20 states assessed to date. This report does not discuss or present the various user-friendly menus of the Hydropower Evaluation Software. The reader is referred to the User`s Manual for specifics. This report focuses on data derivation, summarization of the 20 states (Arkansas, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Vermont, and Wyoming) assessed to date, and plans for future assessments.

  18. Uniform criteria for US Hydropower Resource Assessment. Hydropower evaluation software status report

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Moore, K.M.

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy is estimating the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The Hydropower Evaluation Software estimates the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a DBASE, menu-driven software application. Hydropower Evaluation Software allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This status report details Hydropower Evaluation Software`s development, its data requirements, and its application to the 12 states assessed to date. This report does not discuss or present the various user-friendly menus of the Hydropower Evaluation Software. One is referred to the User`s Manual for specifics. This report focuses on data derivation, summarization of the 12 states (Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Montana, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming) extracted into the software to date, and plans for future assessments.

  19. Hydropower and water supply: competing water uses under a future drier climate modeling scenarios for the Tagus River basin, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre Diogo, Paulo; Nunes, João Pedro; Carmona Rodrigues, António; João Cruz, Maria; Grosso, Nuno

    2014-05-01

    Climate change in the Mediterranean region is expected to affect existing water resources, both in quantity and quality, as decreased mean annual precipitation and more frequent extreme precipitation events are likely to occur. Also, energy needs tend to increase, together with growing awareness that fossil fuels emissions are determinately responsible for global temperature rise, enhancing renewable energy use and reinforcing the importance of hydropower. When considered together, these facts represent a relevant threat to multipurpose reservoir operations. Great Lisbon main water supply (for c.a. 3 million people), managed by EPAL, is located in Castelo de Bode Reservoir, in the Tagus River affluent designated as Zêzere River. Castelo de Bode is a multipurpose infrastructure as it is also part of the hydropower network system of EDP, the main power company in Portugal. Facing the risk of potential climate change impacts on water resources availability, and as part of a wider project promoted by EPAL (designated as ADAPTACLIMA), climate change impacts on the Zêzere watershed where evaluated based on climate change scenarios for the XXI century. A sequential modeling approach was used and included downscaling climate data methodologies, hydrological modeling, volume reservoir simulations and water quality modeling. The hydrological model SWAT was used to predict the impacts of the A2 and B2 scenarios in 2010-2100, combined with changes in socio-economic drivers such as land use and water demands. Reservoir storage simulations where performed according to hydrological modeling results, water supply needs and dam operational requirements, such as minimum and maximum operational pool levels and turbine capacity. The Ce-Qual-W2 water quality model was used to assess water quality impacts. According to climate scenarios A2 and B2, rainfall decreases between 10 and 18% are expected by 2100, leading to drier climatic conditions and increased frequency and magnitude of

  20. Small Hydropower in Latvia and Intellectualization of its Operating Systems / Par Mazo HIDROENERĢĒTIKU LATVIJĀ un TĀS Staciju VADĪBAS SISTĒMAS INTELEKTUALIZĀCIJU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahnitko, A.; Gerhards, J.; Linkevics, O.; Varfolomejeva, R.; Umbrasko, I.

    2013-12-01

    The authors estimate the potential for power generation from water resources of small and medium-sized rivers, which are abundant in Latvia. They propose the algorithm for optimal operation of a small-scale hydropower plant (SHPP) at the chosen optimality criterion in view of the plant's participation in the market. The choice of SHPP optimization algorithm is made based on two mathematical programming methods - dynamic and generalized reduced gradient ones. Approbation of the algorithm is illustrated by an example of optimized SHPP operation. Darbā analizētas tradicionālo un pieejamo vietējo atjaunojamo energoresursu - mazo un vidējo upju hidroresursa izmantošanas iespējas Latvijas enerģētikā. Tiek sniegts faktiskais materiāls šajā jautājumā, kas iegūts, balstoties uz oficiālos avotos publicētiem citu autoru iepriekš veiktajiem pētījumiem. Tiek atzīmēts, ka teritoriju, kas atrodas mazo upju tuvumā un nav ietvertas centralizētās elektroapgādes sistēmā, saimnieciskā apgūšana rada apstākļus patērētāju stimulēšanai izmantot autonomus vietējos energoresursus, ieskaitot hidroenerģiju, izmantojošas mazas jaudas energoiekārtas. Atjaunojamās enerģijas tehnoloģiju un iekārtu pastāvīga attīstība un pilnveidošanās veicinās mazo upju plūsmas izmantošanas elektroenerģijas ražošanas efektivitātes paaugstināšanos. Mūsdienu enerģētikas attīstības koncepcija, kas balstīta uz viedo tīklu (smart grids) izveidi, ļauj paaugstināt mazās hidroenerģētikas darbības efektivitāti, integrējot to elektroenerģētiskajā sistēmā. Mazo hidroelektrostaciju (MHES) darbības vadības sistēmas intelektualizācijas pamatā jābūt kompleksam algoritmam un programmām, kas ļauj tiešsaistes (online) režīmā nodrošināt izdevīgu MHES darbības grafiku (režīmu) maksimālā ienākuma gūšanai, balstoties uz zināmu elektroenerģijas cenas prognozi attiecīgajam laika periodam (diennaktij). MHES darbības optimiz

  1. Dams and Intergovernmental Transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Gainers and Losers are always associated with large scale hydrological infrastructure construction, such as dams, canals and water treatment facilities. Since most of these projects are public services and public goods, Some of these uneven impacts cannot fully be solved by markets. This paper tried to explore whether the governments are paying any effort to balance the uneven distributional impacts caused by dam construction or not. It showed that dam construction brought an average 2% decrease in per capita tax revenue in the upstream counties, a 30% increase in the dam-location counties and an insignificant increase in downstream counties. Similar distributional impacts were observed for other outcome variables. like rural income and agricultural crop yields, though the impacts differ across different crops. The paper also found some balancing efforts from inter-governmental transfers to reduce the unevenly distributed impacts caused by dam construction. However, overall the inter-governmental fiscal transfer efforts were not large enough to fully correct those uneven distributions, reflected from a 2% decrease of per capita GDP in upstream counties and increase of per capita GDP in local and downstream counties. This paper may shed some lights on the governmental considerations in the decision making process for large hydrological infrastructures.

  2. 43 CFR 418.23 - Diversion of Rock Dam Ditch water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diversion of Rock Dam Ditch water. 418.23... Operations and Management § 418.23 Diversion of Rock Dam Ditch water. Project water may be diverted directly to Rock Dam Ditch from the Truckee Canal only when diversions cannot be made from the outlet works...

  3. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation..., shall operate Hetch Hetchy Dam and Reservoir and Cherry Valley Dam and Reservoir in the interest...

  4. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation..., shall operate Hetch Hetchy Dam and Reservoir and Cherry Valley Dam and Reservoir in the interest...

  5. 33 CFR 208.34 - Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird, Little River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.34 Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird, Little River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate Norman Dam and...

  6. 43 CFR 418.23 - Diversion of Rock Dam Ditch water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diversion of Rock Dam Ditch water. 418.23... Operations and Management § 418.23 Diversion of Rock Dam Ditch water. Project water may be diverted directly to Rock Dam Ditch from the Truckee Canal only when diversions cannot be made from the outlet works...

  7. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. 208.82 Section 208.82 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District, acting jointly, hereinafter called the Districts, shall operate Don Pedro Dam and Reservoir...

  8. New energy geographics: Powershed politics and hydropower decision making in Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Darrin L.

    This study analyzes decision making related to large-scale hydropower in China's Yunnan Province. The study has five aims: to contribute empirical knowledge about hydropower development on the Lancang (upper Mekong) and Nu (upper Salween) Rivers; to explain the institutional, legal, and political economic factors affecting decisions about large-scale hydropower; to use the peculiarities of water to complicate models of center-local and interprovincial relations; to underscore the importance of geographic constructs in framing and legitimizing certain development patterns; and to contribute to debates on China's "civil society." After reviewing literature in political ecology, China geography and area studies, and scale theory, I develop an analytical framework called a powershed. Like a watershed, a powershed reflects a space over which a resource is collected. It also has political meaning: first, as a way of understanding how policies and investments are deployed to facilitate electric power transfers from Yunnan to Guangdong; and second, as a means for signaling the importance of geographic constructs in legitimizing certain discourses, actions, actors, and policies while de-legitimizing others. Most importantly, it provides a dynamic, context-specific analytical framework that enables us to trace the processes of hydropower development. Next, I provide details of Lancang and Nu hydropower and of the energy geographies to which the projects belong. My analysis picks apart decision flows from blueprint to dam, identifying two distinctly different perspectives. I conclude by arguing first that supra-provincial institutions such as watershed commissions, hydropower companies, and grid companies are important in shaping relations between Guangdong and Yunnan vis-a-vis electricity production, distribution, and consumption. A corollary is that reforms in the electricity and water sectors have created overlapping responsibilities and unclear jurisdiction among

  9. Trade-off Assessment of Simplified Routing Models for Short-Term Hydropower Reservoir Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issao Kuwajima, Julio; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Alvardo Montero, Rodolfo; Mainardi Fan, Fernando; Assis dos Reis, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Short-term reservoir optimization, also referred to as model predictive control, integrates model-based forecasts and optimization algorithms to meet multiple management objectives such as water supply, navigation, hydroelectricity generation, environmental obligations and flood protection. It is a valuable decision support tool to handle water-stress conditions or flooding events, and supports decision makers to minimize their impact. If the reservoir management includes downstream control, for example for mitigation flood damages in inundation areas downstream of the operated dam, the flow routing between the dam and the downstream inundation area is of major importance. The unsteady open channel flow in river reaches can be described by the one-dimensional Saint-Venant equations. However, owing to the mathematical complexity of those equations, some simplifications may be required to speed up the computation within the optimization procedure. Another strategy to limit the model runtime is a schematization on a course computational grid. In particular the last measure can introduce significant numerical diffusion into the solution. This is a major drawback, in particular if the reservoir release has steep gradients which we often find in hydropower reservoirs. In this work, four different routing models are assessed concerning their implementation in the predictive control of the Três Marias Reservoir located at the Upper River São Francisco in Brazil: i) a fully dynamic model using the software package SOBEK; ii) a semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model with Muskingum-Cunge routing for the flow reaches of interest, the MGB-IPH (Modelo Hidrológico de Grandes Bacias - Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas); iii) a reservoir routing approach; and iv) a diffusive wave model. The last two models are implemented in the RTC-Tool toolbox. The overall model accuracy between the simplified models in RTC-Tools (iii, iv) and the more sophisticated SOBEK model (i) are

  10. The effects of overwinter flowson the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout size classes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah.

    SciTech Connect

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-06-25

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. Until recently, and since the early 1990s, single daily peak releases or steady flows have been the operational pattern of the dam during the winter period. However, releases from Flaming Gorge Reservoir followed a double-peak pattern (two daily flow peaks) during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. Because there is little recent long-term history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on trout body condition in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from winter double-peaking operations (Hayse et al. 2009). Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of historical trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate the potential effects of hydropower operations. The results from analyses based on the combined size classes of trout (85-630 mm) were presented in Magnusson et al. (2008). The results of this earlier analysis suggested possible relationships between trout condition and flow, but concern that some of the relationships resulted from size-based effects (e.g., apparent changes in condition may have been related to concomitant changes in size distribution, because small trout may have responded differently to flow than large trout) prompted additional analysis of within-size class relationships. This report presents the results of analyses of three different size classes of trout (small: 200-299 mm, medium: 300-399 mm, and large: {ge}400 mm body length). We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming

  11. Hydroelectric dams need billions for rehab

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, F.H.; Soast, A.

    1993-01-11

    Many of the Corps of Engineers older hydroelectric dams will require major rehabilitation over the next ten years. Preventive maintenance, repair work, and major rehabilitation of the Corp's hydro dams in inadequate because the revenue generated by sales of electricity, by law, is returned to the Treasury. Most multimillion dollar rehabilitation projects require specific approval for funding by Congress and securing it is a long and difficult process. It is hoped the funding problem will soon be addressed by the Clinton administration. Already, nearly one-sixth of the 2,154 Mw of hydro is unavailable because with hydro units are either out of service or operating at less than full capacity.

  12. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  13. ECHETA DAM RIPRAP ON RESERVOIR SIDE OF THE DAM AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ECHETA DAM RIP-RAP ON RESERVOIR SIDE OF THE DAM AT BREACH. VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Echeta Dam & Reservoir, 2.9 miles east of Echeta Road at Echeta Railroad Siding at County Road 293, Echeta, Campbell County, WY

  14. 32. AERIAL VIEW OF TIETON DAM, UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. AERIAL VIEW OF TIETON DAM, UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM (Trashrack-structure for outlet at lower left in reservoir, spillway at upper left. Reservoir nearly empty due to drought.) - Tieton Dam, South & East of State Highway 12, Naches, Yakima County, WA

  15. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Overwintering Summer Steelhead Fallback and Kelt Passage at The Dalles Dam 2008-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Weiland, Mark A.

    2009-09-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of overwintering summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fallback and early out-migrating steelhead kelts downstream passage at The Dalles Dam (TDA) sluiceway and turbines during fall/winter 2008 and early spring 2009, respectively. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). Operating the sluiceway reduces the potential for hydropower production. However, this surface flow outlet may be the optimal non-turbine route for fallbacks in late fall after the sluiceway is typically closed for juvenile fish passage and for overwintering summer steelhead and kelt passage in the early spring before the start of the voluntary spill season. The goal of this study was to characterize adult steelhead spatial and temporal distributions and passage rates at the sluiceway and turbines, and their movements in front of the sluiceway at TDA to inform fisheries managers’ and engineers’ decision-making relative to sluiceway operations. The study periods were from November 1 to December 15, 2008 (45 days) and from March 1 to April 9, 2009 (40 days). The study objectives were to 1) estimate the number and distribution of overwintering summer steelhead fallbacks and kelt-sized acoustic targets passing into the sluiceway and turbines at TDA during the two study periods, respectively, and 2) assess the behavior of these fish in front of sluice entrances. We obtained fish passage data using fixed-location hydroacoustics and fish behavior data using acoustic imaging. For the overwintering summer steelhead, fallback occurred throughout the 45-day study period. We estimated that a total of 1790 ± 250 (95% confidence interval) summer steelhead targets passed through the powerhouse intakes and operating sluices during November 1 to December 15, 2008. Ninety five percent of these fish passed through the sluiceway. Therefore, without the sluiceway as

  16. The possible negative consequences of underground dam and reservoir construction and operation in coastal karst areas: an example of the HEPP Ombla near Dubrovnik (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roje-Bonacci, T.; Bonacci, O.

    2013-04-01

    The Ombla Spring represents a typical abundant coastal karst spring located in the vicinity of town of the Dubrovnik (Croatia). Its outlet is at an altitude of 2.5 m above sea level (m a.s.l.) and the water from it immediately flows into the Adriatic Sea. The minimum and maximum measured discharges are 3.96 m3 s-1 and 117 m3 s-1, respectively. The Trebišnjica River traverses through its catchment. The mean annual discharge, after the canalization of over 60 km of its watercourse with spray concrete (in the time span 1981-2011), is 24.05 m3 s-1. Before massive civil engineering work which took place during 1968-1980, the mean annual discharge was 28.35 m3 s-1. There is a project for construction of the hydro electric power plant (HEPP) Ombla, which will exclusively use groundwater from the Ombla Spring karst aquifer. The underground dam will be constructed about 200 m behind the existing karst spring outflow in the karst massif, by injecting a grout curtain. Top of the grout curtain is planned to be at an altitude of 130, m a.s.l. This karst system is complex, sensitive, vulnerable and ecologically extremely valuable. The grout curtain planned to be realized, as well as the HEPP Ombla development, could lead to extremely dangerous technical and environmental consequences. In this paper some potential, but very probable, negative consequences of the HEPP Ombla construction and development are explained.

  17. Water-quality data for the Ohio River from New Cumberland Dam to Pike Island Dam, West Virginia and Ohio, May-October 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, K.F.; Messinger, Terence; Waldron, M.C.; Faulkenburg, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains water-quality data for the Ohio River from river mile 51.1 (3.3 miles upstream from New Cumberland Dam) to river mile 84.0 (0.2 miles upstream from Pike Island Dam) that were collected during the summer and fall of 1993. The data were collected to establish the water quality of the Ohio River and to use in assessing the proposed effects of hydropower development on the water quality of the Ohio River. Water quality was determined by a combination of repeated synoptic field measurements, continuous-record monitoring, and laboratory analyses. Synoptic measurements were made along a longitudinal transect with 18 mid-channel sampling sites; cross-sectional transects of water-quality measurements were made at 5 of these sites. Water-quality measurements also were made at two sites located on the back-channel (Ohio) side of Browns Island. At each longitudinal-transect and back-channel sampling site, measurements were made of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen conentration. Longitudinal-transect and back-channel stations were sampled at four depths (at the surface, about 3.3 feet below the surface, middle of the water column, and near the bottom of the river). Cross-sectional transects consisted of three to four detailed vertical profiles of the same characteristics. Water samples were collected from three depths at the mid-channel vertical profile in each cross-sectional transect and were analyzed for concentrations of phytoplankton photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Estimates of the depth of light penetration (Secchi-disk transparency) were made at pigment-sampling locations whenever light and river-surface conditions were appropriate. Synoptic sampling usually was completed in 12 hours or less and was repeated 10 times from May through October 1993. Continuous-record monitoring of water quality consisted of hourly measurements of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen

  18. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Poch, L. A.; Veselka, T. D.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.

    2012-07-16

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year 2011. It is the third report in a series examining financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), and a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011). An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes both that operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and the experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP powerplant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental releases, the GTMax model was also used to gain insights into the interplay among ROD operating criteria, exceptions that were made to criteria to accommodate the experimental releases, and

  19. Dam health diagnosis and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhongru; Su, Huaizhi

    2005-06-01

    Based on the bionics principle in the life sciences field, we regard a dam as a vital and intelligent system. A bionics model is constructed to observe, diagnose and evaluate dam health. The model is composed of a sensing system (nerve), central processing unit (cerebrum) and decision-making implement (organism). In addition, the model, index system and engineering method on dam health assessment are presented. The proposed theories and methods are applied to evaluate dynamically the health of one concrete dam.

  20. Impacts of Climate Change on Regulated Streamflow, Hydrologic Extremes, Hydropower Production, and Sediment Discharge in the Skagit River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Se-Yeun; Hamlet, Alan F.; Grossman, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the impacts of climate change on the hydrologic response of the Skagit River are likely to be substantial under natural (i.e. unregulated) conditions. To assess the combined effects of changing natural flow and dam operations that determine impacts to regulated flow, a new integrated daily-time-step reservoir operations model was constructed for the Skagit River Basin. The model was used to simulate current reservoir operating policies for historical flow conditions and for projected flows for the 2040s (2030–2059) and 2080s (2070–2099). The results show that climate change is likely to cause substantial seasonal changes in both natural and regulated flow, with more flow in the winter and spring, and less in summer. Hydropower generation in the basin follows these trends, increasing (+ 19%) in the winter/ spring, and decreasing (- 29%) in the summer by the 2080s. The regulated 100-year flood is projected to increase by 23% by the 2040s and 49% by the 2080s. Peak winter sediment loading in December is projected to increase by 335% by the 2080s in response to increasing winter flows, and average annual sediment loading increases from 2.3 to 5.8 teragrams (+ 149%) per year by the 2080s. Regulated extreme low flows (7Q10) are projected to decrease by about 30% by the 2080s, but remain well above natural low flows. Both current and proposed alternative flood control operations are shown to be largely ineffective in mitigating increasing flood risks in the lower Skagit due to the distribution of flow in the basin during floods.

  1. Evaluating Dam Safety Retrofits With Uncertain Benefits: The Case of Mohawk Dam (Walhonding River, Ohio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resendiz-Carrillo, Daniel; Lave, Lester B.

    1990-05-01

    Mohawk Dam, part of the Muskingum basin flood control system, was built in 1938 and is operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps). Since this high-hazard dam could not survive a probable maximum flood (PMF), the Corps conducted a study to determine the least expensive means of enabling the dam to survive a PMF. Applying a previously proposed framework to select the social cost minimizing capacity of a dam, we show that Mohawk Dam had sufficient capacity that any retrofit has a social cost larger than expected benefits. Sensitivity analyses were performed adjusting the peak flow distribution, the costs of modification, and downstream flood damage, as well as the possibility of loss of life. For any reasonable value of these variables the conclusion does not change that the structure already met so high a safety goal regarding extreme floods that no retrofit is needed. Using risk-based methods to perform reservoir safety evaluations, as recommended by a National Research Council committee in 1985, is indeed feasible. Furthermore, their use provides valuable insight and guidance into the selection of strategies to enhance the safety of dams.

  2. Alpine hydropower in a low carbon economy: Assessing the local implication of global policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    In the global transition towards a more efficient and low-carbon economy, renewable energy plays a major role in displacing fossil fuels, meeting global energy demand while reducing carbon dioxide emissions. In Europe, Variable Renewable Sources (VRS), such as wind and solar power sources, are becoming a relevant share of the generation portfolios in many countries. Beside the indisputable social and environmental advantages of VRS, on the short medium term the VRS-induced lowering energy prices and increasing price's volatility might challenge traditional power sources and, among them, hydropower production, because of smaller incomes and higher maintenance costs associated to a more flexible operation of power systems. In this study, we focus on the Swiss hydropower sector analysing how different low-carbon targets and strategies established at the Swiss and European level might affect energy price formation and thus impact - through hydropower operation - water availability and ecosystems services at the catchment scale. We combine a hydrological model to simulate future water availability and an electricity market model to simulate future evolution of energy prices based on official Swiss and European energy roadmaps and CO2 price trends in the European Union. We use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to design alternative hydropower reservoir operation strategies, aiming to maximise the hydropower companies' income or to provide reliable energy supply with respect to the energy demand. This integrated model allows analysing to which extent global low-carbon policies impact reservoir operation at the local scale, and to gain insight on how to prioritise compensation measures and/or adaptation strategies to mitigate the impact of VRS on hydropower companies in increasingly water constrained settings. Numerical results are shown for a real-world case study in the Swiss Alps.

  3. Regional assessment of the hydropower potential of rivers in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kling, Harald; Stanzel, Philipp; Fuchs, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The 15 countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) face a constant shortage of energy supply, which limits sustained economic growth. Currently there are about 50 operational hydropower plants and about 40 more are under construction or refurbishment. The potential for future hydropower development - especially for small-scale plants in rural areas - is assumed to be large, but exact data are missing. This study supports the energy initiatives of the "ECOWAS Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency" (ECREEE) by assessing the hydropower potential of all rivers in West Africa. For more than 500,000 river reaches the hydropower potential was computed from channel slope and mean annual discharge. In large areas there is a lack of discharge observations. Therefore, an annual water balance model was used to simulate discharge. The model domain covers 5 Mio km², including e.g. the Niger, Volta, and Senegal River basins. The model was calibrated with observed data of 410 gauges, using precipitation and potential evapotranspiration data as inputs. Historic variations of observed annual discharge between 1950 and 2010 are simulated well by the model. As hydropower plants are investments with a lifetime of several decades we also assessed possible changes in future discharge due to climate change. To this end the water balance model was driven with bias-corrected climate projections of 15 Regional Climate Models for two emission scenarios of the CORDEX-Africa ensemble. The simulation results for the river network were up-scaled to sub-areas and national summaries. This information gives a regional quantification of the hydropower potential, expected climate change impacts, as well as a regional classification for general suitability (or non-suitability) of hydropower plant size - from small-scale to large projects.

  4. Japanese experiences to enhance the World Commission on Dams guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Mikiyasu; Fujikura, Ryo; Yoshida, Tsuneaki

    2002-08-01

    The impact of large dam construction projects on the human environment, and particularly on resettlers, is often the main reason for opposition toward large dam construction projects. The World Commission on Dams (WCD) published its only and final report Dams and Development in November 2000. The report contains a set of 26 guidelines. The WCD itself mentioned that the guidelines are not intended as a blueprint, and that these should be used as a starting point for discussion. Despite the clarification by the WCD, some non-governmental organizations argue that these guidelines must be immediately adopted for all future large dam projects. The authors assume that only several of these guidelines are operational and many of these are either too experimental or theoretical to be put into use. Furthermore, some seemingly ready for operation guidelines still need to be enhanced to be really operational in the real world. About 2000 large dams were constructed in Japan after World War II. Various principles and mechanisms were then developed to better address the issues related to involuntary resettlement. The knowledge accumulated through large dam construction projects in Japan may be applied to other countries. The aim of this paper is to identify the lessons, out of the experiences gained in Japan through large dam construction projects in the past, which could be applicable for future large dam construction projects in other nations. The socio-economic setting, as well as the legal framework, in Japan differs much from those in the developing world. Nevertheless, the following aspects of the experiences gained in Japan are found to be both applicable and useful for future large dam construction projects abroad: (a) integrity of community in the negotiation process, (b) provision of alternative occupations, (c) funding mechanism in the post-project period, (d) measures needed during planning process; and (e) making resettlers shareholders. These lessons may prove

  5. Assessment of Natural Stream Sites for Hydroelectric Dams in the Pacific Northwest Region

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall; Kristin L. Verdin; Randy D. Lee

    2012-03-01

    This pilot study presents a methodology for modeling project characteristics using a development model of a stream obstructing dam. The model is applied to all individual stream reaches in hydrologic region 17, which encompasses nearly all of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Project site characteristics produced by the modeling technique include: capacity potential, principal dam dimensions, number of required auxiliary dams, total extent of the constructed impoundment boundary, and the surface area of the resulting reservoir. Aggregated capacity potential values for the region are presented in capacity categories including total, that at existing dams, within federal and environmentally sensitive exclusion zones, and the balance which is consider available for greenfield development within the limits of the study. Distributions of site characteristics for small hydropower sites are presented and discussed. These sites are screened to identify candidate small hydropower sites and distributions of the site characteristics of this site population are presented and discussed. Recommendations are made for upgrading the methodology and extensions to make the results more accessible and available on a larger scale.

  6. Introduction of an Emergency Response Plan for flood loading of Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Muda, R. S.; Razad, A. Z. Abdul

    2016-03-01

    Sultan Abu Bakar Dam Emergency Response Plan (ERP) is designed to assist employees for identifying, monitoring, responding and mitigation dam safety emergencies. This paper is outlined to identification of an organization chart, responsibility for emergency management team and triggering level in Sultan Abu Bakar Dam ERP. ERP is a plan that guides responsibilities for proper operation of Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in respond to emergency incidents affecting the dam. Based on this study four major responsibilities are needed for Abu Bakar Dam owing to protect any probable risk for downstream which they can be Incident Commander, Deputy Incident Commander, On-Scene Commander, Civil Engineer. In conclusion, having organization charts based on ERP studies can be helpful for decreasing the probable risks in any projects such as Abu Bakar Dam and it is a way to identify and suspected and actual dam safety emergencies.

  7. Evaluating run of the river hydropower feasibility and efficiency under climate change for UK study sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasten-Zapata, Ernesto; Moggridge, Helen; Jones, Julie

    2015-04-01

    As renewable energy generation has been encouraged by the UK Government, hydropower importance has also been highlighted. Moreover, the UK Environment Agency has mapped feasible run of the river (ROR) hydropower sites within England and Wales and small hydropower schemes have been provided with economic grants by the Government to support their initial operation. However, ROR hydropower schemes depend on the available river flow volumes and are therefore vulnerable to variations in river regimes. Therefore, an analysis of the impacts of climate change towards existing and feasible run of the river schemes is important and required. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the impacts of climate change on river regimes and its implications to installed and feasible ROR hydropower operations by analyzing four study sites distributed across the UK. Study sites present different characteristics accounting for diverse properties of hydropower schemes including: catchment characteristics (topography, land use, climate, etc.), turbine type, turbine efficiency and head. Both feasible and currently operating schemes will be included in the analysis. Operating sites will be analysed according to their installed turbine type, hands off flow and maximum generation. On the other hand, feasible sites will be analysed considering different possible turbine types and changes in river flow that could affect the hands off flow and maximum generation thresholds. Future climate is simulated based on the temperature and precipitation outputs from Global Climate Models. Due to their relatively coarse resolution, output from these models will be downscaled, bias corrected and coupled to previously calibrated and validated hydrological models for each of the study catchments (linked to poster in session CL5.5/CR3.7/HS4.8/SSS12.14). By coupling model simulations of future climate change and hydrological models, future river flow volumes will be estimated and used as inputs for

  8. User's Guide Virtual Hydropower Prospector Version 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall; Sera E. White; Julie A. Brizzee; Randy D. Lee

    2005-11-01

    The Virtual Hydropower Prospector is a web-based geographic information system (GIS) application for displaying U.S. water energy resource sites on hydrologic region maps. The application assists the user in locating sites of interest and performing preliminary, development feasibility assessments. These assessments are facilitated by displaying contextual features in addition to the water energy resource sites such as hydrograpy, roads, power infrastructure, populated places, and land use and control. This guide provides instructions for operating the application to select what features are displayed and the extent of the map view. It also provides tools for selecting features of particular interest and displaying their attribute information.

  9. Analysis of deformations of large earth dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak-Chrzanowski, Anna; Massiéra, Michel; Chrzanowski, Adam

    2007-09-01

    Safety of earth dams depends on the proper design, construction, and monitoring of actual behaviour during the construction and during the operation of the structure. The most critical factor in the assessment of the safety threshold value of any structure is the acceleration of its deformation. Therefore, the designed accuracy of monitoring surveys must fulfill requirements of detecting accelerations at critical locations of the investigated object. As an example, time dependant behavior of a large embankment dam during filling up the reservoir has been analyzed and verified by comparing monitoring results with the deterministic (prediction) model of the deformation. The geotechnical and geodetic monitoring besides providing a warning system in case of an abnormal behaviour of the dam, may be used as a tool for a verification of design parameters where geotechnical parameters are of the highest importance. Modeling of deformation of earth dams is a complex process in which one should consider the nonlinear behaviour of the construction material, interaction between the structure and the underlying foundation strata, influence of water load on the structure and on the foundation bedrock, and the effects of water saturation. Due to the uncertainty of the model parameters, careful monitoring of the dam and its surroundings are required in order to verify and enhance the model. In addition, with properly designed monitoring surveys, one may also determine the actual deformation mechanism. The finite element method may be useful tool in the proper design of the monitoring scheme by providing information on the locations and magnitude of the expected maximum displacements and velocites of movements. The discussed problems are illustrated by three types of earth dams located in California, U.S.A. and in Quebec, Canada.

  10. 5 CFR 532.269 - Special wage schedules for Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army navigation lock and dam employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Engineers, U.S. Army navigation lock and dam employees. 532.269 Section 532.269 Administrative Personnel... Determinations § 532.269 Special wage schedules for Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army navigation lock and dam... and dam equipment or who repair and maintain navigation lock and dam operating machinery and...

  11. Hydropower: A Regulatory Guide to Permitting and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Gilbert A.

    1992-12-01

    The design, construction and operation of a hydropower project can result in many potential impacts. These potential impacts are of concern to a host of federal, state, and local authorities. Early consultation with land and water management, fish and wildlife resource protection, and health and human safety-oriented agencies should occur to determine specific concerns and study requirements for each proposed project. This Guide to Permitting and Licensing outlines the characteristic features of attractive hydropower sites; summarizes an array of developmental constraints; illustrates potential environmental impacts and concerns; and summarizes all federal, state, and local permitting and licensing requirements.

  12. Hydropower : A Regulatory Guide to Permitting and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Gilbert A.

    1992-12-01

    The design, construction and operation of a hydropower project can result in many potential impacts. These potential impacts are of concern to a host of federal, state, and local authorities. Early consultation with land and water management, fish and wildlife resource protection, and health and human safety-oriented agencies should occur to determine specific concerns and study requirements for each proposed project. This Guide to Permitting and Licensing outlines the characteristic features of attractive hydropower sites; summarizes an array of developmental constraints; illustrates potential environmental impacts and concerns; and summarizes all federal, state, and local permitting and licensing requirements.

  13. Influence of multiple dam passage on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Columbia River estuary and coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M

    2013-04-23

    Multiple dam passage during seaward migration is thought to reduce the subsequent survival of Snake River Chinook salmon. This hypothesis developed because juvenile Chinook salmon from the Snake River, the Columbia River's largest tributary, migrate >700 km through eight hydropower dams and have lower adult return rates than downstream populations that migrate through only 3 or 4 dams. Using a large-scale telemetry array, we tested whether survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon is reduced in the estuary and coastal ocean relative to a downstream, hatchery-reared population from the Yakima River. During the initial 750-km, 1-mo-long migration through the estuary and coastal ocean, we found no evidence of differential survival; therefore, poorer adult returns of Snake River Chinook may develop far from the Columbia River. Thus, hydrosystem mitigation efforts may be ineffective if differential mortality rates develop in the North Pacific Ocean for reasons unrelated to dam passage. PMID:23576733

  14. Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropower Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-01

    This document summarizes the opportunities and challenges for low-cost renewable hydrogen production from wind and hydropower. The Workshop on Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropower was held September 9-10, 2003.

  15. New Stream-Reach Hydropower Development (NSD) Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-25

    This fact sheet explores the more than 65 gigawatts (GW) of sustainable hydropower potential in U.S. stream-reaches, according to the hydropower resource assessment funded by DOE and executed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  16. Detecting the effects of cascade hydropower reservoirs on eco-flow metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, T.; Zhao, J.

    2012-12-01

    Over evolutionary time, the natural hydrological events of floods and droughts have become an integral component of riverine ecosystems. However, human activities, particularly reservoir operations, can greatly alter the natural flow regime and pose great impacts on riverine ecosystems. This study analyses the effects of cascade hydropower reservoir operation on eco-flow metrics based on inflow and release data of reservoirs in southwest China, with a focus on the Xiaowan reservoir (upper reservoir with multi-annual storage capacity) and the Jinghong reservoir (lower reservoir with weekly storage capacity). For the upper Xiaowan Reservoir, the analysis results show that the eco-surplus and eco-deficit (Vogel, et al, 2007; Gao, et al., 2009 ) can capture its impacts of hydropower operation on eco-flow metrics very well. However, comparative analysis of the lower Jinghong reservoir based on daily and hourly data shows that eco-surplus and eco-deficit measured with flow duration curve of daily and hourly flow data are not sensitive indices, which is attributed to the small regulating capacity of the Jinghong reservoir. It is shown that the negative impacts of hydropower operation of the Jinghong reservoir can be characterized by the changing rate of flow. These results indicate that eco-surplus and eco-deficit are good representative indices for evaluating seasonal reservoir operation, but more attention should be paid to the changing rate of flow for short term hydropower reservoir operation. This study implies that coordination of cascade reservoirs can be an effective way to mitigate the negative impacts of hydropower operation on ecosystem.

  17. China`s Three Gorges Dam: Mammoth opportunities - and risks

    SciTech Connect

    Maize, K.P.

    1996-05-01

    China is embarking on an infrastructure project of almost unimaginable proportions. If it succeeds, it will be one of the modern wonders of the world. If it fails, the Chinese government could be impoverished for a generation. The Three Gorges Dam represents an audacious gamble for infrastructure-starved China. Like some U.S. utilities in the 1970`s and 1980`s, China is taking a giant roll of the dice on a single generating project. If it succeeds, the dam will be one of the modern wonders of the world. If it fails, China`s government could be impoverished for a generation. The scope of the project is breathtaking. Designed for flood control, navigation and hydropower, the dam will rise 185 meters, spanning a two-kilometer gap and creating a reservoir that will reach 600 kilometers westward to Chongqing. Twin five stage ship locks will lift river boats with 10,000 tonnes of cargo capacity, tripling the size of the vessels that can reach Chongqing.

  18. Fish navigation of large dams emerges from their modulation of flow field experience

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, R. Andrew; Politano, Marcela; Garvin, Justin W.; Nestler, John M.; Hay, Duncan; Anderson, James J.; Weber, Larry J.; Dimperio, Eric; Smith, David L.; Timko, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Navigating obstacles is innate to fish in rivers, but fragmentation of the world’s rivers by more than 50,000 large dams threatens many of the fish migrations these waterways support. One limitation to mitigating the impacts of dams on fish is that we have a poor understanding of why some fish enter routes engineered for their safe travel around the dam but others pass through more dangerous routes. To understand fish movement through hydropower dam environments, we combine a computational fluid dynamics model of the flow field at a dam and a behavioral model in which simulated fish adjust swim orientation and speed to modulate their experience to water acceleration and pressure (depth). We fit the model to data on the passage of juvenile Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) at seven dams in the Columbia/Snake River system. Our findings from reproducing observed fish movement and passage patterns across 47 flow field conditions sampled over 14 y emphasize the role of experience and perception in the decision making of animals that can inform opportunities and limitations in living resources management and engineering design. PMID:24706826

  19. Fish navigation of large dams emerges from their modulation of flow field experience.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, R Andrew; Politano, Marcela; Garvin, Justin W; Nestler, John M; Hay, Duncan; Anderson, James J; Weber, Larry J; Dimperio, Eric; Smith, David L; Timko, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Navigating obstacles is innate to fish in rivers, but fragmentation of the world's rivers by more than 50,000 large dams threatens many of the fish migrations these waterways support. One limitation to mitigating the impacts of dams on fish is that we have a poor understanding of why some fish enter routes engineered for their safe travel around the dam but others pass through more dangerous routes. To understand fish movement through hydropower dam environments, we combine a computational fluid dynamics model of the flow field at a dam and a behavioral model in which simulated fish adjust swim orientation and speed to modulate their experience to water acceleration and pressure (depth). We fit the model to data on the passage of juvenile Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) at seven dams in the Columbia/Snake River system. Our findings from reproducing observed fish movement and passage patterns across 47 flow field conditions sampled over 14 y emphasize the role of experience and perception in the decision making of animals that can inform opportunities and limitations in living resources management and engineering design. PMID:24706826

  20. Big dams and salmon evolution: changes in thermal regimes and their potential evolutionary consequences.

    PubMed

    Angilletta, Michael J; Ashley Steel, E; Bartz, Krista K; Kingsolver, Joel G; Scheuerell, Mark D; Beckman, Brian R; Crozier, Lisa G

    2008-05-01

    Dams designed for hydropower and other purposes alter the environments of many economically important fishes, including Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We estimated that dams on the Rogue River, the Willamette River, the Cowlitz River, and Fall Creek decreased water temperatures during summer and increased water temperatures during fall and winter. These thermal changes undoubtedly impact the behavior, physiology, and life histories of Chinook salmon. For example, relatively high temperatures during the fall and winter should speed growth and development, leading to early emergence of fry. Evolutionary theory provides tools to predict selective pressures and genetic responses caused by this environmental warming. Here, we illustrate this point by conducting a sensitivity analysis of the fitness consequences of thermal changes caused by dams, mediated by the thermal sensitivity of embryonic development. Based on our model, we predict Chinook salmon likely suffered a decrease in mean fitness after the construction of a dam in the Rogue River. Nevertheless, these demographic impacts might have resulted in strong selection for compensatory strategies, such as delayed spawning by adults or slowed development by embryos. Because the thermal effects of dams vary throughout the year, we predict dams impacted late spawners more than early spawners. Similar analyses could shed light on the evolutionary consequences of other environmental perturbations and their interactions. PMID:25567632

  1. Hydropower potential of the New York State barge canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, A. S.; Brown, R. S.

    1980-09-01

    The physical characteristics of the canal system as it relates to hydropower development were studied. The hydropower potential of the canal system was determined, including an inventory of existing and proposed hydropower plants. The remaining unrealized potential of the canal system was evaluated. Various sites were selected for further investigation on the basis of the unrealized potential of the barge canal system. Preliminary estimates of the engineering and economic feasibility of developing hydropower at these sites were also studied.

  2. A methodology to quantify and optimize time complementarity between hydropower and solar PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kougias, Ioannis; Szabó, Sándor; Monforti-Ferrario, Fabio; Huld, Thomas; Bódis, Katalin

    2016-04-01

    Hydropower and solar energy are expected to play a major role in achieving renewable energy sources' (RES) penetration targets. However, the integration of RES in the energy mix needs to overcome the technical challenges that are related to grid's operation. Therefore, there is an increasing need to explore approaches where different RES will operate under a synergetic approach. Ideally, hydropower and solar PV systems can be jointly developed in such systems where their electricity output profiles complement each other as much as possible and minimize the need for reserve capacities and storage costs. A straightforward way to achieve that is by optimizing the complementarity among RES systems both over time and spatially. The present research developed a methodology that quantifies the degree of time complementarity between small-scale hydropower stations and solar PV systems and examines ways to increase it. The methodology analyses high-resolution spatial and temporal data for solar radiation obtained from the existing PVGIS model (available online at: http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pvgis/) and associates it with hydrological information of water inflows to a hydropower station. It builds on an exhaustive optimization algorithm that tests possible alterations of the PV system installation (azimuth, tilt) aiming to increase the complementarity, with minor compromises in the total solar energy output. The methodology has been tested in several case studies and the results indicated variations among regions and different hydraulic regimes. In some cases a small compromise in the solar energy output showed significant increases of the complementarity, while in other cases the effect is not that strong. Our contribution aims to present these findings in detail and initiate a discussion on the role and gains of increased complementarity between solar and hydropower energies. Reference: Kougias I, Szabó S, Monforti-Ferrario F, Huld T, Bódis K (2016). A methodology for

  3. Modeling the impact of a hydropower reservoir on the habitat of a megaherbivore in the Black Volta Basin in Ghana, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manful, Desmond

    2010-05-01

    The Black Volta watershed is approximately 134 000 km2 in size at the gauge at Bamboi. It is part of the main 414 000 km2 Volta system. The Volta river was dammed at Akosombo in 1965 resulting in the largest man-made lake in the world, the Volta Lake. The Bui dam is a new 400 MW scheme currently under development on the Black Volta River in the Bui national park in Ghana. The reservoir created by the Bui barrage is expected to impact (through inundation) the habitat of two species of hippos know to exist in the park, the Hippopotamus amphibius and the Choeropsis liberiensis. Computer-based models present a unique opportunity to assess quantitatively the impact of the new reservoir on the habitat of the target species in this case the H. amphibious. Until this undertaking, there were very few studies documenting the habitat of the H. amphibious let alone model it. The work and subsequent presentation will show the development of a habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The Habitat Information retrieval Program based on Streamflow Analysis, in short HIPStrA, is a one dimensional (1D) in-stream, spatially explicit hybrid construct that combines physico-chemical evidence and expert knowledge to forecast river habitat suitability (Hs) for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The version of the model presented is specifically developed to assess the impact of a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam on potential dwelling areas in the Bui gorge for hippos. Accordingly, this version of HIPStrA simulates a special reservoir suitability index (Rsi), a metric that captures the "hippo friendliness" of any lake or reservoir. The impact of measured and simulated flood events as well as low flows, representing extreme events is also assessed. Recommendations are made for the operating rules of the reservoir in the post-construction phase of the dam. A great deal of work has been done on the effects of stream flow changes on fish especially salmonids. Very little work however has

  4. Risk Perception Analysis Related To Existing Dams In Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solimene, Pellegrino

    2013-04-01

    In the first part of this work, the progress of Italian National Rules about dams design, construction and operation are presented to highlight the strong connection existing between the promulgation of new decrees, as a consequence of a dam accidents, and the necessity to prevent further loss of lives and goods downstream. Following the Gleno Dam failure (1923), a special Ministerial Committee wrote out the first Regulations and made the proposal to establish, within the High Council of Public Works, a special department that become soon the "Dam Service", with the tasks of control and supervision about construction and operation phases of the dams and their reservoirs. A different definition of tasks and the structure of Dam Service were provided in accordance with law n° 183/1989, which transferred all the technical services to the Office of the Prime Minister; the aim was to join the Dam Office with the Department for National Technical Services, with the objective of increasing the knowledge of the territory and promoting the study on flood propagation downstream in case of operations on bottom outlet or hypothetical dam-break. In fact, population living downstream is not ready to accept any amount of risk because has not a good knowledge of the efforts of experts involved in dam safety, both from the operators and from the safety Authority. So it's important to optimize all the activities usually performed in a dam safety program and improve the emergency planning as a response to people's primary needs and feeling about safety from Civil Protection Authority. In the second part of the work, a definition of risk is provided as the relationship existing between probability of occurrence and loss, setting out the range within to plan for prevention (risk mitigation), thanks to the qualitative assessment of the minimum safety level that is suited to assign funds to plan for Civil Protection (loss mitigation). The basic meaning of the reliability of a zoned

  5. Exploring current and projected tradeoffs between hydropower profitability and reliability of supply in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Burlando, P.

    2015-12-01

    The recent spreading of renewable energy across Europe and the associated production variability and uncertainty are emerging challenges for hydropower system operation. Widely distributed and highly intermittent solar and wind power generation systems, along with feed-in-tariffs, at which they are remunerated, are threating the operation of traditional hydropower systems. For instance, in countries where the transition to a larger production by means of renewable power systems is a novel process, e.g. Switzerland, many hydropower companies are operating their reservoirs with low or no profits, claiming for a revision of the entire energy market system. This situation goes along with the problem of ensuring energy supply both nowadays and in the future, with changing energy demand and available water resources. In this work, we focus on a hydropower system in the Swiss Alps to explore how different operating policies can cope with both adequate energy supply and profitable operation under current and future climate and socio-economic conditions. We investigate the operation of the Mattmark reservoir in South-West Switzerland. Mattmark is a pumped reservoir of 98 106 m3 fed by a natural catchment of 37 km2 and contributing catchments, summing up to 51 km2, connected by several diversion channels. The hydrological regime, snow- and ice-melt dominated, has already experienced changes in the last decades due to glacier retreat and is expected to be strongly impacted by climate change in the future. We use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to explore current tradeoffs between profitability and secure supply. We then investigate how tradeoffs may evolve in time under different climate change projections and energy market scenarios. Results inform on the co-evolution of climate- and socio-economic induced variations, thus unveiling potential co-benefit situations to hydropower generation and providing insights to future energy market design.

  6. 75 FR 16456 - Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments March 26, 2010.... c. Date filed: July 22, 2009. d. Applicant: Inglis Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Inglis Hydropower Project. f. Location: The proposed project would be located at the existing Inglis Bypass...

  7. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Overwintering Summer Steelhead Fallback and Kelt Passage at The Dalles Dam Turbines, Early Spring 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.

    2012-02-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of overwintering summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fallback and early out-migrating steelhead kelts downstream passage at The Dalles Dam turbines during early spring 2011. The study was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) to investigate whether adult steelhead are passing through turbines during early spring before annual sluiceway operations typically begin. The sluiceway surface flow outlet is the optimal non-turbine route for adult steelhead, although operating the sluiceway reduces hydropower production. This is a follow-up study to similar studies of adult steelhead passage at the sluiceway and turbines we conducted in the fall/winter 2008, early spring 2009, fall/winter 2009, and early spring 2010. The goal of the 2011 study was to characterize adult steelhead passage rates at the turbines while the sluiceway was closed so fisheries managers would have additional information to use in decision-making relative to sluiceway operations. Sluiceway operations were not scheduled to begin until April 10, 2011. However, based on a management decision in late February, sluiceway operations commenced on March 1, 2011. Therefore, this study provided estimates of fish passage rates through the turbines, and not the sluiceway, while the sluiceway was open. The study period was March 1 through April 10, 2011 (41 days total). The study objective was to estimate the number and distribution of adult steelhead and kelt-sized targets passing into turbine units. We obtained fish passage data using fixed-location hydroacoustics with transducers deployed at all 22 main turbine units at The Dalles Dam. Adult steelhead passage through the turbines occurred on 9 days during the study (March 9, 12, 30, and 31 and April 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9). We estimated a total of 215 {+-} 98 (95% confidence interval) adult steelhead targets passed through the

  8. Interactions between land use, climate and hydropower in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sample, James

    2015-04-01

    To promote the transition towards a low carbon economy, the Scottish Government has adopted ambitious energy targets, including generating all electricity from renewable sources by 2020. To achieve this, continued investment will be required across a range of sustainable technologies. Hydropower has a long history in Scotland and the present-day operational capacity of ~1.5 GW makes a substantial contribution to the national energy budget. In addition, there remains potential for ~500 MW of further development, mostly in the form of small to medium size run-of-river schemes. Climate change is expected to lead to an intensification of the global hydrological cycle, leading to changes in both the magnitude and seasonality of river flows. There may also be indirect effects, such as changing land use, enhanced evapotranspiration rates and an increased demand for irrigation, all of which could affect the water available for energy generation. Preliminary assessments of hydropower commonly use flow duration curves (FDCs) to estimate the power generation potential at proposed new sites. In this study, we use spatially distributed modelling to generate daily and monthly FDCs on a 1 km by 1 km grid across Scotland, using a variety of future land use and climate change scenarios. Parameter-related uncertainty in the model has been constrained using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to derive posterior probability distributions for key model parameters. Our results give an indication of the sensitivity and vulnerability of Scotland's run-of-river hydropower resources to possible changes in climate and land use. The effects are spatially variable and the range of uncertainty is sometimes large, but consistent patterns do emerge. For example, many locations are predicted to experience enhanced seasonality, with significantly lower power generation potential in the summer months and greater potential during the autumn and winter. Some sites may require

  9. Unconventional Impacts from Unconventional Hydropower Devices: The Environmental Effects of Noise, Electromagnetic Fields, and other Stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelhimer, M.; Cada, G. F.

    2011-12-01

    Conventional dam-based hydropower production produces a variety of environmental stressors that have been debated and confronted for decades. In-current hydrokinetic devices present some of the same or analogous stressors (e.g., changes in sediment transport and deposition, interference with animal movements and migrations, and strike by rotor blades) and some potentially new stressors (e.g., noise during operation, emission of electromagnetic fields [EMF], and toxicity of paints, lubricants, and antifouling coatings). The types of hydrokinetic devices being proposed and tested are varied, as are the locations where they could be deployed, i.e., coastal, estuarine, and big rivers. Differences in hydrology, device type, and the affected aquatic community (marine, estuarine, and riverine) will likely result in a different suite of environmental concerns for each project. Studies are underway at the U.S. Department of Energy's national laboratories to characterize the level of exposure to these stressors and to measure environmental response where possible. In this presentation we present results of studies on EMF, noise, and benthic habitat alteration relevant to hydrokinetic device operation in large rivers. In laboratory studies we tested the behavioral response of a variety of fish and invertebrate organisms to exposure to DC and AC EMF. Our findings suggest that lake sturgeon may be susceptible to EMF like that emitted from underwater cables, but most other species tested are not. Based on recordings of various underwater noise sources, we will show how the spectral density of noises created by hydrokinetic devices compares to that from other anthropogenic sources and natural sources. We will also report the results of hydroacoustic surveys that show how sediments are redistributed behind pilings like those that could be used for mounting hydrokinetic devices. The potential effects of these stressors will be discussed in the context of possible fish population

  10. Optimal operation of a multipurpose multireservoir system in the Eastern Nile River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goor, Q.; Halleux, C.; Mohamed, Y.; Tilmant, A.

    2010-10-01

    The upper Blue Nile River Basin in Ethiopia is a largely untapped resource despite its huge potential for hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. Controversies exist as to whether the numerous infrastructural development projects that are on the drawing board in Ethiopia will generate positive or negative externalities downstream in Sudan and Egypt. This study attempts at (1) examining the (re-)operation of infrastructures, in particular the proposed reservoirs in Ethiopia and the High Aswan Dam and (2) assessing the economic benefits and costs associated with the storage infrastructures in Ethiopia and their spatial and temporal distribution. To achieve this, a basin-wide integrated hydro-economic model has been developed. The model integrates essential hydrologic, economic and institutional components of the river basin in order to explore both the hydrologic and economic consequences of various policy options and planned infrastructural projects. Unlike most of the deterministic economic-hydrologic models reported in the literature, a stochastic programming formulation has been adopted in order to: (i) understand the effect of the hydrologic uncertainty on management decisions, (ii) determine allocation policies that naturally hedge against the hydrological risk, and (iii) assess the relevant risk indicators. The study reveals that the development of four mega dams in the upper part of the Blue Nile Basin would change the drawdown refill cycle of the High Aswan Dam. Should the operation of the reservoirs be coordinated, they would enable an average annual saving of at least 2.5 billion m3 through reduced evaporation losses from the Lake Nasser. Moreover, the new reservoirs (Karadobi, Beko-Abo, Mandaya and Border) in Ethiopia would have significant positive impacts on hydropower generation and irrigation in Ethiopia and Sudan: at the basin scale, the annual energy generation is boosted by 38.5 TWh amongst which 14.2 TWh due to storage. Moreover, the

  11. Optimal operation of a multipurpose multireservoir system in the Eastern Nile River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goor, Q.; Halleux, C.; Mohamed, Y.; Tilmant, A.

    2010-07-01

    The upper Blue Nile River Basin in Ethiopia is a largely untapped resource despite its huge potential for hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. Controversies exist as to whether the numerous infrastructural development projects that are on the drawing board in Ethiopia will generate positive or negative externalities downstream in Sudan and Egypt. This study attempts at 1) examining the (re-)operation of infrastructures, in particular the proposed reservoirs in Ethiopia and the High Aswan Dam and 2) assessing the economic benefits and costs associated with the storage infrastructures in Ethiopia and their spatial and temporal distribution. To achieve this, a basin-wide integrated hydro-economic model has been developed. The model integrates essential hydrologic, economic and institutional components of the river basin in order to explore both the hydrologic and economic consequences of various policy options and planned infrastructural projects. Unlike most of the deterministic economic-hydrologic models reported in the literature, a stochastic programming formulation has been adopted in order to: i) understand the effect of the hydrologic uncertainty on management decisions, ii) determine allocation policies that naturally hedge against the hydrological risk, and iii) assess the relevant risk indicators. The study reveals that the development of four mega dams in the upper part of the Blue Nile Basin would change the drawdown refill cycle of the High Aswan Dam. Should the operation of the reservoirs be coordinated, they would enable an average annual saving of at least 2.5 billion m3 through reduced evaporation losses from the Lake Nasser. Moreover, the new reservoirs (Karadobi, Beko-Abo, Mandaya and Border) in Ethiopia would have significant positive impacts on hydropower generation and irrigation in Ethiopia and Sudan: at the basin scale, the annual energy generation is boosted by 38.5 TWh amongst which 14.2 TWh due to storage. Moreover, the

  12. Experimental Study on Cracking, Reinforcement, and Overall Stability of the Xiaowan Super-High Arch Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Peng; Zhou, Weiyuan; Liu, Hongyuan

    2015-03-01

    The Xiaowan super-high arch dam has faced challenging construction problems. Here, we provide a scientifically-based reference for applying geomechanical model testing to support the nonlinear design of super-high arch dams. We applied experimental similarity theory and techniques. Based on four 3D geomechanical model tests, the dam stress characteristics, deformation distribution, and the safety factors of the dam foundation were identified and compared. We also analyzed cracking characteristics of the up- and downstream dam surfaces and induced joints in the dam heel, the rock mass failure process of the dam-foundation interface, and the abutments. We propose foundation reinforcement measures for weak rock masses, alteration zones, and other faults in the abutments based on the 3D and plane tests each at a different elevation. The results show that all dam deformations remained normal with no yielding or tensile cracking under a normal water load. The reinforced rock mass increased the crack initial safety in the dam heel and toe by ~20 %. The minimum crack initial safety factor ( K 1) of the dam heel was 1.4. The induced joint in the dam heel contributed to a reduction in tensile stress at the upstream dam heel, improving K 1. Compared with similar projects following reinforcement measures, the abutment stiffness and overall stability of the Xiaowan arch dam satisfy operational requirements. Four years of monitoring operations show that key areas near the dam remained normal and the dam foundation is functioning well. Our results may also be applicable to the design and construction of similar projects worldwide.

  13. Pressure dam bearing design for optimum turbomachinery stability

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, J.C.

    1982-04-01

    Design parameters and guidelines for the pressure dam or step journal bearings to suppress oil whirl instabilities are offered. Fixed-lobe bearings in use are seen to have low whirl instability threshold speeds. Oil whirl is a high speed or light load condition. The pressure dam or step journal bearing suppresses oil whirl, and allows operation above 6000 rpm without going unstable. An analysis of the fixed-bore antiwhirl bearing follows. A summary of experimental-theoretical comparisons of pressure dam stability performances is recorded.

  14. Large dams and alluvial rivers in the Anthropocene: The impacts of the Garrison and Oahe Dams on the Upper Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skalak, Katherine; Benthem, Adam J.; Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Galloway, Joel M.; Nustad, Rochelle A.; Wiche, Gregg J.

    2013-01-01

    The Missouri River has had a long history of anthropogenic modification with considerable impacts on river and riparian ecology, form, and function. During the 20th century, several large dam-building efforts in the basin served the needs for irrigation, flood control, navigation, and the generation of hydroelectric power. The managed flow provided a range of uses, including recreation, fisheries, and habitat. Fifteen dams impound the main stem of the river, with hundreds more on tributaries. Though the effects of dams and reservoirs are well-documented, their impacts have been studied individually, with relatively little attention paid to their interaction along a river corridor. We examine the morphological and sedimentological changes in the Upper Missouri River between the Garrison Dam in ND (operational in 1953) and Oahe Dam in SD (operational in 1959). Through historical aerial photography, stream gage data, and cross sectional surveys, we demonstrate that the influence of the upstream dam is still a major control of river dynamics when the backwater effects of the downstream reservoir begin. In the “Anthropocene”, dams are ubiquitous on large rivers and often occur in series, similar to the Garrison Dam Segment. We propose a conceptual model of how interacting dams might affect river geomorphology, resulting in distinct and recognizable morphologic sequences that we term “Inter-Dam sequence” characteristic of major rivers in the US.

  15. 1000 dams down and counting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, James E.; Duda, Jeff J.; Grant, Gordon E.

    2015-01-01

    Forty years ago, the demolition of large dams was mostly fiction, notably plotted in Edward Abbey's novel The Monkey Wrench Gang. Its 1975 publication roughly coincided with the end of large-dam construction in the United States. Since then, dams have been taken down in increasing numbers as they have filled with sediment, become unsafe or inefficient, or otherwise outlived their usefulness (1) (see the figure, panel A). Last year's removals of the 64-m-high Glines Canyon Dam and the 32-m-high Elwha Dam in northwestern Washington State were among the largest yet, releasing over 10 million cubic meters of stored sediment. Published studies conducted in conjunction with about 100 U.S. dam removals and at least 26 removals outside the United States are now providing detailed insights into how rivers respond (2, 3).

  16. Revised financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 1997 through 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center

    2011-01-11

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. This paper examines the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP power plant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental releases, the GTMax model was

  17. Exploring the impact of co-varying water availability and energy price on productivity and profitability of Alpine hydropower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Botter, Martina; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Alpine hydropower systems are experiencing dramatic changes both from the point of view of hydrological conditions, e.g., water availability and frequency of extremes events, and of energy market conditions, e.g., partial or total liberalization of the market and increasing share of renewable power sources. Scientific literature has, so far, mostly focused on the analysis of climate change impacts and associated uncertainty on hydropower operation, underlooking the consequences that socio-economic changes, e.g., energy demand and/or price changes, can have on hydropower productivity and profitability. In this work, we analyse how hydropower reservoir operation is affected by changes in both water availability and energy price. We consider stochastically downscaled climate change scenarios of precipitation and temperature to simulate reservoir inflows using a physically explicit hydrological model. We consider different scenarios of energy demand and generation mix to simulate energy prices using an electricity market model, which includes different generation sources, demand sinks, and features of the transmission lines. We then use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to design the operation of hydropower reservoirs for different purposes, e.g. maximization of revenue and/or energy production. The objective of the work is to assess how the tradeoffs between the multiple operating objectives evolve under different co-varying climate change and socio-economic scenarios and to assess the adaptive capacity of the system. The modeling framework is tested on the real-world case study of the Mattmark reservoir in Switzerland.

  18. Health impacts of large dams

    SciTech Connect

    Lerer, L.B.; Scudder, T.

    1999-03-01

    Large dams have been criticized because of their negative environmental and social impacts. Public health interest largely has focused on vector-borne diseases, such as schistosomiasis, associated with reservoirs and irrigation projects. Large dams also influence health through changes in water and food security, increases in communicable diseases, and the social disruption caused by construction and involuntary resettlement. Communities living in close proximity to large dams often do not benefit from water transfer and electricity generation revenues. A comprehensive health component is required in environmental and social impact assessments for large dam projects.

  19. Oblique view, looking westsouthwest, of top side of diversion dam, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view, looking west-southwest, of top side of diversion dam, showing roller gate operating mechanism (within pier recess) and lift mechanism (within gatehouse). Service bridge is on right, and 60-foot-long roller gate (raised position) over sluiceway is on left - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  20. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-12-01

    In June 1989, the US Department of Energy initiated the development of a National Energy Strategy to identify the energy resources available to support the expanding demand for energy in the US. Public hearings conducted as part of the strategy development process indicated that undeveloped hydropower resources were not well defined. As a result, the Department of Energy established an interagency Hydropower Resource Assessment Team to ascertain the undeveloped hydropower potential. In connection with these efforts by the Department of Energy, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory designed the Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES), which has been used to perform a resource assessment of the undeveloped conventional hydropower potential in over 30 states. This report presents the results of the hydropower resource assessment for the State of Virginia. Undeveloped pumped storage hydropower potential is not included.

  1. A parametric study of the value of hydrological information for irrigation and hydropower management of the Feather River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetzler, E.; Sand, F.; Stevenson, P.; Putnam, M.

    1975-01-01

    A case study analysis is presented of the relationships between improvements in the accuracy, frequency, and timeliness of information used in making hydrological forecasts and economic benefits in the areas of hydropower and irrigation. The area chosen for the case study is the Oroville Dam and Reservoir. Emphasis is placed on the use of timely and accurate mapping of the aerial extent of snow in the basin by earth resources survey systems such as LANDSAT. The subject of benefits resulting from improved runoff forecasts is treated in a generalized way without specifying the source of the improvements.

  2. Using historic aerial photography and paleohydrologic techniques to assess long-term ecological response to two Montana dam removals.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Denine; Blank, Matt; Ammondt, Selita; Patten, Duncan T

    2009-07-01

    The restorative potential of dam removal on ecosystem function depends on the reversibility of dam effects and its operations. While dam removal is an established engineering practice, the need for an understanding of the ecological response remains. We used paleoflood hydrology, hydrologic modeling, and aerial photo interpretation to investigate the long-term ecologic responses to dam failure and breach. We investigated downstream geomorphic and vegetation responses to a dam failure (Pattengail Dam in 1927) and a controlled dam breach, which used natural sediment removal (Mystic Lake Dam in 1985). Our data showed vegetation responses indicative of channel and floodplain evolution at Pattengail. The size of the flood following the Pattengail dam failure initiated a series of channel adjustments and reworked over 19ha of floodplain downstream of the dam. In Mystic, we observed few flood stage indicators and a slight response in floodplain vegetation. We made several findings. (1) Dam removal effects on channel evolution and floodplain development depend on reach types and their responsiveness to flow regime change. (2) Ecologic response to dam removal depends on the sizes and timing of high flow events during and following removal. (3) Paleohydrology can be used to assess historic floods (>20 years). We see the utility of assessing the ecological responsiveness of a system to previous fluvial events or changes in flow regime. Informed about the character of a system based on its history, dam removal scientists can use these tools to set realistic restoration goals for removing a dam. PMID:19042079

  3. The role of glaciers for Swiss hydropower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefli, Bettina; Manso, Pedro; Fischer, Mauro; Huss, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    with the role of glacier sediment delivery for hydropower operation.

  4. Behavior and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March 2011 - February 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Haner, Philip V.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin D.; Evans, Scott D.; Hatton, Tyson W.

    2013-01-01

    passive integrated transponder detectors at various locations downstream of the dam, indicating some tagged fish passed the dam undetected. The rate of dam passage was affected by diel period, discharge, and reservoir elevation. Diel period was the most influential factor of those examined, with nighttime dam passage rates about 9 times greater than daytime rates, depending on the distance of fish from the dam outlet. Dam passage rates also were positively related to dam discharge, and negatively related to reservoir elevation. In the operational condition used as an example, fish approached the dam outlet at the temperature control tower from the south and east and, when most fish got near the tower, they were directly in front of it. In many cases, the results for wild and hatchery fish were similar, or the results suggested hatchery fish could be reasonable surrogates for wild fish. Hatchery-origin and wild-origin fish behaved similarly in the following ways: their general movements in the reservoir; the timing of their dam passage; and the effects of diel period, discharge, and elevation on their passage rates. Parasitic copepods were present on most wild fish examined, and the mortality of wild fish during capture, handling and tagging was much greater than that of hatchery fish. This suggests that the ability of wild fish to cope with stressors may be less than that of fish directly from the hatchery.

  5. Warm Season Storms, Floods, and Tributary Sand Inputs below Glen Canyon Dam: Investigating Salience to Adaptive Management in the Context of a 10-Year Long Controlled Flooding Experiment in Grand Canyon National Park, AZ, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, S.; Melis, T. S.; Topping, D. J.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Eischeid, J.

    2013-12-01

    The planning and decision processes in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) strive to balance numerous, often competing, objectives, such as, water supply, hydropower generation, low flow maintenance, maximizing conservation of downstream tributary sand supply, endangered native fish, and other sociocultural resources of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. In this context, use of monitored and predictive information on the warm season floods (at point-to-regional scales) has been identified as lead-information for a new 10-year long controlled flooding experiment (termed the High-Flow Experiment Protocol) intended to determine management options for rebuilding and maintaining sandbars in Grand Canyon; an adaptive strategy that can potentially facilitate improved planning and dam operations. In this work, we focus on a key concern identified by the GCDAMP, related to the timing and volume of tributary sand input from the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers (located 26 and 124 km below the dam, respectively) into the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Episodic and intraseasonal variations (with links to equatorial and sub-tropical Pacific sea surface temperature variability) in the southwest hydroclimatology are investigated to understand the magnitude, timing and spatial scales of warm season floods from this relatively small, but prolific sand producing drainage of the semi-arid Colorado Plateau. The coupled variations of the flood-driven sediment input (magnitude and timing) from these two drainages into the Colorado River are also investigated. The physical processes, including diagnosis of storms and moisture sources, are mapped alongside the planning and decision processes for the ongoing experimental flood releases from the Glen Canyon Dam which are aimed at achieving restoration and maintenance of sandbars and instream ecology. The GCDAMP represents one of the most visible and widely recognized

  6. An Assessment of Energy Potential at Non-Powered Dams in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Wei, Yaxing; Kao, Shih-Chieh

    2012-04-01

    fleet by 15%. A majority of this potential is concentrated in just 100 NPDs, which could contribute approximately 8 GW of clean, reliable hydropower; the top 10 facilities alone could add up to 3 GW of new hydropower. Eighty-one of the 100 top NPDs are U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) facilities, many of which, including all of the top 10, are navigation locks on the Ohio River, Mississippi River, Alabama River, and Arkansas River, as well as their major tributaries. This study also shows that dams owned by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation hold the potential to add approximately 260 MW of capacity; the Bureau has also engaged in an effort to conduct a more detailed evaluation of its own facilities.

  7. 43 CFR 418.23 - Diversion of Rock Dam Ditch water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Diversion of Rock Dam Ditch water. 418.23..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Operations and Management § 418.23 Diversion of Rock Dam Ditch water. Project water may be diverted...

  8. 43 CFR 418.23 - Diversion of Rock Dam Ditch water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diversion of Rock Dam Ditch water. 418.23..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Operations and Management § 418.23 Diversion of Rock Dam Ditch water. Project water may be diverted...

  9. Geographical Overview of the Three Gorges Dam and Reservoir, China - Geologic Hazards and Environmental Impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Highland, Lynn M.

    2008-01-01

    The Three Gorges Dam and Reservoir on the Yangtze River, China, has been an ambitious and controversial project. The dam, the largest in the world as of 2008, will provide hydropower, help to manage flood conditions, and increase the navigability of the Yangtze River. However, this massive project has displaced human and animal populations and altered the stability of the banks of the Yangtze, and it may intensify the seismic hazard of the area. It has also hindered archeological investigations in the reservoir and dam area. This report, originally in the form of a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation, gives a short history and overview of the dam construction and subsequent consequences, especially geologic hazards already noted or possible in the future. The report provides photographs, diagrams, and references for the reader's further research - a necessity, because this great undertaking is dynamic, and both its problems and successes continue to evolve. The challenges and consequences of Three Gorges Dam will be closely watched and documented as lessons learned and applied to future projects in China and elsewhere.

  10. Predicting the thermal effects of dam removal on the Klamath River.

    PubMed

    Bartholow, John M; Campbell, Sharon G; Flug, Marshall

    2004-12-01

    The Klamath River once supported large runs of anadromous salmonids. Water temperature associated with multiple mainstem hydropower facilities might be one of many factors responsible for depressing Klamath salmon stocks. We combined a water quantity model and a water quality model to predict how removing the series of dams below Upper Klamath Lake might affect water temperatures, and ultimately fish survival, in the spawning and rearing portions of the mainstem Klamath. We calibrated the water quantity and quality models and applied them for the hydrometeorological conditions during a 40-year postdam period. Then, we hypothetically removed the dams and their impoundments from the models and reestimated the river's water temperatures. The principal thermal effect of dam and reservoir removal would be to restore the timing (phase) of the river's seasonal thermal signature by shifting it approximately 18 days earlier in the year, resulting in river temperatures that more rapidly track ambient air temperatures. Such a shift would likely cool thermal habitat conditions for adult fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during upstream migration and benefit mainstem spawning. By contrast, spring and early summer temperatures could be warmer without dams, potentially harming chinook rearing and outmigration in the mainstem. Dam removal might affect the river's thermal regime during certain conditions for over 200 km of the mainstem. PMID:15726283

  11. War damages and reconstruction of Peruca dam

    SciTech Connect

    Nonveiller, E.; Rupcic, J. |; Sever, Z.

    1999-04-01

    The paper describes the heavy damages caused by blasting in the Peruca rockfill dam in Croatia in January 1993. Complete collapse of the dam by overtopping was prevented through quick action of the dam owner by dumping clayey gravel on the lowest sections of the dam crest and opening the bottom outlet of the reservoir, thus efficiently lowering the water level. After the damages were sufficiently established and alternatives for restoration of the dam were evaluated, it was decided to construct a diaphragm wall through the damaged core in the central dam part as the impermeable dam element and to rebuild the central clay core at the dam abutments. Reconstruction works are described.

  12. Geotechnical practice in dam rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    This proceedings, Geotechnical Practice in Dam Rehabilitation, consists of papers presented at the Specialty Conference sponsored by the Geotechnical Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers held in Raleigh, North Carolina, April 25-28, 1993. The conference provided a forum for the discussion of the rehabilitation of dams, including case histories and current geotechnical practice. The topics covered by this proceeding include: (1) inspection and monitoring of dams; (2) investigation and evaluation of dams and foundations; (3) risk and reliability assessment; (4) increasing reservoir capacity, spillway modifications and overtopping; (5) seepage control; (6) improving stability of dams, foundations and reservoir slopes; (7) rehabilitation for seismic stability; and (8) geosynthetics and ground improvement techniques.

  13. Geological impact of some tailings dams in Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Gregorio, Felice; Massoli-Novelli, Raniero

    1992-05-01

    This article deals with the results of a survey carried out in Sardinia on both active and abandoned tailings dams, and we also discuss the geological impact of tailings dams of two mines: the Masua mine, a large syngenetic Pb-Zn deposit located in Cambrian limestones, and the Montevecchio mine, a Pb-Zn vein deposit near a Hercynian granite intrusion. The characteristics and metal content of material in the dams were analyzed. A high contamination of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu) was found both in the soils and water of Rio Montevecchio, a stream draining the tailings dams and other mining operations in the area. The study indicates that a control plan to minimize heavy metal pollution must be drawn up for all mines of the area, whether active or abandoned.

  14. Management plan for White Oak Dam. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S.B.

    1997-03-01

    The purpose is to provide operation and maintenance, periodic inspection, and emergency action plans for White Oak Dam in general accordance with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) guidelines for dam safety. It must be understood that operations at the site are primarily for purposes of environmental monitoring, environmental protection and waste management operations control. Effluent is generally allowed to flow from the lake at its natural rate by rising above the broad crested weir notch elevation of 744 feet m.s.l.

  15. 6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND FOR MONITORING MOVEMENT OF DAM AND EARTH. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. Trade-offs of water use for hydropower generation and biofuel production in the Zambezi basin in Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanzel, Philipp; Kling, Harald; Nicholson, Kit

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower is the most important energy source in Mozambique, as in many other southern African countries. In the Zambezi basin, it is one of the major economic resources, and substantial hydropower development is envisaged for the next decades. In Mozambique, the extension of the large Cahora Bassa hydropower plant and the construction of several new facilities downstream are planned. Irrigated agriculture currently plays a minor role, but has a large potential due to available land and water resources. Irrigation development, especially for the production of biofuels, is an important government policy goal in Mozambique. This contribution assesses interrelations and trade-offs between these two development options with high dependence on water availability. Potential water demand for large-scale irrigated agriculture is estimated for a mix of possible biofuel crops in three scenarios with different irrigated area sizes. Impacts on river discharge and hydropower production in the Lower Zambezi and its tributaries under two projected future climates are simulated with a hydrological model and a reservoir operation and hydropower model. Trade-offs of increasing biofuel production with decreasing hydropower generation due to diminished discharge in the Zambezi River are investigated based on potential energy production, from hydropower and biofuels, and resulting gross revenues and net benefits. Results show that the impact of irrigation withdrawal on hydropower production is rather low due to the generally high water availability in the Zambezi River. In simulations with substantial irrigated areas, hydropower generation decreases by -2% as compared to a scenario with only small irrigated areas. The economic analyses suggest that the use of water for cultivation of biofuel crops in the Zambezi basin can generate higher economic benefits than the use of water for hydroelectric power production. If world oil prices stay at more than about 80 USD/barrel, then the

  17. Simulating sediment and Cs 137 transfer and deposition in dams of Fukushima prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Akihiro; Yamaguchi, Masaaki; Sato, Haruo; Yui, Mikazu

    2014-05-01

    Sediment and cesium 137 discharged into dams and reservoirs and accumulated onto dam and reservoir beds in eastern Fukushima prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident are simulated by a simple and fast simulation model which we developed by utilizing the universal soil loss equation and the geographical information system. Modeling of soil erosion, transport and deposition, and cesium 137 dispersion were implemented to simulate cesium 137 transport and its future distribution based on the 100m-size grid system. Raster based calculation protocols are formulated using ModelBuider function included in ArcEditor of version 10.0. We applied this model to various dams and reservoirs of eastern Fukushima prefecture and simulated results are compared with some of the measurement data that have been achieved thus far since the FDNPP accident. In the present calculations, we assumed the amount of water into a dam or reservoir is equivalent to the amount of water out from the dam or reservoir. Any operational controls that may have taken in each dam or reservoir are ignored. Annual soil loss from each dam basin, annual soil inflow into each dam, annual soil deposition in each dam, and annual soil discharge from each dam are simulated. Concentrations of radio-cesium 137 in the deposited sediments for the Ogaki dam and Ogi dam, for examples, were calculated and compared with rough estimates of the corresponding values based on the field survey results, and reasonable agreement was observed. Also, the annual soil deposition on the Ogi dam bed is simulated and again compared with rough estimate of the corresponding value based on the field survey, and the order of magnitude was matched. Furthermore, we simulated the effect of decontamination in Ogaki dam basin as an example and it was shown that an intensive decontamination for particular land use area could effectively decrease the discharged amount of radioactive cesium.

  18. Tradeoffs in river restoration: Flushing flows vs. hydropower generation in the Lower Ebro River, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Carlos M.; Pérez-Blanco, C. Dionisio; Batalla, Ramon J.

    2014-10-01

    Although the effectiveness of flushing floods in restoring basic environmental functions in highly engineered rivers has been extensively tested, the opportunity cost is still considered to represent an important limitation to putting these actions into practice. In this paper, we present a two-stage method for the assessment of the opportunity cost of the periodical release of flushing flows in the lower reaches of rivers with regimes that are basically controlled by a series of dams equipped with hydropower generation facilities. The methodology is applied to the Lower Ebro River in Spain. The results show that the cost of the reduced power generation resulting from the implementation of flushing floods is lower than the observed willingness to pay for river restoration programmes.

  19. Impacts of Dams and Global Warming on Fish Biodiversity in the Indo-Burma Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Nam, So; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Grudpan, Jarungjit; Magtoon, Wichan; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Praxaysonbath, Bounthob; Sato, Tomoyuki; Shimatani, Yukihiro; Suvarnaraksha, Apinun; Tanaka, Wataru; Thach, Phanara; Tran, Dac Dinh; Yamashita, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Both hydropower dams and global warming pose threats to freshwater fish diversity. While the extent of global warming may be reduced by a shift towards energy generation by large dams in order to reduce fossil-fuel use, such dams profoundly modify riverine habitats. Furthermore, the threats posed by dams and global warming will interact: for example, dams constrain range adjustments by fishes that might compensate for warming temperatures. Evaluation of their combined or synergistic effects is thus essential for adequate assessment of the consequences of planned water-resource developments. We made projections of the responses of 363 fish species within the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hotspot to the separate and joint impacts of dams and global warming. The hotspot encompasses the Lower Mekong Basin, which is the world’s largest freshwater capture fishery. Projections for 81 dam-building scenarios revealed progressive impacts upon projected species richness, habitable area, and the proportion of threatened species as generating capacity increased. Projections from 126 global-warming scenarios included a rise in species richness, a reduction in habitable area, and an increase in the proportion of threatened species; however, there was substantial variation in the extent of these changes among warming projections. Projections from scenarios that combined the effects of dams and global warming were derived either by simply adding the two threats, or by combining them in a synergistic manner that took account of the likelihood that habitat shifts under global warming would be constrained by river fragmentation. Impacts on fish diversity under the synergistic projections were 10–20% higher than those attributable to additive scenarios, and were exacerbated as generating capacity increased—particularly if CO2 emissions remained high. The impacts of dams, especially those on river mainstreams, are likely to be greater, more predictable and more immediately

  20. Impacts of Dams and Global Warming on Fish Biodiversity in the Indo-Burma Hotspot.

    PubMed

    Kano, Yuichi; Dudgeon, David; Nam, So; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Grudpan, Jarungjit; Magtoon, Wichan; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Praxaysonbath, Bounthob; Sato, Tomoyuki; Shibukawa, Koichi; Shimatani, Yukihiro; Suvarnaraksha, Apinun; Tanaka, Wataru; Thach, Phanara; Tran, Dac Dinh; Yamashita, Tomomi; Utsugi, Kenzo

    2016-01-01

    Both hydropower dams and global warming pose threats to freshwater fish diversity. While the extent of global warming may be reduced by a shift towards energy generation by large dams in order to reduce fossil-fuel use, such dams profoundly modify riverine habitats. Furthermore, the threats posed by dams and global warming will interact: for example, dams constrain range adjustments by fishes that might compensate for warming temperatures. Evaluation of their combined or synergistic effects is thus essential for adequate assessment of the consequences of planned water-resource developments. We made projections of the responses of 363 fish species within the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hotspot to the separate and joint impacts of dams and global warming. The hotspot encompasses the Lower Mekong Basin, which is the world's largest freshwater capture fishery. Projections for 81 dam-building scenarios revealed progressive impacts upon projected species richness, habitable area, and the proportion of threatened species as generating capacity increased. Projections from 126 global-warming scenarios included a rise in species richness, a reduction in habitable area, and an increase in the proportion of threatened species; however, there was substantial variation in the extent of these changes among warming projections. Projections from scenarios that combined the effects of dams and global warming were derived either by simply adding the two threats, or by combining them in a synergistic manner that took account of the likelihood that habitat shifts under global warming would be constrained by river fragmentation. Impacts on fish diversity under the synergistic projections were 10-20% higher than those attributable to additive scenarios, and were exacerbated as generating capacity increased-particularly if CO2 emissions remained high. The impacts of dams, especially those on river mainstreams, are likely to be greater, more predictable and more immediately pressing for

  1. 75 FR 7469 - Panel Member List for Hydropower Licensing Study Dispute Resolution; Notice Extending Filing Date...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Panel Member List for Hydropower Licensing Study Dispute Resolution; Notice Extending Filing Date for Applications for Panel Member List for Hydropower Licensing Study Dispute... in the Commission's hydropower integrated licensing process (ILP) study dispute resolution...

  2. 75 FR 67993 - Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation Facilities-Draft Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation Facilities--Draft Report... Bureau of Reclamation has made available for public review and comment the ``Hydropower Resource... and technical potential for hydropower development at existing Bureau of Reclamation...

  3. A control model for dependable hydropower capacity optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, Aris P.; Yao, Huaming; Yu, Yongqing

    In this article a control model that can be used to determine the dependable power capacity of a hydropower system is presented and tested. The model structure consists of a turbine load allocation module and a reservoir control module and allows for a detailed representation of hydroelectric facilities and various aspects of water management. Although this scheme is developed for planning purposes, it can also be used operationally with minor modifications. The model is applied to the Lanier-Allatoona-Carters reservoir system on the Chattahoochee and Coosa River Basins, in the southeastern United States. The case studies demonstrate that the more traditional simulation-based approaches often underestimate dependable power capacity. Firm energy optimization with or without dependable capacity constraints is taken up in a companion article [Georgakakos et al., this issue].

  4. Feasibility of groundwater recharge dam projects in arid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaafar, H. H.

    2014-05-01

    A new method for determining feasibility and prioritizing investments for agricultural and domestic recharge dams in arid regions is developed and presented. The method is based on identifying the factors affecting the decision making process and evaluating these factors, followed by determining the indices in a GIS-aided environment. Evaluated parameters include results from field surveys and site visits, land cover and soils data, precipitation data, runoff data and modeling, number of beneficiaries, domestic irrigation demand, reservoir objectives, demography, reservoirs yield and reliability, dam structures, construction costs, and operation and maintenance costs. Results of a case study on more than eighty proposed dams indicate that assessment of reliability, annualized cost/demand satisfied and yield is crucial prior to investment decision making in arid areas. Irrigation demand is the major influencing parameter on yield and reliability of recharge dams, even when only 3 months of the demand were included. Reliability of the proposed reservoirs as related to their standardized size and net inflow was found to increase with increasing yield. High priority dams were less than 4% of the total, and less priority dams amounted to 23%, with the remaining found to be not feasible. The results of this methodology and its application has proved effective in guiding stakeholders for defining most favorable sites for preliminary and detailed design studies and commissioning.

  5. Deer Creek Dam, Dam, 1,204 feet/238 degrees from intersection of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deer Creek Dam, Dam, 1,204 feet/238 degrees from intersection of dam complex access road and U.S. Highway 189 to center of dam, 874 feet/352 degrees from Hydroelectric Powerplant (HAER UT-93-B) to center of dam, Charleston, Wasatch County, UT

  6. Uplift investigations at Tillery Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Bandy, M.; Booth, P.; Auger, S.

    1995-12-31

    Tillery Dam is located approximately 50 miles east of Charlotte, North Carolina, on the Pee Dee River. Construction of the project was completed in 1928 and, beginning from the east side of the project, it consists of a powerhouse and intake section and east nonoverflow section totaling 618 feet long with a maximum height of 98.5 feet above the rock foundation. The concrete spillway is 758 feet long with 18 34-foot-wide by 24-foot-high tainter gates mounted on a 62-foot-high ogee section with a concrete stilling basin. The west nonoverflow section is 176 feet long. The west end of the project consists of a 1,200-foot-long earth embankment with a maximum height of 77 feet above the cut-off trench that extends to rock. Carolina Power & Light (CP&L) owns the project and operates the facility in accordance with its license issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). In 1990, during the review of a safety inspection report submitted by CP&L and its consultant, FERC made several comments concerning the concrete gravity and embankment structures.

  7. FORMATION AND FAILURE OF NATURAL DAMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costa, John E.; Schuster, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Of the numerous kinds of dams that form by natural processes, dams formed from landslides, glacial ice, and late-neoglacial moraines present the greatest threat to people and property. Landslide dams form a wide range of physiographic settings. The most common types of mass movements that form landslide dams are rock and debris avalanches; rock and soil slumps and slides; and mud, debris, and earth flows. The most common initiation mechanisms for dam-forming landslides are excessive rainfall and snowmelt and earthquakes. Natural dams may cause upstream flooding as the lake rises and downstream flooding as a result of failure of the dam. Although data are few, for the same potential energy at the dam site, downstream flood peaks from the failure of glacier-ice dams are smaller than those from landslide, moraine, and constructed earth-fill and rock-fill dam failures.

  8. Evaluation of Salmon Spawning Below Bonneville Dam Annual Report October 2006 - September 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Mueller, Robert P.; Murray, Katherine J.; Bott, Yi-Ju

    2008-08-08

    From 1999 through 2007, the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Bonneville Power Administration funded a project to determine the number of fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam, the characteristics of their spawning areas, and the flows necessary to ensure their long-term survival. Data were collected to ensure that established flow guidelines are appropriate and provide adequate protection for the species of concern. The projects objectives are consistent with the high priority placed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Independent Scientific Advisory Board and the salmon managers on determining the importance of mainstem habitats to the production of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Because of the influence of mainstem habitat on salmon production, there is a continued need to better understand the physical habitat variables used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations and the effects of hydropower project operations on spawning and incubation. During FY 2007, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory focused on (1) locating and mapping deep-water fall Chinook salmon and chum salmon spawning areas, (2) investigating the interaction between groundwater and surface water near fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning areas, and (3) providing in-season hyporheic temperature and water surface elevation data to assist state agencies with emergence timing and redd dewatering estimates. This report documents the studies and tasks performed by PNNL during FY 2007. Chapter 1 provides a description of the searches conducted for deepwater redds-adjacent to Pierce and Ives islands for fall Chinook salmon and near the Interstate 205 bridge for chum salmon. The chapter also provides data on redd location, information about habitat associations, and estimates of total spawning populations. Chapter 2 documents the collection of data on riverbed and river temperatures and water surface elevations, from the onset of spawning to the

  9. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species) responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments. PMID:26132139

  10. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Benchimol, Maíra; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species) responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments. PMID:26132139

  11. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  12. Impact of Different Time Series Streamflow Data on Energy Generation of a Run-of-River Hydropower Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentel, E.; Cetinkaya, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Global issues such as population increase, power supply crises, oil prices, social and environmental concerns have been forcing countries to search for alternative energy sources such as renewable energy to satisfy the sustainable development goals. Hydropower is the most common form of renewable energy in the world. Hydropower does not require any fuel, produces relatively less pollution and waste and it is a reliable energy source with relatively low operating cost. In order to estimate the average annual energy production of a hydropower plant, sufficient and dependable streamflow data is required. The goal of this study is to investigate impact of streamflow data on annual energy generation of Balkusan HEPP which is a small run-of-river hydropower plant at Karaman, Turkey. Two different stream gaging stations are located in the vicinity of Balkusan HEPP and these two stations have different observation periods: one from 1986 to 2004 and the other from 2000 to 2009. These two observation periods show different climatic characteristics. Thus, annual energy estimations based on data from these two different stations differ considerably. Additionally, neither of these stations is located at the power plant axis, thus streamflow observations from these two stream gaging stations need to be transferred to the plant axis. This requirement introduces further errors into energy estimations. Impact of different streamflow data and transfer of streamflow observations to plant axis on annual energy generation of a small hydropower plant is investigated in this study.

  13. Gene Wash and Copper Basin Dams are surviving alkali-aggregate reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    Gene Wash and Copper Basin Dams were constructed in 1937 and 1938, and are owned and operated by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWD). The dams are located in San Bernardino County, California, close to the Colorado River, and very close to the easternmost point of California. They form two intermediate storage facilities on the Colorado River Aqueduct system which conveys water from Lake Havasu to the Los Angeles and San Diego areas. The locations of the dams are shown. Gene Wash Dam is a concrete arch structure, with a maximum height of arch of 131 feet. There is a gravity thrust block on the right abutment and the total crest length is 430 feet. Copper Basin Dam is a concrete arch dam with a maximum height of arch of 187 feet and a crest length of 253 feet. Plans, elevations and sections for both dams. The dams are in the Whipple Mountains at the eastern edge of the Mojave Desert. Between June and October, maximum temperatures usually exceed 100 degrees Farenheit, while daily low temperatures in this period are generally in the 60`s and 70`s. Winter temperatures are mild, with daytime highs in the 70`s and 80`s, and lows only occasionally below freezing. The area is arid, with total annual rainfall generally between two and ten inches. Both dams were built in desert washes with no permanent flow. The foundation for both structures is a strong, erosion-resistant, red-brown, non-marine sandstone and conglomerate of Tertiary age known as the Copper Basin Formation (Buwalda, 1937). Spillways for both dams are ungated ogee crests, which are separate from the dams. Gene Wash Dam and Copper Basin Dam are geographically close together, are of similar design, and were constructed at the same time, using the same materials. Their performance since construction, not surprisingly, has been similar.

  14. The performance of the Hydromorphological Index of Diversity (HMID) in a hydropower affected meandering river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stähly, Severin; Bourqui, Pierre; Franca, Mario J.; Robinson, Christopher; Schleiss, Anton J.

    2016-04-01

    More than half of the Swiss electricity is produced by hydropower. Large price fluctuations cause severe hydropeaking flow regimes due to corresponding production fluctuations, which undisputedly have a negative impact on aquatic biota. Water diversion due to dams on the other hand imposes downstream residual flow regimes. The absence of flood events and regular sediment supply disrupts sediment dynamics and disconnects floodplains, which are habitats of high value, from its main channel. The residual-flow controlled reach at the Sarine river in western Switzerland is the subject of the present study. The Sarine meanders strongly and the river reach under analysis has a bed incision of locally more than 100 m. Its incision provokes the isolation of the river which is consequently minimally touched by human structures and shows a natural geomorphology. Since the construction of a dam upstream this reach in 1948, aiming at the water abstraction to hydropower, vegetation could establish and the active floodplain decreased its area, as airborne images show. Nevertheless, it is classified as a floodplain of national importance and it has been under protection since 1992. It is supposed to be a valuable habitat for a wide range of organisms. The Hydromorphological Index of Diversity (HMID) is a simple tool for quantifying the habitat richness in a river reach, taking into account the mean values and the variation of water depth and flow velocity. For channelized rivers, HMID values from up to 5 are expected, while morphological pristine sites with a high spatial variability of water depth and velocity show values of 9 or higher. For the residual flow of the Sarine River, flow depth and velocity were measured using ADCP and ADV. The results are compared with a nearby natural reference river and the outcome of a 2D numerical simulation. Finally, the behaviour and limitations of the HMID, in a hydropower affected river, are discussed. In the close future an artificial flood

  15. Optimizing Dam Operations for Power and for Fish: an Overview of the US Department of Energy and US Army Corps of Engineers ADvanced Turbine Development R&D. A Pre-Conference Workshop at HydroVision 2006, Oregon Convention Center, Portland, Oregon July 31, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.

    2006-08-01

    This booklet contains abstracts of presentations made at a preconference workshop on the US Department of Energy and US Army Corps of Engineers hydroturbine programs. The workshop was held in conjunction with Hydrovision 2006 July 31, 2006 at the Oregon Convention Center in Portland Oregon. The workshop was organized by the Corps of Engineers, PNNL, and the DOE Wind and Hydropower Program. Presenters gave overviews of the Corps' Turbine Survival Program and the history of the DOE Advanced Turbine Development Program. They also spoke on physical hydraulic models, biocriteria for safe fish passage, pressure investigations using the Sensor Fish Device, blade strike models, optimization of power plant operations, bioindex testing of turbine performance, approaches to measuring fish survival, a systems view of turbine performance, and the Turbine Survival Program design approach.

  16. The Water - Energy Nexus Of Hydropower. Are The Trade-Offs Between Electricity Generation And Water Supply Negligible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, L.; Pfister, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydropower ranks first among renewable sources of power production and provides globally about 16% of electricity. While it is praised for its low greenhouse gas emissions, it is accused of its large water consumption which surpasses that of all conventional and most renewable energy sources (except for bioenergy) by far. Previous studies mostly applied a gross evaporation approach where all the current evaporation from the plant's reservoir is allocated to hydropower. In contrast, we only considered net evaporation as the difference between current evaporation and actual evapotranspiration before the construction of the reservoir. In addition, we take into account local water stress, its monthly fluctuations and storage effects of the reservoir in order to assess the impacts on water availability for other users. We apply the method to a large dataset of almost 1500 globally distributed hydropower plants (HPPs), covering ~43% of global annual electricity generation, by combining reservoir information from the Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database with information on electricity generation from the CARMA database. While we can confirm that the gross water consumption of hydropower is generally large (production-weighted average of 97 m3/GJ), other users are not necessarily deprived of water. In contrast, they also benefit in many cases from the reservoir because water is rather stored in the wet season and released in the dry season, thereby alleviating water stress. The production-weighted water scarcity footprint of the analyzed HPPs amounts to -41 m3 H2Oe/GJ. It has to be noted that the impacts among individual plants vary a lot. Larger HPPs generally consume less water per unit of electricity generated, but also the benefits related to alleviating water scarcity are lower. Overall, reservoirs promote both, energy and water security. Other environmental impacts such as flow alterations and social impacts should, however, also be considered, as they can be

  17. 33 CFR 208.22 - Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir, Middle and South Concho Rivers, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir... and Reservoir, Middle and South Concho Rivers, Tex. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as follows:...

  18. Techniques for computing discharge at four Navigation Dams on the Illinois and Des Plaines Rivers in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mades, Dean M.; Weiss, Linda S.; Gray, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Techniques for computing discharge are developed for Brandon Road Dam on the Des Plaines River and for Dresden Island, Marseilles, and Starved Rock Dams on the Illinois River. At Brandon Road Dam, streamflow is regulated by the operation of Tainter gates and headgates. At Dresden Island, Marseilles, and Starved Rock Dams, only Tainter gates are operated to regulate streamflow. The locks at all dams are equipped with culvert valves that are used to fill and empty the lock. The techniques facilitate determination of discharge at locations along the upper Illinois Waterway where no streamflow-gaging stations exist. The techniques are also useful for computing low flows when the water-surface slope between control structures on the river approaches zero and traditional methods of determining discharge based on slope are unsatisfactory. Two techniques can be used to compute discharge at the dams--gate ratings and tailwater ratings . A gate ratingdescribes the relation between discharge, gate opening, tailwater stage, and headwater stage. A tailwater rating describes the relation between tailwater stage and discharge. Gate ratings for Tainter gates at Dresden Island, Marseilles, and Starved Rock Dams are based on a total of 78 measurements of discharge that range from 569 to 86,400 cubic feet per second. Flood hydrographs developed from the gate ratings and Lockmaster records of gate opening and stage compare closely with streamflow records published for nearby streamflow-gaging stations. Additional measurements are needed to verify gate ratings for Tainter gates and headgates at Brandon Road Dam after the dam rehabilitation is completed. Extensive leakage past deteriorated headgates and sluice gates contributed to uncertainty in the ratings developed for this dam. A useful tailwater rating is developed for Marseilles Dam. Tailwater ratings for Dresden Island Dam and Starved Rock Dam are of limited use because of varying downstream channel-storage conditions. A tailwater

  19. An R package for the design, analysis and operation of reservoir systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Sean; Ng, Jia Yi; Galelli, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    We present a new R package - named "reservoir" - which has been designed for rapid and easy routing of runoff through storage. The package comprises well-established tools for capacity design (e.g., the sequent peak algorithm), performance analysis (storage-yield-reliability and reliability-resilience-vulnerability analysis) and release policy optimization (Stochastic Dynamic Programming). Operating rules can be optimized for water supply, flood control and amenity objectives, as well as for maximum hydropower production. Storage-depth-area relationships are in-built, allowing users to incorporate evaporation from the reservoir surface. We demonstrate the capabilities of the software for global studies using thousands of reservoirs from the Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database fed by historical monthly inflow time series from a 0.5 degree gridded global runoff dataset. The package is freely available through the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN).

  20. Economic Efficiency and Equity in Dams Removal: Case studies in Northeastern Massachusetts Doina Oglavie, Ellen Douglas, David Terkla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oglavie, D. R.; Douglas, E. M.; Terkla, D.

    2009-12-01

    According to American Rivers (www.americanrivers.org), Massachusetts has almost 3,000 dams under state regulation, 296 of which have been classified as high hazard, meaning they pose a serious threat to human life if they should fail. Most of these dams, however, are low head, “run-of-the-river” dams that no longer serve the purpose for which they were built. The presence of these dams has fragmented aquatic and riparian ecosystems, impeded fish passage and generally impacted the natural ecological and hydrological functioning of the streams in which they reside. Dam removal should be considered when a dam no longer serves its function. Although in many cases, the removal of a dam is environmentally beneficial (at least over the long term), sometimes the removal of a dam can incur environmental costs, such as release of contaminants that were sequestered behind the dam. Dam removal is a complex issue especially with respect to privately owned dams. In many cases, dam removal is less costly than dam maintenance or upgrade, hence dam removal decisions tend to be based on purely monetary considerations, and the environmental costs or benefits associated with the dam are not considered. Typically, the main objective for the dam owner is to incur the lowest possible cost (private cost), whether it be operating and maintenance or removal; external costs (environmental degradation) are rarely, if ever, considered, hence the true cost to society is not included in the economic analysis. If dam operation and removal decisions are to be economically efficient, then they have to include both the private costs as well as the external (environmental) costs. The purpose of this work is to 1) attempt to quantify the externalities associated with the maintenance and the removal of dams, 2) assess whether or not the current dam removal evaluation process maximizes social welfare (efficiency and equity) and 3) suggest ways in which this process can be improved by including the

  1. Elwha River Riparian Vegetation Response to Dams and Dam Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafroth, P. B.; Brown, R. L.; Clausen, A. J.; Chenoweth, J.

    2012-12-01

    Riparian vegetation is highly diverse and influences habitat of aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Riparian vegetation dynamics are driven by stream flow regime, and fluxes of sediment and large woody debris, all of which can be altered by river damming. Dam removal is often implemented, in part, to help restore degraded riparian vegetation by reversing the alteration of these key drivers. However, increased disturbance and sediment flux associated with transport and exposure of trapped reservoir sediment can complicate a simple return to pre-dam conditions and can favor exotic species. We are studying the effects of dams and their removal on riparian vegetation along the Elwha River in Washington State, where removal of two large dams began in September 2011. To characterize vegetation composition, structure, and diversity prior to dam removal, we sampled 60-150 vegetation plots in 2004, 2005, and 2010 along five cross-valley transects in each of three river reaches: above both dams (upper reach), between the dams (middle reach), and downstream of both dams (lower reach). In summer 2012, we resampled a subset of our plots in the lower and middle reaches to evaluate vegetation and geomorphic change. We also sampled vegetation, topography, and grain size along newly-established transects within the exposed former reservoir behind Elwha Dam, which was removed in 2011 and 2012. Plant community distribution on bottomland geomorphic surfaces along the Elwha is typical of other systems in the region. We identified 8 overstory and 26 understory communities using multivariate analyses. Young bar surfaces (5-20 yrs) were dominated by willow, red alder, and black cottonwood. Floodplains and transitional fluvial terraces (<90yrs) were generally dominated by alder and cottonwood. Mature terraces (>90yrs) were often dominated by big-leaf maple. Douglas fir occurred on both young and old floodplains and terraces. Overstory species composition was more stable from 2005 to 2010

  2. 77 FR 2286 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting a. Date and Time of... Hydropower, LLC to discuss potentially moving the powerhouse location for the Brandon Road Project No....

  3. Global hydropower potential during recent droughts and under changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Sheffield, Justin; Wiberg, David; Wood, Eric F.

    2015-04-01

    There is a strong dependency of world's electricity sector on available water resources for hydropower generation. Recent droughts showed the vulnerability of the electricity sector to surface water constraints with reduced potentials for hydropower generation in different regions worldwide. Using a global modelling framework consisting of the VIC hydrological model and a hydropower model, we assess the impacts of recent droughts and future climate change on hydropower generation potentials worldwide. Our hydrological-electricity modelling framework was optimized and evaluated for 1981-2010, showing a realistic representation of observed streamflow and hydropower generation. We assessed the impacts of recent droughts and future climate change for more than 25,000 hydropower plants worldwide. Our results show that hydropower production potentials were significantly reduced during severe recent streamflow droughts (including e.g. summer of 2003 in Europe and 2007 in the United States). Model simulations with bias-corrected CMIP5 general circulation model output indicate that in several regions considerable reductions in hydropower production potentials are projected due to declines in streamflow during parts of the year. Considering these impacts and the long design life of power plant infrastructure, adaptation options should be included in today's planning and strategies to meet the growing electricity demand in the 21st century.

  4. Short-term effects of small dam removal on freshwater mussel assemblage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heise, Ryan J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kwak, Thomas J.; Eads, Chris B.

    2013-01-01

    Dam removal is increasingly used to restore lotic habitat and biota, but its effects on freshwater mussels (family Unionidae) are not well known. We conducted a four-year study to assess short-term effects on mussels after removal of a small hydropower dam on the Deep River (Cape Fear River drainage), North Carolina, USA, in 2006. We conducted annual pre- and post-removal monitoring of mussel density, richness, and survival (post removal only) with transect surveys and quadrat excavation, and assessed changes in substrate composition at two impact sites (tailrace and impoundment) and two reference sites. Before-after-control-impact (BACI) analyses of variance did not detect a significant change in mussel density (total or individually for the three most abundant species), species richness, Eastern Elliptio (Elliptio complanata) mean length, or substrate composition in the tailrace or drained impoundment following dam removal. Apparent annual survival estimates of Eastern Elliptio at the tailrace site did not differ among sampling periods and were similar to control sites. We observed minimal mussel mortality from stranding in the dewatered reservoir. These results demonstrate that adverse short-term impacts of dam removal on downstream mussel assemblages can be minimized with appropriate planning, timing, and removal techniques, but additional monitoring is warranted to determine long-term effects on mussels within the restored river reach.

  5. Improving the global efficiency in small hydropower practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razurel, P.; Gorla, L.; Crouzy, B.; Perona, P.

    2015-12-01

    The global increase in energy production from renewable sources has seen river exploitation for small hydropower plants to also grow considerably in the last decade. River intakes used to divert water from the main course to the power plant are at the base of such practice. A key issue concern with finding innovative concepts to both design and manage such structures in order to improve classic operational rules. Among these, the Minimal Flow Release (MFR) concept has long been used in spite of its environmental inconsistency.In this work, we show that the economical and ecological efficiency of diverting water for energy production in small hydropower plants can be improved towards sustainability by engineering a novel class of flow-redistribution policies. We use the mathematical form of the Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution to define non-proportional dynamic flow-redistribution rules, which broadens the spectrum of dynamic flow releases based on proportional redistribution. The theoretical background as well as the economic interpretation is presented and applied to three case studies in order to systematically test the global performance of such policies. Out of numerical simulations, a Pareto frontier emerges in the economic vs environmental efficiency plot, which show that non-proportional distribution policies improve both efficiencies with respect to those obtained from some traditional MFR and proportional policies. This picture is shown also for long term climatic scenarios affecting water availability and the natural flow regime.In a time of intense and increasing exploitation close to resource saturation, preserving natural river reaches requires to abandon inappropriate static release policies in favor of non-proportional ones towards a sustainable use of the water resource.

  6. Utilizing hydropower for load balancing non-storable renewable energy sources - technical and environmental challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfredsen, K. T.; Killingtveit, A.

    2011-12-01

    About 99% of the total energy production in Norway comes from hydropower, and the total production of about 120 TWh makes Norway Europe's largest hydropower producer. Most hydropower systems in Norway are based on high-head plants with mountain storage reservoirs and tunnels transporting water from the reservoirs to the power plants. In total, Norwegian reservoirs contributes around 50% of the total energy storage capacity in Europe. Current strategies to reduce emission of greenhouse gases from energy production involve increased focus on renewable energy sources, e.g. the European Union's 202020 goal in which renewable energy sources should be 20% of the total energy production by 2020. To meet this goal new renewable energy installations must be developed on a large scale in the coming years, and wind power is the main focus for new developments. Hydropower can contribute directly to increase renewable energy through new development or extensions to existing systems, but maybe even more important is the potential to use hydropower systems with storage for load balancing in a system with increased amount of non-storable renewable energies. Even if new storage technologies are under development, hydro storage is the only technology available on a large scale and the most economical feasible alternative. In this respect the Norwegian system has a high potential both through direct use of existing reservoirs and through an increased development of pump storage plants utilizing surplus wind energy to pump water and then producing during periods with low wind input. Through cables to Europe, Norwegian hydropower could also provide balance power for the North European market. Increased peaking and more variable operation of the current hydropower system will present a number of technical and environmental challenges that needs to be identified and mitigated. A more variable production will lead to fluctuating flow in receiving rivers and reservoirs, and it will also

  7. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Nebraska.

  8. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these